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Sample records for californium 251 target

  1. Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This meeting constituted the third phase of a project initiated by the Dosimetry Section of the IAEA in 1973. The first step, early in 1973, consisted of the development of a programme for the loan of Cf-252 sources to the Member States in support of education, training and some limited research. To date, 14 institutions in 13 Member States have participated in this loan programme. In August last year, the Agency published an instructional syllabus and laboratory manual authored by Professors Eric J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University (Californium-252 in Teaching and Research, Technical Reports Series No. 159). The appearance of this publication, including guidance on the design and construction of a storage and use facility, was the second phase of this programme aimed at providing some support to potential users in the fields of radiation biology and dosimetry. The objective of the programme's third phase - the convening of an Educational Seminar - was to provide a forum to bring together participants in the Agency's loan programme and experts in various scientific fields. Specifically, the Seminar consisted of a series of expert presentations in spectrometry, activation and prompt gamma analyses, on-stream analysis, dosimetry, health physics, radiology and radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Magnetism in californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.R.

    1988-03-01

    A SQUID-based magnetic susceptometer has been constructed for studying small radioactive samples at temperatures below 350 K and in magnetic fields up to 50 kilogauss. The device has been used to study californium (element 98) in a number of solid-state forms: the dhcp metal, several oxides (Cf 2 O 3 in both the bcc and monoclinic structures, Cf 7 O 12 , CfO 2 and BaCfO 3 ), several monopnictides (CfN, CfAs and CfSb) and the trichloride (in both the hexagonal and orthorhombic structures). All of these materials were studied in polycrystalline form, and hexagonal CfCl 3 was studied in single-crystal form as well. The susceptometer has the sensitivity to measure samples containing less than 10 micrograms of californium. The magnetic susceptibilities of all of the californium materials at temperatures above about 100 K are described well by the Curie-Weiss relationship. This behavior is consistent with the assumption that the magnetic 5f electrons are localized and that the paramagnetic behavior can be interpreted in terms of the properties of the free ion. The measured values of the effective paramagnetic moment, μ/sub eff/, for all the californium materials that were studied are reasonably consistent with theoretical values based on intermediate coupling models. All of the californium materials showed some indications of cooperative magnetic effects. The dhcp metal was observed to order ferromagnetically at 52 K, and all of the californium compounds studied showed signs of antiferromagnetic ordering, mostly at temperatures below 25 K. 91 refs., 50 figs., 19 tabs

  3. Medical applications of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, G.D. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Primarily, californium-252 sources have been utilized in medicine for the treatment of neoplastic lesions. For five years, a coordinated effort between several cancer research institutions and national laboratories has developed the necessary physics, radiobiology, and engineering skills to establish an evaluation program for californium. Several more years of combined effort are required before it is known whether californium therapy is as good as or better than conventional therapy with sources like radium. Recently, development of diagnostic applications of californium in medicine has received attention. Studies comparing neutron decay activation analysis versus prompt capture gamma ray analysis are in progress. A hopeful application of prompt analysis with reasonable quantities (200 μg) of californium is the elemental analysis of bone in the human body. (U.S.)

  4. Californium loan programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The offer of the United States to loan Californium-252 sources to the IAEA was made by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, then chairman of the USAEC, in his opening statement at the 15th. General Conference of the IAEA held in Vienna in 1971. The purpose of this loan was to make neutron emitting sources available to universities in the Member States for use in educational programmes. The sources, in the form of small needles designed for medical use in radiation therapy, were judged highly suitable for didactic applications due to their small size, limited activity and well documented radiological parameters. Subsequently, in May 1973, the Director General announced the availability of the Californium sources to the Member States. To date, numerous sources have been loaned to universities in Czechoslovakia, Costa Rica, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ghana, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Uruguay; additional applications for loans are being processed. It is anticipated that the loan programme will be terminated in 1975 once all the available sources have been distributed. n order to provide guidance for the Member States on the safe exploitation of these sources, a prototype use and storage facility was designed by IAEA staff of the Dosimetry Section of the Division of Life Sciences, and constructed at the IAEA laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Figures 2-5 illustrate some of the details of this container, which is being given to the Ghana Nuclear Centre in support of a training programme for students at the university in Accra. Further advice to users of these sources will be provided by the publication of an instructional syllabus, a laboratory manual for experiments and the safety precautions inherent in the proper handling of neutron emitting radionuclides, authored by Professors Erich J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University. The syllabus and manual will be published as part of the IAEA Technical Series in September

  5. Californium source transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1995, the receipt of four sealed californium-252 sources from Oak Ridge National Lab was successfully accomplished by a team comprised of Radiological Engineering, Radiological Operations and Health Physics Instrumentation personnel. A procedure was developed and walked-down by the participants during a Dry Run Evolution. Several special tools were developed during the pre-planning phases of the project which reduced individual and job dose to minimal levels. These included a mobile lifting device for attachment of a transfer ball valve assembly to the undercarriage of the Cannonball Carrier, a transfer tube elbow to ensure proper angle of the source transfer tube, and several tools used during emergency response for remote retrieval and handling of an unshielded source. Lessons were learned in the areas of contamination control, emergency preparedness, and benefits of thorough pre-planning, effectiveness of locally creating and designing special tools to reduce worker dose, and methods of successfully accomplishing source receipt evolutions during extreme or inclement weather

  6. Californium-252 progress, report No. 7, April 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-12-31

    This report contains discusses of the following topics on Californium-252: First sales of californium-252; encapsulation services discussed; three new participants in market evaluation program; summer training programs to use californium; Californium-252 shipping casks available; Californium-252 questions and answers, radiotherapy; neutron radiography; natural resources exploration; nuclear safeguards; process control; dosimetry; neutron radiography; neutron shielding; and nuclear safeguards.

