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Sample records for californium 252 target

  1. Historical Review of Californium-252 Discovery and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed. (PLG)

  2. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial

  3. Teratogenic effect of Californium-252 irradiation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satow, Yukio; Lee, Juing-Yi; Hori, Hiroshi; Okuda, Hiroe; Tsuchimoto, Shigeo; Sawada, Shozo; Yokoro, Kenjiro (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1989-06-01

    The teratogenicity of Californium-252 (Cf-252) irradiation which generates approximately 70% 2.3 MeV fast neutron and 30% gamma rays was evaluated. A single whole body exposure of Cf-252 at various doses was given to pregnant rats on day 8 or 9 of pregnancy, followed by microscopic autopsy of the fetuses at the terminal stage of pregnancy to search for external and internal malformations. For comparison, pregnant rats were irradiated with various doses of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) standard gamma rays at the same dose rate (1 rad/min.). The doses were 20-120 rad of Cf-252 and 80-220 rad of Co-60. Using frequency of radiation induced malformations observed on day 8 of pregnancy as an index, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 2.3-2.7 was obtained from the straight line obtained by modifying by the least squares method the frequency curves of malformed fetuses in total implants and in surviving fetuses. The types of malformations induced by Cf-252 and Co-60 irradiation were alike. Using fetal LD/sub 50/ as an index, 2.4 was obtained as RBE when irradiated on day 8 of pregnancy and 3.1 as that when irradiated on day 9. The results showed that Cf-252 had stronger a teratogenic effect than Co-60 gamma rays. (author).

  4. Apparatus for the measurement of total body nitrogen using prompt neutron activation analysis with californium-252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, A; Hannan, W J; Smith, M A; Tothill, P

    1988-01-01

    Details of clinical apparatus designed for the measurement of total body nitrogen (as an indicator of body protein), suitable for the critically ill, intensive-care patient are presented. Californium-252 radio-isotopic neutron sources are used, enabling a nitrogen measurement by prompt neutron activation analysis to be made in 40 min with a precision of +/- 3.2% for a whole body dose equivalent of 0.145 mSv. The advantages of Californium-252 over alternative neutron sources are discussed. A comparison between two irradiation/detection geometries is made, leading to an explanation of the geometry adopted for the apparatus. The choice of construction and shielding materials to reduce the count rate at the detectors and consequently to reduce the pile-up contribution to the nitrogen background is discussed. Salient features of the gamma ray spectroscopy system to reduce spectral distortion from pulse pile-up are presented.

  5. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252; Estudio de blindaje para fuentes de fision espontanea de Californio-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila R, I

    1991-06-15

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  6. Clinical Report on Californium-252 Neutron Intraluminal Brachytherapy Combined with External Irradiation for Cervical Carcinoma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanyu Zhao; Keming Wang; Jian Sun; Xin Geng; Weiming Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the curative effects and complications of californium-252 (252Cf) neutron intraluminal brachytherapy (IBT) combined with external irradiation (El) for treatment of cervical carcinoma.METHODS From December 2000 to December 2004, 128 cases of cervical carcinoma staged into ⅡA~ⅢB according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) standards were treated with 252Cf neutron IBT using 8~10 Gy per fraction, once a week. The total dose at reference A point was 36~40 Gy in 4~5 fractions. From the second day after 252Cf neutron IBT treatment, the whole pelvic cavity was treated with 60Co γ-ray El, applying 2 Gy per fraction, 4 times per week. After 20~25 Gy of El, the center of the whole pelvic field was blocked with 4 cm of lead in width. The total dose of El was 45~50 Gy.RESULTS The short-term therapeutic effects were CR 95.3% and PR 4.7%. The 3 and 5-year local control rates were 93.5% and 87.9%. The overall 3-year survival rate was 87.5% and for Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ , 90.9%and 81.5% respectively; the overall 5-year survival rate was 70% and for Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ, 76.2% and 61% respectively. The rate of radiation complications was 4.7% for radiation cystitis, 7.8% for radiation proctitis, 6.3%for vagina contracture and adhesion and 5.5% for protracted radiation proctitis.CONCLUSION An combination of 252Cf neutron IBT with El for treatment of cervical carcinoma can be well-tolerated by cervical carcinoma patients. The rate of local tumor control is high and radiation complications are few.

  7. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Rekas, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  8. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  9. Californium Electrodepositions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, Rose Ann [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Electrodepositions of californium isotopes were successfully performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the past year involving two different types of deposition solutions, ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) and isobutanol ((CH3)2CHCH2OH). A californium product that was decay enriched in 251Cf was recovered for use in super-heavy element (SHE) research. This neutron-rich isotope, 251Cf, provides target material for SHE research for the potential discovery of heavier isotopes of Z=118. The californium material was recovered from aged 252Cf neutron sources in storage at ORNL. These sources have decayed for over 30 years, thus providing material with a very high 251Cf-to-252Cf ratio. After the source capsules were opened, the californium was purified and then electrodeposited using the isobutanol method onto thin titanium foils for use in an accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Another deposition method, ammonium acetate, was used to produce a deposition containing 1.7 0.1 Ci of 252Cf onto a stainless steel substrate. This was the largest single electrodeposition of 252Cf ever prepared. The 252Cf material was initially purified using traditional ion exchange media, such as AG50-AHIB and AG50-HCl, and further purified using a TEVA-NH4SCN system to remove any lanthanides, resulting in the recovery of 3.6 0.1 mg of purified 252Cf. The ammonium acetate deposition was run with a current of 1.0 amp, resulting in a 91.5% deposition yield. Purification and handling of the highly radioactive californium material created additional challenges in the production of these sources.

  10. Determination of the optimum-size californium-252 neutron source for borehole capture gamma-ray analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senftle, F.E.; Macy, R.J.; Mikesell, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The fast- and thermal-neutron fluence rates from a 3.7 ??g 252Cf neutron source in a simulated borehole have been measured as a function of the source-to-detector distance using air, water, coal, iron ore-concrete mix, and dry sand as borehole media. Gamma-ray intensity measurements were made for specific spectral lines at low and high energies for the same range of source-to-detector distances in the iron ore-concrete mix and in coal. Integral gamma-ray counts across the entire spectrum were also made at each source-to-detector distance. From these data, the specific neutron-damage rate, and the critical count-rate criteria, we show that in an iron ore-concrete mix (low hydrogen concentration), 252Cf neutron sources of 2-40 ??g are suitable. The source size required for optimum gamma-ray sensitivity depends on the energy of the gamma ray being measured. In a hydrogeneous medium such as coal, similar measurements were made. The results show that sources from 2 to 20 ??g are suitable to obtain the highest gamma-ray sensitivity, again depending on the energy of the gamma ray being measured. In a hydrogeneous medium, significant improvement in sensitivity can be achieved by using faster electronics; in iron ore, it cannot. ?? 1979 North-Holland Publishing Co.

  11. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  12. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  13. Radiological Characterization Technical Report on Californium-252 Sealed Source Transuranic Debris Waste for the Off-Site Source Recovery Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-24

    This document describes the development and approach for the radiological characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The report combines information on the nuclear material content of each individual source (mass or activity and date of manufacture) with information and data on the radionuclide distributions within the originating nuclear material. This approach allows for complete and accurate characterization of the waste container without the need to take additional measurements. The radionuclide uncertainties, developed from acceptable knowledge (AK) information regarding the source material, are applied to the summed activities in the drum. The AK information used in the characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources has been qualified by the peer review process, which has been reviewed and accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  14. Keno-Nr a Monte Carlo Code Simulating the Californium -252-SOURCE-DRIVEN Noise Analysis Experimental Method for Determining Subcriticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficaro, Edward Patrick

    The ^{252}Cf -source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) requires the measurement of the cross power spectral density (CPSD) G_ {23}(omega), between a pair of neutron detectors (subscripts 2 and 3) located in or near the fissile assembly, and the CPSDs, G_{12}( omega) and G_{13}( omega), between the neutron detectors and an ionization chamber 1 containing ^{252}Cf also located in or near the fissile assembly. The key advantage of this method is that the subcriticality of the assembly can be obtained from the ratio of spectral densities,{G _sp{12}{*}(omega)G_ {13}(omega)over G_{11 }(omega)G_{23}(omega) },using a point kinetic model formulation which is independent of the detector's properties and a reference measurement. The multigroup, Monte Carlo code, KENO-NR, was developed to eliminate the dependence of the measurement on the point kinetic formulation. This code utilizes time dependent, analog neutron tracking to simulate the experimental method, in addition to the underlying nuclear physics, as closely as possible. From a direct comparison of simulated and measured data, the calculational model and cross sections are validated for the calculation, and KENO-NR can then be rerun to provide a distributed source k_ {eff} calculation. Depending on the fissile assembly, a few hours to a couple of days of computation time are needed for a typical simulation executed on a desktop workstation. In this work, KENO-NR demonstrated the ability to accurately estimate the measured ratio of spectral densities from experiments using capture detectors performed on uranium metal cylinders, a cylindrical tank filled with aqueous uranyl nitrate, and arrays of safe storage bottles filled with uranyl nitrate. Good agreement was also seen between simulated and measured values of the prompt neutron decay constant from the fitted CPSDs. Poor agreement was seen between simulated and measured results using composite ^6Li-glass-plastic scintillators at large subcriticalities for the tank of

  15. Paired observation of californium-252 neutron intraluminal brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy with and without lead shielding for cervical cancer%252 Cf中子腔内照射结合挡铅与不挡铅外照射治疗宫颈癌的配对观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴卓捷; 雷新; 陈永红; 刘佳

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较252 Cf中子腔内照射结合挡铅盆腔对穿野和不挡铅箱式四野外照射治疗宫颈癌的治疗结果。方法2004—2007年本院收治的Ⅱa—Ⅲb 期的宫颈鳞癌患者,按照临床分期、年龄、肿瘤大小、贫血程度为配对条件,共筛选出26对(52例)研究对象,分为挡铅盆腔对穿野组(挡铅组)和不挡铅箱式四野组(不挡铅组)。两组患者外照射期间穿插252 Cf中子后装治疗。 Kaplan?Meier法计算5年LC、OS、DFS 并 Logrank 检验差异,晚期并发症发生率差异行 McNemar 法检验。结果挡铅、不挡铅组5年LC 率分别为85%、81%(P=0??014),OS 率分别为89%、73%(P=0??013),DFS 率分别为89%、73%(P=0??013),晚期并发症发生率分别为12%、23%(P=0??008)。结论腔内照射结合外照射治疗宫颈癌时无论采取对穿野还是箱式四野,后程前后野中央均应挡铅。%Objective To compare the efficacy between californium?252 ( 252 Cf ) neutron intraluminal brachytherapy combined with external?beam radiotherapy with lead?shielding pelvic parallel opposing field technique and non?lead?shielding four?field box technique for cervical cancer. Methods A total of 52 patients with stage Ⅱa?Ⅲb cervical squamous cell carcinoma who were admitted to our hospital from 2004 to 2007 were enrolled as subjects and paired by clinical stage, age, tumor size, and degree of anemia. The 26 pairs of patients were divided into lead?shielding pelvic parallel opposing field group (lead?shielding group) and non?lead?shielding four?field box group (non?lead?shielding group). For all patients in both groups, 252 Cf neutron brachytherapy was added in external?beam radiotherapy. The local control (LC), overall survival (OS), and disease?free survival (DFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan?Meier method and analyzed using the log?rank test. The difference in the incidence of late complications was

  16. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  17. Spontaneous Partitioning of Californium from Curium: Curious Cases from the Crystallization of Curium Coordination Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Samantha K.; Silver, Mark A.; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Jamie C.; Bogart, Justin A.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Arico, Alexandra A.; Hanson, Kenneth; Schelter, Eric J.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2015-12-07

    The reaction of 248CmCl3 with excess 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) under mild solvothermal conditions results in crystallization of the tris-chelate complex Cm(HDPA)3·H2O. Approximately half of the curium remains in solution at the end of this process, and evaporation of the mother liquor results in crystallization of the bis-chelate complex [Cm(HDPA)- (H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O. 248Cm is the daughter of the α decay of 252Cf and is extracted in high purity from this parent. However, trace amounts of 249,250,251Cf are still present in all samples of 248Cm. During the crystallization of Cm(HDPA)3·H2O and [Cm(HDPA)(H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O, californium(III) spontaneously separates itself from the curium complexes and is found doped within crystals of DPA in the form of Cf(HDPA)3. These results add to the growing body of evidence that the chemistry of californium is fundamentally different from that of earlier actinides.

  18. Development of a novel near-infrared fluorescent theranostic combretastain A-4 analogue, YK-5-252, to target triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yali; Smith, Jacqueline; Li, Kongwen; Cui, Jake; Han, John; Hou, Shujie; Brown, Milton L

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a significant challenge to cancer research. The lack of hormone receptors limits the treatment options available to patients with this diagnosis, forcing them to endure prolonged radiation and chemotherapy. Anti-angiogenesis is a chemotherapeutic strategy that targets the vasculature of tumors. Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) is a well-known vasculature-disrupting agent, which has been shown to effectively kill a variety of cancers through inhibition of tubulin polymerization. Due to its toxicity, small molecule analogues of CA-4 have been sought out. We have designed a novel dual action CA-4 prodrug, YK-5-252, which releases the drug through a disulfide bond cleavage mechanism and contains a near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore, which allows fluorescence monitoring of cleavage. This disulfide linkage causes CA-4 to become effective only when released by glutathione (GSH) reducing the toxicity of the drug while simultaneously releasing the NIR fluorophore. Therefore the prodrug, YK-5-252, represents a novel CA-4 analogue which has reduced toxicity and can be used for theranostics imaging.

  19. Design and Potentials of the Californium-252 Radiation Facility at WES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    standards, using an Image Quality Indicator (IQI) and also a Beam Purity Indicator (BPI),** shows a relatively good thermal and epithermal neutron ...colli-nated beam of the desired neutron radiation. Consideration of the basic nuclear properties was therefore a necessity in achieving the desired...The upper 6 ft has been designed for use in radiography and neutron counting. The steel tank was prefabricated in two sections. The lower 6-ft

  20. An ECR Charge Breeder for the 252 Cf Fission Source Project (CARIBU) at ATLAS%ATLAS用于CARIBU项目的ECR离子剥离器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.C.Pardo; R.Vondrasek; T.Kulevoy; V.Aseev; R.Scott; P.Suominen

    2007-01-01

    A new radioactive beam facility for ATLAS,the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade(CARIBU),is under construction.The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci 252 Cf source;thermalized and collected into a low-energy beam by a helium gas catcher.In order to reaccelerate these beams.the existing ATLAS ECR-I ion source is being redesigned to function as a charge breeder source.The design and features of this charge breeder configuration is discussed and the project status described.

  1. Test and evaluation results of the /sup 252/Cf shuffler at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, T.W.

    1981-03-01

    The /sup 252/Cf Shuffler, a nondestructive assay instrument employing californium neutron source irradiation and delayed-neutron counting, was developed for measuring /sup 235/U content of scrap and waste items generated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor fuel fabrication facility. The scrap and waste items include high-purity uranium-aluminum alloy ingots as well as pieces of castings, saw and lathe chips from machining operations, low-purity items such as oxides of uranium or uranium intermixed with flux materials found in recovery operations, and materials not recoverable at SRP such as floor sweepings or residues from the uranium scrap recovery operation. The uranium contains about 60% /sup 235/U with the remaining isotopes being /sup 236/U, /sup 238/U, and /sup 234/U in descending order. The test and evaluation at SRP concluded that the accuracy, safety, reliability, and ease of use made the /sup 252/Cf Shuffler a suitable instrument for routine use in an industrial, production-oriented plant.

  2. 42 CFR 422.252 - Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminology. 422.252 Section 422.252 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... § 422.252 Terminology. Annual MA capitation rate means a county payment rate for an MA local...

  3. Dicty_cDB: SFD252 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFD252 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16471-1 SFD252Z (Link... to Original site) - - SFD252Z 694 - - - - Show SFD252 Library SF (Link to library) Clone ID SFD252 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SF/SFD2-C/SFD252Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SFD25...2Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SFD252 (SFD252Q) /CSM/SF/SFD2-C/SFD252Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...EQLKVIKEFQRQDQQKKQKIQQENDAVYLSDVEKAQLELDAELAKNNKQENQDENLVQEK QQSPDQIKNQLKNIQHEQQIQEQQDKLNQEKNQQLLEQEQNQK*fnhsf

  4. Dicty_cDB: SSC252 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC252 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16560-1 SSC252Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC252Z 516 - - - - Show SSC252 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC252 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSC2-C/SSC252Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSC25...2Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC252 (SSC252Q) /CSM/SS/SSC2-C/SSC252Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...5-B/SSE525Q.Seq.d/ 898 0.0 SSC252 (SSC252Q) /CSM/SS/SSC2-C/SSC252Q.Seq.d/ 898 0.0 SSC150 (SSC150Q) /CSM/SS/SSC1-C/SSC

  5. 48 CFR 53.301-252 - Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract. 53.301-252 Section 53.301-252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL..., Architect-Engineer Contract. EC01MY91.035 EC01MY91.036...

  6. 7 CFR 252.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authorities, schools, service institutions, welfare agencies, nutrition programs for the elderly... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 252.2 Section 252.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 40 CFR 265.252 - Waste analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste analysis. 265.252 Section 265... FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.252 Waste analysis. In addition to the waste analyses required by § 265.13, the... in the pile to which it is to be added. The analysis conducted must be capable of...

  8. 24 CFR 221.252 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Cost Homes § 221.252 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee may effect the release... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 221.252... approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing mortgagor. The...

  9. 48 CFR 252.239-7002 - Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access. 252.239-7002... Clauses 252.239-7002 Access. As prescribed in 239.7411(a), use the following clause: Access (DEC 1991) (a) Subject to military security regulations, the Government shall permit the Contractor access at...

  10. 48 CFR 252.217-7010 - Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance. 252.217-7010... Clauses 252.217-7010 Performance. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Performance (JUL..., scrap or other ship's material of the Government resulting from performance of the work as items...

  11. 7 CFR 252.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 252.3 Section 252.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Administration. (a) Role of FNS. The Secretary will designate those commodities which will be available under...

  12. Dicty_cDB: SLI252 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLI252 (Link to dictyBase) sli252 - - Contig-U11535-1 SLI252Z ...(Link to Original site) - - SLI252Z 600 - - - - Show SLI252 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLI252 (Li...nk to dictyBase) Atlas ID sli252 NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U11535-1 Original site URL h...ttp://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLI2-C/SLI252Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLI2...52Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLI252 (SLI252Q) /CSM/SL/SLI2-C/SLI252Q.Se

  13. Dicty_cDB: SSG252 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSG252 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U01680-1 | Contig-U01743-1 SSG...252P (Link to Original site) SSG252F 642 SSG252Z 164 SSG252P 806 - - Show SSG252 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSG...80-1 | Contig-U01743-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSG2-C/SSG...252Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSG252P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSG252 (SSG...252Q) /CSM/SS/SSG2-C/SSG252Q.Seq.d/ AAAAAATTAATAATAGTTCTTAAATAGTTTTTAAAATATTAATACAAATATTAAATAAAT

  14. 14 CFR 252.8 - Extent of smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of smoking restrictions. 252.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.8 Extent of smoking restrictions. The restrictions on smoking described in §§ 252.3 through 252.7 shall apply to all locations within the aircraft....

  15. Design of a californium-based epithermal neutron beam for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanch, J C; Kim, J K; Wilson, M J

    1993-08-01

    The potential of the spontaneously fissioning isotope, 252Cf, to provide epithermal neutrons for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to design an assembly composed of a 26 cm long, 11 cm radius cylindrical D2O moderator followed by a 64 cm long Al filter. Lithium filters are placed between the moderator and the filter and between the Al and the patient. A reflector surrounding the moderator/filter assembly is required in order to maintain adequate therapy flux at the patient position. An ellipsoidal phantom composed of skull- and brain-equivalent material was used to determine the dosimetric effect of this beam. It was found that both advantage depths and advantage ratios compare very favourably with reactor and accelerator epithermal neutron sources. The dose rate obtainable, on the other hand, is 4.1 RBE cGy min-1, based on a very large (1.0 g) source of 252Cf. This dose rate is two to five times lower than those provided by existing reactor beams and can be viewed as a drawback of using 252Cf as a neutron source. Radioisotope sources, however, do offer the advantage of in-hospital installation.

  16. Synthesis and biological activity of pyrazole analogues of the staurosporine aglycon K252c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esvan, Yannick J; Giraud, Francis; Pereira, Elisabeth; Suchaud, Virginie; Nauton, Lionel; Théry, Vincent; Dezhenkova, Lyubov G; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Mazov, Vsevolod N; Shtil, Alexander A; Anizon, Fabrice; Moreau, Pascale

    2016-07-15

    A derivative of the staurosporine aglycon (K252c), in which the lactam ring was replaced by a pyrazole moiety, was synthesized. The resulting indolopyrazolocarbazole (3) inhibited Pim isoforms 1-3 whereas it did not impair the activity of two known targets of K252c, protein kinase C isoforms α and γ. Compound 3 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity toward human leukemia and colon carcinoma cell lines (K562 and HCT116), strongly suggesting that this new scaffold deserves further investigations for treatment of malignancies associated with Pim activity.

  17. 27 CFR 25.252 - Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removal of Brewer's Yeast and Other Articles § 25.252 Records. (a) Production. The brewer shall keep records of the production of malt syrup, wort, and other articles which are removed... of brewer's yeast, malt and other articles from the brewery. The record shall include the...

  18. 40 CFR 61.252 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Operating Mill Tailings § 61.252 Standard. (a) Radon-222 emissions to the ambient air from an existing uranium mill tailings pile shall not exceed 20 pCi/(m2-sec) (1.9 pCi/(ft2-sec)) of radon-222. (b)...

  19. 48 CFR 252.217-7004 - Job orders and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compensation. 252.217-7004 Section 252.217-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.217-7004 Job orders and compensation. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: JOB ORDERS AND COMPENSATION (MAY 2006) (a) The Contracting Officer shall...

  20. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  1. 48 CFR 252.231-7000 - Supplemental cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... principles. 252.231-7000 Section 252.231-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.231-7000 Supplemental cost principles. As prescribed in 231.100-70, use the following clause: Supplemental Cost Principles (DEC 1991) When the allowability of costs...

  2. 14 CFR 252.7 - No-smoking sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false No-smoking sections. 252.7 Section 252.7... REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.7 No-smoking sections. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... shall provide, at a minimum: (1) A no-smoking section for each class of service; (2) A sufficient...

  3. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general...

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFI252 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFI252 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13401-1 AFI252F (Link... to Original site) AFI252F 545 - - - - - - Show AFI252 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFI252 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U13401-1 Original site URL http://dict...ted Amino Acid sequence kxyn*KRFKXKEGSDYINANYIDGAYPKQFICTQGPLPNTIADFWRMVWENRCRIIVMLS RESENCRIKCDRYWPEQIGGEQF...*hprshstipsvxt*yhksxksnhtiir*kcsnhxxlxxxxx x--- Frame B: kxyn*KRFKXKEGSDYINANYIDGAYPKQFICTQGPLPNTIADFWRMVWEN

  5. Graphite moderated {sup 252}Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    The thorium molten salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a {sup 252}Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the {sup 252}Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. (Author)

  6. Time Series Analysis For The Californium Source In Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Labranche, H

    2004-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory uses a 252Cf source to measure the neutron detection efficiency of its detector. We propose a method, the Time Series Analysis, that uses pairs of time intervals between the detected events to find the neutron detection efficiency, the probability to detect from a fission the prompt γ-rays, the neutron mean life inside the detector, the source fission rate and the residual activity rate from non-fission events. We explain our theoretical model of the source and the procedure to fit the data. With a 2.5 MeV threshold cut on the data, the neutron mean life is 5.281 ± 0.004(stat) msec and the source fission rate at June 12, 2001 is 4.360 ± 0.004(stat) sec −1. At this moment, the Time Series can only be applied to data when the source is near the centre. The technique is also applied with an AmBe source. We also show the latest progress to improve the technique. Finally, we briefly show another method, the Multiplicity Analysis, which was ...

  7. 46 CFR 252.23 - Financial and other reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial and other reporting requirements. 252.23... SERVICES Operation § 252.23 Financial and other reporting requirements. (a) Voyage report. The operator... total loss covered by a policy of insurance. (d) Financial statements. The operator shall submit,...

  8. 7 CFR 765.252 - Lease of security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lease of security. 765.252 Section 765.252 Agriculture... Lease of security. (a) Real estate leases. The borrower may lease real estate security provided the... leases does not exceed 3 years, or 5 years if the borrower and the lessee are related by blood...

  9. 48 CFR 252.237-7017 - Individual laundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual laundry. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7017 Individual laundry. As prescribed in 237.7101(f), use the following clause: Individual Laundry (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall provide laundry service under...

  10. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airfield safety precautions. 252.236-7005 Section 252.236-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... to contract performance might result in vertical projections at or above the...

  11. 48 CFR 252.228-7001 - Ground and flight risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground and flight risk. 252.228-7001 Section 252.228-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION...) Conventional winged aircraft, as well as helicopters, vertical take-off or landing aircraft,...

  12. 48 CFR 252.217-7015 - Safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety and health. 252.217... Clauses 252.217-7015 Safety and health. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Safety and Health (DEC 1991) Nothing contained in the Master Agreement or any job order shall relieve the...

  13. Dicty_cDB: VSJ252 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S/VSJ2-C/VSJ252Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSJ252F (Link to Original site) Representative...as ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/V

  14. 48 CFR 252.232-7000 - Advance payment pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.232-7000 Advance payment pool. As prescribed in 232.412-70(a), use the following clause: Advance Payment Pool (DEC 1991) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract,...

  15. 48 CFR 252.227-7004 - License grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License grant. 252.227... Clauses 252.227-7004 License grant. As prescribed at 227.7009-3(a), insert the following clause in patent releases, license agreements, and assignments: License Grant (AUG 1984) (a) The Contractor hereby grants...

  16. 48 CFR 252.227-7005 - License term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License term. 252.227-7005... Clauses 252.227-7005 License term. As prescribed at 227.7009-3(b), insert one of the following clauses in patent releases, license agreements, and assignments: License Term (OCT 2001) Alternate I (AUG 1984)....

  17. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235... Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare... contractors with approved Public Health Service Welfare Assurances. (e) The Contractor may...

  18. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  19. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  20. 48 CFR 252.239-7008 - Reuse arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reuse arrangements. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7008 Reuse arrangements. As prescribed in 239.7411(a), use the following clause: Reuse Arrangements (DEC 1991) (a) When feasible, the Contractor shall reuse canceled...

  1. 18 CFR 2.52 - Suspension of rate schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of rate schedules. 2.52 Section 2.52 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy...

  2. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  3. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev S.; Alessi J.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pardo, R.C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A.

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  4. 50 CFR 216.252 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE... Mexico § 216.252 Permissible methods of taking. (a) Under Letters of Authorization issued pursuant...

  5. Bacterial community shift in the coastal Gulf of Mexico salt-marsh sediment microcosm in vitro following exposure to the Mississippi Canyon Block 252 oil (MC252)

    KAUST Repository

    Koo, Hyunmin

    2014-07-10

    In this study, we examined the responses by the indigenous bacterial communities in salt-marsh sediment microcosms in vitro following treatment with Mississippi Canyon Block 252 oil (MC252). Microcosms were constructed of sediment and seawater collected from Bayou La Batre located in coastal Alabama on the Gulf of Mexico. We used an amplicon pyrosequencing approach on microcosm sediment metagenome targeting the V3–V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Overall, we identified a shift in the bacterial community in three distinct groups. The first group was the early responders (orders Pseudomonadales and Oceanospirillales within class Gammaproteobacteria), which increased their relative abundance within 2 weeks and were maintained 3 weeks after oil treatment. The second group was identified as early, but transient responders (order Rhodobacterales within class Alphaproteobacteria; class Epsilonproteobacteria), which increased their population by 2 weeks, but returned to the basal level 3 weeks after oil treatment. The third group was the late responders (order Clostridiales within phylum Firmicutes; order Methylococcales within class Gammaproteobacteria; and phylum Tenericutes), which only increased 3 weeks after oil treatment. Furthermore, we identified oil-sensitive bacterial taxa (order Chromatiales within class Gammaproteobacteria; order Syntrophobacterales within class Deltaproteobacteria), which decreased in their population after 2 weeks of oil treatment. Detection of alkane (alkB), catechol (C2,3DO) and biphenyl (bph) biodegradation genes by PCR, particularly in oil-treated sediment metacommunity DNA, delineates proliferation of the hydrocarbon degrading bacterial community. Overall, the indigenous bacterial communities in our salt-marsh sediment in vitro microcosm study responded rapidly and shifted towards members of the taxonomic groups that are capable of surviving in an MC252 oil-contaminated environment.

  6. Observation of a New (25/2+) Isomer in 121Sb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, J.; Kisielinski, M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Droste, Ch.; Morek, T.; Ruchowska, E.; Srebrny, J.; Wolinska-Cichocka, M.; Palacz, M.; Korman, A.; Andrzejewski, J.; KrXf3l, A.; Perkowski, J.; Lieder, R.; Mierzejewski, J.; Sankowska, I.

    2008-02-01

    The beam pulse structure of the HIL cyclotron and thick target gamma -gamma coincidence measurements in the in-beam and off-beam modes have been used to search for isomers in the A approx 120 mass region using heavy-ion reactions. The half-life of the 2721 keV, (25/2+) level in 121Sb was determined in the off-beam mode to be 167 pm 19 mu s. Two deexcitation sequences of this isomer are proposed. The isomeric state is considered to be of 3-quasiparticle nature pi (d5/2)nu (h11/22)10+.

  7. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  8. 48 CFR 252.247-7025 - Reflagging or repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reflagging or repair work... of Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7025 Reflagging or repair work. As prescribed in 247.574(d), use the following clause: Reflagging or Repair Work (JUN 2005) (a) Definition. Reflagging or repair...

  9. 38 CFR 21.252 - Job development and placement services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Employment Services § 21.252 Job development and placement services. (a) General... Employment Services and the Veterans' Employment and Training Service of the United States Department...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7041 - Correspondence in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correspondence in English... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7041 Correspondence in English. As prescribed in 225.1103(2), use the following clause: Correspondence in English (JUN 1997) The Contractor shall ensure that...

  11. 40 CFR 264.252 - Action leakage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste... for waste pile units subject to § 264.251(c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum...

  12. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (APR 2008) (a) In the performance of...

  13. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  14. EMISSION OF PHOTONS IN SPONTANEOUS FISSION OF CF-252

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLOEG, H; BACELAR, JCS; BUDA, A; LAURENS, CR; VANDERWOUDE, A; GAARDHOJE, JJ; ZELAZNY, Z; VANTHOF, G; KALANTARNAYESTANAKI, N

    1995-01-01

    High energy photon emission accompanying the spontaneous fission of Cf-252 is measured for different mass splits. The photon yields up to an energy of 20 MeV are obtained at several angles relative to the fission direction. Statistical model calculations are used to interpret the data. The photon yi

  15. 30 CFR 252.4 - Summary Report to affected States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 252.4 Summary Report to affected States. (a) The Director, as soon as practicable after analysis, interpretation, and compilation of oil and gas data and... the onshore impacts of potential OCS oil and gas development and production. The Director...

  16. Radioactive Beams from 252CF Fission Using a Gas Catcher and an ECR Charge Breeder at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Richard C; Hecht, Adam; Moore, Eugene F; Savard, Guy

    2005-01-01

    An upgrade to the radioactive beam capability of the ATLAS facility has been proposed using 252Cf fission fragments thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam using a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams an existing ATLAS ECR ion source will be reconfigured as a charge breeder source. A 1Ci 252Cf source is expected to provide sufficient yield to deliver beams of up to ~106 far from stability ions per second on target. A facility description, the expected performance and the expected performance will be presented in this paper. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7008 - Relief from import duty (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (United Kingdom). 252.229-7008 Section 252.229-7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7008 Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(h), use the following clause: Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) (JUN...

  18. 48 CFR 252.229-7006 - Value added tax exclusion (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (United Kingdom). 252.229-7006 Section 252.229-7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7006 Value added tax exclusion (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(f), use the following clause: Value Added Tax Exclusion (United Kingdom) (JUN...

  19. 48 CFR 252.211-7004 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., packaging, and packing. 252.211-7004 Section 252.211-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.211-7004 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. As prescribed in 211.272, use the following provision: Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (DEC...

  20. 48 CFR 252.216-7001 - Economic price adjustment-nonstandard steel items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-nonstandard steel items. 252.216-7001 Section 252.216-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.216-7001 Economic price adjustment—nonstandard steel items. As prescribed in 216.203-4-70(b), use the following clause: Economic Price Adjustment—Nonstandard Steel...

  1. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  2. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition of the Enterprise) from the Ministerio de Trabajo y S.S., Tesoreria General de la Seguridad Social... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish...

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7037 - Evaluation of Offers for Air Circuit Breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Air Circuit Breakers. 252.225-7037 Section 252.225-7037 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7037 Evaluation of Offers for Air Circuit Breakers. As prescribed in 225.7006-4(a), use the following provision: Evaluation of Offers for Air Circuit Breakers...

  4. 48 CFR 252.222-7005 - Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens-Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nonimmigrant aliens-Guam. 252.222-7005 Section 252.222-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7005 Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens—Guam. As prescribed in 222.7302, use the following clause: Prohibition on Use of Nonimmigrant Aliens—Guam (SEP...

  5. 44 CFR 206.252 - Insurance requirements for facilities damaged by flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities damaged by flood. 206.252 Section 206.252 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... Assistance Insurance Requirements § 206.252 Insurance requirements for facilities damaged by flood. (a) Where an insurable building damaged by flooding is located in a special flood hazard area identified...

  6. 48 CFR 252.204-7001 - Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) code reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Entity (CAGE) code reporting. 252.204-7001 Section 252.204-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Entity (CAGE) Code Reporting (AUG 1999) (a) The offeror is requested to enter its CAGE code on its offer... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.204-7001 Commercial and Government...

  7. 48 CFR 252.242-7004 - Material management and accounting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., inventory, accounting, or other systems. (2) Valid time-phased requirements means material that is— (i... accounting system. 252.242-7004 Section 252.242-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.242-7004 Material management and accounting system....

  8. Compound dual radiation action theory for 252Cf brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Zhang, X

    2004-01-01

    The existing dosimetry protocol that uses the concept of RBE for 252Cf brachytherapy contains large uncertainties. A new formula has been developed to correlate the biological effect (i.e. cell survival fraction) resulting from a mixed n + gamma radiation field with two physical quantities and two biological quantities. The formula is based on a pathway model evolved from that of the compound-dual-radiation-action (CDRA) theory, previously proposed by Rossi and Zaider. The new model employs the recently published data on radiation-induced DNA lesions. The new formula is capable of predicting quantitatively the synergistic effect caused by the interactions between neutron events and gamma ray events, and it is intended to be included into a new dosimetry protocol for future 252Cf brachytherapy.

  9. Neutron shielding for a {sup 252} Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares e Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Eduardo Gallego, Alfredo Lorente [Depto. de Ingenieria Nuclear, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    To determine the neutron shielding features of water-extended polyester a Monte Carlo study was carried out. Materials with low atomic number are predominantly used for neutron shielding because these materials effectively attenuate neutrons, mainly through inelastic collisions and absorption reactions. During the selection of materials to design a neutron shield, prompt gamma production as well as radionuclide production induced by neutron activation must be considered. In this investigation the Monte Carlo method was used to evaluate the performance of a water-extended polyester shield designed for the transportation, storage, and use of a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source. During calculations a detailed model for the {sup 252}Cf and the shield was utilized. To compare the shielding features of water extended polyester, the calculations were also made for the bare {sup 252}Cf in vacuum, air and the shield filled with water. For all cases the calculated neutron spectra was utilized to determine the ambient equivalent neutron dose at four sites around the shielding. In the case of water extended polyester and water shielding the calculations were extended to include the prompt gamma rays produced during neutron interactions, with this information the Kerma in air was calculated at the same locations where the ambient equivalent neutron dose was determined. (Author)

  10. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Samia de Freitas, E-mail: samiabrandao@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and methods: simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results: intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} infiltration zones. Conclusion: Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones. (author)

  11. Planned Closeout of the Cf-252 Loan/Lease Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Steven R [ORNL; Patton, Bradley D [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    New funding is sought to pursue planned closeout of the Cf-252 Loan Program. The work will be performed in phases. In the initial phase, users will be surveyed to determine whether they wish to take ownership of sources in their possession, or return them. In the second phase, sources will be recalled from non-DOE entities, and source ownership transfers will be performed. In the third phase, the remaining sources from DOE entities will be recalled. Initial funding of $350K is sought to fund the first phase, and to plan execution of the remaining phases given information collected from user surveys.

  12. Material recognition by using a tagged {sup 252}Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: viesti@pd.infn.it; Cossutta, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Fabris, D. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Pino, F.; Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon-Bolivar, Laboratorio Fisica Nuclear, Apartado 8900, 1080 A. Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2008-08-11

    Material recognition by measuring simultaneously the transmission of neutron and gamma ray produced by a {sup 252}Cf source has been studied, determining the average atomic number resolving power. In addition, it is demonstrated the possibility to derive direct signatures able to identify light elements (C, N, O) using the measured transmission versus neutron time-of-flight. This allows one to determine the relevant elemental ratios (C/O and C/N) normally used to identify threat organic materials such as explosives and drugs.

  13. Terahertz Transmission Imaging with 2.52 THz Continuous Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Tong Guan; De-Wei Zheng; Min Hu; Wen-Jie Fu; Yu-Meng Cui; Xiang Fan; Liang Zhang; Ye Yuan; Jing-Yuan Xu; Yuan Li

    2013-01-01

    In this article, two terahertz transmission imaging systems are built with a 2.52 THz continuous wave laser and two types of sensors. One is array scanning system using a 124×124 pyro-electric array camera as the detector; the other is a point-wise scanning system utilizing a Golay cell as the detector. The imaging speed and quality is briefly analyzed. Terahertz (THz) imaging results demonstrate that the array scanning system has higher imaging speed with lower resolution. The point-wise scanning system has higher imaging quality with lower speed.

  14. Termocoagulación facetaria lumbar: Experiencia en 252 pacientes Thermocoagulation of lumbar facet joints: Experience in 252 patients

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Se presentan 252 pacientes con el diagnóstico de dolor lumbar facetario a los que se le realizó la técnica quirúrgica de termocoagulación percutánea de la faceta articular. Nuestro propósito principal fue aliviar el dolor en estos pacientes, evaluamos la eficacia de la técnica con un 74,7% de resultados quirúrgicos satisfactorios, así como la descripción de diferentes aspectos como: edad, sexo, causas y la topografía segmentaria del dolor.Two hundred fifty two patients with diagnosis of lumba...

  15. 48 CFR 252.222-7006 - Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Mandatory Arbitration Agreements. 252.222-7006 Section 252.222-7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Arbitration Agreements. As prescribed in 222.7404, use the following clause: Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements (MAY 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Covered...

  16. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...

  17. 48 CFR 252.209-7005 - Reserve Officer Training Corps and military recruiting on campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Reserve Officer Training Corps and Military Recruiting on Campus (JAN 2000) (a) Definition. “Institution... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve Officer Training Corps and military recruiting on campus. 252.209-7005 Section 252.209-7005 Federal...

  18. 48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... on fuel (United Kingdom). 252.229-7010 Section 252.229-7010 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(j), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty on Fuel (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a) Pursuant to an agreement between the United States Government...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7001 - Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7001 Section 252.225-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(2), use the following clause: Buy American Act and Balance of... products in the Buy American Act—Balance of Payments Program Certificate provision of the solicitation....

