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Sample records for californium 251

  1. Californium Electrodepositions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, Rose Ann [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Electrodepositions of californium isotopes were successfully performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the past year involving two different types of deposition solutions, ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) and isobutanol ((CH3)2CHCH2OH). A californium product that was decay enriched in 251Cf was recovered for use in super-heavy element (SHE) research. This neutron-rich isotope, 251Cf, provides target material for SHE research for the potential discovery of heavier isotopes of Z=118. The californium material was recovered from aged 252Cf neutron sources in storage at ORNL. These sources have decayed for over 30 years, thus providing material with a very high 251Cf-to-252Cf ratio. After the source capsules were opened, the californium was purified and then electrodeposited using the isobutanol method onto thin titanium foils for use in an accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Another deposition method, ammonium acetate, was used to produce a deposition containing 1.7 0.1 Ci of 252Cf onto a stainless steel substrate. This was the largest single electrodeposition of 252Cf ever prepared. The 252Cf material was initially purified using traditional ion exchange media, such as AG50-AHIB and AG50-HCl, and further purified using a TEVA-NH4SCN system to remove any lanthanides, resulting in the recovery of 3.6 0.1 mg of purified 252Cf. The ammonium acetate deposition was run with a current of 1.0 amp, resulting in a 91.5% deposition yield. Purification and handling of the highly radioactive californium material created additional challenges in the production of these sources.

  2. Magnetism in californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SQUID-based magnetic susceptometer has been constructed for studying small radioactive samples at temperatures below 350 K and in magnetic fields up to 50 kilogauss. The device has been used to study californium (element 98) in a number of solid-state forms: the dhcp metal, several oxides (Cf2O3 in both the bcc and monoclinic structures, Cf7O12, CfO2 and BaCfO3), several monopnictides (CfN, CfAs and CfSb) and the trichloride (in both the hexagonal and orthorhombic structures). All of these materials were studied in polycrystalline form, and hexagonal CfCl3 was studied in single-crystal form as well. The susceptometer has the sensitivity to measure samples containing less than 10 micrograms of californium. The magnetic susceptibilities of all of the californium materials at temperatures above about 100 K are described well by the Curie-Weiss relationship. This behavior is consistent with the assumption that the magnetic 5f electrons are localized and that the paramagnetic behavior can be interpreted in terms of the properties of the free ion. The measured values of the effective paramagnetic moment, μ/sub eff/, for all the californium materials that were studied are reasonably consistent with theoretical values based on intermediate coupling models. All of the californium materials showed some indications of cooperative magnetic effects. The dhcp metal was observed to order ferromagnetically at 52 K, and all of the californium compounds studied showed signs of antiferromagnetic ordering, mostly at temperatures below 25 K. 91 refs., 50 figs., 19 tabs

  3. Californium Multiplier (CFX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of 252Cf as an economical high-intensity neutron source has made it possible to construct compact neutron irradiation devices with widespread applications. The simplest such device consists of a single 252Cf source within a moderating and shielding medium. Higher neutron flux levels can be attained either through the use of more 252Cf or through source multiplication by means of a subcritical uranium assembly. Although the use of larger 252Cf sources to achieve higher neutron flux is technically straightforward, an economic penalty is paid as the source strength is increased. Larger californium sources imply larger initial investments to cover the cost of source material and larger operating costs resulting from the decay of the 252Cf source. A Californium Multiplier, the CFX, which produces a flux enhancement of 30 when compared to a conventional moderated 252Cf system has been designed, licensed, built, and tested by IRT Corporation. Such systems are now available on a commercial basis for both neutron radiography and neutron activation analysis. The first commercial CFX system was installed at the Research Laboratories of Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, NY, in March 1975. This device, using 1 mg of 252Cf, is very stable and the neutron flux generated by the CFX is very reproducible. The performance characteristics of this system are summarized

  4. Californium--palladium metal neutron source material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, B.L.; Mosly, W.C. Jr.; Smith, P.K.; Albenesius, E.L.

    1974-01-22

    Californium, as metal or oxide, is uniformly dispersed throughout a noble metal matrix, provided in compact, rod or wire form. A solution of californium values is added to palladium metal powder, dried, blended and pressed into a compact having a uni-form distribution of californium. The californium values are decomposed to californium oxide or metal by heating in an inert or reducing atmosphere. Sintering the compact to a high density closes the matrix around the dispersed californium. The sintered compact is then mechanically shaped into an elongated rod or wire form. (4 claims, no drawings) (Official Gazette)

  5. Californium-252 progress, report No. 7, April 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-12-31

    This report contains discusses of the following topics on Californium-252: First sales of californium-252; encapsulation services discussed; three new participants in market evaluation program; summer training programs to use californium; Californium-252 shipping casks available; Californium-252 questions and answers, radiotherapy; neutron radiography; natural resources exploration; nuclear safeguards; process control; dosimetry; neutron radiography; neutron shielding; and nuclear safeguards.

  6. Historical Review of Californium-252 Discovery and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed. (PLG)

  7. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  8. Spontaneous Partitioning of Californium from Curium: Curious Cases from the Crystallization of Curium Coordination Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Samantha K.; Silver, Mark A.; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Jamie C.; Bogart, Justin A.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Arico, Alexandra A.; Hanson, Kenneth; Schelter, Eric J.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2015-12-07

    The reaction of 248CmCl3 with excess 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) under mild solvothermal conditions results in crystallization of the tris-chelate complex Cm(HDPA)3·H2O. Approximately half of the curium remains in solution at the end of this process, and evaporation of the mother liquor results in crystallization of the bis-chelate complex [Cm(HDPA)- (H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O. 248Cm is the daughter of the α decay of 252Cf and is extracted in high purity from this parent. However, trace amounts of 249,250,251Cf are still present in all samples of 248Cm. During the crystallization of Cm(HDPA)3·H2O and [Cm(HDPA)(H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O, californium(III) spontaneously separates itself from the curium complexes and is found doped within crystals of DPA in the form of Cf(HDPA)3. These results add to the growing body of evidence that the chemistry of californium is fundamentally different from that of earlier actinides.

  9. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  10. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 (252Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, 252Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of 252Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the 252Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, 252Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of 252Cf from ORNL is summarized herein

  11. Californium-252 Neutron Therapy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 brachytherapy, believed to be the most successful source for neutron therapy, gives most of the cures as well as long-term and complication-free survivals. Chinese radiation oncologists were interested in californium neutron therapy (Cf-NT) in the early 1980s, but 252Cf sources for medical use were not available in China until 1992 when a californium joint venture was established by the China Institute of Atomic Energy (Beijing) and the Research Institute for Nuclear Reactors (Dimitrovgrad) of Russia. In 1995, 25 seeds of 252Cf with a strength of 3 μg each were sent to China for preclinical investigation. Three years later, a high dose rate (HDR) 252Cf source was imported and transferred into a home-made remote after-loader for intracavitary treatment in Chongqing, and a clinical trail was started in February 1999. This is the first time that Cf-NT was performed for cancer patients in China. Since then, Cf-NT in China has developed rapidly. It is estimated that one-tenth of those radiation oncology centers with brachytherapy practice will be equipped with californium units in 5 yr. That means more than 30 units will be in use in hospitals. That is significant compared with other countries, but it is just one, on average, for each province or one per 40 million people in China. Progress also has been achieved in the 252Cf treatment delivery equipment. Preliminary clinical trails showed complete response observed in all cases treated, with a rapid clearance of tumors and mild reactions in normal tissues. The short-term results are quite encouraging. To deal with problems due to the demand for Cf-NT in China, attention should be paid to the following particulars: (1) A high-strength miniature source is needed for HDR/MDR interstitial therapy to extend the Cf-NT coverage. (2) Basic work on radiophysics and radiobiology needs to be done, including source calibration, clinical dosimetry, clinical RBE determination, and Cf-NT quality assurance

  12. Californium-252 sales and loans at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and distribution in the United States of 252Cf has recently been consolidated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 252Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program and the 252Cf University Load Program, which were formerly located at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), have been combined with the californium production and distribution activities of the Transuranium Element Production Program at ORNL. Californium-252 is sold to commercial users in the form of bulk californium oxide, palladium-californium alloy pellets, or alloy wires. Neutron source capsules, which are fabricated for loans to DOE or other US government agencies, are still available in all forms previously available. The consolidation of all 252Cf distribution activities at the production site is expected to result in better service to users. In particular, customers for neutrons sources will be ale to select from a wider range of neutron source forms, including custom designs, through a single contact point

  13. Californium-252 encapsulation at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1 g of the neutron-emitting isotope californium-252 has been encapsulated at SRL for worldwide medical, industrial, and research uses. Bulk sales packages have been prepared for the USDOE sales program since 1971. Doubly-encapsulated sources have been prepared for USDOE's market evaluation program since 1968. Californium-252 sources for loan and sales packages satisfy the criteria for Special Form Radioactive Material. Encapsulation is performed in special neutron-shielded containment facilities at SRL. Development of improved source and shipping package designs and processes is continuing. 17 figures

  14. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 1011 neutrons s-1. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  15. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R C; Knauer, J B; Balo, P A

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10(11) neutrons s(-1). Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordinance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations. PMID:11003521

  16. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial

  17. Production of extra pure curium and californium preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations of curium-244,245,248 and californium-249,252 are used for the production of ionizing radiation sources for different applications and fundamental nuclear-physical investigations, placing high requirements on the radiochemical and chemical purity of the preparations. Extraction chromatography using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as extractant was chosen to prepare extra pure curium and californium preparations. In order to identify the optimal conditions of Cm-Cf separation and to remove impurities from them (reagent and other impurities), investigations were performed into the effect of impurities (Na+, Ca2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+ taken as example), extractant and eluent concentration and solution flow rate on the efficiency of mutual purification of Cm and Cf. Both theoretical and experimental estimations were made of the maximum concentration at which the impurities do not affect the process. The conditions chosen allow mutual purification of milligram amounts of Cm and Cf from impurity elements at E(pur) =102 - 103 during a single chromatographic cycle (E(pur) =>103) using a column with 5 - 10 cm3 volume. In this case the production yield exceeds 98%. The purification of milligram amounts of curium and californium from fission products (lanthanides in general, cerium in particular) was performed in D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 and D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3-Cit extraction chromatography systems. In order to establish the optimal conditions, the effect of [D2EHPA] and eluent on the mutual purification of Cm and Cf and on their purification from cerium and impurity elements was studied in the D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 system. During a single chromatographic cycle the mutual purification factors of TPE and of their purification from impurity cations achieve 102-103, from cerium - E(pur) > 10. In the D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3Cit system, the effect of concentration of extractant and eluent pH on the efficiency of Cm and Cf purification from lanthanides was

  18. Prompt neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum was measured in the energy range of 0.01 to 10 MeV by the time-of-flight technique using various neutron detectors. The measurements of 252Cf neutron spectrum at energies of 0.01 to 5 MeV were performed as a function of fission fragment kinetic energy. The mean neutron spectrum energy in the range of 0.7 to 10 MeV was found from the results of measurements. The irregularity in the 252Cf neutron spectrum in the neutron energy range of less than 0.7 MeV compared to theoretical values is discussed. The mechanism of 252Cf neutron emission is also discussed on the basis of neutron yield angle measurements. 12 references

  19. Solving the Hydration Structure of the Heaviest Actinide Aqua Ion Known: The Californium(III) Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Auwer, Ch.; Guillaumont, D. [CEA Marcoule, Nucl Energy Div, Radiochem Proc Dept, SCPS LILA, 30 (France); Galbis, E.; Pappalardo, Rafael R.; Marcos Sanchez, E. [Univ Seville, Dept Quim Fis, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Hernandez-Cobos, J. [Inst Ciencias Fis, Cuernavaca 62251, Morelos (Mexico); Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E. [Univ Paris Sud, Inst Phys Nucl Orsay, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    In summary, the first MC simulation of the trivalent cation of californium, based on an exchangeable hydrated ion-water intermolecular potential, has been shown to extend and improve the hydrated ion model. Likewise, the CfL{sub III}-edge EXAFS spectrum of an acidic 1 mm Cf(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3} aqueous solution recorded under optimized experimental conditions has greatly improved the signal/noise ratio of the only previously recorded spectrum. The comparison of the experimental EXAFS spectrum with the two computed ones, obtained from two different intermolecular potentials that predict eight (BP86) or nine (MP2) water molecules in the first coordination shell, leads to the conclusion that the lowest hydration number is preferred. Then, as Cf{sup III} is the heaviest actinide aqua ion for which there is experimental information, the actinide contraction is supported by the present study. (For U{sup III}, R{sub U-O}=2.56 Angstroms, and CN=9{+-}1; for Pu{sup III}, R{sub Pu-O}=2.51 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1; for Cm{sup III}, R{sub Cm-O}=2.47 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1). The role of the second hydration shell is important in defining the structure and dynamics of the Cf{sup III} aqua ion, but the contribution of second-shell water molecules to the EXAFS signal as back-scatters is marginal. Finally, this work gives an illustrative example of the benefits which can be achieved from the combination of experimental X-ray absorption spectroscopy and computer simulations. The usefulness of the simultaneous analysis of the results as well as the importance of the structural statistical average has been clearly demonstrated herein. Each technique independently was not adequate. We believe that this study traces out a still poorly explored combined methodology which may be extremely useful for many other complexes and chemical problems. A systematic theoretical and experimental examination of the other known actinide cations on the same basis should be undertaken to confirm the

  20. Separation of californium from actinides and lanthanides in aqueous solution by electrochemical formation of amalgams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical reduction of transneptunium elements (Pu to Cf) and rare earths (Eu, Tm) from aqueous complexing solutions to amalgams was studied over a wide range of cathodic potentials in order to achieve optimal separation of californium. The reduction in acetate media (pH 4.5-4.6) at potentials around -1.7 to -1.9 V1 leads to a quantitative extraction of californium into the mercury phase, while more negative potentials are required for the reduction of the lighter transuranium elements and of the lanthanides. Hence, the optimal conditions for the separation of californium from the investigated actinides and lanthanides were determined. Separation factors α between 25 and 90 were found except in the case of Cf/Eu, where poor values (α varying from 7 to 12) were observed. More negative cathodic potentials decrease the selectivity of the reduction process. A similar study with lithium citrate solutions (pH ∝6) shows that satisfactory separation of californium from lighter and heavier actinides is achievable. A separation factor of 88 is obtained for Cf/Am at -1.98 V. The anodic stripping of mixed amalgams (Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Tm and Cf) Hg in nitric and acetic acid soultions at potentials ranging from +0.1 to -0.7 V proceeds slowly and proved to be ineffective for the separation of californium from light actinides under conditions described. (orig.)

  1. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy

  2. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Byrne, T.E. [Roane State Community College, Harriman, TN (United States); Miller, L.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with {sup 252}Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of {sup 252}Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a {sup 252}Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded {sup 252}Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy.

  3. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Samantha K; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E; Stritzinger, Jared T; Green, Thomas D; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N; Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A; DePrince, A Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J; Van Cleve, Shelley M; House, Jane H; Kikugawa, Naoki; Gallagher, Andrew; Arico, Alexandra A; Dixon, David A; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resultant complex with respect to that predicted for the free ion. We expand on this by characterizing the americium and curium analogues for comparison, and show that these pronounced effects result from a second transition in periodicity in the actinide series that occurs, in part, because of the stabilization of the divalent oxidation state. The metastability of californium(II) is responsible for many of the unusual properties of californium including the green photoluminescence. PMID:25880116

  4. 15 CFR 904.251 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 904.251 Section 904.251... and Appeal Procedures Hearings § 904.251 Evidence. (a) In general. (1) At the hearing, every party has the right to present oral or documentary evidence in support of its case or defense, to...

  5. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.251 Standby power. Standby power shall be tested at...

  6. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  7. 37 CFR 1.251 - Unlocatable file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unlocatable file. 1.251 Section 1.251 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.251 Unlocatable file. (a) In the event that the Office cannot locate the file of an...

  8. 42 CFR 423.251 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.251 Section 423.251 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...; Plan Approval § 423.251 Scope. This section sets forth the requirements and limitations on...

  9. 36 CFR 251.50 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 251.50 Section 251.50... § 251.50 Scope. (a) All uses of National Forest System lands, improvements, and resources, except those... routine operation or maintenance activity within the scope of a statutory right-of-way for a...

  10. Fissile analysis of Hanford waste using Californium Multiplier/Delayed Neutron Counter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of low-level (10 ng/g or lower) fissile material (mainly plutonium) in Hanford waste and process samples is becoming increasingly important. A system has been designed consisting of a Californium Multiplier (CFX) and a Delayed Neutron Counter (DNC) to characterize these samples. This report describes hardware and analytical capability of the CFX/DNC system

  11. 37 CFR 251.3 - Arbitrator lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitrator lists. 251.3... Organization § 251.3 Arbitrator lists. (a) Any professional arbitration association or organization may submit... arbitrators on a Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel. The list shall contain the following for each person:...

  12. 37 CFR 2.51 - Drawing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawing required. 2.51... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.51 Drawing required. (a) In an application under section 1(a) of the Act, the drawing of the mark must be a substantially exact representation of the...

  13. 7 CFR 251.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 251.2 Section 251.2 Agriculture... Administration. (a) Food and Nutrition Service. Within the United States Department of Agriculture (the... this section, any information on changes in program administration, including any changes...

  14. 40 CFR 436.251 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 436.251 Section 436.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Jade Subcategory §...

  15. 37 CFR 251.43 - Written cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 251.43 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.43 Written cases. (a) All parties who have filed a notice...

  16. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series

    OpenAIRE

    Cary, Samantha K.; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; GREEN, THOMAS D.; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A.; DePrince, A. Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J.; Van Cleve, Shelley M.; House, Jane H.; Kikugawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resu...

  17. 40 CFR 98.251 - Reporting threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum Refineries § 98.251 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains a petroleum refineries process and the facility...

  18. 37 CFR 251.31 - Financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards of Conduct § 251.31 Financial interests. (a) No selected arbitrator shall have a direct or... sell is not under the control of the selected arbitrator, or (2) Receiving any post-employment benefit... will serve to disqualify the selected arbitrator to the same extent as if they were the...

  19. 27 CFR 25.251 - Authorized removals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removal of Brewer's Yeast and Other Articles § 25.251 Authorized removals. (a) Brewer's yeast. A brewer may remove brewer's yeast, in liquid or solid form containing not... including the words “Brewer's Yeast.” (c) Pipeline. If brewer's yeast is removed by pipeline, the......

  20. 6 CFR 25.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.1 Purpose. This part implements the Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002, sections 441-444 of title 6, United States Code (the “SAFETY Act”...

  1. 36 CFR 251.97 - Oral presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral presentation. 251.97... presentation. (a) Purpose. An oral presentation provides an additional opportunity for an appellant, and other..., emphasize, and/or clarify information related to an appeal. Oral presentations are to be conducted in...

  2. 40 CFR 60.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuously monitor relative particulate matter loadings. (c) Bituminous coal means solid fossil fuel... units constructed, reconstructed, or modified on or before May 27, 2009, all solid fossil fuels... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 60.251 Section...

  3. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  4. 40 CFR 264.251 - Design and operating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....251 Section 264.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.251 Design and operating requirements. (a) A waste pile (except for an...

  5. 37 CFR 251.30 - Basic obligations of arbitrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arbitrators. 251.30 Section 251.30 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... PROCEDURE Standards of Conduct § 251.30 Basic obligations of arbitrators. (a) Definitions. For purposes of... arbitrator” is a person named by the Librarian of Congress, or by other selected arbitrators, for service...

  6. 37 CFR 251.5 - Qualifications of the arbitrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifications of the arbitrators. 251.5 Section 251.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... PROCEDURE Organization § 251.5 Qualifications of the arbitrators. In order to serve as an arbitrator to...

  7. 37 CFR 251.23 - FOIA and Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false FOIA and Privacy Act. 251.23 Section 251.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... Access to and Inspection of Records § 251.23 FOIA and Privacy Act. Freedom of Information Act and...

  8. 46 CFR 153.251 - Independent cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent cargo tanks. 153.251 Section 153.251... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.251 Independent cargo tanks. All independent cargo tank must meet § 38.05-10 (a)(1), (b), (d),...

  9. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction 55Mn (n.gamma)56 Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of 56Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions 56Fe(n,p)56Mn and 59 Co (n, α)56 were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  10. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252Cf and 7000 rad from 226Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252Cf and 5000 rad from 226Ra

  11. 47 CFR 25.251 - Special requirements for coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for coordination. 25.251... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.251 Special requirements for coordination. (a) The administrative aspects of the coordination process are set forth in § 101.103 of this chapter in the case...

  12. 14 CFR 125.251 - Required inspection personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required inspection personnel. 125.251 Section 125.251 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance §...

  13. 40 CFR 265.251 - Protection from wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection from wind. 265.251 Section... FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.251 Protection from wind. The owner or operator of a pile containing hazardous waste which could be subject to dispersal by wind must cover or otherwise manage the pile so that...

  14. 18 CFR 25.1 - Contents of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 25.1 Section 25.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR VACATION OF WITHDRAWAL AND FOR... reservation effected by the filing of an application for preliminary permit or license, or for a...

  15. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal landing... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2 Section 251.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ARRIVAL...

  16. 14 CFR 21.251 - Limits of applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits of applicability. 21.251 Section 21.251 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... for which the manufacturer holds, or obtains, a type certificate; (3) The amendment of a...

  17. 7 CFR 251.4 - Availability of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of commodities. 251.4 Section 251.4... Availability of commodities. (a) General. The Department shall make commodities available for distribution and... receiving commodities under this part shall not diminish their normal expenditures for food because...

  18. 37 CFR 251.15 - Transcripts of closed meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... case of § 251.13(h) and at the discretion of the Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel, detailed minutes... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Public Access to Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Meetings § 251.15 Transcripts of...

  19. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Rekas, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  20. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  1. Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and therapeutic gain factor (GF) for californium-252 at low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential benefit of the introduction of californium-252 in interstitial and intracavitary therapy is related to the greater efficiency of its neutron emission against anoxic cancer cells. In that respect, the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of the 252Cf emission has been determined for a continuous low dose rate irradiation. The biological system is growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. A new Vicia faba ''BelB'' strain has been used, which better tolerates long periods (up to about 10 hours) of anoxia. In a first series of experiments, for a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.11 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.4+-0.1 was observed (the γ contribution Dγ to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) was 0.35 at the position of the root tips). In a second series of experiments, in somewhat different geometrical conditions with a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.13 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.5+-0.1 was observed (Dγ/Dsub(n+γ)=0.42). The OER values observed for similar irradiation times, with iridium-192 γ-rays, were 2.3+-0.2 and 2.6+-0.1 respectively, which leads to therapeutic gain factors (GF) of 1.6 and 1.7 respectively. These GF values are slightly lower than those previously obtained (GF=1.8) on the same system, with d(50)-Be p(75)-Be and 15 MeV neutron beams

  2. Clinical Report on Californium-252 Neutron Intraluminal Brachytherapy Combined with External Irradiation for Cervical Carcinoma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanyu Zhao; Keming Wang; Jian Sun; Xin Geng; Weiming Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the curative effects and complications of californium-252 (252Cf) neutron intraluminal brachytherapy (IBT) combined with external irradiation (El) for treatment of cervical carcinoma.METHODS From December 2000 to December 2004, 128 cases of cervical carcinoma staged into ⅡA~ⅢB according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) standards were treated with 252Cf neutron IBT using 8~10 Gy per fraction, once a week. The total dose at reference A point was 36~40 Gy in 4~5 fractions. From the second day after 252Cf neutron IBT treatment, the whole pelvic cavity was treated with 60Co γ-ray El, applying 2 Gy per fraction, 4 times per week. After 20~25 Gy of El, the center of the whole pelvic field was blocked with 4 cm of lead in width. The total dose of El was 45~50 Gy.RESULTS The short-term therapeutic effects were CR 95.3% and PR 4.7%. The 3 and 5-year local control rates were 93.5% and 87.9%. The overall 3-year survival rate was 87.5% and for Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ , 90.9%and 81.5% respectively; the overall 5-year survival rate was 70% and for Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ, 76.2% and 61% respectively. The rate of radiation complications was 4.7% for radiation cystitis, 7.8% for radiation proctitis, 6.3%for vagina contracture and adhesion and 5.5% for protracted radiation proctitis.CONCLUSION An combination of 252Cf neutron IBT with El for treatment of cervical carcinoma can be well-tolerated by cervical carcinoma patients. The rate of local tumor control is high and radiation complications are few.

  3. Divalent and trivalent gas-phase coordination complexes of californium: evaluating the stability of Cf(ii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Phuong D; Shuh, David K; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Abergel, Rebecca J; Gibson, John K

    2016-08-01

    The divalent oxidation state is increasingly stable relative to the trivalent state for the later actinide elements, with californium the first actinide to exhibit divalent chemistry under moderate conditions. Although there is evidence for divalent Cf in solution and solid compounds, there are no reports of discrete complexes in which Cf(II) is coordinated by anionic ligands. Described here is the divalent Cf methanesulfinate coordination complex, Cf(II)(CH3SO2)3(-), prepared in the gas phase by reductive elimination of CH3SO2 from Cf(III)(CH3SO2)4(-). Comparison with synthesis of the corresponding Sm and Cm complexes reveals reduction of Cf(III) and Sm(III), and no evidence for reduction of Cm(III). This reflects the comparative 3+/2+ reduction potentials: Cf(3+) (-1.60 V) ≈ Sm(3+) (-1.55 V) ≫ Cm(3+) (-3.7 V). Association of O2 to the divalent complexes is attributed to formation of superoxides, with recovery of the trivalent oxidation state. The new gas-phase chemistry of californium, now the heaviest element to have been studied in this manner, provides evidence for Cf(II) coordination complexes and similar chemistry of Cf and Sm. PMID:27424652

  4. Protein engineering of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninga, Dirk

    1996-01-01

    An enormous diversity of molecular functions in living organisms is carried out by proteins. Our studies have focussed on the functional analysis of a starch-converting enzyme, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Bacillus circulans strain 251. Zie: Summary

  5. 36 CFR 251.93 - Resolution of issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resolution of issues. 251.93... issues. (a) Authorized Forest Service officers shall, to the extent practicable and consistent with the... meetings is to discuss any issues or concerns related to the authorized use and to reach a...

  6. 37 CFR 251.4 - Arbitrator lists: Objections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitrator lists: Objections... PROCEDURE Organization § 251.4 Arbitrator lists: Objections. (a) In the case of a rate adjustment proceeding... objection with the Librarian of Congress to one or more of the persons contained on the arbitrator list...

  7. 37 CFR 251.8 - Suspension of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... selected arbitrator under § 251.6 or to remove and replace a selected arbitrator under subpart D of this... Librarian will take the necessary steps to replace the arbitrator or arbitrators, and upon such replacement... emergency affecting an arbitrator, the Librarian considers a suspension of a proceeding necessary and...

  8. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer, licensed... procedures for persons who have been denied the right to obtain a firearm as a result of a NICS...

  9. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  10. 48 CFR 2452.251-70 - Contractor employee travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor employee travel... 2452.251-70 Contractor employee travel. As prescribed in 2451.7001, insert the following clause in all cost-reimbursement solicitations and contracts involving travel: Contractor Employee Travel (OCT...

  11. 7 CFR 25.1 - Applicability and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agencies Appropriations Act, 1999 (Public Law 105-277) (Round IIS), and the Community Renewal Tax Relief... Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES General Provisions § 25.1 Applicability and scope. (a) Applicability. This part contains policies and...

  12. 37 CFR 251.62 - Content of petition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Rate Adjustment Proceedings § 251.62 Content of petition. (a) In the case of a petition for rate adjustment... similar interests may file a petition jointly. (b) In the case of a petition for rate...

  13. 37 CFR 251.71 - Commencement of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Royalty Fee Distribution Proceedings § 251.71 Commencement of proceedings. (a) Cable. In the case... year in accordance with the requirements of this subchapter. (b) Satellite carriers. In the case...

  14. 37 CFR 251.45 - Discovery and prehearing motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.45 Discovery and prehearing motions. (a) Request for comment, notice of intention to participate. In the case of a royalty fee...

  15. 37 CFR 251.61 - Commencement of adjustment proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Rate Adjustment Proceedings § 251.61 Commencement of adjustment proceedings. (a) In the case of... programming exclusivity. (c) In the case of noncommercial educational broadcasting, a petition is...

  16. 37 CFR 251.64 - Disposition of petition; initiation of arbitration proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; initiation of arbitration proceeding. 251.64 Section 251.64 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Rate Adjustment Proceedings § 251.64 Disposition of...

  17. 37 CFR 251.2 - Purpose of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.2 Section 251.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Organization § 251.2 Purpose of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels....

  18. 37 CFR 251.72 - Declaration of controversy: Initiation of arbitration proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Initiation of arbitration proceeding. 251.72 Section 251.72 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Royalty Fee Distribution Proceedings § 251.72 Declaration...

  19. 37 CFR 251.7 - Actions of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.7 Section 251.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Organization § 251.7 Actions of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels....

  20. 37 CFR 251.6 - Composition and selection of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.6 Section 251.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Organization § 251.6 Composition and selection of...

  1. 37 CFR 251.54 - Assessment of costs of arbitration panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arbitration panels. 251.54 Section 251.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.54 Assessment of costs...

  2. 46 CFR 251.11 - Applications under Title VI, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications under Title VI, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended. 251.11 Section 251.11 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AID § 251.11 Applications under Title VI, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended. (a)...

  3. Effect of Corilagin on the Proliferation and NF-κB in U251 Glioblastoma Cells and U251 Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study is to explore the effect of corilagin on the proliferation and NF-κB signaling pathway in U251 glioblastoma cells and U251 glioblastoma stem-like cells. Methods. CD133 positive U251 glioblastoma cells were separated by immunomagnetic beads to isolate glioblastoma stem-like cells. U251 cells and stem-like cells were intervened by different corilagin concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL for 48 h, respectively. Cell morphology, cell counting kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, dual luciferase reporter assay, and a western blot were used to detect and analyze the cell proliferation and cell cycle and investigate the expression of IKBα protein in cytoplasm and NF-κB/p65 in nucleus. Results. Corilagin inhibited the cell proliferation of U251 cells and their stem-like cells and the inhibition role was stronger in U251 stem-like cells (P<0.05. The cell cycle was arrested at G2/M phase in the U251 cells following corilagin intervention; the proportion of cells in G2/M phase increased as the concentration of corilagin increased (P<0.05. The U251 stem-like cells were arrested at the S phase following treatment with corilagin; the proportion of cells in the S phase increased as the concentration of corilagin increased (P<0.05. The ratio of dual luciferase activities of U251 stem-like cells was lower than that of U251 cells in the same corilagin concentration. With increasing concentrations of corilagin, the IKBα expression in cytoplasm of U251 cells and U251 stem-like cells was increased, but the p65 expression in nucleus of U251 cells and U251 stem-like cells was decreased (P<0.05. Conclusion. Corilagin can inhibit the proliferation of glioblastoma cells and glioblastoma stem-like cells; the inhibition on glioblastoma stem-like cell proliferation is stronger than glioblastoma cells. This different result indicates that the effect of corilagin on U251 cells and U251 stem-like cells may have close relationships with mechanism of

  4. Effect of Corilagin on the Proliferation and NF-κB in U251 Glioblastoma Cells and U251 Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Li, Gen-Hua; Li, Zheng-You; Feng, Song; Liu, Xue-Qin; Han, Guang-Kui; Zhang, Hao; Qin, Xian-Yun; Zhang, Ran; Nie, Quan-Min; Jin, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study is to explore the effect of corilagin on the proliferation and NF-κB signaling pathway in U251 glioblastoma cells and U251 glioblastoma stem-like cells. Methods. CD133 positive U251 glioblastoma cells were separated by immunomagnetic beads to isolate glioblastoma stem-like cells. U251 cells and stem-like cells were intervened by different corilagin concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) for 48 h, respectively. Cell morphology, cell counting kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, dual luciferase reporter assay, and a western blot were used to detect and analyze the cell proliferation and cell cycle and investigate the expression of IKBα protein in cytoplasm and NF-κB/p65 in nucleus. Results. Corilagin inhibited the cell proliferation of U251 cells and their stem-like cells and the inhibition role was stronger in U251 stem-like cells (P < 0.05). The cell cycle was arrested at G2/M phase in the U251 cells following corilagin intervention; the proportion of cells in G2/M phase increased as the concentration of corilagin increased (P < 0.05). The U251 stem-like cells were arrested at the S phase following treatment with corilagin; the proportion of cells in the S phase increased as the concentration of corilagin increased (P < 0.05). The ratio of dual luciferase activities of U251 stem-like cells was lower than that of U251 cells in the same corilagin concentration. With increasing concentrations of corilagin, the IKBα expression in cytoplasm of U251 cells and U251 stem-like cells was increased, but the p65 expression in nucleus of U251 cells and U251 stem-like cells was decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Corilagin can inhibit the proliferation of glioblastoma cells and glioblastoma stem-like cells; the inhibition on glioblastoma stem-like cell proliferation is stronger than glioblastoma cells. This different result indicates that the effect of corilagin on U251 cells and U251 stem-like cells may have close relationships with mechanism of cell

  5. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  6. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev S.; Alessi J.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pardo, R.C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A.

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  7. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  8. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Bouhafs, B.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young's modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  9. 37 CFR 251.46 - Conduct of hearings: Role of arbitrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arbitrators. 251.46 Section 251.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... arbitrators. (a) At the opening of a hearing conducted by a Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel, the chairperson shall announce the subject under consideration. (b) Only the arbitrators of a CARP, or counsel...

  10. 37 CFR 251.36 - Pre-arbitration and post-arbitration employment restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-arbitration and post-arbitration employment restrictions. 251.36 Section 251.36 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES...

  11. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  12. TWOS - TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM, VERSION 2.5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenot, S. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is a special-purpose operating system designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation. TWOS is a complete implementation of the Time Warp mechanism, a distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation. Version 2.5.1 supports simulations and other computations using both virtual time and dynamic load balancing; it does not support general time-sharing or multi-process jobs using conventional message synchronization and communication. The program utilizes the underlying operating system's resources. TWOS runs a single simulation at a time, executing it concurrently on as many processors of a distributed system as are allocated. The simulation needs only to be decomposed into objects (logical processes) that interact through time-stamped messages. TWOS provides transparent synchronization. The user does not have to add any more special logic to aid in synchronization, nor give any synchronization advice, nor even understand much about how the Time Warp mechanism works. The Time Warp Simulator (TWSIM) subdirectory contains a sequential simulation engine that is interface compatible with TWOS. This means that an application designer and programmer who wish to use TWOS can prototype code on TWSIM on a single processor and/or workstation before having to deal with the complexity of working on a distributed system. TWSIM also provides statistics about the application which may be helpful for determining the correctness of an application and for achieving good performance on TWOS. Version 2.5.1 has an updated interface that is not compatible with 2.0. The program's user manual assists the simulation programmer in the design, coding, and implementation of discrete-event simulations running on TWOS. The manual also includes a practical user's guide to the TWOS application benchmark, Colliding Pucks. TWOS supports simulations written in the C programming language. It is designed

  13. Anatomy of a controversy: Application of the Langevin technique to the analysis of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis method for subcriticality determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expressions for the power spectral density of the noise equivalent sources have been calculated explicitly for the (a) stochastic transport equation, (b) the one-speed transport equaton, (c) the one-speed P1 equations, (d) the one-speed diffusion equation and (e) the point kinetic equation. The stochastic nature of Fick's law in (d) has been emphasized. The Langevin technique has been applied at various levels of approximation to the interpretation of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis (CSDNA) experiment for determining the reactivity in subcritical media. The origin of the controversy surrounding this method has been explained. The foundations of the CSDNA method as a viable experimental technique to infer subcriticality from a measured ratio of power spectral densities of the outputs of two neutron detectors and a third external source detector has been examined by solving the one-speed stochastic diffusion equation for a point external Californium-252 source and two detectors in an infinite medium. The expression relating reactivity to the measured ratio of PSDs was found to depend implicitly on k itself. Through a numerical analysis fo this expression, the authors have demonstrated that for a colinear detector-source-detector configuration for neutron detectors far from the source, the expression for the subcritical multiplication factor becomes essentially insensitive to k, hence, demonstrating some possibility for the viability of this technique. However, under more realistic experimental conditions, i.e., for finite systems in which diffusion theroy is not applicable, the measurement of the subcritical multiplication factor from a single measured ratio of PSDs, without extensive transport calculations, remains doubtful

  14. Californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major production programs for the Savannah River reactors and the High Flux Isotopes Reactor at Oak Ridge have made 252Cf one of the most available and, at the USAEC's sales price of $10/μg, one of the least-expensive isotopic neutron sources. Reactor production has totaled approximately 2 g, and, based on expected demand, an additional 10 g will be produced in the next decade. The approximately 800 mg chemically separated to date has been used to prepare over 600 neutron sources. Most, about 500, have been medical sources containing 1 to 5 μg of 252Cf plated in needles for experimental cancer therapy studies. The remainder have generally been point sources containing 10 μg to 12 mg of oxide for activation, well logging, or radiography uses. Bulk sources have also been supplied to the commercial encapsulators. The latest development has been the production of 252Cf cermet wire which can be cut into almost contamination-free lengths of the desired 252Cf content. Casks are available for transport of sources up to 50 mg. Subcritical assemblies have been developed to multiply the source neutrons by a factor of 10 to 40, and collimators and thermalizers have also been extensively developed to shape the neutron flux and energy distributions for special applications. (U.S.)

  15. Effect of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection on Nerve Growth Factor Expression in Human Glioma U251 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-TAO WANG; BIN WANG; ZHI-JUN LIU; ZHI-QIANG BAI; LING LI; HAI-YAN LIU; DONG-MENG QIAN; ZHI-YONG YAN; XU-XIA SONG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To explore the change of endogenic nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in human glioma cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Methods U251 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 culture medium and infected with HCMV AD169 strain in vitro to establish a cell model of viral infection. Morphologic changes of U251 cells were observed under inverted microscope before and after infection with HCMV. Expression of NGF gene and protein of cells was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting before and after infection with HCMV. Results The cytopathic effects of HCMV-infected cells appeared on day 5 after infection. However, differential NGF expression was evident on day 7. NGF expression was decreased significantly in U251 cells on day 7 after infection in comparison with control group (P<0.05). Conclusion HCMV can down-regulate endogenous NGF levels in human glioma cell line U251.

  16. 36 CFR 251.124 - Preferred operator competitive special use authorization procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Revenue-Producing Visitor Services in Alaska § 251... authorizations, including priority use permits for activities other than sport hunting and fishing, expire...

  17. 29 CFR 779.251 - Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity. 779.251... Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.251 Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity... been processed or manufactured so as to have lost their identity as out-of-State goods before they...

  18. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel-Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Trellue, H. R.; Tobin, S. J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be orientation in the instrument.

  19. 我院251例药品不良反应报告分析%Analysis of 251 cases of adverse drug reactions in our hospital report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐锦辉

    2013-01-01

      purpose: to understand adverse drug reactions in our hospital (Adverse Drug Reaction) the incidence and relevant factors, provide reference for rational drug use, avoid the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Methods: 251 cases on our 2011 colection statistics, analysis of ADR reports. Results 251 cases ADR report total involved 16 class drugs, vein drops note is caused ADR of main to drug way (201 cases); antibiotics occurred rate Supreme (142 cases), second is proprietary Chinese medicines (28 cases), and antipyretic analgesia drug (20 cases), and anti-tumor drug (16 cases), and effect blood and hematopoietic system of drug (12 cases); clinical performance main for skin and damage (99 cases), accounted for 39.44%, digestive system of of damage (75 cases) accounted for 29.88%. Conclusion: ADR is related to many factors relevant to clinical ADR monitoring work should be strengthened to reduce or avoid the occurrence of ADR.

  20. Chronic administration of AM251 improves albuminuria and renal tubular structure in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Kayte A; O'Keefe, Lannie; Simcocks, Anna C; Grinfeld, Esther; Mathai, Michael L; McAinch, Andrew J; Hryciw, Deanne H

    2015-05-01

    Modulation of the endocannabinoid system as an anti-obesity therapeutic is well established; however, the direct effects of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonism on renal function and structure in a model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterise the renal effects of the CB1 antagonist AM251 in a model of DIO. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low- or high-fat diet (HFD: 40% digestible energy from lipids) for 10 weeks to elicit DIO (n=9). In a different cohort, rats were fed a HFD for 15 weeks. After 9 weeks consuming a HFD, rats were injected daily for 6 weeks with 3 mg/kg AM251 (n=9) or saline via i.p. injection (n=9). After 10 weeks consuming a HFD, CB1 and megalin protein expression were significantly increased in the kidneys of obese rats. Antagonism of CB1 with AM251 significantly reduced weight gain, systolic blood pressure, plasma leptin, and reduced albuminuria and plasma creatinine levels in obese rats. Importantly, there was a significant reduction in tubular cross-section diameter in the obese rats treated with AM251. An improvement in albuminuria was likely due to the reduction in tubular size, reduced leptinaemia and maintenance of megalin expression levels. In obese rats, AM251 did not alter diastolic blood pressure, sodium excretion, creatinine clearance or expression of the fibrotic proteins VEGFA, TGFB1 and collagen IV in the kidney. This study demonstrates that treatment with CB1 antagonist AM251 improves renal outcomes in obese rats. PMID:25804605

  1. 46 CFR 251.1 - Applications for construction-differential subsidy under Title V, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Title V, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended. 251.1 Section 251.1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION... V, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended. (a) Applications under section 501 of the Act for subsidy... Board applicants for construction-differential subsidy (CDS) under Title V of the Merchant Marine Act...

  2. 8 CFR 251.5 - Paper arrival and departure manifests for crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from the United States must submit arrival and departure manifests in a paper format in accordance with... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paper arrival and departure manifests for... REGULATIONS ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.5 Paper arrival...

  3. Orally active vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist, SRX251, selectively blocks aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Craig F; Lu, Shi-Fang; Messenger, Tara; Guillon, Christophe D; Heindel, Ned; Miller, Marvin; Koppel, Gary; Robert Bruns, F; Simon, Neal G

    2006-02-01

    Arginine vasopressin functions as a neurochemical signal in the brain to affect social behavior. There is an expanding literature from animal and human studies showing that vasopressin, through the vasopressin 1A receptor (V1A), can stimulate aggressive behavior. Using a novel monocylic beta lactam platform, a series of orally active vasopressin V1a antagonists was developed with high affinity for the human receptor. SRX251 was chosen from this series of V1a antagonists to screen for effects on serenic activity in a resident-intruder model of offensive aggression. Resident, male Syrian golden hamsters were given oral doses of SRX251 or intraperitoneal Manning compound, a selective V1a receptor antagonist with reduced brain penetrance, at doses of 0.2 microg, 20 microg, 2 mg/kg or vehicle. When tested 90-120 min later, SRX251, but not Manning compound, caused a significant dose-dependent reduction in offensive aggression toward intruders as measured by latency to bite and number of bites. The reduction in aggression persisted for over 6 h and was no longer present 12 h post treatment. SRX251 did not alter the amount of time the resident investigated the intruder, olfactory communication, general motor activity, or sexual motivation. These data corroborate previous studies showing a role for vasopressin neurotransmission in aggression and suggest that V1a receptor antagonists may be used to treat interpersonal violence co-occurring with such illness as ADHD, autism, bipolar disorder, and substance abuse. PMID:16504276

  4. Role of Autophagy in Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis in U251 Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Ping; Dong, Fu-Xing; Chai, Xiang; Zhu, Shuang; Zhang, Bao-Le; Gao, Dian-Shuai

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the role of capsaicin in cancer prevention and treatment has gained people's attention. However, the mechanism of anti-glioma cells by capsaicin has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the mechanism of capsaicin in U251 cells. Cell viability was detected by MTT and extracellular LDH measurements, while immunofluorescence was performed to measure changes of LC3 in U251 cells. The expressions of LC3II, Puma-α, Beclin1, P62, Procaspase-3, and P53 were observed by immunoblotting. The cell viability decreased and the punctate patterns of LC3 in U251 cells were observed after Capsaicin treatment. Meanwhile, the expressions of Beclin1, P62, and Puma-α increased. After using 3-MA, the expressions of Beclin1 and Procaspase-3 were reduced while those of P53 and Puma-α increased. The expression of LC3II was increased after Pifithrin-α treatment. Therefore, we believed that capsaicin could induce apoptosis in U251 cells, and the inhibition of autophagy could contribute to apoptosis. PMID:26351174

  5. 37 CFR 251.56 - Order of the Librarian of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Order of the Librarian of... PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.56 Order of the Librarian of Congress. (a... the determination of a panel, the Librarian of Congress shall issue an order accepting the...

  6. 37 CFR 251.53 - Report to the Librarian of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report to the Librarian of... PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.53 Report to the Librarian of Congress... Librarian of Congress a report incorporating its written determination. Such determination shall...

  7. 36 CFR 251.103 - Mediation of term grazing permit disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permit, in whole or in part, as authorized by 36 CFR 222.4 (a)(2)(i), (ii), (iv), (v), and (a)(3) through... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation of term grazing... Lands § 251.103 Mediation of term grazing permit disputes. (a) Decisions subject to mediation. In...

  8. 7 CFR 1710.251 - Construction work plans-distribution borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction work plans-distribution borrowers. 1710... LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.251 Construction work plans... studies and plans needed to support the construction of facilities, when such cost is capitalized as...

  9. 42 CFR 403.251 - Loss ratio date and time frame provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 403.251 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies Voluntary... procedure that provides for the impact of a variety of factors, such as lapse of policies) for loss...

  10. Rational Design of Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans Strain 251 to Increase α-Cyclodextrin Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Bart A. van der; Uitdehaag, Joost C.M.; Penninga, Dirk; Alebeek, Gert-Jan W.M. van; Smith, Loraine M.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2000-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases (CGTase) (EC 2.4.1.19) are extracellular bacterial enzymes that generate cyclodextrins from starch. All known CGTases produce mixtures of α, β, and γ-cyclodextrins. A maltononaose inhibitor bound to the active site of the CGTase from Bacillus circulans strain 251 re

  11. 37 CFR 251.44 - Filing and service of written cases and pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.44 Filing and service..., as necessary. In no case shall a party tender any written case or pleading by facsimile...

  12. 37 CFR 251.47 - Conduct of hearings: Witnesses and counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.47 Conduct of hearings... may present its opening statement with the presentation of its direct case. (c) All witnesses shall...