  7. Uranium standards for Californium Shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, A.; Boynton, S.P.

    1978-10-01

    The Laboratories Department analyzed pieces of a U-Al log which were to be canned and used as a set of standards for the nondestructive Californium Shuffler instrument. Evaluation of this instrument is part of an on-going Safeguards Program and is a joint project between LASL and SRP. A U-Al casting of a nominal 30% to 70% composition was made with enriched uranium (56 wt % 235 U). The log was 6 in. in diameter and approximately 2 ft long. A 1/4-in. slice was made before and after each 1-in. slice taken for use as a standard. The 1-in. slices were scanned nondestructively by collimated gamma pulse height analysis. The 1/4-in. slices were divided into quadrants and one quadrant for each slice was destructively analyzed. Results from these tests showed an approximate 1.5% relative variation in uranium concentration from the high to the low point. Successive pieces showed less than 1% relative difference. The 1-in. pieces have been canned and shipped to LASL for testing and will be returned with the Californium Shuffler. The remaining 1/4-in. slices have been sent to NBL and LASL for destructive analysis

  8. Californium production at the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at ORNL, which is the production, storage, and distribution center for the ERDA heavy element research program, is described. About 0.5 percent of 252 Cf is currently being produced. TRU is a hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. New concepts have been incorporated into the facility for absolute containment, remote operation, remote equipment installation, and remote maintenance. The facilities include a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells served by master-slave manipulators and eight laboratories, four on each of two floors. Processing includes chemical dissolution of the targets followed by a series of solvent extraction, ion exchange, and precipitation steps to separate and purify the transuranium elements. The transcurium elements Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm are distributed to users. Remote techniques are used to fabricate the Am and Cm into target rods for reirradiation in the HFIR. Californium-252 that is in excess of the needs of the heavy element research program and the Cf sales program is stored at TRU and processed repeatedly to recover the daughter product 248 Cm, which is a highly desirable research material

  9. Radiography using californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The current status in the technology of neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is summarized. Major emphasis is on thermal neutron radiography since it has the widest potential applicability at the present time. Attention is given to four major factors which affect the quality and useability of thermal neutron radiography: source neutron thermalization, neutron beam extraction geometry, neutron collimator dimensions, and neutron imaging methods. Each of these factors has a major effect on the quality of the radiographs which are obtained from a californium source neutron radiography system and the exposure times required to obtain the radiographs; radiograph quality and exposure time in turn affect the practicality of neutron radiography for specific nondestructive inspection applications. A brief discussion of fast neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is also included. (U.S.)

  10. Californium-252 radiotherapy sources for interstitial afterloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; Walker, V.W.

    1976-01-01

    Californium-252 neutron sources for interstitial afterloading were developed to investigate the value of this radionuclide in cancer therapy. Californium-252 seed assemblies contain essentially point sources of 252 Cf permanently sealed on 1-cm centers within a flexible plastic tube. The seed assemblies are fabricated with remotely operated, specially designed machines. The fabrication process involves the production of a Pt-10 percent Ir-clad wire with a 252 Cf 2 O 3 -Pd cermet core. The wire is swaged and drawn to size, cut to length, and welded in a Pt-10 percent Ir capsule 0.8 mm in diameter and 6 mm long. Each seed capsule contains approximately 0.5 microgram of 252 Cf. Because the effective half-life of 252 Cf is 2.6 years, the seed assemblies are not disposable and must be reused until their activities have decreased to unsuitable levels. The flexible plastic components must therefore have sufficient resistance to radiation damage to survive the neutron-plus-gamma radiation from 252 Cf. On the basis of accelerated irradiation tests with a large 252 Cf source, a recently developed fluoropolymer, ''Tefzel'' (trademark of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company) has adequate radiation resistance for this application. Californium-252 seed assembly systems are loaned by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration for clinical investigations under a protocol of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, U.S. National Cancer Institute

  11. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252 Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  12. vct 251,uop vct 251,vct 251 entire course new

    OpenAIRE

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    2018-01-01

    UOP VCT 251 Week 1 Individual: Graphic Icon NEW Check this A+ tutorial guideline at http://www.assignmentcloud.com/vct-251-uop/vct-251-week-1-individual-graphic-icon-new For more classes visit http://www.assignmentcloud.com/ VCT 251 Week 1 Individual: Graphic Icon NEW Review Lessons 1, 2, and 3 of Adobe® Illustrator® CC™ Digital Classroom and the Lynda.com® video “Introduction to Graphic Design with Justin Seeley”. Create your first Illustrat...

  13. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ( 252 Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, 252 Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of 252 Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the 252 Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, 252 Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of 252 Cf from ORNL is summarized herein

  14. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  15. Californium-252 sales and loans at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    The production and distribution in the United States of 252 Cf has recently been consolidated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 252 Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program and the 252 Cf University Load Program, which were formerly located at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), have been combined with the californium production and distribution activities of the Transuranium Element Production Program at ORNL. Californium-252 is sold to commercial users in the form of bulk californium oxide, palladium-californium alloy pellets, or alloy wires. Neutron source capsules, which are fabricated for loans to DOE or other US government agencies, are still available in all forms previously available. The consolidation of all 252 Cf distribution activities at the production site is expected to result in better service to users. In particular, customers for neutrons sources will be ale to select from a wider range of neutron source forms, including custom designs, through a single contact point

  16. Calibration of a Modified Californium Shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, E.T.; Armstrong, F.; Oldham, R.; Ceo, R.; Williams, N.