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  1. 8 CFR 252.5 - Special procedures for deserters from Spanish or Greek ships of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Spanish or Greek ships of war. 252.5 Section 252.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Greek ships of war. (a) General. Under E.O. 11267 of January 19, 1966 (31 FR 807) and 28 CFR 0.109, and... a ship of war of that government, while in any port of the United States, and on proof by...

  2. 48 CFR 252.227-7038 - Patent Rights-Ownership by the Contractor (Large Business).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor (Large Business). As prescribed in 227.303(2), use the following clause: Patent Rights—Ownership... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Rights-Ownership by the Contractor (Large Business). 252.227-7038 Section 252.227-7038 Federal Acquisition...

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7038 - Restriction on Acquisition of Air Circuit Breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Air Circuit Breakers. 252.225-7038 Section 252.225-7038 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Circuit Breakers. As prescribed in 225.7006-4(b), use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Air Circuit Breakers (JUN 2005) Unless otherwise specified in its offer, the Contractor shall...

  5. 48 CFR 252.227-7014 - Rights in noncommercial computer software and noncommercial computer software documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... container and each page, or portions thereof, of printed material containing computer software for which... computer software and noncommercial computer software documentation. 252.227-7014 Section 252.227-7014... Rights in noncommercial computer software and noncommercial computer software documentation....

  6. 48 CFR 252.205-7000 - Provision of information to cooperative agreement holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to cooperative agreement holders. 252.205-7000 Section 252.205-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations... cooperative agreement holders. As prescribed in 205.470, use the following clause: Provision of Information to Cooperative Agreement Holders (DEC 1991) (a) Definition. Cooperative agreement holder means a State or...

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7023 Preference for products or services... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or Afghanistan... solicitation entitled “Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan” (DFARS 252.225-7024)....

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010)...

  9. 48 CFR 252.203-7002 - Requirement to Inform Employees of Whistleblower Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Employees of Whistleblower Rights. 252.203-7002 Section 252.203-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Whistleblower Rights. As prescribed in 203.970, use the following clause: Requirement To Inform Employees of Whistleblower Rights (JAN 2009) The Contractor shall inform its employees in writing of employee...

  10. The Extreme Type I Planetary Nebula M2-52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peña

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de espectroscopía de alta resolución de la parte central de la nebulosa planetaria bipolar M2-52 que muestra un tipo morfológico Br. Hemos confirmado que M2-52 es una nebulosa de Tipo I de Peimbert, con un espectro rico en líneas de alto y bajo grado de ionización y un fuerte enriquecimiento de He y N. La composición química del gas ionizado es: He/H = 0:165 0:010, O/H = (2:6 0:5 x 10_4, N/O = 2:3 0:3, Ne/O = 0:37 0:10, Ar/O = (9:2 2:0 x 10_3 y S/O > 2:0 x 10_3. La velocidad de expansión de la nebulosa es, en promedio, de 20 2 km s_1 y varía ligeramente dependiendo del ión considerado. Los iones de menor grado de ionización, N+ y S+, muestran vexp _ 18 km s_1, O++ y He+ muestran vexp _ 20 km s_1, en tanto que He++ y H+ muestran vexp _ 22 km s_1. Es posible que la zona de N+ y S+ esté siendo frenada por el anillo de material molecular encontrado alrededor de la estrella.

  11. Shielding design studies for a neutron irradiator system based on a 252Cf source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A X; Crispim, V R

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a shielding design against neutrons and gamma rays from a source of 252Cf, using Monte Carlo simulation. The shielding materials studied were borated polyethylene, borated-lead polyethylene and stainless steel. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4B was used to design shielding for 252Cf based neutron irradiator systems. By normalising the dose equivalent rate values presented to the neutron production rate of the source, the resulting calculations are independent of the intensity of the actual 252Cf source. The results show that the total dose equivalent rates were reduced significantly by the shielding system optimisation.

  12. Sensitivity of 252Cf(sf) Neutron Observables to FREYA Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Jorgen; Talou, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Within the framework of the fission event generator FREYA , (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) we have studied the sensitivity of various neutron observables to the yield distribution Y (A , Z , TKE) used as input to the code. Concentrating on the spontaneous fission of 252Cf, we generate a large number of different input yield distributions by performing simultaneous variations in the mass and charge yields as well as the kinetic energy distribution, governed by yield covariance matrices established from experimental data sets. For each of these input yield distributions, we then use FREYA to generate a large sample of complete fission events from which we extract various neutron observables, in particular the neutron multiplicity distribution, and the neutron spectrum associated with each multiplicity. On this basis, we are able to determine the sensitivity of those observables to the uncertainties in the input yield distribution obtained experimentally. This kind of study can be applied to any other case of interest and the information obtained can help to establish any needs and target accuracies required for further measurements to ensure reliable data validation. The work of J.R. was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. The work of P.T. was performed under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  13. Prompt Neutron Emission in 252CF Spontaneous Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Zeynalov, Sh.

    2011-10-01

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics. The goal was to compare the results from digital data acquisition and digital signal processing analysis with results of the pioneering work of Budtz-Jørgensen and Knitter. Using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber for fission fragment (FF) detection and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in total about 107 fission fragment-neutron coincidences have been registered. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. The results are in very good agreement with literature. For the first time the dependence of the number of emitted neutrons as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations in the range of TKE from 140-220 MeV.

  14. Neutron Spectra, Fluence and Dose Rates from Bare and Moderated Cf-252 Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radev, Radoslav P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    A new, stronger 252Cf source (serial number SR-CF-3050-OR) was obtained from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2014 to supplement the existing 252Cf sources which had significantly decayed. A new instrument positioning track system was designed and installed by Hopewell Designs, Inc. in 2011. The neutron field from the new, stronger 252Cf source in the modified calibration environment needed to be characterized as well as the modified neutron fields produced by the new source and seven different neutron moderators. Comprehensive information about our 252Cf source, its origin, production, and isotopic content and decay characteristics needed to be compiled as well. This technical report is intended to address these issues.

  15. 48 CFR 252.211-7002 - Availability for examination of specifications, standards, plans, drawings, data item...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... examination of specifications, standards, plans, drawings, data item descriptions, and other pertinent... of Provisions And Clauses 252.211-7002 Availability for examination of specifications, standards... the following provision: Availability for Examination of Specifications, Standards, Plans,...

  16. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  17. Termocoagulación facetaria lumbar: Experiencia en 252 pacientes Thermocoagulation of lumbar facet joints: Experience in 252 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Martínez-Suárez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 252 pacientes con el diagnóstico de dolor lumbar facetario a los que se le realizó la técnica quirúrgica de termocoagulación percutánea de la faceta articular. Nuestro propósito principal fue aliviar el dolor en estos pacientes, evaluamos la eficacia de la técnica con un 74,7% de resultados quirúrgicos satisfactorios, así como la descripción de diferentes aspectos como: edad, sexo, causas y la topografía segmentaria del dolor.Two hundred fifty two patients with diagnosis of lumbar facet joint pain underwent the surgical technique of percutaneous thermocoagulation of the facet joint. Our major aim was to relief pain in those patients. We assess the effectiveness of the technique, with 74.7% of surgical success, and we also describe different aspects such as: age, sex, causes and segmentary pain topography.

  18. 78 FR 21567 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... californium-252 (Cf-252). A licensee's decision to use a specific type of source may depend upon cost, availability, and the dependence upon historical data with which to compare current measurement results. The...

  19. Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Taylor, Robin D [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of {sup 252}Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The {sup 252}Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of {sup 252}Cf; the average irradiation period is {approx}10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of {sup 252}Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and

  20. Principles of dosimetric planning in contact therapy with high-energy Cf-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskij, V.N.; Merkle, K.

    1987-11-01

    In clinical practice, some dosimetric problems of contact therapy with Cf-252 are not yet sufficiently clarified. One possibility to solve these problems is to apply the conception of total photon-equivalent energy dose. This conception serves to calculate clinical guidance values of the RBE of the Cf-252-neutron constituent for late effects in dependence on the total dose rate of the mixed radiation. The correlations indicated are valid for dose rates of 0.05 to 4 Gy/h and 4 to 1.25 . 10/sup 4/ Gy/h. On the basis of these functional correlations and taking into consideration the critical normal tissues of rectum and urinary bladder, the minimum RBE values of the tumors are indicated which allow a therapeutic effect of more than 1 in case of application of Cf-252. The formulas for the RBE dependence of the Cf-252 neutron constituent on the total doses rate permit to take into account any modifications of this value caused by varying source distances in contact therapy. It is concluded from these investigations that in oncologic patients, better results are to be expected from a treatment with high-energy Cf-252 sources than with low-energy sources, if the other treatment conditions are identical.

  1. Synthesis and mixed lineage kinase activity of pyrrolocarbazole and isoindolone analogs of (+)K-252a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudkins, Robert L; Johnson, Neil W; Angeles, Thelma S; Gessner, George W; Mallamo, John P

    2007-02-08

    Structural modification of the indolecarbazole natural product (+)K-252a identified structural requirements for MLK activity and a novel series of potent fused pyrrolocarbazole MLK1/3 inhibitors. The SAR revealed that the lactam regiochemistry, the shape of the heterocycle, and aryl rings B and F are important to MLK activity. Heteroatom and alkyl replacement of the N-12 and/or N-13 indole nitrogen atoms identified the nonplanar dihydronaphthyl[3,4-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-7-one (8) and corresponding 5,7-dione (7) as potent cell-permeable MLK1/3 family-selective leads with in vitro activity comparable to that of (+)K-252a and determined them to be 2- to 3-fold more potent than the aglycone natural product K-252c.

  2. Fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors for polyethylene-moderated {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, J.E.; Soldat, K.L.; Stewart, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Casson, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Neutron measurements and calculations were conducted to characterize the polyethylene-moderated {sup 252}Cf source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RADCAL). The 12-inch-diameter polyethylene sphere produces a highly scattered neutron spectrum which is more representative of most radiation fields found in the workplace than the D{sub 2}O-moderated {sup 252}Cf neutron spectrum typically used for dosimeter calibration. However, the energy-dependent fluence and dose equivalent must be well known before using such a source for radiation protection purposes. The measurements and calculations were performed as independent checks of the desired quantities which were the flux, the absorbed dose rate, the dose equivalent rate, and the average energy. These quantities were determined for the polyethylene sphere with and without an outer cadmium shell and compared with a D{sub 2}O-moderated {sup 252}Cf source.

  3. 20 CFR 404.252 - Subsequent entitlement to benefits 12 months or more after entitlement to disability benefits ended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or more after entitlement to disability benefits ended. 404.252 Section 404.252 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Special Computation Rules for People Who Had A Period of Disability §...

  4. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed... (Passenger Vehicles) (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a) Pursuant to an agreement between the United...

  5. 48 CFR 252.232-7005 - Reimbursement of subcontractor advance payments-DoD pilot mentor-protege program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subcontractor advance payments-DoD pilot mentor-protege program. 252.232-7005 Section 252.232-7005 Federal... subcontractor advance payments—DoD pilot mentor-protege program. As prescribed in 232.412-70(c), use the following clause: Reimbursement of Subcontractor Advance Payments—DoD Pilot Mentor-Protege Program (SEP...

  6. 48 CFR 252.226-7000 - Notice of historically black college or university and minority institution set-aside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... black college or university and minority institution set-aside. 252.226-7000 Section 252.226-7000... Notice of historically black college or university and minority institution set-aside. As prescribed in 226.370—9(a), use the following clause: Notice of Historically Black College or University...

  7. 48 CFR 252.209-7001 - Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7001 Section 252.209-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...

  8. 48 CFR 252.216-7000 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. 252.216-7000 Section 252.216-7000 Federal... adjustment—basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. As prescribed in 216.203-4-70(a... Mill Products (JUL 1997) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Established price means a price...

  9. 40 CFR 421.252 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 421.252 Section 421.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT...

  10. 48 CFR 53.236-2 - Architect-engineer services (SF's 252 and 330).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Architect-engineer... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.236-2 Architect-engineer services (SF's 252 and 330). The following forms are prescribed for use in contracting for...

  11. 48 CFR 252.219-7004 - Small business subcontracting plan (test program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.219-7004 Small business subcontracting plan... contract or subcontract. (b) The Offeror's comprehensive small business subcontracting plan and its... “Utilization of Small Business Concerns,” or (2) an approved plan required by this clause, shall be a...

  12. 48 CFR 252.227-7006 - License grant-running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License grant-running... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7006 License grant—running royalty. As prescribed at 227.7009-4(a...—Running Royalty (AUG 1984) (a) The Contractor hereby grants to the Government, as represented by...

  13. 48 CFR 252.227-7007 - License term-running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License term-running... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7007 License term—running royalty. As prescribed at 227.7009-4(b), insert the following clause in patent releases, license agreements, and assignments: License...

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7033 - Waiver of United Kingdom levies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of United Kingdom... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7033 Waiver of United Kingdom levies. As prescribed in 225.1101(9), use the following clause: Waiver of United Kingdom Levies (APR 2003) (a) The U.S. Government...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7044 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance of Payments... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7044 Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material. As prescribed in 225.7503(a), use the following clause: Balance of Payments...

  16. 48 CFR 252.228-7006 - Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7006 Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance. As prescribed at 228.370(e), use the following clause: Compliance with Spanish Laws and Insurance (DEC 1998)...

  17. 48 CFR 252.236-7003 - Payment for mobilization and preparatory work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for mobilization... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.236-7003 Payment for mobilization and preparatory work. As prescribed in 236.570(b)(2), use the following clause: Payment for Mobilization and Preparatory Work...

  18. 48 CFR 252.236-7004 - Payment for mobilization and demobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for mobilization... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.236-7004 Payment for mobilization and demobilization. As prescribed in 236.570(b)(2), use the following clause: Payment for Mobilization and Demobilization (DEC...

  19. Tagging fast neutrons from a 252Cf fission-fragment source

    CERN Document Server

    Scherzinger, Julius; Annand, John; Fissum, Kevin; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Mauritzson, Nicholai; Messi, Francesco; Perrey, Hanno; Rofors, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Coincidence and time-of-flight measurement techniques are employed to tag fission neutrons emitted from a 252Cf source. Fission fragments detected in a gaseous 4He scintillator detector supply the tag. Neutrons are detected in a NE-213 liquid-scintillator detector. The resulting continuous polychromatic beam of tagged neutrons has an energy dependence that agrees qualitatively with expectations.

  20. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  1. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YBR135W, YBR252W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bait as prey (0) YBR252W DUT1 dUTPase, catalyzes hydrolysis of dUTP to dUMP and PPi, thereby...ription dUTPase, catalyzes hydrolysis of dUTP to dUMP and PPi, thereby preventing incorporation of uracil in

  2. 48 CFR 252.239-7012 - Title to telecommunication facilities and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Title to telecommunication... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7012 Title to telecommunication facilities and equipment. As prescribed in 239.7411(b), use the following clause: Title to Telecommunication Facilities...

  3. LARGE GAMMA ANISOTROPY OBSERVED IN THE CF-252 SPONTANEOUS-FISSION PROCESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLOEG, H; BACELAR, JC; VANDENBERG, T; IACOB, VE; JONGMAN, [No Value; VANDERWOUDE, A

    1992-01-01

    The energy spectrum and the angular dependence relative to the fission direction of photons in the energy region between 2 and 40 MeV have been measured for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252. A large anisotropy was found in the energy region 8 to 12 MeV implying that photons in this region are emitt

  4. STUDY OF THE GAMMA EMISSION PROBABILITY ACCOMPANYING THE SPONTANEOUS FISSION OF CF-252

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLOEG, H; LAURENS, CR; BACELAR, JCS; BUDA, A; GAARDHOJE, JJ; VANTHOF, G; KALANTARNAYESTANAKI, N; VANDERWOUDE, A; ZELAZNY, Z

    1994-01-01

    A study of the gamma emission accompanying the spontaneous fission process of Cf-252 has been performed. The photon emission probability between 3 and 70 MeV and its angular dependence with respect to the fission direction were measured. These measurements were performed as a function of the mass as

  5. 48 CFR 252.227-7012 - Patent license and release contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent license and release... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7012 Patent license and release contract. As prescribed at 227.7012, insert the following clause in patent releases, license agreements, and assignments: (Contract...

  6. 48 CFR 252.227-7039 - Patents-reporting of subject inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents-reporting of... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7039 Patents—reporting of subject inventions. As prescribed in 227.303(1), use the following clause: Patents—Reporting of Subject Inventions (APR 1990)...

  7. 7 CFR 1710.252 - Construction work plans-power supply borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction work plans-power supply borrowers. 1710... LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.252 Construction work plans..., environmental and other studies and plans needed to support the construction of facilities, when such cost...

  8. 48 CFR 252.239-7016 - Telecommunications security equipment, devices, techniques, and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telecommunications... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7016 Telecommunications... clause: Telecommunications Security Equipment, Devices, Techniques, and Services (DEC 1991)...

  9. Microarray analysis of DNA damage repair gene expression profiles in cervical cancer cells radioresistant to 252Cf neutron and X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhen-Zhou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to obtain stable radioresistant sub-lines from the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by prolonged exposure to 252Cf neutron and X-rays. Radioresistance mechanisms were investigated in the resulting cells using microarray analysis of DNA damage repair genes. Methods HeLa cells were treated with fractionated 252Cf neutron and X-rays, with a cumulative dose of 75 Gy each, over 8 months, yielding the sub-lines HeLaNR and HeLaXR. Radioresistant characteristics were detected by clone formation assay, ultrastructural observations, cell doubling time, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis assay. Gene expression patterns of the radioresistant sub-lines were studied through microarray analysis and verified by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Results The radioresistant sub-lines HeLaNR and HeLaXR were more radioresisitant to 252Cf neutron and X-rays than parental HeLa cells by detecting their radioresistant characteristics, respectively. Compared to HeLa cells, the expression of 24 genes was significantly altered by at least 2-fold in HeLaNR cells. Of these, 19 genes were up-regulated and 5 down-regulated. In HeLaXR cells, 41 genes were significantly altered by at least 2-fold; 38 genes were up-regulated and 3 down-regulated. Conclusions Chronic exposure of cells to ionizing radiation induces adaptive responses that enhance tolerance of ionizing radiation and allow investigations of cellular radioresistance mechanisms. The insights gained into the molecular mechanisms activated by these "radioresistance" genes will lead to new therapeutic targets for cervical cancer.

  10. 一种仿252Cf中子源脉冲信号频谱分析的FPGA设计与实现%A Design and Realization of Simulated 252Cf Nuclear Pulse Spectrum Analysis System Based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏程; 魏彪

    2011-01-01

    252Cf自发裂变中子源之裂变中子在时间分布上相互独立的基本原理出发,针对随机核信号在时间上呈泊松分布,在幅度上服从高斯分布的这一特征,开展了基于FPGA技术的仿252Cf中子源随机核信号产生及其频谱分析系统的研究.通过比较仿252Cf中子源核信号与核信号的功率谱趋势,验证了仿252Cf中子源随机信号产生机制的可靠性.研究表明,将FPGA技术运用仿核信号频谱分析是可行的,仿核随机信号的频谱分析研究工作为今后将此技术移植于核信号打下了基础.%From the basic principle of independent distribution on time of spontaneous fission neutrons source 252 Cf and according to the characteristics that nuclear random signal taking on Poisson distribution on time and Gaussian distribution on amplitude, do some researches on simulated 252Cf signal generator and its spectrum analysis based on FPCA. By comparing the power spectrum of simulated nuclear signal and nuclear signal verify that the simulation 252Cf neutron source random signal generation mechanism is reliable. The results show that using of FPCA technology on spectrum analysis of simulated nuclear signal can work, this paper have provided fundamental base for the further research that transplant the technology of spectrum analysis of simulated 252Cf source on 252Cf source random signal.

  11. 利用示踪252Cf中子源的材料鉴别技术%Material Recognition by Using 252Cf Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝昕; L. Sajo-Bohus; 竺礼华; L. Stevanato; D. Fabris; M. Lunardon; S. Moretto; G. Nebbia; S. Pesente; G. Viesti

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive assay of parcels using a tagged 252Cf source and time of flight technique was studied.The method of material recognition was achieved by measuring simultaneously the transmission of neutron and gamma ray to determine the average atomic number.The automatic tomography was realized with the movement of motors and autostart of the digital acquisition system.With the calibration of the detectors, the average atomic number for each pixel of the sample was determined which allows one to recognize material with this method.%本文叙述了利用252Cf裂变中子源结合飞行时间技术对包裹进行无损检测的可行性研究,通过联合测量中子和伽玛射线的吸收谱确定样品的平均原子序数,完成被测材料的鉴定.实验采用自发裂变的252Cf中子源作为白中子源和伽马射线源,用塑料闪烁探测器探测中子和伽马射线.通过LabVIEW程序控制步进电机运动并整合获取的实验数据,实现了待测样品断层扫描数据采集工作的自动化.在对闪烁探测器进行能量和时间刻度后,对几种典型材料组成的样品进行实验分析,采集数据重建其分布图像,确认了用这项技术对材料无损检测的可行性.

  12. On the use of a (252Cf-3He) assembly for landmine detection by the neutron back-scattering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, N; Viesti, G; ElAgib, I; Habbani, F

    2012-04-01

    Experiments were carried out to optimize the performance of the neutron back-scattering (NBS) technique in landmine detection using an assembly consisting of three different layers placed above a (252)Cf neuron source, producing about 10(4)s(-1), in conjunction with a (3)He detector. The assembly was optimized experimentally. The selected assembly configuration was then examined against different (252)Cf stand-off distances and mine burial depths using dummy landmines. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the effect of the shield when a (252)Cf source in the range 10(4)-10(7)s(-1) was employed, and to optimize the geometry for future prototypes.

  13. Microbial response to the MC252 Oil and Corexit 9500 in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy eChakraborty

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon spill released over 4.1 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to mitigate large oil slicks, the dispersant Corexit 9500 was sprayed onto surface slicks and injected directly at the wellhead at water depth of 1,500 meters. Several research groups were involved in investigating the fate of the MC-252 oil using newly advanced molecular tools to elucidate microbial interactions with oil, gases and dispersant. Presented here is a comprehensive overview of the ecogenomics of microbial degradation of MC-252 oil and gases in the water column and shorelines and some insight into the fate of the dispersant Corexit 9500 that was added to aid in oil dispersion process. We also present data that show the dispersant was not toxic to the indigenous microbes at concentrations added, and several bacterial species were able to degrade the various components of Corexit 9500.

  14. Validation of IRDFF in 252Cf Standard and IRDF-2002 Reference Neutron Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simakov Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of validation of the latest release of International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File, IRDFF-1.03, in the standard 252Cf(s.f. and reference 235U(nth,f neutron benchmark fields are presented. The spectrum-averaged cross sections were shown to confirm IRDFF-1.03 in the 252Cf standard spontaneous fission spectrum; that was not the case for the current recommended spectra for 235U(nth,f. IRDFF was also validated in the spectra of the research reactor facilities ISNF, Sigma-Sigma and YAYOI, which are available in the IRDF-2002 collection. The ISNF facility was re-simulated to remove unphysical oscillations in the spectrum. IRDFF-1.03 was shown to reproduce reasonably well the spectrum-averaged data measured in these fields except for the case of YAYOI.

  15. Dynamics of the tri-nuclear system at spontaneous fission of $^{252}$Cf

    CERN Document Server

    Tashkhodjaev, R B; Alpomeshev, E Kh

    2016-01-01

    To describe of dynamics of ternary fission of $^{252}$Cf an equation of motion of the tri-nuclear system is calculated. The fission of the $^{70}$Ni+$^{50}$Ca+$^{132}$Sn channel was chosen as one of the more probable channels of true ternary fission of $^{252}$Cf. The collinearity of ternary fission has been checked by analyzing results of the equation of motion. The results show that if initially all nuclei are placed collinearly (potential energy of this position is the smallest) and the component of the middle fragment's initial velocity which is perpendicular to this line, is zero then ternary fission is collinear, otherwise the non collinear ternary fission takes place.

  16. Application of 252Cf Ionization Chamber in Nuclear Physics Parameter Measurements%252Cf快电离室在核物理参数测量研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周浩军; 宋凌莉; 李建胜; 金宇

    2007-01-01

    介绍了252Cf快电离室的基本原理和技术水平,描述了它在飞行时间测量、探测器效率标定、瞬发中子衰减常数测量以及252Cf源驱动噪声分析技术等核物理参数测量研究中的应用.

  17. Interfacing Of PIC 18F252 Microcontroller with Real Time Clock via I2C Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab G. Samanta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a microcontroller based digital clock which can be used in real time systems. The system is constructed using PIC18F252 (microcontroller, DS1307 (real time clock IC and its software program is written with C programming language. A 3v battery backup is provided to real time clock IC. Communication between PIC microcontroller and DS1307 takes place through I²C Bus protocol.

  18. Determination of the subcriticality level using the {sup 252}Cf source-detector method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeten, P. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Lafuente, A., E-mail: anlafuente@etsii.upm.e [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Janssens, J.; Kochetkov, A. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Pazsit, I. [Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg (Sweden); Van Grieken, G.; Van den Eynde, G. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Measurement and monitoring of reactivity in a subcritical state, e.g. during the loading of a power reactor, has a clear safety relevance. The methods currently available for the measurement of k{sub eff} in stationary subcritical conditions should be improved as they refer to the critical state. This is also very important in the framework of ADS (accelerator driven systems) where the measurement of a subcritical level without knowledge of the critical state is looked for. An alternative way to achieve this is by mean of the {sup 252}Cf source-detector method. The method makes use of three detectors inserted in the reactor: two 'ordinary' neutron detectors and one {sup 252}Cf source-detector which contains a small amount of {sup 252}Cf that introduces neutrons in the system through spontaneous fission. By observing fissions through the detection system and correlating the signals of the three detectors, the reactivity rho (and hence the multiplication factor k) can be determined. Before the actual measurements took place, a suitable data acquisition system was realized in order to process the signals and compute the auto and cross power spectral densities. The measurements were then performed in the VENUS reactor, using the {sup 252}Cf source-detector and two BF{sub 3} neutron detectors. The multiplication factor was determined using the Cf source method and compared with measurements using other methods and with computational results (Monte Carlo simulations). The Cf method was benchmarked at a UOX core to other experimental methods that used the critical state as reference and to calculations. Afterwards, the Cf source technique was analyzed in a MOX core to study the possible impact of a significant intrinsic source on the results. This benchmarking gives the possibility to validate the Cf method as a reliable technique for the measurement of subcritical levels in steady state and for cores with an intrinsic source like MOX or burnt fuel cores.

  19. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1994-11-10

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents.

  20. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  1. A Young Eclipsing Binary and its Luminous Neighbors in the Embedded Star Cluster Sh 2-252E

    CERN Document Server

    Lester, Kathryn V; Guo, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    We present a photometric and light curve analysis of an eccentric eclipsing binary in the K2 Campaign 0 field that resides in Sh 2-252E, a young star cluster embedded in an H II region. We describe a spectroscopic investigation of the three brightest stars in the crowded aperture to identify which is the binary system. We find that none of these stars are components of the eclipsing binary system, which must be one of the fainter nearby stars. These bright cluster members all have remarkable spectra: Sh 2-252a (EPIC 202062176) is a B0.5 V star with razor sharp absorption lines, Sh 2-252b is a Herbig A0 star with disk-like emission lines, and Sh 2-252c is a pre-main sequence star with very red color.

  2. Frequency spectrum analysis of 252Cf neutron source based on LabVIEW%基于LabVIEW的252Cf中子源频谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米德伶; 李鹏程

    2011-01-01

    The frequency spectrum analysis of 252Cf Neutron source is an extremely important method in nuclear stochastic signal processing.Focused on the special “0” and “1” structure of neutron pulse series, this paper proposes a fast-correlation algorithm to improve the computational rate of the spectrum analysis system.And the multi-core processor technology is employed as well as multi-threaded programming techniques of LabVIEW to construct frequency spectrum analysis system of 252 Cf neutron source based on LabVIEW.It not only obtains the auto-correlation and cross correlation results, but also auto-power spectrum,cross-power spectrum and ratio of spectral density.The results show that:analysis tools based on LabVIEW improve the fast auto-correlation and cross correlation code operating efficiency about by 25% to 35%, also verify the feasibility of using LabVIEW for spectrum analysis.%从252 Cf中子源频谱测量系统的基本原理出发,针对中子脉冲序列本身"0,1"数据结构的特点,设计了自、互相关快速算法.采用LabVIEW多核处理器、多线程编程技术构建了基于LabVIEW的"52 Cf中子源频谱分析系统,不仅获得了自、互相关的快速计算结果,而且获得了自、互功率谱及谱密度比.研究结果表明:基于LabVIEW分析工具,既提升了自、互相关算法代码25%-35%的执行效率,又验证了LabVIEW用于进行频谱系统分析的可行性.

  3. 252Cf放射性同位素中子源辐照杀灭炭疽杆菌的理论研究%THEORY STUDY ON GERMICIDAL EFFICACY OF ANTHRAX SPORES BY RADIOISOTOPE Cf- 252 NEUTRON SOURCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘滨; 徐佳梁; 王凯; 胡文超

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究252Cf放射性同位素中子源辐照杀菌的可能性.方法 通过MCNP模拟计算方法,推算其所使用的模型,计算出252Cf中子辐射杀灭炭疽杆菌芽孢的辐照剂量和辐照时间.结果 经MCNP理论模拟研究,建立了MCNP模拟252Cf中子源产生的中子辐射消毒的模型,推演出使用石蜡作为反射材料可取得最好的结果.计算出用252Cf中子辐射杀灭炭疽杆菌芽孢的辐照剂量为1000 Gy,辐照时间为18 min.结论 利用252Cf中子辐射杀灭炭疽杆菌芽孢具有实际应用的可能性.%Objective To study the gerraicidal possibility of anthrax spores by radioisotope Cf - 252 neutron source. Method MCNP simulation calculation method was used to build the suitable model, calculate the radiation dose and radi-ation time required to sterilize the anthrax spores by the radioisotope Cf - 252 neutron source. Results The model was build to sterilize the anthrax spores by the radioisotope Cf - 252 neutron source. Simulation results showed that using paraffin as the reflecting materials in the model was the most effective in sterilization of the anthrax spores. The radiation dose calculated by the model was 1 000 Gy required to sterilize the anthrax spore by the radioisotope Cf - 252 neutron source, and the radiation time was about 18 min. Conclusion It is an effective and economic method to sterilize the anthrax spores by the radioisotope Cf - 252 neutron source in practical applications.

  4. What do comets 252P/LINEAR and P2016 BA14 have in common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudawska, Regina; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Tóth, Juraj; Raetz, Stefanie

    2016-10-01

    Automated surveys of NEOs continue to discover objects in cometary-like orbits that are likely candidate parent bodies [1]. Some of them unexpectedly produce a comet-like comae and tails [2, 3]. Here, we study one such case, namely asteroid 2016 BA14 recently discovered by the Pan-STARRS survey, which shows cometary appearance and has a Tisserand parameter of 2.8. Moreover, the orbital similarly between P/2016 BA14 and comet 252P/LINEAR was pointed. If those JFCs split in the past, significant dust would have been released. We present a survey of results dealing with investigating the association of comets P/2016 BA14 and 252P/LINEAR with meteor showers observed on Earth. We carry out a further search to investigate the possible genetic relationship between the comets themselves too. To confirm the reality of the relation between a comet and a meteoroid stream it is necessary to investigate the evolution of their orbits. The model of generation and evolution of meteoroid stream in the solar system is taken from Vaubaillon et al. [4]. The ejections of meteoroids from the possible parent body surface took place when it was passing its perihelion between 1700 A.D. and 2016 A.D. Next, the orbits of ejected meteoroids were integrated to year 2079. We will show the similarities and differences of the two streams, and will conclude regarding the possible relationship between P/2016 BA14 and 252P/LINEAR.[1] Jenniskens, P., Meteor Showers and their Parent Comets (Cambridge University Press), 2006[2] Jewitt, D., AJ, 143, 66, 2012[3] Jewitt, D. and Li, J., AJ, 140, 1519, 2010[4] Vaubaillon, J., Colas, F. Jorda, L., A&A, 439, 751, 2005

  5. Characterization of Comet 252P/LINEAR during its 2016 Earth Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Kelley, Michael S.; Farnocchia, Davide; Mutchler, Maximilian J.

    2016-10-01

    Comet 252P/LINEAR had a close encounter to Earth at 14 lunar distances in March 2016, representing one of the closest encounters of known comets in history and a good opportunity to measure its nucleus size and to resolve its inner coma. Observations from previous apparitions suggested a small nucleus of about or less than 1 km, and very weak activity for this comet. The similarity between the orbits of 252P and P/2016 BA16 suggests that they might be a pair of fragments from one common parent comet. We imaged 252P with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 through r'- and V-band filters over ~45 min on March 14 and over ~8 hours on April 4, 2016 at pixel scales down to 1.4 km/pix. The dust coma shows a strong enhancement in the sunward direction within about 1".5 (about 100 km at the comet) for both epochs. Image enhancement with 1/rho normalization shows that the sunward feature moves about the nucleus for ~60 deg in the second epoch, consistent with a ~7.35-hr period. The r'-band partial lightcurve measured in the April 4 images in a 0".2-radius aperture shows variability of about 0.14 mag or larger. This partial lightcurve is not consistent with the 7.35-hr period, but is consistent with a periodicity of ~5.5 hr or its multiples. The r'-band mean value of Afrho is 13 cm for March 14 and 46 cm for April 4 in a 0".2-radius aperture. We will also measure the nucleus size of this comet, and discuss its implications about the evolutionary state of the comet.

  6. Prompt neutron fission spectrum mean energies for the fissile nuclides and /sup 252/Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The international standard for a neutron spectrum is that produced from the spontaneous fission of /sup 252/Cf, while the thermal neutron induced fission neutron spectra for the four fissile nuclides, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 239/Pu, and /sup 241/Pu are of interest from the standpoint of nuclear reactors. The average neutron energies of these spectra are tabulated. The individual measurements are recorded with the neutron energy range measured, the method of detection as well as the average neutron energy for each author. Also tabulated are the measurements of the ratio of mean energies for pairs of fission neutron spectra. 75 refs., 9 tabs. (LEW)

  7. Role of energy cost in the yield of cold ternary fission of 252Cf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Kunhikrishnan; K P Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    The energy costs in the cold ternary fission of 252Cf for various light charged particle emission are calculated by includingWong's correction for Coulomb potential. Energy cost is found to be higher in cold fission than in normal fission. It is found that energy cost always increases with decrease in experimental yield in all the light charged particle emissions. The higher ground state deformation of the fragments, the odd–even effect and the enhanced yield in the octupole region observed in cold fission are found to be consistent with the concept of energy cost.

  8. Measurement of 235U Fission Yield Induced by 252Cf Fission Neutron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Yi; LIU; Shi-long; JIANG; Wen-gang

    2015-01-01

    We measured fission yields of 235U by 252Cf fission neutrons with the directγray spectrometric method.Square sample foils of 15 mm,abundance of 235U is 90.2%,mass of 0.7gram,covered by pure aluminum foil.After irradiations every sample was measured by HPGe spectrometry for about 2months.Based on 140Ba’s fission yield,we get relative fission yields and the results were shown in Fig.1.

  9. {sup 252}Cf plasma desorption and laser desorption mass spectrometry for the determination of molecular weight distribution of coal derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.R.; Bartle, K.D.; Ross, A.B.; Herod, A.A.; Kandiyoti, R.; Larsen, J.W. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    A detailed knowledge of the molecular mass (MM) distribution in coal and its derived products is essential for a fundamental understanding of coal structure, and of the processes occurring during coal conversion. Fractionation using size exclusion chromatography (s.e.c.) using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone as the mobile phase has been applied to such materials and has provided improved MM distributions. Absolute calibration has been provided using matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry (MAl.d.I.-m.s.). An alternative method of volatilising and ionising large molecules for mass spectrometry (m.s.) is {sup 252}Cf plasma desorption ({sup 252}Cf p.d.-m.s.). This involves the use of energetic fission fragments from the decay of {sup 252}Cf and produces mass spectra consisting predominantly of molecular ions from a range of polymers and biomolecules. This has been used by other workers to determine the molecular weight distribution of heavy distillation residues obtained from coal liquefaction processes either unfractionated or fractionated into broad fractions. Generally, a good agreement was obtained between values of MM determined by {sup 252}Cf p.d.-m.s. and s.e.c. A comparison is reported of MM distribution determined by {sup 252}Cf p.d.-m.s. and laser desorption mass spectrometry (l.d.-m.s.) for narrower fractions separated by s.e.c. from a coal tar pitch. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Young stellar population and ongoing star formation in the HII complex Sh2-252

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Jessy; Samal, M R; Ojha, D K; Ogura, K; Kim, J S; Kobayashi, N; Goyal, A; Chauhan, N; Eswaraiah, C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an extensive survey of the star forming complex Sh2-252 has been undertaken with an aim to explore its hidden young stellar population as well as to understand the structure and star formation history. This complex is composed of five embedded clusters associated with the sub-regions A, C, E, NGC 2175s and Teu 136. Using 2MASS-NIR and Spitzer-IRAC, MIPS photometry we identified 577 young stellar objects (YSOs), of which, 163 are Class I, 400 are Class II and 14 are transition disk YSOs. Spatial distribution of the candidate YSOs shows that they are mostly clustered around the sub-regions in the western half of the complex, suggesting enhanced star formation activity towards its west. Using the spectral energy distribution and optical colour-magnitude diagram based age analyses, we derived probable evolutionary status of the sub-regions of Sh2-252. Our analysis shows that the region A is the youngest (~ 0.5 Myr), the regions B, C and E are of similar evolutionary stage (~ 1-2 Myr) and the cluster...

  11. Half-lives of several states in isotopes produced in the SF of ^252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hamilton, J. H.; Fong, D.; Beyer, C. J.; Gore, P. M.; Jones, E. F.; Teran, E.; Oberacker, V. E.; Umar, A. S.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Zhu, S. J.; Wu, S. C.; Lee, I. Y.; Fallon, P.; Stoyer, M. A.; Asztalos, S. J.; Ginter, T. N.; Cole, J. D.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Donangelo, R.

    2003-10-01

    Half-lives (T_1/2) of 15 states in isotopes produced in the SF of ^252Cf have been determined using a new technique. The ^252Cf source was placed inside the Gammasphere, and triple and higher fold coincidence events were recorded. The half-lives and quadrupole deformations of ^104Zr, ^152Ce, and ^158Sm are determined for the first time. Except for ^102Sr, ^104Zr(β_2=0.45(4)) and ^158Sm(β_2=0.46(5)) are the most deformed among medium and heavy nuclei. Large deformation could have its origin in the high spin down-sloping orbitals near Z=38,40,62 and N=40,64,96. These large prolate deformations at ^104Zr and ^158Sm are confirmed by Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations carried out in the present work. Further, an excited rotational band including seven new γ transitions in ^97Sr was also identified. The band head energy of the 829.8 keV state in ^97Sr has an half-life of 265(27) nsec.