  13. Biological Efficiency of Californium-252 Source Evaluated by Comet Assay, Classical Cytogenetics and FISH in Human Lymphocytes Irradiated without and with BSH Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological effectiveness of californium-252 source was evaluated after irradiations in vitro of normal or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells. DNA and chromosomal damage were studied to compare biological effectiveness of irradiation. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with the isotopic source of 252Cf, at the Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques at the University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in ''infinite'' polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with Na210B12H11SH (BSH) was performed to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Single cell gel electrophoresis also known as the Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetic analysis was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics, rings and a centric fragments). To evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of the whole genome) was performed. Linear (or close to linear) increase with radiation dose were observed for the DNA damage and aberration frequencies in lymphocytes both untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Levels of translocations evaluated for the whole genome were comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. No significant differences were detected due to radiation dose in the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) detected in the second mitosis. No statistically significant differences were observed in various biological end-points between normal or boron pre-treated cells. (author)

  14. Radiosensitization and relative mechanisms of vanillin derivative BVAN08 on human glioma U-251 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To provide more convincing evidences and experimental data for exploring vanillin derivative BVAN08, 6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzaldehyde, as a new anticancer drug, and to investigate the effect on the growth, radiosensitization of human glioma cell line U-251 and the relative mechanism. Methods: The effect of BVAN08 on cell proliferation of U-251 and radiosensitivity to 60Co γ-rays (irradiation dose rate 2.3 Gy/min) were analyzed with MTT and colony-forming ability assay. Change in cellular morphology was observed by using light microscope. Change in cell cycle and apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. The autophagy was observed by using TEM (irradiation dose rate is transmission electron microscope). DNA-PKcs protein level was detected through Western blot analysis. Results: BVAN08 exhibited a dose- and time-dependent inhibition on the proliferation of U-251 cells during the concentration range of 10-100 mol/L (t=1.83-3.07, P50 at 48 h and 72 h after administration with BVAN08 were 55.3 and 52.7 mol/L, respectively. Obvious G2/M arrest was induced in U-251 cells after 4 h administration with BVAN08, and reached peck at 12 h. The G2/M population reached 63.3% in U-251 cells after 12 h administration of 60 μmol/L BVAN08 and kept increasing with the time, while both apoptosis and autophagic cell death were induced. The most effective radiosensitization time for BVAN08 treatment was 12 h before irradiation. The enhancement ratio of radiosensitivity was 3.14 for 20 μmol/L of BVAN08 12 h before 2 Gy irradiation. Conclusions: BVAN08 can induce apoptosis as radiosensitizing effect might be associated with the induction of G2/M arrest and inhibition of DNA-PKcs expression. BVAN08 seemed to be a promising radiosensitizing anticancer drug. (authors)

  15. Isoform of Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Inhibitor (VEGI72-251) Increases Interleukin-2 Production by Activation of T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Juan YAO; Min ZHANG; Xiao-Hui MIAO; Ping ZHAO; Shi-Ying ZHU; Hui DING; Zhong-Tian QI

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the recombinant variant of human vascular endothelial cell growth inhibitor, VEGI72-251, and compare its biological activities with that of its prototype VEGI24-174. The recombinant plasmid containing the variant VEGI72-251 gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The effects of the expressed VEGI72-251 on cell proliferations were checked in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line and certain tumor cell lines (ECV304 and B 16). The inhibition of VEGI72-251 on angiogenesis was detected in the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos. In comparison with VEGI24-174, the recombinant human VEGI72-251 seems to have no effect on the proliferation of endothelial cells and the angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane in vitro. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assaybased method was used for the measurement of interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) treated with VEGI72-251. PBMCs were pretreated with VEGI72-251 (1.25-12.50 μg/ml) for 24 h in vitro, and the IL-2 concentration in PBMC medium was increased from 354 pg/ml to 1256 pg/ml. It can be concluded that VEGI72-251 is able to increase the level of human IL-2 production by the activation of T lymphocytes. Differing from VEGI24-174 on anti-angiogenesis, VEGI72-251 may serve as an anti-cancer factor through its activation of T lymphocytes.

  16. Safety analysis report for the Heavy-Element Facility (Building 251), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvam, D.J.

    1982-10-11

    A comprehensive safety analysis was performed on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Heavy Element Facility, Building 251. The purpose of the analysis was to evaluate the building and its operations in order to inform LLNL and the Department of Energy of the risks they assume at Building 251. This was done by examining all of the energy sources and matching them with the physical and administrative barriers that control, prevent, or mitigate their hazards. Risk was evaluated for each source under both normal and catastrophic circumstances such as fire, flood, high wind, lighting, earthquake, and criticality. No significant safety deficiencies were found; it is concluded that the operation of the facility presents no unacceptable risk.

  17. Cytotoxic activity of allogeneic natural killer cells on U251 glioma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Wu, Tingting; Wan, Lixin

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to observe the cytotoxic activity of allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells on U251 glioma cells and to investigate their mechanism of action to establish an effective treatment strategy for neuroglioma. Cell survival curves, colony formation assays and karyotype analysis were performed to investigate the characteristics of U251 glioma cells. The present study demonstrated that natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D)‑major histocompatibility complex class I‑related chain A/B (MICA/B) interactions contributed to the cytotoxic effect of NK cells on K562 and U251 cells. In antibody‑blocking assays to inhibit NKG2D ligands, the cytotoxic activity was not completely attenuated, which suggested that other signaling pathways contribute to the cytotoxic activity of NK cells on tumor cells in addition to the NKG2D‑mediated activity. The present study identified that the expression levels of NKG2D ligands on the surface of target cells influenced the strength of the NK cell immune response. Furthermore, allogeneic NK cells were observed to kill glioma cells in vitro, and this anticancer activity is associated with the rate of NKG2D expression on the surface of glioma cells.

  18. Association of IL-8 (-251 A/T Gene Polymorphism with Clinical Parameters and Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengameh Khosropanah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the correlation between IL-8 (-251 A/T gene polymorphism and susceptibility to chronic periodontitis as well as different clinical parameters and severity of the condition in patients referred to dental school, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.Materials and Methods: In this randomized cross sectional study, 227 non-smoking patients with chronic periodontitis (test and 40 healthy individuals (control were enrolled in this experiment and the following clinical parameters were employed in the study: Periodontal Pocket Depth (PPD, Clinical Attachment Level (CAL and Bone Loss (BL. All participants underwent the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction test to detect 251 A/T Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IL8 gene.Results: No significant correlation was perceived between different genotypes of IL-8 and the severity of the periodontal condition (P= 0.164, neither did we detect any substantial association between different IL-8 genotypes and the mean PPD (P=0.525, CAL (P=0.151, BL (P=0.255, PI (P=0.087, BOP (P=0.265 and the average number of teeth (P=0.931.Conclusion: The results implied that there was no explicit correlation between 251 (A/T IL-8 gene polymorphism and the severity of the chronic periodontal disease or to the susceptibility to it.

  19. Cytotoxic activity of allogeneic natural killer cells on U251 glioma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Wu, Tingting; Wan, Lixin

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to observe the cytotoxic activity of allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells on U251 glioma cells and to investigate their mechanism of action to establish an effective treatment strategy for neuroglioma. Cell survival curves, colony formation assays and karyotype analysis were performed to investigate the characteristics of U251 glioma cells. The present study demonstrated that natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D)‑major histocompatibility complex class I‑related chain A/B (MICA/B) interactions contributed to the cytotoxic effect of NK cells on K562 and U251 cells. In antibody‑blocking assays to inhibit NKG2D ligands, the cytotoxic activity was not completely attenuated, which suggested that other signaling pathways contribute to the cytotoxic activity of NK cells on tumor cells in addition to the NKG2D‑mediated activity. The present study identified that the expression levels of NKG2D ligands on the surface of target cells influenced the strength of the NK cell immune response. Furthermore, allogeneic NK cells were observed to kill glioma cells in vitro, and this anticancer activity is associated with the rate of NKG2D expression on the surface of glioma cells. PMID:27175912

  20. Complex based on Isthmin and RGD motif against glioma U251 cells%基于Isthmin和RGD基序的复合物对胶质瘤U251的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏颉; 曹磊; 王守森; 郑兆聪; 王如密; 汪君

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of complex based on Isthmin and RGD motif against glioma U251 cells.Methods The complex based on Isthmin and RGD motif was prepared,and the glioma U251 cell xenografts were established to observe the antitumor and antiangiogenesis effects of the complex in vivo and in vivo.Results The complex could induce U251 cell apoptosis and attack tumor endothelium cells,which inhibited the growth of glioma U251 cells and improved the lifespan of tumor bearing mice.Conclusion The complex based on Isthmin and RGD motif could dually target tumor and endothelium cells,which provided a promising strategy for glioma gene therapy.%目的 探讨基于Isthmin和BGD基序的复合物对胶质瘤U251的治疗效应.方法 构建Isthmin和RGD基序的复合物,并建立胶质瘤U251移植瘤模型,体内外观察其对U251细胞和血管内皮细胞的影响.结果 该复合物能有效诱导U251细胞的凋亡,抑制肿瘤血管的生成,从而抑制肿瘤的生长和延长荷瘤小鼠的平均生存率.结论 该复合物能同时靶向肿瘤和血管内皮细胞,为胶质瘤的基因治疗提供了较理想的策略.

  1. Study of apoptosis of glioma cells line U251 cells induced by sodium nitroprusside%硝普钠诱导胶质瘤细胞株U251细胞凋亡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴越; 徐国政; 杜浩; 吴长松; 黄河; 宋健

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of sodium nitroprusside(SNP) on glioma cell line U251 cells apoptosis and its mechanism.Methods U251 cells were cultured in the media containing SNP of the different concentrations.The rates of the inhibition of U251 cells growth induced by SNP were detected by MTT assay.Nitic oxide (NO) concentration in U251 cells was determined by Griess method.The rate of U251 cells apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry.The expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were detected by western blot in U251 cells before and after the treatment with SNP.Results The significantly inhibitory effects of the different concentration SNP on U251 cells were observed (P<0.01) and they were SNP dose-dependent.The NO concentration rose with the increase in SNP concentration.There was significantly positive correlation between the inhibitory rate and NO concentration (P<0.01).The apoptotic rates of U251 cells in 0.5 mmol/L,1.0 mmol/L and 20 mmol/L SNP groups were 15.25%,20.56% and 40.73% respectively and they were significantly higher than that (5.04%) in the control group.The apoptotic effects of SNP on U251 cells were SNP dose-dependent (P<0.01).The expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly lower and the expression level of caspase-3 was significantly higher in all the experiment groups than those in the control group (P<0.05).The levels of Bcl-2 expression were negatively related and the levels of caspase-3 expression were positively related to SNP concentration (P<0.05).Conclusions SNP can inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis of U251 cells.The effect of SNP on of U251 cells growth may be related to NO released by SNP and the apoptotic effect of SNP on U251 cells may be related to the SNP-induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of caspase-3 in of U251 cells.%目的 探讨一氧化氮(NO)供体药物硝普钠(SNP)对胶质瘤细胞株U251细胞凋亡诱导效应及其机制.方法 以0.2、0.5、1.5和2.0 mmol

  2. Effect of combination of STAT3 RNAi and 60Co γ-irradiation on U251 cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To construct signal transduction and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) small interference RNA (siRNA) expression vector and to study its effect on STAT3 expression and U251 cell line proliferation. Methods: STAT3 specific 19 bp oligonucleotides were designed and synthesized. These oligonucleotides were annealed to form the double strand DNA fragments and these fragments were cloned into Psilence2.1-U6-H1 vector. The recombinant of STAT3-siRNA expressing construction was confirmed by Hind III and BamH I double digestion and sequencing. The STAT3-siRNA was transfected into U251 cell. The inhibitory effect of STAT3-siRNA construction was tested by Western blot. Cellular proliferation activities were measured by tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry. Cloning efficiency and MTF were used to confirm the radiation dose. Results: STAT3-siRNA expression vector was successfully constructed, and it could effectively down-regulate the protein levels of STAT3 in transfected U251 cell line; and the radiation dose was confirmed to 2 Gy. U251 cells transfected with STAT3-siRNA expression vector showed lower cellular proliferation compared with non-transfected U251 cells (P60Co γ-irradiation showed lower cellular proliferation compared with non-irradiated U251 cells (P60Co γ irradiation can enhance the inhibitory efficiency. (authors)

  3. Fine mapping of chromosome 15q25.1 lung cancer susceptibility in African-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Helen M.; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Rice, Terri; Bracci, Paige M.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Sison, Jennette D.; Chang, Jeffery S.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; Patoka, Joseph; Seldin, Michael F; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Wiencke, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Several genome-wide association studies identified the chr15q25.1 region, which includes three nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNA5-B4) and the cell proliferation gene (PSMA4), for its association with lung cancer risk in Caucasians. A haplotype and its tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encompassing six genes from IREB2 to CHRNB4 were most strongly associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 1.3; P < 10−20). In order to narrow the region of association and identify potential c...

  4. siRNA epidermal growth factor receptor silencing in U251 glioma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunsheng Kang; Zhiyong Zhang; Zhifan Jia; Qiang Huang; Guangxiu Wang; Mingzhe Qiu; Peiyu Pu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dicer, a large multidomain ribonuclease, is responsible for processing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) to 20-bp-long small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which act as effectors during RNA interference (RNAi). OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of siRNA cocktails generated by recombinant human Dicer on the down-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in human glioma cells. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The following in vitro experiment was performed at the Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital and Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute. MATERIALS: Mini-RNA isolation kit, human placenta complimentary DNA (cDNA) was produced by Tiangen Biotech (Beijing, China), human glioblastoma U251-MG cells were produced by the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. METHODS: A PCR product from the human EGFR, which corresponded to the tyrosine kinase domain of the 3'-end fragment, was used as the T7-promotor for in vitro transcription, siRNA cocktails were generated by in vitro dicing of double stranded RNA. A total of 500, 250 and 125 μg siRNA cocktails were transiently transfected into U251 glioma cells through the use of the GeneSilencer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Expression of EGFR was detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The total PCR product of the human EGFR, corresponding to the tyrosine kinase domain, is approximately 680 bp in length. The PCR transcriptants included GCC leader sequences and a T7 promoter sequence, with a fragment of EGFR cDNA at the center. The T7 promoter was prepared for in vitro transcription of dsRNA. After dicing for 24 hours, the 21-nt siRNA cocktails were verified by 4% agarose gel. The difference between threshold cycle of a sample assay and threshold cycle of the corresponding endogenous reference (△ Ct) among parental U251 cells and cells transfected with different doses of siRNA cocktails were determined to be 3.06, 7.35, and 10

  5. 251例突发性聋预后相关因素的疗效分析%Clinical effective analyses of sudden deafness in 251 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少清; 林文敏; 李鸿; 孔喆; 李云英; 杨洪

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors related to curative effect and prognosis of sudden deafness (SD). Methods Clinical data of 251 patients (261 ears) with SD were analyzed retrospectively.Analyzed factors included patients' gender,age,visiting time,tinnitus,vertigo,degree of hearing loss and hearing loss curve patterns.SPSS software was applied to single factor analysis (χ2 test). Results 261cases of sudden deafness patients,53cases were cured(20.31%),obviously effective in 27 cases(10.34%),effective in 82cases(31.42%),invalid 99 cases(37.93%),The total effective rate was 62.07%. Statistic analysis showed that the patients' gender and tinnitus had no influence on the curative effect of SD (P>0.05), while the visiting time, degree of hearing loss, patterns of hearing loss curve, age and vertigo were related to it. Satisfactory therapeutic effect could be achieved in patients with treatment received within 7 days after onset, hearing loss of mild to moderate degree, hearing loss curve of ascending or concave pattern and without vertigo. Conclusion In SD, the course of disease, pattern of hearing curve, degree of hearing loss, age and vertigo are correlated with its prognosis. While the gender and tinnitus had no obvious relevance.%目的:探讨突发性耳聋患者的临床疗效及预后相关因素。方法回顾性分析251例(261耳)突发性耳聋患者的临床资料,应用统计学方法对患者的性别、年龄、发病至就诊时间、耳鸣、眩晕、听力损失程度及听力损失曲线类型进行分析,观察其各因素与突发性耳聋近期疗效的相关性。结果251例(261耳)突发性耳聋患者中,痊愈53耳(20.31%),显效27耳(10.34%),有效82耳(31.42%),无效99耳(37.93%),总有效率为62.07%.突发性耳聋的疗效与患者性别、耳鸣无关(P>0.05),与患者就诊时间,听力损失程度及听力损失曲线类型、年龄、伴发眩晕有关;在发病7d内就诊

  6. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  7. 技嘉W251U:随身的全能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    经常需要外出使用笔记本电脑?那么12英寸的技嘉W251U值得你重点考虑,因为除了小巧机身带来的出色便携性,它还是一款在性能、功能和扩展性等各方面都表现出色的优秀产品。W251U采用了完整的迅驰双核平台(NaDa),不但在稳定性和功耗控制方面让人放心,而且Core Duo T2300处理器、512MB DDR2 533内存和80GBSATA硬盘完全能满足除大型3D游戏之外的大部分应用需要。

  8. EFFECTS OF p16INK4 GENE ON CHEMOSENSITIVITY OF HUMAN GLIOMA U251 CELL LINE TO TENIPOSIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects on the cell growth, tumorigenicity and chemosensitivity of p16/CDK4I in human glioma. Methods: p16 gene was transfected into U251 cells by lipofectin. Expression of exogenous p16 gene was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Northern blot. The effects of exogenous p16 gene on the growth and chemosensitivity to teniposide were examined. Results: Expression of exogenous p16 gene inhibited the growth dramatically in vitro. G1 arrest of tumor cells was observed. However, wt p16-positive U251 was less sensitive than control cell lines and the number of apoptotic cells after chemotherapy was reduced. Conclusion: The expression of exogenous p16 gene could inhibit the growth of glioma. On the other hand, the chemosensitivity to teniposide of p16-positive U251 was decreased.

  9. Interleukin-8-251 A/T and CXCR2 +1208 C/T Genes Polymorphisms in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Khademi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  IL-8 is one of the pro-inflammatory cytokines which can play an essential role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS as well as nasal polyposis (NP. The ability of individuals in producing IL-8 is partially determined by IL-8-251 A/T polymorphism. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between IL-8-251 A/T and CXCR2 +1208 C/T genes polymorphisms and susceptibility to CRS and NP. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty fiveCRS patients and 204 healthy controls were included in this study. CRS patients were categorized by the existence or absence of NP. IL-8 promoter-251 A/T and CXCR2 +1208 C/T gene polymorphisms were genotyped via the allele specific PCR (AS-PCR method. Results: While no remarkable difference was demonstrated between patients and controls for both CXCR2 +1208 C/T and IL-8 -251 A/T polymorphisms, a significant increase in IL-8-251 AA genotype was detected in CRS patients with NP compared to those without it (29.3% and 16.2%, respectively; P=0.03. Interestingly, this association got far stronger when only non-asthmatic CRS patients were taken into consideration (P=0.001. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the inheritance of IL-8-251 Aallele is associated significantly with NP development in CRS patients. Therefore, NP formation might be a result of the exposure to an intense inflammatory environment, which is more likely in genetically susceptible CRS patients.

  10. M251S型燃气轮机的技术特性及结构特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施彧翰; 陆汉军

    2007-01-01

    就中小型钢厂CCPP用M251S型燃气轮机,介绍了该机的燃烧器、压气机、除尘和防泄漏等作为BFG用燃气轮机的特有技术特性。并着重分析TM251S型燃气轮机主要结构压气机、透平及其冷却系统、燃烧室的工作原理和特点。

  11. Fine mapping of chromosome 15q25.1 lung cancer susceptibility in African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helen M; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Rice, Terri; Bracci, Paige M; Wrensch, Margaret R; Sison, Jennette D; Chang, Jeffery S; Smirnov, Ivan V; Patoka, Joseph; Seldin, Michael F; Quesenberry, Charles P; Kelsey, Karl T; Wiencke, John K

    2010-09-15

    Several genome-wide association studies identified the chr15q25.1 region, which includes three nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNA5-B4) and the cell proliferation gene (PSMA4), for its association with lung cancer risk in Caucasians. A haplotype and its tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encompassing six genes from IREB2 to CHRNB4 were most strongly associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 1.3; P < 10(-20)). In order to narrow the region of association and identify potential causal variations, we performed a fine-mapping study using 77 SNPs in a 194 kb segment of the 15q25.1 region in a sample of 448 African-American lung cancer cases and 611 controls. Four regions, two SNPs and two distinct haplotypes from sliding window analyses, were associated with lung cancer. CHRNA5 rs17486278 G had OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.54 and P = 0.008, whereas CHRNB4 rs7178270 G had OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.94 and P = 0.008 for lung cancer risk. Lung cancer associations remained significant after pack-year adjustment. Rs7178270 decreased lung cancer risk in women but not in men; gender interaction P = 0.009. For two SNPs (rs7168796 A/G and rs7164594 A/G) upstream of PSMA4, lung cancer risks for people with haplotypes GG and AA were reduced compared with those with AG (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.38-0.82; P = 0.003 and OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.90, P = 0.004, respectively). A four-SNP haplotype spanning CHRNA5 (rs11637635 C, rs17408276 T, rs16969968 G) and CHRNA3 (rs578776 G) was associated with increased lung cancer risk (P = 0.002). The identified regions contain SNPs predicted to affect gene regulation. There are multiple lung cancer risk loci in the 15q25.1 region in African-Americans. PMID:20587604

  12. Tumstatin transfected into human glioma cell line U251 represses tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hong-xing; YAO Yu; JIANG Xin-jun; YUAN Xian-rui

    2013-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for tumor growth and plays an important role in rapidly growing tumors,such as malignant gliomas.A variety of factors controlling the angiogenic balance have been described,and among these,the endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis,tumstatin,has drawn considerable attention.The current study investigated whether expression of tumstatin by glioma cells could alter this balance and prevent tumor formation.Methods We engineered stable transfectants from human glioma cell line U251 to constitutively secrete a human tumstatin protein with c-myc and polyhistidine tags.Production and secretion of the tumstatin-c-myc-His fusion protein by tumstatin-transfected cells were confirmed by Western blotting analysis.In the present study,we identify the anti-angiogenic capacity of tumstatin using several in vitro and in vivo assays.Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used to determine the statistical significance in this study.Results The tumstatin transfectants and control transfectants (stably transfected with a control plasmid) had similar in vitro growth rates compared to their parental cell lines.However,the conditioned medium from the tumstatin transfected tumor cells significantly inhibits proliferation and causes apoptosis of endothelial cells.It also inhibits tube formation of endothelial cells on Matrigel.Examination of armpit tumors arising from cells overexpressing tumstatin repress the growth of tumor,accompanying the decreased density of CD31 positive vessels in tumors ((5.62±1.32)/HP),compared to the control-transfectants group ((23.84+1.71)/HP) and wild type U251 glioma cells group ((29.33+4.45)/HP).Conclusion Anti-angiogenic gene therapy using human tumstatin gene may be an effective strategy for the treatment of glioma.

  13. 白细胞介素-8-251A/T多态性与宫颈癌的相关性%Association between -251A/T polymorphism of interleukin-8 gene and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹党恩; 贺国洋; 鲁霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between interleukin-8(IL-8) -251A/T polymorphism and cervical cancer. Methods The polymorphism of IL-8 -251A/T were analyzed in 219 patients with cervical cancer (cervical cancer group) and 295 healthy person( control group) by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results The genetypes of TT, AT and AA were present in both cervical cancer group and control group for IL-8 -251 A/T gene polymorphism. The frequency of each genetype was 31. 1% (TT) ,49. 3% (AT) and 19. 6% ( AA) ,and frequency of each allele was 44.3%(A) and55.7%(T) in cervical cancer group. The frequency of each genetype was 42.7% (TT) ,45. 1% (AT) and 12.2% ( AA) ,and frequency of each allele was 34. 7% (A) and 65. 3% (T) in control group. There were significant differences in genetype and allele frequencies of the IL-8 -251 A/T polymorphism between two groups (χ2 =0.953,572.428; P - 0.09,0.000). Conclusion IL-8 -251 A/T polymorphism may be associated with cervical cancer.%目的 探讨白细胞介素-8(IL-8)-251A/T多态性及mRNA与宫颈癌发病的相关性.方法 采用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性方法检测219例宫颈癌患者(宫颈癌组)和295例健康对照者(对照组)IL-8-251A/T多态性.结果 宫颈癌组和对照组均发现IL-8-251A/T位点基因多态性,均可见TT、AT和AA基因型;宫颈癌组TT、AT、AA基因型频率分别为31.1%、49.3%和19.6%,A、T等位基因频率分别为44.3%和55.7%;对照组TT、AT、AA基因型频率分别为42.7%、45.1%和12.2%,T、A等位基因频率分别为65.3%和34.7%;宫颈癌组IL-8-251A/T基因型及等位基因频率与对照组比较,差别有统计学意义(x2=0.953,572.428;P=0.009,0.000).结论 IL-8-251A/T多态性与宫颈癌的发病具有相关性.

  14. Effects of temozolomide chemotherapy on CD133+ cells in glioma U251%替莫唑胺化疗对胶质瘤U251中CD133+细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟现; 向定朝; 王存祖; 周月鹏; 欧阳琦; 张志坚; 许慧中; 陆晓峰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨化疗耐药与肿瘤干细胞之间的关系.方法 分析替莫唑胺(TMZ)作用前后胶质瘤U251中CD133蛋白表达及阳性细胞数量的变化.通过MTT实验评估U251细胞对TMZ的敏感性.利用免疫荧光染色和Western blot检测TMZ作用前后U251细胞中CD133、巢蛋白(nestin)、神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)、神经胶质细胞纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)等蛋白表达.结果 U251细胞中未加入TMZ组的CD133+细胞比例约为0.060±0.003,明显低于加入TMZ组的0.337±0.012(P<0.05).在TMZ作用后,CD133和nestin表达明显增加,而GFAP和NSE表达明显减少(P<0.05).结论 胶质瘤U251细胞株中存在CD133+细胞,大部分具有脑肿瘤干细胞特性;在TMZ作用后,这类细胞比例增加,提示其与化疗耐药有关.%Objective To explore the relationship between chemotherapy resistance and cancer stem cells. Methods The changes of the number and protein expression were analyzed before and after the CD133+ cells in glioma U251 were intervented by temozolomide(TMZ). The expressions of CD133,nestin,neuron-specific enolase(NSE),glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP) and other proteins in glioma U251 cells were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Results U251 cells in the TMZ group did not join The proportion of CD133+ cells was significantly greater in the U251 cells with TMZ intervention than that without(0. 337±0.012 vs. 0. 060 + 0.003) (P<0. 05). After TMZ intervention, the proportion of nestin-positive cells in the CD133+ cells were increased,but GFAP and NSE-positive cells were decreased(P<0. 05). Conclusion There CD133+cells in the U251 glioma cell lines,majority of which have the properties of brain tumor stem cells. After TMZ intervention, an increased proportion of the CD133+ cells suggests its relationship with chemotherapy-related drug resistance.

  15. 46 CFR 251.21 - Applications under sections 803, 804, 805 (a) and (d), and 605 (b), Merchant Marine Act, 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), and 605 (b), Merchant Marine Act, 1936. 251.21 Section 251.21 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION... (b), Merchant Marine Act, 1936. Form VI-B of instructions is the required form for the preparation of... chapter (General Order 86)) and (d), and 605(b), Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (49 Stat. 2012, 2013, 2003;...

  16. Effects of Platycodin D on Proliferation, Apoptosis and PI3K/Akt Signal Pathway of Human Glioma U251 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of platycodin D (PD on the proliferation, apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway of human glioma U251 cells were investigated. Glioma U251 cells were treated with PD at final concentrations of 0, 16.3, 40.8, 81.6, 163.2 μM, and inhibition rate, early and late apoptotic rate, apoptotic index, expression of apoptosis-related proteins and phosphorylation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were evaluated. The results showed that compared with the control group, PD could increase the proliferation inhibition rate of U251 cells in a dose- and time -dependent manner; PD could also elevate the early and late apoptotic rate, apoptotic index and the level of pro-apoptotic proteins of glioma U251 cells, such as Bax and cleaved caspase-3, but lower the level of apoptosis inhibitory protein, such as Bcl-2; PD could increase the ratio of G0/G1 phase U251 cells, and lower the proportion of Sphase U251 cells and the ratio of G2/M phase U251 cells; PD could reduce the ratio of p-Akt/Akt. The results indicate that PD can inhibit the proliferation, induce the apoptosis and cause the cell cycle arrest in human glioma U251 cells, which may be related to the inhibition of PD on the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  17. Transient axonal glycoprotein-1 induces apoptosis-related gene expression without triggering apoptosis in U251 glioma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haigang Chang; Xiaodan Jiang; Shanshan Song; Zhongcan Chen; Yaxiao Wang; Lujun Yang; Mouxuan Du; Yiquan Ke; Ruxiang Xu; Baozhe Jin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that transient axonal glycoprotein-1, a ligand of amyloid precursor pro-tein, increases the secretion of amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain and is involved in apoptosis in Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, we examined the effects of transient axonal glyco-protein-1 on U251 glioma cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that transient axonal glycoprotein-1 did not inhibit the proliferation of U251 cells, but promoted cell viability. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay showed that transient axonal glycoprotein-1 did not induce U251 cell apoptosis. Real-time PCR revealed that transient axonal glycoprotein-1 substantially upregulated levels of amyloid precursor protein intracellular C-terminal domain, and p53 and epidermal growth factor recep-tor mRNA expression. Thus, transient axonal glycoprotein-1 increased apoptosis-related gene expression in U251 cells without inducing apoptosis. Instead, transient axonal glycoprotein-1 promoted the proliferation of these glioma cells.

  18. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Interagency Fleet... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  19. Interleukin-8-251 A/T and CXCR2 +1208 C/T Genes Polymorphisms in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Khademi

    2011-01-01

    The results of the present study indicate that the inheritance of IL-8-251 Aallele is associated significantly with NP development in CRS patients. Therefore, NP formation might be a result of the exposure to an intense inflammatory environment, which is more likely in genetically susceptible CRS patients.

  20. Risk modification of colorectal cancer susceptibility by interleukin-8-251T>A polymorphism in Malaysians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd Aminudin Mustapha; Siti Nurfatimah Mohd Shahpudin; Ahmad Aizat Abdul Aziz; Ravindran Ankathil

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the allele and genotype frequencies and associated risk of interleukin (IL)-8-251T>A polymorphism on colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility risk.METHODS:Peripheral blood samples of 255 normal controls and 255 clinically and histopathologically confirmed CRC patients were genotyped for IL-8-251T>A polymorphism employing allele-specific polymerase chain reaction.The relative association of variant allele and genotypes with CRC susceptibility risk was determined by calculating the odds ratios (ORs).Corresponding x2 tests on the CRC patients and controls were carried out and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using Fisher's exact test.The allele frequencies and its risk association were calculated using FAMHAP,haplotype association analysis software.RESULTS:On comparing the frequencies of genotypes of patients and controls,the homozygous variant AA was significantly higher in CRC patients (P =0.002)compared to controls.Investigation on the association of the polymorphic genotypes with CRC susceptibility risk,showed that the homozygous variant IL-8-251AA had a significantly increased risk with OR 3.600 (95%CI:1.550-8.481,P =0.001).In the case of allele frequencies,variant allele A of IL-8-251 showed a significantly increased risk of CRC predisposition with OR 1.32(95% CI:1.03-1.69,P =0.003).CONCLUSION:Variant allele and genotype of IL-8 (-251T>A) was significantly associated with CRC susceptibility risk and could be considered as a high-risk variant for CRC predisposition.

  1. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  2. Downregulation of ROCK2 through nanocomplex sensitizes the cytotoxic effect of temozolomide in U251 glioma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Wen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2 (ROCK2 is an attractive therapeutic target because it is overexpressed in many malignancies, including glioma. Therefore, we designed the current study to determine whether the downregulation of ROCK2 would sensitize the cytotoxic effect of temozolomide (TMZ in U251 cells. METHODS: Glycol-polyethyleneimine (PEG-PEI was used to deliver siROCK2 to U251 cells, and the physical characteristics of the PEG-PEI/siROCK2 complex (referred to as the siROCK2 complex were investigated. The transfection efficiency and cell uptake were determined by flow cytometry (FCM and confocal laser microscopy (CLSM, respectively. U251 cells were then treated with 100 μM TMZ, siROCK2 complexes or their combination. The apoptosis rate and cell migration were measured by FCM and wound-healing assay, respectively. The levels of Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were detected to analyze the degrees of apoptosis and migration. RESULTS: Our results revealed that the characteristics of the siROCK2 complexes depended closely on the N/P ratios. PEG-PEI served as a good vector for siROCK2 and exhibited low cytotoxicity toward U251 cells. The CLSM assay showed that the siROCK2 complexes were successfully uptaken and that both the protein and mRNA levels of ROCK2 were significantly suppressed. Furthermore, the combination treatment induced a higher apoptosis rate and markedly increased the gap distance of U251 cells in the wound-healing assay. Levels of the proapoptotic proteins Bax and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly increased, whereas levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the migration-related proteins MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly reduced by the combination treatment compared with either treatment alone. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the combination of TMZ and siROCK2 effectively induces apoptosis and inhibits the migration of U251 cells. Therefore, the combination of TMZ

  3. 替莫唑胺对人胶质瘤细胞系U251细胞miR125b的影响%Temozolomide in glioblastoma cells U251 affect miR-125b expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程峰; 石磊; 贡伟一; 刘华; 潘天鸿

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨替莫唑胺( TMZ)对人胶质瘤细胞系U251细胞的miRNA125b的表达影响。方法将人胶质瘤细胞系U251细胞分成空白对照组、TMZ组,TMZ组设10、25、50、100、200、400、600μmol/L组。各组分别作用于24、48、72 h后进行实时定量PCR( Real-time PCR)检测miRNA-125b的表达水平;用MTT比色法检测细胞活力;流式细胞仪检测细胞周期和凋亡率。结果荧光定量PCR检测结果显示:替莫唑胺作用24 h后, miRNA125b表达变化不明显;48 h后对miR-125b表现出抑制作用, miR-125b对U251细胞的抑制率呈良好的时间-剂量效应关系,其Ic 50为76μmol,初始抑制浓度为50μmol;流式细胞仪检测显示,U251细胞经TMZ作用后出现G2/M期阻滞,但促凋亡作用并不显著。结论在TMZ对胶质瘤细胞治疗过程中,hsa-miR-125b的表达随着治疗剂量而被抑制,miR-125b可以作为TMZ在用药过程中效果的检测以及抗药性反应的参考依据。%Objective To investigate the temozolomide(TMZ) affect on the expression of hsa-miR-125b human neureblastoma cell line U251 cells.Method U251 cells we treated 7 different concentrations of TMZ (10、25、50、100、200、400、600 μmol/L) 72 h, hsa-miR-125 expression level was identified by quantitve real time PCR ( qRT-PCR) .Cell viability was accessed by using colorimotrlc MTT assay Cell cycle progression and apoptosis ratio are measured by using flow cytometry .Results After TMZ affect 24h, the changes of miRNA-125b expression were unconspic-uous, and after 48h, the expression of miRNA-125b was inhibited.The IC50 of TMZ Was 76 mol/L.The relationship between the expression level of miR-125b and the inhibition rate of U251 cells was a perfect time to dose response . There were significant difference between the control group and the groups over 50 mol/L(P<0.01). Flow cytometry showed that U251 cells responded to TMZ by undergoing G2/M arrest and very few cells show apoptosis

  4. Nematode assemblages from the Kandalaksha Depression (White Sea, 251-288 m water depth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljutin, Dmitry M.; Miljutina, Maria A.; Tchesunov, Alexei V.; Mokievsky, Vadim O.

    2014-03-01

    The shallow-water nematodes of the White Sea are relatively well studied; however, information on the nematode fauna inhabiting the deepest part of this sea is very scarce. The composition of the nematode assemblages (at species and genus level) was studied in samples collected during four sampling occasions in the deepest part of the Kandalaksha Depression (the White Sea) in July 1998, October 1998, May 1999, and November 1999. Samples were collected from a depth of 251-288 m with the aid of a multicorer. In total, 59 nematode morphotypes belonging to 37 genera and 18 families were distinguished. The genera Sabatieria and Filipjeva dominated at all stations, followed by Aponema, Desmoscolex, and Quadricoma. The composition of the dominant genera can be considered typical for this depth range in temperate and Arctic waters, although Filipjeva and Aponema were among the dominant genera for the first time. The most abundant species were Sabatieria ornata, Aponema bathyalis, and Filipjeva filipjevi. In general, diversity of the nematode assemblages was lower than in the temperate and Arctic continental shelf and slope with reduced evenness and species richness. The evenness of nematode assemblages and other diversity indices decreased with increasing sediment depth. Based on the valid species and genera recorded, the nematode fauna of the Kandalaksha Depression showed a higher resemblance to that found in the shallow waters of Kandalaksha Bay.

  5. More Evidence for the Intermediate Broad Line Region of the Mapped AGN PG 0052+251

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, XueGuang

    2013-01-01

    In the manuscript, the properties of the proposed intermediate BLR are checked for the mapped AGN PG 0052+251. With the considerations of the apparent effects of the broad He {\\sc ii} line on the observed broad H$\\beta$ profile, the line parameters (especially the line width and the line flux) of the observed broad H$\\alpha$ and the broad H$\\beta$ are carefully determined. Based on the measured line parameters, the model with two broad components applied for each observed broad balmer line is preferred, and then confirmed by the calculated much different time lags for the inner/intermediate broad components and the corresponding virial BH masses ratio determined by the properties of the inner and the intermediate broad components. Then, the correlation between the broad line width and the broad line flux is checked for the two broad components: one clearly strong negative correlation for the inner broad component, but one positive correlation for the intermediate broad component. The different correlations fo...

  6. Evidence for Intermediate BLR of Reverberation-Mapped AGN PG 0052+251

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript, we study properties of BLR of well-known reverberation-mapped AGN, in order to find reliable evidence for intermediate BLR. We firstly check properties of mapped AGN collected from literature in plane of $\\sHb^2/\\sHa^2$ vs $\\RHa/\\RHb$. Commonly, virial BH masses based on observed broad H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ should be coincident. However, among the mapped objects, PG0052 and NGC4253 are two apparent outliers in the plane of $\\sHb^2/\\sHa^2$ vs $\\RHa/\\RHb$, which indicate BLRs of PG0052 and NGC4253 have some special characters. Then based on the 55 public spectra of PG0052, BLR of PG0052 is been carefully studied in detail. We find that line width ratio of total observed broad H$\\alpha$ to total observed broad H$\\beta$ is $\\sim$0.7, which is much smaller than theoretical/observational value of $\\sim$0.9. Furthermore, flux ratio of total broad H$\\alpha$ to total broad H$\\beta$ is about 6.8 (Balmer Decrement), which is not one reasonable value for BLUE quasar PG 0052+251. Moreover, properties ...

  7. Adjuvant-dependent innate and adaptive immune signatures of risk of SIVmac251 acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Monica; Gordon, Shari N; Fourati, Slim; Schifanella, Luca; Liyanage, Namal P M; Cameron, Mark; Keele, Brandon F; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Billings, Erik; Rao, Mangala; Chung, Amy W; Dowell, Karen G; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Brown, Eric P; Ackerman, Margaret E; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Whitney, Stephen; Doster, Melvin N; Binello, Nicolo; Pegu, Poonam; Montefiori, David C; Foulds, Kathryn; Quinn, David S; Donaldson, Mitzi; Liang, Frank; Loré, Karin; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A; McDermott, Adrian; Ma, Zhong-Min; Miller, Christopher J; Phan, Tran B; Forthal, Donald N; Blackburn, Matthew; Caccuri, Francesca; Bissa, Massimiliano; Ferrari, Guido; Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi; Ferrari, Maria G; Thompson, DeVon; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Phogat, Sanjay; Barnett, Susan W; Tartaglia, Jim; Venzon, David; Stablein, Donald M; Alter, Galit; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2016-07-01

    A recombinant vaccine containing Aventis Pasteur's canarypox vector (ALVAC)-HIV and gp120 alum decreased the risk of HIV acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial. The substitution of alum with the more immunogenic MF59 adjuvant is under consideration for the next efficacy human trial. We found here that an ALVAC-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and gp120 alum (ALVAC-SIV + gp120) equivalent vaccine, but not an ALVAC-SIV + gp120 MF59 vaccine, was efficacious in delaying the onset of SIVmac251 in rhesus macaques, despite the higher immunogenicity of the latter adjuvant. Vaccine efficacy was associated with alum-induced, but not with MF59-induced, envelope (Env)-dependent mucosal innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that produce interleukin (IL)-17, as well as with mucosal IgG to the gp120 variable region 2 (V2) and the expression of 12 genes, ten of which are part of the RAS pathway. The association between RAS activation and vaccine efficacy was also observed in an independent efficacious SIV-vaccine approach. Whether RAS activation, mucosal ILCs and antibodies to V2 are also important hallmarks of HIV-vaccine efficacy in humans will require further studies. PMID:27239761

  8. Human Cytomegalovirus-Encoded miR-US25-1 Aggravates the Oxidised Low Density Lipoprotein-Induced Apoptosis of Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is linked to the development and severity of the cardiovascular disease atherosclerosis; however, there is little known about the promotion of atherosclerosis. miR-US25-1 is one of HCMV-encoded miRNAs and targets cellular genes that are essential for virus growth to control the life cycle of the virus and host cells. The prominent regulation on cell cycle genes of the miR-US25-1 attracts us to explore its role in the atherosclerosis promotion. It was indicated that miR-US25-1 level was upregulated in subjects or in endothelial cells with HCMV infection; and the miR-US25-1 downregulated the expression of BRCC 3 by targeting the 5′ UTR of BRCC 3. And a miR-US25-1 mimics transfection could reduce the EAhy926 cell viability but did not induce apoptosis in EAhy926 cells. And what is more, miR-US25-1 mimicis transfection deteriorated the ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and aggravated the upregulation of apoptosis-associated molecules by oxidised low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL in EAhy926 cells. And we have also confirmed the deregulation of BRCC 3 expression by miR-US25-1 by targeting the 5′ UTR of it. Given the vital role of BRCC 3 in DNA damage repairing, we speculated that the targeting inhibition of BRCC 3 by miR-US25-1 may contribute to the aggravation of ox-LDL-promoted apoptosis of endothelial EAhy926 cells.

  9. The spiral-compact galaxy pair AM 2208-251: Computer simulations versus observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaric, Mario; Byrd, Gene G.

    1990-01-01

    The system AM2208-251 is a roughly edge-on spiral extending east-west with a smaller round compact E system about 60 arcsec east of the spiral nucleus along the major axis of the spiral. Bertola, Huchtmeier, and Zeilinger (1990) have presented optical spectroscopic as well as single dish 21 cm observations of this system. Their spectroscopic data show, via emission lines lambda lambda 3727-29A, a rising rotation curve near the nucleus. These spectroscopic observations may indicate a tidal interaction in the system. In order to learn more about such pairs, the authors simulated the interaction using the computer model developed by Miller (1976 a,b, 1978) and modified by the authors (Byrd 1986, 1987, 1988). To do the simulation they need an idea of the mutual orbits of the two galaxies. Their computer model is a two-dimensional polar N-body program. It consists of a self-gravitating disk of particles, within an inert axially symmetric stabilizing halo potential. The particles are distributed in a 24(radial) by 36(azimuthal) polar grid. Self consistent calculations can be done only within the grid area. The disk is modeled with a finite Mestel disk, where all the particles initially move in circular orbits with constant tangential velocities (Mestel 1963), resulting in a flat rotation curve. The gas particles in the spiral's disk, which make up 30 percent of its mass, collide in the following manner. The number of particles in each bin of the polar grid is counted every time step. If it is greater than a given critical density, all the particles in the bin collide, obtaining in the result the same velocities, equal to the average for the bin. This process produces clumps of gas particles-the star formation sites. The authors suppress the collision in the inner part of the disk (within the circle r = 6) to represent the hole seen in the gas in the nuclear bulge of spirals. They thus avoid spurious effects due to collisions in that region. They also varied the size of

  10. The spiral-compact galaxy pair AM 2208-251: Computer simulations versus observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaric, Mario; Byrd, Gene G.

    1990-11-01

    The system AM2208-251 is a roughly edge-on spiral extending east-west with a smaller round compact E system about 60 arcsec east of the spiral nucleus along the major axis of the spiral. Bertola, Huchtmeier, and Zeilinger (1990) have presented optical spectroscopic as well as single dish 21 cm observations of this system. Their spectroscopic data show, via emission lines lambda lambda 3727-29A, a rising rotation curve near the nucleus. These spectroscopic observations may indicate a tidal interaction in the system. In order to learn more about such pairs, the authors simulated the interaction using the computer model developed by Miller (1976 a,b, 1978) and modified by the authors (Byrd 1986, 1987, 1988). To do the simulation they need an idea of the mutual orbits of the two galaxies. Their computer model is a two-dimensional polar N-body program. It consists of a self-gravitating disk of particles, within an inert axially symmetric stabilizing halo potential. The particles are distributed in a 24(radial) by 36(azimuthal) polar grid. Self consistent calculations can be done only within the grid area. The disk is modeled with a finite Mestel disk, where all the particles initially move in circular orbits with constant tangential velocities (Mestel 1963), resulting in a flat rotation curve. The gas particles in the spiral's disk, which make up 30 percent of its mass, collide in the following manner. The number of particles in each bin of the polar grid is counted every time step. If it is greater than a given critical density, all the particles in the bin collide, obtaining in the result the same velocities, equal to the average for the bin. This process produces clumps of gas particles-the star formation sites. The authors suppress the collision in the inner part of the disk (within the circle r = 6) to represent the hole seen in the gas in the nuclear bulge of spirals. They thus avoid spurious effects due to collisions in that region. They also varied the size of

  11. Mechanism of thalidomide to enhance cytotoxicity of temozolomide in U251-MG glioma cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Song; YANG Xue-jun; ZHANG Wen-gao; JI Yan-wei; PAN Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Background Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. Temozolomide has been used with thalidomide to treat gliomas. We investigated the synergistic mechanism of these two drugs in vitro.Methods Human malignant glioma cells U251-MG were cultured and assigned to four groups with different treatments for 3 days: temozolomide group (100 pmol/L), thalidomide group (100 pg/L), temozolomide (100 IJmol/L) plus thalidomide group (100 pg/L) and control group. MTT assay was applied to evaluate the cell viability. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ultra-structural features of autophagosomes were observed with electron microscope. Acridine orange and monodansylcadavedne were adopted to label autophagosomes and flow cytometry was applied for quantification of autophagosomes. The expression of autophagy-associated protein was detected by Western blotting.Results Proliferation of tumor cell was obviously suppressed by temozolomide with thalidomide treatment than by either drug used alone (P=-0.000 for each day). The combination treatment induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase.Typical autophagic ultra-structural character was found after the combined treatment. Thalidomide promoted the autophagy induced by temozolomide. The autophagy-associated proteins - microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAPILC3) and Beclinl were more significantly up-regulated by the combined treatment than temozolomide used alone (MAP1LC3, P=-0.000; Beclinl, P=-0.004). The expression level of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), which promoted autophagy by suppressing PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, was elevated by thalidomide (thalidomide group: P=-0.000; combined group: P=0.002).Conclusions Thalidomide enhances the cytotoxicity of temozolomide by promoting the autophagy induced by temozolomide. Contributing to the up-regulation of PTEN by thalidomide, the expression of autophagy associated protein-MAP1LC3 and Beclinl was enhanced

  12. Analysis on Quality Flaws of 251 Pieces of Nursing Records From Ophthalmology Department%眼科251份护理病案质量缺陷的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗润来; 黄丽娜; 成洪波; 刘春民

    2003-01-01

    目的:减少护理病案质量缺陷,搞好护理病案管理工作.方法:抽查251份出院护理病案,找出个性和共性的问题,采取针对性措施.结果:护理病案质量缺陷与工作责任心不强有关.结论:对护理病案进行全程质量控制,是搞好护理病案管理工作的有效方法.