    1995-01-01

    A californium shuffler originally designed to assay hollow cylindrical pieces of UA1 has been modified to assay solid cylinders. Calibration standards were characterized via chemical analysis of the molten UA1 taken during casting of the standards. The melt samples yielded much more reliable characterization data than drill samples taken from standards after the standards had solidified. By normalizing one well-characterized calibration curve to several standards at different enrichments, a relatively small number of standards was required to develop an enrichment-dependent calibration. The precision of this shuffler is 0.65%, and the typical random and systematic uncertainties are 0.53% and 0.73%, respectively, for a six minute assay of an ingot containing approximately 700 grams of 235 U. This paper will discuss (1) the discrepancies encountered when UA1 standards were characterized via melt samples versus drill samples, (2) a calibration methodology employing a small number of standards, and (3) a comparison of results from a previously unused shuffler with an existing shuffler. A small number of UA1 standards have been characterized using samples from the homogeneous molten state and have yielded enrichment-dependent and enrichment-independent calibration curves on two different shufflers

  17. Fabrication of californium-252 sources in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, A.; Brady, M.W.; Thornett, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The advent of californium-252 in weighable quantities and at a reasonable price has caused some rethinking among neutron source suppliers. To explore this market the Radiochemical Center Ltd. has purchased 2 mg of californium-252, and subdivided this into a wide range of sources. To take advantage of its high specific neutron emission, a small double welded stainless steel capsule 7.8mm diameter x 10mm high was chosen for stock sources and this entailed the use of a microdispensing technique which had to be specially developed. The apparatus and procedure for subdividing milligram amounts of californium-252 are described. Some details of our experience in processing these one milligram shipments are given. 100 sources with activities from 200 microgram to 0.01 microgram have been produced. Losses have been small. Measurement of neutron spectra gamma spectra and dose rates from encapsulated sources has confirmed published data. Though it is early days, little industrial interest in californium-252 sources has been detected, most of the sources have so far been required for research into activation analysis and two examples of this are given. (U.S.)

  18. Californium Multiplier. Part I. Design for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, K.L.; Preskitt, C.A.; John, J.; Hastings, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of enriched uranium surrounding a californium-252 neutron source. The function of the CFX is to multiply the neutrons emitted by the source to a number sufficient for neutron radiography. The CFX is designed to provide a collimated beam of thermal neutrons from which the gamma radiation is filtered, and the scattered neutrons are reduced to make it suitable for high resolution radiography. The entire system has inherent safety features, which provide for system and personnel safety, and it operates at moderate cost. In Part I, the CFX and the theory of its operation are described in detail. Part II covers the performance of the Mound Facility CFX

  19. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The radioisotope 252 Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 11 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252 Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252 Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252 Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  20. Neutron activation analysis of the calcium content in vivo, using a 50μg source of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Zech, P.Y.; Meary, M.F.; Leitienne, P.

    1975-01-01

    Owing to the recent commercialisation of californium 252 it is now possible to obtain neutron fluxes strong enough for precise activation of the calcium content of biological targets. After the preliminary measurements necessary to establish the most suitable conditions for irradiating 3 to 5cm thick targets, two parallel sets of experiments were developed. In the first the medium-term total calcium variation was studied in 20 rats, 16 suffering from chronic kidney deficiency. In the second the precision expected as a function of the calcium content of the irradiated target was examined, using 3 sets of tissue equivalent standards of calcium contents 5, 20 and 50g respectively. The first results obtained on calcium 49 in vivo show that a calcium content variation can be followed with a sensitivity threshold below that obtained by conventional methods [fr

  1. Prompt neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatnin, Yu.S.; Kroshkin, N.I.; Korostylev, V.A.; Nefedov, V.N.; Ryazanov, D.K.; Starostov, B.I.; Semenov, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    The californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum was measured in the energy range of 0.01 to 10 MeV by the time-of-flight technique using various neutron detectors. The measurements of 252 Cf neutron spectrum at energies of 0.01 to 5 MeV were performed as a function of fission fragment kinetic energy. The mean neutron spectrum energy in the range of 0.7 to 10 MeV was found from the results of measurements. The irregularity in the 252 Cf neutron spectrum in the neutron energy range of less than 0.7 MeV compared to theoretical values is discussed. The mechanism of 252 Cf neutron emission is also discussed on the basis of neutron yield angle measurements. 12 references

  2. A californium-252 source for radiobiological studies at Hiroshima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Takeoka, Seiji; Kuroda, Tokue; Tsujimura, Tomotaka; Kawami, Masaharu; Hoshi, Masaharu; Sawada, Shozo

    1987-01-01

    A 1.93 Ci (3.6 mg) californium-252 source was installed in the radiation facility of the Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Hiroshima University. This source produces fission neutrons (8.7 x 10 9 n/s at the time of its installation), which are similar to neutron spectrum of the atomic bombs. It is useful for studying biological effects of fission neutrons and neutron dosimetry. An apparatus was dosigned to accomodate this source and to apply it to such studies. It has resulted in profitable fission neutron exposures, while suppressing scattered neutrons and secondary gamma rays. This apparatus incorporates many safety systems, including one which interlocks with all of doors and an elevator serving the exposure room, so as to prevent accidents involving users. (author)

  3. Extraction of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides from Californium Campaign Rework Solution Using TODGA-based Solvent Extraction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dryman, Joshua Cory [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report presents the studies carried out to demonstrate the possibility of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides and lanthanides from highly acidic solutions using a neutral ligand-based solvent extraction system. These studies stemmed from the perceived advantage of such systems over cationexchange- based solvent extraction systems that require an extensive feed adjustment to make a low-acid feed. The targeted feed solutions are highly acidic aqueous phases obtained after the dissolution of curium targets during a californium (Cf) campaign. Results obtained with actual Cf campaign solutions, but highly diluted to be manageable in a glove box, are presented, followed by results of tests run in the hot cells with Cf campaign rework solutions. It was demonstrated that a solvent extraction system based on the tetraoctyl diglycolamide molecule is capable of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides from highly acidic solutions. This system was validated using actual feeds from a Cf campaign.