  12. Neutron dose rate for {sup 252} Cf AT source in medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, L.; Balcazar, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Francois, J.L. [FI-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The AAPM TG-43 modified protocol was used for the calculation of the neutron dose rate of {sup 252}Cf sources for two tissue substitute materials, five normal tissues and six tumours. The {sup 252}Cf AT source model was simulated using the Monte Carlo MCNPX code in spherical geometry for the following factors: a) neutron air kerma strength conversion factor, b) dose rate constant, c) radial dose function, d) geometry factor, e) anisotropy function and f) neutron dose rate. The calculated dose rate in water at 1 cm and 90 degrees from the source long axis, using the Watt fission spectrum, was D{sub n}(r{sub 0}, {theta}{sub 0})= 1.9160 cGy/h-{mu}g. When this value is compared with Rivard et al. calculation using MCNP4B code, 1.8730 cGy/h-{mu}g, a difference of 2.30% is obtained. The results for the reference neutron dose rate in other media show how small variations in the elemental composition between the tissues and malignant tumours, produce variations in the neutron dose rate up to 12.25%. (Author)

  13. Multi-modal fission in collinear ternary cluster decay of 252Cf(sf, fff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. von Oertzen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the multiple decay modes of collinear fission in 252Cf(sf, fff, with three fragments as suggested by the potential energy surface (PES. Fission as a statistical decay is governed by the phase space of the different decay channels, which are suggested in the PES-landscape. The population of the fission modes is determined by the minima in the PES at the scission points and on the internal potential barriers. The ternary collinear decay proceeds as a sequential process, in two steps. The originally observed ternary decay of 252Cf(sf into three different masses (e.g. 132–140Sn, 52–48Ca, 68–72Ni, observed by the FOBOS group in the FLNR (Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions of the JINR (Dubna the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT, is one of the ternary fission modes. This kind of “true ternary fission” of heavy nuclei has often been predicted in theoretical works during the last decades. In the present note we discuss different ternary fission modes in the same system. The PES shows pronounced minima, which correspond to several modes of ternary fragmentations. These decays have very similar dynamical features as the previously observed CCT-decays. The data obtained in the experiments on CCT allow us to extract the yields for different decay modes using specific gates on the measured parameters, and to establish multiple modes of the ternary fission decay.

  14. GEANT4 and PHITS simulations of the shielding of neutrons from $^{252}$Cf source

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Jae Won

    2014-01-01

    Neutron shielding simulations by using GEANT4 and PHITS code are performed. As a neutron source, $^{252}$Cf is considered and the energy distribution of the neutrons emitted from $^{252}$Cf is assumed the Watt fission spectrum. The neutron dose equivalent rates with and without the shield are estimated for shielding materials such as graphite, iron, polyethylene, NS-4-FR and KRAFTON-HB. For the neutron shielding simulations by using GEANT4, high precision (G4HP) model with G4NDL 4.2 based on ENDF-VII data are used. And for PHITS simulations, JENDL-4.0 library are used for the same purpose. It is found that differences between the shielding calculations by using GEANT4 with G4NDL 4.2 and PHITS with JENDL-4.0 library are not significant for all cases considered in this work. We investigate the accuracy of the neutron dose equivalent rates obtained from GEANT4 and PHITS by comparing our simulation results with experimental data and other values calculated earlier. Calculated neutron dose equivalent rates agree w...

  15. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  16. On the use of a ({sup 252}Cf-{sup 3}He) assembly for landmine detection by the neutron back-scattering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsheikh, N., E-mail: nassreldeen.elsheikh@yahoo.com [College of Applied and Industrial Science, Department of Physics, University of Juba, Khartoum, P.O. Box 12327/1 (Sudan); Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); ElAgib, I. [College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455 (Saudi Arabia); Habbani, F. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, P.O. Box 321 (Sudan)

    2012-04-15

    Experiments were carried out to optimize the performance of the neutron back-scattering (NBS) technique in landmine detection using an assembly consisting of three different layers placed above a {sup 252}Cf neuron source, producing about 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}, in conjunction with a {sup 3}He detector. The assembly was optimized experimentally. The selected assembly configuration was then examined against different {sup 252}Cf stand-off distances and mine burial depths using dummy landmines. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the effect of the shield when a {sup 252}Cf source in the range 10{sup 4}-10{sup 7} s{sup -1} was employed, and to optimize the geometry for future prototypes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A suitable shielded ({sup 252}Cf-{sup 3}He) assembly for landmine detection was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental tests and MCNP simulations were performed for a {sup 252}Cf of (10{sup 4}-10{sup 7})s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental and MCNP results for {sup 252}Cf of 10{sup 4}s{sup -1} supports the use of the shield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MCNP Results recommends {sup 252}Cf of 10{sup 6}s{sup -1} for hand-held detection system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MCNP Results recommends {sup 252}Cf of 10{sup 7}s{sup -1} for a robotic detection system.

  17. 47 CFR 51.807 - Arbitration and mediation of agreements by the Commission pursuant to section 252(e)(5) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arbitration and mediation of agreements by the Commission pursuant to section 252(e)(5) of the Act. 51.807 Section 51.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Implementation of Section 252 of the Act § 51.807 Arbitration and mediation of agreements by the...

  18. 48 CFR 252.209-7004 - Subcontracting with firms that are owned or controlled by the government of a terrorist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontracting with firms that are owned or controlled by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7004 Section 252.209-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...

  19. Variability of stalagmite-inferred Indian monsoon precipitation over the past 252,000 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanjun; Fung, Inez Y; Edwards, R Lawrence; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Hai; Lee, Jung-Eun; Tan, Liangcheng; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Xianfeng; Day, Jesse A; Zhou, Weijian; Kelly, Megan J; Chiang, John C H

    2015-03-10

    A speleothem δ(18)O record from Xiaobailong cave in southwest China characterizes changes in summer monsoon precipitation in Northeastern India, the Himalayan foothills, Bangladesh, and northern Indochina over the last 252 kyr. This record is dominated by 23-kyr precessional cycles punctuated by prominent millennial-scale oscillations that are synchronous with Heinrich events in the North Atlantic. It also shows clear glacial-interglacial variations that are consistent with marine and other terrestrial proxies but are different from the cave records in East China. Corroborated by isotope-enabled global circulation modeling, we hypothesize that this disparity reflects differing changes in atmospheric circulation and moisture trajectories associated with climate forcing as well as with associated topographic changes during glacial periods, in particular redistribution of air mass above the growing ice sheets and the exposure of the "land bridge" in the Maritime continents in the western equatorial Pacific.

  20. Beta decay of 252Cf on the way to scission from the exit point

    CERN Document Server

    Pomorski, K; Quentin, P

    2015-01-01

    Upon increasing significantly the nuclear elongation, the beta-decay energy grows. This paper investigates within a simple yet partly microscopic approach, the transition rate of the beta decay of the 252Cf nucleus on the way to scission from the exit point for a spontaneous fission process. A rather crude classical approximation is made for the corresponding damped collective motion assumed to be one dimensional. Given these assumptions, we only aim in this paper at providing the order of magnitudes of such a phenomenon. At each deformation the energy available for beta decay, is determined from such a dynamical treatment. Then, for a given elongation, transition rates for the allowed (Fermi) beta decay are calculated from pair correlated wave functions obtained within a macroscopic-microscopic approach and then integrated over the time corresponding to the whole descent from exit to scission. The results are presented as a function of the damping factor (inverse of the characteristic damping time) in use in...

  1. An algorithm for 252Cf-Source-Driven neutron signal denoising based on Compressive Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏程; 魏彪; 冯鹏; 何鹏; 米德伶

    2015-01-01

    As photoelectrically detected 252Cf-source-driven neutron signals always contain noise, a denoising algorithm is proposed based on compressive sensing for the noised neutron signal. In the algorithm, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is applied to decompose the noised neutron signal and then find out the noised Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF) automatically. Thus, we only need to use the basis pursuit denoising (BPDN) algorithm to denoise these IMFs. For this reason, the proposed algorithm can be called EMDCSDN (Empirical Mode Decomposition Compressive Sensing Denoising). In addition, five indicators are employed to evaluate the denoising effect. The results show that the EMDCSDN algorithm is more effective than the other denoising algorithms including BPDN. This study provides a new approach for signal denoising at the front-end.

  2. Biogeochemical characterization of MC252 oil:sand aggregates on a coastal headland beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Marilany; Elango, Vijaikrishnah; Pardue, John H

    2013-12-15

    MC252 oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs), were sampled for physical, chemical and microbial characteristics from different tidal zones on a coastal headland beach in Louisiana, USA. Supratidal SRBs were smaller, had low moisture content, and salinities that were <2 ppt. Intertidal SRBs were hypersaline and had higher N and sulfate concentrations, consistent with regular tidal inundation. Crude oil components were highest in the intertidal "oil mat" SRBs with C1- and C2-phenanthrenes, C2- and C3-dibenzothiophenes comprising the majority of the PAH concentrations. In the other SRB categories, PAHs and alkanes were depleted and profiles were skewed toward higher molecular weight compounds. Oxygen microelectrode measurements demonstrated that saturated O2 is present immediately after wetting, but O2 consumption in the interior of the aggregate occurs after a few days. Microbial populations varied with position on the beach but sequences similar to known PAH-degrading taxa (Mycobacterium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp.) were observed.

  3. Characterization of core clinical phenotypes associated with recurrent proximal 15q25.2 microdeletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Trent; Brown, Natasha J; Stark, Zornitza; Bruno, Damien L; Oertel, Ralph; Chong, Belinda; Calabro, Vanessa; Kornberg, Andrew; Sanderson, Christine; Kelly, Julian; Howell, Katherine B; Savarirayan, Ravi; Hinds, Rupert; Greenway, Anthea; Slater, Howard R; White, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    A recurrent proximal microdeletion at 15q25.2 with an approximate 1.5 megabase smallest region of overlap has recently been reported in seven patients and is proposed to be associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), mild to moderate cognitive deficit, and/or features consistent with Diamond-Blackfan anemia. We report on four further patients and define the core phenotypic features of individuals with this microdeletion to include mild to moderate developmental delay or intellectual disability, postnatal short stature, anemia, and cryptorchidism in males. CDH and structural organ malformations appear to be less frequent associations, as is venous thrombosis. There is no consistent facial dysmorphism. Features novel to our patient group include dextrocardia, obstructive sleep apnea, and cleft lip.

  4. Molecular Collective Vibrations in the Ternary Neutronless Fission of $^{252}Cf$

    CERN Document Server

    Misicu, S; Sandulescu, A; Greiner, W

    1999-01-01

    Based on a recent experimental finding which may suggest the existence of a tri-nuclear molecular structure before the cold ternary fragmentation of $^{252}$Cf takes place, we solved the eigenvalue problem of a certain class of vibrations which are very likely to occur in these molecules. These oscillations are the result of the joined action of rotations of the heavier fragments and the transversal vibrations of the lighter spherical cluster with respect to the fission axis. In the calculation of the interaction between the heavier fragments we took into account higher multipole deformations, including the hexadecupole one, and introduced a repulsive nuclear part to insure the creation of a potential pocket in which a few molecular states can be accommodated. The possibility to observe the de-excitation of such states is discussed in connection with the molecular life-time.

  5. A physics investigation of deadtime losses in neutron counting at low rates with Cf252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [CANBERRA INDUSTRIES, INC.

    2009-01-01

    {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission sources are used for the characterization of neutron counters and the determination of calibration parameters; including both neutron coincidence counting (NCC) and neutron multiplicity deadtime (DT) parameters. Even at low event rates, temporally-correlated neutron counting using {sup 252}Cf suffers a deadtime effect. Meaning that in contrast to counting a random neutron source (e.g. AmLi to a close approximation), DT losses do not vanish in the low rate limit. This is because neutrons are emitted from spontaneous fission events in time-correlated 'bursts', and are detected over a short period commensurate with their lifetime in the detector (characterized by the system die-away time, {tau}). Thus, even when detected neutron events from different spontaneous fissions are unlikely to overlap in time, neutron events within the detected 'burst' are subject to intrinsic DT losses. Intrinsic DT losses for dilute Pu will be lower since the multiplicity distribution is softer, but real items also experience self-multiplication which can increase the 'size' of the bursts. Traditional NCC DT correction methods do not include the intrinsic (within burst) losses. We have proposed new forms of the traditional NCC Singles and Doubles DT correction factors. In this work, we apply Monte Carlo neutron pulse train analysis to investigate the functional form of the deadtime correction factors for an updating deadtime. Modeling is based on a high efficiency {sup 3}He neutron counter with short die-away time, representing an ideal {sup 3}He based detection system. The physics of dead time losses at low rates is explored and presented. It is observed that new forms are applicable and offer more accurate correction than the traditional forms.

  6. 48 CFR 252.236-7011 - Overseas architect-engineer services-Restriction to United States firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overseas architect... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.236-7011 Overseas architect... provision: Overseas Architect-Engineer Services—Restriction to United States Firms (JAN 1997) (a)...

  7. 75 FR 51943 - Safety Zone; DEEPWATER HORIZON at Mississippi Canyon 252 Outer Continental Shelf MODU in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 147 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; DEEPWATER HORIZON at Mississippi Canyon 252... temporary safety zone around the riser for the DEEPWATER HORIZON, a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), at... zone around the riser for the DEEPWATER HORIZON, a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), which...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7007 - Prohibition on Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulation in 22 CFR Part 121. (b) Any supplies or services covered by the United States Munitions List that... of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military Companies. 252.225-7007 Section... Chinese Military Companies. As prescribed in 225.1103(4), use the following clause: Prohibition...

  9. 48 CFR 252.222-7001 - Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of first refusal of... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7001 Right of first refusal...: Right of First Refusal of Employment—Closure of Military Installations (APR 1992) (a) The...

  10. 48 CFR 252.227-7018 - Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 252.227-7018 Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software—Small Business... the Rights in Noncommercial Technical Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovative Research... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in...

  11. 48 CFR 252.247-7003 - Pass-Through of Motor Carrier Fuel Surcharge Adjustment To The Cost Bearer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pass-Through of Motor... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7003 Pass-Through of Motor...: PASS-THROUGH OF MOTOR CARRIER FUEL SURCHARGE ADJUSTMENT TO THE COST BEARER (SEP 2010) (a) This...

  12. 48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of a subcontract or by the failure to award a subcontract. Native Hawaiian small business concern... organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small business concerns. 252.226-7001... Hawaiian small business concerns. As prescribed in 226.104, use the following clause: Utilization of...

  13. Capture of shrinking targets with realistic shrink patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S; Dizmen, Coskun

    2013-01-01

    Previous research [Hoffmann, E. R. 2011. "Capture of Shrinking Targets." Ergonomics 54 (6): 519-530] reported experiments for capture of shrinking targets where the target decreased in size at a uniform rate. This work extended this research for targets having a shrink-size versus time pattern that of an aircraft receding from an observer. In Experiment 1, the time to capture the target in this case was well correlated in terms of Fitts' index of difficulty, measured at the time of capture of the target, a result that is in agreement with the 'balanced' model of Johnson and Hart [Johnson, W. W., and Hart, S. G. 1987. "Step Tracking Shrinking Targets." Proceedings of the human factors society 31st annual meeting, New York City, October 1987, 248-252]. Experiment 2 measured the probability of target capture for varying initial target sizes and target shrink rates constant, defined as the time for the target to shrink to half its initial size. Data of shrink time constant for 50% probability of capture were related to initial target size but did not greatly affect target capture as the rate of target shrinking decreased rapidly with time.

  14. The sup 252 Cf-source-driven noise measurements of unreflected uranium hydride cylinder subcriticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Pare, V.K.; Blakeman, E.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Subcritical neutron multiplication factors have been measured by the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise analysis method for unreflected, 15.0-cm-diam uranium hydride cylinders of varying heights. Because of the difficulty and cost of controlling the H/U ratio in damp uranium (93.2 wt% {sup 235}U) oxide power and fabricating sufficient material for experiments, few experiments have been performed with materials of low H/U ratios. These measurements may provide alternate information that can be used for verifying calculational methods since the H/U ratio for this material is 3.00. These measurements, which are the first application of this method to uranium hydride, were performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility in 1989. These measurements were used to demonstrate the capability of this measurement method for this type of material and to provide a benchmark experiment for calculational methods with slightly moderated systems. Previous experiments by this method were for a wide variety of well-moderated systems or unmoderated uranium metal cylinders.

  15. Structures of the neutron-rich nuclei observed in fission of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramayya, A. V.; Hamilton, J. H.; Goodin, C. J.; Brewer, N. T.; Hwang, J. K. [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Luo, Y. X. [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 USA and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liu, S. H. [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 USA and UNRIB/Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Rasmussen, J. O.; Lee, I. Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Stone, N. J. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Daniel, A. V. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Zhu, S. J. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-08-14

    Analysis of high statistics triple coincidence fission γ data from {sup 252}Cf at Gammasphere including angular correlations yielded well-expanded high-spin level schemes with more complete and reliable spin/parity assignments for {sup 82}Ge, {sup 118,120,122}Cd and {sup 114,115}Rh. Both the quasi-particle/hole couplings and quasi-rotational degrees of freedom are implied to play roles in these Cd isotopes. Evidence for triaxial shapes and octupole components in the Cd isotopes is presented. These Cd isotopes may have triaxial deformations. High-spin level schemes of {sup 114,115}Rh have been established for the first time. The existence of a relatively large signature splitting and an yrare band shows typical features of a triaxially deformed nucleus. Possible excited deformed rotational bands are observed, for the first time, in {sup 82}Ge. From the multipole mixing ratio measurement, the ground state configurations of {sup 109,111}Ru, as well as excited states in {sup 103,107}Mo and {sup 111}Ru were determined.

  16. Regional heat loss in resting man during immersion in 25.2 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C E; Dacanay, S; Smith, R M

    1979-06-01

    Five male subjects having a wide range of relative body fat, 9.2-20.2%, were studied during total body immersion in water at 25.2 degrees C. The regional surface area of each subject was calculated from anthropometric data utilizing a segmental geometric model. Skin temperatures (Tsk) and regional skin heat loss were measured prior to and during 30 min immersion at 13 sites. During immersion, mean Tsk was 25.9 degrees C and remained significantly higher than the water temperature. A measurable temperature gradient for heat flow was observed from all body segments. Segimental temperature in water ranged from 26.7-25.4 degrees C, being warmest at the neck and coolest at the foot. Heat the flow per regional area was highest in the neck, 187 W/m2, and least at the foot, 12 W/m2. Heat flow from each body region was dependent on regional Tsk. Skinfold thickness was a minor factor in altering regional heat flow in the foot, hand, lower arm, upper arm, thigh, and calf; in the torso, neck, and head regions it was of major importance in detering heat loss.

  17. Measurements in support of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) oil spill response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crout, Richard L.

    2011-06-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) drilling platform on 20 April 2010 began a long response by the United Area Command. Previous responses to oil spills were limited in time due to the amount of oil spilled and were generally confined to the surface. Some of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon wellhead in 1500 meters of water broke into smaller droplets, whose density caused much of the oil to stay within a zone from 1000 to 1300 meters depth. The remainder of the oil rose to the surface. The two primary locations of oil required a broad collection of remote sensing techniques to locate and monitor the oil spill. Surface oil was monitored primarily from the air using aircraft and satellite assets. Satellite visible, infra-red, and radar satellite imagery helped to locate oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico and help predict its movement away from the spill site. Daily over-flights by aircraft provided higher spatial and temporal resolution data that were assimilated into daily products. These remote sensing assets were able to track the surface oil, but the subsurface oil required different techniques. In addition to salinity and temperature profiles to determine the subsurface structure, fluorometry and dissolved oxygen measurements provided information related to oil and its consumption by microorganisms. Water samples collected from CTD casts were analyzed on-board and returned to on-shore laboratories.

  18. Induction of external abnormalities in offspring of male mice irradiated with [sup 252]Cf neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, Akihiro; Ono, Tetsuya; Mori, Yuriko (Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan). Department of Radiation Research); Okada, Shigefumi (Kyoto University (Japan). Radiation Biology Center); Sawada, Syozo (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1992-08-01

    To assess the genetic effects of fission neutron, the induction of external malformations was studied in F[sub 1] fetuses after F[sub 0] male mice were irradiated. Male mice of the ICR:MCH strain were irradiated with [sup 252]Cf neutron at doses of 0.238, 0.475, 0.95 and 1.9 Gy. They were mated with non-irradiated female mice at 71-120 days after irradiation. Pregnant females were autopsied on day 18 of gestation and their fetuses were examined for deaths and external abnormalities. No increases of pre- and post-implantation losses were noted at any dose. External abnormalities were observed at rates of 1.40% in the 0.238 Gy, 2.23% in the 0.475 Gy, 3.36% in the 0.95 and 3.26% in the 1.9 Gy groups; the rate in the control group was 1.65%. The dose-response curve was linear up to 0.95 Gy, and then flattened out; the induction rate of external abnormalities was 2.7x10[sup -4]/gamete/cGy based on the linear regression. These results indicated that fission neutron effectively induces external abnormalities in F[sub 1] fetuses after spermatogonial irradiation. (author). 29 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs.

  19. Neutron dosimetry for low dose rate Cf-252 AT sources and adherence to recent clinical dosimetry protocol for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-01

    In 1995, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43 (AAPM TG-43) published a protocol obsoleting all mixed-field radiation dosimetry for Cf-252. Recommendations for a new brachytherapy dosimetry formalism made by this Task Group favor quantification of source strength in terms of air kerma rather than apparent Curies or other radiation units. Additionally, representation of this dosimetry data in terms of radial dose functions, anisotropy functions, geometric factors, and dose rate constants are in an angular and radial (spherical) coordinate system as recommended, rather than the along-away dosimetry data (Cartesian coordinate system) currently available. This paper presents the initial results of calculated neutron dosimetry in a water phantom for a Cf-252 applicator tube (AT) type medical source soon available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  20. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  1. Biodegradation of MC252 oil in oil:sand aggregates in a coastal headland beach environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaikrishnah eElango

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation potential of MC252 in oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs, was examined using multiple lines of evidence on a heavily-impacted coastal headland beach in Louisiana, USA. SRBs were sampled over a 16-month period on the supratidal beach environment where reasonable control existed on the residence time of the aggregates on the beach surface. PAH and alkane concentration ratios were measured including PAH/C30-hopane, C2/C3 phenanthrenes, C2/C3 dibenzothiophenes and alkane/C30-hopane and demonstrated unequivocally that biodegradation was occurring in SRBs in the supratidal. These biodegradation reactions occurred over time frames relevant to the coastal processes moving SRBs off the beach. In contrast, submerged oil mat (SOM samples did not demonstrate chemical changes consistent with biodegradation. Review and analysis of additional biogeochemical parameters suggested the existence of a moisture and N-limited biodegradation regime on the supratidal beach environment. At this location, SRBs possess moisture contents < 2% and molar C:N ratios from 131-323, well outside of optimal values for biodegradation in the literature. Despite these limitations, biodegradation of PAHs and alkanes proceeded at relevant rates (2-8 year-1 due in part to the presence of degrading populations, i.e., Mycobacterium sp., adapted to these conditions. For SOM samples in the intertidal, an oxygen and salinity-impacted regime is proposed that severely limits biodegradation of alkanes and PAHs in this environment. These results support the hypothesis that SRBs deposited at different locations on the beach have different biogeochemical characteristics (e.g., moisture; salinity; terminal electron acceptors; nutrient; and oil composition due, in part, to their location on the landscape.

  2. Biodegradation of MC252 oil in oil:sand aggregates in a coastal headland beach environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Vijaikrishnah; Urbano, Marilany; Lemelle, Kendall R; Pardue, John H

    2014-01-01

    Unique oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs), were formed on coastal headland beaches along the northern Gulf of Mexico as emulsified MC252 crude oil mixed with sand following the Deepwater Horizon spill event. The objective of this study is to assess the biodegradation potential of crude oil components in these aggregates using multiple lines of evidence on a heavily-impacted coastal headland beach in Louisiana, USA. SRBs were sampled over a 19-month period on the supratidal beach environment with reasonable control over and knowledge of the residence time of the aggregates on the beach surface. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkane concentration ratios were measured including PAH/C30-hopane, C2/C3 phenanthrenes, C2/C3 dibenzothiophenes and alkane/C30-hopane and demonstrated that biodegradation was occurring in SRBs in the supratidal. These biodegradation reactions occurred over time frames relevant to the coastal processes moving SRBs off the beach. In contrast, submerged oil mat samples from the intertidal did not demonstrate chemical changes consistent with biodegradation. Review and analysis of additional biogeochemical parameters suggested the existence of a moisture and nutrient-limited biodegradation regime on the supratidal beach environment. At this location, SRBs possess moisture contents biodegradation in the literature. Despite these limitations, biodegradation of PAHs and alkanes proceeded at relevant rates (2-8 year(-1)) due in part to the presence of degrading populations, i.e., Mycobacterium sp., adapted to these conditions. For submerged oil mat samples in the intertidal, an oxygen and salinity-impacted regime is proposed that severely limits biodegradation of alkanes and PAHs in this environment. These results support the hypothesis that SRBs deposited at different locations on the beach have different biogeochemical characteristics (e.g., moisture, salinity, terminal electron acceptors, nutrient, and oil

  3. Clinical observation of external irradiation combined with 252Cf brachytherapy on advanced cardiac carcinoma%外照射加252Cf中子腔内治疗中晚期贲门癌临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古力米拉木·艾热提; 阿依古丽·依布拉音; 杨杰; 热伊拉·买买提伊民

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察外照射结合252Cf中子腔内治疗中晚期贲门癌患者近期疗效及不良反应.方法 收集2005年3月至2010年12月间收治的48例均经病理检查证实的贲门癌患者,其中腺癌39例,鳞状细胞癌5例,印戒细胞癌4例.全部患者Karnofsky评分≥80分,无远处转移,均为首程放疗,放疗采用体外照射结合腔内治疗.体外照射:采用6 MV-X线直线加速器治疗,2 Gy/次,5次/周,总剂量38~45 Gy.腔内照射:采用ZH-1000型252Cf中子后装治疗机治疗,参考点为:距离放射源中心10 mm,照射范围:病灶上端各延长1~2 cm,3.5~4.0 Gy/次,1次/周,共3~4次,总剂量12~16 Gy.结果 进食哽噎症状明显改善,Ⅰ级18例,Ⅱ级26例,Ⅲ级4例;近期疗效评价有效率(CR+PR) 91.7%(44/48);生存率1年以上者39.6%,2年以上者6.3%;25例(52.1%)患者出现恶心、呕吐、食欲不佳等不良反应,骨髓抑制:Ⅰ级21例(43.8%),Ⅱ级3例(6.3%).结论 体外照射结合252Cf中子治疗为中晚期贲门癌患者提供了一种新的安全可靠且无痛苦的有效治疗方法.%Objective To observe the efficacy and the toxicity of external irradiation combined with 252Cf brachytherapy on advanced cardiac carcinoma.Methods 48 patients with advanced cardiac carcinoma hospitalized during March 2007 to December 2010 were recruited,in which 39 cases were adenocarcinoma,5 patients were squamous carcinoma and 4 cases were signet-ring cell carcinoma.All cases had a Kamofsky above 80,no metastasis and received radiotherapy sequenced external and internal irradiation.The external irradiation was conducted under a 6MV X linear accelerator,and a dose of 38-45 Gy (2 Gy/22 f).The type ZH-1000 252Cf neutron breach-loading machine was used for brachytherapy with a dose of 12-16 Gy.Results Dysphagia cleared in all cases.The short-term efficacy (PR+CR) rate was 91.7 % (44/48).One and two year survival rate were,respectively,39.6 % and 6.3 %.25 (52.1%) patients had

  4. LW15-252型断路器气动回路的改进研究与实施%Improvement of Pneumatic Circuit for LW15-252 Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭夫; 贾明月; 刘树新; 蒋晓刚

    2011-01-01

    笔者介绍了一种关于LW15-252型断路器气动回路改进方案.在分析气动回路组成及运行原理基础上,详细研究了进口电磁阀、气水分离器结构及动作原理,改进设计了电磁阀活塞和气水分离器滤芯,解决电磁阀活塞容易断裂和气水分离器因锈蚀影响正常工作的问题.从根本上解决了气动回路故障频发的难题,提高了该型断路器稳定运行水平,同时打破了国外技术垄断,也为改造同类断路器提供了借鉴.%This paper introduced an improvement scheme for the pneumatic circuit of the LW15-252 circuit breaker. By analyzing the composition and running principle of the apneumatic circuit, we investigated the basic structures and action principles of the inlet solenoid valve and moisture separator, redesigned the piston of the valve and the filter element of the moisture separator to preven the piston from break and the moisture separator from corrosion. Thus, the frequent failures of the pneumatic circuit disappeared, and the level of stable operation of the LW15-252 circuit breaker was greatly improved. In addition, this study has broken the monopolization of the foreign technology in China, and provides a good reference for updating the similar breakers with pneumatic mechanism.

  5. The Influence of K252a on Drug Resistance of Neuroblastoma that Expresses TrkB%K252a对表达TrkB的NB细胞耐药性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继红; 李爱敏; 滕绍春; 张可仞; 张锦华

    2005-01-01

    目的:使用全反式维甲酸(ATRA)诱导SH-SY5Y NB(SY5Y)细胞的TrkB表达,加入BDNF激活TrkB/BDNF信号传导通路使TrkB磷酸化,然后用特异性酪氨酸激酶抑制剂K252a阻断该通路,观察NB细胞对化疗药物-顺铂(CDDP)敏感性的变化.方法:用ATRA诱导SY5Y细胞的TrkB高表达后,用BDNF、CDDP和TrkB信号传导通路的特异性阻断剂-K252a处理,MTT法检测细胞的存活率变化;流式细胞技术(FCM)检测细胞凋亡率;应用免疫组化法检测细胞磷酸化TrkB(p-TrkB)的表达水平.结果:ATRA能特异性诱导TrkB的表达,加入BDNF后可激活TrkB/BDNF信号传导通路并能引起TrkB的自动磷酸化;K252a能够阻断TrkB的磷酸化和TrkB/BDNF信号传导通路;经CDDP处理的SY5Y细胞的存活率下降、凋亡率上升.结论:阻断TrkB/BDNF信号传导通路可提高共表达TrkB/BDNF的NB细胞的化疗敏感性.因此,应用TrkB的抑制剂治疗NB有望提高该病的临床治愈率.

  6. 252例儿童急性化脓性中耳炎菌群分布及药敏结果%Discussion of 252 pediatric cases of acute otitis media and appropriate treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马天宝; 韩光辉; 刘燕

    2006-01-01

    目的分析儿童急性化脓性中耳炎菌群分布及药敏结果,寻找有效的抗生素进行治疗.方法对252例0-1 2岁(252耳)经临床诊断为急性化脓性中耳炎患儿的耳道分泌物及鼓膜穿孔前期经鼓膜刺激取分泌物进行细菌培养,同时对培养阳性菌株的种类及药物敏感试验结果进行统计.结果252份分泌物共分离出病原菌260株,总阳性率为95.9%,8例检出2种菌株.其中G+球菌188株(占72.3%);G杆菌19株(占23.5%);真菌11株(占4.2%).结论;G+球菌是本地区儿童急性化脓性中耳炎的主要致病菌,对青霉素及红霉素均有较高的耐药性.提示,临床用药不能仅凭经验,而应根据细菌培养结果和药敏结果用药,以获得理想疗效,减少转化为慢性病程的可能.

  7. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  8. Replacing a 252Cf source with a neutron generator in a shuffler - a conceptual design performed with MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The {sup 252}Cf shuffler has been widely used in nuclear safeguards and radioactive waste management to assay fissile isotopes, such as {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu, present in a variety of samples, ranging from small cans of uranium waste to metal samples weighing several kilograms. Like other non-destructive assay instruments, the shuffler uses an interrogating neutron source to induce fissions in the sample. Although shufflers with {sup 252}Cf sources have been reliably used for several decades, replacing this isotopic source with a neutron generator presents some distinct advantages. Neutron generators can be run in a continuous or pulsed mode, and may be turned off, eliminating the need for shielding and a shuffling mechanism in the shuffler. There is also essentially no dose to personnel during installation, and no reliance on the availability of {sup 252}Cf. Despite these advantages, the more energetic neutrons emitted from the neutron generator (141 MeV for D-T generators) present some challenges for certain material types. For example when the enrichment of a uranium sample is unknown, the fission of {sup 238}U is generally undesirable. Since measuring uranium is one of the main uses of a shuffler, reducing the delayed neutron contribution from {sup 238}U is desirable. Hence, the shuffler hardware must be modified to accommodate a moderator configuration near the source to tailor the interrogating spectrum in a manner which promotes sub-threshold fissions (below 1 MeV) but avoids the over-moderation of the interrogating neutrons so as to avoid self-shielding. In this study, where there are many material and geometry combinations, the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code was used to model, design, and optimize the moderator configuration within the shuffler geometry. The code is then used to evaluate and compare the assay performances of both the modified shuffler and the current {sup 252}Cf shuffler designs for different test samples. The

  9. Detailed Study of the Angular Correlations in the Prompt Neutron Emission in Spontaneous Fission of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopatch, Yu.; Chietera, A.; Stuttgé, L.; Gönnenwein, F.; Mutterer, M.; Gagarski, A.; Guseva, I.; Chernysheva, E.; Dorvaux, O.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Hanappe, F.; Mezentseva, Z.; Telezhnikov, S.

    An experiment has been performed at IPHC Strasbourg, aimed at the detailed investigation of angular correlations in the neutron emission from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Fission fragments were measured by the angle-sensitive double ionization chamber CODIS while neutrons were detected by a set of 60 DEMON scintillator counters. The main aim of the experiment is the observation of the correlation between the fragment spins and neutron emission anisotropy. Preliminary results, based on the Monte-Carlo simulations, as well as the preliminary analysis of the experimental data are shown.

  10. OER by survival time for Cf-252, low dose rate Cs-137 and acute Co-60 for LSA lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Magura, C.; Onomura, C.I.; Beach, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    RBE and OER were determined for LSA tumor by survival time assay. The RBE/sub n/ of Cf vs. Cs-137 was 5.8 and the OER was --1.4 by experiments performed in vitro and assayed in vivo. When tumor was irradiated in an advanced state in the living mouse, the RBE/sub n/ was determined to be 5.2 vs. Cs-137. The RBE for hypoxic tumor is larger than for the oxic tumor for Cf-252 neutron irradiation.

  11. Target Space $\

    CERN Document Server

    Huggett, Nick

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the significance of T-duality in string theory: the indistinguishability with respect to all observables, of models attributing radically different radii to space -- larger than the observable universe, or far smaller than the Planck length, say. Two interpretational branch points are identified and discussed. First, whether duals are physically equivalent or not: by considering a duality of the familiar simple harmonic oscillator, I argue that they are. Unlike the oscillator, there are no measurements 'outside' string theory that could distinguish the duals. Second, whether duals agree or disagree on the radius of 'target space', the space in which strings evolve according to string theory. I argue for the latter position, because the alternative leaves it unknown what the radius is. Since duals are physically equivalent yet disagree on the radius of target space, it follows that the radius is indeterminate between them. Using an analysis of Brandenberger and Vafa (1989), I explain wh...

  12. Identification of new neutron-rich rare-earth nuclei produced in /sup 252/Cf spontaneous fission

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, R C; Gehrke, R J; Meikrantz, D H

    1981-01-01

    A program of systematic study of the decay properties of neutron-rich rare-earth nuclei with 30 s252/Cf spontaneous fission, is currently underway using the Idaho ESOL (Elemental Separation On Line) Facility. The chemistry system used for the rare-earth elemental separations consists of two high-performance chromatography columns connected in series and coupled to the /sup 252 /Cf fission source via a helium gas-jet transport arrangement. The time delay for separation and initiation of gamma -ray counting with results which have been obtained to date with this system include the identification of a number of new neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes including /sup 155/Pm (t/sub 1/2/=48+or-4 s) and /sup 163/Gd (t/sub 1 /2/=68+or-3 s), in addition to 5.51 min /sup 158/Sm which was identified in an earlier series of experiments. (11 refs).

  13. The emission probabilities of long range alpha particles from even-even 244-252Cm isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P; Priyanka, B

    2014-01-01

    The alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even 244Cm, 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes have been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential with the fragments in equatorial configuration. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold reaction valley plot and by calculating the relative yield for the charge minimized fragments. In the alpha accompanied ternary fission of 244Cm isotope, the highest yield is found for the fragment combination 110Ru+4He+130Sn, which possess near doubly magic nuclei 130Sn. For the ternary fission of 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes with 4He as light charged particle, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination with doubly magic nuclei 132Sn as the heavier fragment. The emission probabilities and kinetic energies of long range alpha particle have been computed for the 242,244,246,248Cm isotopes and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The relative yields for th...

  14. RECONCEPTUALIZAREA INCRIMINĂRII TORTURII, TRATAMENTULUI INUMAN SAU DEGRADANT PRIN LEGEA NR.252 DIN 08.11.2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursu Daniela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prezentul studiu este destinat identificării raţiunilor legiuitorului Republicii Moldova de a incrimina cu titlu de nomen iuris faptele de tortură, tratament inuman sau degradant în Capitolul III al Părţii Speciale a Codului penal – „Infracţiuni contra libertăţii, cinstei şi demnităţii persoanei”. Această preocupare este dictată îndeosebi de diferenţele care se impun, în latura amplasării într-un anumit capitol, între actualul model incriminator în materie şi cel care în vigoare până la in­tervenţia Legii Republicii Moldova pentru modificarea şi completarea unor acte legislative, nr.252 din 08.11.2012, prin aceasta revenindu-se la concepţia anterioară de categorisire a torturii, adică la cea consacrată în legea penală în re­dacţia din 1961. Graţie analizei comparative a reglementărilor penale ale Republicii Moldova şi ale altor state referitoare la răspunderea pentru tortură, tratament inuman sau degradant, pe de o parte, şi sintetizării jurisprudenţei CtEDO în materie, pe de altă parte, a fost ilustrată natura juridică şi socială a acestor fapte prejudiciabile, din care s-au putut desprinde explicaţiile de rigoare ce au stat la baza remanierilor legislative intervenite prin Legea Republicii Moldova pentru modi­ficarea şi completarea unor acte legislative, nr.252 din 08.11.2012.RECONSIDERING THE CRIMINALISATION OF TORTURE, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT BY LAW NR.252 OF 8/11/2012This study is dedicated to identification of the rationalities of the Moldovan legislator to criminalise the title of nomen juris the facts of torture, inhuman or degrading treatment in Chapter III of the Special Part of the Criminal Code - "Crimes against freedom, honor and dignity". This concern is dictated particularly by differences that impose a particular side of location in the Chapter, between the current incriminatory model and the matters which operated until the intervention to the Law of the Republic

  15. UV-violet emission properties of 2F(2)5/2 energy level of Nd3+ ions in ZBLAN glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimczak, M.; Piramidowicz, R.

    2012-03-01

    In this work the short-wavelength emission properties are investigated for the highest observed 4f metastable energy level 2F(2)5/2 of Nd3+ ions in fluorozirconate ZBLAN glass. Various dopant concentrations, ambient temperatures and excitation conditions have been considered throughout the study. Distinct spectral features were observed under pulsed and cw excitation at 514 nm. In particular, pulsed pumping enabled recording of 2F(2)5/2 emission spectra, not observable under CW excitation, as well as the level's fluorescence decay dynamics and its evolution with temperature and dopant concentration. According to the best of the authors' knowledge, neither the fluorescence lifetime of 2F(2)5/2 of Nd3+ in ZBLAN, nor its concentration dependent evolution were reported before.