  13. A clinical epidemiological study of 251 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the south of Brazil Estudo clínico epidemiológico de 251 casos de esclerose lateral amiotrófica no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lineu Cesar Werneck; Ruth Bezerra; Octavio da Silveira Neto; Rosana Herminia Scola

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the possible presence of risk factors in order to verify if there is any difference between cases in Paraná, Brazil. METHOD: We studied 251 cases, all of which fulfilled the diagnosis criteria proposed in El Escorial (WFN). Between 1977 and 2004, 157 male and 94 female patients were examined. RESULTS: 220 cases were classified as ALS-Spinal Onset (ALS-SO), 24 as ALS-Bulbar Onset (ALS-BO) and 7 as Familial ALS. T...

  14. Preparation of iodine-123 labeled AM251: a potential SPECT radioligand for the brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Ruoxi; Makriyannis, Alexandros [Connecticut Univ., Molecular and Cell Biology Dept., Storrs, CT (United States); Gatley, S.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Medical Dept., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    We report the synthesis and labeling with iodine-123 of N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251). This compound is an analog of the recently described cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR141716A, in which a 4-chlorophenyl group is replaced by 4-iodophenyl. Labeling in good yield (62%) and radiochemical purity (> 95%), and high specific activity (> 2500 Ci/mmol) was achieved by an iododestannylation reaction using the tributyltin precursor, no carrier added I-123 iodide, and chloramine-T. (author).

  15. On-line coupling of the MAT 251 with a Carlo Erba elemental analyzer for carbon isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For carbon isotope investigations with a moderate precision demand of about 0.2 per mil in the isotope ratio fast and reliable results are attained by on line combination of the ANA 1500 Elemental Analyzer and the MAT 251 Isotope Mass Spectrometer. The crucial point hereof is the gas splitting device. By proper design and adjustment of the analytical parameters, good sample efficiency and a sharp CO2 bulk within the He stream is reached. The main characteristics of this combined equipment are described and some isotopic results of organic and anorganic carbon in lake sediment-samples are given as well as deltasup13C-analyses of spiritous liquors. (Author)

  16. Preparation of iodine-123 labeled AM251: a potential SPECT radioligand for the brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the synthesis and labeling with iodine-123 of N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251). This compound is an analog of the recently described cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR141716A, in which a 4-chlorophenyl group is replaced by 4-iodophenyl. Labeling in good yield (62%) and radiochemical purity (> 95%), and high specific activity (> 2500 Ci/mmol) was achieved by an iododestannylation reaction using the tributyltin precursor, no carrier added I-123 iodide, and chloramine-T. (author)

  17. The effect of combination of ErbB2 RNAi and 60Co γ-irradiation on U251 cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To construct erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ErbB2) small interference RNA (siRNA) expression vector and to study its effect on U251 cell line proliferation and apoptosis combining with 60Co γ-irradiation. ErbB2 specific 19bp oligonucleotides were designed and synthesized. These oligonucleotides were annealed to form the double strand DNA fragments, which was cloned into pSilence2.1-U6-H1 vector. The recombinant pSilence2.1-ErbB2 expression construct was confirmed by Hind III and BamH I double digestion and sequencing. The pSilence 2.1-ErbB2 was transfected into U251 cell. Cellular proliferation activities were assayed by tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry. The apoptosis of transfected U251 cell was examined with Hoechst 33258 staining and Annexin-V kit. Psilence 2.1-ErbB2 expression vector was successfully constructed and it can effectively inhibit pro- liferation(p60Co γ-irradiation, the effect of inhibiting proliferation was more significant compared with non-irradiated U251 cells(p60Co γ-irradiation can enhance the inhibitory efficiency in U251 cell line. (authors)

  18. U251胶质瘤细胞系中脑肿瘤干细胞的分离、培养及鉴定%Isolation,Culture and Identification of Brain Tumor Stem Cellswithin U251 Glioma Cell Line In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈成; 芦明; 李茗初; 方加胜

    2012-01-01

      Objective This study was to isolate, culture and identificate brain tumor stem cel s from U251 Gliome cel line in vitro and observe their growth pattern.To establish a fundation for further reseach of brain tumor stem cel . Methods U251cel s were seeded in serum-free DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with B27, EGF and bFGF in 6-wel plates, after U251 brain tumor spheres formed, they were dissociated and passaged in fresh medium periodical y. U251 brain tumor spheres and the single cel s of them were induced to differentiate in the medium with 10%FBS supplemented. U251cel s cultivate in serum-supplemented medium and serum-free medium alternately. At last we performed immunocytochemistry of U251 brain tumor spheres for CD133 and Nestin. Results Some U251 glioma cel have the capacity to self-renew, proliferate and generate free-floating neurosphere-like brain tumor spheres in serum-free medium in vitro. U251 glioma spheres and the single cel s of them can be induced to differentiate and adherent to the bottom of the culture plates. The growing patterns of U251 glioma cel line can be converted by changing the culture mediums. The brain tumor stem cel are CD133+Nestin+cel s. Conclusion The U251 glioma cel line contain brain tumor stem cel s which can be isolated, proliferated and differentiated in vitro. The research of brain tumor stem cel s may provide a new platform for brain tumor study.%  目的本研究旨在从U251胶质瘤细胞系中分离、培养和鉴定脑肿瘤干细胞,观察其的生长特征,为脑肿瘤干细胞的进一步研究打下基础。方法应用简化的无血清培养基和悬浮培养法培养U251细胞,并将获得的脑肿瘤干细胞接种于含血清培养基中观察其分化;交替用含血清培基和无血清培基培养U251细胞,观察其生长特性;用免疫荧光法检测脑肿瘤干细胞中CD133和Nestin的表达。结果 U251细胞接种至无血清培养基后,部分细胞能够存活并增殖为悬浮

  19. Energy levels of 251Cf populated in the α decay of 100255Fm and EC decay of 99251Es

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray singles spectra of extremely pure (chemically and isotopically) samples of 255Fm, with strengths of ∼1 mCi, have been measured with a high-resolution 2-cm2x10-mm germanium LEPS detector and with a 25% Ge spectrometer. Gamma rays with intensities as low as 1.0x10-6% per 255Fm α decay have been identified. The electron spectrum of a mass-separated 251Es source was measured with a cooled Si(Li) electron spectrometer. The spectrum provided the conversion coefficients of low-energy transitions in 251Cf and thereby their multipolarities. The present measurements confirm the previous assignments of single-particle states in 251Cf. These include 1/2+[620], 0.0 keV; 7/2+[613], 106.30 keV; 3/2+[622], 177.59 keV; 11/2-[725], 370.47 keV; 9/2-[734], 433.91 keV; 5/2+[622], 543.98 keV; 1/2-[750], 632.0 keV; 9/2+[615], 683 keV; and 9/2+[604], 974.0 keV. A vibrational band was identified in previous studies at 981.4 keV and given an assignment of {7/2+[613]x2-}3/2-. Three new vibrational bands are identified in the present work at 942.5, 1086.5, and 1250.0 keV with tentative assignments {7/2+[613]x1-}5/2-,{7/2+[613]x1-}9/2-, and {7/2+[613]x0+}7/2+, respectively. A level was identified at 1185.5 keV with spin of 5/2 or 7/2 but it was not given any configuration assignment. Another level was identified at 1077.5 keV and given a spin of 9/2. Again, no configuration could be assigned to this level

  20. Mind Bomb-2 promotes U251 proliferation by regulating nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways%Mind Bomb-2基因通过调控核因子κB信号通路促进 U251增殖的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯阳; 许重远

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study effects of Mind Bomb -2 ( MIB2 ) gene expression ’ s promotion on proliferation of U 251.Methods The expression of MIB2 protein in astrocyte and US251 was detected by Western blot.U251, U251 transduction with FLAG ( A 20 base coded marker protein ) plasmid and U251transfection with MIB2 -FLAG plasmid were divided into blank group , control group and test group correspondingly.The relative content of MIB 2 in three groups was detected by Western blotting .The MIB2 -FLAG plasmid was transfected to U251 cells.The real -time quantitative PCR was used to detect MIB 2 mRNA expression in U251.The expression of MIB2, I kappa B ( IkB) and nuclear factor kappa B ( NF-κB) was detected by Western blotting after transfection.MTT experiment was used to detect the proliferation of U251 cells after transfection.Results The relative content of MIB 2 in U251 cells increased by ( 17.04 ±2.91 ) compared with astrocytes.MIB2 mRNA in test group increased by ( 20.02 ±2.11 ) compared with control group.The expression of MIB 2 and NF-κB proteins in test group increased by ( 6.33 ±0.32 ) and ( 5.21 ±0.21 ) compared with control group, the expression of IkB in test group was attenuated by (0.43 ±0.04 ) compared with control group .Com-pared with both blank and control group , test group grew significantly ( P<0.001 ) .Conclusion MIB2 promoted U251 proliferation by regulating NF-κB signaling pathways.%目的:研究Mind Bomb-2(MIB2)的表达对脑胶质瘤细胞U251增殖的影响。方法用蛋白质印迹法检测正常星形胶质细胞和胶质瘤细胞U251和MIB2蛋白的表达情况。将U251细胞、转染FLAG (一种20个碱基编码的标记蛋白)质粒的U251细胞和转染MIB2-FLAG质粒的U251细胞对应分为空白组、对照组和实验组。以蛋白质印迹法检测上述3组中MIB2的相对含量;采用实时定量PCR技术检测MIB2 mRNA在3组U251细胞中的表达情况;以蛋白质印迹法检测转染后U251细胞中MIB2

  1. Localization of phosphorylated TrkA in carrier vesicles involved in its nuclear translocation in U251 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A number of transmembrane receptors are targeted to the nucleus and convincingly localized therein. However, what remains a conundrum is how these cell-surface receptors end up in the nucleus. In this study, we reported that the transmembrane receptor phosphorylated TrkA was located in a series of carrier vesicles, including ring-like vesicles near the plasma membrane, large core vesicles and small dense core vesicles around the nuclei, as well as in the nucleus in human glioma cell line U251 using immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Meanwhile, we also showed that small dense core vesicles budded from large core vesicles, and interacted with the nuclear envelope. Accordingly, our results suggested that such a series of membrane compartments might be involved in the pathway of nuclear translocation of the transmembrane receptor TrkA.

  2. Characterization of radioresistant variant from U251 human glioblastoma cell line and the role of antioxdant enzymes in its radioresistancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Chahn; Park, In Chul; Park, Myung Jin; Woo, Sang Hyeok; Rhee, Chang Hum; Hong, Seok-II [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the radioresistant mechanism in glioblastoma multiforme(GBM), we isolated the radioresistant clone (RRC) from U251 human glioblastoma cell line by exposing to repeated fractions of 3 Gy {gamma}-radiation for six months. RRC had higher radioresistance than the parent cell line as measured by clonogenic survival assay. FACS analysis showed that RRC had a delayed G2 arrest after radiation. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), were activated up to 5 folds in RRC after radiation. Erk 1/2 activation was higher in RRC than in the parent cell. Therefore, radioresistancy in RRC might be due to the delayed cell cycle, the coordinated high activation of antioxidant enzyme rather than a single enzyme alone,and higher activation of Erk 1/2.

  3. Localization of phosphorylated TrkA in carrier vesicles involved in its nuclear translocation in U251 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG AiHua; ZHANG ZhiJian; XIAO DeSheng; YANG Yong; WANG YongZhong; CHEN YongChang

    2007-01-01

    A number of transmembrane receptors are targeted to the nucleus and convincingly localized therein.However, what remains a conundrum is how these cell-surface receptors end up in the nucleus. In this study, we reported that the transmembrane receptor phosphorylated TrkA was located in a series of carrier vesicles, including ring-like vesicles near the plasma membrane, large core vesicles and small dense core vesicles around the nuclei, as well as in the nucleus in human glioma cell line U251 using immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Meanwhile, we also showed that small dense core vesicles budded from large core vesicles, and interacted with the nuclear envelope. Accordingly,our results suggested that such a series of membrane compartments might be involved in the pathway of nuclear translocation of the transmembrane receptor TrkA.

  4. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); C. Kartsonaki (Christiana); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); P. Soucy (Penny); L. McGuffog (Lesley); S. Healey (Sue); A. Lee (Andrew); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (D.); E. Cattaneo (Elisa); M. Barile (Monica); V. Pensotti (Valeria); B. Pasini (Barbara); R. Dolcetti (Riccardo); G. Giannini (Giuseppe); A.L. Putignano; L. Varesco (Liliana); P. Radice (Paolo); P.L. Mai (Phuong); M.H. Greene (Mark); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); G. Glendon (Gord); H. Ozcelik (Hilmi); M. Thomassen (Mads); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); T.A. Kruse (Torben); U.B. Jensen; D. Cruger (Dorthe); M.A. Caligo (Maria); Y. Laitman (Yael); R. Milgrom (Roni); B. Kaufman (Bella); S. Paluch-Shimon (Shani); E. Friedman (Eitan); N. Loman (Niklas); K. Harbst (Katja); A. Lindblom (Annika); B. Melin (Beatrice); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.M. Domchek (Susan); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); J. Gronwald (Jacek); T. Huzarski (Tomasz); T. Byrski (Tomasz); C. Cybulski (Cezary); B. Górski (Bohdan); A. Osorio (Ana); T.R. Cajal; F. Fostira (Florentia); R. Andres (Raquel); J. Benitez (Javier); U. Hamann (Ute); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); M.A. Rookus (Matti); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); M.R. Nelen (Marcel); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); P. Devilee (Peter); H. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); E.B.G. Garcia; S. Peock (Susan); M. Cook (Margaret); D. Frost; R. Platte (Radka); J. Leyland (Jean); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L. Izatt (Louise); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); D. Eccles (Diana); K.-R. Ong; F. Douglas (Fiona); J. Paterson (Joan); M.J. Kennedy (John); Z. Miedzybrodzka (Zosia); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); B. Buecher (Bruno); M. Belotti (Muriel); C. Tirapo (Carole); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); L. Barjhoux (Laure); C. Lasset (Christine); D. Leroux (Dominique); L. Faivre (Laurence); M. Bronner (Myriam); F. Prieur (Fabienne); C. Nogues (Catherine); E. Rouleau (Etienne); P. Pujol (Pascal); I. Coupier (Isabelle); M. Frenay (Marc); J. Hopper (John); M.J. Daly (Mark); M-B. Terry (Mary-beth); E.M. John (Esther); S.S. Buys (Saundra); Y. Yassin (Yosuf); A. Miron (Alexander); D. Goldgar (David); C.F. Singer (Christian); M.-K. Tea; G. Pfeiler (Georg); C. Dressler (Catherina); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); L. Jønson (Lars); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); R.B. Barkardottir (Rosa); T. Kircchoff (Tomas); K. Offit (Kenneth); M. Piedmonte (Marion); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); L. Small (Laurie); J.F. Boggess (John); S.V. Blank (Stephanie); J. Basil (Jack); M. Azodi (Masoud); A.E. Toland (Amanda); M. Montagna (Marco); S. Tognazzo (Silvia); S. Agata (Simona); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C. Lazaro (Conxi); I. Blanco (Ignacio); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); L. Sucheston (Lara); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); C.S. Walsh (Christine); E. Olah (Edith); A. Bozsik (Aniko); S.-H. Teo; J.L. Seldon (Joyce); M.S. Beattie (Mary); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); M.D. Sluiter (Michelle); O. Diez (Orland); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); C. Engel (Christoph); A. Meindl (Alfons); I. Ruehl (Ina); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); K. Kast (Karin); H. Deissler (Helmut); D. Niederacher (Dieter); N. Arnold (Norbert); D. Gadzicki (Dorothea); I. Schönbuchner (Ines); T. Caldes (Trinidad); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); M. Dumont (Martine); J. Chiquette (Jocelyne); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J. Beesley (Jonathan); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); X. Wang (Xing); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J. Simard (Jacques); D.F. Easton (Douglas); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); P. Karlsson (Per); M. Nordling (Margareta); A. Bergman (Annika); Z. Einbeigi (Zakaria); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (M.); S. Liedgren (Sigrun); Å. Borg (Åke); H. Olsson (Hans); U. Kristoffersson (Ulf); H. Jernström (H.); K. Henriksson (Karin); A. von Wachenfeldt (Anna); A. Liljegren (Annelie); G. Barbany-Bustinza (Gisela); J. Rantala (Johanna); H. Grönberg (Henrik); E.-L. Stattin; M. Emanuelsson (Monica); R.R. Brandell; N. Dahl (Niklas); S. Verhoef; M. Verheus (Martijn); L.v. Veer; F.E. van Leeuwen; J.M. Collee (Margriet); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); A. Jager; M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); M.P. Vreeswijk (Maaike); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); M.J. Ligtenberg (Marjolijn); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); J.J.P. Gille (Jan); Q. Waisfisz (Quinten); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); C.E. van Roozendaal (Cees); M.J. Blok (Marinus); B. Caanen; J.C. Oosterwijk; A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); M.J. Mourits; H.F. Vasen (Hans); H. Gregory (Helen); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); L. Jeffers (Lisa); T.J. Cole (Trevor); C. McKeown (Carole); J. Hoffman (Jonathan); A. Donaldson (Alan); S. Downing (Sarah); A. Taylor (Amy); A. Murray (Alexandra); M.T. Rogers (Mark); E. McCann (Emma); M.E. Porteous (Mary); S. Drummond (Sarah); C. Brewer (Carole); E. Kivuva (Emma); A. Searle (Anne); S. Goodman (Selina); K. Hill (Kathryn); V. Murday (Victoria); N. Bradshaw (Nicola); L. Snadden (Lesley); M. Longmuir (Mark); C. Watt (Catherine); S. Gibson (Sarah); E. Haque (Eshika); E. Tobias (Ed); A. Duncan (Alexis); C. Jacobs (Chris); C. Langman (Caroline); A. Whaite (Anna); H. Dorkins (Huw); J. Barwell (Julian); C. Chu (Chengbin); J. Miller (Julie); I.O. Ellis (Ian); C. Houghton (Catherine); L. Side (Lucy); A. Male (Alison); C. Berlin (Cheryl); J. Eason (Jacqueline); R. Collier (Rebecca); O. Claber (Oonagh); I. Jobson (Irene); L.J. Walker (Lisa); D. McLeod (Diane); D. Halliday (Dorothy); S. Durell (Sarah); B. Stayner (Barbara); S. Shanley; N. Rahman (Nazneen); R. Houlston (Richard); E. Bancroft (Elizabeth); L. D'Mello (Lucia); E. Page (Elizabeth); A. Ardern-Jones (Audrey); K. Kohut (Kelly); J. Wiggins (Jennifer); E. Castro (Elena); A. Mitra (Anita); L. Robertson (Lisa); O. Quarrell (Oliver); C. Bardsley (Cathryn); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); D.E. Barton (David); S. Goff (Sheila); G. Brice (Glen); L. Winchester (Lizzie); C. Eddy (Charlotte); V. Tripathi (Vishakha); V. Attard (Virginia); A. Lucassen (Anneke); G. Crawford (Gillian); D. McBride (Donna); S. Smalley (Sarah); J.W. Adlard (Julian); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTwo single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility var

  5. 25 CFR 1000.251 - What happens when a Tribe/Consortium is suspended for substantial failure to carry out the terms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... substantial failure to carry out the terms of an AFA without good cause and does not correct the failure... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.251 What happens when a Tribe/Consortium is suspended for substantial failure to carry out the terms of an AFA without...

  6. Long-lasting recovery of psychotic-like symptoms in isolation-reared rats after chronic but not acute treatment with the cannabinoid antagonist AM251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberletti, Erica; Viganò, Daniela; Guidali, Cinzia; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela

    2012-03-01

    In this work we investigated the ability of AM251 to reverse schizophrenia-like symptoms produced by a neurodevelopmental animal model based on a social isolation procedure. First, we assessed the validity of our isolation-rearing protocol and, as expected, isolation-reared rats showed hyperlocomotion in a novel environment, cognitive impairment in the novel object recognition (NOR) test and a significant increase in the number of aggressive behaviours in the social interaction test compared to group-housed controls. This behavioural picture was associated with a reduction in CB₁ receptor/G protein coupling in specific brain areas as well as reduced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex and caudate putamen. In this model, chronic but not acute treatment with the CB₁ receptor antagonist AM251 counteracted isolation-induced cognitive impairment in the NOR test and aggressive behaviours in the social interaction test. This behavioural recovery was accompanied by the rescue of CB₁ receptor functionality and c-Fos levels in all brain regions altered in isolation-reared rats. Moreover, chronic AM251 also increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens, as previously demonstrated for antipsychotic drugs. Interestingly, the behavioural recovery due to chronic AM251 administration persisted until 10 d after discontinuing the treatment, indicating a long-lasting effect of the cannabinoid antagonist on psychotic-like symptoms.

  7. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Barile, Monica; Pensotti, Valeria; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Putignano, Anna Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Crueger, Dorthe G.; Caligo, Maria A.; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Friedman, Eitan; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Ehrencrona, Hans; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Gorski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Ramon y Cajal, Teresa; Fostira, Florentia; Andres, Raquel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Nelen, Marcel R.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Os, Theo A. M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Leyland, Jean; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Paterson, Joan; Kennedy, M. John; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Bronner, Myriam; Prieur, Fabienne; Nogues, Catherine; Rouleau, Etienne; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Frenay, Marc; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Jonson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Small, Laurie; Boggess, John; Blank, Stephanie; Basil, Jack; Azodi, Masoud; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine S.; Olah, Edith; Bozsik, Aniko; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Seldon, Joyce L.; Beattie, Mary S.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Sluiter, Michelle D.; Diez, Orland; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Deissler, Helmut; Niederacher, Dieter; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Schoenbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Dumont, Martine; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tischkowitz, Marc; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Fredericksen, Zachary; Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Couch, Fergus; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs112

  8. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M;

    2011-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs...

  9. Modulation of voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels by pumiliotoxin 251D: a "joint venture" alkaloid from arthropods and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriessche, Thomas; Abdel-Mottaleb, Yousra; Maertens, Chantal; Cuypers, Eva; Sudau, Alexander; Nubbemeyer, Udo; Mebs, Dietrich; Tytgat, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Certain amphibians provide themselves with a chemical defense by accumulating lipophilic alkaloids into skin glands from dietary arthropods. Examples of such alkaloids are pumiliotoxins (PTXs). In general, PTXs are known as positive modulators of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Unlike other PTXs, PTX 251D does not share this characteristic. However, mice and insect studies showed that PTX 251D is highly toxic and to date the basis of its toxicity remains unknown. In this work, we searched for the possible target of PTX 251D. The toxin was therefore made synthetically and tested on four VGSCs (mammalian rNa(v)1.2/beta(1), rNa(v)1.4/beta(1), hNa(v)1.5/beta(1) and insect Para/tipE) and five voltage-gated potassium channels (VGPCs) (mammalian rK(v)1.1-1.2, hK(v)1.3, hK(v)11.1 (hERG) and insect Shaker IR) expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes, using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. PTX 251D not only inhibited the Na(+) influx through the mammalian VGSCs but also affected the steady-state activation and inactivation. Interestingly, in the insect ortholog, the inactivation process was dramatically affected. Additionally, PTX 251D inhibited the K(+) efflux through all five tested VGPCs and slowed down the deactivation kinetics of the mammalian VGPCs. hK(v)1.3 was the most sensitive channel, with an IC(50) value 10.8+/-0.5 microM. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a PTX affecting VGPCs.

  10. The polymorphism interleukin-8 -251A/T is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancers from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziliang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Lina; Yin, Sheng; Zang, Rongyu; Yang, Gong

    2014-07-01

    Emerging evidences show that interleukin-8 (IL-8) has important regulatory functions in tumorigenesis. IL-8 -251A/T is a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-8 gene and affects IL-8 production. Analysis of previous studies on the association of -251A/T polymorphism with different cancer types remained to be illustrated. To further assess the effect of -251A/T polymorphism on cancer risks, we performed this meta-analysis, up to November 2013, of 12,917 cases with different cancer types and 17,689 controls from 47 published case-control designed studies. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 11.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. ORs with 95 % CIs for IL-8 -251A/T polymorphism and cancer were estimated using fixed- and random-effects models when appropriate. Significantly increased risks were found in overall under the models of A allele vs. T allele, AA vs. TT, and AA vs. AT/TT. Significantly elevated risks were observed in breast cancer under the models of A allele vs. T allele, AT vs. TT, AA/AT vs. TT, and AA vs. AT/TT, and in nasopharyngeal carcinoma under the models of AT vs. TT, AA/AT vs. TT, and AA vs. AT/TT. We found that significantly elevated risks were observed in the Asian population and hospital-based studies in all comparison models. Thus, this meta-analysis indicates that IL-8 -251A/T polymorphism is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancers and may provide evidence-based medical certificate to study the cancer susceptibility.

  11. 美洲商陆抗病毒蛋白对人神经胶质瘤细胞U251细胞增殖和凋亡的影响%Effects of recombinant pokeweed antiviral proteins from Phytolacca amercana on the proliferation and apoptosis of Human Gliomaous Cells U251

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向莉; 李书剑; 张杰文

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察美洲商陆抗病毒蛋白(PAP)对入神经胶质瘤细胞U251细胞增殖和凋亡的影响.方法:采用MTT法检测0、20、40、60、80和100 mg/L PAP处理48 h以及40 mg/L PAP处理24、36、48和72 h对神经胶质瘤细胞U251细胞生长的影响;40 mg/L PAP处理U251细胞36 h后,采用荧光染色技术检测细胞凋亡,采用流式细胞仪检测U251细胞周期分布的影响;采用Northern blot和Western blot检测40 mg /L PAP处理24、48、72和96 h对U251细胞周期调控蛋白FasL和Fas的影响.结果:0、20、40、60、80和100 mg/L PAP处理48 h,U251细胞的增殖抑制率间的差异有统计学意义(F =284.560,P=0.007),40 mg/L PAP处理24、36、48和72 h,U251细胞的增殖抑制率间的差异有统计学意义(F=280.250,P=0.045).PAP促进U251细胞凋亡(t=106.350,P=0.007),PAP改变细胞周期分布,使G0+ G1期细胞比例增高,S期比例降低.PAP还可上调FasL蛋白表达,下调Fas蛋白表达.结论:PAP可改变细胞周期分布,影响细胞周期调控蛋白表达,并可诱导U251细胞凋亡,从而抑制细胞增殖.%Aim; To study the effects of pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) on cell proliferation and apoptosis on U251 cells and to elucidate its molecular mechanism. Methods:The proportion of the periodic tumor cells were altered by 0,20, 40, 60,80, 100 mg/L PAP treated 48 h using MTT and Sub-G, curves were displayed at 40 mg/L PAP treated 36 h by flow cytometry analysis. With fluorescence staining assay to detect the U2S1 apoptosis. The mRNAs and protein expression of the FasL and Fas treated at 40 mg/L PAP was examined by Northern blot and Western blot. Results: PAP significantly suppressed U251 cell proliferation by 0,20,40,60,80,100 mg/L PAP treated 48 h(f = 284. 560,P = 0.007) or40ng/LPAP treated 24,36,48,72 h ( F = 28. 250,P =0. 045). The proportion of the periodic tumor cells were altered by PAP. PAP decreased the proportion of cells in S phase and increased the proportion of cells in Go/G, and G2/M

  12. The influence of the combined treatment with Vadimezan (ASA404 and taxol on the growth of U251 glioblastoma xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Dušan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most important biological characteristics of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is high vascular density. Vadimezan (ASA404, DMXAA belongs to the class of small molecule vascular disrupting agents (VDA that cause disruption of established tumor vessels and subsequent tumor hemorrhagic necrosis. Its selective antivascular effect is mediated by intratumoral induction of several cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that ASA404 acts synergistically with taxanes. In this study, we investigated if treatment of mice bearing U251 human glioblastoma xenografts with ASA404 and taxol may be synergistic. Therapy response was evaluated by measuring changes in tumor size and metabolic activity using 18F-FDG PET (Fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emision tomography imaging. Methods U251 cells were inoculated s.c. in the right hind limb of NMRI-Foxn1nu athymic female nude mice. Animals were randomly assigned into 4 groups (7–9 animals/group for treatment: control, taxol, ASA404, and ASA404 plus taxol. The animals received either a single dose of taxol (10 mg/kg, ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg, or taxol (10 mg/kg plus ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg administered i.p.; ASA404 was administred 24 h after the treatment with taxol. 4 and 24 h after treatment with ASA404 (28 and 48 h hours after treatment with taxol 18 F-FDG PET scans were performed. Results The treatment with taxol did not affect the tumor growth in comparison to untreated controls. The treatment of animals with single dose ASA404 alone or in combination with taxol caused a significant delay in tumor growth. The combined treatment did not decrease the growth of the xenografts significantly more than ASA404 alone, but early changes in tumor 18 F-FDG uptake preceded subsequent growth inhibition. The tumor weights

  13. The influence of the combined treatment with Vadimezan (ASA404) and taxol on the growth of U251 glioblastoma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important biological characteristics of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is high vascular density. Vadimezan (ASA404, DMXAA) belongs to the class of small molecule vascular disrupting agents (VDA) that cause disruption of established tumor vessels and subsequent tumor hemorrhagic necrosis. Its selective antivascular effect is mediated by intratumoral induction of several cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α). Preclinical studies have demonstrated that ASA404 acts synergistically with taxanes. In this study, we investigated if treatment of mice bearing U251 human glioblastoma xenografts with ASA404 and taxol may be synergistic. Therapy response was evaluated by measuring changes in tumor size and metabolic activity using 18F-FDG PET (Fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emision tomography) imaging. U251 cells were inoculated s.c. in the right hind limb of NMRI-Foxn1nu athymic female nude mice. Animals were randomly assigned into 4 groups (7–9 animals/group) for treatment: control, taxol, ASA404, and ASA404 plus taxol. The animals received either a single dose of taxol (10 mg/kg), ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg), or taxol (10 mg/kg) plus ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg) administered i.p.; ASA404 was administred 24 h after the treatment with taxol. 4 and 24 h after treatment with ASA404 (28 and 48 h hours after treatment with taxol) 18 F-FDG PET scans were performed. The treatment with taxol did not affect the tumor growth in comparison to untreated controls. The treatment of animals with single dose ASA404 alone or in combination with taxol caused a significant delay in tumor growth. The combined treatment did not decrease the growth of the xenografts significantly more than ASA404 alone, but early changes in tumor 18 F-FDG uptake preceded subsequent growth inhibition. The tumor weights, which were determined at the end of treatment, were lower in

  14. SLC22A18基因转染人胶质瘤U251细胞对放疗敏感性的影响%Influence of introducing SLC22A18 gene on the radiosensitivity of human glioma U251 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚胜华; 马延斌; 冯东福; 邱建华; 张红; 朱志安

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨SLC22A18基因转染人胶质瘤U251细胞对放疗敏感性的影响.方法:用脂质体介导的转染技术将pIRES2-EGFP-SLC22A18表达重组质粒导入U251细胞,通过逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)和免疫印迹(Western blot)检测SLC22A18基因和蛋白的表达.U251细胞分为4组:对照组、转染组、放疗组和转染联合放疗组.集落形成实验检测各组U251细胞集落形成数,用四甲基偶氮唑盐微量酶反应比色法(MTT法)和流式细胞仪检测各组U251细胞生长抑制率和凋亡率,进一步应用裸鼠皮下荷瘤模型观察脂质体介导的pIRES2-SLC22A18表达重组质粒转染U251细胞对放疗敏感性的影响.结果:重组质粒转染组通过RT-PCR和Western blot证实了SLC22A18基因和蛋白在U251细胞中表达.集落形成实验检测发现SLC22A18基因对U251细胞的集落形成数为(60.6±5.2)个,当放射剂量为3、6和9 Gy时,U251细胞的集落形成数分别为(30.0±3.6)、(13.0±3.0)和(4.0±1.0)个.MTT检测发现SLC22A18基因对U251细胞的生长抑制率为(80.12±5.75)%.当放射剂量为3、6和9 Gy 时,U251细胞的生长抑制率分别为(17.05±4.24)%、(17.34±1.62)%和(18.71±4.59)%.当SLC22A18基因与放疗(3、6和9 Gy)联合作用时,抑制率分别为(81.45±5.32)%、(90.45±1.65)%和(92.62±2.12)%.SLC22A18基因转染所产生的U251细胞凋亡率为17.68%.放疗(3、6和9 Gy)引起的细胞凋亡率分别为4.64%、4.87%和5.42%.当SLC22A18基因与放疗(3、6和9 Gy)联合作用时,凋亡率分别为18.42%、21.48%和23.92%.体内实验结果显示,SLC22A18基因对U251细胞6 Gy照射的抑瘤率比较为1.81.结论:SLC22A18基因转染增加了人胶质瘤U251细胞对放疗的敏感性.%Objective:To study the effect of SLC22A18 gene on the radiosensitivity of human glioma U251 cells. Methods: The eukaryotic expression plasmid pIRES2 - EGFP - SLC22A18 was constructed and introduced by Lipofectamine 2000 into cultured U251 cells. SLC22A18 mRNA and

  15. Spectroscopy of odd Z trans-fermium nuclei: the nuclear structure of Md{sup 251}; Spectroscopie des transfermiums impairs en proton: la structure du noyau de {sup 251}Md

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatillon, A

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the structure of trans-fermium nuclei (Z 100) with odd proton number, which remained largely unexplored. These nuclei were produced in fusion-evaporation reactions with small cross sections below 1 {mu}b. The experimental methods of Recoil-Tagging and Recoil-Decay-Tagging were used for their identification. In order to identify the active orbitals in this mass region, {sup 255}Lr, {sup 251}M1d and {sup 247}Es nuclei have been studied by decay spectroscopy at the University of Jyvaskyla and at GANIL with the LISE spectrometer and the {alpha}-electron detector BEST coupled to four CLover detectors from the EXOGAM array. New states have been observed in each of the isotopes, and their configuration has been proposed. The collective properties were also studied in two experiments using prompt {gamma} and electron spectroscopy, combining the JUROGAM and SACRED arrays, respectively, with the recoil separator RITU and the GREAT spectrometer at its focal plane. A rotational band has been observed for the first time in a proton-odd trans-fermium nucleus. The interpretation of this collective structure is based on the theoretical HFB calculations. (author)

  16. Research on biological functions of U251 astroglioma cells infected with human herpesvirus type 6(HHV-6)%人类疱疹病毒6型感染U251细胞及其生物学功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭一迪; 姚堃; 周锋; 李凌云; 茌静; 刘根焰; 陈云

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究人类疱疹病毒6型(HHV-6)感染人星形胶质瘤细胞U251,及感染后对其生物学功能的影响.方法:HHV-6感染U251细胞建立HHV-6体外感染模型,倒置显微镜观察细胞病变.PCR法检测HHV-6 u22基因.间接免疫荧光(IFA)检测HHV-6即刻早期蛋白(IEI)和晚期蛋白(gB)的表达.MTT法检测U251感染HHV-6后细胞增殖的改变.流式细胞术(FCM)检测U251细胞周期改变.结果:在感染3天后U251出现典型细胞病变,细胞肿胀增大数倍,透亮,呈多形性.PCR检测到HHV-6u22基因.IFA检测到HHV-6 IE1蛋白和异B蛋白的表达.MTT法显示HHV-6能增强U251细胞的增殖能力.FCM检测表明,HHV-6感染后U251细胞周期发生改变,感染组和对照组相比,前者G1期的细胞减少,S期和G2期细胞增多.结论:HHV-6能感染U251细胞引起细胞病变.促进细胞的增殖.使细胞周期发生改变.本研究结果提示人类疱疹病毒6型可能参与人神经胶质瘤的发生、发展,对其机制尚不清楚.

  17. [Intravenous regional sympathetic block with guanethidine. Retrospective study of 251 blocks of the upper limb in 68 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, D V; Piaget, F

    1989-01-01

    68 patients have been treated by regional intravenous blocks with guanethidine. 251 blocks have been realized. The majority of the patients received 3 blocks of one week. Some of them got a second series of 3 blocks after a minimum interval of one month. The study included 3 groups of patients. The first group showed 12 patients in the first stage of Sudeck; the second group 22 patients in the second stage. The third group included 34 patients for which the indication to blockade had been a chronic painful stage (19 cases), an ankylosis (8 cases), a Dupuytren post-traumatic contracture (3 cases) a stage before the operation predisposing to dystrophy reflex (3 cases) and one case of hyperhidrosis of the hand. Considering the three groups it can be stated that the first one responded the best to the treatment with a success in 80% of the cases. This success confirms the necessity of intervening as soon as possible in case of an algoneurodystrophy. The third group reveals that this therapeutical method can be useful in other situations than the dystrophy reflexes. The indication herewith is more founded on a possible sympathetic origin of the troubles as on the comportment psycho-affective of the patient. PMID:2481373

  18. Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia (SPG45) with mental retardation maps to 10q24.3-q25.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Umut; Koroglu, Cigdem; Kocasoy Orhan, Elif; Ugur, Sibel Aylin; Tolun, Aslihan

    2009-10-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are characterized by progressive spasticity in the lower limbs. They are clinically heterogeneous, and pure forms as well as complicated forms with other accompanying clinical findings are known. HSPs are also genetically heterogeneous. We performed clinical and genetic studies in a consanguineous family with five affected members. A genome scan using 405 microsatellite markers for eight members of the family identified candidate gene loci, and subsequent fine mapping in 16 members identified the gene locus responsible for the HSP. The clinical manifestations were very early onset spastic paraplegia (SPG) accompanied by mental retardation and ocular signs. The gene locus was identified as the interval 102.05-106.64 Mbp on chromosome 10. Gene MRPL43 was analyzed in the patients. No mutation but high levels of mRNA were detected. We have mapped a novel autosomal recessive complicated form of HSP (SPG45) to a 4.6-Mbp region at 10q24.3-q25.1 with multipoint logarithm of odds scores >4.5.

  19. Interleukin-8-251T > a, interleukin-1α-889C > t and apolipoprotein e polymorphisms in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Augusto Vendramini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An inflammatory process has been involved in numerous neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD. In AD, the inflammatory response is mainly located in the vicinity of amyloid plaques. Cytokines, such as interleukin-8 (IL-8 and interleukin-1α (IL-1α, have been clearly involved in this inflammatory process. Polymorphisms of several interleukin genes have been correlated to the risk of developing AD. The present study investigated the association of AD with polymorphisms IL-8 -251T > A (rs4073 and IL-1α-889C > T (rs1800587 and the interactive effect of both, adjusted by the Apolipoprotein E genotype. 199 blood samples from patients with AD, 146 healthy elderly controls and 95 healthy young controls were obtained. DNA samples were isolated from blood cells, and the PCR-RFLP method was used for genotyping. The genotype distributions of polymorphisms IL-8, IL-1α and APOE were as expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allele frequencies did not differ significantly among the three groups tested. As expected, the APOE4 allele was strongly associated with AD (p A and IL-1α-889C > T were not found to be risk factors for AD.

  20. Earth System Chemistry Integrated Modelling (ESCiMo with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy, version 2.51

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jöckel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With version 2.51 of the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model three types of reference simulations as recommended by the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI have been performed: hindcast simulations (1950–2011, hindcast simulations with specified dynamics (1978–2013, i.e., nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and combined hindcast and projection simulations (1950–2100. The manuscript summarises the updates of the model system and details the different model setups used, including the on-line calculated diagnostics. Simulations have been performed with two different nudging setups, with and without interactive tropospheric aerosol, and with and without a coupled ocean model. Two different vertical resolutions have been applied. The on-line calculated sources and sinks of reactive species are quantified and a first evaluation of the simulation results from a global perspective is provided as a quality check of the data. The focus is on the inter-comparison of the different model setups. The simulation data will become publicly available via CCMI and the CERA database of the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ. This manuscript is intended to serve as an extensive reference for further analyses of the ESCiMo simulations.

  1. Low dose rectal inoculation of rhesus macaques by SIV smE660 or SIVmac251 recapitulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hraber, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, Elena E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keele, Brandon [UNIV OF ALABAMA; Li, Hui [UNIV OF ALABAMA; Learn, Gerald [UNIV OF ALABAMA

    2008-01-01

    We recently developed a novel strategy to identify transmitted HIV-1 genomes in acutely infected humans using single-genome amplification and a model of random virus evolution. Here, we used this approach to determine the molecular features of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission in 18 experimentally infected Indian rhesus macaques. Animals were inoculated intrarectally (i.r.) or intravenously (i.v.) with stocks of SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660 that exhibited sequence diversity typical of early-chronic HIV-1 infection. 987 full-length SIV env sequences (median of 48 per animal) were determined from plasma virion RNA 1--5 wk after infection. i.r. inoculation was followed by productive infection by one or a few viruses (median 1; range 1--5) that diversified randomly with near starlike phylogeny and a Poisson distribution of mutations. Consensus viral sequences from ramp-up and peak viremia were identical to viruses found in the inocula or differed from them by only one or a few nucleotides, providing direct evidence that early plasma viral sequences coalesce to transmitted/founder viruses. i.v. infection was >2,000-fold more efficient than i.r. infection, and viruses transmitted by either route represented the full genetic spectra of the inocula. These findings identify key similarities in mucosal transmission and early diversification between SIV and HIV-1, and thus validate the SIV-macaque mucosal infection model for HIV-1 vaccine and microbicide research.

  2. Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) version 2.51

    OpenAIRE

    Jöckel, Patrick; Tost, Holger; Pozzer, Andrea; Kunze, Markus; Kirner, Oliver; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Brinkop, Sabine; Cai, Duy S.; Dyroff, Christoph; Eckstein, Johannes; Frank, Franziska; Garny, Hella; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Graf, Phoebe; Grewe, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Three types of reference simulations, as recommended by the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), have been performed with version 2.51 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts – Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model: hindcast simulations (1950–2011), hindcast simulations with specified dynamics (1979–2013), i.e. nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and combined hindcast and projection simulations (1950–...

  3. Identification of a 251 gene expression signature that can accurately detect M. tuberculosis in patients with and without HIV co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Dawany

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with tuberculosis (TB is the leading cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. However, diagnosis of TB, especially in the presence of an HIV co-infection, can be limiting due to the high inaccuracy associated with the use of conventional diagnostic methods. Here we report a gene signature that can identify a tuberculosis infection in patients co-infected with HIV as well as in the absence of HIV. METHODS: We analyzed global gene expression data from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples of patients that were either mono-infected with HIV or co-infected with HIV/TB and used support vector machines to identify a gene signature that can distinguish between the two classes. We then validated our results using publically available gene expression data from patients mono-infected with TB. RESULTS: Our analysis successfully identified a 251-gene signature that accurately distinguishes patients co-infected with HIV/TB from those infected with HIV only, with an overall accuracy of 81.4% (sensitivity = 76.2%, specificity = 86.4%. Furthermore, we show that our 251-gene signature can also accurately distinguish patients with active TB in the absence of an HIV infection from both patients with a latent TB infection and healthy controls (88.9-94.7% accuracy; 69.2-90% sensitivity and 90.3-100% specificity. We also demonstrate that the expression levels of the 251-gene signature diminish as a correlate of the length of TB treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A 251-gene signature is described to (a detect TB in the presence or absence of an HIV co-infection, and (b assess response to treatment following anti-TB therapy.

  4. Influence of hyperbaric oxygen combining Temozolomide on human glioblastoma cell line U251%高压氧联合替莫唑胺对胶质瘤U251细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹侃; 袁志诚; 陆新宇; 李慧勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the influence and mechanism on hyperbarie oxygen ( HBO) combining Temozolomide with human glioblastoma cell line U251. Method The cells were divided into four groups,A group is HBO combining Temozolomide,B group is HBO,C group is Temozolomide and D group is control group. By simulation of hypoxia microenviroment in vitro, the rate of growth inhibiting is investigated by MTT method. The rate of cell death is observed by PI staining. The rate of apoptosis is analyzed by the flow cytometry. Elasia method is used to detect the expression of hypoxia-inducible factorl-α (HIFl-α) and Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 ( MRP-1). Results The group of HBO combining Temozolomide is obviously higher than others in rate of growth inhibiting, rate of cell death, rate of apoptosis, the results have statistics differences(P 0. 05) , but to others it has statistics value (P < 0. 05). Conclusion HBO can enhance the chemotherapy effect of temozolomide, it can correct the hypoxic microenvironment and reduce the expression of HIFl-α and MRP-1 ,these may be the key to effect.%目的 研究高压氧( Hyperbaric Oxygen,HBO)联合替莫唑胺(Temozolomide)对人神经胶质瘤U251细胞株的的影响及其机制.方法 实验分为4组:A组高压氧联合替莫唑胺组、B组高压氧组、C组替莫唑胺组、D组对照组.通过体外模拟缺氧微环境,用四甲基偶氮唑蓝法(MTT法)、碘化丙啶(PI)染色法、流式细胞仪分别检测细胞生长抑制率、细胞死亡率、细胞凋亡率.Elisa法检测缺氧诱导因子1-α(HIF1-α)和多药耐药相关蛋白-1(MRP-1)的表达情况.结果 1高压氧联合替莫唑胺组在细胞生长抑制率、细胞死亡率和细胞凋亡率上明显高于其他组,数值均有统计学意义(P<0.05).2高压氧联合替莫唑胺组与高压氧组在HIF1-α和MRP-1上无统计学意义(P>0.05),与其他组有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 高压氧够增强替莫唑胺化疗效果,高压氧纠

  5. A clinical epidemiological study of 251 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the south of Brazil Estudo clínico epidemiológico de 251 casos de esclerose lateral amiotrófica no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and the possible presence of risk factors in order to verify if there is any difference between cases in Paraná, Brazil. METHOD: We studied 251 cases, all of which fulfilled the diagnosis criteria proposed in El Escorial (WFN. Between 1977 and 2004, 157 male and 94 female patients were examined. RESULTS: 220 cases were classified as ALS-Spinal Onset (ALS-SO, 24 as ALS-Bulbar Onset (ALS-BO and 7 as Familial ALS. The mean age at time of evaluation was 54.4±12.3 years, and symptoms had started 17.9±15.7months previously. In the group studied, statistical relationships were found between heavy occupations and males; previous surgeries and females; ALS-BO and dysphagia and dysarthria in females; and ALS-SO and males, cramps, weakness, muscle atrophy, hypertonia, increased deep tendon reflex and abnormal gait. CONCLUSION: The average age at time of evaluation was lower than that registered in the literature but similar to the Brazilian series. Domestic work and heavy occupations appear to be related to precocious perception of the symptoms by interference with daily functions. The socioeconomically higher classes seek medical care early. There was no relationship with exposure to toxic agents or trauma.OBJETIVO: Estudar as formas clínicas de esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA e possíveis fatores de risco, a fim de verificar se existem diferenças entre os casos do Paraná, Brasil. MÉTODO: Estudamos 251 casos entre 1977 e 2004, que preencheram os critérios propostos em El Escorial (WFN, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 94 do feminino. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados como ELA de início espinhal (ELA-IE 220 casos, ELA de início bulbar (ELA-IB 24 casos e 7 casos como ELA familiar. A idade média na avaliação foi 54,4±12,3 anos cujos sintomas iniciaram 17,9 ±15,7 meses antes. Foram encontradas relações estatísticas entre ocupação que demandam esforços físicos com

  6. The effects of TSA combined with HSV-1 on proliferation and apoptosis of U251 cells%曲古抑菌素A联合单纯疱疹病毒Ⅰ型对U251细胞增殖、凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许强华; 陈新军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of trichostain A (TSA) combined with herpes simplex virus-1 ( HSV-1 ) on proliferation and apoptosis in U251 cells in vitro.Methods U251 cells in vitro were treated separately with 0.5 × 10-3 μmol/L TSA (TSA group),10 MOI HSV-1 (HSV-1 group),and 0.5 × 10-3 μmol/L TSA combined with 10 MOI HSV-1 (TSA + HSV-1 group) for 72 h.The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to observe the proliferation of U251 cells.The cellular morphological changes were observed under a microscope.The apoptosis rate was analyzed by using flow cytometry.Results In TSA group,HSV-1 group,TSA + HSV-1 group,the proliferation inhibition rate of the U251 cells was (48.0t1.8)%,(18.0 ±3.1)%,and (58.0t5.8)%; Apoptosis rate was (47.4±3.5)%,(29.6 ±3.0)%,and (59.6 ±4.0)% respectively.The inhibitory effects of proliferation or apoptosis in TSA + HSV-1 group was stronger than TSA group or HSV-1 group ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion TSA combined with HSV-1 has a synergistic killing effect on cultured U251 cells.%目的 以体外培养的U251细胞为模型,观察曲古抑菌素A(TSA)联合单纯疱疹病毒Ⅰ型( HSV-1)对肿瘤细胞增殖、凋亡的影响.方法 以0.5 ×10-3μmol/L TSA和10 MOI HSV-1及0.5 × 101 μmol/L TSA与10 MOIHSV-1组合作用于U251人胶质瘤细胞,72 h后噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法检测各组细胞增殖情况,显微镜下观察各组细胞形态,流式细胞仪检测各组细胞的凋亡情况.结果 单一TSA组、单一HSV-1组、TSA与HSV-1联合组U251细胞增殖抑制率分别为(48.0±1.8)%、(18.0±3.1)%、(58.0±5.8)%;凋亡率分别为(47.4±3.5)%、(29.6±3.0)%、(59.6±4.0)%.TSA与HSV-1联合组U251细胞增殖抑制率及凋亡率明显高于单一使用TSA或HSV-1组(P<0.01).结论 TSA联合HSV-1对体外培养的U251细胞具有协同或叠加杀伤作用.