  4. Application of californium-252 neutron sources for analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Daido

    1976-01-01

    The researches made for the application of Cf-252 neutron sources to analytical chemistry during the period from 1970 to 1974 including partly 1975 are reviewed. The first part is the introduction to the above. The second part deals with general review of symposia, publications and the like. Attention is directed to ERDA publishing the periodical ''Californium-252 Progress'' and to a study group of Cf-252 utilization held by Japanese Radioisotope Association in 1974. The third part deals with its application for radio activation analysis. The automated absolute activation analysis (AAAA) of Savannha River is briefly explained. The joint experiment of Savannha River operation office with New Brunswick laboratory is mentioned. Cf-252 radiation source was used for the non-destructive analysis of elements in river water. East neutrons of Cf-252 were used for the quantitative analysis of lead in paints. Many applications for industrial control processes have been reported. Attention is drawn to the application of Cf-252 neutron sources for the field search of neutral resources. For example, a logging sonde for searching uranium resources was developed. the fourth part deals with the application of the analysis with gamma ray by capturing neutrons. For example, a bore hole sonde and the process control analysis of sulfur in fuel utilized capture gamma ray. The prompt gamma ray by capturing neutrons may be used for the nondestructive analysis of enrivonment. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Teratogenic effect of Californium-252 irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Lee, Juing-Yi; Hori, Hiroshi; Okuda, Hiroe; Tsuchimoto, Shigeo; Sawada, Shozo; Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1989-01-01

    The teratogenicity of Californium-252 (Cf-252) irradiation which generates approximately 70% 2.3 MeV fast neutron and 30% gamma rays was evaluated. A single whole body exposure of Cf-252 at various doses was given to pregnant rats on day 8 or 9 of pregnancy, followed by microscopic autopsy of the fetuses at the terminal stage of pregnancy to search for external and internal malformations. For comparison, pregnant rats were irradiated with various doses of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) standard gamma rays at the same dose rate (1 rad/min.). The doses were 20-120 rad of Cf-252 and 80-220 rad of Co-60. Using frequency of radiation induced malformations observed on day 8 of pregnancy as an index, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 2.3-2.7 was obtained from the straight line obtained by modifying by the least squares method the frequency curves of malformed fetuses in total implants and in surviving fetuses. The types of malformations induced by Cf-252 and Co-60 irradiation were alike. Using fetal LD 50 as an index, 2.4 was obtained as RBE when irradiated on day 8 of pregnancy and 3.1 as that when irradiated on day 9. The results showed that Cf-252 had stronger a teratogenic effect than Co-60 gamma rays. (author)

  6. Experimental studies on californium bioavailability to marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Carvalho, F.P.; Aston, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    252 Cf is readily taken up by benthic invertebrates from sea water, reaching whole-body concentration factors of 763 in the polychaete Hermione hystrix, 220 in the shrimp Lysmata seticaudata, 665 in the crab Pilumnus hirtellus and 78 in the bivalve mollusc Venerupis decussata after 3 weeks exposure. Surface sorption plays a predominant role in the uptake process. Depuration in clean sea water was a relatively slow process. The shrimp Lysmata eliminated 252 Cf very rapidly due to moulting. Absorption coefficients for ingested 252 Cf were high, approx. 23% in crabs and approx. 97% in brittlestars. The absorbed fraction was excreted twice as fast from crabs as brittlestars. Exposure of organisms to labelled sediment resulted in low transfer factors that were species dependent. There is some evidence to suggest that uptake from sediments is primarily due to 252 Cf transfer from the pore water. Comparison of these results with published experimental data on other transuranic nuclides in the same or similar species suggests that californium bioavailability is roughly equivalent to that of plutonium and americium. (author)

  7. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Byrne, T.E.; Miller, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252 Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252 Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252 Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252 Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252 Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy. (author)

  8. Proposed Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Laxson, R.R.; Knauer, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL has petitioned to establish a Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science for academic, industrial, and governmental researchers. The REDC Californium Facility (CF) stores the national inventory of sealed 252 Cf neutron source for university and research loans. Within the CF, the 252 Cf storage pool and two uncontaminated hot cells currently in service for the Californium Program will form the physical basis for the User Facility. Relevant applications include dosimetry and experiments for neutron tumor therapy; fast and thermal neutron activation analysis of materials; experimental configurations for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis; neutron shielding and material damage studies; and hardness testing of radiation detectors, cameras, and electronics. A formal User Facility simplifies working arrangements and agreements between US DOE facilities, academia, and commercial interests

  9. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Byrne, T.E.; Miller, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252 Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252 Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252 Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252 Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252 Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy

  10. Beyond Californium-A Neutron Generator Alternative for Dosimetry and Instrument Calibration in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Roman K; Mozhayev, Andrey V; Murphy, Mark K; Thompson, Alan K

    2017-09-01

    Evaluations of neutron survey instruments, area monitors, and personal dosimeters rely on reference neutron radiations, which have evolved from the heavy reliance on (α,n) sources to a shared reliance on (α,n) and the spontaneous fission neutrons of californium-252 (Cf). Capable of producing high dose equivalent rates from an almost point source geometry, the characteristics of Cf are generally more favorable when compared to the use of (α,n) and (γ,n) sources or reactor-produced reference neutron radiations. Californium-252 is typically used in two standardized configurations: unmoderated, to yield a fission energy spectrum; or with the capsule placed within a heavy-water moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum that is generally considered more appropriate for evaluating devices used in nuclear power plant work environments. The U.S. Department of Energy Cf Loan/Lease Program, a longtime origin of affordable Cf sources for research, testing and calibration, was terminated in 2009. Since then, high-activity sources have become increasingly cost-prohibitive for laboratories that formerly benefited from that program. Neutron generators, based on the D-T and D-D fusion reactions, have become economically competitive with Cf and are recognized internationally as important calibration and test standards. Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are jointly considering the practicality and technical challenges of implementing neutron generators as calibration standards in the U.S. This article reviews the characteristics of isotope-based neutron sources, possible isotope alternatives to Cf, and the rationale behind the increasing favor of electronically generated neutron options. The evaluation of a D-T system at PNNL has revealed characteristics that must be considered in adapting generators to the task of calibration and testing where accurate determination of a dosimetric quantity is