  16. Importance of the neutrons kerma coefficient in the planning of Brachytherapy treatments with Cf-252 sources; Importancia del coeficiente de kerma de neutrones en la planeacion de tratamientos de Braquiterapia con fuentes de Cf-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyocac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, 09000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Francois L, J.L. [UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: lpg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    The Cf-252 is a fast neutrons emitting radioisotope by spontaneous fission that can be used as sealed source in medicine applications, industry and research. Commercially its offer sources of different sizes, compact and with a fast neutrons emission of the order of 10{sup 6} n/s-{mu}g and an energy spectra that presents respectively maxim and average energy in 2.1 MeV and 0.7 MeV. In medicine new applications are being developed for the treatment of patient with hypoxic and voluminous tumors, where the therapy with photons has not given positive results, as well as for the protocols of therapy treatment by boron neutron capture, where very small sources of Cf-252 will be used with the interstitial brachytherapy technique of high and low dose rate. In this work an analysis of how the small differences that exist in the elementary composition of 4 wicked tumors, 4 ICRU healthy tissues and 3 substitute materials of ICRU tissue used in dosimetry are presented, its generate changes in the neutrons kerma coefficient in function of the energy and consequently in the absorbed dose in the interval of 11 eV to 29 MeV. These differences can produce maximum variations of the neutron kerma coefficients ratio for E{sub n} > 1 keV of the one: 15% tumor/ICRU guest healthy tissue, 12% ICRU tumor/muscle, 12% ICRU healthy tissues ICRU/ICRU muscle, 22% substitutes tissue/tumor and 22% ICRU substitutes tissue/muscle. Also, it was found that the average value of the neutrons kerma coefficient for the 4 wicked tumors is from 6% to 7% smaller that the average value for the soft tissue in the interval energy of interest for therapy with fast neutrons with E{sub n} > 1 MeV. These results have a special importance during the planning process of brachytherapy treatments with sources of {sup 252}Cf, to optimize and to individualize the patients treatments. (Author)

  17. The Software Design for252Cf Neutron Activation Fuel Rod 235U Enrichment Inspecting Equipment%252Cf中子活化核燃料棒235U富集度检测设备的软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 刘明; 马金波

    2013-01-01

    It introduces the software design for 252Cf neutron activation fuel red235U enrichment inspecting equipment.It used multithread technique to control Advantech PCI-1780 counter/timer card,and collect γ-ray signal from the six-path detectors.Process and analyze the collected data can exactly check the actual 235U enrichment and abnormal pellets in the nuclear fuel rods.The software can measure the actual 235U enrichment and judge whether there are abnormal pellets in the nuclear fuel rods accurately,and send customizing messages to PLC which complete automatic sorting,at 6 m/min detection speed.Now the software is used on nondestructive test equipment in Nuclear Fuel Element Factory.%介绍了252Cf中子活化核燃料棒235U富集度检测设备的软件设计,该软件采用多线程技术控制研华PCI-1780采集卡定时采集六路探测器输出的经252Cf中子活化后235U裂变产物的γ射线信号,针对采集数据的特性,进行相应的处理和分析,可以检测出核燃料棒的实际235U富集度以及有无异常芯块.该软件经过实验验证在检测速度为6时,能够准确测量核燃料棒的实际235U富集度值并判断棒中是否混有异常芯块,同时向PLC发送相应信号实现自动分选.目前已应用在核燃料元件厂的核燃料棒235U富集度无损检测设备上.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Gas Flow During Arcing Process for 252 kV Puffer Circuit Breakers%Numerical Simulation of Gas Flow During Arcing Process for 252 kV Puffer Circuit Breakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军辉; 王小华; 马志瀛; 荣命哲; 闫静

    2011-01-01

    A numerical simulation model for 252 kV puffer circuit breaker is constructed, by using a proven commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package, PHOENICS. The model takes into account the moving parts in the circuit breaker, turbulence enhanced momentum and energy transport, radiation transport. The arcing process in a SF6 puffer circuit breaker with two hollow contacts is simulated under different conditions, and the simulation results are verified with experimental results. Through simulation, the pressure, temperature and velocity in the arc quenching chamber can be obtained. The simulation model is also capable of predicting the influence of design parameters variations on breaker performance, and can thus help to reduce the number of short-circuit tests during the design stage.

  19. Molecular recognition: monomer of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 recognizes its dimer DNA binding target sites specifically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is widely believed that dimerization is a requirement for the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 to recognize its specific DNA target sites. We used the basic region (226-252) of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4, as both a monomeric peptide and a disulfide-linked dimer to investigate the interaction of the peptides with the DNA target sites AP-1 and CRE. CD and ITC experiments indicate that although the monomeric peptide GCN4-M has a weaker affinity with the DNA relative to the disulfide-linked dimer peptide GCN4-D, it recognizes AP-1 and CRE target sites specifically.

  20. Magnetic behavior of the oxide spinels: Li0.5Fe2.5-2AlCrO4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U N Trivedi; K B Modi; H H Joshi

    2002-05-01

    In order to study the effect of substitution of Fe3+ by Al3+ and Cr3+ in Li0.5Fe2.5O4 on its structural and magnetic properties, the spinel system Li0.5AlCrFe2.5-2O4 ( = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8) has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, high field magnetization, low field ac susceptibility and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Contrary to the earlier reports, about 50% of Al3+ is found to occupy the tetrahedral sites. The system exhibits canted spin structure and a central paramagnetic doublet was found superimposed on magnetic sextet in the Mössbauer spectra ( > 0.5).

  1. Maximum Alpha to Minimum Fission Pulse Amplitude for a Parallel-Plate and Hemispherical Cf-252 Ion-Chamber Instrumented Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberer, R.B.

    2000-12-07

    In an instrumented Cf-252 neutron source, it is desirable to distinguish fission events which produce neutrons from alpha decay events. A comparison of the maximum amplitude of a pulse from an alpha decay with the minimum amplitude of a fission pulse shows that the hemispherical configuration of the ion chamber is superior to the parallel-plate ion chamber.

  2. 30 CFR 252.3 - Oil and gas data and information to be provided for use in the OCS Oil and Gas Information Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil and gas data and information to be provided... PROGRAM § 252.3 Oil and gas data and information to be provided for use in the OCS Oil and Gas Information... production of, oil and gas on the OCS shall provide the Director access to all data and information......

  3. Influence of gain-of-function mutation (Ser252Trp in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene on long bone development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the early postnatal long bone development in Fgfr2+/S252W mutant mice and littermate wild-type (WT mice, and explore the effect of continued function enhancement of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2 gene on endochondral ossification. Methods A mouse model of Fgfr2+/S252W simulated human Apert syndrome was reproduced by knock-in technique, and then the gain-of-function mutation Fgfr2+/S252W mice and littermate WT mice were obtained after breeding and identification. Three Fgfr2+/S252W and same number of WT mice were sacrificed at 7, 10, 14 and 28 postnatal days respectively, and the morphology of long bone was examined with X-ray and Micro CT, the structure of bone and cartilage was observed by HE staining, and the expression of gene in growth plate was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results Fgfr2+/S252W mouse model exhibited typical craniosynostosis and brachycephalium of Apert syndrome, accompanied by short stature, growth retardation of long bone, delayed appearance of secondary ossification center, decrease of bone density and trabecula number. HE staining showed noticeable shortened zones of proliferation and hypertrophic chondrocytes, irregularity of cell arrangement, and small hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the mutant mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of genes related to chondrocytes proliferation and differentiation was decreased in mutant mice. Conclusions Gain-of-function mutation in FGFR2 may lead to abnormal development of long bone in mice. FGFR2 may have the function of regulating the development both of osteoblast and chondrocyte lineages, and play an important role in the process of skeletal development.

  4. 脑源性神经营养因子/酪氨酸激酶受体B信号通路抑制剂K252a逆转丙戊酸引起的神经元过度生长%BDNF/TrkB pathway inhibitor K252a reverses the neuronal overgrowth induced by valproic acid in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中平; 熊小琴; 崔卫刚; 张应花; 李瑞锡

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)/酪氨酸激酶受体B(TrkB)信号通路抑制剂K252a是否对丙戊酸引起的神经元过度生长有逆转作用.方法:用丙戊酸及K252a分别或共处理大鼠大脑皮层原代培养神经元,定量RT-PCR及免疫印迹检测BDNF/TrkB通路蛋白BDNF及TrkB的表达变化,同时以免疫荧光技术观测神经元形态变化.结果:丙戊酸处理后,显著增加神经元BDNF mRNA的表达,TrkB mRNA的表达则未见明显变化;丙戊酸处理也导致BDNF蛋白表达上调.而用K252a处理后,神经元BDNF及TrkB表达与对照组相比,无明显变化.形态学结果显示,丙戊酸处理后,神经元过度生长,表现为神经元突起数目及总长度显著增加;而K252a处理后,丙戊酸引起的神经元突起过度生长受到明显抑制.结论:BDNF/TrkB通路抑制剂K252a可逆转丙戊酸导致的神经元过度生长.该结果为丙戊酸及K252a应用于临床治疗某些神经发育与退行性疾病如自闭症及阿尔茨海默病等提供了实验依据.%Objective:To investigate the reverse effect of K252a, an inhibitor of BDNF/TrkB pathway which plays an important role in the neuronal proliferation, differentiation and neurite growth, on the neuronal overgrowth induced by valproic acid (VPA). Methods: The primary cultured neurons from the rat cortex were exposed to VPA, VPA plus K252a or the control. The expressions of BDNF and TrkB were tested by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the morphological changes of the neurons were observed by immunofluorescence. Results: VPA exposure, in comparison with the control, increased the expression of both mRNA and protein of BDNF, but not of TrkB. However, K252a treatment did not affect the expression of BDNF and TrkB in the cultured neurons. The results also showed that VPA treatment promoted neuronal growth, manifesting as a significant increment of the number of the neurite branches and total neurite length. Furthermore, the

  5. Nuclear isomerism in fission fragments produced by the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf; Isomerisme nucleaire dans les fragments de fission produits dans la fission spontanee du {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautherin, C

    1997-09-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of the nuclear structure of neutron-rich nuclei, via the search of isomeric nuclear states. Neutron-rich nuclei were produced in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf. The experimental study of isomeric states in these nuclei was performed with the {gamma}-array EUROGAM II, coupled to an additional and original fission fragment detector composed by photovoltaic cells, SAPhIR. The photovoltaic cells are well adapted to detect low energy heavy ions and have good energy and time resolutions to obtain a good fission fragment detection. This experiment led to the discovery of new isomeric states in {sup 135}Xe, {sup 104}Mo, {sup 146,147,148}Ce and {sup 152,154,156}Nd, with lifetimes between 60 ns and 2 {mu}s. Level schemes of these nuclei have been completed. An interpretation of the isomeric states in the nuclei {sup 154,156}Nd and {sup 156,158}Sm was performed by Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov calculations using the DIS Gogny force with two quasi-particles excitations. The confrontation with the experimental results led to an interpretation of these isomeric states as K-isomers. (author)

  6. Effects of Exposure of Pink Shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, Larvae to Macondo Canyon 252 Crude Oil and the Corexit Dispersant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Laramore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The release of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM during the Deepwater Horizon event coincided with the white and pink shrimp spawning season. To determine the potential impact on shrimp larvae a series of static acute (24–96 h toxicity studies with water accommodated fractions (WAFs of Macondo Canyon (MC 252 crude oil, the Corexit 9500A dispersant, and chemically enhanced WAFS (CEWAFs were conducted with nauplii, zoea, mysid, and postlarval Farfantepenaeus duorarum. Median lethal concentrations (LC50 were calculated and behavior responses (swimming, molting, light sensitivity evaluated. Impacts were life stage dependent with zoea being the most sensitive. Behavioral responses for all stages, except postlarvae, occurred at below LC50 values. Dispersants had the greatest negative impact while WAFs had the least. No short-term effects (survival, growth were noted for nauplii exposed to sub-lethal CEWAFs 39 days post-exposure. This study points to the importance of evaluating multiple life stages to assess population effects following contaminant exposure and further, that the use of dispersants as a method of oil removal increases oil toxicity.

  7. Measurement of the energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission fragments using nuclear track detectors and digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Castano, V. M. [UNAM, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Queretaro, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Gaso, I. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mena, M.; Segovia, N. [UNAM, Instituto de Geofisica, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    The energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission fragments was measured using nuclear track detectors and digital image analysis system. The detection material was fused silica glass. The detectors were chemically etched in an 8% HF solution. After experimenting with various etching time, it was found that the best resolution of the track diameter distribution was obtained after 30 minutes of etching. Both Gaussian and Lorentzian curves were fit to the track diameter distribution histograms and used to determine the basic parameters of the distribution of the light (N{sub L}) and heavy (N{sub H}) formed peaks and the minimum of the central valley (N{sub V}). Advantages of the method presented here include the fully-automated analysis process, the low cost of the nuclear track detectors and the simplicity of the nuclear track method. The distribution resolution obtained by this method is comparable with the resolution obtained by electronic analysis devices. The descriptive variables calculated were very close to those obtained by other methods based on the use of semiconductor detectors. (Author)

  8. Determining the neutron spectrum of 241Am-Be and 252Cf sources using bonner sphere spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Varshabi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bonner spheres system is one of the ways of measuring neutron energy distribution which is often applied in spectrometry and neutron dosimetry. This system includes a thermal neutron detector, being located in the center of several polyethylene spheres, and it is still workable due to the isotropic response of the system which in turn is derived from the spherical symmetry of moderators and the broad measurable range of the energy. In order to practically use this spectrometer, it is necessary to calibrate this system using standard neutron sources. This research aimed to determine the calibration factor of Bonner spheres spectrometry system and energy spectrum of two standard 241Am-Be and 252Cf sources in the atomic energy organization. Calibration and experimental measurement were done via the two standard sources. The response vector of each detector was derived by using MCNPX simulation code, based on the Monte Carlo method. The spectra unfolding of this system was performed through iterative method using the SPUNIT code done in software NSDUAZ6LiI and BUMS. 

  9. A cumulative analysis of odontogenic cysts from major dental institutions of Bangalore city: A study of 252 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Ramachandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to perform a cumulative analysis of odontogenic cysts obtained from the data of major dental institutions of Bangalore city, as well as to evaluate their distribution during a 5-year period and compare the results with other international studies. Materials and Methods: Data for the study were obtained from the reports of patients diagnosed with odontogenic cysts between 2005 and 2010 from different dental institutions of Bangalore. Case records of patients that fit the histological classification of the World Health Organization (WHO (2005 were included in the study and the following variables were analyzed: age, gender, anatomic location, and histological type. Results: In a total of 252 cyst specimens diagnosed, 79.76% were odontogenic cysts and 20.24% were nonodontogenic cysts. Among the odontogenic cysts most frequent lesions were radicular cysts (50.25%, followed by keratocysts (27.36% and dentigerous cysts (22.39%. Conclusions: Our study provides a cumulative data of odontogenic cysts in the population of Bangalore city. The results of our study showed a similar frequency of odontogenic cysts as compared to other populations of the world, with radicular cyst being identified as the most frequent odontogenic cyst. Keratocyst was the second most common cyst followed by dentigerous cyst.

  10. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurement of the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf in a segmented HPGe/BGO detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, D.L., E-mail: bleuel1@llnl.go [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bernstein, L.A.; Burke, J.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Gibelin, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Heffner, M.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Mintz, J. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Norman, E.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Phair, L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Scielzo, N.D.; Sheets, S.A.; Snyderman, N.J.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Wiedeking, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-12-21

    Coincident {gamma} rays from a {sup 252}Cf source were measured using an array of six segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) Clover detectors each enclosed by 16 bismuth-germanate (BGO) detectors. The detectors were arranged in a cubic pattern around a 1{mu}Ci{sup 252}Cf source to cover a large solid angle for {gamma}-ray measurement with a reasonable reconstruction of the multiplicity. Neutron multiplicity was determined in certain cases by identifying the prompt {gamma} rays from individual fission fragment pairs. Multiplicity distributions from previous experiments and theoretical models were convolved with the response function of the array and compared to the present results. These results suggest a {gamma}-ray multiplicity spectrum broader than previous measurements and models, and provide no evidence of correlation with neutron multiplicity.

  11. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurement of the spontaneous fission decay of 252Cf in a segmented HPGe/BGO detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A; Burke, J T; Gibelin, J; Heffner, M D; Mintz, J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Scielzo, N D; Sheets, S A; Snyderman, N J; Stoyer, M A; Wiedeking, M

    2008-04-23

    Coincident {gamma} rays from a {sup 252}Cf source were measured using an array of six segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) Clover detectors each enclosed by 16 bismuth-germanate (BGO) detectors. The detectors were arranged in a cubic pattern around a 1 {micro}Ci {sup 252}Cf source to cover a large solid angle for {gamma}-ray measurement with a reasonable reconstruction of the multiplicity. Neutron multiplicity was determined in certain cases by identifying the prompt {gamma} rays from individual fission fragment pairs. Multiplicity distributions from previous experiments and theoretical models were convolved with the response function of the array and compared to the present results. These results suggest a {gamma}-ray multiplicity spectrum broader than previous measurements and models, and provide no evidence of correlation with neutron multiplicity.

  12. Dynamic Target Acquisition: Empirical Models of Operator Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    tarjet to )e centered. At the beginning of those trials with ,i t.trqet present, ,t woiild I nywhere withln the center two-thirds (if the d%,,1 y. MD...Target Tpe Tank Half-Track Truck Low 0.206 0.169 0.191 Medium 0.252 0.205 0.226 High 0.253 o.I l 0.211 Speed FT_SEC. x_ Tarjet 7 ype Tank Half-Track Truck...1 25915 27212 I Scene Complexity Tarjet Type ORDERED MEANS 22521 23190 27743 NS 22521 * 23190 * 27743 I I I I I I I I *p •.05 1723 AOCDOPWOVELL

  13. Residues 248-252 and 300-304 of the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger are involved in its regulation by phospholemman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Qian; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Ji, Angi M; Chan, Tung O; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2011-10-01

    Using split cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX1), we previously demonstrated that phospholemman (PLM) regulates NCX1 by interacting with the proximal linker domain (residues 218-358) of the intracellular loop of NCX1. With the use of overlapping loop deletion mutants, interaction sites are localized to two regions spanning residues 238-270 and residues 300-328 of NCX1. In this study, we used alanine (Ala) linker scanning to pinpoint the residues in the proximal linker domain involved in regulation of NCX1 by PLM. Transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells with wild-type (WT) NCX1 or its Ala mutants but not empty vector resulted in NCX1 current (I(NaCa)). Coexpression of PLM with WT NCX1 inhibited I(NaCa). Mutating residues 248-252 (PASKT) or 300-304 (QKHPD) in WT NCX1 to Ala resulted in loss of inhibition of I(NaCa) by PLM. By contrast, inhibition of I(NaCa) by PLM was preserved when residues 238-242, 243-247, 253-257, 258-262, 263-267, 305-309, 310-314, 315-319, 320-324, or 325-329 were mutated to Ala. While mutating residue 301 to alanine completely abolished PLM inhibition, mutation of any single residue 250-252, 300, or 302-304 resulted in partial reduction in inhibition. Mutating residues 248-252 to Ala resulted in significantly weaker association with PLM. The NCX1-G503P mutant that lacks Ca(2+)-dependent activation retained its sensitivity to PLM. We conclude that residues 248-252 and 300-304 in the proximal linker domain of NCX1 were involved in its inhibition by PLM.

  14. Generation of the V4.2m5 and AMPX and MPACT 51 and 252-Group Libraries with ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL)

    2016-12-12

    The evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF)/B-7.0 v4.1m3 MPACT 47-group library has been used as a main library for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) neutronics simulator in simulating pressurized water reactor (PWR) problems. Recent analysis for the high void boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels and burnt fuels indicates that the 47-group library introduces relatively large reactivity bias. Since the 47- group structure does not match with the SCALE 6.2 252-group boundaries, the CASL Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS) MPACT library must be maintained independently, which causes quality assurance concerns. In order to address this issue, a new 51-group structure has been proposed based on the MPACT 47- g and SCALE 252-g structures. In addition, the new CASL library will include a 19-group structure for gamma production and interaction cross section data based on the SCALE 19- group structure. New AMPX and MPACT 51-group libraries have been developed with the ENDF/B-7.0 and 7.1 evaluated nuclear data. The 19-group gamma data also have been generated for future use, but they are only available on the AMPX 51-g library. In addition, ENDF/B-7.0 and 7.1 MPACT 252-g libraries have been generated for verification purposes. Various benchmark calculations have been performed to verify and validate the newly developed libraries.

  15. Optical and Near-infrared survey of the stellar contents associated with the star-forming Complex Sh2-252

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Jessy; Ogura, K; Samal, M R; Ojha, D K; Bhatt, B C; Chauhan, N; Eswaraiah, C; Mito, H; Kobayashi, N; Yadav, R K; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21175.x

    2013-01-01

    We present the analyses of the stellar contents associated with the HII region Sh2-252 using UBVRI photometry, slit and slitless spectroscopy along with the NIR data from 2MASS for an area ~1 degree x 1 degree. We studied the sub-regions of Sh2-252 which includes four compact-HII (CHII) regions, namely A, B, C and E and two clusters NGC 2175s and Teutsch 136 (Teu 136). Of the fifteen spectroscopically observed bright stars, eight have been identified as massive members of spectral class earlier than B3. From the spectro-photometric analyses, we derived the average distance of the region as 2.4+/-0.2 kpc and the reddening of the massive members is found to vary between 0.35 to 2.1 mag. We found that NGC 2175s and Teu 136, located towards the eastern edge of the complex are the sub-clusters of Sh2-252. The stellar surface density distribution in K-band shows clustering associated with the regions A, C, E, NGC 2175s and Teu 136. We have also identified the candidate ionizing sources of the CHII regions. 61 H_alp...

  16. Shielding evaluation of a medical linear accelerator vault in preparation for installing a high-dose rate 252Cf remote afterloader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhus, C S; Rivard, M J; Kurkomelis, J; Liddle, C B; Massé, F X

    2005-01-01

    In support of the effort to begin high-dose rate 252Cf brachytherapy treatments at Tufts-New England Medical Center, the shielding capabilities of a clinical accelerator vault against the neutron and photon emissions from a 1.124 mg 252Cf source were examined. Outside the clinical accelerator vault, the fast neutron dose equivalent rate was below the lower limit of detection of a CR-39 etched track detector and below 0.14 +/- 0.02 muSv h(-1) with a proportional counter, which is consistent, within the uncertainties, with natural background. The photon dose equivalent rate was also measured to be below background levels (0.1 muSv h(-1)) using an ionisation chamber and an optically stimulated luminescence dosemeter. A Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transport through the accelerator vault was performed to validate measured values and determine the thermal-energy to low-energy neutron component. Monte Carlo results showed that the dose equivalent rate from fast neutrons was reduced by a factor of 100,000 after attenuation through the vault wall, and the thermal-energy neutron dose equivalent rate would be an additional factor of 1000 below that of the fast neutrons. Based on these findings, the shielding installed in this facility is sufficient for the use of at least 5.0 mg of 252Cf.

  17. Biological, chemical and other data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN252 in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 2010-07-26 to 2010-08-23 (NODC Accession 0104356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104356 includes biological, chemical, optical, physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN252 in the Coastal...

  18. 252例老年颅内肿瘤术后并发症的相关因素分析%Risk factors related to surgical complications in 252 elderly brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓霖; 赵元立; 王硕; 叶迅; 赵继宗

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析与老年颅内肿瘤术后并发症相关的因素.方法 对北京天坛医院2005年1月至2007年12月252例手术治疗的老年颅内肿瘤相关资料进行回顾性研究.分析诸多临床因素与老年颅内肿瘤患者术后发生并发症的关系.应用SPSS 13.0软件进行单因素分析和多因素Logistic 回归分析.结果 单因素分析显示,术前患者卡氏评分(KPS)、肿瘤部位、术中出血量、麻醉时间、手术时间等与术后并发症的发生有关.多因素分析显示,术前患者KPS评分和肿瘤部位是术后并发症的主要影响因素.结论 术前KPS小于90分和肿瘤位于幕下等是术后并发症的主要影响因素.术中出血量、麻醉时间以及手术时间等因素也与术后并发症发生率有一定相关.而年龄、性别、肿瘤切除程度和术前美国麻醉师协会评分(ASA)等在本研究中显示不是术后并发症的主要影响因素.%Objective To investigate the factors associated with surgical complications.Methods A consecutive series of 252 surgeries performed from January 2005 to December 2007 were retrospectively analyzed.Age,sex,preoperative Karnofsky scale (KPS),American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status,anatomic localization,extent of tumor resection,bleeding volume,anesthesia time and duration of the whole operation were evaluated.Results In multivariate analysis,only pre-operative KPS (P =0.001) and infratentorial tumors (P =0.019) showed the significant association with post-operative complications.Conclusion It shows that the preoperative KP5 and infratentorial location are the factors related to post-operative complications,whereas age,sex,ASA status,extent of tumor resection,the bleeding volume,anesthesia time and duration of the whole operation are not the risk factors.

  19. 252 Cases of Trace Elements in Peripheral Blood of Children and Correlation Analysis Results%252例儿童末梢血微量元素的检测结果及相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪玥

    2012-01-01

      Objective In order to understand our city children aged 0 to 7,trace elements intake, clinical guidance, selective reasonable to add trace elements for children. Methods The children randomly selected pediatric patient health cards and children aged 0 to 7 252 cases, using Beijing Optoelectronic Technology Co,Ltd. Bo Hui innovative products BH5100T type five-channel atomic absorption spectrometry for zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, copper 5 Detection of trace elements, and do statistical analysis. Results The children in our city there are different levels of trace element deficiency, including zinc, iron, calcium deficiency is the most serious, rates were 48.4%,50.8% and 47.6%, lack of magnesium and lack of copper lower incidences of 7.1 per cent, respectively with 9.5%;the results show that various micronutrient deficiencies in the gender difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05). Conclusion The results show that the intake of trace elements in our city children can not be optimistic,reasonable to add trace elements, can effectively prevent children from lack of trace elements, trace elements to prevent the abuse of excessive complement blindness.%  目的为了解我市0~7岁儿童微量元素摄入情况,指导临床,有选择性的给儿童合理补充微量元素.方法随机抽查儿保健卡和儿科门诊的0~7岁儿童252例,利用北京博晖创新光电技术股份有限公司生产的 BH5100T 型五通道原子吸收光谱仪进行锌、铁、钙、镁、铜五种微量元素的检测,并做统计学分析.结果我市儿童存在不同程度的微量元素缺乏情况,其中锌、铁、钙缺乏情况最为严重,发生率分别为48.4%、50.8%和47.6%,缺镁和缺铜的发生率较低,分别为7.1%和9.5%;分析发现各种微量元素缺乏在性别上差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论分析结果表明我市儿童的微量元素摄入不均衡,合理补充微量元素,可以有效的防止儿童微量元

  20. Effect of Macondo Prospect 252 Oil on Microbiota Associated with Pelagic Sargassum in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, Manolito G; Franks, James S; Gomez, Andres; Yooseph, Shibu; Nelson, Karen E; Grimes, D Jay

    2017-01-01

    The environmental impact of major oil spills on marine microorganisms has yet to be thoroughly investigated using molecular biology techniques. The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig explosion of 2010 affected an approximately 176,000 km(2) surface area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) when an estimated 210 million gallons of oil from the Macondo Prospect spilled into the environment. Pelagic Sargassum, a complex of two surface drifting species (Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans) of marine brown macroalgae and a critically important habitat in the GOM ecosystem, was suffused by Macondo Prospect 252 oil released during the DWH event. Using 16S rRNA PCR and Roche 454 pyrosequencing, the effect of the oil on the bacterial population associated with pelagic Sargassum and contiguous waters was examined by comparing sequence data generated from samples collected from oiled and non-oiled locations in the northern GOM. Sequence data showed similar microbial composition in Sargassum regardless of exposure to oil primarily dominated by five phyla; Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and unclassified bacteria. The microbial composition in water samples was significantly less diverse than for Sargassum and consisted primarily of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Due to the evenly distributed abundance of microbial species on oiled and non-oiled pelagic Sargassum, study findings indicate that DWH spilled oil had minimal effect on the composition and diversity of the microbial community associated with Sargassum and contiguous waters. However, higher abundances of Sulfitobacter and one species of Psychrobacter were found in oiled water samples when compared to non-oiled water samples indicating some effect of DHW oil in the microbial composition of seawater. Though there are a number of marine studies using molecular biology approaches, this is the first molecular examination of the impact of the DWH oil spill on bacterial communities

  1. Figure of Merit for Chlorine Measurement in Reinforced Concrete Using {sup 252}Cf-Based Nondestructive Testing Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeeb H. Saleh; Richard A. Livington

    2000-11-12

    The objective of this study is to design, fabricate, and evaluate a portable system for nondestructive determination of chloride concentration in reinforced portland cement concrete (PCC) structures. The need for such an instrument arises from the massive deterioration of the reinforced PCC, which has been used to construct a major part of the highway infrastructure. This deterioration of PCC is due to corrosion of the reinforcing steel, which is greatly promoted by the chloride ions. The sources of chloride include deicing salts, set accelerator, and seawater, either in the form of concrete-mixing water or as airborne droplets from ocean spray. The system consists of a high-purity germanium detector for gamma-ray detection and a portable {sup 252}Cf neutron source. Tradeoffs in the design of the neutron source include data quality, operational efficiency, and radiation safety. The number of photons detected in the germanium detector is directly proportional to the neutron source strength and the chloride nuclei concentration in the sample under testing. Therefore, assuming a uniform distribution of chloride, the figure of merit of the number of photons detected in the detector can be expressed as F = C/SN, where C = number of (6111) keV gamma rays detected per second, N = concentration of chloride nuclei, and S = neutron source strength (n/s). Under the assumption that the neutron source strength is fixed, the figure of merit in this case can have at least two uses. One is to optimize the thermalization efficiency of the neutron moderator. The second is to evaluate how effective the detector configuration is in detecting the gamma rays generated in the concrete. Using the figure-of-merit approach, it is possible to find an optimum size of moderator. This is important for a portable system. Other variables such as source/detector separation or detector gamma-ray shielding can also be evaluated.

  2. Measurement of deeply virtual compton scattering with a polarized-proton target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Avakian, H; Burkert, V D; Eugenio, P; Adams, G; Amarian, M; Ambrozewicz, P; Anghinolfi, M; Asryan, G; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bosted, P; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Bültmann, S; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cazes, A; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Coltharp, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Crede, V; Cummings, J P; DeMasi, R; DeVita, R; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Donnelly, J; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Feldman, G; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Golovatch, E; Gonenc, A; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Keith, C; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, J; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Li, Ji; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lu, H; Lukashin, K; MacCormick, M; Markov, N; McAleer, S; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Moteabbed, M; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Natasha, N; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M R; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Popa, I; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Shvedunov, N V; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vanderhaeghen, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z

    2006-08-18

    The longitudinal target-spin asymmetry AUL for the exclusive electroproduction of high-energy photons was measured for the first time in ep-->e;'pgamma. The data have been accumulated at JLab with the CLAS spectrometer using 5.7 GeV electrons and a longitudinally polarized NH3 target. A significant azimuthal angular dependence was observed, resulting from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The amplitude of the sinvarphi moment is 0.252+/-0.042stat+/-0.020sys. Theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the magnitude and the kinematic dependence of the target-spin asymmetry, which is sensitive to the generalized parton distributions H and H.

  3. Improved charge breeding efficiency of light ions with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.; Kutsaev, Sergey [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Blvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France)

    2012-11-15

    The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a {sup 252}Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for {sup 23}Na{sup 7+} and 17.9% for {sup 39}K{sup 10+} were obtained injecting stable Na{sup +} and K{sup +} beams from a surface ionization source.

  4. Electrically charged targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  5. Fine frequency tuning in sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave single-frequency coherent light at 252 nm with dual-wavelength enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Fine frequency tuning of the deep-ultraviolet single-mode coherent light at 252 nm was conducted through the PID feedback system automatically by changing the temperature of a beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal in a doubly resonant external cavity for the sum-frequency mixing of 373 and 780 nm light. The temperature-dependent frequency tuning rate is 19.3 MHzK(-1), which is sufficiently fine to realize the laser cooling of neutral silicon atoms because the natural width of the laser cooling transition is 28.8 MHz.

  6. Targeted Cancer Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... targeted therapies are directed against HER-2, including trastuzumab (Herceptin®), which is approved to treat certain breast and ... traditional chemotherapy drugs. For example, the targeted therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin®) has been used in combination with docetaxel , ...

  7. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  8. 纤丽的时尚——明基Joyhub La Vie E252台式机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    壹分

    2008-01-01

    Joyhub La Vie系列台式机主要以外观设计作为最大卖点,E252自然也是如此。从整体上来看,无论是主机箱、显示器还是键盘鼠标,E252在配色上均选择了白色作为主色,并在机箱上辅以色带作为装饰。目前厂商提供浅蓝和粉红两种色带装饰的机型可供选择,分别以男孩和女孩作为面向对象。为了更加突出色带的装饰效果,明基特别在机箱前面板的中部和底部色带内添置了LED灯设计,在开机状态下可让用户有更为丰富的视觉享受。

  9. Rapid Evolution to Blast Crisis Associated with a Q252H ABL1 Kinase Domain Mutation in e19a2 BCR-ABL1 Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. McCarron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A minority of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML patients express variant transcripts of which the e19a2 BCR-ABL1 fusion is the most common. Instances of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI resistance in e19a2 BCR-ABL1 CML patients have rarely been reported. A case of e19a2 BCR-ABL1 CML is described in whom imatinib resistance, associated with a Q252H ABL1 kinase domain mutation, became apparent soon after initiation of TKI therapy. The patient rapidly transformed to myeloid blast crisis (BC with considerable bone marrow fibrosis and no significant molecular response to a second generation TKI. The clinical course was complicated by comorbidities with the patient rapidly succumbing to advanced disease. This scenario of Q252H-associated TKI resistance with rapid BC transformation has not been previously documented in e19a2 BCR-ABL1 CML. This case highlights the considerable challenges remaining in the management of TKI-resistant BC CML, particularly in the elderly patient.

  10. Equilibration in the reaction of 175 and 252 MeV /sup 20/Ne with /sup 197/Au. [Energy, element, and angular distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, J.B.

    1978-06-01

    The highly inelastic nuclear reaction of /sup 197/Au with /sup 20/Ne at 175 and 252 MeV laboratory energies is studied. Energy-, elemental-, and angular- distributions for atomic numbers 5 to 30 (175 MeV) or 34 (252 MeV) are presented. The means and widths of the kinetic energy spectra for detected elements are compared with a theoretical calculation. The calculation postulates thermalization of the incident projectile kinetic energy, and includes one sha(e-vibrational degree of freedom and rigid rotation of the reaction complex. The effect of particle evaporation is considered. Good agreement of the expurimental mean energies with the theory is obtained. Poorer agreement of the kinetic energy widths with the theory may be due to a low-temperature quantal effect. The relative elemental yields are analyzed for their degree of equilibration, based on a model of diffusive nucleon exchange as described by the master equation. A similar degree of equilibration is observed for both reaction energies. The absolute elemental yields are reproduced qualitatively by employing an advanced diffusion code, coupled with calculation of the subsequent fission of heavy reaction products, including the compound nucleus. The angular distributions are analyzed with a simple model, to estimate the reaction lifetime of selected elements.

  11. Biogeochemical Controls on Biodegradation of MC252 Oil:Sand Aggregates on a Rapidly Eroding Coastal Headland Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, J.; Elango, V.; Urbano, M.; Lemelle, K.

    2012-12-01

    The research described below was conducted on Fourchon Beach, a coastal headland consisting of nine miles of fairly pristine sandy beaches and dunes, backed by wetlands and tidal channels, located between Belle Pass tidal inlet on the west and Elmer's Island on the east in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana. MC252 oil first arrived in large quantities on Fourchon Beach on or around May 20, 2010. A unique oil form created under these conditions was an aggregate of sand and emulsified oil, typically 0.1-10 cm in diameter, termed small surface residue balls (SSRBs). The work from this project made critical measurements on the factors controlling biodegradability of these SSRB aggregates. SSRB aggregates were sampled across transects perpendicular to the beach from the intertidal to the supratidal. Areas in the supratidal that were sampled initially were set aside for research purposes and not altered by any clean-up activities. Chemical composition of SSRBs was measured including concentrations of n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes, nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate measured on water extracts of SSRBs), and electron acceptor concentrations (O2 microprofiles measured on intact SSRBs and sulfate). Physical characterization of the SSRBs including length and area dimensions, mass, density, porosity, moisture content, and salinity using standard methods. Microbial characterization of SSRBs was also conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of dominant bands. SSRBs were sampled from various locations across the beach profile deposited by 2 significant tropical events in 2010; Hurricane Alex and TS Bonnie, and one event in 2011, TS Lee. Sampling focused on comparing and contrasting impacts of biogeochemistry on weathering of oil stranded in three beach microenvironments; supratidal surface; subtidal subsurface which is permanently inundated and intertidal subsurface samples which are intermittently inundated. The three types of oil are

  12. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  13. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  14. Targeted tumor radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unak Perihan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted tumor radiotherapy is selectively delivery of curative doses of radiation to malignant sites. The aim of the targeted tumor radiotherapy is to use the radionuclides which have high LET particle emissions conjugated to appropriate carrier molecules. The radionuclides are selectively collected by tumor cells, depositing lethal doses to tumor cells while no admission occur to normal cells. In theory, targeted radiotherapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy since it allows a high radiation dose to be administered without causing normal tissue toxicity, although there are some limitations in the availability of appropriate targeting agents and in the calculations of administered doses. Therefore, for routine clinical applications more progress is still needed. In this article, the potential use of targeted tumor radiotherapy is briefly reviewed. More general aspects and considerations, such as potential radionuclides, mechanisms of tumor targeting was also outlined.

  15. Targeting Notch to target cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, Antonio; Foreman, Kimberly; Rizzo, Paola; Osipo, Clodia; Golde, Todd; Osborne, Barbara; Miele, Lucio

    2010-06-15

    The cellular heterogeneity of neoplasms has been at the center of considerable interest since the "cancer stem cell hypothesis", originally formulated for hematologic malignancies, was extended to solid tumors. The origins of cancer "stem" cells (CSC) or tumor-initiating cells (TIC; henceforth referred to as CSCs) and the methods to identify them are hotly debated topics. Nevertheless, the existence of subpopulations of tumor cells with stem-like characteristics has significant therapeutic implications. The stem-like phenotype includes indefinite self-replication, pluripotency, and, importantly, resistance to chemotherapeutics. Thus, it is plausible that CSCs, regardless of their origin, may escape standard therapies and cause disease recurrences and/or metastasis after apparently complete remissions. Consequently, the idea of selectively targeting CSCs with novel therapeutics is gaining considerable interest. The Notch pathway is one of the most intensively studied putative therapeutic targets in CSC, and several investigational Notch inhibitors are being developed. However, successful targeting of Notch signaling in CSC will require a thorough understanding of Notch regulation and the context-dependent interactions between Notch and other therapeutically relevant pathways. Understanding these interactions will increase our ability to design rational combination regimens that are more likely to prove safe and effective. Additionally, to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from treatment with Notch-targeting therapeutics, reliable biomarkers to measure pathway activity in CSC from specific tumors will have to be identified and validated. This article summarizes the most recent developments in the field of Notch-targeted cancer therapeutics, with emphasis on CSC.

  16. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  17. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  18. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  19. A new shipping container for an intense neutron emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Alexander, C.W.; Pace, J.V. III; Simmons, C.M.

    1994-06-01

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter (2.34 {times} 10{sup 12} n/s{center_dot}g) used in medicine, research, and industry. The western world`s sole source of this rare radioisotope is the Californium Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). A project has been initiated at the REDC to design a new Type B Californium Shipping Container. This effort is essential for future transportation of californium to meet the needs of users all over the world. The shipping container must meet all requirements for transport by motor freight, air, vessel, and rail, both domestic and foreign. There are unique problems in the design, fabrication, and licensing of a new Type B shipping container that will accommodate up to 60 milligrams of californium-252. One of the first challenges in the design phase of the project is the selection of a material to shield the high neutron flux. The more stringent safety precautions of today`s world impel us to consider more exotic materials for such a purpose. The candidate materials must be examined not just for their neutron shielding properties, but also in conjunction with other properties such as thermal and structural requirements to withstand the hypothetical accident conditions. The design and building of such a container is a formidable task requiring much planning. The licensing process, with the complex, interactive federal codes, is a special challenge and may be the biggest on the project in terms of time and money.