  7. Immune modulation through 4-1BB enhances SIV vaccine protection in non-human primates against SIVmac251 challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Hirao

    Full Text Available Costimulatory molecules play a central role in the development of cellular immunity. Understanding how costimulatory pathways can be directed to positively influence the immune response may be critical for the generation of an effective HIV vaccine. Here, we evaluated the ability of intravenous administration of a blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb directed against the negative costimulatory molecule CTLA-4, and an agonist mAb directed against the positive costimulatory molecule 4-1BB, either alone or in combination, to augment intramuscular SIV DNA immunizations. We then tested the ability these of these responses to impact a high-dose SIVmac251 challenge. Following immunization, the groups infused with the anti-4-1BB mAb exhibited enhanced IFN-γ responses compared to the DNA vaccine only group. Interestingly, although CTLA-4 blockade alone did not enhance IFN-γ responses it did increase the proliferative capacity of the CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. The combination of both mAbs enhanced the magnitude of the polyfunctional CD8(+ T cell response. Following challenge, the group that received both mAbs exhibited a significant, ∼2.0 log, decrease in plasma viral load compared to the naïve group the included complete suppression of viral load in some animals. Furthermore, the use of the CTLA-4 blocking antibody resulted in significantly higher viral loads during chronic infection compared to animals that received the 4-1BB mAb, likely due to the higher CD4(+ T cell proliferative responses which were driven by this adjuvant following immunization. These novel studies show that these adjuvants induce differential modulation of immune responses, which have dramatically different consequences for control of SIV replication, suggesting important implications for HIV vaccine development.

  8. -251 T/A polymorphism of the interleukin-8 gene and cancer risk: a HuGE review and meta-analysis based on 42 case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Zhou, Rongmiao; Wang, Chunmei; Guo, Xiaoqing; Chen, Zhifeng; Yang, Shan; Li, Yan

    2012-03-01

    The -251T/A (rs4073), a single nucleotide polymorphism, has been identified in the promoter region of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene. It's presence could influence the production of IL-8 protein by regulating the transcriptional activity of the gene. A large number of studies have been performed to evaluate the role of -251T/A polymorphism on various cancers, with inconsistent results being reported. In this paper, we summarized 13,189 cases and 16,828 controls from 42 case-control studies and attempted to assess the susceptibility of -251T/A polymorphism to cancers by a comprehensive meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using the random-effects model. Publication bias, subgroup, and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results showed that the carriers of the -251A allele had about a 12-21% increased risk for the reviewed cancer, in total. The carriers of -251A had an elevated risk to breast cancer, gastric cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer and a reduced risk to prostate cancer, but no evidence was found to indicate that the -251A allele predisposed its carriers to colorectal and lung cancers. When stratified separately by 'racial descent' and 'study design', it was found that the carriers of the -251A allele among the African group, Asian group and hospital-based case-control study group were at a higher risk for cancer, but not in European group and population-based case-control study. These results show that -251A allele is susceptible in the development of low-penetrance cancers.

  9. Study on mechanism of temozolomide-resistant human glioma cell line U251/TR changed by temozolomide in vitro%替莫唑胺改变人胶质瘤细胞系U251耐药机制的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘强; 杨学军; 高松; 纪延伟; 张文高; 李瑜; 王维; 董雪涛; 王华民

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立替莫唑胺耐药人胶质瘤细胞系,探讨其耐药性变化规律及耐药机制,以期为临床优化药物化疗方案提供理论依据.方法 采用分步诱导法使人胶质瘤细胞系U251对替莫唑胺耐药,磺酰罗丹明B比色法检测细胞耐药指数和存活率;Western blotting法检测O6-甲基鸟嘌呤-DNA甲基转移酶(MGMT)表达水平,以及倍增替莫唑胺终浓度后MGMT表达水平.结果 成功建立替莫唑胺耐药U251/TR细胞,在替莫唑胺初始诱导剂量0.25μg/ml、终浓度16.00μg/ml培养液中,U251/TR细胞半数抑制浓度为(220.87±2.34)μmol/L,约为U251细胞[(33.12±1.52)μmol/L]的7倍(t=-116.542,P=0.000),其耐药指数约为7;U251/TR细胞MGMT表达水平为(1.47±0.30),较U251细胞(0.19±0.03)明显升高(t=-20.230,P=0.000).与溶媒对照组比较,经倍增替莫唑胺终浓度诱导的U251/TR细胞仍呈现增殖抑制现象,以体外培养第3天时最为明显(P=0.000);MGMT表达水平相应降低(均P=0.000),呈现自身克服耐药现象.结论 采用分步诱导法可于体外成功建立替莫唑胺耐药人胶质瘤细胞系.MGMT表达水平升高是导致U251/TR细胞对替莫唑胺耐药的主要机制,替莫唑胺可以通过自身消耗MGMT而改变U251/TR细胞的耐药特性,发挥抗耐药作用.

  10. 吲哚并吲哒唑类衍生物对人脑胶质瘤U251细胞生长的抑制作用%Inhibitory Effect of Indolo[1,2-b]Indazoles on Human Glioblastoma U251 Cells in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑冰心; 梁中琴

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究6-甲基-ll-(4-二甲基氨基苄烯)-7,8,9,10-四氢-1-氢吲哚[1,2b]吲哒唑三氟甲磺酸盐对人脑胶质瘤 U251细胞增殖,凋亡和细胞周期的影响.方法 分别采用噻唑蓝(MTT)法检测U251细胞增殖活性、Hoechst33258荧光染色检测细胞凋亡形态、流式细胞仪检测细胞周期、Westem blot检测细胞周期蛋白Cyclin Dl和Cyclin BI的表达变化.结果 MTT法检测发现6-甲基-ll-(4-二甲基氨基苄烯)-7,8,9,10-四氢-1-氢吲哚[1,2b]吲哒唑三氟甲磺酸盐能显著抑制U251细胞的生长,且呈浓度及时间依赖性,Hoechst33258荧光染色检测观察到细胞凋亡形态的改变,流式细胞仪检测发现细胞阻滞于G2/M期和S期,Western blot检测发现细胞周期蛋白Cyclin Dl和Cyclin BI表达下调.结论 6-甲基-ll-(4-二甲基氨基苄烯)-7,8,9,10-四氢-1-氢吲哚[1,2b]吲哒唑三氟甲磺酸盐对人脑胶质瘤U251细胞增殖有明显的抑制作用,并能诱导其发生凋亡.其凋亡作用可能与G2/M期和S期阻滞有关.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of 6-methyl-11-(N,N-dimethyl-4-vinylbenzenamine) -7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-1 H-indolo[ 1,2-b ] indazoletrifluoromethylsulfonate on cellular proliferation,apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human glioblastoma U251 cells in vitro. METHODS U251 cell proliferative activity was measured by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was observed by Hoechst33258 fluorescent staining. Cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM). The protein levels of Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B1 were detected by Western blotting. RESULTS 6-Methyl-11-( N, N-dimethyl-4-vinylbenzenamine) -7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-1H-indolo- [ 1,2-b ] indazoletrifluoromethylsulfonate could significantly inhibit the proliferation in U251 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner, induced the apoptosis of U251 cells in vitro,and blocked the tumour cell at G2/M stage and S stage. Western blotting showed the decrease of expression of Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B1 protien. CONCLUSION 6

  11. Study on mechanism of thalidomide combined with temozolomide to suppress proliferation of U251 glioma cell in vitro%沙利度胺联合替莫唑胺杀伤U251胶质瘤细胞机制的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高松; 潘强; 曾峥; 孙健; 杨学军

    2010-01-01

    目的 对沙利度胺联合替莫唑胺杀伤U251胶质瘤细胞的机制进行体外研究,为制订沙利度胺与替莫唑胺联合化疗方案提供理论依据.方法 经体外培养的人胶质瘤细胞系U251分别接受替莫唑胺(100 μmol/L)、沙利度胺(100 μg/L)、替莫唑胺与沙利度胺联合治疗,噻唑监(MTT)法检测不同抗肿瘤药物处理组肿瘤细胞增殖活性;流式细胞术分析细胞增殖周期;检测经吖啶橙标记的酸性囊性细胞器数目;原位末端标记(TUNEL)法观察肿瘤细胞凋亡情况;Western blotting法榆测肿瘤自噬及凋亡相关蛋白表达变化.结果 与替莫唑胺和沙利度胺单药治疗相比,替莫唑胺与沙利度胺联合治疗对U251细胞生长的抑制更为明显(均P=0.000).且可诱导肿瘤细胞周期阻滞于G0~G1期,以及发生凋亡和自噬.两药联合治疗后,U251细胞微管相关蛋白1轻链3和Caspase-3表达水平高于替莫唑胺组和沙利度胺组(均P=0.000).结论 沙利度胺联合替莫唑胺治疗U251细胞可以上调自噬及凋亡相关基因表达水平.同时诱导凋亡及自噬性死亡,从而达到对U251胶质瘤细胞的杀伤作用.

  12. Systemic or intra-amygdala infusion of an endocannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 blocked propofol-induced anterograde amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y; Wang, J; Xu, P B; Xu, Y J; Miao, C H

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is well-known for its anterograde amnesic actions. However, a recent experiment showed that propofol can also produce retrograde memory enhancement effects via an interaction with the endocannabinoid CB1 system. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that the regulating effect of propofol on the endocannabinoid CB1 system might also decrease the anterograde amnesic effect of propofol under some conditions, which might be a risk factor for intraoperative awareness. Since, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been confirmed to mediate propofol-induced anterograde amnesia and the BLA contains a high concentration of CB1 receptors, the authors investigated whether and how the endocannabinoid system, particularly the CB1 receptor within BLA, influences propofol-induced anterograde amnesia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats trained with inhibitory avoidance (IA) were systematically pre-trained using a memory-impairing dose of propofol (25 mg/kg). Before propofol administration, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of a CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg) or a bilateral intra-BLA injection of AM251 (0.6 ng or 6 ng per 0.5 μl). Twenty-four hours after IA training, the IA retention latency was tested. It was found that systemic or intra-BLA injection of a non-regulating dose of AM251 (2 mg/kg or 6 ng per 0.5 μl, respectively) blocked the memory-impairing effect of propofol. These results indicate that the anterograde amnesic effect of propofol is mediated, in part, by activation of the CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the BLA.

  13. Characterization of Mycobacterium leprae Genotypes in China--Identification of a New Polymorphism C251T in the 16S rRNA Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Youhua; Wen, Yan; You, Yuangang; Xing, Yan; Li, Huanying; Weng, Xiaoman; Wu, Nan; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Shanshan; Zhang, Wenhong; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy continues to be prevalent in some mountainous regions of China, and genotypes of leprosy strains endemic to the country are not known. Mycobacterium lepromatosis is a new species that was discovered in Mexico in 2008, and it remains unclear whether this species exists in China. Here, we conducted PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to classify genotypes of 85 DNA samples collected from patients from 18 different provinces. All 171 DNA samples from skin biopsies of leprosy patients were tested for the presence of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene using nested PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. The new species M. lepromatosis was not found among the 171 specimens from leprosy patients in 22 provinces in China. However, we found three SNP genotypes among 85 leprosy patients. A mutation at C251T in the 16S rRNA gene was found in 76% of the strains. We also found that the strains that showed the 16S rRNA C251T mutation belonged to SNP type 3, whereas strains without the point mutation belonged to SNP type 1. The SNP type 3 leprosy strains were observed in patients from both the inner and coastal regions of China, but the SNP type 1 strains were focused only in the coastal region. This indicated that the SNP type 3 leprosy strains were more prevalent than the SNP type 1 strains in China. In addition, the 16S rRNA gene sequence mutation at C251T also indicated a difference in the geographical distribution of the strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a new polymorphism in 16S rRNA gene in M. leprae in China. Our findings shed light on the prevalent genotypes and provide insight about leprosy transmission that are important for leprosy control in China. PMID:26196543

  14. Characterization of Mycobacterium leprae Genotypes in China--Identification of a New Polymorphism C251T in the 16S rRNA Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Yuan

    Full Text Available Leprosy continues to be prevalent in some mountainous regions of China, and genotypes of leprosy strains endemic to the country are not known. Mycobacterium lepromatosis is a new species that was discovered in Mexico in 2008, and it remains unclear whether this species exists in China. Here, we conducted PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis to classify genotypes of 85 DNA samples collected from patients from 18 different provinces. All 171 DNA samples from skin biopsies of leprosy patients were tested for the presence of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene using nested PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. The new species M. lepromatosis was not found among the 171 specimens from leprosy patients in 22 provinces in China. However, we found three SNP genotypes among 85 leprosy patients. A mutation at C251T in the 16S rRNA gene was found in 76% of the strains. We also found that the strains that showed the 16S rRNA C251T mutation belonged to SNP type 3, whereas strains without the point mutation belonged to SNP type 1. The SNP type 3 leprosy strains were observed in patients from both the inner and coastal regions of China, but the SNP type 1 strains were focused only in the coastal region. This indicated that the SNP type 3 leprosy strains were more prevalent than the SNP type 1 strains in China. In addition, the 16S rRNA gene sequence mutation at C251T also indicated a difference in the geographical distribution of the strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a new polymorphism in 16S rRNA gene in M. leprae in China. Our findings shed light on the prevalent genotypes and provide insight about leprosy transmission that are important for leprosy control in China.

  15. Variants Located Upstream of CHRNB4 on Chromosome 15q25.1 Are Associated with Age at Onset of Daily Smoking and Habitual Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, Manav; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Bertelsen, Sarah; Bucholz, Kathy; Budde, John P; Hinrichs, Anthony; Agrawal, Arpana; Brooks, Andrew; Chorlian, David; Dick, Danielle; Hesselbrock, Victor; Foroud, Tatiana; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Manz, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Several genome-wide association and candidate gene studies have linked chromosome 15q24–q25.1 (a region including the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster) with alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence and smoking-related illnesses such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To further examine the impact of these genes on the development of substance use disorders, we tested whether variants within and flanking the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster affect the transition to dail...

  16. Comparison of the transcriptional activity of the long terminal repeats of simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 in T-cell lines and macrophage cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, M G; Clements, J E

    1991-01-01

    The U3 regions of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 were analyzed for basal transcriptional activity and for interaction with cellular factors in the T-cell line HUT-78 and the monocyte/macrophage cell line U937. A number of 5' deletions and mutations were made in the U3 regions of the two LTRs, and these constructs were placed upstream of a plasmid containing the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. The nucleotid...

  17. In vitro study on siRNA integrin α_vβ_3 gene expression inhibiting glioma U251 cells proliferation%siRNA干扰整合素α_vβ_3表达抑制脑胶质瘤细胞U251增殖的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵天书; 王策; 王雪峰; 董白晶; 孙庆喜; 张尧; 李利; 刘晓谦

    2010-01-01

    目的 探索特异性siRNA靶向干扰恶性胶质瘤U251细胞中INTα_vβ_3表达后对细胞生长的作用.方法 将INTα_vβ_3特异性siRNA经脂质体(LipofectamineTM~(2000))转染U251细胞.RT-PCR、免疫细胞化学和Western blot法检测INTα_vβ_3蛋白表达.MTT检测干扰后细胞增殖变化.结果 INTα_vβ_3特异siRNA对U251细胞增殖有明显抑制作用.siRNA组、脂质体组与对照组各时间点的结果 差异有统计学意义.免疫细胞化学对照组和脂质体组均见INTα_vβ_3呈绿色表达,siRNA组表达降低.Western blot法和RT-PCR结果 证实转染特异siRNA后的细胞在蛋白及mRNA水平均能抑制INTα_vβ_3的表达.结论 特异性siRNA可干扰INTα_vβ_3在脑胶质瘤U251细胞中的表达并抑制细胞增殖.%Objective Explore the specificity of siRNA interference targeting malignant glioma U251 cells, INTα_vβ_3 expression of cell growth after the role. Method U251 cells were transfected with INT α_vβ_3 specific siRNA by lipofectamine(LipefectamineTM~(2000)). RT-PCR, immune ceils staining and Western blot were used to determine the expression of INTα_vβ_3. Cell proliferation after the detection of changes in interference was tested by MTT. Results INTα_vβ_3 specific siRNA shown to inhibit U251 cell proliferation. There were statistical significance between siRNA group, liposome group and the control group at different time points. Green INTα_vβ_3 expression was found in control group and lipesome groups, and reduced in siRNA group. Western blotting and RT-PCR results shown that the expression of integrin could be inhibited by α_vβ_3 transfection in the protein and mRNA level Conclusions Integrin-specific siRNA INTα_vβ_3 can inhibit the U251 glioma cell proliferation.

  18. Preparation of functionalized nano-graphene oxide particles and their target imaging role in glioma U251 cells%功能化纳米氧化石墨烯微粒的制备及对脑胶质瘤U251细胞的靶向显像作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓跃飞; 李忠军; 庞家栋; 张黎明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To prepare the functionalized nano-graphene oxide (nano-GO) particles,and study their targeted fluorescence imaging effects on glioma U251 cells under near infrared (NIR)irradiation.Methods Single-layer nano-GO particles were obtained after ultrasonic oscillation,and then connected with transferrin (Tf) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) through poly-L-lysine-G3 to prepare functionalized nano-GO-Tf-FITC particles.Sample morphology was observed and the particle sizes were measured under certain transmission electron microscope (TEM).Glioma U251 cells were employed and divided into targeted experimental group (adding functionalized nano-GO-Tf-FITC particles),parallel control group (adding anti-CD71-FITC reagent) and non-targeted experimental group (adding nano-GO-FITC particles).Fluorescence imaging of these groups was determined by fluorescence microscopy.Results Single-layer particles with a range of 20-100 nm were observed under high TEM,and the functionalized nano-GO-Tf-FITC particles were distributed in a pattern of single layer with a diameter smaller than 100 nm.Yellow green color was monitored in the targeted experimental group and parallel control group,and no imaging was monitored in the non-targeted experimental group because of no transferring integration.Conclusion Functionalized nano-GO-Tf-FITC particles are successfully prepared,and show marked targeted imaging effects on glioma U251 cells.%目的 制备功能化纳米氧化石墨烯(nano-GO-Tf-FITC)微粒,并研究其在近红外线(NIR)照射下对脑胶质瘤U251细胞的靶向荧光显像作用. 方法 将氧化石墨烯(GO)超声振荡制得纳米单层GO(nano-GO)微粒,以聚赖氨酸叠氮基团(poly-L-lysine-G3)连接靶向分子转铁蛋白(Tf)和荧光分子异硫氰酸荧光素(FITC),制备出功能化nano-GO-Tf-FITC微粒,应用透射电镜在一定倍数下观察并拍摄样品形貌,测定样品粒径.将培养的脑胶质瘤U251细胞分成3组,即靶向实验组(加入nano

  19. Effects of Autocrine Motility Factor (AMF) on the Migration and Invasion of Glioblastoma U251 Cells and Their Mechanism%自分泌运动因子AMF对人胶质母细胞瘤U251细胞迁移、侵袭的影响及相关机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 汤宁; 刘哲宇; 孙铮

    2016-01-01

    为了探讨自分泌运动因子(autocrine motility factor,AMF)对人胶质母细胞瘤U251细胞迁移、侵袭影响及其相关分子机制,该实验采用了RT-PCR及免疫印迹法检测RNA干扰AMF后U251细胞中AMF的表达变化;细胞划痕实验、Transwell实验分别观察了AMF干扰前后U251细胞迁移、侵袭能力的变化;免疫印记检测AMF干扰前后细胞中总Akt、p-Akt、Sox2、基质金属蛋白酶-2(matrix metalloprotein-2,MMP-2)及MMP-9蛋白水平的变化.研究结果表明,AMF成功干扰后U251细胞的迁移和侵袭能力受到抑制,p-Akt、Sox2、MMP-2和MMP-9蛋白表达水平降低.该研究表明,AMF敲低可以通过下调PI3K/Ak信号通路活性及Sox2、MMP-2和MMP-9蛋白水平,抑制人胶质母细胞瘤U251细胞迁移和侵袭.

  20. Spectroscopy and single-particle structure of the odd- Z heavy elements {sup 255}Lr, {sup 251}Md and {sup 247}Es

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatillon, A.; Theisen, C.; Bouchez, E.; Clement, E.; Dayras, R.; Goergen, A.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Simenel, C.; Bender, M. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Greenlees, P.T.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kettunen, H.; Leino, M.; Perkowski, J.; Rahkila, P.; Saren, J.; Scholey, C.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (Finland); Auger, G.; Bouriquet, B.; Casandjian, J.M.; Cee, R.; France, G. de; Toureil, R. de; Rejmund, M.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Stodel, C.; Villari, A. [GANIL, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, B.P. 55027, Caen Cedex 5 (France); Bastin, J.E.; Herzberg, R.D.; Ikin, P.J.C.; Jones, G.D.; Pritchard, A. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Grevy, S. [LPC, CAEN Cedex (France); Hauschild, K.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Siem, S. [CSNSM, Orsay (France); Lukyanov, S.M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Sobolev, Yu.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bonche, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/SPhT, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-11-15

    The odd-Z isotope {sup 255}Lr, its daughter {sup 251}Md and grand-daughter {sup 247}Es were studied in two experiments performed at GANIL and the University of Jyvaeskylae. The {sup 255}Lr nuclei were produced using the cold fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 209}Bi({sup 48}Ca, 2n){sup 255}Lr at a bombarding energy of 217MeV. The single-particle structure and decay properties were investigated using {alpha}, {gamma} and electron spectroscopy. The ground-state spin and parity could be assigned for {sup 255}Lr (1/2{sup -}) and {sup 251}Md (7/2{sup -}). States corresponding to the 7/2{sup +}[633], 7/2{sup -}[514] and 1/2{sup -}[521] Nilsson orbitals were observed. Results are compared to experimental data obtained in neighbouring isotopes and to Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations using the Skyrme interaction SLy4 and a density-dependent pairing interaction. The position of the 1/2{sup -}[521] orbital from the spherical 2f{sub 5/2} shell is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Down-regulation in multiple human cancers of a novel gene, DMHC, from 17q25.1 that encodes an integral membrane protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, I; Harada, H; Nagai, H; Tsuneizumi, M; Nobe, Y; Koizumi, K; Sugano, S; Tanaka, S; Emi, M

    2001-04-01

    Frequent observations of allelic loss in chromosomal band 17q25.1 in a variety of human cancers have suggested that one or more tumor suppressor genes are present in that region. Moreover, a genetic locus for hereditary focal non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, a condition associated with cancer of the esophagus (TOC; Tylosis with Oesophageal Cancer), lies in the same region. We screened cell lines derived from a variety of human cancers by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect alterations in expression of genes within the region in question, by examining expressed sequence tags located there. These experiments identified an 1834-bp full-length cDNA encoding a novel, 441-amino acid integral membrane protein with seven putative transmembrane domains. This gene showed loss or extreme decrease of expression in 6 of 10 uterine cancer-cell lines, 2 of 11 hepatic cell carcinoma-cell lines, 2 of 7 lung cancer-cell lines, 1 of 6 gastric cancer-cell lines, and 1 of 10 breast cancer-cell lines. (We named it DMHC ("down-regulated in multiple human cancers").) Our results suggest that loss of expression of DMHC at 17q25.1 may play an important role in development of variety of human cancers.

  2. 慢病毒介导的 RWDD3沉默对人胶质瘤 U251细胞增殖和侵袭的影响%Effects of lentivirus-mediated RWDD3 silencing on proliferation and inva-sion of human glioma U251 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范阳华; 祝新根; 吕世刚; 吴淼经; 柴毅; 叶敏华; 肖兵; 吴雷

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of RWDD3 gene silencing on the biological characteristics of human glioma U251 cells.METHODS: A lentiviral vector expressing RWDD3 shRNA was constructed and transfeeted into the U251 cells.The expression of RWDD3 at mRNA and protein levels was detected by real-time PCR and Western blot , re-spectively .The cell activity was determined by MTT assay .The colony formation ability was detected by the colony forma-tion assay .The cell proliferation ability was detected by BrdU incorporation assay .The cell invasion and migration were evaluated by Transwell assay .Flow cytometry was used to monitor the changes of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis .RE-SULTS:Recombinant lentivirus was successfully transfected into U 251 cells.Compared with the cells transfected with the scrambled shRNA and control cells, the cell activity, colony formation ability, and the invasive and migratory activities were inhibited, the cell cycle was arrested in G 0/G1 phase, and the apoptosis was increased in the U 251 cells transfected with RWDD3 shRNA ( P <0.05 ) .CONCLUSION: RWDD3 plays a vital role in proliferation and invasion of glioma cells.It may serve as a potential target of gene therapy for glioma .%目的:探讨沉默RWDD3表达对人胶质瘤U251细胞生物学特征的影响。方法:构建靶向RWDD3的shRNA重组慢病毒并转染U251细胞,通过real-time PCR和Western blot 在mRNA及蛋白水平鉴定转染结果。MTT法检测转染后细胞的细胞活力;平板克隆实验检测克隆形成能力;BrdU实验检测细胞增殖能力;Transwell 实验检测细胞迁移和侵袭能力的变化;流式细胞术检测细胞周期及细胞凋亡的改变。结果: real-time PCR和Western blot结果均表明成功建立稳定沉默RWDD3的U251细胞株。与空白对照组及阴性对照组比较,转染RWDD3-shR-NA组的细胞活力和克隆形成能力降低;侵袭及迁移能力均下降,穿膜细胞

  3. H{sub 2} reduction of surface oxides on Pd-based membrane model systems – The case of Pd(1 0 0) and Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, V.R. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Gustafson, J. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 117, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Farstad, M.H.; Walle, L.E. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Blomberg, S.; Lundgren, E. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 117, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Venvik, H.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Borg, A., E-mail: anne.borg@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • H{sub 2} reduction of the surface oxide is significantly slower for Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) compared to Pd(1 0 0). • The reduction behavior shows complex temperature dependence, not well described by Avrami kinetics. • Oxygen spillover effects during the surface oxide reduction are observed for Pd(1 0 0). • For Pd(1 0 0) the observed reduction rate is rather independent of temperature. • For Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) the reduction rate displays a non-monotonic variation with temperature. - Abstract: Reduction of the (√(5)×√(5))R27° surface oxide on Pd(1 0 0) and Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) surfaces by H{sub 2} has been studied using high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy in situ at H{sub 2} pressures 5 × 10{sup −9} mbar and 5 × 10{sup −8} mbar and selected temperatures in the range 30 °C to 170 °C. The reduction is slower on Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) compared to Pd(1 0 0) for all temperatures and pressures investigated. For Pd(1 0 0), the surface oxide reduction rate is rather independent of temperature, while for Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) a non-monotonic variation is observed. As indicated by kinetic analysis, the complex reduction behavior is not well described by Avrami kinetics. Oxygen spillover effects contribute to this picture for Pd(1 0 0), while surface compositional effects appear to dominate the performance for Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0). These findings may have implications for understanding the oxidation, reduction and hydrogen transport properties of Pd–Ag membranes.

  4. Chronic Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration Reduces IgE(+)B Cells but Unlikely Enhances Pathogenic SIVmac251 Infection in Male Rhesus Macaques of Chinese Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Liu, Li; Cong, Zhe; Wu, Xiaoxian; Wang, Hui; Qin, Chuan; Molina, Patricia; Chen, Zhiwei

    2016-09-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) is the major psychoactive component of the cannabis plant. Δ(9)-THC has been used in the active ingredient of Marinol as an appetite stimulant for AIDS patients. Its impact on progression of HIV-1 infection, however, remains debatable. Previous studies indicated that Δ(9)-THC administration enhanced HIV-1 infection in huPBL-SCID mice but seemingly decreased early mortality in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected male Indian-derived rhesus macaques. Here, we determine the chronic effect of Δ(9)-THC administration using 0.32 mg/kg or placebo (PBO), i.m., twice daily for 428 days on SIVmac251 infected male Chinese-derived rhesus macaques. Sixteen animals were divided into four study groups: Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+), Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(-), PBO/SIV(+) and PBO/SIV(-) (n = 4/group). One-month after daily Δ(9)-THC or PBO administrations, macaques in groups one and three were challenged intravenously with pathogenic SIVmac251/CNS, which was isolated from the brain of a Chinese macaque with end-staged neuroAIDS. No significant differences in peak and steady state plasma viral loads were seen between Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+) and PBO/SIV(+) macaques. Regardless of Δ(9)-THC, all infected macaques displayed significant drop of CD4/CD8 T cell ratio, loss of CD4(+) T cells and higher persistent levels of Ki67(+)CD8(+) T cells compared with uninfected animals. Moreover, long-term Δ(9)-THC treatment reduced significantly the frequency of circulating IgE(+)B cells. Only one Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+) macaque died of simian AIDS with paralyzed limbs compared with two deaths in the PBO/SIV(+) group during the study period. These findings indicate that chronic Δ(9)-THC administration resulted in reduction of IgE(+)B cells, yet it unlikely enhanced pathogenic SIVmac251/CNS infection in male Rhesus macaques of Chinese origin. PMID:27109234

  5. Evolution of the 251 cm-1 infrared phonon mode with temperature in Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Yao-Min; Xu Bing; Shen Bing; Xiao Hong; Lobo R.P.S.M; Qiu Xiang-Gang

    2012-01-01

    The far-infrared optical reflectivity of an optimally doped Ba1-xKxFe2As2 (x =0.4) single crystal is measured from room temperature down to 4 K.We study the temperature dependence of the in-plane infrared-active phonon at 251 cm-1.This phonon exhibits a symmetric line shape in the optical conductivity,suggesting that the coupling between the phonon and the electronic background is weak.Upon cooling down,the frequency of this phonon continuously increases,following the conventional temperature dependence expected in the absence of a structural or magnetic transition.The intensity of this phonon is temperature independent within the measurement accuracy.These observations indicate that the structural and magnetic phase transition might be completely suppressed by chemical doping in the optimally doped Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 compound.

  6. Effects of cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist AM251 on vasoreactivity in hemorrhagic shock rats%大麻素受体1拮抗剂AM251对失血性休克大鼠血管反应性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 高娜; 王静; 侯立朝; 高燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 拟观察大麻素受体1(CB1R)在失血性休克大鼠腹主动脉和肠系膜上动脉的表达变化情况,及大麻素CB1受体拮抗剂AM251对血管反应性的影响.方法 将SD大鼠随机分为假手术(Sham)组和失血性休克(HS)组.检测休克动物血管反应性的变化,以及动脉血管大麻素CB1受体mRNA和蛋白表达情况;观察CB1受体拮抗剂AM251对休克后血管低反应性及低血压的影响.结果 HS组动物均发生血管低反应性,腹主动脉和肠系膜上动脉2~3级分支动脉血管组织CB1受体mRNA和蛋白均呈阳性表达;CB1受体拮抗剂AM251能显著提高休克后血管低反应性,并可明显改善休克后的低血压.结论 大麻素CB1受体与大鼠失血性休克后血管低反应性密切相关,其拮抗剂具有抗重度失血性休克作用.

  7. 美洲商陆抗病毒蛋白在毕赤酵母中的表达及其诱发人神经胶质瘤细胞U251凋亡的研究%Cloning and Expression of Pokeweed Antiviral Protein Gene from Phytolacca amercana in Pichia pastoris and the Study of Apoptosis of Human Neuroglioma Cells U251 Induced by Recombinant PAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向莉; 胡亚梅; 张杰文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To clone the pokeweed anti-viral protein (PAP) gene, to express it in Pichia pas-troris, and to study the inhibitory effect of PAP on U251 in vitro. Methods The cDNA sequence encoding PAP was cloned by Real-time PCR from Phytolacca amercana. The recombinant PAP was subcloned into the expression vector pPICZaA and expressed in Pichia pastroris GSM 5 after methanol induction. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the expressed PAP existed in the yeast culture supernatant. The drug cytotoxicity to U251 cells was assessed using MTT assay and the obvious apoptotic nuclei of the tumor cells detected using the method of single cell gel electrophoresis. Results The full-length PAP gene was cloned. The recombinant expression plasmid pPICZaA-PAP was constructed successfully. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the relative molecular mass (M) of the recombinant protein was about 35 kDa. The degradation of the genome of the apoptotic cells induced by PAP was detected using the method of single cell gel electrophoresis. PAP possessed very high ability to inhibit the growth of U251. The anti-tumor activities (IC50) to U251 cells of PAP was 81. 0 pg/mL. Conclusion PAP could be a potent anti-tumor candidate for inhibiting the growth of U251 and inducing its apoptosis.%目的 研究美洲商陆抗病毒蛋白(pokeweed antiviral protein,PAP)基因的克隆表达,进而研究其诱发人神经胶质瘤细胞U251凋亡.方法 利用RT-PCR技术克隆PAP基因,构建PAP毕赤酵母表达质粒pPIC-ZaA-PAP并导入毕赤酵母Pichia pastoris CS115.SDS-PAGE检测PAP的分泌表达.采用镍离子亲合层析纯化PAP,并通过单细胞凝胶电泳和MTT检测其抑制人神经胶质瘤细胞U251的生长.结果 分泌表达的PAP融合蛋白分子量约为35/kD,纯化的PAP在体外能诱发人神经胶质瘤细胞U251凋亡.PAP对U251半数抑制浓度(IC50)为81.0μg/mL,通过单细胞凝胶电泳,能看到明显的慧星尾,表明PAP引起了神经胶质瘤细

  8. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism at 6q25.1,rs2046210, with endometrial cancer risk among Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang Li; Qiuyin Cai; Yong-Bing Xiang; Regina Courtney; Jia-Rong Cheng; Bo Huang; Ji-Rong Long; Hui Cai; Wei Zheng; Xiao-Ou Shu

    2011-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study identified a new susceptibility locus for breast cancer, rs2046210, which is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located upstream of the estrogen receptor α (ESR1) gene on chromosome 6q25.1. Given that endometrial cancer shares many risk factors with breast cancer and both are related to estrogen exposure and that rs2046210 is in close proximity to the ESR1 gene, we evaluated the association of SNP rs2046210 with endometrial cancer risk among 953 cases and 947 controls in a population-based, case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression models were used to derive odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% Cis) after adjusting for potential confounders. We found that the A allele of rs2046210, linked to an increased risk of breast cancer, was associated with increased but not statistically significant risk of endometrial cancer (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.96-1.41 for the GA and AA genotypes compared with the GG genotype); the association was stronger among post-menopausal women (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.00-1.65). The association tended to be stronger among women with higher or longer estrogen exposure than among women with relatively lower or shorter exposure to estrogen. Our study suggests that rs2046210 may play a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer. Additional studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  9. Evaluation of a newly discovered breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q25.1 in Iranian Azari-Turkish women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garehdaghchi, Ziba; Derakhshan, Siam Mansoori

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study A recent breast cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2046210 on 6q25.1 showing a strong association with breast cancer risk. Numerous association studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between this polymorphism and breast cancer risk in various populations. There have been conflicting reports about the association of this locus with breast cancer risk in different ethnic groups. For the first time, this study has investigated the association of rs2046210 SNP with breast cancer risk in Iranian Azari-Turkish women in North West Iran. Material and methods In this study 192 breast cancer subjects and 186 healthy controls were genotyped using Taqman SNP genotyping assays for different SNP rs2046210 alleles. Results No significant association between rs2046210 SNP alleles and the risk of breast cancer was detected in Iranian Azari-Turkish women. Conclusions The data suggests that rs2046210SNP does not play a role in the aetiology of breast cancer in the Iranian Azari-Turkish population, and it indicates possible genetic differences for breast cancer between different population ancestries. Our result is an important contribution to the literature about genetic susceptibility for breast cancer in Asian populations. Additional studies are required to confirm our findings.

  10. A novel autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment locus (DFNB47) maps to chromosome 2p25.1-p24.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Santos, Regie Lyn P; Rafiq, Muhammad Arshad; Chahrour, Maria H; Pham, Thanh L; Wajid, Muhammad; Hijab, Nadine; Wambangco, Michael; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Yan, Kai; Ahmad, Wasim; Leal, Suzanne M

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary hearing impairment (HI) displays extensive genetic heterogeneity. Autosomal recessive (AR) forms of prelingual HI account for approximately 75% of cases with a genetic etiology. A novel AR non-syndromic HI locus (DFNB47) was mapped to chromosome 2p25.1-p24.3, in two distantly related Pakistani kindreds. Genome scan and fine mapping were carried out using microsatellite markers. Multipoint linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score of 4.7 at markers D2S1400 and D2S262. The three-unit support interval was bounded by D2S330 and D2S131. The region of homozygosity was found within the three-unit support interval and flanked by markers D2S2952 and D2S131, which corresponds to 13.2 cM according to the Rutgers combined linkage-physical map. This region contains 5.3 Mb according to the sequence-based physical map. Three candidate genes, KCNF1, ID2 and ATP6V1C2 were sequenced, and were found to be negative for functional sequence variants. PMID:16261342

  11. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M;

    2011-01-01

    11249433 at 1p11.2 and rs999737 in RAD51L1 at 14q24.1. Although previously identified breast cancer susceptibility variants have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the involvement of these SNPs to breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers...... for BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.28, P-trend = 0.031). SNP rs11249433 (1p11.2) was associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, P-trend = 0.015), but was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.97, 95......% CI: 0.92-1.02, P-trend = 0.20). SNP rs999737 (RAD51L1) was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (P-trend = 0.27 and 0.30, respectively). The identification of SNPs at 6q25.1 associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers will lead...

  12. Down-regulation in human cancers of DRHC, a novel helicase-like gene from 17q25.1 that inhibits cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H; Yabe, A; Mine, N; Mikami, I; Fujiwara, H; Terada, Y; Hirano, A; Tsuneizumi, M; Yokota, T; Emi, M

    2003-04-10

    Frequent observations of allelic loss in chromosomal band 17q25.1 in a variety of human cancers have suggested that one or more tumor suppressor genes are normally present in this region. Moreover, a locus responsible for hereditary focal non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (tylosis oesophageal cancer; TOC), a condition associated with esophageal cancer, has been mapped to the same band. During efforts to sequence, by shot-gun methods, a 1 Mb target region that we had defined as the DNA segment harboring the putative tumor suppressor gene(s) involved in these events, we identified a novel cDNA, DRHC (down-regulated in human cancers), that showed reduced expression in 28 of 95 (29%) cell lines derived from a variety of human cancers. The full-length cDNA, 6275 bp long, was expressed predominantly in thymus and brain. The predicted 1942-amino-acid product exhibited significant sequence homology to yeast enzymes belonging to the DEAD-helicase superfamily, and appeared to be a Uvr/Rep helicase with a DEXDc consensus domain. Transfection of a DRHC expression vector inhibited growth of cancer cells in liquid medium or soft agar. The results suggest that loss of expression of DRHC may play a role in human carcinogenesis.

  13. Low dose rectal inoculation of rhesus macaques by SIV SME660 or SIV MAC251 recapitulates human mucosal infection by HIV-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koraber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hraber, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharya, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we developed a novel approach to the identification of transmitted or early founder HIV -1 genomes in acutely infected humans based on single genome amplification and sequencing. Here we tested this approach in 18 acutely infected Indian rhesus macaques to determine the molecular features of SIV transmission. Animals were inoculated intrarectally (IR) or intravenously (IV) with stocks of SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660 that exhibited sequence diversity typical of early-chronic HIV -1 infection. 987 full-length SIV env sequences (median of 48 per animal) were determined from plasma virion RNA one to five weeks after infection. IR inoculation was followed by productive infection by one or few viruses (median 1; range 1-5) that diversified randomly with near star-like phylogeny and a Poisson distribution of mutations. Consensus viral sequences from ramp-up and peak viremia were identical to viruses found in the inocula or differed from them by only one or few nuc1eotides, providing direct evidence that early plasma viral sequences coalesce to transmitted/founder virus( es). IV infection was approximately 10,000-fold more efficient than IR infection, and viruses transmitted by either route represented the full genetic spectra of the inocula. These findings identify key similarities in mucosal transmission and early diversification between SIV and HIV -1.

  14. Response of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251 to raltegravir: a basis for a new treatment for simian AIDS and an animal model for studying lentiviral persistence during antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenhouse Jack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we successfully created a new approach to ART in SIVmac251 infected nonhuman primates. This drug regimen is entirely based on drugs affecting the pre-integration stages of replication and consists of only two nucleotidic/nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors (Nt/NRTIs and raltegravir, a promising new drug belonging to the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI class. Results In acutely infected human lymphoid CD4+ T-cell lines MT-4 and CEMx174, SIVmac251 replication was efficiently inhibited by raltegravir, which showed an EC90 in the low nanomolar range. This result was confirmed in primary macaque PBMCs and enriched CD4+ T cell fractions. In vivo monotherapy with raltegravir for only ten days resulted in reproducible decreases in viral load in two different groups of animals. When emtricitabine (FTC and tenofovir (PMPA were added to treatment, undetectable viral load was reached in two weeks, and a parallel increase in CD4 counts was observed. In contrast, the levels of proviral DNA did not change significantly during the treatment period, thus showing persistence of this lentiviral reservoir during therapy. Conclusions In line with the high conservation of the three main amino acids Y143, Q148 and N155 (responsible for raltegravir binding and molecular docking simulations showing similar binding modes of raltegravir at the SIVmac251 and HIV-1 IN active sites, raltegravir is capable of inhibiting SIVmac251 replication both in tissue culture and in vivo. This finding may help to develop effective ART regimens for the simian AIDS model entirely based on drugs adopted for treatment in humans. This ART-treated AIDS nonhuman primate model could be employed to find possible strategies for virus eradication from the body.

  15. Location and dynamics of the immunodominant CD8 T cell response to SIVΔnef immunization and SIVmac251 vaginal challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K Sasikala-Appukuttan

    Full Text Available Live-attenuated SIV vaccines (LAVs have been the most effective to date in preventing or partially controlling infection by wild-type SIV in non-human primate models of HIV-1 transmission to women acting by mechanisms of protection that are not well understood. To gain insights into mechanisms of protection by LAVs that could aid development of effective vaccines to prevent HIV-1 transmission to women, we used in situ tetramer staining to determine whether increased densities or changes in the local distribution of SIV-specific CD8 T cells correlated with the maturation of SIVΔnef vaccine-induced protection prior to and after intra-vaginal challenge with wild-type SIVmac251. We evaluated the immunodominant Mamu-A1*001:01/Gag (CM9 and Mamu-A1*001:01/Tat (SL8 epitope response in genital and lymphoid tissues, and found that tetramer+ cells were present at all time points examined. In the cervical vaginal tissues, most tetramer+ cells were distributed diffusely throughout the lamina propria or co-localized with other CD8 T cells within lymphoid aggregates. The distribution and densities of the tetramer+ cells at the portal of entry did not correlate with the maturation of protection or change after challenge. Given these findings, we discuss the possibility that changes in other aspects of the immune system, including the quality of the resident population of virus-specific effector CD8 T cells could contribute to maturation of protection, as well as the potential for vaccine strategies that further increase the size and quality of this effector population to prevent HIV-1 transmission.

  16. ADCC develops over time during persistent infection with live-attenuated SIV and is associated with complete protection against SIV(mac251 challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Alpert

    Full Text Available Live-attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV routinely confer apparent sterilizing immunity against pathogenic SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Understanding the mechanisms of protection by live-attenuated SIV may provide important insights into the immune responses needed for protection against HIV-1. Here we investigated the development of antibodies that are functional against neutralization-resistant SIV challenge strains, and tested the hypothesis that these antibodies are associated with protection. In the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies, Env-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC emerged by three weeks after inoculation with SIVΔnef, increased progressively over time, and was proportional to SIVΔnef replication. Persistent infection with SIVΔnef elicited significantly higher ADCC titers than immunization with a non-persistent SIV strain that is limited to a single cycle of infection. ADCC titers were higher against viruses matched to the vaccine strain in Env, but were measurable against viruses expressing heterologous Env proteins. In two separate experiments, which took advantage of either the strain-specificity or the time-dependent maturation of immunity to overcome complete protection against SIV(mac251 challenge, measures of ADCC activity were higher among the SIVΔnef-inoculated macaques that remained uninfected than among those that became infected. These observations show that features of the antibody response elicited by SIVΔnef are consistent with hallmarks of protection by live-attenuated SIV, and reveal an association between Env-specific antibodies that direct ADCC and apparent sterilizing protection by SIVΔnef.