  11. X-ray-diffraction study of californium metal to 16 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.; Benedict, U.; Dufour, C.; Birkel, I.; Haire, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The first series of measurements to determine the structural behavior of californium (Cf) metal under pressure has been carried out. The initial dhcp structure transformed sluggishly with increasing pressure to a fcc structure. A bulk modulus of 50(5) GPa was derived for dhcp Cf metal from the relative volume (V/V 0 ) data to 10 GPa

  12. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila R, I.

    1991-06-01

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  13. Assessment of the neutron component in a neutron-gamma field of a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetteh, G.K.

    1978-12-01

    Experiments have been performed to determine the percentages of the different components in the radiation field of californium-252 which has now some clinical applications. Using Rossi Chambers in conjunction with absorption investigations involving lead and aluminium thimbles, it is observed that the dose rates due to the different components are: neutrons 54%; gammas 30%; betas 16%

  14. 48 CFR 251.205 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles 251.205 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.251-7001, Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS)Vehicles and Related Services, in solicitations and contracts which include the clause at FAR 52.251-2, Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related...

  15. 6 CFR 25.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 25.1 Section 25.1 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.1 Purpose. This part implements the Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering...

  16. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.251 Standby power. Standby power shall be tested at least...

  17. 36 CFR 251.63 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reciprocity. 251.63 Section 251.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.63 Reciprocity. If it is determined that a right-of-way shall be needed by the United States...

  18. Local Structure in Americium and Californium Hexa-cyanoferrates - Comparison with Their Lanthanide Analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupouy, G.; Bonhoure, I.; Dumas, Th.; Moisy, Ph.; Petit, S.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Conradson, St.D.; Hennig, Ch.; Scheinost, A.C.; Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E.

    2011-01-01

    Metal hexa-cyanoferrates are well known molecular solids for a large variety of cations, although very little has been described for actinide adducts. Two new members of actinide(III) hexa-cyanoferrates were synthesized with the cations americium and californium. They were structurally characterized by infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Combined EXAFS data at the iron K edge and actinide L 3 edge provide evidence for a three-dimensional model for these two new compounds. Structural data in terms of bond lengths were compared to those reported for the parent lanthanide(III) compounds, neodymium and gadolinium hexa-cyanoferrates, respectively: the americium compound with (KNd(III)Fe(II)-Fe-III(CN) 6 .4H 2 O and the californium compound with (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) . 3.5H 2 O and (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 .3H 2 O. This comparison between actinide and lanthanide homologues has been carried out on the basis of ionic radii considerations. The americium and neodymium environments appear to be very similar and are arranged in a tri-capped trigonal prism polyhedron of coordination number 9 (CN: 9), in which the americium atom is bonded to six nitrogen atoms and to three water molecules. For the californium adduct, a similar comparison and bond length and angle values derived from EXAFS studies suggest that the californium cation sits in a bi-capped trigonal prism (CN: 8) as in (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 . 3H 2 O. This arrangement differs from that in the structure of (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 .3.5H 2 O, in which the gadolinium atom is surrounded by 9 atoms. This is one of the rare pieces of information revealed by EXAFS spectroscopy for americium and californium in comparison to lanthanide atoms in molecular solid compounds. A discussion on the decrease in bond length and coordination number from americium to californium is also provided, on the basis of crystallographic results reported in the literature for actinide(III) and lanthanide(III) hydrate series. (authors)

  19. Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company californium multiplier/delayed neutron counter safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1976-08-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of uranium surrounding 252 Cf spontaneously fissioning neutron sources; its function is to multiply the neutron flux to a level useful for activation analysis. This document summarizes the safety analysis aspects of the CFX, DNC, pneumatic transfer system, and instrumentation and to detail all the aspects of the total facility as a starting point for the ARHCO Safety Analysis Review. Recognized hazards and steps already taken to neutralize them are itemized

  20. Instrumental neutron activation determination of gold in mineral raw materials using a californium neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilo, N.A.; Ippolitov, E.G.; Ivanenko, V.V.; Kustov, B.N.; Zheleznov, V.V.; Aristov, G.N.; Kovalenko, V.V.; Kondrat'ev, N.B.

    1983-01-01

    A facility using a californium neutron source and a method for the neutron activation analysis of gold were developed. The sensitivity of the determination is 0.1 g/t. The causes of random and systematic errors have been studied. It is concluded that in prospection and evaluation of gold ore deposists, the traditional test tube analysis for gold may be replaced with the developed method. (author)

  1. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Shappert, L.B.; Seagren, R.D.; Klima, B.B.; Jurgensen, M.C.; Hammond, C.R.; Watson, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  2. Spectroscopic and redox properties of curium and californium ions in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.; Varlashkin, P.G.; Samhoun, K.; Haire, R.G.; Peterson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Multimilligram quantities of trivalent curium-248 and californium-249 were investigated by absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and bulk solution electrolysis in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate solution. Actinide concentrations between 10 -4 and 10 -2 M were studied in 2 M sodium carbonate and 5.5 M potassium carbonate solutions at pH values from 8 to 14. The solution absorption spectra of Cm(III) and Cf(III) in carbonate media are presented for the first time and compared to literature spectra of these species in noncomplexing aqueous solution. It was anticipated that carbonate complexation of the actinide ions could provide a sufficient negative shift in the formal potentials of the M(IV)/M(III) couples of Cm and Cf to permit the generation and stabilization of their tetravalent states in aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate medium. No conclusive evidence was found in the present work to indicate the existence of any higher oxidation states of curium or californium in carbonate solution. Some possible reasons for our inability to generate and detect oxidized species of curium and californium in this medium are discussed