  20. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  1. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  2. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  3. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  4. Effects of low dose rate 60Co γ ray combined with 252Cf neutron irradiation on hematopoietic and antioxidation systems in rats%低剂量率60Co γ射线和252Cf裂变中子混合照射对大鼠造血及抗氧化系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫琳芳; 何颖; 侯登勇; 钱甜甜; 蒋定文; 王岩; 刘玉明; 李珂娴; 王庆蓉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of low dose rate 60Co γ ray combined with 252Cf neutron irradiation on hematopoietic and antioxidation systems in rats.Methods Sixteen SD male rats were randomly divided into the irradiation group and the control group,each consisting of 8 rats.The irradiation group was exposed to whole-body 60 Co γray (with daily dose rate of 0.072 Gy) for 1 hour and to 252 Cf neutron (with daily dose rate of 0.085 mGy/h) for 20 hours,for a total of 7 successive days.Peripheral blood cell counts,main organ indices,bone marrow DNA contents,SOD activity and MDA content of rats were monitored,at day 8 after irradiation.Results Compared with those of the control group [(6.2 ± 2.4) × 109/L],WBC of the irradiation group decreased significantly following irradiation [(3.4 ± 1.2) × 109/L],(P < O.05),but no statistical significance could be noted in the changes of various organ indices (P > O.05).Bone marrow DNA contents and serum SOD activity all decreased significantly (P < 0.05),while organ indices and MDA contents seemed to increase,but without statistical significance (P > 0.05).Conclusions 60 Co γirradiation combined with 252Cf neutron irradiation could obviously damage the hemopoietic and anti-oxidation systems of rats.%目的 探讨低剂量率60Co γ射线与252Cf裂变中子混合照射对大鼠的生物效应.方法 16只雄性SD大鼠按数字表法随机分成实验组和对照组,每组8只.实验组每天依次暴露于60Co γ射线1h(剂量率为0.072 Gy/h),252Cf裂变中子20 h(剂量率为0.085 mGy/h),连续7d.照后第8天检测大鼠外周血细胞计数、主要脏器指数、骨髓DNA含量、血清超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力及丙二醛(MDA)含量.结果 与对照组[(6.2 ±2.4)×109/L]相比,实验组大鼠外周血白细胞数[(3.4±1.2)×109/L](WBC)显著降低(P<0.05),各项脏器指数变化组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),骨髓DNA含量显著降低(P<0.05);血清SOD活力显著降低(P<0

  5. Depletion and biodegradation of hydrocarbons in dispersions and emulsions of the Macondo 252 oil generated in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd G; Daling, Per S; Faksness, Liv-G; Almås, Inger K; Vang, Siv-H; Syslak, Line; Leirvik, Frode

    2014-07-15

    Physically and chemically (Corexit 9500) generated Macondo 252 oil dispersions, or emulsions (no Corexit), were prepared in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin at 30-32 °C, and studies of oil compound depletion performed for up to 15 days. The use of Corexit 9500 resulted in smaller median droplet size than in a physically generated dispersion. Rapid evaporation of low boiling point oil compounds (C⩽15) appeared in all the experiments. Biodegradation appeared to be an important depletion process for compounds with higher boiling points in the dispersions, but was negligible in the surface emulsions. While n-alkane biodegradation was faster in chemically than in physically dispersed oil no such differences were determined for 3- and 4-ring PAH compounds. In the oil dispersions prepared by Corexit 9500, increased cell concentrations, reduction in bacterial diversity, and a temporary abundance of bacteria containing an alkB gene were associated with oil biodegradation.

  6. Regional assignment of the human uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) gene to chromosome 10q25.2----q26.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrin, K H; Warner, C A; Yoo, H W; Goodfellow, P J; Tsai, S F; Desnick, R J

    1991-05-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III synthase [UROS; hydroxymethylbilane hydro-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.2.1.75] is the fourth enzyme in the human heme biosynthetic pathway. The recent isolation of the cDNA encoding human UROS facilitated its chromosomal localization. Human UROS sequences were specifically amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from genomic DNA of two independent panels of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. There was 100% concordance for the presence of the human UROS PCR product and human chromosome 10. For each of the other chromosomes, there was 19%-53% discordance with human UROS. The chromosomal assignment was confirmed by Southern hybridization analysis of DNA from somatic cell hybrids with the full-length UROS cDNA. Using human-rodent hybrids containing different portions of human chromosome 10, we assigned the UROS gene to the region 10q25.2----q26.3.

  7. Large molecular mass materials in coal derived liquids by {sup 252}Cf-plasma and matrix assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domin, M. [School of Pharmacy, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry; Li, S.; Herod, A.A.; Larsen, J.W. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lazaro, M.J.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    1997-12-31

    A Point of Ayr coal extract, its hydrocracked product and the pyridine solubles/insolubles of a coal tar pitch have been examined using {sup 252}Cf-plasma desorption-mass spectrometry (PDMS) and matrix assisted laser desorption-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Comparison of molecular masses (MMs) between the coal extract and its hydrocracked product by PDMS indicated ranges of masses in the product to be considerably smaller, with number and weight average MMs reduced by approximately a factor of two. MALDI-mass spectra of the same samples indicated a greater reduction in mass. Similar comparison of the pyridine soluble/insoluble fractions of the coal tar pitch showed smaller differences by PD-MS than by MALDI-MS. (orig.)

  8. Vibrotactile target saliency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Groen, E.l.; Oosterbeek, M.T.J.; Hooge, I.T.C.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the saliency of a single vibrotractile target (T) among 2 to 7 nontargets (N), presented by 8 tactors that were equally distributed over a horizontal band around the torso. Targets and nontargets had different pulse duration, but the same activation period and no onset asynchrony. T-N simi

  9. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  10. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  11. Comparative analysis of bacterial community-metagenomics in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms following exposure to Macondo oil (MC252).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyunmin; Mojib, Nazia; Thacker, Robert W; Bej, Asim K

    2014-11-01

    The indigenous bacterial communities in sediment microcosms from Dauphin Island (DI), Petit Bois Island (PB) and Perdido Pass (PP) of the coastal Gulf of Mexico were compared following treatment with Macondo oil (MC252) using pyrosequencing and culture-based approaches. After quality-based trimming, 28,991 partial 16S rRNA sequence reads were analyzed by rarefaction, confirming that analyses of bacterial communities were saturated with respect to species diversity. Changes in the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes played an important role in structuring bacterial communities in oil-treated sediments. Proteobacteria were dominant in oil-treated samples, whereas Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were either the second or the third most abundant taxa. Tenericutes, members of which are known for oil biodegradation, were detected shortly after treatment, and continued to increase in DI and PP sediments. Multivariate statistical analyses (ADONIS) revealed significant dissimilarity of bacterial communities between oil-treated and untreated samples and among locations. In addition, a similarity percentage analysis showed the contribution of each species to the contrast between untreated and oil-treated samples. PCR amplification using DNA from pure cultures of Exiguobacterium,  Pseudoalteromonas,  Halomonas and Dyadobacter, isolated from oil-treated microcosm sediments, produced amplicons similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genes. In the context of the 2010 Macondo blowout, the results from our study demonstrated that the indigenous bacterial communities in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms responded to the MC252 oil with altered community structure and species composition. The rapid proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria suggests their involvement in the degradation of the spilt oil in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  12. Comparative analysis of bacterial community-metagenomics in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms following exposure to Macondo oil (MC252)

    KAUST Repository

    Koo, Hyunmin

    2014-09-10

    The indigenous bacterial communities in sediment microcosms from Dauphin Island (DI), Petit Bois Island (PB) and Perdido Pass (PP) of the coastal Gulf of Mexico were compared following treatment with Macondo oil (MC252) using pyrosequencing and culture-based approaches. After quality-based trimming, 28,991 partial 16S rRNA sequence reads were analyzed by rarefaction, confirming that analyses of bacterial communities were saturated with respect to species diversity. Changes in the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes played an important role in structuring bacterial communities in oil-treated sediments. Proteobacteria were dominant in oil-treated samples, whereas Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were either the second or the third most abundant taxa. Tenericutes, members of which are known for oil biodegradation, were detected shortly after treatment, and continued to increase in DI and PP sediments. Multivariate statistical analyses (ADONIS) revealed significant dissimilarity of bacterial communities between oil-treated and untreated samples and among locations. In addition, a similarity percentage analysis showed the contribution of each species to the contrast between untreated and oil-treated samples. PCR amplification using DNA from pure cultures of Exiguobacterium,  Pseudoalteromonas,  Halomonas and Dyadobacter, isolated from oil-treated microcosm sediments, produced amplicons similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genes. In the context of the 2010 Macondo blowout, the results from our study demonstrated that the indigenous bacterial communities in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms responded to the MC252 oil with altered community structure and species composition. The rapid proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria suggests their involvement in the degradation of the spilt oil in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  13. Some characteristics of two azoreductase systems in rat liver. Relevance to the activity of 2-[4'-di(2"-bromopropyl)-aminophenylazo]benzoic acid (CB10-252), a compound possessing latent cytotoxic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1975-01-01

    monoxide, phenobarbitone (PB), or 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) pretreatment. Enhancement of the activity by ferrous ions and FAD indicated that at least part of the reduction system could involve a flavoprotein with FAD as the prosthetic group. The activity of CB10-252-azoreductase and methylred...

  14. Nuclear target development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.

    1995-08-01

    The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces thin foil targets needed for experiments performed at the ATLAS and Dynamitron accelerators. Targets are not only produced for the Physics Division but also for other divisions and occasionally for other laboratories and universities. In the past year, numerous targets were fabricated by vacuum evaporation either as self-supporting foils or on various substrates. Targets produced included Ag, Au, {sup 10,11}B, {sup 138}Ba, Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 155,160}Gd, {sup 76}Ge, In, LID, {sup 6}LiH, Melamine, Mg, {sup 142,150}Nd, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 206,208}Pb, {sup 194}Pt, {sup 28}Si, {sup 144,148}Sm, {sup 120,122,124}Sn, Ta, {sup 130}Te, ThF{sub 4}, {sup 46,50}Ti, TiH, U, UF{sub 4}, {sup 182}W and {sup 170}Yb. Polypropylene and aluminized polypropylene, along with metallized Mylar were produced for experiments at ATLAS. A number of targets of {sup 11}B of various thickness were made for the DEP 2-MeV Van de Graff accelerator. An increased output of foils fabricated using our small rolling mill included targets of Au, C, {sup 50}Cr, Cu, {sup 155,160}Gd, Mg, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 105,110}Pd. Sc, Ti, and {sup 64,66}Zn.

  15. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  16. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  17. STIS target acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Steve; Downes, Ron; Katsanis, Rocio; Crenshaw, Mike; McGrath, Melissa; Robinson, Rich

    1997-01-01

    We describe the STIS autonomous target acquisition capabilities. We also present the results of dedicated tests executed as part of Cycle 7 calibration, following post-launch improvements to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight software. The residual pointing error from the acquisitions are < 0.5 CCD pixels, which is better than preflight estimates. Execution of peakups show clear improvement of target centering for slits of width 0.1 sec or smaller. These results may be used by Guest Observers in planning target acquisitions for their STIS programs.

  18. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  19. Issues in Target Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    the CUSUM (Page) test yields the quickest detection of a change of distribution for the case of i.i.d. observations [3]. In fact, in a (highly...11. Autocorrelation of the CUSUM increments, sn, under H1 (target present). Issues in Target Tracking RTO-EN-SET-157(2010...restrictive condition that the increments of the cumulative sum, sn, be i.i.d. [3], [22]. Fig. 11 plots the autocorrelation of the CUSUM increments as a

  20. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  1. The Sinuous Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  2. Production Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  3. Targeted assets risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwsema, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessments utilising the consolidated risk assessment process as described by Public Safety Canada and the Centre for Security Science utilise the five threat categories of natural, human accidental, technological, human intentional and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE). The categories of human intentional and CBRNE indicate intended actions against specific targets. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify which pieces of critical infrastructure represent the likely targets of individuals with malicious intent. Using the consolidated risk assessment process and the target capabilities list, coupled with the CARVER methodology and a security vulnerability analysis, it is possible to identify these targeted assets and their weaknesses. This process can help emergency managers to identify where resources should be allocated and funding spent. Targeted Assets Risk Analysis (TARA) presents a new opportunity to improve how risk is measured, monitored, managed and minimised through the four phases of emergency management, namely, prevention, preparation, response and recovery. To reduce risk throughout Canada, Defence Research and Development Canada is interested in researching the potential benefits of a comprehensive approach to risk assessment and management. The TARA provides a framework against which potential human intentional threats can be measured and quantified, thereby improving safety for all Canadians.

  4. Liver support therapy with molecular adsorbents recirculating system in liver failure:a summary of 252 cases from 14 centers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min-min; HU Xiao-bin; LUO Hong-tao; LIU Yi-he; WANG Wen-ya; CHEN Shi-jun; YE Qi-fa; YANG Yi-jun; CHEN Shi-bin; ZHOU Xin-min; GUO Li-min; ZHANG Yue-xin; DING Xiao-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Background A liver support therapy,named molecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS),has been used for more than 700 liver failure patients in China.We made here a summary to evaluate the effects of MARS treatment in different applications with emphasis on hepatitis B virus (HBV) based liver failure.Methods This report analyzed data of 252 patients (mean age (44.9±12.7) years) in three groups:acute severe hepatitis (ASH),subacute severe hepatitis (SSH) and chronic severe hepatitis (CSH).The largest group was CSH (156 patients,61.9%),and 188 patients (74.6%,188/252) were infected with HBV.Results MARS treatments were associated with significant reduction of albumin bound toxins and water-soluble toxins.Most of the patients showed a positive response with a significant improvement of multiple organ function substantiated by a significant increase in prothrombin time activity (PTA) and median arterial pressure (MAP).There was a decrease in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) grade and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) scale.Thirty-nine of 188 HBV patients (20.7%) dropped out of the commendatory consecutive therapy ending with lower survival of 43.6% while the rest of the 149 patients had a survival rate of 62.4%.Survival within the ASH and SSH groups were 81.2% and 75.0%,respectively.In the CSH group,end stage patients were predominant (65/151,43%),whereas the early and middle stage patients had a better prognosis:early stage survival,including orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) survival of 91.7%,middle stage survival of 75%,end stage survival of 33.8%.Conclusions MARS continues to be the most favorable extracorporeal treatment for liver support therapy in China for a wide range of conditions,including the majority of hepatitis B related liver failure conditions.The appropriate application of MARS for the right indications and stage of hepatic failure,as well as the fulfillment of prescribed treatments,will lead to the optimal therapeutic result.

  5. Fissible Deposit Characterization at the Former Oak Ridge K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant by {sup 252}CF-Source-Driven Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, T.F.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Uckan, T.; Valentine, T.E.; Wyatt, M.S.

    1998-05-01

    Laboratory (ORNL) characterize the two largest deposits with the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven transmission (CFSDT) technique, an active neutron interrogation method developed for use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to identify nuclear weapons components in containers. The active CFSDT measurement technique uses CFSDT time-of-flight measurements of prompt neutrons and gamma rays from an externally introduced {sup 252}Cf source.

  6. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  7. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  8. Setting reference targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  9. Cooled particle accelerator target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2005-06-14

    A novel particle beam target comprising: a rotating target disc mounted on a retainer and thermally coupled to a first array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially inwardly from the retainer and mesh without physical contact with a second array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially outwardly from and are thermally coupled to a cooling mechanism capable of removing heat from said second array of spaced-apart fins and located within the first array of spaced-apart parallel fins. Radiant thermal exchange between the two arrays of parallel plate fins provides removal of heat from the rotating disc. A method of cooling the rotating target is also described.

  10. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  11. Targeting peroxiredoxins against leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Xu; Zhou, Hu-Chen; Yin, Qian-Qian; Wu, Ying-Li; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2013-01-15

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx), a family of small non-seleno peroxidases, are important regulators for cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to many signaling pathways and pathogenesis of diseases. Targeting redox homeostasis is being developed as a promising therapeutic strategy for many diseases such as cancers. This mini-review attempts to focus on our recent discoveries on adenanthin as the first natural molecule to specifically target the resolving cysteines of Prx I and Prx II and thus inhibit their peroxidase activities, and its role in differentiation induction in vitro and in vivo of acute myeloid leukemic cells.

  12. Moderator design studies for a new neutron reference source based on the D–T fusion reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Piper, Roman K.; Rathbone, Bruce A.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    The radioactive isotope Californium-252 (252Cf) is relied upon internationally as a neutron calibration source for ionizing radiation dosimetry because of its high specific activity. The source may be placed within a heavy-water (D2O) moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum representative of neutron fields common to commercial nuclear power plant environments, among others. Due to termination of the U.S. Department of Energy loan/lease program in 2012, the expense of obtaining 252Cf sources has undergone a significant increase, rendering high output sources largely unattainable. On the other hand, the use of neutron generators in research and industry applications has increased dramatically in recent years. Neutron generators based on deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction provide high neutron fluence rates and, therefore, could possibly be used as a replacement for 252Cf. To be viable, the 14.6 MeV D-T output spectrum must be significantly moderated to approximate common workplace environments. This paper presents the results of an effort to select appropriate moderating materials and design a configuration to reshape the primary neutron field toward a spectrum approaching that from a nuclear power plant workplace. A series of Monte-Carlo (MCNP) simulations of single layer high- and low-Z materials are used to identify initial candidate moderators. Candidates are refined through a similar series of simulations involving combinations of 2 to 5 different materials. The simulated energy distribution using these candidate moderators are rated in comparison to a target spectrum. Other properties, such as fluence preservation and/or enhancement, prompt gamma production and other characteristics are also considered.

  13. Cancer immunotherapy targeting neoantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Chen; Robbins, Paul F

    2016-02-01

    Neoantigens are antigens encoded by tumor-specific mutated genes. Studies in the past few years have suggested a key role for neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy. Here we review the discoveries of neoantigens in the past two decades and the current advances in neoantigen identification. We also discuss the potential benefits and obstacles to the development of effective cancer immunotherapies targeting neoantigens.

  14. Microenvironmental targets in sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eEhnman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors affecting all age groups. They are typically classified according to their resemblance to corresponding normal tissue. Their heterogeneous features, for example in terms of disease-driving genetic aberrations and body location, complicate both disease classification and development of novel treatment regimens. Many years of failure of improved patient outcome in clinical trials has lead to the conclusion that novel targeted therapies are likely needed in combination with current multimodality regimens. Sarcomas have not, in contrast to the common carcinomas, been the subject for larger systematic studies on how tumor behavior relates to characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. There is consequently an urgent need for identifying suitable molecular targets, not only in tumor cells, but also in the tumor microenvironment. This review discusses preclinical and clinical data about potential molecular targets in sarcomas. Studies on targeted therapies involving the tumor microenvironment are prioritized. A greater understanding of the biological context is expected to facilitate more successful design of future clinical trials in sarcoma.

  15. Major Targets for 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ This year, the main targets we have set for economic and social development are: increasing GDP by approximately 8 percent, creating jobs for more than 9 million people, keeping the urban registered unemployment rate no higher than 4.6 percent, holding the rise in consumer prices to around 3 percent, and improving the balance of payments.

  16. Target chambers for gammashpere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Falout, J.W.; Nardi, B.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    One of our responsibilities for Gammasphere, was designing and constructing two target chambers and associated beamlines to be used with the spectrometer. The first chamber was used with the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, and consisted of two spun-Al hemispheres welded together giving a wall thickness of 0.063 inches and a diameter of 12 inches.

  17. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  18. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project entitled,” Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  19. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of nuclear material in scrap and waste by passive-Active neutron counting using 252Cf shuffler

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the nondestructive assay of scrap and waste items for U, Pu, or both, using a 252Cf shuffler. Shuffler measurements have been applied to a variety of matrix materials in containers of up to several 100 L. Corrections are made for the effects of matrix material. Applications of this test method include measurements for safeguards, accountability, TRU, and U waste segregation, disposal, and process control purposes (1, 2, 3). 1.1.1 This test method uses passive neutron coincidence counting (4) to measure the 240Pu-effective mass. It has been used to assay items with total Pu contents between 0.03 g and 1000 g. It could be used to measure other spontaneously fissioning isotopes such as Cm and Cf. It specifically describes the approach used with shift register electronics; however, it can be adapted to other electronics. 1.1.2 This test method uses neutron irradiation with a moveable Cf source and counting of the delayed neutrons from the induced fissions to measure the 235U equiva...

  20. In Plant Measurement and Analysis of Mixtures of Uranium and Plutonium TRU-Waste Using a {sup 252}Cf Shuffler Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, J.R.

    1998-11-02

    The active-passive {sup 252}Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU)-waste. Little or no data currently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here.

  1. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu T. Supuran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1 are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and/or γ-CA families. In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized in detail. These enzymes were shown to be efficient catalysts for CO2 hydration, with kcat values in the range of (3.4–8.3 × 105 s−1 and kcat/KM values of (4.7–8.5 × 107 M−1·s−1. In vitro inhibition studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates, were also reported for the two β-CAs from this pathogen, LpCA1 and LpCA2. Inorganic anions were millimolar inhibitors, whereas diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid, and phenylarsonic acid were micromolar ones. The best LpCA1 inhibitors were aminobenzolamide and structurally similar sulfonylated aromatic sulfonamides, as well as acetazolamide and ethoxzolamide (KIs in the range of 40.3–90.5 nM. The best LpCA2 inhibitors belonged to the same class of sulfonylated sulfonamides, together with acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dichlorophenamide (KIs in the range of 25.2–88.5 nM. Considering such preliminary results, the two bacterial CAs from this pathogen represent promising yet underexplored targets for obtaining antibacterials devoid of the resistance problems common to most of the clinically used antibiotics, but further studies are needed to validate them in vivo as drug targets.

  2. Characterization of pKP-M1144, a Novel ColE1-Like Plasmid Encoding IMP-8, GES-5, and BEL-1 β-Lactamases, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 252 Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Dolejska, Monika; Izdebski, Radoslaw; Dobiasova, Hana; Studentova, Vendula; Esteves, Francisco J; Derde, Lennie P G; Bonten, Marc J M; Hrabák, Jaroslav; Gniadkowski, Marek

    2015-08-01

    IMP-8 metallo-β-lactamase was identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 252 (ST252), isolated in a Portuguese hospital in 2009. blaIMP-8 was the first gene cassette of a novel class 3 integron, In1144, also carrying the blaGES-5, blaBEL-1, and aacA4 cassettes. In1144 was located on a ColE1-like plasmid, pKP-M1144 (12,029 bp), with a replication region of limited nucleotide similarity to those of other RNA-priming plasmids, such as pJHCMW1. In1144 and pKP-M1144 represent an interesting case of evolution of resistance determinants in Gram-negative bacteria.

  3. Metabolic pathway analysis approach: identification of novel therapeutic target against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Reaz; Saeed, Kiran; Khan, Waqasuddin; Azam, Syed Sikander; Wadood, Abdul

    2015-02-10

    Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria are no more inhibited by the front line antibiotics due to extreme resistance. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the MDR pathogens notorious for its widespread infection around the world. The high resistance acquired by MRSA needs a serious concern and efforts should be carried out for the discovery of better therapeutics. With this aim, we designed a comparison of the metabolic pathways of the pathogen, MRSA strain 252 (MRSA252) with the human host (i.e., Homo sapiens) by using well-established in silico methods. We identified several metabolic pathways unique to MRSA (i.e., absent in the human host). Furthermore, a subtractive genomics analysis approach was applied for retrieval of proteins only from the unique metabolic pathways. Subsequently, proteins of unique MRSA pathways were compared with the host proteins. As a result, we have shortlisted few unique and essential proteins that could act as drug targets against MRSA. We further assessed the druggability potential of the shortlisted targets by comparing them with the DrugBank Database (DBD). The identified drug targets could be useful for an effective drug discovery phase. We also searched the sequences of unique as well as essential enzymes from MRSA in Protein Data Bank (PDB). We shortlisted at least 12 enzymes for which there was no corresponding deposition in PDB, reflecting that their crystal structures are yet to be solved! We selected Glutamate synthase out of those 12 enzymes owing to its participation in significant metabolic pathways of the pathogen e.g., Alanine, Aspartate, Glutamate and Nitrogen metabolism and its evident suitability as drug target among other MDR bacteria e.g., Mycobacteria. Due to the unavailability of any crystal structure of Glutamate synthase in PDB, we generated the 3D structure by homology modeling. The modeled structure was validated by multiple analysis tools. The active site of Glutamate synthase was

  4. Polarization discrimination between repeater false-target and radar target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI LongFei; WANG XueSong; XIAO ShunPing

    2009-01-01

    High fidelity repeater false-target badly affects a radar system's detecting, tracking, and data processing. It is an available approach of confronting false-target for radar that discriminates firstly and then eliminates. Whereas for the technique progress about the repeater false-target jam, it is more and more difficult to discriminate this jam in the time-domain, frequency-domain, or space-domain. The technique using polarization information to discriminate the target and false-target is discussed in this paper. With the difference that false-target signal vector's polarization ratio is fixed and target echo signal vector's polarization ratio is variational along with radar transmission signal's polarization, we transform the discrimination problem to beeline distinguish problem in the 2-dim complex space. The distributing characteristic expression of the false-target discrimination statistic is constructed, with which the discrimination ratio of false-target is analyzed. For the target case, the decomposed model of target scattering matrix and the concept of distinguish quantity are proposed. Then, the discrimination ratio of target can be forecasted according to target distinguish quantity. Thus, the performance of discrimination method has been analyzed integrally. The simulation results demonstrate the method in this paper is effective on the discrimination of target and false-target.

  5. Localization and distribution of magnetic chemotherapeutic drugs with magnetic targeting in rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI An-min; ZHANG Chuan-xiu; FU Xiang-ping; ZHANG Zhi-wen; XUE Qing-hui; YAN Run-min; YI Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Background Magnetic targeting therapy may be a new method for the treatment of malignent tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the localization and distribution of ferrofluid microsphere of human serum albumin methotrexate (FM-HSA-MTX) carriers in the brain and to explore the magnetic targeting chemotherapy for malignant brain tumor. Methods Ninety SD rats were divided into three groups: targeting group, non-magnetic targeting group, and control group. Synthesized FM-HSA-MTX carriers (MTX 25 mg/kg) were injected into the systemic circulation via the caudal vein (magnetic targeting group, n=30). A 0.6 T magnetic field was placed around the right hemisphere. The non-magnetic targeting group (n=30) was administered with FM-HSA-MTX without external magnetic field, meanwhile the control group (n=30) was treated with MTX and a magnetic field. Random serial sacrifices (n=10) were conducted at 15, 30 and 45 minutes after drug administration. Bilateral hemispheres were collected respectively, and analyzed for total MTX content. Results MTX content in the right hemisphere of the magnetic targeting group was significantly higher than that in the other two groups at 15, 30 and 45 minutes after drug administration (P<0.05) No difference was seen between the non-targeting group and control group. In the magnetic targeting group, MTX returned to the peak level [(0.564±0.018) mg/g, q15-45=32.252, P<0.05] 45 minutes after the injection but it deceased in the other two groups [non-magnetic targeting group: (0.060±0.015) mg/g, q15-45=9.245, P<0.05, control group: (0.074±0.045) mg/g, q15-45=6.299, P<0.05]. In the magnetic targeting group, the concentration of MTX in the right hemisphere was significantly higher than that in the left hemisphere (t45min=21.135, P=0.000) but no difference was observed between bilateral hemispheres in the other two groups (non-magnetic targeting group: t45min=0.434, P=0.670; control group: t45min=0.533, P=0.600). Conclusion In

  6. Gene Targeting in Neuroendocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candlish, Michael; De Angelis, Roberto; Götz, Viktoria; Boehm, Ulrich

    2015-09-20

    Research in neuroendocrinology faces particular challenges due to the complex interactions between cells in the hypothalamus, in the pituitary gland and in peripheral tissues. Within the hypothalamus alone, attempting to target a specific neuronal cell type can be problematic due to the heterogeneous nature and level of cellular diversity of hypothalamic nuclei. Because of the inherent complexity of the reproductive axis, the use of animal models and in vivo experiments are often a prerequisite in reproductive neuroendocrinology. The advent of targeted genetic modifications, particularly in mice, has opened new avenues of neuroendocrine research. Within this review, we evaluate various mouse models used in reproductive neuroendocrinology and discuss the different approaches to generate genetically modified mice, along with their inherent advantages and disadvantages. We also discuss a variety of versatile genetic tools with a focus on their potential use in reproductive neuroendocrinology.

  7. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...... will need to make efforts to recover all recyclable fractions, and that the increased recycling efforts of only selected municipalities will not be sufficient to reach the target.......Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22...

  8. Foucault on targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to gain an insight into the behavior of a large NHS trust, in its attempt to meet a 90 percent patient access target, in a week long national audit in March 2003. Why did individuals act in dramatically different ways to their norm over this period. The work of Michel Foucault is used to explore these issues. The discourses of power, knowledge, discipline and governmentality are identified as key foucaudian themes that offer an alternative interpretation of how individuals behave in their place of work. The importance of the historical context of discourse within the NHS cannot be underestimated in shaping the behavior of individuals and groups today. Power and knowledge permeate NHS organizations through disciplinary practices and dressage. Governmentality seeks to maintain the status quo through disciplinary processes such as national healthcare targets. The natural response of NHS organizations is therefore, to seek order and conformity rather than disorder and conflict.

  9. Recognizing occluded MSTAR targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanu, Bir; Jones, Grinnell, III

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for recognizing occluded vehicle targets in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. Using quasi-invariant local features, SAR scattering center locations and magnitudes, a recognition algorithm is presented that successfully recognizes highly occluded versions of actual vehicles from the MSTAR public data. Extensive experimental results are presented to show the effect of occlusion on recognition performance in terms of Probability of Correct Identification, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and confusion matrices. The effect of occlusion on performance of this recognition algorithm is accurately predicted. Combined effects such as occlusion and measured positional noise, as well as occlusion and other observed extended operating conditions (e.g., articulation) are also addressed. Although excellent forced recognition results can be achieved at very high (70%) occlusion, practical limitations are found due to the similarity of unoccluded confuser vehicles to highly occluded targets.

  10. Targeting biodefense markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinger, Gene Garrard

    2009-10-01

    The "World Vaccine Congress 2009" held in Washington D.C. (April 20-23, 2009) sponsored several sessions focused on the vaccine market targeting biodefense. On day one of the congress, a panel discussion outlined the federal progress in medical countermeasure preparedness that included emerging infections, influenza, and biodefense focuses. The second day, a session focused on the biodefense vaccine market with both government and industry members discussing the opportunities and challenges associated with the budding market.

  11. Implementing Target Value Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K

    2017-01-01

    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  12. Follicular penetration and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, Jürgen; Otberg, Nina; Jacobi, Ute; Hoffman, Robert M; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    In the past, intercellular penetration was assumed to be the most important penetration pathway of topically applied substances. First hints that follicular penetration needs to be taken into consideration were confirmed by recent investigations, presented during the workshop "Follicular Penetration and Targeting" at the 4th Intercontinental Meeting of Hair Research Societies", in Berlin 2004. Hair follicles represent an efficient reservoir for the penetration of topically applied substances with subsequent targeting of distinct cell populations, e.g., nestin-expressing follicular bulge cells. The volume of this reservoir can be determined by differential stripping technology. The follicular penetration processes are significantly influenced by the state of the follicular infundibulum; recent experimental investigations could demonstrate that it is essential to distinguish between open and closed hair follicles. Topically applied substances can only penetrate into open hair follicle. Knowledge of follicular penetration is of high clinical relevance for functional targeting of distinct follicular regions. Human hair follicles show a hair-cycle-dependent variation of the dense neuronal and vascular network. Moreover, during hair follicle cycling with initiation of anagen, newly formed vessels occur. Thus, the potential of nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells to form neurons and blood vessels was investigated.

  13. Systematic study of probable projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of the superheavy nucleus 302120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Safoora, V.

    2016-08-01

    Probable projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of the superheavy element 302120 have been studied taking the Coulomb and proximity potential as the interaction barrier. The probabilities of the compound nucleus formation PCN for the projectile-target combinations found in the cold reaction valley of 302120 are estimated. At energies near and above the Coulomb barrier, we have calculated the capture, fusion, and evaporation residue cross sections for the reactions of all probable projectile-target combinations so as to predict the most promising projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of the superheavy element 302120 in heavy-ion fusion reactions. The calculated fusion and evaporation cross sections for the more asymmetric ("hotter") projectile-target combination is found to be higher than the less asymmetric ("colder") combination. It can be seen from the nature of the quasifission barrier height, mass asymmetry, the probability of compound nucleus formation, survival probability, and excitation energy, the systems 44Ar+258No , 46Ar+256No , 48Ca+254Fm , 50Ca+252Fm , 54Ti+248Cf , and 58Cr+244Cm in deep region I of the cold reaction valley and the systems 62Fe+240Pu , 64Fe+238Pu , 68Ni+234U , 70Ni+232U , 72Ni+230U , and 74Zn+228Th in the other cold valleys are identified as the better projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of 302120. Our predictions on the synthesis of 302120 superheavy nuclei using the combinations 54Cr+248Cm , 58Fe+244Pu , 64Ni+238U , and 50Ti+249Cf are compared with available experimental data and other theoretical predictions.

  14. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  15. Subtyping of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma in Fine Needle Aspiration Specimens: A Study of 252 Patients with Surgical Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyhan Varol Mollamehmetoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA cytology performed by either transthoracic or transbronchial procedures is an important approach to obtain tumor tissue for histological diagnosis. We investigated the accuracy of FNA in differentiating NSCLCs of adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma histological types to correlate cytological findings with histological features and immunohistochemistry confirmation in some cases. Methods: From 2010 to 2015, a total of 635 transbronchial needle aspirations or transthoracic needle aspirations were performed. 332 cases were diagnosed as NSCLC, with or without an indication of a specific subtype, while 303 cases were not diagnosed as NSCLC. Out of 332 cases diagnosed as NSCLC, 252 had a histological follow-up. Subsequently, histological samples included 161 surgical resections and 91 biopsies. In cases with histopathological diagnosis accompanied by FNA cytology, an immunohistochemical study was carried out and the diagnostic results of the two methods were compared to each other. Results: The specific subtype of NSCLC was provided in 217 cases (86% based on cytomorphology which included 115 adenocarcinomas (46% and 102 squamous cell carcinomas (40%. The diagnosis NSCLC-NOS by FNA was set in 35 cases. At histology, 251 cases (99.6% were sub-classified: 122 adenocarcinomas (48%, 104 squamous cell carcinomas (41%, 11 large cell carcinomas (4% , and 14 adenosquamous carcinomas (6%. Agreement between cytological and histological typing was found in 181 of 197 cases (92% (K=0.837; p<0.001. Conclusion: Our study proved that most NSCLC can be sub-classified as adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma by FNA through cytomorphology and the application of immunocytochemistry.

  16. Large molecular mass materials in coal-derived liquids by {sup 252}Cf-plasma and matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domin, M.; Li, S.; Lazaro, M.-J.; Herod, A.A.; Larsen, J.W.; Kandiyoti, R. [School of Pharmacy, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Parmaceutical and Biological Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    The paper compares responses of {sup 252}Cf-plasma desorption MS (PD-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI) MS to identical samples. The two pairs of samples selected for the comparison were known from previous work to differ significantly in their high mass contents. MALDI-MS showed large differences in MM distributions within both pairs of samples. The PD-MS data showed a degree of similarity between one pair of samples (pyridine soluble/insoluble fractions of a coal tar pitch); for the second pair (a coal extract and its hydrocracked product), trends from the two MS techniques agreed closely. The MM range observed by PD-MS was somewhat narrower, extending to between 3000 and 5000 u. Significant differences within pairs of samples were observed by SEC and by UV-fluorescence spectroscopy, providing somewhat closer agreement with the MALDI spectra. The two MS instruments differ in two important respects: the ionization system (i.e., plasma vs laser desorption) and the maximum available ion extraction voltage: 30 kV for the MALDI-MS instrument and 15 kV for the PD-MS. The comparison of plasma vs laser desorption mass spectroscopy could not therefore take place at high ion extraction voltages. Work at up to 30 kV in the MALDI instrument indicated better sensitivity to high-mass materials at higher ion extraction voltages. The qualitative similarity of results from the two MS techniques is nevertheless apparent; the range of MMs observed in PD-MS as well as in MALDI-MS were, furthermore, far larger than those reported by any MS technique, to date. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. In silico analysis of clumping factors ClfA and ClfB of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA 252 strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa M. Deodurg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases cause millions of deaths every year and several gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the main cause of severe illnesses. S. aureus is a major cause of infection in both healthcare and community settings. S. aureus is equipped with a great variety of virulence factors and carries numerous surface proteins named “microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules” (MSCRAMMs that mediate attachment to host tissues exclusively to the gamma-chain of human fibrinogen which induces formation of bacterial clumps and initiate colonization leading to an infection. In the present investigation, in silico analysis of adhesins such as clumping factors A & B (ClfA and ClfB of MRSA 252 was carried out. Primary protein sequence analysis reveals that Clf A & B proteins were acidic in nature having pI value 3.47 & 3.89 respectively. The secondary structure analysis by SOPMA revealed that Clf A & B have less percent of alpha helix than beta sheets and more number of random coils and these proteins belong to serine-aspartate repeat containing protein (SDr family. The domain analysis by SMART showed that ClfA contains YSIRK type signal peptide and SdrG_C_C domain and ClfB contains YSIRK type signal peptide, SdrG_C_C and Gram_pos_anchor domains. Antigenicity of ClfA and ClfB were 1.2023 and 1.0931 respectively was predicted by Vaxijen 2.0 server. The homology modeling of ClfA & B built by SWISS-MODEL was validated using PROCHECK that showed 92.9% and 91.0% model quality respectively. The detailed analysis of function and mechanisms of action of each virulence factor could open the way to control infectious diseases by using specific inhibitors and may be helpful for the development of novel therapies for S. aureus diseases.

  18. 妊娠期高血压疾病252例分析%Analysis of 25 Cases Patient on with Hypertension During Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀艳

    2006-01-01

    目的:通过对252例妊娠期高血压疾病分类比较分析,了解新诊断标准的意义及本病对母儿的影响.方法:对2005年1月1日~2006年7月1日在我院住院分娩的孕妇诊断妊娠期高血压疾病,按新诊断标准分类分组:妊娠高血压组、子痫前期轻度组、子痫前期重度组.比较三组间母儿发生早产、胎盘早剥、产后出血、胎儿窘迫、胎儿生长受限(FGR)、新生儿窒息等情况.结果:妊娠高血压组早产、胎儿窘迫的发生率显著低于轻度组,轻度组孕产妇并发症、FGR、围产儿死亡及病率的发生率显著低于重度组(P<0.01).妊娠期高血压组产后出血的发生率低于轻度组,轻度组早产、产后出血、胎儿窘迫、新生儿窒息低于重度组(P<0.05).结论:加强孕期保健,早发现、早治疗,以改善母儿不良结局.