  17. Variants located upstream of CHRNB4 on chromosome 15q25.1 are associated with age at onset of daily smoking and habitual smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manav Kapoor

    Full Text Available Several genome-wide association and candidate gene studies have linked chromosome 15q24-q25.1 (a region including the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster with alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence and smoking-related illnesses such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To further examine the impact of these genes on the development of substance use disorders, we tested whether variants within and flanking the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster affect the transition to daily smoking (individuals who smoked cigarettes 4 or more days per week in a cross sectional sample of adolescents and young adults from the COGA (Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism families. Subjects were recruited from families affected with alcoholism (either as a first or second degree relative and the comparison families. Participants completed the SSAGA interview, a comprehensive assessment of alcohol and other substance use and related behaviors. Using the Quantitative trait disequilibrium test (QTDT significant association was detected between age at onset of daily smoking and variants located upstream of CHRNB4. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model further revealed that these variants significantly predict the age at onset of habitual smoking among daily smokers. These variants were not in high linkage disequilibrium (0.28

  18. Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential applications for devices or systems containing 252Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on 252Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of 252Cf devices should increase from 1.5 million dollars in 1975 to 10.8 million dollars in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of 252Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US

  19. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  20. Californium-252 neutron activation facility at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron irradiation facility has been established to develop new analytical methods and for the support of research programs. A major component of this facility is a 252Cf source which provides both fission spectrum and thermal neutrons. (U.S.)

  1. The Process and Reason of the Change of Oil-Water Contact of Shahejie Formation in BZ25-1 Oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, F.; Liu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the influence of Neo-tectonic movement, the Shahejie reservoirs in Bohai Bay Basin has undergone late-stage transformation and adjustment, causing the oil-water contact to change. Through studying the changing history of oil-water contact, we can better restore petroleum accumulation process and analyze oil distribution pattern. Based on reservoir geochemistry theory and drilling and logging data, grains with oil inclusion was analyzed, and oil-bearing property, organic extracts and biomarkers was used to determine the present and paleo-oil water contact of Shahejie formation in BZ25-1 oilfield. It suggested that the paleo and present oil-water contact in Shahejie formation locates in different depth, and that Shahejie formation has gone through three petroleum charging stages and has also undergone reservoir adjustment. The POWC(paleo-oil-water contact) of E2S2 reservoirs in BZ25-1-5 well and E2S2 reservoirs in BZ25-1-3 well is lower than OWC(present oil-water contact) at least for 9m and at most for 400m, but the POWC of E2S3 reservoirs in BZ25-1-5 well is higher than OWC at least for 20m and at most for 27.5m. The petroleum accumulation process and the reason for oil-water contact adjustment were studied based on burial history, petroleum generation history, fault re-activation rate and petroleum charging history. It suggested that the three petroleum charging stages are Mid-Miocene(11.5Ma), Late Miocene-Pliocene(6.5-3.5Ma) and Quaternary(2.5Ma-present), among which the second~third charging episode is seen as the major petroleum accumulation stage. The re-activeted faults in several different periods not only served as preferential path for petroleum vertical migration, but also caused petroleum leakage through faults. The petroleum leakage mainly occurred in Neo-tectonic movement period(after 3.5Ma), during which petroleum vertically leaked through re-activated faults and migrated to shallow reservoirs or spilled over surface, meanwhile due to constant

  2. Mucosal B Cells Are Associated with Delayed SIV Acquisition in Vaccinated Female but Not Male Rhesus Macaques Following SIVmac251 Rectal Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Tuero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many viral infections, including HIV, exhibit sex-based pathogenic differences. However, few studies have examined vaccine-related sex differences. We compared immunogenicity and protective efficacy of monomeric SIV gp120 with oligomeric SIV gp140 in a pre-clinical rhesus macaque study and explored a subsequent sex bias in vaccine outcome. Each immunization group (16 females, 8 males was primed twice mucosally with replication-competent Ad-recombinants encoding SIVsmH4env/rev, SIV239gag and SIV239nefΔ1-13 and boosted twice intramuscularly with SIVmac239 monomeric gp120 or oligomeric gp140 in MF59 adjuvant. Controls (7 females, 5 males received empty Ad and MF59. Up to 9 weekly intrarectal challenges with low-dose SIVmac251 were administered until macaques became infected. We assessed vaccine-induced binding, neutralizing, and non-neutralizing antibodies, Env-specific memory B cells and plasmablasts/plasma cells (PB/PC in bone marrow and rectal tissue, mucosal Env-specific antibodies, and Env-specific T-cells. Post-challenge, only one macaque (gp140-immunized remained uninfected. However, SIV acquisition was significantly delayed in vaccinated females but not males, correlated with Env-specific IgA in rectal secretions, rectal Env-specific memory B cells, and PC in rectal tissue. These results extend previous correlations of mucosal antibodies and memory B cells with protective efficacy. The gp140 regimen was more immunogenic, stimulating elevated gp140 and cyclic V2 binding antibodies, ADCC and ADCP activities, bone marrow Env-specific PB/PC, and rectal gp140-specific IgG. However, immunization with gp120, the form of envelope immunogen used in RV144, the only vaccine trial to show some efficacy, provided more significant acquisition delay. Further over 40 weeks of follow-up, no gp120 immunized macaques met euthanasia criteria in contrast to 7 gp140-immunized and 2 control animals. Although males had higher binding antibodies than females, ADCC

  3. Multiple independent loci at chromosome 15q25.1 affect smoking quantity: a meta-analysis and comparison with lung cancer and COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Saccone

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, genetic association findings for nicotine dependence, smoking behavior, and smoking-related diseases converged to implicate the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which includes the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit genes. In particular, association with the nonsynonymous CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 and correlates has been replicated in several independent studies. Extensive genotyping of this region has suggested additional statistically distinct signals for nicotine dependence, tagged by rs578776 and rs588765. One goal of the Consortium for the Genetic Analysis of Smoking Phenotypes (CGASP is to elucidate the associations among these markers and dichotomous smoking quantity (heavy versus light smoking, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We performed a meta-analysis across 34 datasets of European-ancestry subjects, including 38,617 smokers who were assessed for cigarettes-per-day, 7,700 lung cancer cases and 5,914 lung-cancer-free controls (all smokers, and 2,614 COPD cases and 3,568 COPD-free controls (all smokers. We demonstrate statistically independent associations of rs16969968 and rs588765 with smoking (mutually adjusted p-values<10(-35 and <10(-8 respectively. Because the risk alleles at these loci are negatively correlated, their association with smoking is stronger in the joint model than when each SNP is analyzed alone. Rs578776 also demonstrates association with smoking after adjustment for rs16969968 (p<10(-6. In models adjusting for cigarettes-per-day, we confirm the association between rs16969968 and lung cancer (p<10(-20 and observe a nominally significant association with COPD (p = 0.01; the other loci are not significantly associated with either lung cancer or COPD after adjusting for rs16969968. This study provides strong evidence that multiple statistically distinct loci in this region affect smoking behavior. This study is also the first report of association between rs588765

  4. ESR1 is co-expressed with closely adjacent uncharacterised genes spanning a breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q25.1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Dunbier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 80% of human breast carcinomas present as oestrogen receptor α-positive (ER+ve disease, and ER status is a critical factor in treatment decision-making. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the region immediately upstream of the ER gene (ESR1 on 6q25.1 have been associated with breast cancer risk. Our investigation of factors associated with the level of expression of ESR1 in ER+ve tumours has revealed unexpected associations between genes in this region and ESR1 expression that are important to consider in studies of the genetic causes of breast cancer risk. RNA from tumour biopsies taken from 104 postmenopausal women before and after 2 weeks treatment with an aromatase (oestrogen synthase inhibitor was analyzed on Illumina 48K microarrays. Multiple-testing corrected Spearman correlation revealed that three previously uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs located immediately upstream of ESR1, C6ORF96, C6ORF97, and C6ORF211 were highly correlated with ESR1 (Rs =  0.67, 0.64, and 0.55 respectively, FDR<1 × 10(-7. Publicly available datasets confirmed this relationship in other groups of ER+ve tumours. DNA copy number changes did not account for the correlations. The correlations were maintained in cultured cells. An ERα antagonist did not affect the ORFs' expression or their correlation with ESR1, suggesting their transcriptional co-activation is not directly mediated by ERα. siRNA inhibition of C6ORF211 suppressed proliferation in MCF7 cells, and C6ORF211 positively correlated with a proliferation metagene in tumours. In contrast, C6ORF97 expression correlated negatively with the metagene and predicted for improved disease-free survival in a tamoxifen-treated published dataset, independently of ESR1. Our observations suggest that some of the biological effects previously attributed to ER could be mediated and/or modified by these co-expressed genes. The co-expression and function of these genes may be

  5. The LLNL Heavy Element Facility -- Facility Management, Authorization Basis, and Readiness Assessment Lessons Learned in the Heavy Element Facility (B251) Transition from Category II Nuclear Facility to Radiological Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M; Anderson, B; Brown, E; Gray, L

    2006-04-10

    This paper presents Facility Management, Readiness Assessment, and Authorization Basis experience gained and lessons learned during the Heavy Element Facility Risk Reduction Program (RRP). The RRP was tasked with removing contaminated glove boxes, radioactive inventory, and contaminated ventilation systems from the Heavy Element Facility (B251) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The RRP was successful in its goal in April 2005 with the successful downgrade of B251 from a Category II Nuclear Facility to a Radiological Facility. The expertise gained and the lessons learned during the planning and conduct of the RRP included development of unique approaches in work planning/work control (''Expect the unexpected and confirm the expected'') and facility management. These approaches minimized worker dose and resulted in significant safety improvements and operational efficiencies. These lessons learned can help similar operational and management activities at other sites, including facilities restarting operations or new facility startup. B251 was constructed at LLNL to provide research areas for conducting experiments in radiochemistry using transuranic elements. Activities at B251 once included the preparation of tracer sets associated with the underground testing of nuclear devices and basic research devoted to a better understanding of the chemical and nuclear behavior of the transuranic elements. Due to the age of the facility, even with preventative maintenance, facility safety and experimental systems were deteriorating. A variety of seismic standards were used in the facility design and construction, which encompassed eight building increments constructed over a period of 26 years. The cost to bring the facility into compliance with the current seismic and other requirements was prohibitive, and simply maintaining B251 as a Category II nuclear facility posed serious cost considerations under a changing regulatory environment

  6. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food. PMID:25179081

  7. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  8. Increased radiosensitivity and radiothermosensitivity of human pancreatic MIA PaCa-2 and U251 glioblastoma cell lines treated with the novel Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that folds, stabilizes, and functionally regulates many cellular proteins involved in oncogenic signaling and in the regulation of radiosensitivity. It is upregulated in response to stress such a heat. Hyperthermia is a potent radiosensitizer, but induction of Hsp90 may potentially limit its efficacy. Our aim was to investigate whether the new Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 increases radiosensitivity, thermosensitivity and radiothermosensitivity of human tumor cell lines. U251 glioblastoma and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cells were used. To determine clonogenic survival, colony forming assays were performed. Cell viability and proliferation were assesed by Trypan blue staining. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses were performed by flow cytometry. DAPI staining was used to detect mitotic catastrophe. NVP-HSP990 increased the thermosensitivity, radiosensitivity and radio-thermosensitivity of both cell lines in clonogenic assays. 72 hours after irradiation with 4 Gy, a significant reduction in cell number associated with considerable G2/M acumulation and mitotic catastrophe as well as cell death by apoptosis/necrosis was observed. Treatment with NVP-HSP990 strongly sensitized U251 and MIA PaCa-2 cells to hyperthermia and ionizing radiation or combination thereof through augmentation of G2/M arrest, mitotic catastrophe and associated apoptosis

  9. TNF-alpha and IL-8: serum levels and gene polymorphisms (-308G>A and -251A>T) are associated with classical biomarkers and medical history in children with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajado, C; Cerqueira, B A V; Couto, F D; Moura-Neto, J P; Vilas-Boas, W; Dorea, M J; Lyra, I M; Barbosa, C G; Reis, M G; Goncalves, M S

    2011-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a disorder characterized by a heterogeneous clinical outcome. In the present study, we investigated the associations between Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) -308G>A and Interleukin 8 (IL-8) -251A>T gene polymorphisms, medical history and classical biomarkers in children with steady-state SCA. In total, 210 SCA patients aged 2-21 years and 200 healthy controls were studied. Gene polymorphisms, betaS-globin haplotypes and a 3.7-kb deletion in alpha2-thalassemia (α2-thal3.7 kb) were investigated by PCR/RFLP analysis, and cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. Splenomegaly (p=.032) was more prevalent among children younger than 5 years of age. The A allele of the TNF-alpha -308G>A gene polymorphism and the presence of α2-thal3.7 kb were associated with an increase risk of splenic sequestration events (p=.001; p=.046), while the T allele of the IL-8 -251A>T gene polymorphism was considered to be a protective factor for splenomegaly events (p=.032). Moreover, the A allele of the TNF-alpha -308G>A gene polymorphism was associated with high TNF-alpha levels (p=.021), and the hemoglobin F and hemoglobin S haplotypes were correlated with serum levels of IL-8. The logistic regression analysis showed significant effects of the TNF-alpha and IL-8 gene polymorphisms, beta(S)-globin gene haplotypes and α2-thal3.7 kb on the occurrence of splenic sequestration events. Our study emphasizes that the identification of new genetic and immunological biomarkers and their associations with classical markers is an important strategy to elucidate the underlying causes of different SCA phenotypes and their effects on patient outcome. PMID:21802960

  10. Differences in time of virus appearance in the blood and virus-specific immune responses in intravenous and intrarectal primary SIVmac251 infection of rhesus macaques; a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Parks Robyn

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-I can be transmitted by intravenous inoculation of contaminated blood or blood product or sexually through mucosal surfaces. Here we performed a pilot study in the SIVmac251 macaque model to address whether the route of viral entry influences the kinetics of the appearance and the size of virus-specific immune in different tissue compartments. Methods For this purpose, of 2 genetically defined Mamu-A*01-positive macaques, 1 was exposed intravenously and the other intrarectally to the same SIVmac251 viral stock and virus-specific CD8+ T-cells were measured within the first 12 days of infection in the blood and at day 12 in several tissues following euthanasia. Results Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses to Gag, Env, and particularly Tat appeared earlier in the blood of the animal exposed by the mucosal route than in the animal exposed intravenously. The magnitude of these virus-specific responses was consistently higher in the systemic tissues and GALT of the macaque exposed by the intravenous route, suggesting a higher viral burden in the tissues as reflected by the faster appearance of virus in plasma. Differences in the ability of the virus-specific CD8+ T-cells to respond in vitro to specific peptide stimulation were also observed and the greatest proliferative ability was found in the GALT of the animal infected by the intrarectal route. Conclusions These data may suggest that the natural mucosal barrier may delay viral spreading. The consequences of this observation, if confirmed in studies with a larger number of animals, may have implications in vaccine development.

  11. Deletion 6(p25.1) in a child with mild dysmorphic features and absence of major eye malformations: Implications for the location of genes involved in ocular development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepperberg, J.H.; Rao, K.W.; Albright, S.G. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The authors describe a young girl with an apparently terminal deletion of chromosome 6 at p25.1 Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a chromosome 6 painting probe (ONCOR), showed that the abnormal chromosome 6 is composed entirely of chromosome 6 material. Analysis of the parents chromosomes with the same paint probe ruled out an inherited structural abnormality. To our knowledge, this case is the smallest terminal deletion of 6p yet reported. The patient is a 4 year, 6 month old female who was 3300g at birth. She has global developmental delay and little intelligible speech. Her weight is at the 25th centile, height at the 50th centile for a 3 1/2-year-old, and head circumference at the 25th centile. The eyes are prominent with shallow orbits. She has mild hyperopia and astigmatism. The philtrum is short and the vermillion border is thin. The midface is hypoplastic and there is dental malocclusion. Some of the common features reported in individuals with larger 6p terminal deletions include mental retardation, microcephaly, eye and ear abnormalities, short neck/excess nuchal skin, and flat broad nasal bridge. Our patient lacks several of the features reported in patients with larger deletions of 6p, including the more severe eye defects (e.g., anterior segment malformations including Peters and Rieger anomalies) described in individuals with 6p23 or 24 terminal deletions. This patient could be important in mapping the critical region for 6p deletion syndrome and for localizing clinical findings to a specific area of 6p. This case also raises the possibility that the gene(s) on 6p important for ocular growth and development are located proximal to 6p25.1.

  12. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (5p15.33, 15q25.1, 6p22.1, 6q27 and 7p15.3) and lung cancer survival in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xun, Wei Wei; Brennan, Paul; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla; Overvad, Kim; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oustoglou, Erifili; Giotaki, Zoi; Johansson, Mattias; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Lund, Eiliv; Kumle, Merethe; Rodriguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Arriola, Larraitz; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Hallmans, Goran; Rasmuson, Torgny; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Key, Tim; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs402710 (5p15.33), rs16969968 and rs8034191 (15q25.1) have been consistently identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as significant predictors of lung cancer risk, while rs4324798 (6p22.1) was previously found to influence survival time in sma

  13. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 4-(2-Bromophenyl)-3,4,7,8-tetrahydro-7,7-dimethyl-1-p-tolylquinoline-2,5(1H,6H)-dione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang-Shan; LI Qing; WU Jian-Rong; YAO Chang-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The title compound 4-(2-bromophenyl)-3,4,7,8-tetrahydro-7,7-dimethyl-1-p-tolyl-quinoline-2,5(1H,6H)-dione 1 (C24H24BrNO2,Mr=438.35) was synthesized and characterized by IR,1H NMR and elemental analysis.The crystal belongs to monoclinic,space group C21c with a=27.565(14),b=10.079(5),c=15.917(8) (A),β=111.059(9)°,Z=8,V=4127(4)(A)3,Dc=1.411g·cm-3,μ(MoKα)=2.011 mm-1,F(000)=1808,the final R=0.0417 and wR=0.1032 for 2393 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)).X-ray analysis reveals that the pyridine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation,while another six-membered ring takes a half-chair conformation.In addition,there are non-classical hydrogen bonds of C-H…O and C-H…Br in the structure.The short distance (3.481 (A))between the adjacent 2-bromophenyl rings indicates the existence of π-π interaction.

  14. Tracking past changes in lake-water phosphorus with a 251-lake calibration dataset in British Columbia: tool development and application in a multiproxy assessment of eutrophication and recovery in Osoyoos Lake, a transboundary lake in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fraser Cumming

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an active discussion about the potential and challenges of tracking past lake-water trophic state using paleolimnological methods. Herein, we present analyses of the relationship between modern-day diatom assemblages from the surface sediments of 251 fresh-water lakes from British Columbia and contemporary limnological variables. Total phosphorus (TP was significantly related to the modern distribution of diatom assemblages. The large size of this new calibration dataset resulted in higher abundances and occurrences of many diatom taxa thereby allowing a more accurate quantification of the optima of diatom taxa to TP in comparison to previous smaller calibration datasets. Robust diatom-based TP inference models with a moderate predictive power were developed using weighted-averaging regression and calibration. Information from the calibration dataset was used to interpret changes in the diatom assemblages from the north and south basins of Osoyoos Lake, in conjunction with fossil pigment analyses. Osoyoos Lake is a large salmon-bearing lake that straddles the British Columbia-Washington border and has undergone cultural eutrophication followed by recovery due to substantial mitigation efforts in managing sources of nutrients. Both diatom assemblages and sedimentary pigments indicate that eutrophication began c. 1950 in the north basin and c. 1960 in the southern basin, reaching peak levels of production between 1960 and 1990, after which decreases in sedimentary pigments occurred, as well as decreases in the relative abundance and concentrations of diatom taxa inferred to have high TP optima. Post-1990 changes in the diatom assemblage suggests conditions have become less productive with a shift to taxa more indicative of lower TP optima in concert with measurements of declining TP, two of these diatom taxa, Cyclotella comensis and Cyclotella gordonensis, that were previously rare are now abundant.

  15. Anti-glioma Effect and Mechanism of Alkali Hydrolysate of Total Saponins from Pulsatilla chinensis on Human Glioma U251 Cells%白头翁总皂苷碱水解产物的抗胶质瘤作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭翠平; 许琼明; 张天; 李笑然; 杨世林; 周英; 刘艳丽

    2014-01-01

    To investigate antitumor effect and mechanism of alkali hydrolysate of total saponins from Pulsatilla chinensis on human glioma U251 cells. Methods MTT assay and colony formation test were used to examine the growth of human glioma cells and colony formation rate. Meanwhile, Giemsa staining was used to observe the morphology of tumor cells, flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis of tumor cells, Hoechst 33342 assay kits were adopted to observe the morphology of apoptotic cells, and the expression levels of Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 protein were evaluated by Western blot assay. Results Alkali hydrolysate of total saponins from Pulsatilla chinensis exhibited an inhibition effect on the proliferation and colony formation of U251 cells in dose-dependent manner. The alkali hydrolysate at the dosage of 6.25, 9.375, 12.5 μg·mL-1 could induce apoptosis of U251 cells, and the apoptotic rates were(6.00±2.05)%, (46.19±0.24)% and(78.26±2.10)%, respectively. Western blotting results showed that the alkali hydrolysate could up-regulate the expression levels of Caspase-3 and Bcl-2. Conclusions Alkali hydrolysate of total saponins from Pulsatilla chinensis exerts satisfactory anti-glioma action, and the mechanism might be related with the regulation of Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 protein expression.%目的:探讨白头翁总皂苷碱水解产物(PAHS)的抗胶质瘤作用及机制。方法采用MTT法、集落形成实验分别检测细胞存活率和集落形成率,同时采用 Giemsa 染色观察 PAHS 对肿瘤细胞形态学变化;采用hoechest33342染色观察人脑胶质母细胞瘤细胞株U251凋亡细胞形态变化;用流式细胞仪检测细胞的凋亡;用Western Blot法检测Bcl-2和Caspase-3蛋白的表达变化。结果 PAHS可以剂量依赖性的抑制U251细胞的增殖,抑制U251细胞集落的形成; PAHS(6.25,9.375,12.5μg·mL-1)可以诱导U251细胞凋亡,抑制率分别为(6.00±2.05)%、(46.19±0.24)%、(78.26±2.10

  16. 16 CFR 251.1 - The guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Labeling Regulation Regarding ‘Cents-Off’ and Guides Against Deceptive Pricing.”) (b) Meaning of... deceptive. (d) Supplier's responsibilities. Nothing in this section should be construed as authorizing or... supplier's offers. Prior to advertising a “Free” promotion, a supplier should offer the product as...

  17. 36 CFR 251.88 - Filing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... holidays are included in computing the time allowed for filing an appeal; however, when the filing period would expire on a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday the filing time is extended to the end of the next Federal working day....

  18. 42 CFR 2.51 - Medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identifying information may be disclosed to medical personnel who have a need for information about a patient... information may be disclosed to medical personnel of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) who assert a... forth in writing: (1) The name of the medical personnel to whom disclosure was made and...

  19. 30 CFR 206.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., water, or heavy media separation; drying; and related handling (or combination thereof). Contract means..., treatment with substances including chemicals or oils, and other preparation of the coal to the extent that..., production, preparation, and handling of lease products. Net-back method means a method for...

  20. 25 CFR 700.251 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and (4) Resolving legal and policy issues affecting access to requested records. (c) Waiver or... international organizations when to do so without charge is an appropriate courtesy, or when the recipient is... established business custom (e.g., furnishing personal reference data to prospective employers of...

  1. 37 CFR 251.39 - Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a selected arbitrator, (1) Removal of the arbitrator from the proceeding; (2) Permanent removal of the arbitrator's name from the current and any future list of available arbitrators published by the Librarian; (3) Referral of the matter to the bar of which the arbitrator is a member. (b) In the case of...

  2. 30 CFR 251.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., geopressured-geothermal and associated resources, and all other minerals which are authorized by an Act of... National Register of Historic Places as defined in 36 CFR 60.4. Third Party means any person other than the... meaning: Act means the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA), as amended (43 U.S.C. 1331 et...

  3. 37 CFR 251.13 - Closed meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an arbitration, or a particular case of formal agency adjudication pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 554, or...; or (g) If there would be disclosure of investigatory records compiled for law enforcement, or... confidential source or, in the case of a criminal investigation or a national security...

  4. 37 CFR 251.21 - Public records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records of the Librarian of Congress assembled and/or created under 17 U.S.C. 801 and 802, are available..., reports, and findings on any CARP matter or proceeding; (6) Communications among the Librarian of Congress...) Records not herein listed but which may be withheld as “exempted” if a CARP or the Librarian of...

  5. 50 CFR 216.251 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico §...

  6. 44 CFR 206.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Indian tribe or authorized tribal organization, or Alaskan Native Village or authorized native organization which has authority to adopt and enforce floodplain management regulations for the areas within... result of a major disaster. (b) Building means a walled and roofed structure, other than a gas, or...

  7. 36 CFR 251.58 - Cost recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applications and monitoring costs for special use authorizations. Applicants and holders shall submit sufficient information for the authorized officer to estimate the number of hours required to process their applications or monitor their authorizations. Cost recovery fees are separate from any fees charged for the...

  8. 37 CFR 251.60 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... affecting cable (17 U.S.C. 111), the making of ephemeral recordings (17 U.S.C. 112), certain digital audio transmissions (17 U.S.C. 114), the manufacture and distribution of phonorecords, including digital phonorecord...), noncommercial educational broadcasting (17 U.S.C. 118) and satellite carriers (17 U.S.C. 119). Those...

  9. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal employees, holders of Forest Service contracts, or Forest Service agents; (2) The operation, maintenance, and improvement of the municipal water system by Federal and State officials and employees of the... Ranger. (d) Unauthorized entrance upon lands within the watershed is subject to punishment as provided...

  10. 36 CFR 251.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... creation of a product for sale, or the use of models, actors, sets, or props, but not including activities... CFR parts 1500-1508, 7 CFR part 1b, Forest Service Manual Chapter 1950, and Forest Service Handbook... developed to accommodate alpine or nordic skiing and from which the preponderance of revenue is generated...

  11. 信用供给与中小企业融资行为研究--基于温州等三地251个中小企业的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石涛

    2014-01-01

    以温州等三地251个中小企业为样本,运用PROBIT模型,深入分析在国家金融政策偏紧的情况下,信用供给与中小企业融资行为的关系。发现年龄、发展困境与抵押品提供之间呈现负向关系,教育程度、抵押品类型、加速贷款的原因、同一年机构贷款的次数与抵押品提供之间呈现正向关系;企业申贷往金融机构跑的次数、贷款路径的选择对参与评级行为产生负向影响,教育程度、同一机构年贷款次数、选择参加此类机构的原因、是否考虑信用对参与评级行为产生正向影响;年龄、流动资产、抵押品类型、选择此类机构的原因、是否参加评级对融资路径的选择产生负向影响,销售总额、加速贷款的原因、是否参加社会金融组织、是否选择抵押品对融资机构路径的选择产生正向影响。为此,必须创新金融服务,提高中小企业融资效率。%The credit supply is an important factor which affects the behavior of SME. Under the back-ground of fiscal austerity, and based on the sample from the city of Wenzhou et al, by using the method of PROBIT, this paper analysis the relationship between the supply of credit and the financing behavior of SME. We found that:the relationship between age, development difficulties and collateral provide is negative;educational level, collateral types, the cause which accelerated loan, the time of loan from the same institution in one year and collateral provide is positive. The relationship between the time of loan application from finance institution, the path of loan choosing and the action of rating is negative;the re-lationship between the educational level, the time of loans in the same institution, the cause of choose institution, whether to consider participation in the credit rating and the action of rating is positive. The relationship between age, current assets, collateral type, the cause of choose

  12. STAT3RNA干扰对脑胶质瘤U251细胞活性氧含量及DNA损伤的影响%Effects of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 RNAi on content of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in glioma cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玲; 李峰生; 董波; 刘丽卉; 刘青杰; 陈肖华; 毛秉智

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) RNAi on the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the DNA damage in glioma cells.Methods Glioma cells of the line U251 cells were cultured and transfected with STAT3 RNAi plasmid (pSilencer2.1-STAT3,STAT3 group) and pSilencer2.1-GFP (GFP control group) respectively.Part of the U251 cells were irradiated with γ-rays of 60Co as positive control group of smear phenomenon.The levels of ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cells were detected 24,48,and 72 h later by flow cytometry and fluorescence chamoluminescence analyzer,respectively.The DNA damage in the transfected U251 cells was examined by using single cell gel electrophoresis assay,and the cell cycle distribution was examined using FACS PI staining 12,24,and 36 h later.Results At 24 h after the transfection,the ROS level of the siSTAT3-transfected ceils was 8.91 times that of the control group (F = 89.296,P < 0.05),and returned to the normal level 48 h later.There were not significant differences in the MDA level of the cells 24,48,and 72 h later between the siSTAT3 group and siGFP group.Compared with the 8 Gy irradiation positive group with obvious smear phenomenon,smear phenomenon was shown in part of the ceils in the siSTAT3 group 6 h later,became less 12 h later,and disappeared completely 24 h later.Compared with the control group,lag of S stage rate was 17.22% and the lag of G2/M stage rate was 6.4% 12 h later in the siSTAT-transfected group,and the G0/G1 stage lag rate was 18.44% 24 h later,and the lag of S stage rate was 17.99% 36 h later.Conclusions Inhibition of STAT3 results in the change of oxidoreduction status in glioma cells,as well as damage and reparation of DNA.%目的 探讨STAT3 RNA干扰(RNAi)对脑胶质瘤U251细胞活性氧含量及DNA损伤的影响.方法 利用构建好的STAT3 RNAi载体(pSilencer2.1-STAT3,STAT3组)和pSileneer2.1-GFP(RNAi对照组)分别转染U251

  13. OER of californium-252 at low dose rate for growth inhibition in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OER of 252Cf, at low dose rate, has been determined for growth inhibition in Vicia faba roots. A new strain ''BelB'' was used; it was found to be more resistant to prolonged anoxia. Two sets of linear 252Cf sources were used (linear activity 0.31 and 0.47 (μg.cm-1)) in somewhat different geometrical arrangements. The (n+γ) 252Cf dose rates at the level of the root tips were 0.11 and 0.13 Gy.h-1 respectively. The relative contribution of the γ component Dsub(γ) to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) at the level of the root tips was evaluated Dsub(γ)/Dsub(n+γ)=0.35 for the first source-geometry and 0.42 for the second source-geometry. The reference radiation was the γ emission of 192Ir, used in the same geometrical conditions and for similar irradiation times. Irradiations performed in aerobic and anoxic conditions were alternated. OER values of 1.4 +- 0.1 and 1.5 +- 0.1 were observed for the 252Cf emission with the first and second source-geometry respectively. The corresponding OER values for 192Ir were 2.3 +- 0.2 and 2.6 +- 0.1; the derived oxygen gain factors were then equal to 1.6 and 1.7 repectively

  14. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of sediment using a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a 252Cf source to the neutron activation analysis of several elements in small (approximately 1.5 in. in dia) cores was studied using high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy and manual data reduction. (U.S.)

  15. Effect of methylation levels of GDNF gene promoterⅠregion on its transcription in glioma U251 cells%胶质瘤细胞GDNF基因启动子Ⅰ区甲基化水平对其基因转录的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    续继军; 孟铸; 李志鹏; 陈欣; 任庆先; 秦汉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨胶质瘤细胞胶质细胞原性神经营养因子(GDNF)基因启动子Ⅰ区甲基化水平对其基因转录的影响。方法体外培养胶质瘤U251细胞,加入不同浓度5-氮杂胞苷(浓度分别为1、5、10和20μmol/L)干预,以加入PBS为对照。采用重亚硫酸盐测序法测定GDNF基因启动子Ⅰ区甲基化水平,RT-PCR检测GDNF mRNA的表达。结果与PBS组相比,1μmol/L 5-氮杂胞苷对GDNF基因启动子Ⅰ区甲基化水平无显著影响(P>0.05),5、10和20μmol/L 5-氮杂胞苷均显著降低其甲基化水平(P0.05),5μmol/L 5-氮杂胞苷显著增加其表达水平(P0.05). Conclusion The demethylation of GDNF gene promoterⅠregion, which is produced by 5-aza-CR, may influence the expression of GDNF in U251 cell.

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHS251 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ibrary D Homo sapiens genomic clone Plate=3113 Col=14 Row=F, genomic survey sequence. 44 0.055 2 DT661445 |DT661445.1 est_e_glacial...is75 RWS Eubalaena glacialis cDNA, mRNA sequence. 46 0.71 1 AC116986 |AC116986.2 Dict

  17. 24 CFR 983.251 - How participants are selected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) The protections for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in 25 CFR part 5.... (However, the PHA may deny assistance for the grounds specified in 24 CFR 982.552 and 982.553.) Admission of such families is not subject to income-targeting under 24 CFR 982.201(b)(2)(i), and such...

  18. 48 CFR 952.251-70 - Contractor employee travel discounts.

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    2010-10-01

    ... eligible for GSA contract city pair fares. (c) Discount rail service. AMTRAK voluntarily offers discounts... employees. (d) Hotels/motels. Many lodging providers extend their discount rates for Federal employees to... NAME OF TRAVELER), the bearer of this letter is an employee of (COMPANY NAME) which has a contract...

  19. 37 CFR 251.35 - Outside employment and other activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arbitrator shall— (1) Engage in any outside business or other activity that would cause a reasonable person to question the arbitrator's ability to render an impartial decision; (2) Accept any speaking... the arbitrator's knowledge and acquiescence to the arbitrator's parent, sibling, spouse, child,...

  20. 37 CFR 251.37 - Use of nonpublic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arbitrator shall disclose in any manner any information contained in filings, pleadings, or evidence that the arbitration panel has ruled to be confidential in nature. (b) Unless required by law, no arbitrator shall...) The CARP report before its submission to the Librarian of Congress. (c) No arbitrator shall engage...

  1. 37 CFR 251.32 - Financial disclosure statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nomination, each nominated arbitrator shall file with the Librarian of Congress a confidential financial... for which he or she has the financial conflict, except— (1) The listed arbitrator may divest himself...) The listed arbitrator may offer to disclose on the record the conflict of interest...

  2. 24 CFR 251.2 - GNMA right to assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... right to assignment. If the lender-issuer defaults on its obligations under the GNMA Mortgage-Backed...-issuer, GNMA will have the right to perfect an assignment of the mortgage to itself. However, before exercising this right, GNMA will attempt to have the Mortgage assigned to another eligible coinsuring...

  3. 7 CFR 3550.251 - Property management and disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... does not meet cost-effective energy conservation standards, it will disclose the reasons why. The deed... until it is decent, safe, and sanitary and meets the RHS cost-effective energy conservation standards... tribe on a first-come, first-served basis. (4) Reservation of program REO properties. (i) Program...

  4. 7 CFR 764.251 - Operating loan uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reorganizing a farm to improve its profitability; (2) Purchase of livestock, including poultry, farm equipment... non-compliance with the standards will cause substantial economic injury; (9) Borrower training costs... improve the farm's profitability provided the applicant has refinanced direct or guaranteed OL loans...

  5. 36 CFR 251.95 - Authority of reviewing officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reviewing Officer may issue one decision in cases involving separate reviews filed pursuant to 36 CFR part... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of reviewing....95 Authority of reviewing officer. (a) Discretion to establish procedures. A Reviewing Officer...

  6. 7 CFR 1209.251 - Payment of assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... mushrooms, as principal or as an agent, broker, or consignee for any person who produces mushrooms outside the United States for marketing in the United States shall be considered an importer. (d)...

  7. 36 CFR 251.56 - Terms and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... direction contained in land management and other plans; (ii) Public benefits provided; (iii) Cost and life expectancy of the authorized facilities; (iv) Financial arrangements for the project; and (v) The life...) Protect other lawful users of the lands adjacent to or occupied by such use; (D) Protect lives...

  8. 76 FR 251 - Country of Origin Labeling of Packed Honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... final rule published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2009 (74 FR 32389) to include provisions for... Service 7 CFR Part 52 RIN 0581-AC89 Country of Origin Labeling of Packed Honey AGENCY: Agricultural..., establishing new regulations addressing country of origin labeling for packed honey bearing any official...

  9. 36 CFR 251.55 - Nature of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... structures and conduct such activities as is specified in the special use authorization. The holder may... determined by the authorized officer for any mineral and vegetative materials (including timber) to be...

  10. 36 CFR 251.83 - Decisions not appealable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act denials under 7 CFR part 1 or Privacy Act determinations under 7 CFR 1.118. (c... only reviewable under 36 CFR part 217. (m) Decisions related to rehabilitation of National Forest... archaeological violations under 36 CFR 296.15 or for violations of prohibitions and orders under 36 CFR part...

  11. Dicty_cDB: SHC251 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 98 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.24 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5'..., mRNA sequence. 48 0.24 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month a...dults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', m

  12. 29 CFR 1926.251 - Rigging equipment for material handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-shaped links, welded or mechanical coupling links, or other attachments, when used with alloy steel... being tightened around the load. (11) Shock loading is prohibited. (12) A sling shall not be pulled from... hidden tuck splice (IWRC) use values in HT columns. MS=Mechanical Splice. S=Swaged or Zinc Poured...

  13. 36 CFR 251.80 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scope. (a) This subpart provides a process by which those who hold or, in certain instances, those who apply for written authorizations to occupy and use National Forest System lands, may appeal a written...) The rules in this subpart seek to offer appellants a fair and deliberate process for appealing...

  14. Time Warp Operating System, Version 2.5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenot, Steven F.; Gieselman, John S.; Hawley, Lawrence R.; Peterson, Judy; Presley, Matthew T.; Reiher, Peter L.; Springer, Paul L.; Tupman, John R.; Wedel, John J., Jr.; Wieland, Frederick P.; Younger, Herbert C.

    1993-01-01

    Time Warp Operating System, TWOS, is special purpose computer program designed to support parallel simulation of discrete events. Complete implementation of Time Warp software mechanism, which implements distributed protocol for virtual synchronization based on rollback of processes and annihilation of messages. Supports simulations and other computations in which both virtual time and dynamic load balancing used. Program utilizes underlying resources of operating system. Written in C programming language.

  15. Dicty_cDB: AFO251 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Pyrocystis lunula actin mRNA, comp... 252 3e-66 AY221950_1( AY221950 |pid:none) Pseudo-nitzschia multise...ries actin... 252 3e-66 protein update 2009. 4.26 PSORT psg: 0.84 gvh: 0.59 alm: 0.

  16. 37 CFR 251.63 - Consideration of petition; settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF... the case of a settlement among the parties to a proceeding, the Librarian may, upon the request of the... adopt the rate embodied in the proposed settlement without convening an arbitration panel, provided...

  17. 37 CFR 251.33 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE... report to the Librarian, and, in the case of a remand, from the time of their reconvening to the time...

  18. 37 CFR 251.38 - Billing and commitment to standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF... case of an arbitrator who resides outside the Washington, DC metropolitan area, for travel,...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #251 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. Raman and absorption spectrophotometric studies of selected lanthanide, californium-doped lanthanide, and actinide trihalides in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid-state absorption spectra of Cf(III) ions as a dopant in lanthanide trihalide hosts (LnCl3: Ln = Ce, Sm, and Y; LnBr3: Ln = Ce, Sm, Tb, and Y; LnI3: Ln = Ce and Y) have been recorded. The spectra of Cf(III) have been correlated with the various crystal structures. The phonon Raman spectra and solid-state absorption spectra of PmF3, PmCl3, PmBr3, and two crystal modifications of PmI3 have been recorded. Symmetry assignments have been made for the Raman-active bands for these trihalides and also the sesquioxide. The room-temperature absorption spectra have been correlated to crystal field effects. The symmetry assignments of the Raman-active phonon modes have been made based on polarized Raman spectra from single crystals of YF3-type orthorhombic TbF3 and PuBr3-type orthorhombic NdBr3. Raman spectra of other isostructural lanthanide compounds have been recorded and compared. Symmetry assignments for these compounds have been made by analogy to the single-crystal assignments. Raman spectra have been obtained and catalogued for a number of actinide compounds. Symmetry assignments have been made for the observed Raman-active phonon bands in this work based on the assignments made for isostructural lanthanide compounds. 29 figs., 22 tabs

  1. Oxidation-reduction properties of americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium, and thermodynamic consequences for the 5f series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amalgamation of 5f elements from Am to Fm has been studied by using 241Am, 244Cm, 249Bk, 249Cf, 252Cf, 253Es, 254Es, 252Fm and 255Fm with two electrochemical methods, radiocoulometry and radiopolarography, perfectly adapted to investigate extremely diluted solutions when the concentration of electroactive species is as low as 10-16M. The theory of radiocoulometry has been developed in the general cases of reversible and irreversible electrode process. It has been used to interpret the experimental data on the kinetic curves of amalgamation, and to estimate the standard rate constant of the electrode process in complexing medium (citric). On the other hand the radiopolarographic method has been applied to study the mechanism of reduction at the dropping mercury electrode of cations M3+ in aqueous medium to the metal M with formation of amalgam. The results are exploited into two directions: 1- Acquisition of some data concerning the oxidation-reduction properties of elements from Am to Fm. Therefore the standard electrode E0 [M(III-0)] potentials for Bk, Cf and Es, and the standard electrode E0 [M(II-0)] potential for Fm are estimated and the relative stability of each oxidation state (from II to VII) of 5f elements is discussed; 2- Acquisition of unknown thermodynamic data on transcalifornium elements. Correlations between 4f and 5f elements are precised and some divergences appear for the second half of 4f and 5f series (i.e. for 65<=Z<=71 and 97<=Z<=103)

  2. Determination of the optimum-size californium-252 neutron source for borehole capture gamma-ray analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senftle, F.E.; Macy, R.J.; Mikesell, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The fast- and thermal-neutron fluence rates from a 3.7 ??g 252Cf neutron source in a simulated borehole have been measured as a function of the source-to-detector distance using air, water, coal, iron ore-concrete mix, and dry sand as borehole media. Gamma-ray intensity measurements were made for specific spectral lines at low and high energies for the same range of source-to-detector distances in the iron ore-concrete mix and in coal. Integral gamma-ray counts across the entire spectrum were also made at each source-to-detector distance. From these data, the specific neutron-damage rate, and the critical count-rate criteria, we show that in an iron ore-concrete mix (low hydrogen concentration), 252Cf neutron sources of 2-40 ??g are suitable. The source size required for optimum gamma-ray sensitivity depends on the energy of the gamma ray being measured. In a hydrogeneous medium such as coal, similar measurements were made. The results show that sources from 2 to 20 ??g are suitable to obtain the highest gamma-ray sensitivity, again depending on the energy of the gamma ray being measured. In a hydrogeneous medium, significant improvement in sensitivity can be achieved by using faster electronics; in iron ore, it cannot. ?? 1979 North-Holland Publishing Co.

  3. Research and experimental work at Groote Schuur Hospital and the University of Cape Town using californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been undertaken to determine the high-LET and low-LET components of the absorbed dose from neutron beams. This is achieved by measuring the fluxes of the high-LET and low-LET radiations in a tissue-equivalent phantom individually and simultaneously using a scintillation probe fitted with a pulse shape discriminator. This system was successfully used with a 22 MeV neutron beam from the T(d,n) reaction and has been employed with 252Cf sources. Results obtained in the low-energy ranges (up to 3 MeV) indicate that the electron counts exceed the high-LET counts by a factor of 2 to 3. These results are related to the absorbed dose. Calculations have also been undertaken to establish whether the Paterson-Parker system could be used for the design of 252Cf treatments and the optimum needle activities to yield the desired dose. Experiments are under way to determine the variation of RBE and OER for 252Cf radiations around the source. The inhibition of root growth in Vicia Faba is being used to determine any such effects. Dose rates comparable to that employed in interstitial radiotherapy are being aimed at. A study of dose fractionation effects is also being undertaken. (author)

  4. Radiological Characterization Technical Report on Californium-252 Sealed Source Transuranic Debris Waste for the Off-Site Source Recovery Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-24

    This document describes the development and approach for the radiological characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The report combines information on the nuclear material content of each individual source (mass or activity and date of manufacture) with information and data on the radionuclide distributions within the originating nuclear material. This approach allows for complete and accurate characterization of the waste container without the need to take additional measurements. The radionuclide uncertainties, developed from acceptable knowledge (AK) information regarding the source material, are applied to the summed activities in the drum. The AK information used in the characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources has been qualified by the peer review process, which has been reviewed and accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  5. Accurate determination of Curium and Californium isotopic ratios by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 248Cm samples for transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments including the mini-INCA (INcineration of Actinides) project for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron fluxes, in view of proposing solutions to reduce the radiotoxicity of long-lived nuclear wastes. In this context, a Cm sample enriched in 248Cm (∼97 %) was irradiated in thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). This work describes a quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QMS) analytical procedure for precise and accurate isotopic composition determination of Cm before sample irradiation and of Cm and Cf after sample irradiation. The factors that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of isotopic ratio measurements by ICP-QMS, such as peak centre correction, detector dead time, mass bias, abundance sensitivity and hydrides formation, instrumental background, and memory blank were carefully evaluated and corrected. Uncertainties of the isotopic ratios, taking into account internal precision of isotope ratio measurements, peak tailing, and hydrides formations ranged from 0.3% to 1.3%. This uncertainties range is quite acceptable for the nuclear data to be used in transmutation studies.

  6. Rational design of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251 to increase alpha-cyclodextrin production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, JCM; Penninga, D; van Alebeek, GJWM; Smith, LM; Dijkstra, BW; Dijkhuizen, L

    2000-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases (CGTase) (EC;2.4.1.19) are extracellular bacterial enzymes that generate cyclodextrins from starch. All known CGTases produce mixtures of alpha, beta, and gamma-cyclodextrins. A maltononaose inhibitor bound to the active site of the CGTase from Bacillus circulans st

  7. (E-1-Phenyl-2-({5-[(1E-(2-phenylhydrazin-1-ylidenemethyl]-2-thienyl}methylidenehydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Wardell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C18H16N4S, adopts a U-shape with the aromatic groups lying syn and orientated in the same direction as the thiophene S atom. The conformation about each of the C=N bonds is E. Overall, the molecule is curved as seen in the dihedral angle of 30.26 (19° formed between the terminal benzene rings. In the crystal, supramolecular chains along the c axis are formed by a combination of N—H...N hydrogen bonds and N—H...π interactions.

  8. Medes and Persians: Reflections on Elusive Empires. 2002, iv + 251 p. (Ars Orientalis XXXII).

    OpenAIRE

    Boucharlat, Rémy

    2005-01-01

    Numéro spécial de la revue. Dans son introduction « Medes and Persians: The State of Things », pp. 1-16, l’éditrice explicite les objectifs du projet et les méthodes mises en œuvre : « the study of artistic production and the historiographic burden of that study in a particular context », les objets étudiés étant soit des realia soit des idées. L’étude des Mèdes et des Perses est largement dépendante de sources textuelles secondaires, extérieures, grecques, et souvent postérieures aux groupes...

  9. 7 CFR 1726.251 - Prior approved contract modification related to price escalation on transmission equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... engineer, if applicable) will select the indexes for the particular item to be used in the price adjustment... Petroleum Rate (057) from the month in which the bids are opened to the month in which the oil is...

  10. 37 CFR 251.34 - Gifts and other things of monetary value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under circumstances in which it is clear that the gift is motivated by a family relationship or personal... relationship to the arbitrator, or (2) Given to any other person, including any charitable organization, on...

  11. THE CANNABINOID RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AM251 INCREASES PARAOXON AND CHLORPYRIFOS OXON TOXICITY IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jing; Pope, Carey

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus anticholinesterases (OPs) elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to acetylcholine accumulation and overstimulation of cholinergic receptors. Endocannabinoids (eCBs, e.g., arachidonoyl ethanolamide [AEA] and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol [2-AG]) are neuromodulators that regulate neurotransmission by reducing neurotransmitter release. The eCBs are degraded by the enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, primarily involved in hydrolysis of AEA) and m...