  3. Use of californium-252 neutron irradiator for in-vivo analysis of the bone calcium content of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Leitienne, P.; Zech, P.Y.; Traeger, J.; Doyen, J.B.; Breton, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    With californium-252 it is easy to obtain a high neutron flux of the order of 10 9 n/s. The mean energy of this radiation, which is close on 2 MeV, activates calcium very well. The authors describe a storage and irradiator unit with a 100 μg californium source, with which it will henceforth be possible to develop this technique of measuring the calcium of the hand in a hospital. The test programme has three distinct phases: (1) irradiation of the biological target for 10 min; (2) after a transfer period of 30 s, detection of the radiation emitted by the 49 Ca for 600 s; (3) processing of the numerical data received, which are transmitted on line to a T 1600 calculator. The weight is found by comparing the activity induced in the unknown calcium mass with that induced in a phantom chosen as the activity standard. The reproducibility of the method is of the order of 3% (5% at the worst). The gross standardized result is edited automatically. For physical and clinical reasons, the hand is chosen as the reference part of the body in 70 control subjects. The local irradiation dose is less than 2 rem. The bone calcium content is 14.3+-1.9 g in men and 10.1+-1.3 g in women. In clinical application of the technique it is necessary to differentiate between the normal calcium content and the calcium content found with a pathological state. This makes it necessary to express the measurement in the form of a volume mass (rho). The volume of the hand skeleton (V in cm 3 ) is calculated from the corresponding bone surface (S in cm 2 ) measured by planimetry with the relationship V=8.925 exp 0.0205.S, found after studying 80 hand skeletons. In our control subjects the calcium bone volume mass was 0.288 g/cm 3 in men and 0.282 g/cm 3 in women. There is a very significant difference (p<0.001) in a population of 88 subjects with chronic renal insufficiencies at the terminal stage: rho=0.233 in men and 0.235 in women

  4. 40 CFR 421.251 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Precious Metals and Mercury Subcategory § 421.251 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of this subpart the general...

  5. 7 CFR 251.6 - Distribution plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.6..., 2009, § 251.6 was amended by revising paragraph (b), effective March 1, 2010. For the convenience of...

  6. 30 CFR 206.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 206.251 Section 206.251 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT... impurities from coal. Coal washing may include, but is not limited to, operations such as flotation, air...

  7. 40 CFR 25.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 25.1 Section 25.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN PROGRAMS UNDER THE... Introduction. This part sets forth minimum requirements and suggested program elements for public participation...

  8. 7 CFR 251.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 251.2 Section 251.2 Agriculture... Administration. (a) Food and Nutrition Service. Within the United States Department of Agriculture (the... this section, any information on changes in program administration, including any changes resulting...

  9. 37 CFR 1.251 - Unlocatable file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., patent, or other patent-related proceeding after a reasonable search, the Office will notify the... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unlocatable file. 1.251 Section 1.251 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 37 CFR 2.51 - Drawing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawing required. 2.51... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.51 Drawing required. (a) In an application under section 1(a) of the Act, the drawing of the mark must be a substantially exact representation of the mark...

  11. 37 CFR 251.21 - Public records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available by law except to a party in litigation with a CARP, the Copyright Office, or the Library of... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public records. 251.21 Section 251.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...

  12. Convenient method of simultaneously analyzing aluminum and magnesium in pharmaceutical dosage forms using californium-252 thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landolt, R.R.; Hem, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    A commercial antacid suspension containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide products was used as a model sample to study the use of a californium-252 thermal neutron activation as a method for quantifying aluminum content as well as for the simultaneous assay of aluminum and magnesium. A 3.5-micrograms californium-252 source was used for the activation, and the induced aluminum-28 and magnesium-27 activity was simultaneously measured by sodium iodide crystal gamma-ray spectrometry using dual single-channel analyzers and scalers. The antacid suspension was contained in a chamber designed with the unique capability of serving as the container for counting the induced radioactivity in addition to being the irradiation chamber itself. This pilot study demonstrated that use of more intense californium-252 sources, which are commonly available, would provide a method that is competitive with the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid titration method in precision and in other aspects as well

  13. Measurement of californium-252 gamma photons depth dose distribution in tissue equivalent material. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadel, M A; El-Fiki, M A; Eissa, H M; Abdel-Hafez, A; Naguib, S H [National Institute of Standards, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Phantom of tissue equivalent material with and without bone was used measuring depth dose distribution of gamma-rays from californium-252 source. The source was positioned at center of perspex walled phantom. Depth dose measurements were recorded for X, Y and Z planes at different distances from source. TLD 700 was used for measuring the dose distribution. Results indicate that implantation of bone in tissue equivalent medium cause changes in the gamma depth dose distribution which varies according to variation in bone geometry. 9 figs.

  14. Measurements of integral cross sections in the californium-252 fission neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Guenther, E.; Matzke, M.; Rassl, G.