  19. Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0412 TITLE: "Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis " PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yong Teng CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: REPORT...ng Prost a t e Cancer Metastasi s Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 14- 1- 0 41 2 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER YongTeng Se...r egulator in contr olling metastasis of p r ost a t e cancer and i nhi b i t i ng i t prevent s met ast asis . There are no drugs available to tar

  20. Open Targets: a platform for therapeutic target identification and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscielny, Gautier; An, Peter; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Cham, Jennifer A.; Fumis, Luca; Gasparyan, Rippa; Hasan, Samiul; Karamanis, Nikiforos; Maguire, Michael; Papa, Eliseo; Pierleoni, Andrea; Pignatelli, Miguel; Platt, Theo; Rowland, Francis; Wankar, Priyanka; Bento, A. Patrícia; Burdett, Tony; Fabregat, Antonio; Forbes, Simon; Gaulton, Anna; Gonzalez, Cristina Yenyxe; Hermjakob, Henning; Hersey, Anne; Jupe, Steven; Kafkas, Şenay; Keays, Maria; Leroy, Catherine; Lopez, Francisco-Javier; Magarinos, Maria Paula; Malone, James; McEntyre, Johanna; Munoz-Pomer Fuentes, Alfonso; O'Donovan, Claire; Papatheodorou, Irene; Parkinson, Helen; Palka, Barbara; Paschall, Justin; Petryszak, Robert; Pratanwanich, Naruemon; Sarntivijal, Sirarat; Saunders, Gary; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Smith, Thomas; Sondka, Zbyslaw; Stegle, Oliver; Tang, Y. Amy; Turner, Edward; Vaughan, Brendan; Vrousgou, Olga; Watkins, Xavier; Martin, Maria-Jesus; Sanseau, Philippe; Vamathevan, Jessica; Birney, Ewan; Barrett, Jeffrey; Dunham, Ian

    2017-01-01

    We have designed and developed a data integration and visualization platform that provides evidence about the association of known and potential drug targets with diseases. The platform is designed to support identification and prioritization of biological targets for follow-up. Each drug target is linked to a disease using integrated genome-wide data from a broad range of data sources. The platform provides either a target-centric workflow to identify diseases that may be associated with a specific target, or a disease-centric workflow to identify targets that may be associated with a specific disease. Users can easily transition between these target- and disease-centric workflows. The Open Targets Validation Platform is accessible at https://www.targetvalidation.org. PMID:27899665

  1. Production of Medical Radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for Cancer Treatment and Arterial Restenosis Therapy after PTCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, F. F. Jr.; Beets, A. L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C. W.; Hobbs, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  2. Production of medical radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for cancer treatment and arterial restenosis therapy after PTCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C.W.; Hobbs, R.L.

    1998-06-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  3. Low intensity beam target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    This is a wheel fitted with many targets around its periphery (each with three longitudinally arranged thin rods) of which one is placed into the beam via a rotation of the wheel. Upstream of each target is placed a luminescent screen, aligbed on each target axis and viewed with a TV camera, to make sure that one is hitting the target. This target unit was probably used to study target's behaviour (like beam heating). Gualtiero Del Torre stands on the left, Pierre Gerdil on the right.

  4. Targeting adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Bodo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two different types of adipose tissues can be found in humans enabling them to respond to starvation and cold: white adipose tissue (WAT is generally known and stores excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TG, insulates against cold, and serves as a mechanical cushion. Brown adipose tissue (BAT helps newborns to cope with cold. BAT has the capacity to uncouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby generating heat rather than adenosine triphosphate (ATP. The previously widely held view was that BAT disappears rapidly after birth and is no longer present in adult humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET, however, it was recently shown that metabolically active BAT occurs in defined regions and scattered in WAT of the adult and possibly has an influence on whole-body energy homeostasis. In obese individuals adipose tissue is at the center of metabolic syndrome. Targeting of WAT by thiazolidinediones (TZDs, activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ a ‘master’ regulator of fat cell biology, is a current therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since its unique capacity to increase energy consumption of the body and to dissipate surplus energy as heat, BAT offers new perspectives as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Recent discoveries of new signaling pathways of BAT development give rise to new therapeutic possibilities in order to influence BAT content and activity.

  5. Target Housing Material Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    With gas cooling, heat transfer coefficients are low compared to water. The benefit of gas from a heat transfer point of view is that there is really no upper temperature limit for the coolant, as compared to water, which is limited ultimately by the critical point, and in practice the critical heat flux. In our case with parallel flow channels, water is limited to even lower operating limits by nucleate boiling. So gas can get as hot as the containment material will allow, but to get the density and heat transfer up to something reasonable, we must also increase pressure, thus increasing stress on the containment, namely the front and back faces. We are designing to ASME BPVC, which, for most materials allows a maximum stress of UTS/3. So we want the highest possible UTS. For reference, the front face stress in the 12 mm target at 300 psi was about 90 MPa. The inconel 718 allowable stress at 900°C is 1/3 of 517 or 172 MPa. So we are in a very safe place, but the uTS is dropping rapidly with temperature above 900°C. As we increase target diameter, the challenge will be to keep the stress down. We are probably looking at keeping the allowable at or above the present value, and at as high a temperature as possible.

  6. Targeted therapy in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudchadkar, Ragini R; Smalley, Keiran S M; Glass, L Frank; Trimble, James S; Sondak, Vernon K

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of activating mutations in the BRAF oncogene in melanoma, there has been remarkable progress in the development of targeted therapies for unresectable and metastatic melanoma. We review the latest developments in our understanding of the role of BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway signaling in melanoma, and the development of inhibitors of this pathway. We also explore alternative mutations seen in melanoma, such as NRAS, KIT, GNAQ, and GNA11, and the drug development that is ongoing based on this biology. Strategies for the management of the vexing clinical problem of BRAF inhibitor resistance, primarily via combination therapy, are outlined. With the recent approval of the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib for stage IV metastatic melanoma, use of this agent is expanding in the United States. Thus, management of the skin toxicities of this agent, such as squamous cell carcinomas, "acneiform" eruptions, hand-foot syndrome, and panniculitis, will be a growing problem facing dermatologists today. We discuss the toxicities of targeted agents in use for melanoma, in particular the dermatologic effects and the management of these skin toxicities.

  7. A Note on Inflation Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-chong; Chang, Juin-jen

    2001-01-01

    Presents a pedagogical graphical exposition to illustrate the stabilizing effect of price target zones. Finds that authorities' commitment to defend a price target zone affects the public's inflation expectations and, in turn, reduces actual inflation. (RLH)

  8. Bradycardia During Targeted Temperature Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Nielsen, Niklas; Hassager, Christian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bradycardia is common during targeted temperature management, likely being a physiologic response to lower body temperature, and has recently been associated with favorable outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in smaller observational studies. The present study sought...... to confirm this finding in a large multicenter cohort of patients treated with targeted temperature management at 33°C and explore the response to targeted temperature management targeting 36°C. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a prospective randomized study. SETTING: Thirty-six ICUs in 10 countries. PATIENTS......: We studied 447 (targeted temperature management = 33°C) and 430 (targeted temperature management = 36°C) comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with available heart rate data, randomly assigned in the targeted temperature management trial from 2010 to 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Targeted...

  9. Scaling of exploding pusher targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1977-08-22

    A theory of exploding pusher laser pusher targets is compared to results of LASNEX calculations and to Livermore experiments. A scaling relationship is described which predicts the optimum target/pulse combinations as a function of the laser power.

  10. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced tropomyosin-related kinase B (Trk B) signaling is a potential therapeutic target for peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Koji; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Toiyama, Yuji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Saigusa, Susumu; Kawamura, Mikio; Araki, Toshimitsu; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Tropomyosin-related receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling, stimulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ligand, promotes tumor progression, and is related to the poor prognosis of various malignancies. We sought to examine the clinical relevance of BDNF/TrkB expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, its prognostic value for CRC patients, and its therapeutic potential in vitro and in vivo. Two hundred and twenty-three CRC patient specimens were used to determine both BDNF and TrkB mRNA levels. The expression of these proteins in their primary and metastatic tumors was investigated by immunohistochemistry. CRC cell lines and recombinant BDNF and K252a (a selective pharmacological pan-Trk inhibitor) were used for in vitro cell viability, migration, invasion, anoikis resistance and in vivo peritoneal metastasis assays. Tissue BDNF mRNA was associated with liver and peritoneal metastasis. Tissue TrkB mRNA was also associated with lymph node metastasis. The co-expression of BDNF and TrkB was associated with liver and peritoneal metastasis. Patients with higher BDNF, TrkB, and co-expression of BDNF and TrkB had a significantly poor prognosis. BDNF increased tumor cell viability, migration, invasion and inhibited anoikis in the TrkB-expressing CRC cell lines. These effects were suppressed by K252a. In mice injected with DLD1 co-expressing BDNF and TrkB, and subsequently treated with K252a, peritoneal metastatic nodules was found to be reduced, as compared with control mice. BDNF/TrkB signaling may thus be a potential target for treating peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from colorectal cancer.

  11. ORION laser target diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-10-15

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  12. [Targeted therapies for melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, U; Meier, F; Garbe, C

    2014-07-01

    Since the discovery of activating mutations in the BRAF oncogene and also stimulation of immune mediated antitumor response in melanoma, there has been remarkable progress in the development of targeted therapies for unresectable and metastatic melanoma. This article addresses the latest developments of BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway signaling. In addition, the development of drugs to attack alternative mutations in melanoma, such as NRAS and KIT is described. Strategies for the management of BRAF inhibitor resistance, such as with combination therapy, are outlined. Antitumor immune therapies with monoclonal antibodies such as ipilimumab which acts by promoting T-cell activation or antibody blockade of programmed death-1 (PD-1) led to a long term response in metastatic melanoma. Results of latest clinical studies including the toxicity profile are described. Due to selective kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockade, the therapy of unresectable metastatic melanoma has greatly improved and long-term survival of patients with metastatic melanoma seems a real possibility.

  13. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  14. Targeting of Antibodies using Aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The chapter presents a methodology for the rapid selection of aptamers against antibody targets. It is a detailed account of the various methodological steps that describe the selection of aptamers, including PCR steps, buffers to be used, target immobilisation, partitioning and amplification of aptamers, clonning and sequencing, to results in high affinity and specificity ligands for the chosen target antibody.

  15. Design of shielding-performance testing-device for reactors construction shielding-material based on 252Cf source%基于252Cf 源的反应堆结构屏蔽材料屏蔽性能测试装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺丹; 宋英明; 邹树梁; 徐守龙; 王晓冬; 朱志超; 谭桢干; 何志锋; 王新林

    2015-01-01

    Background: New material for the reactor shielding structure is one type of cast-steel impurity doping actinide elements have been adopted. The design parameters of the shielding performance testing device for the various parts of reactor can be obtained by Monte Carlo method. Purpose: This study aims to test the shielding performance of the shielding material of reactor. Methods: First of all, the testing device model was built based on a 252Cf neutron source. Three kinds of models (the thicknesses of the moderation layer, the protective layers of the neutron and gamma ray) are calculated respectively using the MCNP program for the shielding performance testing device. The GEANT4 program was used for the key moderation layer to verify the results obtained by the MCNP program. Results: Through the analysis of simulation results, we obtained optimal shielding materials and the thicknesses of material layer: moderator layer material is paraffin wax, which having a thickness of 8 cm, neutron shielding material is polyethylene, which having a thickness of 38 cm, and γ protective layer material is iron, which having a thickness of 11 cm. Conclusion: Simulation results show that the proposed shielding performance testing device can meet the requirements of neutron moderator, neutron protection and photon protection.%基于252Cf 中子源,构建了反应堆结构屏蔽材料屏蔽性能测试装置设计模型。采用 MCNP 程序建立了测试模型,并逐次模拟计算屏蔽性能测试装置慢化层、中子防护层、γ光子防护层厚度。对于关键的慢化层,采用 Geant4程序进一步验证 MCNP 程序的计算结果。通过分析模拟计算获得了最优屏蔽材料及厚度分别为:慢化层材料为石蜡,厚度为8 cm;中子防护层材料为聚乙烯,厚度为38 cm;γ防护层材料为铁,厚度为11 cm。模拟实验结果表明,所设计屏蔽性能测试装置能够满足中子慢化以及中子、光子防护的需要。

  16. Preliminary Mark-18A (Mk-18A) Target Material Recovery Program Product Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bradley D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) manages an inventory of materials that contains a range of long-lived radioactive isotopes that were produced from the 1960s through the 1980s by irradiating targets in production nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One reactor was operated in a high-flux mode to produce heavy isotopes for defense purposes, DOE programmatic use, scientific research, and industrial and medical applications. In this reactor, eighty-six Mk-18A (Mk-18A) targets were subjected to long-term high neutron fluxes 47 years ago. Twentyone targets of these were processed to recover 244Pu, heavy curium (i.e., curium rich in 246-248Cm), and 252Cf. The plutonium fraction, which was rich in 244Pu, was electromagnetically enriched in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) calutrons to produce gram quantities of 244Pu. This high-purity 244Pu was portioned out to scientists for basic research and for nuclear nonproliferation safeguards programs. The recovered tails (designated as FP-33) contain 244Pu isotopic purities below 20% and are stored at ORNL. The processing of these 21 Mk-18A targets provided the supply of 244Pu and heavy curium in use today. The remaining 65 unprocessed targets are currently in a storage pool at SRS; they contain the world’s remaining supply of unseparated 244Pu and heavy curium.

  17. 1987 Neutron and gamma personnel dosimeter intercomparison study using a D/sub 2/O-moderated /sup 252/Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; West, L.E.; Sims, C.S.; Welty, T.J.

    1989-05-01

    The thirteenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study (i.e., PDIS 13) was conducted during April 1987 as a joint effort by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Dosimetry Applications Research Group and the Southwest Radiation Calibration Center at the University of Arkansas. A total of 48 organizations (34 from the US and 14 from abroad) participated in PDIS 13. Participants submitted a total of 1,113 neutron and gamma dosimeters for this mixed field study. The dosimeters were transferred by mail and were handled by experimental personnel at ORNL and the University of Arkansas. The type of neutron dosimeter and the percentage of participants submitting that type are as follows: TLD-albedo (49%), direct interaction TLD (31%), CR-39 (17%), film (3%). The type of gamma dosimeter and the percentage of participants submitting that type are as follows: Li/sub 2/B/sub 4/O/sub 7/, alone or in combination with CaSO/sub 4/, (69%), /sup 7/LiF (28%), natural LiF (3%). Radiation exposures in PDIS 13 were limited to 0.5 and 1.5 mSv from /sup 252/Cf moderated by 15-cm of D/sub 2/O. Traditional exposures using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) were not possible due to the fact that all reactors at ORNL, including the HPRR, were shutdown by order of the Department of Energy at the time the intercomparison was performed. Planned exposures using a /sup 238/PuBe source were negated by a faulty timing mechanism. Based on accuracy and precision, direct interaction TLD dosimeters exhibited the best performance in PDIS 13 neutron measurements. They were followed, in order of best performance, by CR-39, TLD albedo, and film. The Li/sub 2/B/sub 4/O/sub 7/ type TLD dosimeters exhibited the best performance in PDIS 13 gamma measurements. They were followed by natural LiF, /sup 7/LiF, and film. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  18. Distinct difference in relative biological effectiveness of {sup 252}Cf neutrons for the induction of mitotic crossing over and intragenic reversion of the white-ivory allele in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Isao [Department of Genetics, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan); Hoshi, Masaharu [International Radiation Information Center, Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Ikenaga, Mituo [Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of {sup 252}Cf neutrons was determined for two different types of somatic mutations, i.e., loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations and reversion of the mutant white-ivory eye-color, in Drosophila melanogaster. Loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations results predominantly from mitotic crossing over induced in wing anlage cells of larvae, while the reverse mutation of eye-color is due to an intragenic structural change in the white locus on the X-chromosome. For a quantitative comparison of RBE values for these events, we have constructed a combined mutation assay system so that induced mutant wing-hair clones as well as revertant eye-color clones can be detected simultaneously in the same individuals. Larvae were irradiated at the age of 80{+-}4 h post-oviposition with {sup 252}Cf neutrons or {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays, and male adult flies were examined under the microscope for the presence of the two types of clonal mosaic spots appearing. The induction of wing-hair spots per dose unit was much greater for {sup 252}Cf neutrons than for {sup 137}Cs {gamma} -rays, whereas the frequencies of eye-color reversion were similar for neutrons and {gamma}-rays. The estimated RBE values of neutrons were 8.5 and 1.2 for the induction of mutant wing-hair spots and revertant eye-color spots, respectively. These results indicate that the RBE of neutrons is much greater for mitotic crossing over in comparison to the intragenic white-ivory reversion events. Possible causes for the difference in RBE are discussed.

  19. LW10B-252型断路器机构油压对同期性及分、合闸时间的影响%Mechanism Oil-pressure's Effect on Closing/opening Simultaneityand Time of LW10B-252 Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石锋杰; 郭琳; 李芳

    2012-01-01

    Non-simultaneous opening or closing of the three phases of circuit breaker can lead to a short time open-phase operation in power system, and perhaps causes neutral point voltage displacement or overvoltage, prolong thereclosing time delay, and is disadvantage to the stability of power system. This paper analyses the relationship betweenoil-pressures in the latching range of hydraulic system and closing/opening time, and the effect on the opening or closingsimultaneity.%分、合闸不同期,将使系统在短时间内处于非全相运行,可能会引起中性点电压位移、过电压、加大重合闸时间,对系统稳定性不利.本文对LW 10B-252型断路器进行试验,分析了液压系统油压在闭锁范围内和分合闸时间的关系以及对同期性分合闸的影响.

  20. Measurement of the ambient gamma dose equivalent and kerma from the small 252Cf source at 1 meter and the small 60Co source at 2 meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl, W. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-30

    NASA Langley Research Center requested a measurement and determination of the ambient gamma dose equivalent rate and kerma at 100 cm from the 252Cf source and determination of the ambient gamma dose equivalent rate and kerma at 200 cm from the 60Co source for the Radiation Budget Instrument Experiment (Rad-X). An Exradin A6 ion chamber with Shonka air-equivalent plastic walls in combination with a Supermax electrometer were used to measure the exposure rate and free-in-air kerma rate of the two sources at the requested distances. The measured gamma exposure, kerma, and dose equivalent rates are tabulated.

  1. Emerging targets in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jan; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Migraine is a common and highly disabling neurological disorder. Despite the complexity of its pathophysiology, substantial advances have been achieved over the past 20 years in its understanding, as well as the development of pharmacological treatment options. The development of serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists ("triptans") substantially improved the acute treatment of migraine attacks. However, many migraineurs do not respond satisfactorily to triptans and cardiovascular co-morbidities limit their use in a significant number of patients. As migraine is increasingly considered to be a disorder of the brain, and preclinical and clinical data indicate that the observed vasodilation is merely an epiphenomenon, research has recently focused on the development of neurally acting compounds that lack vasoconstrictor properties. This review highlights the most important pharmacological targets for which compounds have been developed that are highly likely to enter or have already advanced into clinical trials for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. In this context, preclinical and clinical data on compounds acting on calcitonin gene-related peptide or its receptor, the 5-HT(1F) receptor, nitric oxide synthase, and acid-sensing ion channel blockers are discussed.

  2. EURISOL High Power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Lindroos, M; Ridikas, D; Stora, T; Tecchio, L; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Modern Nuclear Physics requires access to higher yields of rare isotopes, that relies on further development of the In-flight and Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) production methods. The limits of the In-Flight method will be applied via the next generation facilities FAIR in Germany, RIKEN in Japan and RIBF in the USA. The ISOL method will be explored at facilities including ISAC-TRIUMF in Canada, SPIRAL-2 in France, SPES in Italy, ISOLDE at CERN and eventually at the very ambitious multi-MW EURISOL facility. ISOL and in-flight facilities are complementary entities. While in-flight facilities excel in the production of very short lived radioisotopes independently of their chemical nature, ISOL facilities provide high Radioisotope Beam (RIB) intensities and excellent beam quality for 70 elements. Both production schemes are opening vast and rich fields of nuclear physics research. In this article we will introduce the targets planned for the EURISOL facility and highlight some of the technical and safety cha...

  3. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  4. The target effect: visual memory for unnamed search targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark D; Williams, Carrick C

    2014-01-01

    Search targets are typically remembered much better than other objects even when they are viewed for less time. However, targets have two advantages that other objects in search displays do not have: They are identified categorically before the search, and finding them represents the goal of the search task. The current research investigated the contributions of both of these types of information to the long-term visual memory representations of search targets. Participants completed either a predefined search or a unique-object search in which targets were not defined with specific categorical labels before searching. Subsequent memory results indicated that search target memory was better than distractor memory even following ambiguously defined searches and when the distractors were viewed significantly longer. Superior target memory appears to result from a qualitatively different representation from those of distractor objects, indicating that decision processes influence visual memory.

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of 99mTc-Labeled Dimeric Folic Acid for FR-Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhide Guo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The folate receptor (FR is overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. In our study, the multimeric concept was used to synthesize a dimeric folate derivative via a click reaction. The novel folate derivative (HYNIC-D1-FA2 was radiolabeled with 99mTc using tricine and trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3′,3″-trisulfonate (TPPTS as coligands (99mTc-HYNIC-D1-FA2 and its in vitro physicochemical properties, ex vivo biodistribution and in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging as a potential FR targeted agent were evaluated. It is a hydrophilic compound (log P = −2.52 ± 0.13 with high binding affinity (IC50 = 19.06 nM. Biodistribution in KB tumor-bearing mice showed that 99mTc-HYNIC-D1-FA2 had high uptake in FR overexpressed tumor and kidney at all time-points, and both of them could obviously be inhibited when blocking with free FA in the blocking studies. From the in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging results, good tumor uptake of 99mTc-HYNIC-D1-FA2 was observed in KB tumor-bearing mice and it could be blocked obviously. Based on the results, this new radiolabeled dimeric FA tracer might be a promising candidate for FR-targeting imaging with high affinity and selectivity.

  6. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  7. The OLYMPUS internal hydrogen target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, J.C., E-mail: bernauer@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Henderson, B.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ihloff, E.; Kelsey, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Lenisa, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Milner, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Schmidt, A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Statera, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-08-01

    An internal hydrogen target system was developed for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY, in Hamburg, Germany. The target consisted of a long, thin-walled, tubular cell within an aluminum scattering chamber. Hydrogen entered at the center of the cell and exited through the ends, where it was removed from the beamline by a multistage pumping system. A cryogenic coldhead cooled the target cell to counteract heating from the beam and increase the density of hydrogen in the target. A fixed collimator protected the cell from synchrotron radiation and the beam halo. A series of wakefield suppressors reduced heating from beam wakefields. The target system was installed within the DORIS storage ring and was successfully operated during the course of the OLYMPUS experiment in 2012. Information on the design, fabrication, and performance of the target system is reported.

  8. Oxide Fiber Targets at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Carminati, D; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Correia, J G; Crepieux, B; Dietrich, M; Elder, K; Fedosseev, V; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Fynbo, H O U; Georg, U; Giles, T; Joinet, A; Jonsson, O C; Kirchner, R; Lau, C; Lettry, Jacques; Maier, H J; Mishin, V I; Oinonen, M; Peräjärvi, K; Ravn, H L; Rinaldi, T; Santana-Leitner, M; Wahl, U; Weissman, L

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxyde fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxyde fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce...

  9. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Michael W; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  10. Data Mining for Target Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Nissan; Zahavi, Jacob

    Targeting is the core of marketing management. It is concerned with offering the right product/service to the customer at the right time and using the proper channel. In this chapter we discuss how Data Mining modeling and analysis can support targeting applications. We focus on three types of targeting models: continuous-choice models, discrete-choice models and in-market timing models, discussing alternative modeling for each application and decision making. We also discuss a range of pitfalls that one needs to be aware of in implementing a data mining solution for a targeting problem.

  11. Inflation Targeting and Inflation Persistence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GEORGE; J.BRATSIOTIS; JAKOB; MADSEN; CHRISTOPHER; MARTIN

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the adoption of an inflation target reduces the persistence of inflation.We develop the theoretical literature on inflation persistence by introducing a Taylor Rule for monetary policy into a model of persistence and showing that inflation targets reduce inflation persistence.We investigate changes in the time series properties of inflation in seven countries that introduced inflation targets in the late 1980s or early 1990s.We find that the persistence of inflation is greatly reduced or eliminated following the introduction of inflation targets.

  12. Limits of Inflation Targeting Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Niculescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the trade-off between output volatility and the variability of the inflation rate around its target (Romanian case. The optimal choice for National Bank of Romania (NBR, in our opinion, is the flexible inflation targeting. For this purpose, NBR must explain the loss function and the optimal monetary policy rule. We then argued that this Romanian authority – NBR – can substantially improve its credibility under inflation targeting policy regime by becoming more accountable and transparent. Is the direct inflation targeting the best choice for the monetary policy regime in Romanian economy?

  13. Target engagement in lead generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Timothy B; Blanco, Maria-Jesus

    2015-03-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is currently facing multiple challenges, in particular the low number of new drug approvals in spite of the high level of R&D investment. In order to improve target selection and assess properly the clinical hypothesis, it is important to start building an integrated drug discovery approach during Lead Generation. This should include special emphasis on evaluating target engagement in the target tissue and linking preclinical to clinical readouts. In this review, we would like to illustrate several strategies and technologies for assessing target engagement and the value of its application to medicinal chemistry efforts.

  14. Measurement of the energy spectra of fission fragments using nuclear track detectors and digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, Guillermo; Golzarri, Jose I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, Mexico D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Castano, Victor M., E-mail: castano@fata.unam.m [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2010-08-15

    Energy spectra of fission fragments were determined using a Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM) supported by digital image analysis and numerical data processing using a standard personal computer. The analysis of a californium ({sup 252}Cf) spectrum with this approach shows improvement compared with the values reported previously using the standard procedure, in terms of resolution and accuracy. This new method adds full automation to the technical advantages and cost effectiveness of an NTM.

  15. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Jäger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT, which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination

  16. Transverse target spin asymmetries on a proton target at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Transversity and transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are been measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) by using a transversely polarized target at the COMPASS experiment. COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at the CERN M2 beamline, which provides a 160GeV/c polarized m+ beam. In the years 2002-2004 COMPASS has collected data with a transversely polarized deuteron 6LiD target. In 2007, COMPASS has used for the first time a proton NH3 target. To access transversity COMPASS has used three different quark polarimeters: the Collins effect, responsible for an azimuthal asymmetry in the single hadron distribution, azimuthal target spin asymmetries of charged hadron pairs and the transverse polarisation of L hyperons. Beside this also the Sivers asymmetry arising from the correlation between the transverse nucleon spin and the quark intrinsic transverse momentum was measured. European

  17. Mutation analysis of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes in 252 cases of colorectal cancer tissues%252例结直肠癌组织中KRAS、NRAS、 BRAF、PIK3CA的基因突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘影; 郑细闰; 朱亚珍; 何青莲; 郑广娟

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析结直肠癌(colorectal cancer,CRC)组织中KRAS、NRAS、BRAF和PIK3CA基因的常见突变类型及其与临床病理指标的关系.方法 对252例CRC石蜡包埋组织进行DNA提取,采用Sanger测序法对KRAS、NRAS、BRAF和PIK3CA基因进行检测,分析各个基因的突变率与临床病理特征的关系,并统计各个基因的突变类型.结果 252例CRC中,KRAS、BRAF、NRAS和PIK3CA突变发生率在性别、年龄、肿瘤部位、病理分期和有无淋巴结转移上差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);检测阳性突变共140例(55.5%),其中KRAS 113例(44.8%),NRAS 1例(0.4%),BRAF 19例(7.5%),PIK3CA 28例(11.1%),包括PIK3 CA与KRAS、NRAS、BRAF基因发生双突变21例(8.3%);KRAS的主要突变类型包括G12A、G12C、G12D、G12R、G12S、G12V、G13D、T20M、A59T、Q61H、Q61L、Q61P;NRAS仅有1例突变为G12D;BRAF的主要突变类型为V600E、D594G、K601E;PIK3CA的主要突变类型包括E542K、E545K、Q546K、Q546P、Q546R、M1043I、H1047R.PIK3CA与KRAS、NRAS、BRAF之间会发生交叉突变,但KRAS、NRAS、BRAF三者之间基本不存在交叉突变.结论 CRC中KRAS阳性突变率居高,PIK3CA次之,BRAF、NRAS突变率最低,且PIK3CA常与KRAS、NRAS、BRAF发生交叉突变.对CRC患者行KRAS、NRAS、BRAF、PIK3CA等多基因检测,可正确指导并选择抗EGFR单抗药,从而实现真正意义上的个体化靶向治疗.

  18. 252株肺炎克雷伯菌耐药率与抗菌药物使用强度相关性分析%Correlation between Drug-Resistant Rates in 252 Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and An-tibacterial Use Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    忻志鸣; 叶根深; 牛洪敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between the drug-resistant rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae(Kp)and antibacterial use density(AUD)to provide the basis for the reasonable use of antibacterial drugs in clinic. Methods The drug-resistant rates of Kp in de-tected 252 strains of Kp during 2012 were summarized and statistically analyzed,which was combined with contemporaneous AUD for ana-lyzing the correlation between them;the difference of resistant rates of Kp to different categories of antibacterial drugs was statistically ana-lyzed. Results The drug-resistant rate of Kp exhibited extremely significant positive correlation with AUD. The resistant rates of Kp to dif-ferent categories of antibacterial drugs were different,the difference of resistant rate to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones had no statistical significance,the resistant rate to broad spectrum penicillins was highest and which to carbapenems and cephalosporins containing enzyme in-hibitors was lowest. Conclusion The drug-resistant rate of Kp is correlated with AUD. Clinic may give preference to cephalosporins con-taining enzyme inhibitors,aminoglycosides,fluoroquinolones and carbapenems and suspends the use of broad-spectrum penicillins.%目的:探讨医院肺炎克雷伯菌耐药率与抗菌药物使用强度的相关性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法统计医院2012年检出的252株肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药率,结合同期抗菌药物使用强度,分析两者相关性;分析肺炎克雷伯菌对不同类别抗菌药物耐药率的差异。结果肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药率与抗菌药物的使用强度呈极显著线性正相关关系;对不同类别抗菌药物的耐药率不尽相同,对氨基苷类和喹诺酮类的耐药率差异无显著性,对广谱青霉素类的耐药率最高,对碳青霉烯类、含酶抑制剂头孢类的耐药率最低。结论肺炎克雷伯菌耐药率与抗菌药物的使用强度有关,临床可酌情优选含酶

  19. Response function and relative efficiency measurements of the BC501A scintillator by using a 252 Cf fast fission chamber%利用252Cf快裂变室测量BC501A液闪探测器的相对探测效率和响应函数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    言杰; 李澄; 刘荣; 蒋励; 鹿心鑫; 王玫

    2011-01-01

    The response function and relative efficiency of a φ50.8 mm × 50.8 mm BC501A scintillator has been measured by using a252Cf fast fission chamber.In this method, a multi-parameter data acquisition system is employed to take the time-of-flight (TOF) ,pulse shape discrimination (PSD) and recoil energy (RE.note: fission neutron induces recoil proton while the prompt gamma ray induces Compton recoil electron) of the fission neutron and prompt gamma ray in an event-by-event mode with a TOF gate.The off-line data analysis method for separating the prompt gamma ray from the fission neutron as well as its contribution to the TOF spectrum and RE spectrum to obtain the relative efficiency and response function is discussed in detail.An accurate calibration of the effective neutron detection threshold is carried out by a linear extrapolation of the section around the point of infiexion in the relative efficiency plots using neutron energy directly.The relative efficiency with 0.51 MeV effective neutron detection threshold agrees with the Monte Carlo calculation result of NEFF.The response function from 0.5 MeV to 5 MeV generally agrees with the published experimental result of the NE213 scintillator of the same size.%本文利用252Cf快裂变室和多参数数据采集系统,逐事例的同时记录了自发裂变中子和瞬发伽马的飞行时间(TOF),脉冲形状甄别(PSD)和反冲能量(RE,裂变中子是通过测量反冲质子;瞬发伽马是通过测量康普顿反冲电子)三维信息.详细介绍了通过离线数据分析完全扣除三维信息中的伽马事例贡献,以获得φ50.8 mm×50.8 mm的BC501A液闪探测器的相对探测效率和响应函数的方法.在不通过探测器响应函数进行数据转换的条件下,利用中子的能量直接确定了中子的有效测量阈值.得到的中子有效测量阈值为0.51 MeV的相对探测效率实验结果与NEFF程序计算的结果一致.探测器在0.5-5 MeV的响应函数也与

  20. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  1. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio;

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure...

  2. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards...

  3. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....

  4. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS...

  5. Oxide fiber targets at ISOLDE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, U.; Bergmann, U.C.; Carminati, D.

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxide fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at so...

  6. Dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eAst

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellular compartmentalization into organelles serves to separate biological processes within the environment of a single cell. While some metabolic reactions are specific to a single organelle, others occur in more than one cellular compartment. Specific targeting of proteins to compartments inside of eukaryotic cells is mediated by defined sequence motifs. To achieve multiple targeting to different compartments cells use a variety of strategies. Here, we focus on mechanisms leading to dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins. In many instances, isoforms of peroxisomal proteins with distinct intracellular localization are encoded by separate genes. But also single genes can give rise to differentially localized proteins. Different isoforms can be generated by use of alternative transcriptional start sites, by differential splicing or ribosomal read-through of stop codons. In all these cases different peptide variants are produced, of which only one carries a peroxisomal targeting signal. Alternatively, peroxisomal proteins contain additional signals that compete for intracellular targeting. Dual localization of proteins residing in both the cytoplasm and in peroxisomes may also result from use of inefficient targeting signals. The recent observation that some bona fide cytoplasmic enzymes were also found in peroxisomes indicates that dual targeting of proteins to both the cytoplasm and the peroxisome might be more widespread. Although current knowledge of proteins exhibiting only partial peroxisomal targeting is far from being complete, we speculate that the metabolic capacity of peroxisomes might be larger than previously assumed.

  7. Target-Searching on Percolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We study target-searching processes on a percolation, on which a hunter tracks a target by smelling odors it emits. The odor intensity is supposed to be inversely proportional to the distance it propagates. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed on a 2-dimensional bond-percolation above the threshold. Having no idea of the location of the target, the hunter determines its moves only by random attempts in each direction. For lager percolation connectivity p (>~) 0.90, it reveals a scaling law for the searching time versus the distance to the position of the target. The scaling exponent is dependent on the sensitivity of the hunter. For smaller p, the scaling law is broken and the probability of finding out the target significantly reduces. The hunter seems trapped in the cluster of the percolation and can hardly reach the goal.

  8. Ocular toxicity of targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Daniel J; Velazquez-Martin, Juan P; Simpson, Rand; Siu, Lillian L; Bedard, Philippe L

    2012-09-10

    Molecularly targeted agents are commonly used in oncology practice, and many new targeted agents are currently being tested in clinical trials. Although these agents are thought to be more specific and less toxic then traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, they are associated with a variety of toxicities, including ocular toxicity. Many of the molecules targeted by anticancer agents are also expressed in ocular tissues. We reviewed the literature for described ocular toxicities associated with both approved and investigational molecularly targeted agents. Ocular toxicity has been described with numerous approved targeted agents and also seems to be associated with several classes of agents currently being tested in early-phase clinical trials. We discuss the proposed pathogenesis, monitoring guidelines, and management recommendations. It is important for oncologists to be aware of the potential for ocular toxicity, with prompt recognition of symptoms that require referral to an ophthalmologist. Ongoing collaboration between oncologists and ocular disease specialists is critical as the use of molecularly targeted agents continues to expand and novel targeted drug combinations are developed.

  9. Targeting Peace: Understanding UN and EU Targeted Sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the international community has increasingly come to abandon the use of comprehensive sanctions in favour of targeted sanctions. Unlike adopting a coercive strategy on entire states, actors like the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU) have come to resort to measures that are aimed at individuals, groups and government members. Targeted sanctions involve adopting measures such as asset freezes, travel bans, commodity sanctions, as well as arms embargoes. Eriksson a...

  10. Targeted biopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lufang; Xu, Ningning; Sun, Yan; Liu, Xiaoguang Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is a complex invasive genetic disease that causes significant mortality rate worldwide. Protein-based biopharmaceuticals have significantly extended the lives of millions of cancer patients. This article reviews the biological function and application of targeted anticancer biopharmaceuticals. We first discuss the specific antigens and core pathways that are used in the development of targeted cancer therapy. The innovative monoclonal antibodies, non-antibody proteins, and small molecules targeting these antigens or pathways are then reviewed. Finally, the current challenges in anticancer biopharmaceuticals development and the potential solutions to address these challenges are discussed.

  11. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads;

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov...

  12. Advanced development of the spectrum sciences Model 5005-TF, single-event test fixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.R.; Browning, J.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hughlock, B.W. (Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Co., Seattle, WA (USA)); Lum, G.K. (Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Sunnyvale, CA (USA)); Tsacoyeanes, W.C. (Draper (Charles Stark) Lab., Inc., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Weeks, M.D. (Spectrum Sciences, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the advanced development of the Spectrum Sciences Model 5005-TF, Single-Event Test Fixture. The Model 5005-TF uses a Californium-252 (Cf-252) fission-fragment source to test integrated circuits and other devices for the effects of single-event phenomena. Particle identification methods commonly used in high-energy physics research and nuclear engineering have been incorporated into the Model 5005-TF for estimating the particle charge, mass, and energy parameters. All single-event phenomena observed in a device under test (DUT) are correlated with an identified fission fragment, and its linear energy transfer (LET) and range in the semiconductor material of the DUT.

  13. Targeted MRI-guided prostate biopsy: are two biopsy cores per MRI-lesion required?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmoeller, L.; Quentin, M.; Blondin, D.; Dietzel, F.; Schleich, C.; Thomas, C.; Antoch, G. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Hiester, A.; Rabenalt, R.; Albers, P.; Arsov, C. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Gabbert, H.E. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Pathology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    This study evaluates the feasibility of performing less than two core biopsies per MRI-lesion when performing targeted MR-guided in-bore prostate biopsy. Retrospectively evaluated were 1545 biopsy cores of 774 intraprostatic lesions (two cores per lesion) in 290 patients (66 ± 7.8 years; median PSA 8.2 ng/ml) regarding prostate cancer (PCa) detection, Gleason score, and tumor infiltration of the first (FBC) compared to the second biopsy core (SBC). Biopsies were acquired under in-bore MR-guidance. For the biopsy cores, 491 were PCa positive, 239 of 774 (31 %) were FBC and 252 of 771 (33 %) were SBC (p = 0.4). Patient PCa detection rate based on the FBC vs. SBC were 46 % vs. 48 % (p = 0.6). For clinically significant PCa (Gleason score ≥4 + 3 = 7) the detection rate was 18 % for both, FBC and SBC (p = 0.9). Six hundred and eighty-seven SBC (89 %) showed no histologic difference. On the lesion level, 40 SBC detected PCa with negative FBC (7.5 %). Twenty SBC showed a Gleason upgrade from 3 + 3 = 6 to ≥3 + 4 = 7 (2.6 %) and 4 to ≥4 + 3 = 7 (0.5 %). The benefit of a second targeted biopsy core per suspicious MRI-lesion is likely minor, especially regarding PCa detection rate and significant Gleason upgrading. Therefore, a further reduction of biopsy cores is reasonable when performing a targeted MR-guided in-bore prostate biopsy. (orig.)