  12. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important implications for the targeting of HIV treatment to these diverse compartments.

  13. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles and the use of related services by the Contractor shall be in accordance with 41 CFR 101-39 and 41 CFR 101-38.301-1. (End of clause) ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interagency...

  14. Decree no. 2004-251 from March 19, 2004 relative to public utility obligations in the gas sector; Decret no. 2004-251 du 19 mars 2004 relatif aux obligations de service public dans le secteur du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This decree defines the public utility obligations that gas suppliers and gas facility operators (transportation and distribution networks, underground storage facilities, LNG facilities) have to fulfill in order to ensure without interruption the continuity of gas supplies to their clients. (J.S.)

  15. 76 FR 16038 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Prepaid Card Marketing Customer Survey, CS-10-251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., IRS is hoping to leverage the theory and principles of social marketing. Social marketing principles and practices apply marketing principles to social programs. This data will provide the IRS with... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Prepaid Card Marketing Customer...

  16. A new radiation infrastructure for the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy, based on version 2.51)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietmüller, Simone; Jöckel, Patrick; Tost, Holger; Kunze, Markus; Gellhorn, Catrin; Brinkop, Sabine; Frömming, Christine; Ponater, Michael; Steil, Benedikt; Lauer, Axel; Hendricks, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) provides an interface to couple submodels to a base model via a highly flexible data management facility (Jöckel et al., 2010). In the present paper we present the four new radiation related submodels RAD, AEROPT, CLOUDOPT, and ORBIT. The submodel RAD (including the shortwave radiation scheme RAD_FUBRAD) simulates the radiative transfer, the submodel AEROPT calculates the aerosol optical properties, the submodel CLOUDOPT calculates the cloud optical properties, and the submodel ORBIT is responsible for Earth orbit calculations. These submodels are coupled via the standard MESSy infrastructure and are largely based on the original radiation scheme of the general circulation model ECHAM5, however, expanded with additional features. These features comprise, among others, user-friendly and flexibly controllable (by namelists) online radiative forcing calculations by multiple diagnostic calls of the radiation routines. With this, it is now possible to calculate radiative forcing (instantaneous as well as stratosphere adjusted) of various greenhouse gases simultaneously in only one simulation, as well as the radiative forcing of cloud perturbations. Examples of online radiative forcing calculations in the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model are presented.

  17. Silver nanoparticles outperform gold nanoparticles in radiosensitizing U251 cells in vitro and in an intracranial mouse model of glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peidang; Jin, Haizhen; Guo, Zhirui; Ma, Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Dongdong; Wu, Hao; Gu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy performs an important function in the treatment of cancer, but resistance of tumor cells to radiation still remains a serious concern. More research on more effective radiosensitizers is urgently needed to overcome such resistance and thereby improve the treatment outcome. The goal of this study was to evaluate and compare the radiosensitizing efficacies of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on glioma at clinically relevant megavoltage energies. Both AuNPs and AgNPs potentiated the in vitro and in vivo antiglioma effects of radiation. AgNPs showed more powerful radiosensitizing ability than AuNPs at the same mass and molar concentrations, leading to a higher rate of apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, the combination of AgNPs with radiation significantly increased the levels of autophagy as compared with AuNPs plus radiation. These findings suggest the potential application of AgNPs as a highly effective nano-radiosensitizer for the treatment of glioma. PMID:27757033

  18. (E-1-(3-Nitrophenyl-2-({5-[(1E-2-(3-nitrophenylhydrazin-1-ylidenemethyl]-2-thienyl}methylidenehydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. de Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C18H14N6O4S, adopts a U-shape with the aromatic groups lying syn and oriented in the same direction as the thiophene S atom. Twists away from planarity are evident with the maximum deviation being found for a terminal nitro group: C/C/N/O = 19.0 (3°. The conformation about each of the C=N bonds is E. In the crystal, centrosymmetrically related molecules are connected via N—H...Onitro hydrogen bonds, forming 14-membered {...HNC3NO}2 synthons. These are linked into layers via C—H...Onitro interactions with the primary interactions between layers being of the type C—H...π, where the π-system is the thiophene ring.

  19. 47 CFR 51.321 - Methods of obtaining interconnection and access to unbundled elements under section 251 of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of obtaining interconnection and access... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Additional Obligations of Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers § 51.321 Methods of obtaining interconnection and access...

  20. Susceptibility to Ulcerative Colitis and Genetic Polymorphisms of A251G SOD1 and C-262T CAT

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kheshen Gadier; Moeini Maryam; Saadat Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reactive oxygen species can attack and damage almost every molecule found in living cells, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and DNA. For this reason, their production is normally tightly controlled. Among the most important defenses against these radicals are the super oxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and catalase (CAT). In creasing attention has been given to the role of reactive oxygen metabolites in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), which is defined as an idio...

  1. 36 CFR 251.15 - Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise of mineral rights reserved in conveyances to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed for any resultant damage to it. (3) All structures, other improvements, and materials shall be... otherwise dispose of said structures, other improvements, and materials at the permittee's expense, or in... States. (4) Timber and/or young growth cut or destroyed in connection with exercise of the reserved...

  2. Review of RBE and OER values for Cf-neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252, an isotope emitting neutrons, gamma photons and alpha particles, is being investigated for its practical use in intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy. A review of published RBE and OER values for californium neutrons as a function of dose rate for a variety of biological endpoints is given. (Auth.)

  3. Effect of CD8+ Lymphocyte Depletion on Virus Containment after Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251 Challenge of Live Attenuated SIVmac239Δ3-Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Jörn E.; Johnson, R. Paul; McClure, Harold M.; Manson, Kelledy H.; Wyand, Michael S.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Khunkhun, Rajinder S.; McEvers, Kimberly J.; Gillis, Jacqueline; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Grosschupff, Gudrun; Racz, Paul; Tenner-Racz, Klara

    2005-01-01

    Although live attenuated vaccines can provide potent protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenges, the specific immune responses that confer this protection have not been determined. To test whether cellular immune responses mediated by CD8+ lymphocytes contribute to this vaccine-induced protection, we depleted rhesus macaques vaccinated with the live attenuated virus SIVmac239Δ3 of CD8+ lymphocytes and then challenged them with SIV...

  4. The role of arginine 47 in the cyclization and coupling reactions of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251 - Implications for product inhibition and product specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, JCM; Dijkstra, BW; Dijkhuizen, L

    2000-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) (EC 2.4.1.19) is used for the industrial production of cyclodextrins. Its application, however, is hampered by the limited cyclodextrin product specificity and the strong inhibitory effect of cyclodextrins on CGTase activity. Recent structural studies have i

  5. 75 FR 43818 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-50, V-251, and V-313 in the Vicinity of Decatur, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN: 2120-AA66 Amendment of VOR Federal Airways...

  6. RESGPSLNS_JD251.SHP: Ship Trackline Along Which Continuous Resistivity Profile (CRP) Data was Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 8, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  7. SU-E-J-251: Incorporation of Pre-Therapy 18F-FDG Uptake with CT Texture Features in a Predictive Model for Radiation Pneumonitis Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether the addition of standardized uptake value (SUV) statistical variables to CT lung texture features can improve a predictive model of radiation pneumonitis (RP) development in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: Anonymized data from 96 esophageal cancer patients (18 RP-positive cases of Grade ≥ 2) were retrospectively collected including pre-therapy PET/CT scans, pre-/posttherapy diagnostic CT scans and RP status. Twenty texture features (firstorder, fractal, Laws’ filter and gray-level co-occurrence matrix) were calculated from diagnostic CT scans and compared in anatomically matched regions of the lung. The mean, maximum, standard deviation, and 50th–95th percentiles of the SUV values for all lung voxels in the corresponding PET scans were acquired. For each texture feature, a logistic regression-based classifier consisting of (1) the average change in that texture feature value between the pre- and post-therapy CT scans and (2) the pre-therapy SUV standard deviation (SUVSD) was created. The RP-classification performance of each logistic regression model was compared to the performance of its texture feature alone by computing areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). T-tests were performed to determine whether the mean AUC across texture features changed significantly when SUVSD was added to the classifier. Results: The AUC for single-texturefeature classifiers ranged from 0.58–0.81 in high-dose (≥ 30 Gy) regions of the lungs and from 0.53–0.71 in low-dose (< 10 Gy) regions. Adding SUVSD in a logistic regression model using a 50/50 data partition for training and testing significantly increased the mean AUC by 0.08, 0.06 and 0.04 in the low-, medium- and high-dose regions, respectively. Conclusion: Addition of SUVSD from a pre-therapy PET scan to a single CT-based texture feature improves RP-classification performance on average. These findings demonstrate the potential for more accurate prediction of RP using information from multiple imaging modalities. Supported, in part, by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the National Institutes of Health under grant number T32 EB002103; SGA receives royalties and licensing fees through the University of Chicago for computer-aided diagnosis technology. HA receives royalties through the University of Chicago for computer-aided diagnosis technology

  8. Supplementary Info. to T. Elliot & P.L. Younger, Detection of mixing dynamics during pumping of a flooded coal mine. Groundwater, 52(2): 251–263

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot, Trevor; Younger, P. L.

    2013-01-01

    Contains 9 pages of text covering the History of the Deerplay workings, Test pumping of the Abstraction Borehole on Deerplay Moor, Methodology, Mineral Saturation Indices, Sulfur isotope systematics. Tables S1 and S2. Figures S1 to S5.

  9. « The Petrography of Iranian Safavid Ceramics ». Journal of Archaeological Science, 30 (2003), pp. 251-261.

    OpenAIRE

    Miroudot, Delphine

    2005-01-01

    L’analyse pétrographique (par observation de lames minces au microscope polarisant) de céramiques iraniennes d’époque safavide a permis de caractériser cinq groupes que les auteurs tentent d’attribuer aux grands centres de production documentés par les sources historiques (tout particulièrement Mashhad, Isfahan, Kirman). En conclusion, ils confrontent leurs résultats aux attributions proposées voici quelques décennies par Arthur Lane selon des critères d’ordre stylistique ; elles se confirmen...

  10. The influence of oral and written information on antiretroviral drugs in the knowledge of users with HIV/AIDS - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p251

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Flávia de Castro Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of oral and written transmission of information on antiretroviral drugs in knowledge generation in their users and in the retention of information by them. Method: In the first phase, 18 individuals with HIV/AIDS treated at a referral hospital analyzed three brochures containing information on antiretroviral drugs and chose the best. In the second phase, three groups of 47 individuals with HIV/AIDS who received antiretroviral drugs in the same hospital were formed. The first group, considered the control group (group “C” received their medication at the pharmacy as usual, without any additional information; the second group (group “F” received a brochure with information about the drug in use, which should be read at that moment; and the third group (group “O” received orally, the same information detailed in the brochure. All answered a questionnaire that assessed their knowledge on the referred drug. Results: The responses of group “O” had a higher level of agreement with the information they received regarding action of the drug in the body (78.7%, duration of treatment (83%, procedure when missing a dose (91.5% and storage (95.7%. Conclusion: The transmission of information, whether oral or written, generates knowledge and the instructions and information when orally transmitted, in a detailed manner and in appropriate language, are more easily understood and assimilated. It appears also that, in the studied group, oral information resulted more immediately effective than written one.

  11. 36 CFR 251.11 - Governing mining locations under the mining laws of the United States within that portion of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cutting and removal of timber, except where clearing is necessary in connection with mining operations or to provide space for buildings or structures used in connection with mining operations, shall be conducted in accordance with the marking rules and timber sale practices applicable to the Black...

  12. 251研究植物药不可不看的几种国际主流期刊(续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ 〈Fitoterapia〉:药用植物研究国际期刊 该刊至今已连续发行了75年,是经营时间最长的药用植物研究期刊.该刊于上世纪90年代成了意大利Indena公司的出版物.Indena公司是一家专营植物提取物制造与销售的跨国公司,总部设在米兰.

  13. http://periodicos.ufsc.br/index.php/gual/article/view/1983-4535.2012v5n2p251/22582

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Costa Quintana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of virtual learning passes for the necessity of the existence of an evaluation process. Normally, this evaluation is integrated by a virtual part and another class attendance. The posting of the task becomes an important communication tool between students, teachers and tutors, as it enables the exchange of information between those involved, besides serving as a component of assessment and therefore reflecting the development of teaching-learning process.In this direction the objective of this work is in the distance to analyze the form of execution of the virtual tasks of the pupil of the course of graduation in Administration at distance. This work was elaborated, by means of a descriptive research, with analysis of content and a qualitative boarding. Concluding that the results of this study show that teachers, tutors and coordination of distance courses have attention on the needs of students in relation to time for implementation, appropriate date for posting and service to academics, that in understanding these will be key to the tasks are actually an important tool in the teaching-learning.

  14. 76 FR 61558 - Airworthiness Directives; Dowty Propellers Type R212/4-30-4/22 and R251/4-30-4/49 Propeller...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... published in the Federal Register on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27281). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe... Register on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27281) or on the determination of the cost to the public. Since we published the NPRM in the Federal Register on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27281), we changed the AD Docket No....

  15. 76 FR 27281 - Airworthiness Directives; Dowty Propellers Type R212/4-30-4/22 and R251/4-30-4/49 Propeller...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant...

  16. SU-E-J-251: Incorporation of Pre-Therapy 18F-FDG Uptake with CT Texture Features in a Predictive Model for Radiation Pneumonitis Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, G; Cunliffe, A; Armato, S; Al-Hallaq, H [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Castillo, R [Univ Texas Medical Branch of Galveston, Pearland, TX (United States); Pham, N [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Guerrero, T [Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the addition of standardized uptake value (SUV) statistical variables to CT lung texture features can improve a predictive model of radiation pneumonitis (RP) development in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: Anonymized data from 96 esophageal cancer patients (18 RP-positive cases of Grade ≥ 2) were retrospectively collected including pre-therapy PET/CT scans, pre-/posttherapy diagnostic CT scans and RP status. Twenty texture features (firstorder, fractal, Laws’ filter and gray-level co-occurrence matrix) were calculated from diagnostic CT scans and compared in anatomically matched regions of the lung. The mean, maximum, standard deviation, and 50th–95th percentiles of the SUV values for all lung voxels in the corresponding PET scans were acquired. For each texture feature, a logistic regression-based classifier consisting of (1) the average change in that texture feature value between the pre- and post-therapy CT scans and (2) the pre-therapy SUV standard deviation (SUV{sub SD}) was created. The RP-classification performance of each logistic regression model was compared to the performance of its texture feature alone by computing areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). T-tests were performed to determine whether the mean AUC across texture features changed significantly when SUV{sub SD} was added to the classifier. Results: The AUC for single-texturefeature classifiers ranged from 0.58–0.81 in high-dose (≥ 30 Gy) regions of the lungs and from 0.53–0.71 in low-dose (< 10 Gy) regions. Adding SUVSD in a logistic regression model using a 50/50 data partition for training and testing significantly increased the mean AUC by 0.08, 0.06 and 0.04 in the low-, medium- and high-dose regions, respectively. Conclusion: Addition of SUVSD from a pre-therapy PET scan to a single CT-based texture feature improves RP-classification performance on average. These findings demonstrate the potential for more accurate prediction of RP using information from multiple imaging modalities. Supported, in part, by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the National Institutes of Health under grant number T32 EB002103; SGA receives royalties and licensing fees through the University of Chicago for computer-aided diagnosis technology. HA receives royalties through the University of Chicago for computer-aided diagnosis technology.

  17. A new shipping container for an intense neutron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter (2.34 x 1012 n/s·g) used in medicine, research, and industry. The western world's sole source of this rare radioisotope is the Californium Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). A project has been initiated at the REDC to design a new Type B Californium Shipping Container. This effort is essential for future transportation of californium to meet the needs of users all over the world. The shipping container must meet all requirements for transport by motor freight, air, vessel, and rail, both domestic and foreign. There are unique problems in the design, fabrication, and licensing of a new Type B shipping container that will accommodate up to 60 milligrams of californium-252. One of the first challenges in the design phase of the project is the selection of a material to shield the high neutron flux. The more stringent safety precautions of today's world impel us to consider more exotic materials for such a purpose. The candidate materials must be examined not just for their neutron shielding properties, but also in conjunction with other properties such as thermal and structural requirements to withstand the hypothetical accident conditions. The design and building of such a container is a formidable task requiring much planning. The licensing process, with the complex, interactive federal codes, is a special challenge and may be the biggest on the project in terms of time and money

  18. Application of Cf for the quantitative measurement of nuclear reactor fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitive and rapid measurements of the quantity and geometric distribution of nuclear reactor fuel materials can be made using neutrons from californium. The neutron-induced fission rate in these materials may be measured by detection of either prompt radiations from fission or delayed radiations from radioactive fission products. A number of californium-based instruments are presently in use by the nuclear industry for purposes of process control, quality control, nuclear materials safeguards, and environmentl assessment. An Automated Fuel Rod Scanner (AFRS) is used for high-speed measurement of the uniformity of loading and total fissile content of reactor fuel rods. The fuel rods are moved first through an irradiator containing about 1 mg of californium, and subsequently through high-efficiency detectors for the measurement of fission-product gamma-rays. Multiple detectors on each of two irradiation channels are used to reduce the californium source strength requirement. The fuel loading of each 15-mm-long pellet is tested to +-10% on 100% of the plant throughput. By summing the response over length, the total fissile material content of the fuel rod is measured to better than 0.5%. An on-line computer for data processing allows the instrument to measure about 150 rods per hour with a single operator. The same activation concept is used with a 25-μg californium source in a Small Sample Assay System (SSAS) which measures the fissile content of fuel pellet sized samples with a precision of 0.5%

  19. RESGPSPNTS_JD251.SHP: Navigation, Bathymetry and Temperature Point at the Ship Position During Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collection in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 8, 2006 on USGS Cruise 06018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  20. “The Woman Warrior versus The Chinaman Pacific: Must a Chinese American Critic Choose between Feminism and Heroism?” Conflicts in Feminism. Ed. Marianne Hirsch and Evelyn Fox Keller. New York: Routledge, 1990. 234-251

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, KK

    1991-01-01

    The chapter examines the tension between white feminism and ethnic feminism as well as between men and women in Asian American literary circles. Specifically it addresses Frank Chin’s attack on Maxine Hong Kingston over her depiction of Chinese sexism in The Woman Warrior and my own position as a literary critic torn between cultural nationalism and feminism. Using the opening of Kingston’s “China Men” as my point of departure, I urge Asian American men who feel “emasculated” by white culture...

  1. Erratum to ``Eruption style and petrology of a new carbonatitic suite from the Mt. Vulture (Southern Italy): The Monticchio Lakes Formation'' [Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 78 (1997) 251 265

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppa, Francesco; Principe, Claudia

    1998-01-01

    The Monticchio Lakes Formation (MLF) is a newly identified carbonatite-melilitite tuff sequence which is exposed in the southwestern sector of the Vulture volcano. It is the youngest example (ca. 0.13 m.y.) of this type of volcanism in Italy, although other carbonatites of smaller volume, but with similar characteristics, have been discovered recently. This volcanic event occurred in isolation after a 0.35 m.y. period of inactivity at Vulture. The eruption produced two maar-type vents and formed tuff aprons mainly composed of dune beds of lapilli. Depositional features suggest that a dry surge mechanism, possibly triggered by CO 2 expansion, was dominant during tuff emplacement. The MLF event involved a mixture of carbonatite and melilitite liquids which were physically separated before the eruption. Abundant mantle xenoliths are direct evidence of the deep-seated origin of the parental magma and its high velocity of propagation towards the surface. Often, these nodules form the core of lapilli composed of concentric shells of melilitite and/or porphyritic carbonatite. Coarse-ash beds alternate with lapilli beds and consist of abundant lumps and spherulae of very fine-grained calcite immersed in a welded, highly compacted carbonatite matrix. Porphyritic carbonatite shells of the lapilli and fine-grained spherulae of calcite in the tuff matrix suggest incipient crystallisation of a carbonatite liquid in subvolcanic conditions and eruption of carbonatite-spray droplets. Dark coloured juvenile fragments mainly consist of melilite, phlogopite, calcite, apatite, perovskite, and häuyne crystals in a carbonatite or melilitite matrix. The rocks have an extremely primitive, ultramafic composition with very high Mg# (> 85) and Cr and Ni content (1500 ppm). The calcite contains high SrO, BaO and REE of up to 1.5 wt.%. Similar compositions are typical of primary, magmatic carbonates which are found in both intrusive and extrusive carbonatites. The high modal Sr-Ba-REE-rich calcite, the typical mineralogy, and the high amount of Sr-group elements identify the carbonate component as a carbonatite. The very high Mg#, mantle debris and C, O, He isotope ratios in the range of mantle values indicate a near-primary character for the carbonatite which is distinctive of a restricted group of extrusive carbonatites only found in continental rift areas.

  2. GIS AND REMOTE SENSING BASEDLAND USE LAND COVER DYNAMICS AT SEMIEN MOUNTAIS NATIONAL PARK Authors name: Gebreanenya Gebru Kidane, Email. gglove2000@gmail.com University of Gondar Phone.251 920 88 84 62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidane, G. G., III; Belay, Y. G.; Kassa, B. A.; Yimam, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study is to quantify the magnitude and rate of change of major land use/land cover types, and to identify the major drivers of change in SMNP using GIS and remote sensing. To address the pre-stated objective three landsat images of the periods between 1985, 2000 and 2015 with the time series of 15 (fifteen) years for the conceqative of 30 years land use land cover dynamics were classified and analyzed using Erdas Emagine 9.2 and ArcGIS 10 environments. The results depicted that a remarkable expansion was observed in forest cover followed by farmland and settlements between 1985 and 2015 by about 16% (22 ha/y) and 14.7% (21 ha/y) although some portions of their original extent were converted into other LUC classes. Expansion of forest cover was dominantly attributed to conversions of exposed rocks (1334.97 ha) and shrubs (1255.23 ha). These possibly attributed to conversion of some portions of exposed rocks and shrubs which were unsustainably utilized into protected areas by area closure and transformation of shrubs into forest cover. Similarly, farmlands and settlement has been expanded mainly due to area gains from grassland (984.51 ha) and forest cover (1037.25 ha). These largely associated with encroachment of farmlands and settlements into grasslands and original natural forest cover as a result of population pressure. The results also indicated that the reduction of areas under grassland, exposed volcanic rocks and shrubs by about 2.35% (5 ha/y), 18% (32 ha/y) and 11% (14 ha/y) evident because the added areas from other LUC classes could not compensate the losses, respectively. The major drivers identified in study area were civil war between 1984 and 1991 resulted in the agricultural exploitation, deforestation and illegal wildlife hunting, population pressure due to influx of settlers for the last decade. Finally revitalizing the nationally park is not only the duty of the government but also all the concerned individuals specially the communities around the park and different stock holders at different levels should be work in integrative and in synergism manner. Key Words: Dynamics, Land use, GIS, Remo sensing Email address of the authors: * gglove2000@gmail.com.

  3. A t(3;9)(q25.1;q34.3) translocation leading to OLFM1 fusion transcripts in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, OCD and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, Linea; Jensen, Lars Riff;

    2015-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a strong genetic etiology; however, finding of candidate genes is hampered by its genetic heterogeneity and the influence of non-genetic factors on disease pathogenesis. We report a case of a male patient with GTS, obsessive...

  4. Genetic variants at chromosomes 2q35, 5p12, 6q25.1, 10q26.13, and 16q12.1 influence the risk of breast cancer in men.

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Orr; Rosie Cooke; Michael Jones; Olivia Fletcher; Frank Dudbridge; Sarah Chilcott-Burns; Katarzyna Tomczyk; Peter Broderick; Richard Houlston; Alan Ashworth; Anthony Swerdlow

    2011-01-01

    Male breast cancer accounts for approximately 1% of all breast cancer. To date, risk factors for male breast cancer are poorly defined, but certain risk factors and genetic features appear common to both male and female breast cancer. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence female breast cancer risk; 12 of these have been independently replicated. To examine if these variants contribute to male breast cancer ...

  5. Genetic Variants at Chromosomes 2q35, 5p12, 6q25.1, 10q26.13, and 16q12.1 Influence the Risk of Breast Cancer in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, N.; Cooke, R; Jones, M.(Purdue University, West Lafayette, U.S.A.); Fletcher, O.; Dudbridge, F; Chilcott-Burns, S; Tomczyk, K; Broderick, P.; Houlston, R.; Ashworth, A.; Swerdlow, A.

    2011-01-01

    Male breast cancer accounts for approximately 1% of all breast cancer. To date, risk factors for male breast cancer are poorly defined, but certain risk factors and genetic features appear common to both male and female breast cancer. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence female breast cancer risk; 12 of these have been independently replicated. To examine if these variants contribute to male breast cancer ...

  6. REFLEXÕES SOBRE A ESTRATÉGIA DO OCEANO AZUL: UMA COMPARAÇÃO COM AS ESTRATÉGIAS DE ANSOFF, PORTER E HAX & WILDE DOI:10.7444/fsrj.v2i2.51

    OpenAIRE

    Ailton Conde Jussani; Patricia Viveiros de Castro Krakauer; Edison Fernandes Polo

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of the globalized environment, competitiveness has become a critical issue for business. The use of research to inform strategic decisions is thus important for firms on the path to competitiveness, regardless of their market of operation. This paper provides an overview of four strategies—Kim and Mauborgne’s Blue Ocean Strategy, Ansoff’s Matrix, Porter’s Generic Strategies, and Hax and Wilde’s Delta model—in order to find the similarities and approximations among them. App...

  7. Magnetic measurements of the transuranium elements. Progress report, January 1, 1984-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the magnetic properties of dhcp californium-249 metal indicated the presence of three regions of differing magnetic character. Additional measurements are also reported. Magnetic moments and valence states of terbium in TbF3, BaTbO3, and TbO18 are discussed. Progress on high-field operation of the micro-magnetic susceptometer is reported

  8. Application of PGNAA to preincineration assay of combustible waste for chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Pawelko, R.J.; Greenwood, R.C. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis method is being developed for on-stream pre-incineration assay of low level radioactive combustible waste for it`s chlorine content. The assay system consists of three californium 252 sources and a germanium or scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer.

  9. Discovery of Isotopes of the Transuranium Elements with 93 <= Z <= 98

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and five isotopes of the transuranium elements neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium and californium have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  10. Source storage and transfer cask: Users Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage and shield cask for the dual californium source is designed to shield and transport up to 3.7 mg (2 Ci) of 252Cf. the cask meets Department of Transportation (DOT) license requirements for Type A materials (DOT-7A). The cask is designed to transfer sources to and from the Flourinel and Fuel Storage (FAST) facility delayed-neutron interrogator. Californium sources placed in the cask must be encapsulated in the SR-CF-100 package and attached to Teleflex cables. The cask contains two source locations. Each location contains a gear box that allows a Teleflex cable to be remotely moved by a hand crank into and out of the cask. This transfer procedure permits sources to be easily removed and inserted into the delayed-neutron interrogator and reduces personnel radiation exposure during transfer. The radiation dose rate with the maximum allowable quantity of californium (3.7 mg) in the cask is 30 mR/h at the surface and less than 2 mR/h 1 m from the cask surface. This manual contains information about the cask, californium sources, describes the method to ship the cask, and how to insert and remove sources from the cask. 28 figs

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14270-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |||||||||| Sbjct: 191 gttcaacacaatgcngntcngcaacatgctganccagntgccaagccagccgaattaacc 250 Query: 251 natgcccnagaattncaacaagaacaccna...||||||| Sbjct: 251 natgcccnagaattncaacaagaacaccnaagncaagnagctctcgcaaaacnncnngct 3...10 Query: 311 cgtattagncaacaaaatcntgtcaaacaagcngcccnanagaaacgaacctcgcnacgt 370 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||...||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 311 cgtattagncaacaaaatcntgtcaaacaagcngcccnanagaaacgaacctcgcnacgt 370 ...ct: 219 cngctgctcngggggctgccaanccagttcaacacaatgcngntcngcaacatgctganc 160 Query: 225 cagntgccaagccagccgaattaaccnatgcccna

  12. 78 FR 33705 - Postdecisional Administrative Review Process for Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ..., the Department adopted an administrative appeal rule at 36 CFR part 251, subpart C (54 FR 3362) (251... Administrative Review Process for Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands and Resources AGENCY: USDA... and is not part of the administrative review process under the 251 Appeal Rule. Public Involvement...

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03802-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AY675508 |pid:none) Paragonimus westermani Mn-SOD mRNA... 251 3e-65 EF633506_1( EF633506 |pid:none) Gink...ein, m... 251 2e-65 AF242310_1( AF242310 |pid:none) Euphorbia esula manganese superoxi... 251 2e-65 AY675508

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08029-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 81 |pid:none) Tanichthys albonubes beta-actin mR... 251 6e-65 ( P45886 ) RecName: Full=Actin-3, muscle-speci...fic; &L12255_1(L122... 251 6e-65 EU128482_1( EU128482 |pid:none) Tanichthys albonubes beta-actin ge... 251 6

  15. Characterization of berkelium(III) dipicolinate and borate compounds in solution and the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Mark A; Cary, Samantha K; Johnson, Jason A; Baumbach, Ryan E; Arico, Alexandra A; Luckey, Morgan; Urban, Matthew; Wang, Jamie C; Polinski, Matthew J; Chemey, Alexander; Liu, Guokui; Chen, Kuan-Wen; Van Cleve, Shelley M; Marsh, Matthew L; Eaton, Teresa M; van de Burgt, Lambertus J; Gray, Ashley L; Hobart, David E; Hanson, Kenneth; Maron, Laurent; Gendron, Frédéric; Autschbach, Jochen; Speldrich, Manfred; Kögerler, Paul; Yang, Ping; Braley, Jenifer; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2016-08-26

    Berkelium is positioned at a crucial location in the actinide series between the inherently stable half-filled 5f(7) configuration of curium and the abrupt transition in chemical behavior created by the onset of a metastable divalent state that starts at californium. However, the mere 320-day half-life of berkelium's only available isotope, (249)Bk, has hindered in-depth studies of the element's coordination chemistry. Herein, we report the synthesis and detailed solid-state and solution-phase characterization of a berkelium coordination complex, Bk(III)tris(dipicolinate), as well as a chemically distinct Bk(III) borate material for comparison. We demonstrate that berkelium's complexation is analogous to that of californium. However, from a range of spectroscopic techniques and quantum mechanical calculations, it is clear that spin-orbit coupling contributes significantly to berkelium's multiconfigurational ground state. PMID:27563098

  16. Measurement of the energy spectra of fission fragments using nuclear track detectors and digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy spectra of fission fragments were determined using a Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM) supported by digital image analysis and numerical data processing using a standard personal computer. The analysis of a californium (252Cf) spectrum with this approach shows improvement compared with the values reported previously using the standard procedure, in terms of resolution and accuracy. This new method adds full automation to the technical advantages and cost effectiveness of an NTM.

  17. Neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper continues, with respect to the transplutonium nuclides, earlier efforts to collate and evaluate data from the scientific literature on the prompt neutron multiplicity distribution from fission and its first moment = ΣnuPnu. The isotopes considered here for which P/sub nu/ and or data (or both) were found in the literature are of americium (Am), curium (Cm), berkelium (Bk), californium (Cf), einsteinium (Es), fermium (Fm), and nobelium (No)

  18. Study of heavy particle decay from superheavy elements by SK model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy nuclei usually decay by alpha decay or spontaneous fission. These two decay modes are generally the most probable competing processes. Another less probable decay process is cluster radioactivity in which nuclei from carbon to silicon are emitted from Radium to Californium leading to the most stable daughter nucleus, lead. This work reports such a study using the cubic plus Yukawa plus exponential model of Shanmugam and Kamalaharan (SK)

  19. Properties of neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conference presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: white neutron sources, primarily pulsed (6 papers); fast neutron fields (5 papers); Californium-252 prompt fission neutron spectra (14 papers); monoenergetic sources and filtered beams (11 papers); 14 MeV neutron sources (10 papers); selected special application (one paper); and a general interest session (4 papers). Individual abstracts were prepared separately for the papers

  20. Physical trajectory profile data from glider unit_251 deployed by Oregon Health & Science University; Center for Coastal Margin Observation & Prediction in the Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon from 2013-05-08 to 2013-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0145921)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slocum glider dataset gathered as part of the CMOP observatory SATURN, funded by NOAA and NSF. Glider operations have historically been seasonal (April-September),...

  1. Physical trajectory profile data from glider unit_251 deployed by Oregon Health & Science University; Center for Coastal Margin Observation & Prediction in the Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon from 2012-07-25 to 2012-08-22 (NCEI Accession 0145920)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slocum glider dataset gathered as part of the CMOP observatory SATURN, funded by NOAA and NSF. Glider operations have historically been seasonal (April-September),...

  2. Physical trajectory profile data from glider unit_251 deployed by Oregon Health & Science University; Center for Coastal Margin Observation & Prediction in the Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon from 2013-07-18 to 2013-08-06 (NCEI Accession 0145922)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slocum glider dataset gathered as part of the CMOP observatory SATURN, funded by NOAA and NSF. Glider operations have historically been seasonal (April-September),...

  3. Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, F R; Paul, D; Gauvreau, J; Volatier, J L; Vin, K; Hulin, M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the exposure to seven additives (benzoates, parabens, nitrites, nitrates, BHA, BHT and aspartame) in children aged less than 3 years old in France. A conservative approach, combining individual consumption data with maximum permitted levels, was carried out for all the additives. More refined estimates using occurrence data obtained from products' labels (collected by the French Observatory of Food Quality) were conducted for those additives that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Information on additives' occurrence was obtained from the food labels. When the ADI was still exceeded, the exposure estimate was further refined using measured concentration data, if available. When using the maximum permitted level (MPL), the ADI was exceeded for benzoates (1.94 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), nitrites (0.09 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and BHA (0.39 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) in 25%, 54% and 20% of the entire study population respectively. The main food contributors identified with this approach were current foods as these additives are not authorised in specific infant food: vegetable soups and broths for both benzoates and BHA, delicatessen and meat for nitrites. The exposure estimate was significantly reduced when using occurrence data, but in the upper-bound scenario the ADI was still exceeded significantly by the age group 13-36 months for benzoates (2%) and BHA (1%), and by the age group 7-12 months (16%) and 13-36 months (58%) for nitrites. Measured concentration data were available exclusively for nitrites and the results obtained using these data showed that the nitrites' intake was below the ADI for all the population considered in this study. These results suggest that refinement of exposure, based on the assessment of food levels, is needed to estimate the exposure of children to BHA and benzoates for which the risk of exceeding the ADI cannot be excluded when using occurrence data. PMID:25686474

  4. The Launch of a Joint Library/Writing Centre Online Course on Academic Integrity. A Review of: Greer, K., Swanberg, S., Hristova, M., Switzer, A. T., Daniel, D., & Perdue, S. W. (2012. Beyond the web tutorial: Development and implementation of an online, self-directed academic integrity course at Oakland University. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(5, 251-258.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To outline the collaborative development of an online course addressing academic integrity by a university’s library system and writing centre.Design – Case study.Setting – A public research university in the Midwestern United States.Subjects – 1650 students who completed the online module.Methods – Oakland University (OU Libraries and the Writing Centre began to collaborate on the development of a new online course on academic integrity in 2011. It was felt that an existing online library tutorial on plagiarism no longer met the needs of students and faculty. The development of the course was informed by the Association of College and Research Libraries’ Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (2000 as well as a research study investigating students’ use of sources in their scholarly writing across several institutions. Moodle, the institution’s learning management system (LMS, was used to develop the learning object.Main Results – OU Libraries and the Writing Centre launched the six-part online course entitled “Using and Citing Sources” in January 2012. They developed modules around learning outcomes in five broad categories: defining academic integrity and plagiarism; the use of sources in academic writing; paraphrasing; quoting; and citation. The final module provided students with an opportunity to practise lessons learned in the first five modules. The use of the LMS to design and host the course limited the tutorial to registered students, but provided developers with access to additional course functionality without labour-intensive coding. It also allowed Writing Centre staff to access students’ performance data on the modules prior to their appointments. Improvements over the previous online tutorial included expanded content on academic ethics and referencing, more active learning elements, video content, and the opportunity for students to choose discipline-specific examples. In the first four months of its availability, 1650 students completed the course, with 3330 attempts overall.Conclusion – The diverse perspectives and expertise that individuals from OU Libraries and the Writing Center brought to their collaboration greatly informed the development of the course. The time and effort saved by using the university’s existing LMS to develop interactive content and the focus on providing students with opportunities for active learning within the course contributed to the project’s success.

  5. Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, F R; Paul, D; Gauvreau, J; Volatier, J L; Vin, K; Hulin, M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the exposure to seven additives (benzoates, parabens, nitrites, nitrates, BHA, BHT and aspartame) in children aged less than 3 years old in France. A conservative approach, combining individual consumption data with maximum permitted levels, was carried out for all the additives. More refined estimates using occurrence data obtained from products' labels (collected by the French Observatory of Food Quality) were conducted for those additives that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Information on additives' occurrence was obtained from the food labels. When the ADI was still exceeded, the exposure estimate was further refined using measured concentration data, if available. When using the maximum permitted level (MPL), the ADI was exceeded for benzoates (1.94 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), nitrites (0.09 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and BHA (0.39 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) in 25%, 54% and 20% of the entire study population respectively. The main food contributors identified with this approach were current foods as these additives are not authorised in specific infant food: vegetable soups and broths for both benzoates and BHA, delicatessen and meat for nitrites. The exposure estimate was significantly reduced when using occurrence data, but in the upper-bound scenario the ADI was still exceeded significantly by the age group 13-36 months for benzoates (2%) and BHA (1%), and by the age group 7-12 months (16%) and 13-36 months (58%) for nitrites. Measured concentration data were available exclusively for nitrites and the results obtained using these data showed that the nitrites' intake was below the ADI for all the population considered in this study. These results suggest that refinement of exposure, based on the assessment of food levels, is needed to estimate the exposure of children to BHA and benzoates for which the risk of exceeding the ADI cannot be excluded when using occurrence data.

  6. Nr 251 - Report on the behalf of the Commission of finances, general economy and budget control on the finance bill project for 2013. Appendix Nr 13: ecology, sustainable development and planning, risk prevention, management and steering of policies of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having indicated some key figures (public finances and budgets awarded to different involved institutions and agencies), this report comments and discusses the various challenges and financial aspects regarding risk prevention: evolution of endowments in 2013, action in the field of prevention of technological risks and pollutions, issue of nuclear safety after the Fukushima accident (actions undertaken by the ASN, IRSN and ANDRA), assessment of the implementation of the PPRN (plan of prevention of natural risks) and management of flood risks, management of the after-mine period. The second part discusses the management and steering of policies of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea in a context of decreased endowments

  7. Neutron nondestructive essay of the plutonium metal parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the principle of neutron multiplicity and data unfolding mathematics, this paper developed the software which can execute the neutron multiplicity analysis, neutron attenuation analysis, parameter calibration, Pu mass solution with the neutron pulse sequence acquisition method. The measurement system consisted of detector,nuclear electronic apparatus, pulsed sequence acquisition and analysis software was tested and calibrated by californium source. Three mental plutonium components with different mass were used for experimental assay and validation, which showed that the assay bias was within 15% against the nominal value of the samples. (authors)

  8. Physical-chemical studies of transuranium elements. Progress report, April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following topics: electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of less-stable higher oxidation states of transuranium elements in complexing aqueous media; spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of selected lanthanides and actinides in molten dimethyl sulfone; spectroelectronchemical studies of the Ce(IV)/Ce(III) couple in aqueous carbonate solutions; characterization of actinide orthophosphates by Raman and absorption spectrophotometries and by x-ray diffraction; relativistic multiple scattering calculations on transuranium element compounds; Raman spectroscopic studies of natural minerals containing the uranyl ion; and solution calorimetry of californium metal

  9. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustig, D.

    1996-04-18

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author).

  10. TOWARD AN IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF STRUCTURE AND MAGNETISM IN NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM PHOSPHONATES AND SULFONATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This grant supported the exploratory synthesis of new actinide materials with all of the actinides from thorium to californium with the exceptions of protactinium and berkelium. We developed detailed structure-property relationships that allowed for the identification of novel materials with selective ion-exchange, selective oxidation, and long-range magnetic ordering. We found novel bonding motifs and identified periodic trends across the actinide series. We identified structural building units that would lead to desired structural features and novel topologies. We also characterized many different spectroscopic trends across the actinide series. The grant support the preparation of approximately 1200 new compounds all of which were structurally characterized.

  11. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  12. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  13. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author)

  14. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator

  15. Use of trioctylphosphine oxide for transplutonium element extraction and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigated was extraction of tri-valent curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium as well as cerium and europium with trioctylphosphin oxide from lactic acid solutions, containing DTPA and aluminium nitrate depending on the aluminium nitrate and TOPO concentrations and nitric acid solutions of variable concentration as well. Under optimum conditions of extraction chromatography of berkelium studied was the distribution of cobalt, nickel, chromium, iron, aluminium, titanium, zirconium and niobium ions, and the coefficients of berkelium purification from cations investigated were determined. The effect of weight quantities of cation impurities on extraction chromatographic yield of berkelium has been investigated. Examples of practice application of the extraction chromatography with the use of TOPO are given

  16. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SYMPOSIUM COMMEMORATING THE 25th ANNIVERSARY OF ELEMENTS 97 and 98 HELD ON JAN. 20, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.; Street Jr., Kenneth; Thompson, Stanley G.; Ghiorso, Albert

    1976-07-01

    This volume includes the talks given on January 20, 1975, at a symposium in Berkeley on the occasion of the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the discovery of berkelium and californium. Talks were given at this symposium by the four people involved in the discovery of these elements and by a number of people who have made significant contributions in the intervening years to the investigation of their nuclear and chemical properties. The papers are being published here, without editing, in the form in which they were submitted by the authors in the months following the anniversary symposium, and they reflect rather faithfully the remarks made on that occasion.

  17. Neutron crosstalk between liquid scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeke, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method to quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between liquid scintillators. Using a spontaneous fission source, this method can be utilized to quickly characterize an array of liquid scintillators in terms of crosstalk. The point model theory due to Feynman is corrected to account for these multiple scatterings. Using spectral information measured by the liquid scintillators, fractions of multiple scattering can be estimated, and mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation can be improved. Monte Carlo simulations of mono-energetic neutron sources were performed to estimate neutron crosstalk. A californium source in an array of liquid scintillators was modeled to illustrate the improvement of the mass reconstruction.

  18. Study by thermochromatography of fluorides of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermochromatography was made suitable for fluoride study. So, an investigation of actinide tetrafluorides was accomplished from uranium to californium. Pentavalent and hexavalent fluorospecies of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and ruthenium were studied. Some new compounds have been identified in gaseous phase, whose: PuF5, PuOF3 and PaOF3. Furthermore, some presomptions as for the existence in gaseous phase of EsF4 and of an heptavalent fluorospecies of plutonium have been established. An important analogy between plutonium and ruthenium behaviour with fluorine have been shown, these results could explain the difficulties encountered in the fluoride-volatility processes

  19. Method for measuring multiple scattering corrections between liquid scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, J. M.; Glenn, A. M.; Keefer, G. J.; Wurtz, R. E.

    2016-07-01

    A time-of-flight method is proposed to experimentally quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between scintillators. An array of scintillators is characterized in terms of crosstalk with this method by measuring a californium source, for different neutron energy thresholds. The spectral information recorded by the scintillators can be used to estimate the fractions of neutrons multiple scattering. With the help of a correction to Feynman's point model theory to account for multiple scattering, these fractions can in turn improve the mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation.

  20. EST Table: FS733896 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS733896 E_FL_bmmt_22L01_F_0 10/09/28 30 %/251 aa ref|XP_974925.1| PREDICTED: similar to Juvenile.../10 low homology 10/09/10 30 %/251 aa gi|91080979|ref|XP_974925.1| PREDICTED: similar to Juvenile hormone-inducible protein, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS725285 bmmt ...

  1. Dicty_cDB: SSM325 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e... 252 8e-66 AF242310_1( AF242310 |pid:none) Euphorbia esula manganese superoxi... 251 1e-65 AY675508_1( AY675508 |pid:none) Parago...nimus westermani Mn-SOD mRNA... 251 2e-65 protein update 2009. 6.15 PSORT psg: 0.73

  2. First Genome Sequence of a Canine Distemper Virus Strain from South America

    OpenAIRE

    Sarute, Nicolás; Delgado, María V.; Carrau, Lucía; Benech, Alejandro; Francia, Lourdes; Pérez, Ruben; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus causes a severe infectious disease in carnivores worldwide. Herein, we sequenced and analyzed the genome of a new strain (Uy251/2012) isolated from a dog in Uruguay. The Uy251/2012 strain belongs to the Europe1/South America1 lineage, and constitutes the first report of a genomic sequence in South America.

  3. Processes determining seasonality and interannual variability of settling particle fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haake, B.; Rixen, T.; Reemtsma, T.; Ramaswamy, V.; Ittekkot, V.

    stream_size 20 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Particle_Flux_Ocean_Chapter_14_1996_251.pdf.txt stream_source_info Particle_Flux_Ocean_Chapter_14_1996_251.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  4. Review: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012 Buchbesprechung: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Faye Tran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 pagesBesprechung der Monographie:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 Seiten

  5. 76 FR 41075 - Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Rules and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 251 Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Rules and Procedures AGENCY: Copyright... making an amendment to its regulations by removing Part 251 Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Rules of Procedure. In 2004, Congress replaced the Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels with three Copyright...

  6. Gclust Server: 119743 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 119743 CEL_K06A5.7_17506269 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(24) 604 cdc-25.1: Cell Division...nces Related Sequences(24) Sequence length 604 Representative annotation cdc-25.1: Cell Division

  7. Fast Neutron Induced Autophagy Leads To Necrosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Linda; Gladden, Samantha; Andorf, Christine; Kroc, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Fast neutrons are highly effective at killing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), U87 and U251 cells. The mode of cell death was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the fraction of irradiated U87 or U251 cells having morphological features of autophagy and/or necrosis. U87 or U251 cells were irradiated with 2 Gy fast neturons or 10 Gy γ rays. A majority of U87 and U251 cells exhibit features of cell death with autophagy after irradiation with either 10 Gy γ rays or 2 Gy fast neutrons. Very few γ irradiated cells had features of necrosis (U87 or U251 cell samples processed for TEM 1 day after 10 Gy γ irradiation). In contrast, a significant increase was observed in necrotic U87 and U251 cells irradiated with fast neutrons. These results show a greater percentage of cells exhibit morphological evidence of necrosis induced by a lower dose of fast neutron irradiation compared to γ irradiation. Also, the evidence of necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells occurs in a background of autophagy. Since autophagy is observed before necrosis, autophagy may play a role in signaling programmed necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells.

  8. 75 FR 27002 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... bags, rock dust, mine gob, earth--rock and dirt, gravel, refuse, or other similar material that is...) . Modification Request: The petitioner proposes to use Model J251-D/E Face Drill, manufactured by J.H. Fletcher & Company. The petitioner states that: (1) The J251-D/E Face Drill consists of an electric drill...