    1977-01-01

    In a low-scattering arrangement cross sections averaged over the californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were measured. The reactions 27 Al(n,α) 46 Ti, 47 Ti, 48 Ti(n,p), 54 Fe, 56 Fe(n,p), 58 Ni(n,p), 64 Zn(n,p), 115 In(n,n') were studied in order to obtain a consistent set of threshold detectors used in fast neutron flux density measurements. Overall uncertainties between 2 and 2.5% could be achieved; corrections due to neutron scattering in source and samples are discussed

  15. Neutron emission in fission of highly excited californium nuclei (E*=76 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Bordyug, V.M.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Levitovich, M.; Muzychka, Yu.A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Pustyl'nik, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    The differential cross sections for neutron production in the fission of highly excited californium nuclei formed in the 238 U+ 12 C (105 MeV) reaction have been measured. From the analysis of the experimental data is follows that the number of pre-fission neutrons substantially exceeds the value obtained in the framework of the standard statistical model. The saddle-to-scission time of the excited nucleus is estimated on the basis of the neutron multiplicity. The dependences of the neutron number and neutron average energies upon the fragment mass are determined

  16. Neutron emission in fission of highly excited californium nuclei (E* = 76 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Bordyug, V.M.; Kozulin, E.M.; Levitovich, M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Muzychka, Yu.A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Pustyl'nik, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    Differential cross sections for neutron production have been measured in fission of excited californium nuclei produced in the reaction 238 U + 12 C (105 MeV). It follows from analysis of the experimental results that the number of neutrons emitted before fission considerably exceeds the number obtained in the framework of the standard statistical model. On the basis of the multiplicity of neutrons they authors have estimated the time of fission of the excited nucleus. The dependence of the number of neutrons and their average energies on the mass of the fragments is determined

  17. Californium oxygen system for 1.50 < O/Cf < 1.72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Haire, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The californium-oxygen system was studied as a function of temperature, oxygen pressure, and stoichiometry by manometric and x-ray diffraction methods. The results establish rhombohedral Cf 7 O 12 as the stable compound obtained by heating Cf 2 O 3 in air. The isobaric oxidation-reduction cycles Cf 2 O 3 → Cf 7 O 12 → Cf 2 O 3 , observed in constant rate of heating (cooling) experiments, occur with large hysteresis. A close parallel to other fluorite related lanthanide and actinide oxide systems is established. (auth)

  18. Possible stabilization of the tetravalent oxidation state of berkelium and californium in acetonitrile with triphenylarsine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.F.; Peterson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that we may have prepared Bk(IV) nitrate.nTPAs0 and Bk(IV) perchlorate.nTPAs0 complexes which formed the corresponding Cf(IV) complexes through the beta decay of Bk-249. Definitive proof should come from similar experiments with quantities of Bk-249 large enough to allow spectrophotometric detection of the characteristic f→f transitions in these berkelium and californium species. It is clear, however, that TPAs0 and acetonitrile can play a pivotal role in the stabilization of lanact(IV) species

  19. 48 CFR 251.202 - Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT USE OF GOVERNMENT SOURCES BY CONTRACTORS Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles 251.202 Authorization. (a)(2)(A) See FAR 28.307-2(c) for policy...

  20. 50 CFR 216.251 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.251...

  1. Comparison of the Savannah River Site billet active well coincidence counter and two Californium Shufflers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, E.T.; Griffin, J.C.; Rinard, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    A Scrap Californium Shuffler at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was calibrated to assay the U-Al cores of billets (an intermediate step in the SRS reactor fuel fabrication cycle.) The precision of the Scrap Shuffler over several years has been approximately 0.50%. A typical total uncertainty for the assay of a core on the Scrap Shuffler is approximately 0.33% for a twelve minute assay. The precision over several months and a typical total uncertainty for the Billet Active Well (neutron) Coincidence Counter (BAWCC) are approximately 1.0% and 1.9%, respectively, for a fifteen minute assay. A new Billet Californium Shuffler specifically designed for assaying SRS billets has yielded precision (over one month) and total uncertainty results of 0.40% and 0.69%, respectively, for an eight minute assay. The introduction of a measurement point into the fuel fabrication cycle to replace estimates based upon material weight will greatly enhance material and process control in the Reactor Materials area of SRS. The use of all three instruments provides a comparison of the relative merits of Active Well (neutron) Coincidence Counters (AWCCs) and shufflers for assay of homogeneous and geometrically simple material containing 235 U. The measurement precisions, systematic and random uncertainties, as well as the procurement and operation of each instrument will be compared. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Spectral investigation of neutron radiation in three-sectional concrete labyrinth from a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogorlov, E.A.; Britvich, G.I.; Getmanov, V.B.

    1985-01-01

    Construction of labyrinths in points of communication output from the storage-ring under construction is accompanied by numerous difficulties due to a considerable number of gas and cryogenic pipelines, which require large cross sections at the minimal length of the pipelines proper for their location. It results in unfavourable for radiation attenuation ratios between cross section and length of the labyrinth separate sections. Neutron spectra in a model concrete labyrinth, at the entrance to which a neutron source with fission spectrum (californium-252) and the same source in a polyethylene moderator are located, are measured. On the basis of the spectra obtained the formation of fluence and equivalent dose along the labyrinth geometric axis is analyzed. Conditions permitting actually to reduce radiation dose in the labyrinth (dead end provision, the use of cover materials, construction of diaphragms and shielding plates) are simulated

  3. Transport calculations of. gamma. -ray flux density and dose rate about implantable californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A; Lin, B I [Cincinnati Univ., Ohio (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Windham, J P; Kereiakes, J G

    1976-07-01

    ..gamma.. flux density and dose rate distributions have been calculated about implantable californium-252 sources for an infinite tissue medium. Point source flux densities as a function of energy and position were obtained from a discrete-ordinates calculation, and the flux densities were multiplied by their corresponding kerma factors and added to obtain point source dose rates. The point dose rates were integrated over the line source to obtain line dose rates. Container attenuation was accounted for by evaluating the point dose rate as a function of platinum thickness. Both primary and secondary flux densities and dose rates are presented. The agreement with an independent Monte Carlo calculation was excellent. The data presented should be useful for the design of new source configurations.