  14. Strategically targeting MYC in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posternak, Valeriya; Cole, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    MYC is a major driver of cancer cell growth and mediates a transcriptional program spanning cell growth, the cell cycle, metabolism, and cell survival. Many efforts have been made to deliberately target MYC for cancer therapy. A variety of compounds have been generated to inhibit MYC function or stability, either directly or indirectly. The most direct inhibitors target the interaction between MYC and MAX, which is required for DNA binding. Unfortunately, these compounds do not have the desired pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for in vivo application. Recent studies report the indirect inhibition of MYC through the development of two compounds, JQ1 and THZ1, which target factors involved in unique stages of transcription. These compounds appear to have significant therapeutic value for cancers with high levels of MYC, although some effects are MYC-independent. These approaches serve as a foundation for developing novel compounds to pharmacologically target MYC-driven cancers. PMID:27081479

  15. Gene targeting with retroviral vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Bernstein, A. (Toronto Univ., ON (Canada))

    1989-04-01

    The authors have designed and constructed integration-defective retroviral vectors to explore their potential for gene targeting in mammalian cells. Two nonoverlapping deletion mutants of the bacterial neomycin resistance (neo) gene were used to detect homologous recombination events between viral and chromosomal sequences. Stable neo gene correction events were selected at a frequency of approximately 1 G418/sup r/ cell per 3 x 10/sup 6/ infected cells. Analysis of the functional neo gene in independent targeted cell clones indicated that unintegrated retroviral linear DNA recombined with the target by gene conversion for variable distances into regions of nonhomology. In addition, transient neo gene correction events which were associated with the complete loss of the chromosomal target sequences were observed. These results demonstrated that retroviral vectors can recombine with homologous chromosomal sequences in rodent and human cells.

  16. Gene targeting in malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, R; Janse, C

    1997-10-01

    Gene targeting, which permits alteration of a chosen gene in a predetermined way by homologous recombination, is an emerging technology in malaria research. Soon after the development of techniques for stable transformation of red blood cell stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei, genes of interest were disrupted in the two species. The main limitations of gene targeting in malaria parasites result from the intracellular growth and slow replication of these parasites. On the other hand, the technology is facilitated by the very high rate of homologous recombination following transformation with targeting constructs (approximately 100%). Here, we describe (i) the vector design and the type of mutation that may be generated in a target locus, (ii) the selection and screening strategies that can be used to identify clones with the desired modification, and (iii) the protocol that was used for disrupting the circumsporozoite protein (CS) and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) genes of P. berghei.

  17. Targeted therapy for pediatric glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Olow

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses molecular underpinnings of responses to promising targeted agents for pediatric tumors of Central Nervous System (CNS), incorporating preclinical testing of novel and translatable combination therapies to define the best therapy for each tumor cell specific molecular aberration.

  18. After treat-to-target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Naredo, Esperanza;

    2012-01-01

    have recently formed a research network - the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI) group. The statement proposes that targeting therapy to PD activity provides superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone and introduces the rationale for a new randomised trial using targeted...... defined by clinical remission criteria (disease activity score, simplified disease activity index, etc) does not always equate to the complete absence of inflammation as measured by new sensitive imaging techniques such as ultrasound (US) . There is evidence that imaging synovitis is frequently found...... in these patients and associated with adverse clinical and functional outcomes. This article reviews the data regarding remission, ultrasound imaging and outcomes in patients with RA to provide the background to a consensus statement from an international collaboration of ultrasonographers and rheumatologists who...

  19. Targeted therapy: tailoring cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yan; Quentin Qiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Targeted therapies include small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies,have made treatment more tumor-specific and less toxic,and have opened new possibilities for tailoring cancer treatment.Nevertheless,there remain several challenges to targeted therapies,including molecular identification,drug resistance,and exploring reliable biomarkers.Here,we present several selected signaling pathways and molecular targets involved in human cancers including Aurora kinases,PI3K/mTOR signaling,FOXO-FOXM1 axis,and MDM2/MDM4-p53 interaction.Understanding the molecular mechanisms for tumorigenesis and development of drug resistance will provide new insights into drug discovery and design of therapeutic strategies for targeted therapies.

  20. "Cavitation in a Mercury Target"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    2000-09-06

    Recent theoretical work on the formation of bubble nucleation centers by energetic particles leads to some reasonably credible calculations of the maximum negative pressure that might be sustained without bubble formation in the mercury target of the Spallation Neutron Source.

  1. Cavitation in a Mercury Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    2000-09-01

    Recent theoretical work on the formation of bubble nucleation centers by energetic particles leads to some reasonably credible calculations of the maximum negative pressure that might be sustained without bubble formation in the mercury target of the Spallation Neutron Source.

  2. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  3. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  4. Target Oriented Drugs against Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-31

    the leishmanial source. Leishmanial strains L32 Leishmania tropica LRC L32 L137 Leishmania tropica LRC L137 L52 Leishmania donovani LRC L52 These...RESOLUTION TEST CHAR] 0REPORT NUMBER I TARGET ORIENTED DRUGS AGAINST LEISHMANIA (First Annual Summary Report) 0URI ZEHAVI, PhD and JOSEPH EL-ON, PhD...GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RE PIENT.S CATALOG NUMBER A....*( - ) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED TARGET ORIENTED DRUGS AGAINST LEISHMANIA 6 FIRST

  5. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  6. Nanotechnology of emerging targeting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S S

    2008-09-01

    Recent developments in the design and testing of complex nanoscale payload-carrying systems (i.e. systems with payloads that do not exceed 100 nm in size) are the focus of this brief review. Emerging systems include targeted single-walled nanotubes, viral capsids, dendrimers, gold nanoparticles, milled boron carbide nanoparticles, and protein nucleic acid assemblies. Significant advances are emerging with each of these bionanotechnological approaches to cellular targeting.

  7. Target-local Gromov compactness

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Joel W

    2009-01-01

    We prove a version of Gromov's compactness theorem for pseudo-holomorphic curves which holds locally in the target symplectic manifold. This result applies to sequences of curves with an unbounded number of free boundary components, and in families of degenerating target manifolds which have unbounded geometry (e.g. no uniform energy threshold). Core elements of the proof regard curves as submanifolds (rather than maps) and then adapt methods from the theory of minimal surfaces.

  8. Nanotechnology of emerging targeting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the design and testing of complex nanoscale payload-carrying systems (i.e. systems with payloads that do not exceed 100 nm in size) are the focus of this brief review. Emerging systems include targeted single-walled nanotubes, viral capsids, dendrimers, gold nanoparticles, milled boron carbide nanoparticles, and protein nucleic acid assemblies. Significant advances are emerging with each of these bionanotechnological approaches to cellular targeting. PMID:21687833

  9. Radiation target analysis of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstein, S L; Kempner, E

    1996-06-25

    Ribozymes are polynucleotide molecules with intrinsic catalytic activity, capable of cleaving nucleic acid substrates. Large RNA molecules were synthesized containing a hammerhead ribozyme moiety of 52 nucleotides linked to an inactive leader sequence, for total lengths of either 262 or 1226 nucleotides. Frozen RNAs were irradiated with high energy electrons. Surviving ribozyme activity was determined using the ability of the irradiated ribozymes to cleave a labeled substrate. The amount of intact RNA remaining was determined from the same irradiated samples by scanning the RNA band following denaturing gel electrophoresis. Radiation target analyses of these data revealed a structural target size of 80 kDa and a ribozyme activity target size of 15 kDa for the smaller ribozyme, and 319 kDa and 16 kDa, respectively, for the larger ribozyme. The disparity in target size for activity versus structure indicates that, in contrast to proteins, there is no spread of radiation damage far from the primary site of ionization in RNA molecules. The smaller target size for activity indicates that only primary ionizations occurring in the specific active region are effective. This is similar to the case for oligosaccharides. We concluded that the presence of the ribose sugar in the polymer chain restricts radiation damage to a small region and prevents major energy transfer throughout the molecule. Radiation target analysis should be a useful technique for evaluating local RNA:RNA and RNA:protein interactions in vitro.

  10. Oxide fiber targets at ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. E-mail: ulli.koster@cern.ch; Bergmann, U.C.; Carminati, D.; Catherall, R.; Cederkaell, J.; Correia, J.G.; Crepieux, B.; Dietrich, M.; Elder, K.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Fraile, L.; Franchoo, S.; Fynbo, H.; Georg, U.; Giles, T.; Joinet, A.; Jonsson, O.C.; Kirchner, R.; Lau, Ch.; Lettry, J.; Maier, H.J.; Mishin, V.I.; Oinonen, M.; Peraejaervi, K.; Ravn, H.L.; Rinaldi, T.; Santana-Leitner, M.; Wahl, U.; Weissman, L

    2003-05-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxide fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxide fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce very intense {sup 6}He beams (order of 10{sup 13} ions per second) via the {sup 9}Be(n,{alpha}) reaction using spallation neutrons.

  11. Killing cells by targeting mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchado, E; Guillamot, M; Malumbres, M

    2012-03-01

    Cell cycle deregulation is a common feature of human cancer. Tumor cells accumulate mutations that result in unscheduled proliferation, genomic instability and chromosomal instability. Several therapeutic strategies have been proposed for targeting the cell division cycle in cancer. Whereas inhibiting the initial phases of the cell cycle is likely to generate viable quiescent cells, targeting mitosis offers several possibilities for killing cancer cells. Microtubule poisons have proved efficacy in the clinic against a broad range of malignancies, and novel targeted strategies are now evaluating the inhibition of critical activities, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, Aurora or Polo kinases or spindle kinesins. Abrogation of the mitotic checkpoint or targeting the energetic or proteotoxic stress of aneuploid or chromosomally instable cells may also provide further benefits by inducing lethal levels of instability. Although cancer cells may display different responses to these treatments, recent data suggest that targeting mitotic exit by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex generates metaphase cells that invariably die in mitosis. As the efficacy of cell-cycle targeting approaches has been limited so far, further understanding of the molecular pathways modulating mitotic cell death will be required to move forward these new proposals to the clinic.

  12. Target-oriented chaos control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattani, Justine [Centre for Mathematical Biology, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Blake, Jack C.H. [Centre for Mathematical Biology, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Hilker, Frank M., E-mail: f.hilker@bath.ac.uk [Centre for Mathematical Biology, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-31

    Designing intervention methods to control chaotic behavior in dynamical systems remains a challenging problem, in particular for systems that are difficult to access or to measure. We propose a simple, intuitive technique that modifies the values of the state variables directly toward a certain target. The intervention takes into account the difference to the target value, and is a combination of traditional proportional feedback and constant feedback methods. It proves particularly useful when the target corresponds to the equilibrium of the uncontrolled system, and is available or can be estimated from expert knowledge (e.g. in biology and economy). -- Highlights: → We propose a chaos control method that forces the system to a certain target. → The intervention takes into account the difference to the target value. → It can be seen as a combination of proportional and constant feedback methods. → The method is very robust and highly efficient in the long-term. → It is particularly applicable when suitable target values are known or available.

  13. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  14. Measurement of Inclusive ep Cross Sections at High Q2 at sqrt(s) = 225 and 252 GeV and of the Longitudinal Proton Structure Function FL at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Boudry, V.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Buniatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Herbst, M.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lubimov, V.; Malinovski, E.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Morozov, A.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Raspereza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive ep double differential cross sections for neutral current deep inelastic scattering are measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The data were taken with a lepton beam energy of 27.6 GeV and two proton beam energies of Ep = 460 and 575 GeV corresponding to centre-of-mass energies of 225 and 252 GeV, respectively. The measurements cover the region of 6.5 *10^{-4}<=x<= 0.65 for 35<=Q^2<=800 GeV^2 up to y = 0.85. The measurements are used together with previously published H1 data at Ep = 920 GeV and lower Q2 data at Ep = 460, 575 and 920 GeV to extract the longitudinal proton structure function FL in the region 1.5<=Q^2 <=800 GeV^2.

  15. Mannose receptor-targeted vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keler, Tibor; Ramakrishna, Venky; Fanger, Michael W

    2004-12-01

    Targeting antigens to endocytic receptors on professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) represents an attractive strategy to enhance the efficacy of vaccines. Such APC-targeted vaccines have an exceptional ability to guide exogenous protein antigens into vesicles that efficiently process the antigen for major histocompatibility complex class I and class II presentation. Efficient targeting not only requires high specificity for the receptor that is abundantly expressed on the surface of APCs, but also the ability to be rapidly internalised and loaded into compartments that contain elements of the antigen-processing machinery. The mannose receptor (MR) and related C-type lectin receptors are particularly designed to sample antigens (self and non-self), much like pattern recognition receptors, to integrate the innate with adaptive immune responses. In fact, a variety of approaches involving delivery of antigens to the MR have demonstrated effective induction of potent cellular and humoral immune responses. Yet, although several lines of evidence in diverse experimental systems attest to the efficacy of targeted vaccine strategies, it is becoming increasingly clear that additional signals, such as those afforded by adjuvants, may be critical to elicit sustained immunity. Therefore, MR-targeted vaccines are likely to be most efficacious in vivo when combined with agents that elicit complementary activation signals. Certainly, a better understanding of the mechanism associated with the induction of immune responses as a result of targeting antigens to the MR, will be important in exploiting MR-targeted vaccines not only for mounting immune defenses against cancer and infectious disease, but also for specific induction of tolerance in the treatment of autoimmune disease.

  16. CPHD filter derivation for extended targets

    CERN Document Server

    Orguner, Umut

    2010-01-01

    This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.

  17. Neuroinflammation: a potential therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jeffrey M; Watterson, D Martin; Van Eldik, Linda J

    2005-10-01

    The increased appreciation of the importance of glial cell-propagated inflammation (termed 'neuroinflammation') in the progression of pathophysiology for diverse neurodegenerative diseases, has heightened interest in the rapid discovery of neuroinflammation-targeted therapeutics. Efforts include searches among existing drugs approved for other uses, as well as development of novel synthetic compounds that selectively downregulate neuroinflammatory responses. The use of existing drugs to target neuroinflammation has largely met with failure due to lack of efficacy or untoward side effects. However, the de novo development of new classes of therapeutics based on targeting selective aspects of glia activation pathways and glia-mediated pathophysiologies, versus targeting pathways of quantitative importance in non-CNS inflammatory responses, is yielding promising results in preclinical animal models. The authors briefly review selected clinical and preclinical data that reflect the prevailing approaches targeting neuroinflammation as a pathophysiological process contributing to onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The authors conclude with opinions based on recent experimental proofs of concept using preclinical animal models of pathophysiology. The focus is on Alzheimer's disease, but the concepts are transferrable to other neurodegenerative disorders with an inflammatory component.

  18. Integrin Targeted Delivery of Chemotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics is defined in the sense, that is, to maximize the therapeutic index of a chemotherapeutic agent by strictly localizing its pharmacological activity to the site or tissue of action. Integrins are a family of heterodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins involved in a wide range of cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM and cell-to-cell interactions. As cell surface receptors, integrins readily interact with extracellular ligands and play a vital role in angiogenesis, leukocytes function and tumor development, which sets up integrins as an excellent target for chemotherapy treatment. The peptide ligands containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD, which displays a strong binding affinity and selectivity to integrins, particularly to integrin αvβ3, have been developed to conjugate with various conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as small molecules, peptides and proteins, and nanoparticle-carried drugs for integtrin targeted therapeutic studies. This review highlights the recent advances in integrin targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents with emphasis on target of integrin αvβ3, and describes the considerations for the design of the diverse RGD peptide-chemotherapeutics conjugates and their major applications.

  19. Target-Centric Network Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence repor....... Working through these cases, students will learn to manage and evaluate realistic intelligence accounts.......In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence......, and collaborative sharing in the process of creating a high-quality, actionable intelligence product. The case studies reflect the complexity of twenty-first century intelligence issues by dealing with multi-layered target networks that cut across political, economic, social, technological, and military issues...

  20. Antibiotic drugs targeting bacterial RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Hong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available RNAs have diverse structures that include bulges and internal loops able to form tertiary contacts or serve as ligand binding sites. The recent increase in structural and functional information related to RNAs has put them in the limelight as a drug target for small molecule therapy. In addition, the recognition of the marked difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic rRNA has led to the development of antibiotics that specifically target bacterial rRNA, reduce protein translation and thereby inhibit bacterial growth. To facilitate the development of new antibiotics targeting RNA, we here review the literature concerning such antibiotics, mRNA, riboswitch and tRNA and the key methodologies used for their screening.

  1. The SPES direct UCx target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Antonucci, C.; Barbui, M.; Carturan, S.; Cervellera, F.; Cevolani, S.; Cinausero, M.; Colombo, P.; Dainelli, A.; di Bernardo, P.; Gramegna, F.; Maggioni, G.; Meneghetti, G.; Petrovich, C.; Piga, L.; Prete, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tonezzer, M.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Zanonato, P.

    2007-11-01

    A possible solution for a target system aimed at the production of exotic nuclei as a result of high energy fissions in 238U compounds has been analyzed. The proposed configuration is constituted by a primary proton beam (40 MeV, 0.2 mA) directly impinging on uranium carbide disks inserted within a cylindrical carbon box. This system has been conceived to obtain both a high number of neutron rich atoms (originated from about 1013 fissions/s) and a low power deposition in the target. In order to extract the fission fragments, the box has to be hold at 2000○C. The thermal analysis shows the capability of the thermal radiation to cool the disks with a reasonable margin below the material melting point. Moreover, the analyses of the thermo-mechanical behaviour and of the effusion times confirm the promising features of this target configuration.

  2. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il;

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...... take advantage of differentially expressed molecules on the surface of tumor cells, providing effective release of cytotoxic drugs. Several efforts have recently reported the use of diverse molecules as ligands on the surface of nanoparticles to interact with the tumor cells, enabling the effective...... delivery of antitumor agents. Here, we present recent advances in targeted nanoparticles against CRC and discuss the promising use of ligands and cellular targets in potential strategies for the treatment of CRCs....

  3. 3-Bromopyruvate: targets and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Maria C

    2012-02-01

    The pyruvate mimetic 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is generally presented as an inhibitor of glycolysis and has shown remarkable efficacy in not only preventing tumor growth, but even eradicating existant tumors in animal studies. We here review reported molecular targets of 3-BP and suggest that the very range of possible targets, which pertain to the altered energy metabolism of tumor cells, contributes both to the efficacy and the tumor specificity of the drug. Its in vivo efficacy is suggested to be due to a combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial targets, as well as to secondary effects affecting the tumor microenvironment. The cytotoxicity of 3-BP is less due to pyruvate mimicry than to alkylation of, e.g., key thiols. Alkylation of DNA/RNA has not been reported. More research is warranted to better understand the pharmacokinetics of 3-BP, and its potential toxic effects to normal cells, in particular those that are highly ATP-/mitochondrion-dependent.

  4. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R < or = 0.003, from 800 to 4800/cm (12 - 2 microns ). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10,000/ cm-1 (25 - 1 microns) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R < or = 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to approx.4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented

  5. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, H. B.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R.

    1995-09-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  6. Targeting α-synuclein oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Diggelen, Femke

    2017-01-01

    . Although there is currently no cure for PD, αSn oligomers (αSOs) are a potential therapeutic target, but a major drawback it that little is known about the nature of PD-associated αSOs. The scientific literature describes a wide variety of protocols to generate αSOs in vitro, with a subsequent......+/K+ ATPase, V-type ATPase, VDAC, CaMKII and Rab-3A. The identification of these targets is a first step towards unravelling the toxic pathways which are activated upon synaptic binding of extracellularly added αSOs, and hopefully will contribute to the discovery of new disease modifying compounds, which can...

  7. Prediction of underwater target strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG TongQing; Mohammad Amjad

    2001-01-01

    A model as well as its numerical method to calculate target strength of rigid body using Lighthill's acoustic analogy approach which developed from the propeller aircraft sound field study have been presented. The cases of ellipsoid target has been used to demonstrate the approach. The comparison of the numerical results with that of analytical formulation provides a satisfactory check for the validity of the approach. Some reasonable results have been discussed. The advantage of the present model is that it is suitable for any arbitrarily shaped rigid body moving with small Mach number.

  8. Targeted therapies for cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Damien; McArthur, Grant

    2014-06-01

    Melanoma is resistant to cytotoxic therapy, and treatment options for advanced disease have been limited historically. However, improved understanding of melanoma driver mutations, particularly those involving the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, has led to the development of targeted therapies that are effective in this previously treatment-refractory disease. In cutaneous melanomas with BRAF V600 mutations the selective RAF inhibitors, vemurafenib and dabrafenib, and the MEK inhibitor, trametinib, have demonstrated survival benefits. Early signals of efficacy have also been demonstrated with MEK inhibitors in melanomas with NRAS mutations, and KIT inhibitors offer promise in melanomas driven through activation of their target receptor.

  9. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...

  10. Targeting autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, René L; Matus, Soledad; Bargsted, Leslie; Hetz, Claudio

    2014-11-01

    The most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders involve protein misfolding and the aggregation of specific proteins. Autophagy is becoming an attractive target to treat neurodegenerative disorders through the selective degradation of abnormally folded proteins by the lysosomal pathway. However, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy impairment at different regulatory steps may contribute to the neurodegenerative process. Thus, a complex scenario is emerging where autophagy may play a dual role in neurodegenerative diseases by causing the downstream effect of promoting the degradation of misfolded proteins and an upstream effect where its deregulation perturbs global proteostasis, contributing to disease progression. Challenges in the future development of therapeutic strategies to target the autophagy pathway are discussed.

  11. [Biotherapy targeting the immune system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibody targeted therapy has changed the management of several diseases, including in hematology and immunology. The panel of the present available biotherapies allows a specific action at various stages of the immune response. Indeed, some of these molecules can target the naive T cell at the immunological synapse or the way of TH1, TH17 and regulatory T cell. Others may be more specific for the B cell and immunoglobulin. Some will even be active on both B and T cells.

  12. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  13. Manifold knowledge extraction and target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Cai; Hua, Zhou

    2009-10-01

    Advanced mammalian target identification derived from the perception of target's manifold and measurement manifolddistance. It does not rely on object's segmented accuracy, not depend on target's variety model, and adapt to a range of changes on targets. In this paper, based on the existed manifold learning algorithm, set up a new bionic automatic target recognition model, discussed the targets manifold knowledge acquisition and the knowledge expression architecture, gave a manifold knowledge-based new method for automatic target recognition. Experiments show that the new method has a strong adaptability to targets various transform, and has a very high correctly identification probability.

  14. USING OPTIMAL FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR CHAOS TARGETING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG ZHAO-WANG; ZHONG TING-XIU

    2000-01-01

    Since the conventional open-loop optimal targeting of chaos is very sensitive to noise, a close-loop optimal targeting method is proposed to improve the targeting performance under noise. The present optimal targeting model takes into consideration both precision and speed of the targeting procedure. The parameters, rather than the output, of the targeting controller, are directly optimized to obtain optimal chaos targeting. Analysis regarding the mechanism is given from physics aspect and numerical experiment on the Hénon map is carried out to compare the targeting performance under noise between the close-loop and the open-loop methods.

  15. Targeted Therapies in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Dogan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common genital cancer in developed world. It is generally diagnosed in early stage and it has a favorable prognosis. However, advanced staged disease and recurrences are difficult to manage. There are some common genetic alterations related to endometrial carcinogenesis in similar fashion to other cancers. Personalized medicine, which means selection of best suited treatment for an individual, has gain attention in clinical care of patients in recent years. Targeted therapies were developed as a part of personalized or %u201Ctailored%u201D medicine and specifically acts on a target or biologic pathway. There are quite a number of molecular alteration points in endometrial cancer such as PTEN tumor suppressor genes, DNA mismatch repair genes, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and p53 oncogene which all might be potential candidates for tailored targeted therapy. In recent years targeted therapies has clinical application in ovarian cancer patients and in near future with the advent of new agents these %u201Ctailored%u201D drugs will be in market for routine clinical practice in endometrial cancer patients, in primary disease and recurrences as well.

  16. Targeted Advertising and Social Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Vikander (Nick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper shows how a firm can use non-targeted advertising to exploit consumers' desire for social status. A monopolist sells multiple varieties of a good to consumers who each care about what others believe about his wealth. Advertising allows consumers both to buy different varieties

  17. Bacterial Cytotoxins Target Rho GTPases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gudula; Aktories, Klaus

    1998-06-01

    Low molecular mass GTPases of the Rho family, which are involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and in various signal transduction processes, are the eukaryotic targets of bacterial protein toxins. The toxins covalently modify Rho proteins by ADP ribosylation, glucosylation, and deamidation, thereby inactivating and activating the GTPases.

  18. CERN neutrino project on target

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at CERN announced the completion of the target assembly for the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso project, CNGS. On schedule for start-up in May 2006, CNGS will send a beam of neutrinos through the Earth to the Gran Sasso laboratory 730 km away in Italy in a bid to unravel the mysteries of nature's most elusive particles (½ page)

  19. Natural products to target inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allijn, Iris Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 Most Western lifestyle diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer have a chronic inflammatory process at its base. Therefore, inflammation is an important therapeutic target. Due to their potency, steroidal drugs dominate the current treatment of inflammat

  20. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: saliba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl{sub x} dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of {sup 235}U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  1. Tumor targeting via integrin ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Kiran eMarelli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

  2. High power neutron production targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  3. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references.

  4. Exploring targeted therapies in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, Constantijne Helene

    2007-01-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology is treatment directed at specific biological pathways and processes that play a critical role in carcinogenesis. Increased knowledge regarding the molecular changes underlying tumor progression and metastatis has resulted in the development of agents that are designed to

  5. Targeted therapy using alpha emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    1996-10-01

    Radionuclides such as and which decay by the emission of -particles are attractive for certain applications of targeted radiotherapy. The tissue penetration of and -particles is equivalent to only a few cell diameters, offering the possibility of combining cell-specific targeting with radiation of similar range. Unlike the -particles emitted by radionuclides such as and , -particles are radiation of high linear energy transfer and thus greater biological effectiveness. Several approaches have been explored for targeted radiotherapy with - and -labelled substances including colloids, monoclonal antibodies, metabolic precursors, receptor-avid ligands and other lower molecular weight molecules. An additional agent which exemplifies the promise of -emitting radiopharmaceuticals is meta-[]astatobenzylguanidine. The toxicity of this compound under single-cell conditions, determined both by []thymidine incorporation and by limiting dilution clonogenic assays, for human neuroblastoma cells is of the order of 1000 times higher than that of meta-[]iodobenzylguanidine. For meta-[]astatobenzylguanidine, the value was equivalent to only atoms bound per cell. These results suggest that meta-[]astatobenzylguanidine might be valuable for the targeted radiotherapy of micrometastatic neuroblastomas.

  6. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The most common side effects seen with this drug include fatigue, rash, diarrhea, increases in blood pressure, and redness, pain, swelling, ... other targets that help cancer cells grow. This drug is taken as a ... effects are nausea, diarrhea, changes in skin or hair color, mouth sores, ...

  7. Targeted multi-pinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branderhorst, Woutjan; Blezer, Erwin L.A. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vastenhouw, Brendan; Have, Frans van der; Beekman, Freek J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands); Molecular Imaging Laboratories BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Section of Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Bleeker, Wim K. [Genmab BV, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with focused multi-pinhole collimation geometries allows scanning modes in which large amounts of photons can be collected from specific volumes of interest. Here we present new tools that improve targeted imaging of specific organs and tumours, and validate the effects of improved targeting of the pinhole focus. A SPECT system with 75 pinholes and stationary detectors was used (U-SPECT-II). An XYZ stage automatically translates the animal bed with a specific sequence in order to scan a selected volume of interest. Prior to stepping the animal through the collimator, integrated webcams acquire images of the animal. Using sliders, the user designates the desired volume to be scanned (e.g. a xenograft or specific organ) on these optical images. Optionally projections of an atlas are overlaid semiautomatically to locate specific organs. In order to assess the effects of more targeted imaging, scans of a resolution phantom and a mouse myocardial phantom, as well as in vivo mouse cardiac and tumour scans, were acquired with increased levels of targeting. Differences were evaluated in terms of count yield, hot rod visibility and contrast-to-noise ratio. By restricting focused SPECT scans to a 1.13-ml resolution phantom, count yield was increased by a factor 3.6, and visibility of small structures was significantly enhanced. At equal noise levels, the small-lesion contrast measured in the myocardial phantom was increased by 42%. Noise in in vivo images of a tumour and the mouse heart was significantly reduced. Targeted pinhole SPECT improves images and can be used to shorten scan times. Scan planning with optical cameras provides an effective tool to exploit this principle without the necessity for additional X-ray CT imaging. (orig.)

  8. In 252 Cf neutron brachytherapy for uterine cervical cancer: the comparison of absorbed dose at anterior rectal wall with shielding by barium enema or lead marker%252Cf中子后装治疗宫颈癌直肠钡灌肠与插铅丝监测直肠前壁受量的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷新; 单锦露; 赵可伟

    2005-01-01

    目的观察宫颈癌锎(252Cf)中子后装治疗过程中直肠钡灌肠与插铅丝两种方法监测直肠前壁受量时的差异,分析直肠前壁受量的高低与急性期放射性直肠炎发生率的关系.方法30例宫颈癌用直肠插铅丝和钡灌肠的办法监测直肠前壁受量(各15例),分别拍摄等中心正交片.A点剂量均给予10Gy,分别计算直肠前壁和膀胱后壁最大受量以及按ICRU38号报告设定的直肠剂量参考点(R)的剂量,量取直肠前壁和膀胱后壁最大剂量点与官腔管中心的距离.统计所有病例及其中直肠前壁受量>4Gy病例的急性放射性直肠炎的发生率.结果钡灌肠组直肠前壁最大剂量点与宫腔管中心的平均距离明显低于插铅丝组,钡灌肠组直肠前壁最大剂量点受量则明显高于插铅丝组,ICRU直肠剂量参考点(R)的剂量明显高于钡灌肠组,但其剂量的高低与钡灌肠时直肠前壁最大剂量点受量的高低无明显关系.而膀胱后壁最大剂量点与宫腔管中心的平均距离及膀胱后壁最大剂量点受量,两组均无明显差别.直肠前壁受量>4 Gy病例的急性放射性直肠炎的发生率明显高于其他病例.结论宫颈癌中子后装治疗时直肠钡灌肠比插铅丝更能准确显示宫颈、阴道与直肠前壁的解剖关系,更能准确反映直肠前壁的真正受量.根据钡灌肠时直肠前壁最大剂量点受量的高低可大致预测宫颈癌放疗期间急性放射性直肠炎的发生率,且直肠钡灌肠对乙状结肠变异可起诊断作用.

  9. Targeting targeted agents: open issues for clinical trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannarelli Diana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecularly targeted agents for the treatment of solid tumors had entered the market in the last 5 years, with a great impact upon both the scientific community and the society. Many randomized phase III trials conducted in recent years with new targeted agents, despite previous data coming from preclinical research and from phase II trials were often promising, have produced disappointingly negative results. Some other trials have actually met their primary endpoint, demonstrating a statistically significant result favouring the experimental treatment. Unfortunately, with a few relevant exceptions, this advantage is often small, if not negligible, in absolute terms. The difference between statistical significance and clinical relevance should always be considered when translating clinical trials' results in the practice. The reason why this 'revolution' did not significantly impact on cancer treatment to displace chemotherapy from the patient' bedside is in part due to complicated, and in many cases, unknown, mechanisms of action of such drugs; indeed, the traditional way the clinical investigators were used to test the efficacy of 'older' chemotherapeutics, has become 'out of date' from the methodological perspective. As these drugs should be theoretically tailored upon featured bio-markers expressed by the patients, the clinical trial design should follow new rules based upon stronger hypotheses than those developed so far. Indeed, the early phases of basic and clinical drug development are crucial in the correct process which is able to correctly identify the target (when present. Targeted trial designs can result in easier studies, with less, better selected, and supported by stronger proofs of response evidences, patients, in order to not waste time and resources.

  10. Emerging targets in human lymphoma: targeting the MYD88 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JQ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available James Q Wang,* Yogesh S Jeelall,* Keisuke Horikawa* Department of Immunology, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia *All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: B cell neoplasms co-opt the molecular machinery of normal B cells for their survival. Technological advances in cancer genomics has significantly contributed to uncovering the root cause of aggressive lymphomas, revealing a previously unknown link between TLR signaling and B cell neoplasm. Recurrent oncogenic mutations in MYD88 have been found in 39% of the activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC DLBCL. Interestingly, 29% of ABC DLBCL have a single amino acid substitution of proline for the leucine at position 265 (L265P, and the exact same variant has also been identified in a number of lymphoid malignancies. The MYD88 L265P variant was recently identified in 90% of Wadenstrom's macroglobulinemia patients. These recent developments warrant the need for novel diagnostic tools as well as targeted therapeutics. In this review, we discuss the physiological functions of MYD88 and focus on its role in B cell lymphomas, evaluating the potential for targeting oncogenic MYD88 in lymphoma. Keywords: MYD88, L265P mutation, lymphoma, targeted therapy

  11. X-ray Measurements of a Thermo Scientific P385 DD Neutron Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; A.J. Caffrey; J. Simpson; M. Lemchak; C.J. Wharton

    2001-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is experimenting with electrical neutron generators, as potential replacements for californium-252 radioisotopic neutron sources in its PINS prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for the identification of military chemical warfare agents and explosives. In addition to neutron output, we have recently measured the x-ray output of the Thermo Scientific P385 deuterium-deuterium neutron generator. X-rays are a normal byproduct from a neutron generator and depending on their intensity and energy they can interfere with gamma rays from the object under test, increase gamma-spectrometer dead time, and reduce PGNAA system throughput. The P385 x-ray energy spectrum was measured with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and a broad peak is evident at about 70 keV. To identify the source of the x-rays within the neutron generator assembly, it was scanned by collimated scintillation detectors along its long axis. At the strongest x-ray emission points, the generator also was rotated 60° between measurements. The scans show the primary source of x-ray emission from the P385 neutron generator is an area 60 mm from the neutron production target, in the vicinity of the ion source. Rotation of the neutron generator did not significantly alter the x-ray count rate, and the x-ray emission appears to be axially symmetric within the neutron generator.

  12. Progress of gene targeting in mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gene targeting is a powerful approach of study- ing the genefunction in vivo. Specific genetic modifications, including simple gene disruption, point mutations, large chromosomal deletions and rearrangements, targeted incor- poration of foreign genes, could be introduced into the mouse genome by gene targeting. Recent studies make it possible to do the gene targeting with temporal and spatial control.

  13. FAST DETECTING TARGET GROUPS IN SAR IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Gui; Kuang Gangyao; Jiang Yongmei; Wang Baosun; Gao Sheng

    2006-01-01

    A successful algorithm for detecting target groups is presented. Firstly, A global Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector is utilized to locate the potential target regions, and then the features are computed for target discrimination based on voting mechanism. Finally, Target groups are extracted. The results of experiments show the validity of this algorithm.

  14. Downstream targets of WRKY33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Klaus; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten

    2008-11-01

    Innate immunity signaling pathways in both animals and plants are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. In a recent publication we show that MPK4 and its substrate MKS1 interact with WRKY33 in vivo, and that WRKY33 is released from complexes with MPK4 upon infection. Transcriptome analysis of a wrky33 loss-of-function mutant identified a subset of defense-related genes as putative targets of WRKY33. These genes include PAD3 and CYP71A13, which encode cytochrome P450 monoxygenases required for synthesis of the antimicrobial phytoalexin camalexin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that WRKY33 bound the promoter of PAD3 when plants were inoculated with pathogens. Here we further discuss the involvement of two other targets of WRKY33, NUDT6 and ROF2 in defense responses against invading pathogens.

  15. Downstream targets of WRKY33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Klaus; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Mundy, John;

    2008-01-01

    Innate immunity signaling pathways in both animals and plants are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. In a recent publication we show that MPK4 and its substrate MKS1 interact with WRKY33 in vivo, and that WRKY33 is released from complexes with MPK4 upon infection....... Transcriptome analysis of a wrky33 loss-of-function mutant identified a subset of defense-related genes as putative targets of WRKY33. These genes include PAD3 and CYP71A13, which encode cytochrome P450 monoxygenases required for synthesis of the antimicrobial phytoalexin camalexin. Chromatin...... immunoprecipitation confirmed that WRKY33 bound the promoter of PAD3 when plants were inoculated with pathogens. Here we further discuss the involvement of two other targets of WRKY33, NUDT6 and ROF2 in defense responses against invading pathogens....

  16. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes......, paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization...

  17. CNOOC Lifts 2011 Production Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), China's top offshore oil and gas producer, has lifted its 2011 production target by up to 11 percent as new projects at home and overseas come on stream.The offshore oil giant, with a market capitalization of about US$105 billion, said in a statement released in late January 2011 that it aimed to produce between 355 and 365 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE).Oil prices climbed 15 percent in 2010 on the back of expectations that a global economic recovery will drive the demand.Analysts are similarly bullish for 2011, predicting crude prices to trade at around US$100 for the year.CNOOC, the smallest of China's triumvirate of energy companies that also includes CNPC and Sinopee, said it targeted US$8.8 billion in capital expenditure for 2011.

  18. Endocrine disruptors targeting ERbeta function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedenborg, E; Pongratz, I; Gustafsson, J-A

    2010-04-01

    Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) circulating in the environment constitute a risk to ecosystems, wildlife and human health. Oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta are targeted by various kinds of EDCs but the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of exposure are largely unknown. Some biological effects of EDCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a key player in the cellular defence against xenobiotic substances. Adding complexity to the picture, there is also accumulating evidence that AhR-ER pathways have an intricate interplay at multiple levels. In this review, we discuss some EDCs that affect the oestrogen pathway by targeting ERbeta. Furthermore, we describe some effects of AhR activities on the oestrogen system. Mechanisms as well as potential adverse effects on human health are discussed.

  19. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark

    2014-05-01

    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  20. Genome engineering with targetable nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Current technology enables the production of highly specific genome modifications with excellent efficiency and specificity. Key to this capability are targetable DNA cleavage reagents and cellular DNA repair pathways. The break made by these reagents can produce localized sequence changes through inaccurate nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), often leading to gene inactivation. Alternatively, user-provided DNA can be used as a template for repair by homologous recombination (HR), leading to the introduction of desired sequence changes. This review describes three classes of targetable cleavage reagents: zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs). As a group, these reagents have been successfully used to modify genomic sequences in a wide variety of cells and organisms, including humans. This review discusses the properties, advantages, and limitations of each system, as well as the specific considerations required for their use in different biological systems.

  1. Classical scattering from oscillating targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papachristou, P.K.; Diakonos, F.K.; Constantoudis, V.; Schmelcher, P.; Benet, L

    2002-12-30

    We study planar classical scattering from an oscillating heavy target whose dynamics defines a five-dimensional phase space. Although the system possesses no periodic orbits, and thus topological chaos is not present, the scattering functions display a variety of structures on different time scales. These structures are due to scattering events with a strong energy transfer from the projectile to the moving disk resulting in low-velocity peaks. We encounter initial conditions for which the projectile exhibits infinitely many bounces with the oscillating disk. Our numerical investigations are supported by analytical results on a specific model with a simple time-law. The observed properties possess universal character for scattering off oscillating targets.

  2. Antihyperlipidemic therapies targeting PCSK9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Michael; Frishman, William H

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of cardiovascular disease despite the availability of first-line cholesterol-lowering agents such as statins. A new therapeutic approach to lowering low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) acts by blocking LDL-receptor degradation by serum proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9). Human monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 and its interaction with the LDL receptor are now in clinical trials (REGN727/SAR23653, AMG145, and RN316). These agents are administered by either subcutaneous or intravenous routes, and have been shown to have major LDL-C and apolipoprotein B effects when combined with statins. A phase III clinical trial program evaluating clinical endpoints is now in progress. Other PCSK9-targeted approaches are in early stages of investigation, including natural inhibitors of PCSK9, RNA interference, and antisense inhibitors.