  9. 37 CFR 270.2 - Reports of use of sound recordings under statutory license for preexisting subscription services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Code and adopted pursuant to 37 CFR 251.63(b), or by decision of a Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel... section 114(f)(1)(C)(i) and adopted pursuant to 37 CFR 251.63(b), or by decision of a Copyright... recording copyright owner; and (2) A “click-wrap” agreement not to use information in the Report of Use...

  10. Review: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012) Buchbesprechung: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Faye Tran

    2013-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 pagesBesprechung der Monographie:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 Seiten

  11. Establishment of Drug-resistance Cell Line of Human Glioma Mediated by MGMT%MGMT介导的人脑胶质瘤耐药细胞系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金澎; 张庆林; 刘福生; 王保安; 魏麟; 王成伟; 孔建新

    2002-01-01

    目的建立由O6-甲基鸟嘌呤-DNA甲基转移酶(MGMT)介导的人脑胶质瘤耐药细胞株U251/BCNU.方法模拟卡氮芥(BCNU)的临床用药程序,采取恒定药物浓度、周期性作用的方式诱导U251的抗药性.检测U251/BCNU的耐药指数及MGMT mRNA的表达;比较U251及U251/BCNU细胞的体外增殖变化.结果经过反复总共5次的用药过程,历时4个月,成功地建立了对BCNU具有稳定抗药性的U251/BCNU,其对BCNU的耐受程度约为U251的17倍.RT-PCR显示,U251/BCNU细胞有MGMTmRNA的表达.U251及U251/BCNU细胞的体外群体倍增时间差异无显著性.结论在体外成功地建立了一株由MGMT介导的人脑胶质瘤耐药细胞系,为进一步探讨胶质瘤的耐药机制及逆转方式奠定了基础.

  12. Carboplatin and taxol resistance develops more rapidly in functional BRCA1 compared to dysfunctional BRCA1 ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-08-01

    A major risk factor for ovarian cancer is germline mutations of BRCA1/2. It has been found that (80%) of cellular models with acquired platinum or taxane resistance display an inverse resistance relationship, that is collateral sensitivity to the other agent. We used a clinically relevant comparative selection strategy to develop novel chemoresistant cell lines which aim to investigate the mechanisms of resistance that arise from different exposures of carboplatin and taxol on cells having BRCA1 function (UPN251) or dysfunction (OVCAR8). Resistance to carboplatin and taxol developed quicker and more stably in UPN251 (BRCA1-wildtype) compared to OVCAR8 (BRCA1-methylated). Alternating carboplatin and taxol treatment delayed but did not prevent resistance development when compared to single-agent administration. Interestingly, the sequence of drug exposure influenced the resistance mechanism produced. UPN251-6CALT (carboplatin first) and UPN251-6TALT (taxol first) have different profiles of cross resistance. UPN251-6CALT displays significant resistance to CuSO4 (2.3-fold, p=0.004) while UPN251-6TALT shows significant sensitivity to oxaliplatin (0.6-fold, p=0.01). P-glycoprotein is the main mechanism of taxol resistance found in the UPN251 taxane-resistant sublines. UPN251 cells increase cellular glutathione levels (3.0-fold, p=0.02) in response to carboplatin treatment. However, increased glutathione is not maintained in the carboplatin-resistant sublines. UPN251-7C and UPN251-6CALT are low-level resistant to CuSO4 suggesting alterations in copper metabolism. However, none of the UPN251 sublines have alterations in the protein expression of ATP7A or CTR1. The protein expression of BRCA1 and MRP2 is unchanged in the UPN251 sublines. The UPN251 sublines remain sensitive to parp inhibitors veliparib and CEP8983 suggesting that these agents are candidates for the treatment of platinum/taxane resistant ovarian cancer patients.

  13. 恶性胶质瘤耐药细胞通过Beclin1上调自噬抵抗替莫唑胺化疗%Beclin 1 resists temozolomide in malignant glioma cells by autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鑫; 刘天助; 郭洪波; 宁瑜; 廖奕宏; 钟文宏; 黄洁棱; 颜晓慧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relations of Beclin 1 with both clinical pathological grades of gliomas and glioma recurrence,and investigate its function and mechanism in drug-resistance of gliomas.Methods Fifty-three glioma specimens (WHO grade Ⅰ in 7,2 cases of recurrence; Ⅱ grade in 9,4 cases of recurrence; Ⅲ grade in 11,6 cases of recurrence; Ⅳ grade in 9,5 cases of recurrence),colleted in our hospitals from April 2012 to April 2013,were chosen in our study.The Beclin 1 expressions in these gliomas specimens were detected by immunohistochemistry and Westem blotting;drug resistant cell line U251AR and non-drug resistant cell line U251were cultured,and Beclin 1 and resistance protein P-gP expressions in these cell lines were detected by Western blotting; double-stranded small molecule Beclin 1 interfering RNA (siBeclin 1) was transfected into the U251AR cells and the Beclin 1 protein expression 48 h after the transfection was detected by Western blotting; the activity of U251,U251AR and U251AR-siBeclin 1 cells was detected by CCK8 after being treated with different concentrations of temozolomide (TMZ); the capase-3 expression in the U251,U251AR and U251AR-siBeclin 1 cells 48 h after being treated by 20 μm TMZ was detected by Western blotting; the capase-3 expression and the number of autophagosome in the U251AR cells after Beclin 1 being knocked down or after being treated with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were detected by Western blotting and acridine orange staining,respectively.Results The level of Beclin 1 was proportional to the grades of gliomas.The Beclin 1 level in recurrent gliomas of grade Ⅲ and Ⅳ was higher than that in primary tumors of grade Ⅰ and Ⅱ; the Beclin 1 and P-glycoprotein (P-gP) expression in the U251AR cells were signficantly higher than those in the U251 cells (P<0.05).As compared with interfered control group and blank control group,the interfered group had decreased Beclin 1 protein level 48 h after siBeclin 1 transfection; U

  14. Establishment of human glioblastoma multiform multidrug resistant cell line in vitro and identification of its biological characteristics%人脑胶质瘤多药耐药细胞株的构建及生物学特性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白义凤; 廖红展; 刘天助; 郭洪波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish the imatinib (STI-571)-resistant subline in vitro and investigate its biological characteristics. Methods Human glioblastoma multiform drug-resistant cell line (named U251AR) was established in vitro by successively increasing the concentration of imatinib in a cell culture medium. The 50% inhibitory dose (IC50) values and the resistance indexes ([IC50U251/STI-571]/[IC50 U251]) for other chemotherapeutic agents were evaluated using cell counting kit-8 assays. Expressions of acquired multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR 1, ABCB 1; MDR3, ABCB4),breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1,ABCC1) were detected by QRT-PCR. Flow cytometry was employed to detect the protein expression of ABCG2. Results The U251AR was developed after culture for 12 months and similar morphologies of U251 and U251/STI-571 cells were determined. The resistance coefficient of U251AR cells to imatinib was 20.41 times more than that of the parent cells, and U251AR cells showed cross-resistance to many anti-tumor agents (P<0.05). The resistance coefficients of U251AR cell line to doxorubicin and cisplatin were 5.06 and 10.28 times, respectively, more than those of U251 cells (P<0.05). QRT-PCR indicated that the mRNA levels of MDR1, MRP1, BCRPandABCB4 (P-g4) in the U251/STI571 resistant cells were significantly higher than those in the U251 cells (P<0.05). The protein expression of ABCG2 in U251AR cell line was significantly increased as compared with that in the parent cells (P<0.05).Conclusion We have successfully established multidrug resistant cell line U251AR, and the drug resistance of U251/STI571 is associated with over-expressions of ABCC1, ABCB1, ABCB4, and ABCG2 mRNA, and ABCG2 protein.%目的 体外构建胶质瘤耐甲磺酸伊玛替尼多药耐药细胞株,并研究其生物学特性。方法采用逐渐增加培养基中伊玛替尼药物浓度的方法诱导构建耐甲磺酸

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Switcher Locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (2). ALCO and MLW S1 6-539NA. S2 6-539T. S3 6-539NA. S4 6-539T. S5 6-251. S6 6-251A,B. S7 6-539. S10 6-539. S11 6-539. S12 6-539T. S13 6-251C. RSD-1 6-539. RSC-13 6-539. RSC-24 12-244 RS1 6-539T. RS2...

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15736-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available length - Start point - End point - Strand (PLUS/MINUS) - Number of clones 23 Number of EST 28 Link to clone...), Expect = 0.0 Identities = 885/885 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 175 ttaaaatgggatcagttgatacatcagtccca...tatagtttatccagaaattcgtgattttg 1059 Score = 1352 bits (682), Expect = 0.0 Identities = 682/682 (100%) Strand ... 498 bits (251), Expect = e-140 Identities = 251/251 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus ...77 gaagaagttaa 2887 Score = 323 bits (163), Expect = 1e-87 Identities = 163/163 (100%) Strand

  17. HSV-1感染对神经胶质瘤细胞NGF和BDNF表达变化的研究%Study of NGF and BDNF expression in HSV-1 infected human glioma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯云; 王斌; 李玲; 胡明; 辛晓妮; 钱冬萌; 闫志勇; 赵巍; 宋旭霞

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨单纯疱疹病毒1型(HSV-1)感染时神经胶质细胞内源性神经生长因子(NGF)和脑源性神经生长因子(BDNF)的表达变化.方法:采用RT-PCR法检测HSV-1糖蛋白D(gD)基因扩增,RT-PCR法和Western blotting法检测正常培养和感染HSV-1的神经胶质瘤(U251)细胞的NGF和BDNF.结果:HSV-1可感染U251细胞;正常U251细胞可表达NGF和BDNF;HSV-1感染U251细胞后,NGF和BDNF在感染后第6小时达高峰,之后随感染时间延长逐渐降低.结论:HSV-1可诱导U251细胞中的NGF和BDNF表达异常.%Objective To investigate endogenic nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in herpes simplex type-1-virus (HSV-1) -infected neuroglia cells. Methods U251 human glioma cells were cultured in RPMI-I640 medium and infected with HSV-1 in vitro to estahlish a cell model of viral infection. Establishment of HSV-1-infected U251 cells was identified by HSV-1 gD mRNA expression. NGF and BDNF expression was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting , respectively, in normal U251 cells and HSV-1-infected U251 cells. Results HSV-1 could efficiently infect U251 cells. NGF and BDNF was identified to he expressed in U251. NGF and BDNF expression reached a maximum at 6 hours post HSV-1 infection, then NGF and BDNF expression decreased in time-dependent manner. Conclusions HSV-1 infection could dysregulate NGF and BDNF expression in the U251 cells.

  18. 13 CFR 315.8 - Processing petitions for certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... petition has not been accepted, but may be resubmitted at any time without prejudice when the specified... determine whether the petitioner meets the requirements set forth in section 251(c) of the Trade Act...

  19. Libraries in New York: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 718-534-0775 http://www.asa.edu Brooklyn Public Library Central Library Central Administration Office Grand Army Plaza ... www.drum.amedd.army.mil/ Glens Falls Crandall Public Library 251 Glen Street Glens Falls, NY 12801 518- ...

  20. Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NY: McGraw-Hill; 2004:chap 251. Lammers RL. Principles of wound management. In: Roberts JR, Hedges JR, eds. Roberts: Clinical ... 2009:chap 39. Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  1. QTL Information Table: 369 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available qET-6 Physiological trait Eating quality Endosperm translucency RFLP C)Interval BIL...tative trait loci underlying appearance quality of rice grains (Oryza sativa L.). Yi Chuan Xue Bao 30, 251-259. ...

  2. QTL Information Table: 368 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available qPGWC-6b Physiological trait Eating quality Percentages of grains with chalkiness R...3). Mapping quantitative trait loci underlying appearance quality of rice grains (Oryza sativa L.). Yi Chuan Xue Bao 30, 251-259. ...

  3. The Pursuit of Ecotopia: Lessons from Indigenous and Traditional Societies for the Human Ecology of Our Modern World

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Wolverton

    2010-01-01

    Review of The Pursuit of Ecotopia: Lessons from Indigenous and Traditional Societies for the Human Ecology of Our Modern World. Eugene N. Anderson. 2010. Praeger Publishers, Santa Barbara. Pp. 251. $44.95 (Hardcover). ISBN 0313381305.

  4. 76 FR 20957 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ..., Orange Beach, FL 36561, telephone: (251) 543-4444; Wednesday, May 4, 2011 Amend 32--Banana Bay Resort...; Thursday, May 5, 2011 ACL--Banana Bay Resort, 4590 Overseas Highway, Marathon, FL 33050, telephone:...

  5. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may need to work to help with family finances. All of the changes that they face can ... 2000). Goal instability and adjustment to physical disability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(2). 251-265. This ...

  6. Wide Output Range Power Processing Unit for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A power supply concept capable of operation over 25:1 and 64:1 impedance ranges at full power has been successfully demonstrated in our Phase I effort at...

  7. 77 FR 12784 - Lifeline and Link Up Reform and Modernization, Advancing Broadband Availability Through Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... audio broadcasting satellite uses. The Commission defined ``small business'' for the wireless... and Link Up Reform and Modernization, Advancing Broadband Availability Through Digital Literacy... availability through digital literacy training, limiting section 251 resale of Lifeline-supported...

  8. 47 CFR 74.851 - Certification of equipment; prohibition on manufacture, import, sale, lease, offer for sale or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall include labeling and make clear in all sales, marketing, and packaging materials, including online... low power auxiliary stations that operate in the core TV bands (channels 2-51, excluding channel...

  9. Drug: D05017 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ics Agents against Amebiasis and other antiprotozoals Nitroimidazole derivatives Metronidazole [ATC:A01AB17 ...D05017 Drug Metronidazole phosphate (USAN) C6H10N3O6P 251.0307 251.1339 D05017.gif Antibacterial; Antiprotoz...oal ATC code: A01AB17 D06BX01 G01AF01 J01XD01 P01AB01 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemic

  10. Enhancing the thermostability of a cold-active lipase from Penicillium cyclopium by in silico design of a disulfide bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhongbiao; Li, Jianfang; Wu, Minchen; Wang, Junqing

    2014-08-01

    Cysteine mutants of a cold-active lipase (PcLipI) from Penicillium cyclopium were designed by the software Disulfide by Design Ver. 1.20 in an effort to improve enzyme thermostability by addition of a disulfide bridge. Those mutants predicted by molecular dynamics simulation to have better thermostability than the wild type were first expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and then, for further investigation, in Pichia pastoris GS115. By replacing Val248 and Thr251 with cysteines to create a disulfide bridge, the recombinant lipases reE-PcLipV248C-T251C (expressed in E. coli) and reP-PcLipV248C-T251C (expressed in P. pastoris) were obtained. Both had enhanced thermostability with half-lives at 35 °C about 4.5- and 12.8-fold longer than that of the parent PcLipI expressed in E. coli and P. pastoris, respectively. The temperature optima of reE-PcLipV248C-T251C and reP-PcLipV248C-T251C were 35 and 30 °C, which were each 5 °C higher than those of the parent PcLipI expressed in E. coli and P. pastoris. The K ms of reE-PcLipV248C-T251C and reP-PcLipV248C-T251C toward tributyrin were 53.2 and 39.5 mM, while their V maxs were 1,460 and 3,800 U/mg, respectively. PcLipV248C-T251C had better thermostability and catalytic efficiency than the other mutants and the parent PcLipI. PMID:24867629

  11. Book Review: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China. Charlotte P. Lee . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 251 pp. $99.99. ISBN 978-1-107-09063-7......Review of: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China. Charlotte P. Lee . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 251 pp. $99.99. ISBN 978-1-107-09063-7...

  12. Robotics and remote systems applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a review of numerous remote inspection techniques in use at the Savannah River (and other) facilities. These include: (1) reactor tank inspection robot, (2) californium waste removal robot, (3) fuel rod lubrication robot, (4) cesium source manipulation robot, (5) tank 13 survey and decontamination robots, (6) hot gang valve corridor decontamination and junction box removal robots, (7) lead removal from deionizer vessels robot, (8) HB line cleanup robot, (9) remote operation of a front end loader at WIPP, (10) remote overhead video extendible robot, (11) semi-intelligent mobile observing navigator, (12) remote camera systems in the SRS canyons, (13) cameras and borescope for the DWPF, (14) Hanford waste tank camera system, (15) in-tank precipitation camera system, (16) F-area retention basin pipe crawler, (17) waste tank wall crawler and annulus camera, (18) duct inspection, and (19) deionizer resin sampling

  13. Preparation of actinide targets by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N.; Folger, H.

    1989-10-01

    Actinide targets with varying thicknesses on different substrates have been prepared by electrodeposition either from aqueous solutions or from solutions of their nitrates in isopropyl alcohol. With these techniques the actinides can be deposited almost quantitatively on various backing materials within 15 to 30 min. Targets of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and californium with areal densities from almost carrier-free up to 1.4 mg/cm 2 on thin beryllium, carbon, titanium, tantalum and platinum foils have been prepared. In most cases, prior to the deposition, the actinides had to be purified chemically and for some of them, due to the limited amount of material available, recycling procedures were required. Applications of actinide targets in heavy-ion reactions are briefly discussed.

  14. An atomic beam source for actinide elements: concept and realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For ultratrace analysis of actinide elements and studies of their atomic properties with resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS), efficient and stable sources of actinide atomic beams are required. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the evaporation of actinide elements and oxides from a variety of metals were considered, including diffusion, desorption, and associative desorption. On this basis various sandwich-type filaments were studied. The most promising system was found to consist of tantalum as the backing material, an electrolytically deposited actinide hydroxide as the source of the element, and a titanium covering layer for its reduction to the metal. Such sandwich sources were experimentally proven to be well suited for the production of atomic beams of plutonium, curium, berkelium and californium at relatively low operating temperatures and with high and reproducible yields. (orig.)

  15. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs

  16. Experimental survey of the potential energy surfaces associated with fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in the experimental determination of the properties of the potential energy surface associated with fission is reviewed. The importance of nuclear symmetry effects on the calculation of fission widths is demonstrated. Evidence is presented for the fragmentation of the mass-asymmetric second barrier in the thorium region and the axial asymmetric first barrier in the californium region. Detailed analyses of experimental data suggest the presence of two parallel second barriers; the normal mass-asymmetric, axial-symmetric barrier and a slightly higher mass-symmetric, axial-asymmetric barrier. Experimental barrier parameters are determined systematically and compared with calculations from various theoretical models. Techniques for expanding fission probability measurements to higher energies are discussed. (author)

  17. Populations of selected microbial and fungal species growing on the surface of rape seeds following treatment with desiccants or plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frac, Magdalena; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Tys, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desiccants and plant growth regulators on selected microbial species affecting rape seeds, with special emphasis on the growth of fungi and identification of the genus and species composition. The experimental material in the study was seeds of winter rape cv. Californium that were collected from the field during combine harvest. The chemical agents applied, both desiccants and growth regulators, generally decreased the populations of bacteria occurring on the surface of rape seeds. The responses of fungi depended upon the type of agent applied and were manifested as either stimulation or inhibition of the growth of the fungal species. The fungi isolated from the surface of rape seeds were characteristic of those found in the field environment (Cladosporium and Penicillium) and typical for those present on the surface of rape seeds (Alternaria).

  18. Effects of 252Cf neutrons, transmitted through an iron block on human lymphocyte chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberration of human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to californium-252 (252Cf) neutrons transmitted through a 15 cm thick iron block was analysed. The spectrum of the filtered neutrons ranged from 0.1 to 2MeV with a peak at 0.7 MeV, simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb neutron spectrum as shown in the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). Chromosome aberration frequencies after exposure to filtered and unfiltered 252Cf radiation were compared. Acentric ring chromosomes were significantly increased (p 0.1). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the neutrons with respect to the formation of dicentrics and centric rings was 10.9 and 12.3 in the filtered and unfiltered conditions respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. These results provide useful information for the re-evaluation of the biological effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb radiations. (Author)

  19. Reliability of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for over-voltage protection exposed to ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Koviljka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread use of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for non-linear over-voltage protection results in a variety of possible working conditions. It is therefore essential to have a thorough insight into their reliability in exploitation environments which imply exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of irradiation on over-voltage diode characteristics by exposing the diodes to californium-252 combined neutron/gamma radiation field. The irradiation of semiconductor over-voltage diodes causes severe degradation of their protection characteristics. On the other hand, gas-filled over-voltage diodes exhibit a temporal improvement of performance. The results are presented with the accompanying theoretical interpretations of the observed changes in over-voltage diode behaviour, based on the interaction of radiation with materials constituting the diodes.

  20. Potential nuclear safeguards applications for neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many nuclear safeguards inspection instruments use neutron sources to interrogate the fissile material (commonly 235U and 239Pu) to be measured. The neutron sources currently used in these instruments are isotopics such as Californium-252, Americium-Lithium, etc. It is becoming increasingly more difficult to transport isotopic sources from one measurement location to another. This represents a significant problem for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards inspectors because they must take their safeguards instruments with them to each nuclear installation to make an independent measurement. Purpose of this paper is to review the possibility of replacing isotopic neutron sources now used in IAEA safeguards instruments with electric neutron sources such as deuterium-tritium (D-T, 14-MeV neutrons) or deuterium-deuterium (D-D, 2-MeV neutrons). The potential for neutron generators to interrogate spent-light water reactor fuel assemblies in storage pools is also reviewed

  1. Off-line commissioning of EBIS and plans for its integration into ATLAS and CARIBU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P N; Barcikowski, A; Dickerson, C A; Mustapha, B; Perry, A; Sharamentov, S I; Vondrasek, R C; Zinkann, G

    2016-02-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed at Argonne to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and significantly improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The CARIBU EBIS-CB has been successfully commissioned offline with an external singly charged cesium ion source. The performance of the EBIS fully meets the specifications to breed rare isotope beams delivered from CARIBU. The EBIS is being relocated and integrated into ATLAS and CARIBU. A long electrostatic beam transport system including two 180° bends in the vertical plane has been designed. The commissioning of the EBIS and the beam transport system in their permanent location will start at the end of this year. PMID:26932059

  2. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of 241Am and 237Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the 241Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  3. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Triton and alpha-particle contribution from LiF converter for neutron dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, M E; Balcazar, M

    1999-01-01

    A personnel neutron dosimeter prototype based on chemical and electrochemical etched CR-39 detector, combined with LiF converter, has been calibrated using an ICRP-like phantom, under a heavy-water moderated Californium source neutron spectra; A conversion factor of 1.052+-126 spots cm sup - sup 2 mSv sup - sup 1 was obtained. The sealing properties of the detector holder showed a ten-fold reduction in radon background when it was tested in a high radon atmosphere. A convenient mechanical shock resistance was achieved in LiF converters by sintering to 11 tons pressure LiF powder at 650 deg. C, during one hour.

  5. Nuclear fission and the transuranium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1989-02-01

    Many of the transuranium elements are produced and isolated in large quantities through the use of neutrons furnished by nuclear fission reactions: plutonium (atomic number 94) in ton quantities; neptunium (93), americium (95), and curium (96) in kilogram quantities; berkelium (97) in 100 milligram quantities; californium (98) in gram quantities; and einsteinium (99) in milligram quantities. Transuranium isotopes have found many practical applications---as nuclear fuel for the large-scale generation of electricity, as compact, long-lived power sources for use in space exploration, as means for diagnosis and treatment in the medical area, and as tools in numerous industrial processes. Of particular interest is the unusual chemistry and impact of these heaviest elements on the periodic table. This account will feature these aspects. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes; Mesures des sections efficaces de capture et potentiels d'incineration des actinides mineurs dans les hauts flux de neutrons: Impact sur la transmutation des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O

    2007-10-15

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of {sup 241}Am and {sup 237}Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the {sup 241}Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  7. Study of reproducibility of measurements with the spectrometer of Bonner multispheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, G.A.; Pereira, W.W.; Patrao, K.C.S.; Fonseca, E.S., E-mail: geisadeazevedo@gmail.com, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br, E-mail: karla@ird.gov.br, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radionprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to study the metrological behavior of the Bonner Multisphere Spectrometer (BMS) of the LN / LNMRI / IRD - Laboratorio Metrologia de Neutrons / Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia e Radiacao Ionizante / Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, for measurements in repeatability and reproducibility conditions. Initially, a simulation was done by applying the Monte Carlo method, using the MCNP code and respecting the ISO 8529-1 (2001), using the sources of Californium ({sup 252} Cf), Americium-Beryllium ({sup 241} AmBe) and californium in heavy water (Cf + D{sub 2}O), all located at a distance of 100 cm from the neutron detector ({sup 6}Li (Eu) - crystal scintillator). In this program, the counting of neutrons that are captured by the detector was made. The source is located in the center of a sphere of radius 300 cm. Analyzes the impact of these neutrons in a point of the sphere wall, which in this case acted as a neutron detector and from there, it is estimated the number of neutrons that collide in the whole sphere. The purpose is to obtain the neutron count for different energy bands in a solid field of neutrons, since they have a spectrum ranging from a low to a high energy that can also vary within a particular environment. Wishes to obtain new fields with different sources and moderators materials to be used as new reference fields. Measurements are being conducted for these fields, with the aim of analyzing the variability conditions of the measurement (repeatability and reproducibility) in LEN - Laboratorio de Espectrometria de Neutrons of the LN/LMNRI/IRD. Thus, the spectrometer will be used to improve both the knowledge of the spectrum as the standard of neutrons of the lab, proving that a spectrometry is essential for correct measurement.

  8. Synthetic Ligands of Cannabinoid Receptors Affect Dauer Formation in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Rodrigues, Pedro; Kaul, Tiffany K.; Ho, Jo-Hao; Lucanic, Mark; Burkewitz, Kristopher; Mair, William B.; Held, Jason M.; Bohn, Laura M.; Gill, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    Under adverse environmental conditions the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can enter an alternate developmental stage called the dauer larva. To identify lipophilic signaling molecules that influence this process, we screened a library of bioactive lipids and found that AM251, an antagonist of the human cannabinoid (CB) receptor, suppresses dauer entry in daf-2 insulin receptor mutants. AM251 acted synergistically with glucose supplementation indicating that the metabolic status of the animal influenced the activity of this compound. Similarly, loss of function mutations in the energy-sensing AMP-activated kinase subunit, aak-2, enhanced the dauer-suppressing effects of AM251, while constitutive activation of aak-2 in neurons was sufficient to inhibit AM251 activity. Chemical epistasis experiments indicated that AM251 acts via G-protein signaling and requires the TGF-β ligand DAF-7, the insulin peptides DAF-28 and INS-6, and a functional ASI neuron to promote reproductive growth. AM251 also required the presence of the SER-5 serotonin receptor, but in vitro experiments suggest that this may not be via a direct interaction. Interestingly, we found that other antagonists of mammalian CB receptors also suppress dauer entry, while the nonselective CB receptor agonist, O-2545, not only inhibited the activity of AM251, but also was able to promote dauer entry when administered alone. Since worms do not have obvious orthologs of CB receptors, the effects of synthetic CBs on neuroendocrine signaling in C. elegans are likely to be mediated via another, as yet unknown, receptor mechanism. However, we cannot exclude the existence of a noncanonical CB receptor in C. elegans. PMID:27172180

  9. Cell context-dependent dual effects of EFEMP1 stabilizes subpopulation equilibrium in responding to changes of in vivo growth environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanjie; Ke, Chao; Ru, Ning; Chen, Yumay; Yu, Liping; Siegel, Eric R; Linskey, Mark E; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Yi-Hong

    2015-10-13

    Conflicting functions of EFEMP1 in cancer have been reported. Using two syngeneic glioma cell lines (U251 and U251-NS) carrying two different principal cell subpopulations that express high or low EGFR, and that are able to interconvert via mis-segregation of chromosome 7 (Chr7), we studied EFEMP1's cell-context-dependent functions in regulating subpopulation equilibrium, here defined by the percentage of cells carrying different copies of Chr7. We found that EFEMP1 attenuated levels of EGFR and cellular respiration in high-EGFR-expressing cells, but increased levels of NOTCH1, MMP2, cell invasiveness, and both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic respiration in low-EGFR-expressing cells. Consistently, EFEMP1 suppressed intracranial xenograft formation in U251 and promoted its formation in U251-NS. Interestingly, subpopulation equilibria in xenografts of U251-NS without EFEMP1 overexpression were responsive to inoculum size (1, 10 and 100 thousand cells), which may change the tumor-onset environment. It was not observed in xenografts of U251-NS with EFEMP1 overexpression. The anti-EGFR function of EFEMP1 suppressed acceleration of growth of U251-NS, but not the subpopulation equilibrium, when serially passed under a different (serum-containing adherent) culture condition. Overall, the data suggest that the orthotopic environment of the brain tumor supports EFEMP1 in carrying out both its anti-EGFR and pro-invasive/cancer stem cell-transforming functions in the two glioma cell subpopulations during formation of a single tumor, where EFEMP1 stabilizes the subpopulation equilibrium in response to alterations of the growth environment. This finding implies that EFEMP1 may restrain cancer plasticity in coping with ever-changing tumor microenvironments and/or therapeutic-intervention stresses.

  10. MGMT反义RNA对人脑胶质瘤耐药性逆转的研究%Reveral of drug resistance of human glioma by MGMT antisense RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金澎; 张庆林; 刘福生; 王忠诚; 魏林; 王成伟; 孔建新

    2003-01-01

    目的利用反义技术逆转胶质瘤的耐药性.方法模拟临床亚硝基脲类药物的用药程序,在体外建立由DNA修复蛋白O6-甲基鸟嘌呤-DNA甲基转移酶(MGMT)介导的人脑胶质瘤耐药细胞系U251/BCNU,并进行细胞耐药性检测和细胞MGMTmRNA表达的分析;观察MGMT反义RNA对U251/BCNU细胞MGMT表达的调节作用及对U251/BCNU细胞BCNU敏感性的影响.结果经过反复总共5次的用药过程,首次在体外建立了对BCNU具有稳定抗性的U251/BCNU,其对BCNU的耐受程度约为U251的17倍;RT-PCR结果显示,U251/BCNU 细胞有MGMTmRNA的表达.MGMT反义RNA 表达载体pLaMT5SN和pLaMTSN能够在一定程度上降低U251/BCNU细胞中MGMT mRNA的表达水平,提高其对BCNU的敏感性.结论 MGMT反义RNA能够在一定程度上抑制MGMT的表达水平,提高肿瘤细胞对亚硝基脲类药物的敏感性.

  11. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces protein kinase ceta-specific proliferative response in astrocytic tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, I M; Karns, L R; Vinton, G; Carpenter, J E; Redpath, G T; Sando, J J; VandenBerg, S R

    2000-07-21

    Protein kinase C (PKC) activation has been implicated in cellular proliferation in neoplastic astrocytes. The roles for specific PKC isozymes in regulating this glial response, however, are not well understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of PKC isozymes and the role of PKC-eta expression in regulating cellular proliferation in two well characterized astrocytic tumor cell lines (U-1242 MG and U-251 MG) with different properties of growth in cell culture. Both cell lines expressed an array of conventional (alpha, betaI, betaII, and gamma) and novel (theta and epsilon) PKC isozymes that can be activated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Another novel PKC isozyme, PKC-eta, was only expressed by U-251 MG cells. In contrast, PKC-delta was readily detected in U-1242 MG cells but was present only at low levels in U-251 MG cells. PMA (100 nm) treatment for 24 h increased cell proliferation by over 2-fold in the U-251 MG cells, whereas it decreased the mitogenic response in the U-1242 MG cells by over 90%. When PKC-eta was stably transfected into U-1242 MG cells, PMA increased cell proliferation by 2.2-fold, similar to the response of U-251 MG cells. The cell proliferation induced by PMA in both the U-251 MG and U-1242-PKC-eta cells was blocked by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (0.5 micrometer) and the MEK inhibitor, PD 98059 (50 micrometer). Transient transfection of wild type U-251 with PKC-eta antisense oligonucleotide (1 micrometer) also blocked the PMA-induced increase in [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. The data demonstrate that two glioblastoma lines, with functionally distinct proliferative responses to PMA, express different novel PKC isozymes and that the differential expression of PKC-eta plays a determining role in the different proliferative capacity. PMID:10806212

  12. Effects of CB1 receptor agonism and antagonism on behavioral fear and physiological stress responses in adult intact, ovariectomized, and estradiol-replaced female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, J J; Malivoire, B L; McCormick, C M

    2015-10-15

    There is growing interest in the development of cannabis-based therapies for the treatment of fear and anxiety disorders. There are a few studies, but none in females, of the effects of the highly selective cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) agonist, arachidonyl 2'-chlorethylamide (ACEA), on behavioral fear. In experiment 1 involving gonadally-intact females, ACEA (either 0.1 or 0.01 mg/kg) was without effect in the elevated plus maze (EPM), and the lower dose decreased anxiety in the open field test (OFT). AM251 increased anxiety in the EPM and decreased locomotor activity in the OFT. Twenty-four hours after fear conditioning, neither ACEA nor AM251 affected generalized fear or conditioned fear recall. AM251 and 0.1 mg/kg ACEA impaired, and 0.01 mg/kg ACEA enhanced, within-session fear extinction. AM251 increased plasma corticosterone concentrations after the fear extinction session, whereas ACEA was without effect. Based on evidence that estradiol may moderate the effects of CB1 receptor signaling in females, experiment 2 involved ovariectomized (OVX) rats provided with 10-μg 17β-Estradiol and compared with OVX rats without hormone replacement (oil vehicle). Irrespective of hormone treatment, AM251 increased anxiety in the EPM, whereas ACEA (0.01 mg/kg) was without effect. Neither hormone nor drug altered anxiety in the OFT, but estradiol increased and AM251 decreased distance traveled. After fear conditioning, AM251 decreased generalized fear. Neither hormone nor drug had any effect on recall or extinction of conditioned fear, however, ACEA and AM251 increased fear-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations. Further, when results with intact rats were compared with those from OVX rats, gonadal status did not moderate the effects of either AM251 or ACEA, although OVX displayed greater anxiety and fear than did intact rats. Thus, the effects of CB1 receptor antagonism and agonism in adult female rats do not depend on ovarian estradiol.

  13. Effects of CB1 receptor agonism and antagonism on behavioral fear and physiological stress responses in adult intact, ovariectomized, and estradiol-replaced female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, J J; Malivoire, B L; McCormick, C M

    2015-10-15

    There is growing interest in the development of cannabis-based therapies for the treatment of fear and anxiety disorders. There are a few studies, but none in females, of the effects of the highly selective cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) agonist, arachidonyl 2'-chlorethylamide (ACEA), on behavioral fear. In experiment 1 involving gonadally-intact females, ACEA (either 0.1 or 0.01 mg/kg) was without effect in the elevated plus maze (EPM), and the lower dose decreased anxiety in the open field test (OFT). AM251 increased anxiety in the EPM and decreased locomotor activity in the OFT. Twenty-four hours after fear conditioning, neither ACEA nor AM251 affected generalized fear or conditioned fear recall. AM251 and 0.1 mg/kg ACEA impaired, and 0.01 mg/kg ACEA enhanced, within-session fear extinction. AM251 increased plasma corticosterone concentrations after the fear extinction session, whereas ACEA was without effect. Based on evidence that estradiol may moderate the effects of CB1 receptor signaling in females, experiment 2 involved ovariectomized (OVX) rats provided with 10-μg 17β-Estradiol and compared with OVX rats without hormone replacement (oil vehicle). Irrespective of hormone treatment, AM251 increased anxiety in the EPM, whereas ACEA (0.01 mg/kg) was without effect. Neither hormone nor drug altered anxiety in the OFT, but estradiol increased and AM251 decreased distance traveled. After fear conditioning, AM251 decreased generalized fear. Neither hormone nor drug had any effect on recall or extinction of conditioned fear, however, ACEA and AM251 increased fear-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations. Further, when results with intact rats were compared with those from OVX rats, gonadal status did not moderate the effects of either AM251 or ACEA, although OVX displayed greater anxiety and fear than did intact rats. Thus, the effects of CB1 receptor antagonism and agonism in adult female rats do not depend on ovarian estradiol. PMID:26311003

  14. Conditioned Media from Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Induced the Apoptosis and Differentiation in Human Glioma Cell Lines In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have an intrinsic property for homing towards tumor sites and can be used as tumor-tropic vectors for tumor therapy. But very limited studies investigated the antitumor properties of MSCs themselves. In this study we investigated the antiglioma properties of two easily accessible MSCs, namely, human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs. We found (1 MSC conditioned media can significantly inhibit the growth of human U251 glioma cell line; (2 MSC conditioned media can significantly induce apoptosis in human U251 cell line; (3 real-time PCR experiments showed significant upregulation of apoptotic genes of both caspase-3 and caspase-9 and significant downregulation of antiapoptotic genes such as survivin and XIAP after MSC conditioned media induction in U 251 cells; (4 furthermore, MSCs conditioned media culture induced rapid and complete differentiation in U251 cells. These results indicate MSCs can efficiently induce both apoptosis and differentiation in U251 human glioma cell line. Whereas UC-MSCs are more efficient for apoptosis induction than ASCs, their capability of differentiation induction is not distinguishable from each other. Our findings suggest MSCs themselves have favorable antitumor characteristics and should be further explored in future glioma therapy.

  15. Inhibition of Glioblastoma Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo by Brucine, a Component of Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijun, Wang; Wenbin, Meng; Yumin, Wang; Ruijian, Zhang; Puweizhong, Huang; Yulin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common glial cell tumors and has drawn more and more attention in the clinic in recent years. Brucine has been reported to significantly suppress gastric cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer growth in vivo by inducing cell apoptosis. Here, the effects of brucine on U251 human glioma cell growth were investigated in vitro by cell proliferation assay, FACs, and qPCR in a xenograft tumor model. Treatment with brucine reduced the expression of BCL-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), while upregulated BAX expression in U251 human glioma cells resulted in reduced glioma cell survival rate and inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors. We concluded that brucine has a suppressive effect on U251 human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo, which could help in understanding the role of brucine in glioma cells and guiding drug use in the clinic. PMID:26629939

  16. Experiment research on inhibition of glioma with sTRAIL in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yihe; Wang, Yangang; Xu, Jian; Li, Zhaojian; Sun, Peng; Meng, Qinghai

    2014-06-01

    We report that adenovirus mediated TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) influenced the cell growth and cell cycle in the glioma cells in vitro. After being infected with the Ad-sTRAIL, U251 cell growth was inhibited. The expression of sTRAIL was detected using immunofluorescence. The higher rate of apoptosis was demonstrated using short-term microculture tetrazoliun (MTT) assay and flow cytometry. The rate of Ad-sTRAIL-inducing U251 cell apoptosis was increased depending on the dosage and the time. The apoptosis of G0/G1 and S phase cells was more significant than that of the control groups. The growth and proliferation of U251 cell line was inhibited after the infection of Ad-sTRAIL. It is dose- and time dependent. PMID:24156316

  17. Over-expression of tetraspanin 8 in malignant glioma regulates tumor cell progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor cell invasion and proliferation remain the overwhelming causes of death for malignant glioma patients. To establish effective therapeutic methods, new targets implied in these processes have to be identified. Tetraspanin 8 (Tspn8) forms complexes with a large variety of trans-membrane and/or cytosolic proteins to regulate several important cellular functions. In the current study, we found that Tspn8 was over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues, and its expression level correlated with the grade of tumors. Tspn8 expression in malignant glioma cells (U251MG and U87MG lines) is important for cell proliferation and migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Tspn8 markedly reduced in vitro proliferation and migration of U251MG and U87MG cells. Meanwhile, Tspn8 silencing also increased the sensitivity of temozolomide (TMZ), and significantly increased U251MG or U87MG cell death and apoptosis by TMZ were achieved with Tspn8 knockdown. We observed that Tspn8 formed a complex with activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in both human malignant glioma tissues and in above glioma cells. This complexation appeared required for FAK activation, since Tspn8 knockdown inhibited FAK activation in U251MG and U87MG cells. These results provide evidence that Tspn8 contributes to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma probably by promoting proliferation, migration and TMZ-resistance of glioma cells. Therefore, targeting Tspn8 may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for malignant glioma. - Highlights: • Tspn8 is over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues. • Tspn8 expression is correlated with the grade of malignant gliomas. • Tspn8 knockdown suppresses U251MG/U87MG proliferation and in vitro migration. • Tspn8 knockdown significantly increases TMZ sensitivity in U251MG/U87MG cells. • Tspn8 forms a complex with FAK, required for FAK activation

  18. Chryseobacterium chengduensis sp. nov. isolated from the air of captive giant panda enclosures in Chengdu, China* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cai-fang; Xi, Li-xin; Zhao, Shan; Hao, Zhong-xiang; Luo, Lu; Liao, Hong; Chen, Zhen-rong; She, Rong; Han, Guo-quan; Cao, San-jie; Wu, Rui; Yan, Qi-gui; Hou, Rong

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated 25-1T, was isolated from the air inside giant panda enclosures at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, China. Strain 25-1T grew optimally at pH 7.0–8.0, at 28–30 °C and in the presence of NaCl concentrations from 0.0% to 0.5 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain 25-1T belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium within the family Flavobacteriaceae and is related most closely to C. carnis G81T (96.4% similarity), C. lathyri RBA2-6T (95.8% similarity), and C. zeae JM1085T (95.8% similarity). Its genomic DNA G+C molar composition was 36.2%. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0 (44.0%), iso-C17:0 3OH (19.8%) and C16:1 ω7c/16:1 ω6c (12.7%). The only isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified amino lipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA–DNA relatedness between strain 25-1T and C. lathyri RBA2-6T was 38%. Phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic characteristics indicated that strain 25-1T is a novel member of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name C. chengduensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 25-1T (CCTCC AB2015133T=DSM 100396T). PMID:27487806

  19. Interaction between orexin A and cannabinoid system in the lateral hypothalamus of rats and effects of subchronic intraperitoneal administration of cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist on food intake and the nutritive utilization of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merroun, I; El Mlili, N; Martinez, R; Porres, J M; Llopis, J; Ahabrach, H; Aranda, P; Sanchez Gonzalez, C; Errami, M; Lopez-Jurado, M

    2015-04-01

    Crosstalk may occur between cannabinoids and other systems controlling appetite, since cannabinoid receptors are present in hypothalamic circuits involved in feeding regulation, and likely to interact with orexin. In this study, an immunohistochemical approach was used to examine the effect of the intracerebroventricular administration of cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM 251 on orexin neuropeptide in the hypothalamic system. AM-activated neurons were identified using c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity. The results obtained show that AM 251 decreases orexin A immunoreactivity, and that it increases c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons within the hypothalamus when compared with the vehicle-injected control group. We also studied the effects of subchronic intraperitoneal administration of AM 251 on food intake, body weight, and protein utilization. The administration of AM 251 at 1, 2, or 5 mg/kg led to a significant reduction in food intake, along with a significant decrease in the digestive utilization of protein in the groups injected with 1 and 2 mg/kg. There was a dose-related slowdown in weight gain, especially at the doses of 2 and 5 mg/kg, during the initial days of the trial. The absence of this effect in the pair-fed group reveals that any impairment to digestibility was the result of administering AM 251. These data support our conclusion that hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides are involved in the reduction of appetite and mediated by the cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist. Furthermore, the subchronic administration of AM 251, in addition to its effect on food intake, has significant effects on the digestive utilization of protein. PMID:25903949

  20. Chryseobacterium chengduensis sp. nov. isolated from the air of captive giant panda enclosures in Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cai-Fang; Xi, Li-Xin; Zhao, Shan; Hao, Zhong-Xiang; Luo, Lu; Liao, Hong; Chen, Zhen-Rong; She, Rong; Han, Guo-Quan; Cao, San-Jie; Wu, Rui; Yan, Qi-Gui; Hou, Rong

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated 25-1(T), was isolated from the air inside giant panda enclosures at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, China. Strain 25-1(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 28-30 °C and in the presence of NaCl concentrations from 0.0% to 0.5 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain 25-1(T) belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium within the family Flavobacteriaceae and is related most closely to C. carnis G81(T) (96.4% similarity), C. lathyri RBA2-6(T) (95.8% similarity), and C. zeae JM1085(T) (95.8% similarity). Its genomic DNA G+C molar composition was 36.2%. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0 (44.0%), iso-C17:0 3OH (19.8%) and C16:1 ω7c/16:1 ω6c (12.7%). The only isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified amino lipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 25-1(T) and C. lathyri RBA2-6(T) was 38%. Phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic characteristics indicated that strain 25-1(T) is a novel member of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name C. chengduensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 25-1(T) (CCTCC AB2015133(T)=DSM 100396(T)). PMID:27487806

  1. Over-expression of tetraspanin 8 in malignant glioma regulates tumor cell progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Si-Jian [Department of Neurosurgery, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wu, Yue-Bing [Department of Internal Medicine Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Cai, Shang [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 21500 (China); Pan, Yi-Xin; Liu, Wei [Department of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Bian, Liu-Guan [Department of Neurosurgery, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Sun, Bomin [Department of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Sun, Qing-Fang, E-mail: sunqingfang11@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2015-03-13

    Tumor cell invasion and proliferation remain the overwhelming causes of death for malignant glioma patients. To establish effective therapeutic methods, new targets implied in these processes have to be identified. Tetraspanin 8 (Tspn8) forms complexes with a large variety of trans-membrane and/or cytosolic proteins to regulate several important cellular functions. In the current study, we found that Tspn8 was over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues, and its expression level correlated with the grade of tumors. Tspn8 expression in malignant glioma cells (U251MG and U87MG lines) is important for cell proliferation and migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Tspn8 markedly reduced in vitro proliferation and migration of U251MG and U87MG cells. Meanwhile, Tspn8 silencing also increased the sensitivity of temozolomide (TMZ), and significantly increased U251MG or U87MG cell death and apoptosis by TMZ were achieved with Tspn8 knockdown. We observed that Tspn8 formed a complex with activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in both human malignant glioma tissues and in above glioma cells. This complexation appeared required for FAK activation, since Tspn8 knockdown inhibited FAK activation in U251MG and U87MG cells. These results provide evidence that Tspn8 contributes to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma probably by promoting proliferation, migration and TMZ-resistance of glioma cells. Therefore, targeting Tspn8 may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for malignant glioma. - Highlights: • Tspn8 is over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues. • Tspn8 expression is correlated with the grade of malignant gliomas. • Tspn8 knockdown suppresses U251MG/U87MG proliferation and in vitro migration. • Tspn8 knockdown significantly increases TMZ sensitivity in U251MG/U87MG cells. • Tspn8 forms a complex with FAK, required for FAK activation.