  3. Navy Advertising: Targeting Generation Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    influence the navy recruiting and advertising goals. Results from our study can influence advertisement targeting goals and also better aid in the...250 advertising studies to deduce a formula on how advertising works . They developed a framework, seen in Figure 2, to help classify the advertising...advertising works : What do we really know? Journal of Marketing, 63(1), 26-43. By using the framework and classifying studies into different models

  4. Nonlinear Acoustic Characterization of Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    matching so as to transmit as much energy as possible into the test object. In addition to this limitation, ultrasound is only able to measure range by...metric arrays for standoff analysis of targets. In 1982, Yoneyama[4] discussed the nonlinear interaction of ultrasound with air as the “scattering of... cavitation effect. This produces a rectification at higher frequencies just as a diode does in an electrical circuit. This natural rectification allows

  5. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range. F...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  6. Electronic warfare target location methods

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  7. Targeted Communication and Investor Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Boulland, Romain; Degeorge, François; Ginglinger, Edith

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of Merton (1987) we find that targeted communication by firms raises investor attention. Continental European firms using English-language commercial press wires to disseminate corporate press releases exhibit less drift and more trading volume after their earnings announcements than firms that do not, consistent with communication on English speaking wires raising investor attention. Continental European firms using English-language commercial press wires also receive more pres...

  8. Cancer Immunotherapy of Targeting Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianmeiHou; LingTian; YuquanWei

    2004-01-01

    Tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis-dependent. Anti-angiogenic therapy may be a useful approach to cancer therapy. This review discussed tumor angiogenesis and immunotherapy of targeting tumor angiogenesis from two main aspects: (1) active vaccination to induce effective anti-angiogenesis immunity; (2) passive immunotherapy with anti-pro-angiogenic molecules relevant antibody. Evidence from the recent years suggested that anti-angiogenic therapy should be one of the most promising approaches to cancer therapy.

  9. Targeting inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Francine K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is comprised of a cluster of closely related risk factors, including visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, hypertension, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; all of which increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A chronic state of inflammation appears to be a central mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and MetS. In this review, we summarize recent research which has provided insight into the mechanisms by which inflammation underlies the pathophysiology of the individual components of MetS including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. On the basis of these mechanisms, we summarize therapeutic modalities to target inflammation in the MetS and its individual components. Current therapeutic modalities can modulate the individual components of MetS and have a direct anti-inflammatory effect. Lifestyle modifications including exercise, weight loss, and diets high in fruits, vegetables, fiber, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and low in saturated fat and glucose are recommended as a first line therapy. The Mediterranean and dietary approaches to stop hypertension diets are especially beneficial and have been shown to prevent development of MetS. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet has been associated with reductions in total and cardiovascular mortality. Omega-3 fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists lower high levels of triglyceride; their role in targeting inflammation is reviewed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone blockers comprise pharmacologic therapies for hypertension but also target other aspects of MetS including inflammation. Statin drugs target many of the underlying inflammatory pathways involved in MetS.

  10. Multisensor Target Detection And Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Mills, James P.; Kabrisky, Matthew

    1988-08-01

    In this paper a new approach to the detection and classification of tactical targets using a multifunction laser radar sensor is developed. Targets of interest are tanks, jeeps, trucks, and other vehicles. Doppler images are segmented by developing a new technique which compensates for spurious doppler returns. Relative range images are segmented using an approach based on range gradients. The resultant shapes in the segmented images are then classified using Zernike moment invariants as shape descriptors. Two classification decision rules are implemented: a classical statistical nearest-neighbor approach and a multilayer perceptron architecture. The doppler segmentation algorithm was applied to a set of 180 real sensor images. An accurate segmentation was obtained for 89 percent of the images. The new doppler segmentation proved to be a robust method, and the moment invariants were effective in discriminating the tactical targets. Tanks were classified correctly 86 percent of the time. The most important result of this research is the demonstration of the use of a new information processing architecture for image processing applications.

  11. Renal Toxicities of Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Anum; Mirza, Mohsin M; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Tendulkar, Ketki

    2015-12-01

    With the incorporation of targeted therapies in routine cancer therapy, it is imperative that the array of toxicities associated with these agents be well-recognized and managed, especially since these toxicities are distinct from those seen with conventional cytotoxic agents. This review will focus on these renal toxicities from commonly used targeted agents. This review discusses the mechanisms of these side effects and management strategies. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents including the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, aflibercept (VEGF trap), and anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) all cause hypertension, whereas some of them result in proteinuria. Monoclonal antibodies against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptors, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, cause electrolyte imbalances including hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia due to the direct nephrotoxic effect of the drug on renal tubules. Cetuximab may also result in renal tubular acidosis. The TKIs, imatinib and dasatinib, can result in acute or chronic renal failure. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can cause acute renal failure following initiation of therapy because of the onset of acute tumor lysis syndrome. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, can result in proteinuria. Discerning the renal adverse effects resulting from these agents is essential for safe treatment strategies, particularly in those with pre-existing renal disease.

  12. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    CERN Document Server

    Wollack, Edward J; Rinehart, Stephan A

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, $R \\le 0.003$, from $800-4,800\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(12-2\\,\\mu$m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to $400-10,000\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(25-1\\,\\mu$m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to $R \\le 0.02$ at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to $\\sim4\\,$K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials -- Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder -- are character...

  13. NEW DRUG TARGETING TREATMENT - GLIVEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xue-mei(孙雪梅); BRADY Ben

    2003-01-01

    This review evaluates the role of Glivec in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia and other malignant tumors. Preclinical and clinical evidence showed that Glivec demonstrated a potent and specific inhibition on BCR-ABL positive leukemias and other malignant tumors in which overexpression of c-kit and PDGFR-β played a major role in their pathogenesis. Glivec has induced complete hematologic responses in up to 98% of patients evaluated in clinical trials. It's a very successful drug that supported the idea of targeted therapy through inhibition of tyrosine kinases. Although it's still in the early stages of clinical development and the resistance to Glivec remains to be a problem needed further study, a great deal has been learned from these research and observation. And with the increasing data, molecular targeting therapy will play much more important role in the treatment of malignant tumors. With the better understanding of the pathogenesis of malignant tumors, well-designed drugs targeting the specific molecular abnormalities with higher efficacy and lower side effect will benefit numerous patients with malignant tumors.

  14. Fixed Target Collisions at STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Kathryn C.

    2016-12-01

    The RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program was proposed to look for the turn-off of signatures of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), search for a possible QCD critical point, and study the nature of the phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter. Previous results have been used to claim that the onset of deconfinement occurs at a center-of-mass energy of 7 GeV. Data from lower energies are needed to test if this onset occurs. The goal of the STAR Fixed-Target Program is to extend the collision energy range in BES II to energies that are likely below the onset of deconfinement. Currently, STAR has inserted a gold target into the beam pipe and conducted test runs at center-of-mass energies of 3.9 and 4.5 GeV. Tests have been done with both Au and Al beams. First physics results from a Coulomb potential analysis of Au + Au fixed-target collisions are presented and are found to be consistent with results from previous experiments. Furthermore, the Coulomb potential, which is sensitive to the Z of the projectile and degree of baryonic stopping, will be compared to published results from the AGS.

  15. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, F; Bronte, G; Cusenza, S; Fiorentino, E; Rolfo, C; Cicero, G; Bronte, E; Di Marco, V; Firenze, A; Angarano, G; Fontana, T; Russo, A

    2014-01-01

    The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life.

  16. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens.

  17. Mitochondrially targeted fluorescent redox sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kylie; Kolanowski, Jacek L; New, Elizabeth J

    2017-04-06

    The balance of oxidants and antioxidants within the cell is crucial for maintaining health, and regulating physiological processes such as signalling. Consequently, imbalances between oxidants and antioxidants are now understood to lead to oxidative stress, a physiological feature that underlies many diseases. These processes have spurred the field of chemical biology to develop a plethora of sensors, both small-molecule and fluorescent protein-based, for the detection of specific oxidizing species and general redox balances within cells. The mitochondrion, in particular, is the site of many vital redox reactions. There is therefore a need to target redox sensors to this particular organelle. It has been well established that targeting mitochondria can be achieved by the use of a lipophilic cation-targeting group, or by utilizing natural peptidic mitochondrial localization sequences. Here, we review how these two approaches have been used by a number of researchers to develop mitochondrially localized fluorescent redox sensors that are already proving useful in providing insights into the roles of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria.

  18. Phenotypic screens targeting neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minhua; Luo, Guangrui; Zhou, Yanjiao; Wang, Shaohui; Zhong, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people worldwide, and the incidences increase as the population ages. Disease-modifying therapy that prevents or slows disease progression is still lacking, making neurodegenerative diseases an area of high unmet medical need. Target-based drug discovery for disease-modifying agents has been ongoing for many years, without much success due to incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. Phenotypic screening, starting with a disease-relevant phenotype to screen for compounds that change the outcome of biological pathways rather than activities at certain specific targets, offers an alternative approach to find small molecules or targets that modulate the key characteristics of neurodegeneration. Phenotypic screens that focus on amelioration of disease-specific toxins, protection of neurons from degeneration, or promotion of neuroregeneration could be potential fertile grounds for discovering therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we will summarize the progress of compound screening using these phenotypic-based strategies for this area, with a highlight on unique considerations for disease models, assays, and screening methodologies. We will further provide our perspectives on how best to use phenotypic screening to develop drug leads for neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Classical Geometry and Target Space Duality

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    This is the written version of lectures presented at Cargese 95. A new formulation for a ``restricted'' type of target space duality in classical two dimensional nonlinear sigma models is presented. The main idea is summarized by the analogy: euclidean geometry is to riemannian geometry as toroidal target space duality is to ``restricted'' target space duality. The target space is not required to possess symmetry. These lectures only discuss the local theory. The restricted target space duali...

  20. Method for forming electrically charged laser targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1979-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  1. In vitro effect of p21WAF-1/CIP1 gene on growth of human glioma cells mediated by EGFR targeted non-viral vector GE7 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永新; 许秀兰; 张光霁; 王韦; 金海英; 卢亦成; 朱诚; 顾健人

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To construct the EGFR targeted non-viral vector GE7 system and explore the in vitro effect of p21WAF-1/CIP1 gene on growth of human glioma cells mediated by the GE7 system. Methods: The EGFR targeted non-viral vector GE7 gene delivery system was constructed. The malignant human glioma cell line U251MG was transfected in vitro with β-galactosidase gene(reporter gene) and p21WAF-1/CIP1 gene (therapeutic gene) using the GE7 system. By means of X-gal staining, MTS and FACS, the transfection efficiency of exogenous gene and apoptosis rate of tumor cells were examined. The expression of p21WAF-1/CIP1 gene in transfected U251MG cell was examined by immunohistochemistry staining. Results: The highest transfer rate of exogenous gene was 70%. After transfection with p21WAF-1/CIP1 gene, the expression of WAF-1 increased remarkably and steadily; the growth of U251MG cells were inhibited evidently. FACS examination showed G1 arrest. The average apoptosis rate was 25.2%. Conclusion: GE7 system has the ability to transfer exogenous gene to targeted cells efficiently, and expression of p21WAF-1/CIP1 gene can induce apoptosis of glioma cell and inhibit its growth.

  2. Production of medical radioisotopes in the ORNL high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) for cancer treatment and arterial restenosis therapy after PICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, F. F.; Beets, A. L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C. W.; Hobbs, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor ( HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory ( ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. First beginning operation in 1965, the high thermal neutron flux (2.5×1015 neutrons/cm2/sec at 85 MW) and versatile target irradiation and handling facilities provide the opportunity for production of a wide variety of neutron-rich medical radioisotopes of current interest for therapy. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117 m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube ( HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle (22-24 days) and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions ( PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117 m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  3. Experimental identification of microRNA targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Lund, Anders H

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs are small RNAs that regulate protein synthesis post-transcriptionally. Animal microRNAs recognize their targets by incomplete base pairing to sequence motifs most often present in the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNAs. This partial complementarity vastly expands the repertoire...... of potential targets and constitutes a problem for computational target prediction. Although computational analyses have shed light on important aspects of microRNA target recognition, several questions remain regarding how microRNAs can recognize and regulate their targets. Forward experimental approaches...... allow for an unbiased study of microRNA target recognition and may unveil novel, rare or uncommon target binding patterns. In this review we focus on animal microRNAs and the experimental approaches that have been described for identification of their targets....

  4. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  5. Targeted Nanotechnology in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Talita; Han, Inbo; Wu, Liquan; Zeng, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas, and in particular glioblastoma multiforme, are aggressive brain tumors characterized by a poor prognosis and high rates of recurrence. Current treatment strategies are based on open surgery, chemotherapy (temozolomide) and radiotherapy. However, none of these treatments, alone or in combination, are considered effective in managing this devastating disease, resulting in a median survival time of less than 15 months. The efficiency of chemotherapy is mainly compromised by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that selectively inhibits drugs from infiltrating into the tumor mass. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), with their unique biology and their resistance to both radio- and chemotherapy, compound tumor aggressiveness and increase the chances of treatment failure. Therefore, more effective targeted therapeutic regimens are urgently required. In this article, some well-recognized biological features and biomarkers of this specific subgroup of tumor cells are profiled and new strategies and technologies in nanomedicine that explicitly target CSCs, after circumventing the BBB, are detailed. Major achievements in the development of nanotherapies, such as organic poly(propylene glycol) and poly(ethylene glycol) or inorganic (iron and gold) nanoparticles that can be conjugated to metal ions, liposomes, dendrimers and polymeric micelles, form the main scope of this summary. Moreover, novel biological strategies focused on manipulating gene expression (small interfering RNA and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats [CRISPR]/CRISPR associated protein 9 [Cas 9] technologies) for cancer therapy are also analyzed. The aim of this review is to analyze the gap between CSC biology and the development of targeted therapies. A better understanding of CSC properties could result in the development of precise nanotherapies to fulfill unmet clinical needs.

  6. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norain, Abdullah; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 60,000 individuals in the United States and 132,000 worldwide are yearly diagnosed with melanoma. Until recently, treatment options for patients with stages III-IV metastatic disease were limited and offered marginal, if any, improvement in overall survival. The situation changed with the introduction of B-RAF inhibitors and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapies into the clinical practice. With only some patients responding well to the immune therapies and with very serious side effects and high costs of immunotherapy, there is still room for other approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma could be divided into the domains of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), radiolabeled peptides, and radiolabeled small molecules. RIT of melanoma is currently experiencing a renaissance with the clinical trials of alpha-emitter (213)Bi-labeled and beta-emitter (188)Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma producing encouraging results. The investigation of the mechanism of efficacy of melanoma RIT points at killing of melanoma stem cells by RIT and involvement of immune system such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The domain of radiolabeled peptides for targeted melanoma therapy has been preclinical so far, with work concentrated on radiolabeled peptide analogues of melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor and on melanin-binding peptides. The field of radiolabeled small molecule produced radioiodinated benzamides that cross the cellular membrane and bind to the intracellular melanin. The recent clinical trial demonstrated measurable antitumor effects and no acute or midterm toxicities. We are hopeful that the targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma would become a clinical reality as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with the immunotherapies such as anti-PD1 programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies

  7. Targeted Therapy in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Baron

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapies use an understanding of the pathophysiology of a disease in an individual patient. Although targeted therapy for systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma has not yet reached the level of patient-specific treatments, recent developments in the understanding of the global pathophysiology of the disease have led to new treatments based on the cells and pathways that have been shown to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. The presence of a B cell signature in skin biopsies has led to the trial of rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, in SSc. The well-known properties of transforming growth factor (TGF-β in promoting collagen synthesis and secretion has led to a small trial of fresolimumab, a human IgG4 monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing TGF-β. Evidence supporting important roles for interleukin-6 in the pathogenesis of SSc have led to a large trial of tocilizumab in SSc. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP upon binding of nitric oxide (NO to the sGC molecule. Processes such as cell growth and proliferation are regulated by cGMP. Evidence that sGC may play a role in SSc has led to a trial of riociguat, a molecule that sensitizes sGC to endogenous NO. Tyrosine kinases (TKs are involved in a wide variety of physiologic and pathological processes including vascular remodeling and fibrogenesis such as occurs in SSc. This has led to a trial of nintedanib, a next-generation tyrosine-kinase (TK inhibitor which targets multiple TKs, in SSc.

  8. The challenge of targeting metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Isaiah J; Kripke, Margaret L

    2015-12-01

    Metastases that are resistant to conventional therapy are the major cause of death from cancer. In most patients, metastasis has already occurred by the time of diagnosis. Thus, the prevention of metastasis is unlikely to be of therapeutic benefit. The biological heterogeneity of metastases presents a major obstacle to treatment. However, the growth and survival of metastases depend on interactions between tumor cells and host homeostatic mechanisms. Targeting these interactions, in addition to the tumor cells, can produce synergistic therapeutic effects against existing metastases.

  9. Conotoxins: Molecular and Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J.

    Marine molluscs known as cone snails produce beautiful shells and a complex array of over 50,000 venom peptides evolved for prey capture and defence. Many of these peptides selectively modulate ion channels and transporters, making them a valuable source of new ligands for studying the role these targets play in normal and disease physiology. A number of conopeptides reduce pain in animal models, and several are now in pre-clinical and clinical development for the treatment of severe pain often associated with diseases such as cancer. Less than 1% of cone snail venom peptides are pharmacologically characterised.

  10. Radar Imaging for Moving Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    solution as scatt (x)  Gk (x ’, x)(x ’)D  inc (x ’)  scatt (x ’) d 3x ’ (3.3) This is a Lippmann- Schwinger equation. It can be observed...boundary conditions for a known target. It is also important to note that there are several aspects to the Lippmann- Schwinger equation: 27 (1...can also be approached using the Lippmann- Schwinger equation as a model for scatt . B. LINEARIZED DATA MODEL (TIME-VARYING SYSTEMS) Besides using

  11. Zinc metalloproteins as medicinal targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzellotti, A I; Farrell, N P

    2008-08-01

    Zinc bioinorganic chemistry has emphasized the role of the metal ion on the structure and function of the protein. There is, more recently, an increasing appreciation of the role of zinc proteins in a variety of human diseases. This critical review, aimed at both bioinorganic and medicinal chemists, shows how apparently widely-diverging diseases share the common mechanistic approaches of targeting the essential function of the metal ion to inhibit activity. Protein structure and function is briefly summarized in the context of its clinical relevance. The status of current and potential inhibitors is discussed along with the prospects for future developments (162 references).

  12. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  13. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  14. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venning, Freja A.; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression. PMID:26539408

  15. Assessing protein kinase target similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Osman A; Thakkar, Balmukund; Narayanan, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    : focussed chemical libraries, drug repurposing, polypharmacological design, to name a few. Protein kinase target similarity is easily quantified by sequence, and its relevance to ligand design includes broad classification by key binding sites, evaluation of resistance mutations, and the use of surrogate......" of sequence and crystal structure information, with statistical methods able to identify key correlates to activity but also here, "the devil is in the details." Examples from specific repurposing and polypharmacology applications illustrate these points. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled...

  16. Properties of protein drug target classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Bull

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of drug targets is a crucial part of any drug development program. We mined the human proteome to discover properties of proteins that may be important in determining their suitability for pharmaceutical modulation. Data was gathered concerning each protein's sequence, post-translational modifications, secondary structure, germline variants, expression profile and drug target status. The data was then analysed to determine features for which the target and non-target proteins had significantly different values. This analysis was repeated for subsets of the proteome consisting of all G-protein coupled receptors, ion channels, kinases and proteases, as well as proteins that are implicated in cancer. Machine learning was used to quantify the proteins in each dataset in terms of their potential to serve as a drug target. This was accomplished by first inducing a random forest that could distinguish between its targets and non-targets, and then using the random forest to quantify the drug target likeness of the non-targets. The properties that can best differentiate targets from non-targets were primarily those that are directly related to a protein's sequence (e.g. secondary structure. Germline variants, expression levels and interactions between proteins had minimal discriminative power. Overall, the best indicators of drug target likeness were found to be the proteins' hydrophobicities, in vivo half-lives, propensity for being membrane bound and the fraction of non-polar amino acids in their sequences. In terms of predicting potential targets, datasets of proteases, ion channels and cancer proteins were able to induce random forests that were highly capable of distinguishing between targets and non-targets. The non-target proteins predicted to be targets by these random forests comprise the set of the most suitable potential future drug targets, and should therefore be prioritised when building a drug development programme.

  17. Measurement of inclusive ep cross sections at high Q{sup 2} at √(s) = 225 and 252 GeV and of the longitudinal proton structure function F{sub L} at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Belov, P.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Dodonov, V.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Kleinwort, C.; Krueger, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Petrukhin, A.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Raspereza, A.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Boudry, V.; Specka, A. [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Bradt, G. [Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Brisson, V.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Buniatyan, A.; Huber, F.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Rostovtsev, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G. [CINVESTAV, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Ceccopieri, F.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Mechelen, P. van [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Chekelian, V.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Olivier, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Daum, K.; Meyer, H. [Universitaet Wuppertal, Fachbereich C, Wuppertal (Germany); Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Dobre, M.; Rotaru, M. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Dossanov, A. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Dubak, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); University of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (Montenegro); Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L. [CEA, DSM/Irfu, CE-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovakia); Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Grab, C. [ETH, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, Zurich (Switzerland); Henderson, R.C.W. [University of Lancaster, Department of Physics, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Hladka, J.; Reimer, P. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Jung, H. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Spaskov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (RU); Kogler, R.; Nowak, K. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (DE); Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T. [DESY, Zeuthen (DE); Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D. [University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, London (GB); Lubimov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (RU); Martyn, H.U. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH, Aachen (DE); Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P. [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (CH); Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (GB); Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [University of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Sankey, D.P.C. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (GB); Soloviev, Y. [DESY, Hamburg (DE); Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU); Stella, B. [Universita di Roma Tre (IT); INFN Roma 3, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (IT); Sykora, T. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (BE); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (CZ); Tsakov, I. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (BG); Wegener, D. [Institut fuer Physik, TU Dortmund, Dortmund (DE); Collaboration: H1 Collaboration

    2014-04-15

    Inclusive ep double differential cross sections for neutral current deep inelastic scattering are measured with the H1 detector at HERA.The data were taken with a lepton beam energy of 27.6 GeV and two proton beam energies of E{sub p} = 460 and 575 GeV corresponding to centre-of-mass energies of 225 and 252 GeV, respectively. The measurements cover the region of 6.5 x 10{sup -4} ≤ x ≤ 0.65 for 35 ≤ Q{sup 2} ≤ 800 GeV{sup 2} up to y = 0.85. The measurements are used together with previously published H1 data at E{sub p} = 920 GeV and lower Q{sup 2} data at E{sub p} = 460, 575 and 920 GeV to extract the longitudinal proton structure function F{sub L} in the region 1.5 ≤ Q{sup 2} ≤ 800 GeV{sup 2}. (orig.)

  18. Towards real-time MRI-guided 3D localization of deforming targets for non-invasive cardiac radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsen, S.; Blanck, O.; Lowther, N. J.; Liney, G. P.; Rai, R.; Bode, F.; Dunst, J.; Schweikard, A.; Keall, P. J.

    2016-11-01

    Radiosurgery to the pulmonary vein antrum in the left atrium (LA) has recently been proposed for non-invasive treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Precise real-time target localization during treatment is necessary due to complex respiratory and cardiac motion and high radiation doses. To determine the 3D position of the LA for motion compensation during radiosurgery, a tracking method based on orthogonal real-time MRI planes was developed for AF treatments with an MRI-guided radiotherapy system. Four healthy volunteers underwent cardiac MRI of the LA. Contractile motion was quantified on 3D LA models derived from 4D scans with 10 phases acquired in end-exhalation. Three localization strategies were developed and tested retrospectively on 2D real-time scans (sagittal, temporal resolution 100 ms, free breathing). The best-performing method was then used to measure 3D target positions in 2D-2D orthogonal planes (sagittal-coronal, temporal resolution 200-252 ms, free breathing) in 20 configurations of a digital phantom and in the volunteer data. The 3D target localization accuracy was quantified in the phantom and qualitatively assessed in the real data. Mean cardiac contraction was  ⩽  3.9 mm between maximum dilation and contraction but anisotropic. A template matching approach with two distinct template phases and ECG-based selection yielded the highest 2D accuracy of 1.2 mm. 3D target localization showed a mean error of 3.2 mm in the customized digital phantoms. Our algorithms were successfully applied to the 2D-2D volunteer data in which we measured a mean 3D LA motion extent of 16.5 mm (SI), 5.8 mm (AP) and 3.1 mm (LR). Real-time target localization on orthogonal MRI planes was successfully implemented for highly deformable targets treated in cardiac radiosurgery. The developed method measures target shifts caused by respiration and cardiac contraction. If the detected motion can be compensated accordingly, an MRI-guided radiotherapy

  19. String theory in target space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boels, Rutger H.; Hansen, Tobias [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, D- 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-06-10

    It is argued that the complete S-matrix of string theory at tree level in a flat background can be obtained from a small set of target space properties, without recourse to the worldsheet description. The main non-standard inputs are (generalised) Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten shifts, as well as the monodromy relations for open string theory and the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations for closed string theory. The roots of the scattering amplitudes and especially their appearance in the residues at the kinematic poles are central to the story. These residues determine the amplitudes through on-shell recursion relations. Several checks of the formalism are presented, including a computation of the Koba-Nielsen amplitude in the bosonic string. Furthermore the question of target space unitarity is (re-)investigated. For the Veneziano amplitude this question is reduced by Poincaré invariance, unitarity and locality to that of positivity of a particular numerical sum. Interestingly, this analysis produces the main conditions of the no-ghost theorem on dimension and intercept from the first three poles of this amplitude.

  20. Targeted therapies in gastroesophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Stefan; Schuler, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Gastroesophageal cancers comprising gastric cancer (GC), and cancers of the distal oesophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) are a global health threat. In Western populations the incidence of GC is declining which has been attributed to effective strategies of eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection. To the contrary, GEJ cancers are on the rise, with obesity and reflux disease being viewed as major risk factors. During the past decade perioperative chemotherapy, pre- or postoperative radio-chemotherapy, and, in Asian populations, adjuvant chemotherapy have been shown to improve the outcome of patients with advanced GC and GEJ cancers suited for surgery. Less progress has been made in the treatment of metastatic disease. The introduction of trastuzumab in combination with platinum/fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy for patients with HER2-positive disease has marked a turning point. Recently, several novel agents targeting growth factor receptors, angiogenic pathways, adhesion molecules and mediators of intracellular signal transduction have been clinically explored. Here we summarise the current status and future developments of molecularly targeted therapies in GC and GEJ cancer.

  1. Seismoelectric imaging of shallow targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S.S.; Pride, S.R.; Klemperer, S.L.; Biondi, B.

    2007-01-01

    We have undertaken a series of controlled field experiments to develop seismoelectric experimental methods for near-surface applications and to improve our understanding of seismoelectric phenomena. In a set of off-line geometry surveys (source separated from the receiver line), we place seismic sources and electrode array receivers on opposite sides of a man-made target (two sand-filled trenches) to record separately two previously documented seismoelectric modes: (1) the electromagnetic interface response signal created at the target and (2) the coseismic electric fields located within a compressional seismic wave. With the seismic source point in the center of a linear electrode array, we identify the previously undocumented seismoelectric direct field, and the Lorentz field of the metal hammer plate moving in the earth's magnetic field. We place the seismic source in the center of a circular array of electrodes (radial and circumferential orientations) to analyze the source-related direct and Lorentz fields and to establish that these fields can be understood in terms of simple analytical models. Using an off-line geometry, we create a multifold, 2D image of our trenches as dipping layers, and we also produce a complementary synthetic image through numerical modeling. These images demonstrate that off-line geometry (e.g., crosswell) surveys offer a particularly promising application of the seismoelectric method because they effectively separate the interface response signal from the (generally much stronger) coseismic and source-related fields. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  2. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized antigen presenting cells (APC) with a remarkable ability to take up antigens and stimulate major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted specific immune responses. Recent discoveries have shown that their role in initiating primary immune responses seems to be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC are considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC.

  3. Targeting FGFR Signaling in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touat, Mehdi; Ileana, Ecaterina; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; André, Fabrice; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2015-06-15

    The fibroblast growth factor signaling pathway (FGFR signaling) is an evolutionary conserved signaling cascade that regulates several basic biologic processes, including tissue development, angiogenesis, and tissue regeneration. Substantial evidence indicates that aberrant FGFR signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Recent developments of deep sequencing technologies have allowed the discovery of frequent molecular alterations in components of FGFR signaling among several solid tumor types. Moreover, compelling preclinical models have demonstrated the oncogenic potential of these aberrations in driving tumor growth, promoting angiogenesis, and conferring resistance mechanisms to anticancer therapies. Recently, the field of FGFR targeting has exponentially progressed thanks to the development of novel agents inhibiting FGFs or FGFRs, which had manageable safety profiles in early-phase trials. Promising treatment efficacy has been observed in different types of malignancies, particularly in tumors harboring aberrant FGFR signaling, thus offering novel therapeutic opportunities in the era of precision medicine. The most exciting challenges now focus on selecting patients who are most likely to benefit from these agents, increasing the efficacy of therapies with the development of novel potent compounds and combination strategies, and overcoming toxicities associated with FGFR inhibitors. After examination of the basic and translational research studies that validated the oncogenic potential of aberrant FGFR signaling, this review focuses on recent data from clinical trials evaluating FGFR targeting therapies and discusses the challenges and perspectives for the development of these agents.

  4. Targeted Molecular Therapies for SBMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Carlo; Malik, Bilal; Greensmith, Linda

    2016-03-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a late-onset neuromuscular disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor gene which results in progressive spinal and bulbar motor neuron degeneration, and muscle atrophy. Although the causative genetic defect is known, until recently, the molecular pathogenesis of the disease was unclear, resulting in few, if any, targets for therapy development. However, over the past decade, our understanding of the pathomechanisms that play a role in SBMA has increased dramatically, and several of these pathways and mechanisms have now been investigated as possible therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss some of the key pathomechanisms implicated in SBMA and describe some of the therapeutic strategies that have been tested in SBMA to date, which fall into four main categories: (i) gene silencing; (ii) protein quality control and/or increased protein degradation; (iii) androgen deprivation; and (iv) modulation of AR function. Finally, it is also now clear that in addition to a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie disease, the development of an effective disease modifying therapy for SBMA will require the coordinated, collaborative effort of research teams with diverse areas of expertise, clinicians, pharmaceutical companies as well as patient groups.

  5. Tamoxifen Resistance: Emerging Molecular Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rondón-Lagos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available 17β-Estradiol (E2 plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. As a result, blockade of the E2 signal through either tamoxifen (TAM or aromatase inhibitors is an important therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent estrogen receptor (ER positive breast cancer. However, resistance to TAM is the major obstacle in endocrine therapy. This resistance occurs either de novo or is acquired after an initial beneficial response. The underlying mechanisms for TAM resistance are probably multifactorial and remain largely unknown. Considering that breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease and patients respond differently to treatment, the molecular analysis of TAM’s biological activity could provide the necessary framework to understand the complex effects of this drug in target cells. Moreover, this could explain, at least in part, the development of resistance and indicate an optimal therapeutic option. This review highlights the implications of TAM in breast cancer as well as the role of receptors/signal pathways recently suggested to be involved in the development of TAM resistance. G protein—coupled estrogen receptor, Androgen Receptor and Hedgehog signaling pathways are emerging as novel therapeutic targets and prognostic indicators for breast cancer, based on their ability to mediate estrogenic signaling in ERα-positive or -negative breast cancer.

  6. Aquaporins as potential drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang WANG; Xue-chao FENG; Yong-ming LI; Hong YANG; Tong-hui MA

    2006-01-01

    The aquaporins (AQP) are a family of integral membrane proteins that selectively transport water and,in some cases,small neutral solutes such as glycerol and urea.Thirteen mammalian AQP have been molecularly identified and localized to various epithelial,endothelial and other tissues.Phenotype studies of transgenic mouse models of AQP knockout,mutation,and in some cases humans with AQP mutations have demonstrated essential roles for AQP in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology,including urinary concentrating function,exocrine glandular fluid secretion,brain edema formation,regulation of intracranial and intraocular pressure,skin hydration,fat metabolism,tumor angiogenesis and cell migration.These studies suggest that AQP may be potential drug targets for not only new diuretic reagents for various forms of pathological water retention,but also targets for novel therapy of brain edema,inflammatory disease,glaucoma,obesity,and cancer.However,potent AQP modulators for in vivo application remain to be discovered.

  7. String theory in target space

    CERN Document Server

    Boels, Rutger H

    2014-01-01

    It is argued that the complete S-matrix of string theory at tree level in a flat background can be obtained from a small set of target space properties, without recourse to the worldsheet description. The main non-standard inputs are (generalised) Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten shifts, as well as the monodromy relations for open string theory and the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations for closed string theory. The roots of the scattering amplitudes and especially their appearance in the residues at the kinematic poles are central to the story. These residues determine the amplitudes through on-shell recursion relations. Several checks of the formalism are presented, including a computation of the Koba-Nielsen amplitude in the bosonic string. Furthermore the question of target space unitarity is (re-)investigated. For the Veneziano amplitude this question is reduced by Poincare invariance, unitarity and locality to that of positivity of a particular numerical sum. Interestingly, this analysis produces the main condition...

  8. String theory in target space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boels, Rutger H.; Hansen, Tobias

    2014-06-01

    It is argued that the complete S-matrix of string theory at tree level in a flat background can be obtained from a small set of target space properties, without recourse to the worldsheet description. The main non-standard inputs are (generalised) Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten shifts, as well as the monodromy relations for open string theory and the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations for closed string theory. The roots of the scattering amplitudes and especially their appearance in the residues at the kinematic poles are central to the story. These residues determine the amplitudes through on-shell recursion relations. Several checks of the formalism are presented, including a computation of the Koba-Nielsen amplitude in the bosonic string. Furthermore the question of target space unitarity is (re-)investigated. For the Veneziano amplitude this question is reduced by Poincaré invariance, unitarity and locality to that of positivity of a particular numerical sum. Interestingly, this analysis produces the main conditions of the no-ghost theorem on dimension and intercept from the first three poles of this amplitude.

  9. Phase I Oncology Studies: Evidence That in the Era of Targeted Therapies, Patients on Lower Doses Do Not Fare Worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajul K.; Lee, J. Jack; Hong, David; Markman, Maurie; Gong, Jing; Naing, Aung; Wheler, Jennifer; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To safely assess new drugs, cancer patients in initial cohorts of phase I oncology studies receive low drug doses. Doses are successively increased until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is determined. Since traditional chemotherapy is often more effective near the MTD, ethical concerns have been raised regarding administration of low drug doses to phase I patients. However, a substantial portion of oncology trials now investigate targeted agents, which may have different dose-response relationships than cytotoxic chemotherapies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Twenty-four consecutive trials treating 683 patients between 10-01-2004 and 6-30-2008 at MD Anderson Cancer Center were analyzed. Patients were assigned to a low-dose (≤25% MTD), medium-dose (25–75% MTD), or high-dose (≥75% MTD) group, and groups were compared for response rate, time-to-treatment-failure, progression-free survival, overall survival, and toxicity. To remove negatively biasing data from the high-dose group, in a second analysis patients treated above the MTD were excluded (high-dose group = 75–100% MTD). 97.7% of patients received targeted agents. RESULTS Even when excluding patients above the MTD, there was an early trend favoring the low- versus high-dose group in time-to-treatment-failure, with 32.9% versus 25.2% of patients on therapy at 3 months (p=0.08). Additionally, the low-dose group fared at least as well as the other groups in all other outcomes, including response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and toxicity. CONCLUSIONS These data may help alleviate concerns that patients who receive low drug doses on contemporary phase I oncology trials fare worse, and suggest targeted agents may have different dose-response relationships than cytotoxic chemotherapies. PMID:20145187

  10. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed...... in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published microRNA...... targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  11. Targets culture wastes energy on wrong things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, Theresa

    2016-09-14

    Healthcare targets have been in the news a lot - and not in ways that offer comfortable reading. Missed emergency department waiting-time targets and patients waiting longer for treatments have made headlines.

  12. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jesse D; Malekos, Steven; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Korgan, Grant; Cowan, Thomas; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2016-05-17

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  13. Purity of targets prepared on Cu substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méens, A.; Rossini, I.; Sens, J. C.

    1993-09-01

    The purity of several elemental self-supporting targets usually prepared by evaporation onto soluble Cu substrates has been studied. The targets were analysed by Rutherford backscattering and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Because of the high percentage of Cu observed in some Si targets, further measurements, including transmission electron microscopy, have been performed on Si targets deposited by e-gun bombardment onto Cu and ion-beam sputtering onto betaine.

  14. Evaluation and validation of drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-huaDU

    2004-01-01

    Drug target is one of the key factors for discovering and developing new drugs. To find and validate drug targets is a crucial technique required in drug discovery by the strategy of high throughput screening. Based on the knowledge of molecular biology, human genomics and proteomics, it has been predicted that 5000 to 10000 drug targets exist in human. So, it is important orocedure to evaluate and validate the drug targets.

  15. Terahertz-based target typing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Wanke, Michael Clement; Reno, John Louis; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Grine, Albert D.; Barrick, Todd A.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to create a THz component set and understanding to aid in the rapid analysis of transient events. This includes the development of fast, tunable, THz detectors, along with filter components for use with standard detectors and accompanying models to simulate detonation signatures. The signature effort was crucial in order to know the spectral range to target for detection. Our approach for frequency agile detection was to utilize plasmons in the channel of a specially designed field-effect transistor called the grating-gate detector. Grating-gate detectors exhibit narrow-linewidth, broad spectral tunability through application of a gate bias, and no angular dependence in their photoresponse. As such, if suitable sensitivity can be attained, they are viable candidates for Terahertz multi-spectral focal plane arrays.

  16. Therapeutic target for protozoal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Dharmendar; Jani, Dewal; Nagarkatti, Rana

    2008-10-21

    A novel Fasciclin Related Adhesive Protein (FRAP) from Plasmodium and related parasites is provided as a target for therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by the parasites. FRAP has been shown to play a critical role in adhesion to, or invasion into, host cells by the parasite. Furthermore, FRAP catalyzes the neutralization of heme by the parasite, by promoting its polymerization into hemozoin. This invention provides methods and compositions for therapies based on the administration of protein, DNA or cell-based vaccines and/or antibodies based on FRAP, or antigenic epitopes of FRAP, either alone or in combination with other parasite antigens. Methods for the development of compounds that inhibit the catalytic activity of FRAP, and diagnostic and laboratory methods utilizing FRAP are also provided.

  17. Synchronous identification of friendly targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telle, John M.; Roger, Stutz A.

    1998-01-01

    A synchronous communication targeting system for use in battle. The present invention includes a transceiver having a stabilizing oscillator, a synchronous amplifier and an omnidirectional receiver, all in electrical communication with each other. A remotely located beacon is attached to a blackbody radiation source and has an amplitude modulator in electrical communication with a optical source. The beacon's amplitude modulator is set so that the optical source transmits radiation frequency at approximately the same or lower amplitude than that of the blackbody radiation source to which the beacon is attached. The receiver from the transceiver is adapted to receive frequencies approximately at or below blackbody radiation signals and sends such signals to the synchronous amplifier. The synchronous amplifier then rectifies and amplifies those signals which correspond to the predetermined frequency to therefore identify whether the blackbody radiation source is friendly or not.

  18. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    that such grammatical changes have positive effects on the intelligibility of texts. The attempts to document such effects are scarce and that is one of the backgrounds for my involvement in the project. If I am able to show that the changes do have an effect, the literature on conveying professional communication......The paper proposal is part of a full-scale discourse analysis of a series of service information pamphlets published by the county of Ringkjøbing in Western Denmark. The project is an investigation of various aspects of the fact that government agencies as well as local and regional authorities...... very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live...

  19. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  20. Behavioral targeting: a European legal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral targeting, or online profiling, is a hotly debated topic. Much of the collection of personal information on the Internet is related to behavioral targeting, although research suggests that most people don't want to receive behaviorally targeted advertising. The World Wide Web Consortium i