  2. Polymorphism of inflammatory genes and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure to arsenic can generate reactive oxidative species, which can induce certain proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of various cancers, including bladder cancer. This study aimed to investigate the joint effect of the polymorphism of TNF-α − 308 G/A, IL-6 − 174 G/C, IL-8 − 251 T/A and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. This study evaluated 300 pathologically-confirmed cases of UC and 594 cancer-free controls. Urinary arsenic species were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphism of TNF-α − 308 G/A, IL-6 − 174 G/C and IL-8 − 251 T/A was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The joint effects on UC risk were estimated by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using unconditional logistic regression. We found that the TNF-α − 308 A/A and IL-8 − 251 T/T polymorphisms were significantly associated with UC. Moreover, significant dose–response joint effect of TNF-α − 308 A/A or IL-8 − 251 T/T genotypes and arsenic methylation indices were seen to affect UC risk. The present results also showed a significant increase in UC risk in subjects with the IL-8 − 251 T/T genotype for each SD increase in urinary total arsenic and MMA%. In contrast, a significant decrease in UC risk was found in subjects who carried the IL-8 − 251 T/T genotype for each SD increase in DMA%. - Highlights: • Joint effect of the TNF-α -308 A/A genotype and urinary total arsenic affected UC. • Joint effect of the IL-8 -251 T/T genotype and urinary total arsenic affected UC. • Urinary total arsenic level, TNF-α -308 A/A and IL-8 -251 T/T genotype affected UC

  3. Synaptic action of anandamide and related substances in mammalian brain

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Cheng Yong

    2007-01-01

    Anandamide and the synthetic cannabimimetic drugs AM 404 and WIN 55,212-2 were found to inhibit the binding of [3H]batrachotoxinin A 20--benzoate (BTX) to voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and also to depress VGSC-dependent release of GABA and L-glutamic acid. These effects occur independently of CB-1 receptor activation since they were not attenuated by AM251 at concentrations known to antagonize CB-1 receptors, although at higher concentrations AM251 inhibited VGSCs also. These ...

  4. Prenatal Diagnosis of Cleft Palates Through Oral Fissure%经口裂超声扫查诊断胎儿腭裂的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹春林; 罗琼秀; 刘燕飞; 贺新兰; 黄金娟; 康秋香; 杨引洪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the two dimensional ultrasonic diagnosis of fetus cleft palates through the oral fissure. Methods Every fetus was scaned the hard palate and soft palate through oral fissure and submaxilla triangle except the detailed rountine ultrasound sacn. Results The display rates of hard palate and soft palate is 94. 82%(238/ 251) and 91. 63% (230/251)respectively by the sound beam through oral fissure, and the display rates of hard palate and soft palate is 13. 15%(33/251) ,14. 34% (36/251)respectively by the sound beam through submaxilla triangle. The results demonstrated that display rates of hard palate and soft palate be significantly higher by the sound beam through oral fissure than that through submaxilla triangle. Conclusions The examination of cleft palate through the fetal oral fissure can improve the display rates of the hard palate and soft palate, and provide definitive diagnosis and degree of cleft palate.%目的 探讨二维超声经胎儿口裂扫查诊断腭裂的价值.方法 对胎儿完成超声系统检查后,分别经胎儿口裂及颌下三角扫查硬腭及软腭.结果 经口裂扫查法胎儿硬腭显示率94.82% (238/251)、软腭显示率91.63% (230/251).经颌下三角扫查法胎儿硬腭显示率13.15% (33/251)、软腭显示率14.34% (36/251).结果显示经口裂扫查法对软硬腭的显示率显著高于经颌下三角扫查法.结论 经口裂扫查法能提高硬腭及软腭的显示率,明确有无腭裂及其程度,能提高腭裂的产前检出率.

  5. Higgs hunt gets heavy

    CERN Document Server

    Reich, Eugenie Samuel

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the existence and mass of Higgs particle is discussed. The Higgs particle drags on other particles as if miring them in molasses, thereby endowing them with mass. An analysis indicates that the Higgs' most likely mass is 117 GeV, and it could weigh as much as 251 GeV. A Large Hadron Collider (LHC), developed by CERN, the European particle physics laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is scheduled to start up in 2007 and will hunt for the Higgs at energies up to 251 GeV and beyond. (Edited abstract).

  6. HCMV Infection Depress NGF Expression in Human Glioma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-tao WANG; Bin WANG; Zhi-jun LIU; Zhi-qiang BAI; Ling LI; Dong-meng QIAN; Zhi-yong YAN; Xu-xia SONG

    2009-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection, resulting in birth defects such as microcephaly. In this study, RT-PCR and Western Blotting were performed to quantify the regulation of endogenic nerve growth factor expression in neuroglia cells by HCMV infection. The results showed that basal, endogenous NGF expression in U251 was unchanged during early HCMV infection. NGF expression is strongly down-regulated during the latent phase of infection. These results suggest that HCMV can depress the NGF expression in U251 cells.

  7. Neki aspekti izbora boje zuba za mobilne proteze    

    OpenAIRE

    JEROLIMOV, Vjekoslav; Carek, Vlado; Stipetić, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    Istraživanje je izvršeno ina osnovi podataka iz bolesničkih kartona i radnih naloga 935 pacijenata s parcijalnim (381 muškarac, 251 žena) i 365 pacijenta s totalnim protezma (118 muškaraca, 251 žena). Sv,e proteze izrađene su s umjetnim zubima iz aikrilata (dvoslojnim) tvornice Poligalansplastik (Volčja Draga). U obradi podatka poslužila je kvalitativna statistička metoda po Crameru, a značajnost razlika provjerena je X2 — testom. U parcijalnih proteza primjetna je veća učestalost pojedini...

  8. Polymorphism of inflammatory genes and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chia-Chang [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Taipei Medical University—Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lai, Li-An [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chin [Department of Family Medicine, Shung Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Examination, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic can generate reactive oxidative species, which can induce certain proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of various cancers, including bladder cancer. This study aimed to investigate the joint effect of the polymorphism of TNF-α − 308 G/A, IL-6 − 174 G/C, IL-8 − 251 T/A and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. This study evaluated 300 pathologically-confirmed cases of UC and 594 cancer-free controls. Urinary arsenic species were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphism of TNF-α − 308 G/A, IL-6 − 174 G/C and IL-8 − 251 T/A was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The joint effects on UC risk were estimated by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using unconditional logistic regression. We found that the TNF-α − 308 A/A and IL-8 − 251 T/T polymorphisms were significantly associated with UC. Moreover, significant dose–response joint effect of TNF-α − 308 A/A or IL-8 − 251 T/T genotypes and arsenic methylation indices were seen to affect UC risk. The present results also showed a significant increase in UC risk in subjects with the IL-8 − 251 T/T genotype for each SD increase in urinary total arsenic and MMA%. In contrast, a significant decrease in UC risk was found in subjects who carried the IL-8 − 251 T/T genotype for each SD increase in DMA%. - Highlights: • Joint effect of the TNF-α -308 A/A genotype and urinary total arsenic affected UC. • Joint effect of the IL-8 -251 T/T genotype and urinary total arsenic affected UC. • Urinary total arsenic level, TNF-α -308 A/A and IL-8 -251 T/T genotype affected UC.

  9. Molecular detection and genetic characterization of kobuviruses and astroviruses in asymptomatic local pigs in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amimo, Joshua O.; Okoth, Edward; Junga, Joseph O.; Ogara, William O; Njahira, Moses N.; Wang, Qiuhong; Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Saif, Linda J; Djikeng, Appolinaire

    2013-01-01

    In this study, swine fecal specimens (n = 251) collected from nursing and weaned piglets raised under smallholder production systems were screened for the presence of kobuviruses by RT-PCR. Porcine kobuviruses were detected in 13.1 % (33/251) of the samples. We demonstrated that porcine kobuvirus infections exist in indigenous pigs in Kenya and Uganda and that the prevalence was higher in young piglets than older pigs: nursing piglets (15 %), post-weaning (3-month-old) pigs (17 %), 4-month-ol...

  10. The Development of Neutron Radiography and Tomography on a SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L. G. I.; Lewis, W. J.; Hungler, P. C.

    Development of neutron radiography at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) started by trying to interest the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in this new non-destructive testing (NDT) technique. A Californium-252 based device was ordered and then installed at RMC for development of applicable techniques for aircraft by the first author. A second and transportable device was then designed, modified and used in trials at RCAF Bases and other locations for one year. This activity was the only foreign loan of the U.S. Californium Loan Program. Around this time, SLOWPOKE-2 reactors were being installed at four Canadian universities, while a new science and engineering building was being built at RMC. A reactor pool was incorporated and efforts to procure a reactor succeeded a decade later with a SLOWPOKE-2 reactor being installed at RMC. The only modification by the vendor for RMC was a thermal column replacing an irradiation site inside the reactor container for a later installation of a neutron beam tube (NBT). Development of a working NBT took several years, starting with the second author. A demonstration of the actual worth of neutron radiography took place with a CF-18 Hornet aircraft being neutron and X-radiographed at McClellan Air Force Base, Sacramento, CA. This inspection was followed by one of the rudders that had indications of water ingress being radiographed successfully at RMC just after the NBT became functional. The next step was to develop a neutron radioscopy system (NRS), initially employing film and then digital imaging, and is in use today for all flight control surfaces (FCS). With the third author, a technique capable of removing water from affected FCS was developed at RMC. Heating equipment and a vacuum system were utilized to carefully remove the water. This technique was proven using a sequence of near real time neutron images obtained during the drying process. The results of the drying process were correlated with a relative humidity

  11. Dicty_cDB: SHF189 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s of Diseases Associated with Cell Cycle. 46 2e-04 3 BD452918 |BD452918.1 Diagnosis of Diseases Associated w...is of Diseases Associated with Cell Cycle. 46 2e-04 3 AX795908 |AX795908.1 Sequence 251 from Patent WO030521

  12. Mathematics Self-Efficacy: Stereotype Threat versus Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinle, Amy; Mims, Grace A.

    2009-01-01

    Children's academic self-efficacy is one of the strongest predictors of achievement (Wigfield and Eccles, "Contemporary Educational Psychology" 25(1): 68-81, 2000). The present research examined mathematics self-efficacy and the relationship of racial context from the perspective of two competing bodies of research. Stereotype threat theory would…

  13. 77 FR 22234 - Notice of Intent To Request Public Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Against Deceptive Pricing, 16 CFR part 233; Guides Against Bait Advertising, 16 CFR part 238; Guides... Records. 233 Guides Against Deceptive Pricing. 2017. 238 Guides Against Bait Advertising.. 2017. 251 Guide Concerning Use of the Word 2017. AFree@ and Similar Representations. 410 Deceptive Advertising as to...

  14. Learning Style of Students and Practitioners in Five Health Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Noomi; Heimann, Nanci

    1991-01-01

    An Israeli sample of 378 students and 251 practitioners in occupational therapy (OT), social work, nursing, physical therapy, and clinical psychology completed Kolb's Learning Style Inventory. Findings suggest greater variance in learning style among students. OT students were least abstract. Both OT students and practitioners were predominantly…

  15. 75 FR 82066 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... with Section 80(a), Public Law 93-251 (88 Stat. 34) and 18 CFR 704.39, which: (1) specify that the rate... Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal...

  16. The Impact of Imports and Exports on a Country's Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirgy, M. Joseph; Lee, Dong-Jin; Miller, Chad; Littlefield, James E.; Atay, Eda Gurel

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a sequel to Sirgy et al. ("Social Ind. Res." 68(3) (2004) 251), "The Impact of Globalization on a Country's Quality of Life: Toward an Integrated Model" published in "Social Indicators Research." That paper conceptualized globalization in terms of the free flow of four major components: (1) goods and services, (2) people, (3)…

  17. 78 FR 59659 - Correction to the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... of the corrected HSTT Final EIS/OEIS are available for public review at the following libraries: 1. Lihue Public Library, 4344 Hardy Street, Lihue, Hawaii 96766. 2. Wailuku Public Library, 251 High Street, Wailuku, Hawaii 96793. 3. Hilo Public Library, 300 Waianuenue Avenue, Hilo, Hawaii 96720. 4....

  18. 78 FR 38842 - Definition of a Ski Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 251 RIN 0596-AD12 Definition of a Ski Area AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: The Forest Service is amending the definition of a ski area in its regulations to make it consistent with the authority in section 3 of the Ski Area Recreational...

  19. Demand and Tight Stocks Driving Prices Higher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    World cotton production and consumption are forecast to roughly balance at 25.1 million tons in 2010/11,as a result of a 15% rebound in production and a 2% increase in mill use.World ending stocks are

  20. Whole-genome sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strains isolated from agricultural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana strain CVM42234 isolated from chick feed in 2012 and Salmonella Cubana strain 76814 isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 base pairs, respectively....

  1. 47 CFR 25.115 - Application for earth station authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The filed application is consistent with the proposal that was coordinated pursuant to § 25.251. (B... this conditional authority assumes all risks associated with such operation, the termination or..., became effective with approval by the Office of Management and Budget for a period of three years....

  2. A Comprehensive Survey on the Status of Social and Professional Issues in United States Undergraduate Computer Science Programs and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradling, Carol; Soh, Leen-Kiat; Ansorge, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    A national web-based survey was administered to 700 undergraduate computer science (CS) programs in the United States as part of a stratified random sample of 797 undergraduate CS programs. The 251 program responses (36% response rate) regarding social and professional issues are presented. This article describes the demographics of the…

  3. 40 CFR 264.253 - Response actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.253 Response actions. (a) The owner or operator of waste pile units subject to § 264.251...

  4. 40 CFR 264.252 - Action leakage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste... for waste pile units subject to § 264.251(c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum...

  5. 41 CFR 101-25.103-3 - Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Trading stamps or bonus... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103-3 Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors. When contracts contain a price reduction clause, any method (such as trading stamps or...

  6. Demolition work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Because of demolition work inside Bldg. 251, two containers will be placed on the route Démocrite. For security reasons, the part of this road in front of barrack 553 will be closed to circulation from 5 to 12 November. Thank you, in advance for your understanding. PH-SMI

  7. Modulatory effects by CB1 receptors on rat spinal locomotor networks after sustained application of agonists or antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraraghavan, P; Nistri, A

    2015-09-10

    Sustained administration of cannabinoid agonists acting on neuronal CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) are proposed for treating spasticity and chronic pain. The impact of CB1Rs on mammalian locomotor networks remains, however, incompletely understood. To clarify how CB1Rs may control synaptic activity and locomotor network function, we used the rat spinal cord in vitro which is an advantageous model to investigate locomotor circuit mechanisms produced by the local central pattern generator. Neither the CB1 agonist anandamide (AEA) nor the CB1R antagonist AM-251 evoked early (3-24h largely impaired locomotor network activity induced by DR stimuli or neurochemicals, and depressed disinhibited bursting without changing reflex amplitude or inducing neurotoxicity even if CB1R immunoreactivity was lowered in the central region. Since CB1R activation usually inhibits cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis, we investigated how a 24-h application of AEA or AM-251 affected basal or forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels. While AEA decreased them in an AM-251-sensitive manner, AM-251 per se did not change resting or stimulated cAMP. Our data suggest that CB1Rs may control the circuit gateway regulating the inflow of sensory afferent inputs into the locomotor circuits, indicating a potential site of action for restricting peripheral signals disruptive for locomotor activity.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13884-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AB367930 |pid:none) Theileria sergenti CCTeta gene for... 251 8e-65 CR382139_608( CR382139 |pid:none) De...929 |pid:none) Theileria sergenti CCTeta gene for... 221 8e-56 AB367931_1( AB367931 |pid:none) Theileria serge

  9. Benthic macrofauna

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.

    in the Pichavaram mangroves (South India); Ciencias Marinas 20 371?391. Goswami S. C. (1983) Coexistence and succession of copepod species in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Goa; Mahasagar 16 251?258. Government of Goa (1976) Goa, Daman and Diu Agricultural Tenancy...

  10. The Influence of Self-Compassion on Academic Procrastination and Dysfunctional Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, Murat

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, aims were (1) to determine gender differences in self-compassion, academic procrastination, and dysfunctional attitudes and (2) to examine the relationships between self-compassion, academic procrastination, and dysfunctional attitudes. Participants were 251 university students who completed a questionnaire package that…

  11. Oil Price Hike Boosts CNOOC Revenue%Oil Price Hike Boosts CNOOC Revenue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Q1 production up 26.6 percent CNOOC Limited's first-quarter production increased 26.6 percent to 85.2 million barrels of oil equivalent compared with the same period last year. Output at the Jinzhou 25-1 project commenced in the first quarter, CNOOC sa

  12. Cumulative lactate and hospital mortality in ICU patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; Brander, Lukas; Jansen, Sebastiaan P. A.; Rommes, Johannes H.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Both hyperlactatemia and persistence of hyperlactatemia have been associated with bad outcome. We compared lactate and lactate-derived variables in outcome prediction. Methods: Retrospective observational study. Case records from 2,251 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients admit

  13. Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, N.E.; Key, T.J.; Appleby, P.N.; Travis, R.C.; Roddam, A.W.; Tjonneland, A.; Johnsen, N.F.; Overvad, K.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; Pischon, T.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Kiemeney, L.; Tagliabue, G.; Palli, D.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Kassapa, C.; Trichopoulos, D.; Ardanaz, E.; Larranaga, N.; Tormo, M.J.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Quiros, J.R.; Sanchez, M.J.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Manjer, J.; Berglund, G.; Stattin, P.; Hallmans, G.; Slimani, N.; Ferrari, P.; Rinaldi, S.; Riboli, E.

    2008-01-01

    We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142 251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight

  14. Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk : the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, N. E.; Key, T. J.; Appleby, P. N.; Travis, R. C.; Roddam, A. W.; Tjonneland, A.; Johnsen, N. F.; Overvad, K.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; Pischon, T.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Kiemeney, L.; Tagliabue, G.; Palli, D.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Kassapa, C.; Trichopoulos, D.; Ardanaz, E.; Larranaga, N.; Tormo, M-J; Gonzalez, C. A.; Quiros, J. R.; Sanchez, M-J; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K-T; Manjer, J.; Berglund, G.; Stattin, P.; Hallmans, G.; Slimani, N.; Ferrari, P.; Rinaldi, S.; Riboli, E.

    2008-01-01

    We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142 251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight

  15. Optimization, Application, and Interpretation of Lactate Dehydrogenase Measurements in Microwell Determination of Cell Number and Toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, H.T.; Van der Meer, A.J.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was addressed for its sensitivity, disturbances by foaming, and cell number and size. Cells were from a U-251 MG grade IV human glioblastoma brain tumor cell line used in 100-µl well volumes. Cells were counted by microscopy and Coulter counting; assays were LDH

  16. Mechanism of heavy ion radiation-induced cancer cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported that the carbon beam triggers apoptosis in radio-resistant cancer cell lines via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)- and mitochondrial Bcl-2 family protein-dependant mechanism. Here, we further examined the further apoptosis-inducing mechanism of carbon beam in two glioma cell lines (T98G, U251). ERK1/2 knockdown experiments revealed that ERK regulates this apoptosis-inducing machinery upstream of mitochondria. Furthermore, we also found that both T98G cell and U251 cell stably expressing dominant-negative ERK2 suppress cell death induced by carbon beam irradiation. We also found proapoptotic PUMA and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 dynamically chang their expression levels corresponding to ERK activation after CB irradiation in U251 cell, and knockdown of PUMA decreased CB-induced U251 cell death. These data suggest that kinase action of ERK is essential for CB-induced glioma cell death, and proapoptotic PUMA and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 might be downstream targets of ERK in CB-induced glioma cell death mechanism. (author)

  17. Mechanisms Linking Violence Exposure to Health Risk Behavior in Adolescence: Motivation to Cope and Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S.; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined two potential mechanisms linking violence exposure and health risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care: sensation seeking and coping with stress through escape behavior. Method: Male (59%) and female adolescents (N = 251), ages 12 to 19 years, from diverse ethnic backgrounds (61% African American, 19%…

  18. Inadequate humidification of respiratory gases during mechanical ventilation of the newborn.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow-Mordi, W O; Sutton, P; Wilkinson, A R

    1986-01-01

    Proximal airway humidity was measured during mechanical ventilation in 14 infants using an electronic hygrometer. Values below recommended minimum humidity of adult inspired gas were recorded on 251 of 396 occasions. Inadequate humidification, largely due to inadequate proximal airway temperature, is commoner than recognised in infants receiving mechanical ventilation.

  19. Dicty_cDB: SHB627 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 |pid:none) Caldivirga maquilingensis IC-167... 38 0.67 CP001279_992( CP001279 |...s) Value (Q9U720) RecName: Full=Cellulose synthase catalytic subunit A [U... 251 1e-79 CP000852_441( CP00085

  20. Association of Enterovirus 71 encephalitis with the interleukin-8 gene region in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lin, Aiwei; Yu, Chengwen; Zhang, Zhaofang; Xu, Daoyan; Hu, Wei; Liu, Liyan; Wang, Shaoning; Nie, Xiuzhen; Sun, Wenhui; Gai, Zhongtao; Chen, Zongbo

    2015-06-01

    The study was performed in 36 Chinese patients with Enterovirus 71 (EV71) encephalitis and 141 patients with EV71-related hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) without encephalitis. Genotyping was determined by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism. Patients with EV71 encephalitis had a significantly higher frequency of interleukin-8 (IL-8)-251TT genotype than patients with EV71-related HFMD without encephalitis (55.6% vs 31.2%, p = 0.023). The frequency of IL-8-251T alleles was significantly higher among patients with EV71 encephalitis than in patients with EV71-related HFMD without encephalitis (72.2% vs 58.9%, odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.0-3.2, p = 0.038). There were significant differences in gender, age, fever days, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and blood glucose concentration and IL-8 levels among genotypes of IL-8-251A/T in EV71-infected patients, but no significant differences in alanine or aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase-myocardial isozyme and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with EV71 encephalitis. These findings suggest that the IL-8-251T allele is associated with susceptibility to EV71 encephalitis in Chinese patients. PMID:25751776

  1. Brain natriuretic peptide is a potent vasodilator in aged human microcirculation and shows a blunted response in heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Marie-Louise; Uddman, Erik; Edvinsson, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    oxide synthase inhibitor, l-N-Arginine- methyl-ester (L-NAME), blocked the BNP response (in controls). Interestingly, responses to BNP in CHF patients were reduced to about one third of those seen in healthy controls (increase in flow: 251% in CHF vs. 908% in controls; P

  2. EST Table: BB985303 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BB985303 E_ET_MSV3_03D09_F_0 10/09/28 99 %/251 aa ref|NP_001166287.1| sericin 2 iso...form 1 precursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADA84147.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 low homology 10/08/

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Larval Shellfish Pathogen Vibrio tubiashii Type Strain ATCC 19109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary P; Needleman, David S; Watson, Michael A; Bono, James L

    2014-12-18

    Vibrio tubiashii is a larval shellfish pathogen. Here, we report the first closed genome sequence for this species (ATCC type strain 19109), which consists of two chromosomes (3,294,490 and 1,766,582 bp), two megaplasmids (251,408 and 122,808 bp), and two plasmids (57,076 and 47,973 bp).

  4. Polychaete community structure of Indian west coast shelf, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joydas, T.V.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Damodaran, R.

    . Warwick, R. M., Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 1988, 46, 167–170. 4. Ferraro, S. P. and Cole, F. A., Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 1990, 67, 251–262. 5. Gray, J. S., Clarke, K. R., Warwick, R. M. and Hobbs, G., Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 1990, 66, 285–299. 6. Gesteira...

  5. Trajectories of Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Maternal Internalizing Symptoms, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Child Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Emily K.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Background: We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms as predicted by interactions among maternal internalizing symptoms, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and child sex. Method: An ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of children (n = 251) participated during three study waves. Children's mean ages were 8.23 years…

  6. The Apis mellifera filamentous virus genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV) was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double strand DNA molecule of approximately 498’500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 251 non overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), e...

  7. Congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970296 Evaluating the degree of pulmonary vascularlesions in congenital heart disease with selective pul-monary angiography. PAN Shiwei(潘世伟), et al.Fuwai Hosp, CAMS & PUMC, Beijing, 100037. Chin JCardiol 1997; 25(1): 39-41. Objective: To evaluate the degree of pulmonary vas-

  8. Comparison of 6q25 Breast Cancer Hits from Asian and European Genome Wide Association Studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Rebecca; Maranian, Melanie; Hopper, John L.; Kapuscinski, Miroslaw K.; Southey, Melissa C.; Park, Daniel J.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Bueno-de-Mesquit, H. Bas; Muir, Kenneth R.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Rattanamongkongul, Suthee; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Peto, Julian; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Marmee, Frederick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guenel, Pascal; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Truong, Therese; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Pilar Zamora, M.; Benitez, Javier; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A.; Brenner, Hermann; Mueller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Rahman, Nazneen; Seal, Sheila; Turnbull, Clare; Renwick, Anthony; Meindl, Alfons; Schott, Sarah; Bartram, Claus R.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Doerk, Thilo; Schuermann, Peter; Karstens, Johann H.; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Zalutsky, Iosif V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokovieva, Darya; Farahtdinova, Albina; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Lambrechts, Diether; Zhao, Hui; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Offit, Kenneth; Robson, Mark; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Alnaes, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkas, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Collee, Margriet; Hall, Per; Humpreys, Keith; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Ahmed, Shahana; Ghoussaini, Maya; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Zlowocka, Elzbieta; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Hou, Ming-Feng; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Morrison, Jonathan; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    The 6q25.1 locus was first identified via a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in Chinese women and marked by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2046210, approximately 180 Kb upstream of ESR1. There have been conflicting reports about the association of this locus with breast cancer in Europea

  9. Nicotine reinforcement is reduced by cannabinoid CB1 receptor blockade in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonnet, Amelie; Cador, Martine; Caille, Stephanie

    2013-11-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors control the motivational properties and reinforcing effects of nicotine. Indeed, peripheral administration of a CB1 receptor antagonist dramatically decreases both nicotine taking and seeking. However, the neural substrates through which the cannabinoid CB1 receptors regulate the voluntary intake of nicotine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we sought to determine whether central injections of a CB1 receptor antagonist delivered either into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or the nucleus accumbens (NAC) may alter nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA). Rats were first trained to self-administer nicotine (30 μg/kg/0.1 ml). The effect of central infusions of the CB1 antagonist AM 251 (0, 1 and 10 μg/0.5 μl/side) on nicotine-taking behavior was then tested. Intra-VTA infusions of AM 251 dose dependently reduced IVSA with a significant decrease for the dose 10 μg/0.5 μl/side. Moreover, operant responding for water was unaltered by intra-VTA AM 251 at the same dose. Surprisingly, intra-NAC delivery of AM 251 did not alter nicotine behavior at all. These data suggest that in rats chronically exposed to nicotine IVSA, the cannabinoid CB1 receptors located in the VTA rather than in the NAC specifically control nicotine reinforcement and, subsequently, nicotine-taking behavior. PMID:22784230

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02747-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .002 1 ( CV511896 ) kc49d02.y1 Xiphinema index CSEQDA01 Xiphinema ind... 54 0.006 1 ( CV511063 ) kc66f06.y1 Xiphinema... index CSEQDL01 Xiphinema ind... 54 0.006 1 ( CD179525 ) MS1-0016T-M251-E06-U.G MS1-0016 Schistosom

  11. Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, Norihiro; Loh, Marie; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Verweij, Niek; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Weihua; Kelly, Tanika N.; Saleheen, Danish; Lehne, Benjamin; Leach, Irene Mateo; Drong, Alexander W.; Abbott, James; Wahl, Simone; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Scott, William R.; Campanella, Gianluca; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Bonder, Marc Jan; Chen, Peng; Dehghan, Abbas; Edwards, Todd L.; Esko, Tonu; Go, Min Jin; Harris, Sarah E.; Hartiala, Jaana; Kasela, Silva; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Huaixing; Mok, Zuan Yu; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Sapari, Nur Sabrina; Saxena, Richa; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Stolk, Lisette; Tabara, Yasuharu; Teh, Ai Ling; Wu, Ying; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Zhang, Yi; Aits, Imke; Alves, Alexessander Da Silva Couto; Das, Shikta; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Kim, Yun Kyoung; Koivula, Robert W.; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Nguyen, Quang N.; Pereira, Mark A.; Postmus, Iris; Raitakari, Olli T.; Bryan, Molly Scannell; Scott, Robert A.; Sorice, Rossella; Tragante, Vinicius; Traglia, Michela; White, Jon; Yamamoto, Ken; Zhang, Yonghong; Adair, Linda S.; Ahmed, Alauddin; Akiyama, Koichi; Asif, Rasheed; Aung, Tin; Barroso, Ines; Bjonnes, Andrew; Braun, Timothy R.; Cai, Hui; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chong, Yap-Seng; Collins, Rory; Courtney, Regina; Davies, Gail; Delgado, Graciela; Do, Loi D.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Grammer, Tanja B.; Grarup, Niels; Grewal, Jagvir; Gu, Dongfeng; Wander, Gurpreet S.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hazen, Stanley L.; He, Jing; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Hixson, James E.; Hofman, Albert; Hsu, Chris; Huang, Wei; Husemoen, Lise L. N.; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Ichihara, Sahoko; Igase, Michiya; Isono, Masato; Justesen, Johanne M.; Katsuy, Tomohiro; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Kim, Young Jin; Kishimoto, Miyako; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Kumari, Meena; Kwek, Kenneth; Lee, Nanette R.; Lee, Jeannette; Liao, Jiemin; Lieb, Wolfgang; Liewald, David C. M.; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Matsushita, Yumi; Meitinger, Thomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Mononen, Nina; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nabika, Toru; Nakashima, Eitaro; Ng, Hong Kiat; Nikus, Kjell; Nutile, Teresa; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohnaka, Keizo; Parish, Sarah; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peng, Hao; Peters, Annette; Pham, Son T.; Pinidiyapathirage, Mohitha J.; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rakugi, Hiromi; Rolandsson, Olov; Rozario, Michelle Ann; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F.; Sarju, Ralhan; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Snieder, Harold; Sparso, Thomas; Spiering, Wilko; Starr, John M.; Stott, David J.; Stram, Daniel O.; Sugiyama, Takao; Szymczak, Silke; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Tong, Lin; Trompet, Stella; Turjanmaa, Vaino; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Umemura, Satoshi; Vaarasmaki, Marja; van Dam, Rob M.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wang, Yiqin; Wang, Aili; Wilson, Rory; Wong, Tien-Yin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ye, Xingwang; Young, Robin D.; Young, Terri L.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zhou, Xueya; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Ciullo, Marina; Clarke, Robert; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Andre; Franks, Paul W.; Franks, Steve; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gross, Myron D.; Guo, Zhirong; Hansen, Torben; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jorgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahonen, Mika; Kajio, Hiroshi; Kivimaki, Mika; Lee, Jong-Young; Lehtimaki, Terho; Linneberg, Allan; Miki, Tetsuro; Pedersen, Oluf; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Toniolo, Daniela; Ahsan, Habibul; Allayee, Hooman; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Danesh, John; Deary, Ian J.; Franco, Oscar H.; Franke, Lude; Heijman, Bastiaan T.; Holbrook, Joanna D.; Isaacs, Aaron; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lin, Xu; Liu, Jianjun; Maerz, Winfried; Metspalu, Andres; Mohlke, Karen L.; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Vithana, Eranga; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. W.; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Dingliang; Vineis, Paolo; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Kleinjans, Jos C. S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Soong, Richie; Gieger, Christian; Scott, James; Teo, Yik-Ying; He, Jiang; Elliott, Paul; Tai, E. Shyong; van der Harst, Pim; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Chambers, John C.; Doevendans, PAFM

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (P = 3.9 x 10(-11) to 5.0 x 10(-21

  12. Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kato (Norihiro); M. Loh (Marie); F. Takeuchi (Fumihiko); N. Verweij (Niek); X. Wang (Xu); W. Zhang (Weihua); T. NKelly (Tanika); D. Saleheen; B. Lehne (Benjamin); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); A. Drong (Alexander); J. Abbott (James); S. Wahl (Simone); S.-T. Tan (Sian-Tsung); W.R. Scott (William R.); G. Campanella (Gianluca); M. Chadeau-Hyam (Marc); U. Afzal (Uzma); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); M.J. Bonder (Marc Jan); P. Chen (Ping); A. Dehghan (Abbas); T.L. Edwards (Todd L.); T. Esko (Tõnu); M.J. Go (Min Jin); S.E. Harris (Sarah); J. Hartiala (Jaana); S. Kasela (Silva); A. Kasturiratne (Anuradhani); C.C. Khor; M.E. Kleber (Marcus); H. Li (Huaixing); Z.Y. Mok (Zuan Yu); M. Nakatochi (Masahiro); N.S. Sapari (Nur Sabrina); R. Saxena (Richa); A.F. Stewart (Alexandre F.); L. Stolk (Lisette); Y. Tabara (Yasuharu); A.L. Teh (Ai Ling); Y. Wu (Ying); J.-Y. Wu (Jer-Yuarn); Y. Zhang (Yi); I. Aits (Imke); A. Da Silva Couto Alves (Alexessander); S. Das; R. Dorajoo (Rajkumar); J. CHopewell (Jemma); Y.K. Kim (Yun Kyoung); R. WKoivula (Robert); J. Luan (Jian'An); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); Q. NNguyen (Quang); M.A. Pereira (Mark A); D. Postmus (Douwe); O. TRaitakari (Olli); M. Scannell Bryan (Molly); R.A. Scott (Robert); R. Sorice; V. Tragante (Vinicius); M. Traglia (Michela); J. White (Jon); K. Yamamoto (Ken); Y. Zhang (Yonghong); L.S. Adair (Linda); A. Ahmed (Alauddin); K. Akiyama (Koichi); R. Asif (Rasheed); T. Aung (Tin); I. Barroso (Inês); A. Bjonnes (Andrew); T.R. Braun (Timothy R.); H. Cai (Hui); L.-C. Chang (Li-Ching); C.-H. Chen; C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); Y.-S. Chong (Yap-Seng); F.S. Collins (Francis); R. Courtney (Regina); G. Davies (Gail); G. Delgado; L.D. Do (Loi D.); P.A. Doevendans (Pieter); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); Y. Gao; T.B. Grammer (Tanja B); N. Grarup (Niels); J. Grewal (Jagvir); D. Gu (D.); G. SWander (Gurpreet); A.L. Hartikainen; S.L. Hazen (Stanley); J. He (Jing); C.K. Heng (Chew-Kiat); E.J.A. Hixso (E. James Ames); A. Hofman (Albert); C. Hsu (Chris); W. Huang (Wei); L.L.N. Husemoen (Lise Lotte); J.-Y. Hwang (Joo-Yeon); S. Ichihara (Sahoko); M. Igase (Michiya); M. Isono (Masato); J.M. Justesen (Johanne M.); T. Katsuya (Tomohiro); M. GKibriya (Muhammad); Y.J. Kim; M. Kishimoto (Miyako); W.-P. Koh (Woon-Puay); K. Kohara (Katsuhiko); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kwek (Kenneth); N.R. Lee (Nanette); J. Lee (Jeannette); J. Liao (Jie); W. Lieb (Wolfgang); D.C. Liewald (David C.); T. Matsubara (Tatsuaki); Y. Matsushita (Yumi); T. Meitinger (Thomas); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); K. Mononen (Kari); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); T. Nabika (Toru); E. Nakashima (Eitaro); H.K. Ng (Hong Kiat); K. Nikus (Kjell); T. Nutile; T. Ohkubo (Takayoshi); K. Ohnaka (Keizo); S. Parish (Sarah); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); H. Peng (Hao); A. Peters (Annette); S. TPham (Son); M.J. Pinidiyapathirage (Mohitha J.); M. Rahman (Mahfuzar); H. Rakugi (Hiromi); O. Rolandsson (Olov); M.A. Rozario (Michelle Ann); D. Ruggiero; C. Sala (Cinzia); R. Sarju (Ralhan); K. Shimokawa (Kazuro); H. Snieder (Harold); T. Sparsø (Thomas); W. Spiering (Wilko); J.M. Starr (John); D.J. Stott (David J.); D. OStram (Daniel); T. Sugiyama (Takao); S. Szymczak (Silke); W.H.W. Tang (W.H. Wilson); L. Tong (Lin); S. Trompet (Stella); V. Turjanmaa (Väinö); H. Ueshima (Hirotsugu); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S. Umemura (Satoshi); M. Vaarasmaki (Marja); R.M. Dam (Rob Mvan); W.H. van Gilst (Wiek); D.J. van Veldhuisen (Dirk); J. Viikari (Jorma); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); Y. Wang (Yiqin); A. Wang (Aili); R. Wilson (Rory); T.-Y. Wong (Tien-Yin); Y.-B. Xiang (Yong-Bing); S. Yamaguchi (Shuhei); X. Ye (Xingwang); R. Young (Robin); T.L. Young (Terri); J.-M. Yuan (Jian-Min); X. Zhou (Xueya); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); M. Ciullo; R. Clarke (Robert); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); A. Franke (Andre); W.F. Paul (W. Frank); S. Franks (Steve); Y. Friedlander (Yechiel); M.D. Gross (Myron D.); Z. Guo (Zhirong); T. Hansen (T.); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); T. Jørgensen (Torben); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); M. Kähönen (Mika); H. Kajio (Hiroshi); M. Kivimaki (Mika); J.-Y. Lee (Jong-Young); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A. Linneberg (Allan); T. Miki (Tetsuro); O. Pedersen (Oluf); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); R. Takayanagi (Ryoichi); D. Toniolo (Daniela); H. Ahsan (Habibul); H. Allayee (Hooman); Y.-T. Chen (Yuan-Tsong); J. Danesh (John); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); O.H. Franco (Oscar); L. Franke (Lude); B. THeijman (Bastiaan); J.D. Holbrook (Joanna D.); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); B.-J. Kim (Bong-Jo); X. Lin (Xu); J. Liu (Jianjun); W. März (Winfried); A. Metspalu (Andres); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); K. Sangher; D. Harambir (Dharambir); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); E.N. Vithana (Eranga); A.R. Wickremasinghe (Ananda); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); B.H.W. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce H.W.); M. Yokota (Mitsuhiro); W. Zheng (Wei); D. Zhu (Dingliang); P. Vineis (Paolo); S.A. Kyrtopoulos (Soterios A.); J.C.S. Kleinjans (Jos C.S.); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); R. Soong (Richie); C. Gieger (Christian); J. Scott (James); Y.Y. Teo (Yik Ying); J. He (Jiang); P. Elliott (Paul); E.S. Tai (Shyong); P. van der Harst (Pim); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); J.C. Chambers (John)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (P = 3.9 × 10 -11 to 5

  13. Sequence Classification: 783456 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|17560486|ref|NP_505710.1| abnormal CATecholamine distrib...ution CAT-4, GTP cyclohydrolase I (25.1 kD) (cat-4) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/17560486 ...

  14. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BOQA-2QA9E [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BOQA-2QA9E 1BOQ 2QA9 A E ANIVGGIEYSINNASLCSVGFSVTRGATKGFVTAGHCGT...VNATARIG---GAVVGTFAARVFPGNDRAWVSLT-SAQTLLPRVANGSSFVTVRGSTEAAVGAAVCRSGRTTGYQCGTITAKNITANYAE-GAVRGLTQGNACMGRGDSGGSWITSAGQA...indel> 0 1BOQ A 1BOQA...ine>VAL CA 251 VAL CA 326 GLY CA 354 2QA...9 E 2QA9E

  15. Exploring Motivational and Learning Differences with Mature Students in Post-Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, William C.; Smith, Leslie; Nielson, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the differences that exist among various age cohorts attending a post-secondary educational institution. Respondents were from the New Brunswick Community College's six separate campuses (n = 251). Significant differences were found to exist predominantly around social and family issues. Although differences did appear based on…

  16. Live secondary abdominal pregnancy- by chance!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sood

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pregnancy though rare but is a life threatening situation, if not recognized and managed properly. We are hereby presenting a rare successful outcome in a case of ruptured live Secondary Abdominal pregnancy with placental implants over intestines. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 251-253

  17. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adjustment. 280.53 Section 280.53 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...; Reports of Illegal Landings: from $200 to $220 for each alien not reported in accordance with § 251; and... Alien Crewmen Into United States with Intent to Evade Immigration Laws: from a $10,000 maximum to a...

  18. 8 CFR 1280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adjustment. 1280.53 Section 1280.53 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.53 Civil monetary...; Reports of Illegal Landings: from $200 to $220 for each alien not reported in accordance with § 251;...

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05654-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 59 ) 1108770679965 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 38 0.29 2 ( FG301193 ) 1108799272607 New World Scr...31-01-01-1... 38 0.21 2 ( AC159651 ) Pan troglodytes BAC clone CH251-495E21 from chrom... 40 0.28 5 ( FG2846

  20. AcEST: BP918395 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 31 2.2 sp|O43474|KLF4_HUMAN Krueppel-like factor 4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=K... 31 2.2 sp|Q13477|MADCA_HUMAN Mucosal address... C H G Sbjct: 251 SKGSPDGSHPVVVAPYNGGPPRTCPKIKQEAVSSCTHLG 289 >sp|Q13477|MADCA_HUMAN Mucosal address

  1. Modeling HIV risk in highly vulnerable youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huba, GJ; Panter, AT; Melchior, LA; Trevithick, L; Woods, ER; Wright, E; Feudo, R; Tierney, S; Schneir, A; Tenner, A; Remafedi, G; Greenberg, B; Sturdevant, M; Goodman, E; Hodgins, A; Wallace, M; Brady, RE; Singer, B; Marconi, K

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the structure of several HIV risk behaviors in an ethnically and geographically diverse sample of 8,251 clients from 10 innovative demonstration projects intended for adolescents living with, or at risk for, HIV. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified 2 risk fa

  2. 16 CFR 14.16 - Interpretation of Truth-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the Truth-in-Lending Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Truth-in-Lending Act and Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226) will be interpreted and enforced consistent with... Stat. 168), and under revised Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226, 46 FR 20848), and subsequent amendments to... practice (16 CFR 2.51). However, the Commission recognizes that the policy statement may not provide...

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05046-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available one CH251-683O6 from chromo... 34 0.063 11 ( AC212312 ) Solanum lycopersicum cv. Heinz 1706, chromosome 5......Cont... 34 1.3 11 ( AC232763 ) Solanum lycopersicum cv. Heinz 1706, chromosome 5... 30 1.3 10 ( AC232503 ) B

  4. High Charge-Carrier Mobility of 2.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a Water-Borne Colloid of a Polymeric Semiconductor via Smart Surfactant Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jangwhan; Cheon, Kwang Hee; Ahn, Hyungju; Park, Kwang Hun; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung

    2015-10-01

    Semiconducting polymer nanoparticles dispersed in water are synthesized by a novel method utilizing non-ionic surfactants. By developing a smart surfactant engineering technique involving a selective post-removal process of surfactants, an unprecedentedly high mobility of 2.51 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a water-borne colloid is demonstrated for the first time. PMID:26288123

  5. The Constitutional Review Chamber of the Republic of Estonia : 3-4-1-5-01 decision of 3 March 2001 : review of the petition of Saare County Court to declare clause 25 (1) of Procedure for Privatisation of Land by Auction invalid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Riigikohtu lahendi 3-4-1-5-01 (Saare Maakohtu taotlus kontrollida Vabariigi Valitsuse 06. 11. 96. a. määrusega nr. 268 kinnitatud "Maa enampakkumisega erastamise korra" p. 25.1 vastavus seadusele ja põhiseadusele) tekst inglise keeles

  6. 78 FR 5745 - Nonsubstantive, Editorial or Conforming Amendments of the Commission's Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... at 68 FR 52276, 52295-305; Unbundled Access to Network Elements; Review of the Section 251 Triennial Review Remand Order, FCC 04-290, published at 70 FR 8940, 8953-55, February 24, 2005. Specifically, this...)(1)(i)), to implement the Triennial Review Remand Order, FCC 04-290, published at 70 FR...

  7. Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Norihiro; Loh, Marie; Takeuchi, Fumihiko;

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (P = 3.9 × 10(-11) to 5.0 × 10(...

  8. Do Prospective Classroom Teachers Perceive Themselves as Effective and Willing to Teach Young Learners English?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad, Süleyman Nihat

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perceived efficacy and willingness levels of prospective classroom teachers to teach English at the primary level. The study was designed as a baseline descriptive survey, followed by complementary correlational and ex post facto models. Participants were 251 prospective classroom teachers. Data was collected…

  9. Responses to unprotected extradyadic sex by one's partner : Testing predictions from interdependence and equity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Bakker, AB

    1997-01-01

    With a sample of 251 Dutch adults, many of whom had been involved in extradyadic sex, we examined three responses to unprotected extradyadic sex bg the partner: angry retreat (anger, upset, and inclination to leave the partner), accommodation (open communication aimed at preserving the relationship)

  10. 75 FR 148 - Notice of Public Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the Commission... estimate; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information collected; (d) ways to.... Section 251 is designed to accelerate private sector development and deployment of...

  11. 75 FR 11535 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Submitted for Review and Approval to the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ...) whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of... the Commission's burden estimate; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the... estimates. Section 251 is designed to accelerate private sector and deployment of...

  12. Kirjad vallutatud Hiinast / Karl Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumor, Karl, pseud., 1886-1971

    2008-01-01

    1937. a. alanud Hiina-Jaapani sõjast, poliitlistest oludest ja revolutsioonist Hiinas, hiinlastest ja Hiina suhetest teiste riikidega. Varem ilmunud: Uus Eesti 19.-20. aug, 1938, nr. 226-227; 12.-13., 16. sept. 1938, nr. 250-251, 254

  13. 48 CFR 7.102 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conduct market research (see part 10) for all acquisitions in order to promote and provide for— (1....S.C. 251, et seq.); and (2) Full and open competition (see part 6) or, when full and open competition is not required in accordance with part 6, to obtain competition to the maximum extent...

  14. 78 FR 28244 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... NRC to meet its responsibilities to conduct a detailed review of applications for licenses and... communications. 5. The number of annual respondents: 251. 6. The number of hours needed annually to complete the... recordkeeping (an average of 19.5K hrs/ recordkeeper). 7. Abstract: Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of...

  15. 78 FR 70944 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... Commission will consider and act upon the following in open session: United Mine Workers of America on behalf... America on behalf of Hoy v. Emerald Coal Resources, LP, Docket No. PENN 2012-251-D (Issues include whether... attending this meeting who requires special accessibility features and/or auxiliary aids, such as...

  16. 24 CFR 207.259 - Insurance benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance pursuant to 24 CFR parts 251, 252, or 255, the amount of the fee set forth through Federal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 207.259 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES...

  17. EST Table: FY737608 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY737608 E_FL_famL_03C10_F_0 11/11/04 99 %/251 aa ref|NP_001036933.1| molting fluid... carboxypeptidase A [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAD60916.1| molting fluid carboxypeptidase A [Bombyx mori] 11/11/04 45

  18. Real-time vision-based pedestrian detection in a truck’s blind spot zone using a warping window approach

    OpenAIRE

    Van Beeck, Kristof; Goedemé, Toon; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    Van Beeck K., Goedemé G., Tuytelaars T., ''Real-time vision-based pedestrian detection in a truck’s blind spot zone using a warping window approach'', Informatics in control, automation and robotics - lecture notes in electrical engineering, vol. 283, pp. 251-264, Ferrier J.-L., Bernard A., Gusikhin O. and Madani K., eds., 2014.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14247-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available one CH251-505P8 from chromo... 44 7.5 1 ( EU081054 ) Carlowrightia torreyana trnS...-trnG intergenic spac... 44 7.5 1 ( EU081053 ) Carlowrightia texana trnS-trnG intergenic spacer,... 44 7.5 1 ( EU081052 ) Carlow

  20. 77 FR 63358 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... the following two forms. RRB Form G-251a, Employer Job Information--Job Description, is released to an....) It is accompanied by a ``generic job description'' for that particular railroad job. The generic job... opportunity to comment on whether the job description matches the employee's actual duties. If the...