  4. 7 CFR 251.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following categories: (i) Emergency feeding organizations (including food banks, food pantries and soup... eligible recipient agencies in the distribution of TEFAP commodities pursuant to § 251.4(h). (f) Food bank... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Welding, Cutting and Brazing § 1910.251 Definitions. As used in this subpart: (a) Welder and welding operator mean any operator of electric or gas welding and cutting equipment. (b) Approved means listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to...

  6. 27 CFR 25.251 - Authorized removals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removal of Brewer's Yeast and Other Articles § 25.251 Authorized removals. (a) Brewer's yeast. A brewer may remove brewer's yeast, in liquid or solid form containing not... including the words “Brewer's Yeast.” (c) Pipeline. If brewer's yeast is removed by pipeline, the pipeline...

  7. 37 CFR 251.41 - Formal hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.41 Formal hearings. (a) The formal hearings that will be conducted under the rules of this subpart are rate adjustment hearings and royalty fee...

  8. 37 CFR 251.43 - Written cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and redirect) must be referenced. (d) In the case of a royalty fee distribution proceeding, each party... ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.43 Written cases. (a) All parties who have filed a notice of...

  9. 37 CFR 251.58 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determination on appeal, from depositing statements of account and royalty fees by those sections. [59 FR 23981... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.58 Judicial review. (a) Any order of determination...

  10. Organic Matter in Space (IAU S251)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sun; Sanford, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Preface; From the local organising committee; Organising committee; Conference participants; Opening address of Symposium 251 C. Cesarsky; Session I. Observations of organic compounds beyond the Solar System William Irvine, Ewine van Dishoeck, Yvonne Pendleton and Hans Olofsson; Session II. Organic compounds within the Solar System Scott Sandford, Ernst Zinner and Dale Cruikshank; Session III. Laboratory analogues of organic compounds in space Max Bernstein and Thomas Henning; Banquet speech; Author index; Object index.

  11. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction, equipment...

  12. 7 CFR 251.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 251.1 Section 251.1... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.1 General purpose and scope. This part announces the policies and prescribes the regulations necessary to...

  13. 34 CFR 75.251 - The budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The budget period. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education... Multi-Year Projects § 75.251 The budget period. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of... budget period; and (2) Indicates his or her intention to make contination awards to fund the remainder of...

  14. 47 CFR 25.251 - Special requirements for coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for coordination. 25.251 Section 25.251 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.251 Special requirements for coordination. (a) The...

  15. 37 CFR 251.23 - FOIA and Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false FOIA and Privacy Act. 251.23 Section 251.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... Access to and Inspection of Records § 251.23 FOIA and Privacy Act. Freedom of Information Act and Privacy...

  16. Effective internalization of U251-MG-secreted exosomes into cancer cells and characterization of their lipid components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Yuki; Takata, Kazuyuki; Nakagawa, Yuko; Kawakami, Hikaru; Fujioka, Shusuke; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Hattori, Yasunao; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Akaji, Kenichi; Ashihara, Eishi

    2015-01-16

    Exosomes, the natural vehicles of various biological molecules, have been examined in several research fields including drug delivery. Although understanding of the biological functions of exosomes has increased, how exosomes are transported between cells remains unclear. We hypothesized that cell tropism is important for effective exosomal intercellular communication and that parental cells regulate exosome movement by modulating constituent exosomal molecules. Herein, we demonstrated the strong translocation of glioblastoma-derived exosomes (U251exo) into their parental (U251) cells, breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells, and fibrosarcoma (HT-1080). Furthermore, disruption of proteins of U251exo by enzymatic treatment did not affect their uptake. Therefore, we focused on lipid molecules of U251exo with the expectation that they are crucial for effective incorporation of U251exo by cancer cells. Phosphatidylethanolamine was identified as a unique lipid component of U251-MG cell-derived extracellular vesicles. From these results, valuable insight is provided into the targeting of U251exo to cancer cells, which will help to develop a cancer-targeted drug delivery system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P.; Pikin, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz

  18. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction 55 Mn (n.gamma) 56 Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of 56 Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions 56 Fe(n,p) 56 Mn and 59 Co (n, α) 56 were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  19. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252 Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252 Cf and 7000 rad from 226 Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252 Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252 Cf and 5000 rad from 226 Ra

  20. Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Smith, E.H.; Glasgow, D.C.; Jerde, E.A.; Marsh, D.L.; Zhao, L.

    1997-12-01

    The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide 252 Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world's largest inventory of compact 252 Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of ≤ 10 11 neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 10 8 cm -2 s -1 at the sample. Total flux of ≥10 9 cm -2 s -1 is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the 252 Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis

  1. Feasibility and market potential of protein determination of wheat using californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.C. Jr.; Eckhoff, N.D.; Clack, R.W.; Roberts, T.C. Sr.

    1976-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of protein determination by capture gamma-ray analysis using californium-252 neutrons, an in-situ protein analysis system for use by grain handlers has been examined. Three 227 kilogram (approximately) lots of wheat were used to determine the amount of nitrogen present. Protein analyses by the Kjeldahl method were obtained from samples taken before and after the capture gamma-ray analyses. The 5.267-MeV gamma-ray was selected for use in this study as a compromise between efficiency and interference from other elements. The associated counting equipment was a multichannel analyzer with pulse shaping electronic and analysis computing equipment. A linear regression program was used to compare the regions of interest to the Kjeldahl protein averages. The counts composing each peak were summed and normalized using the total count of the hydrogen peak. The normalized nitrogen percentages indicate a significant correlation between the spectral regions and the Kjeldahl analyses. To a first approximation, the value of wheat is the wheat protein. At the present time, protein testing of wheat is destructive, cumbersome, and time-consuming as compared to the potential for capture gamma-ray analysis testing. Assuming that such a protein analysis unit can analyze 42 tonne of wheat per hour, over 120 units would be needed to monitor one-half the U.S. annual wheat production. A 0.5% improvement in processor realizations and grain throughput value of $167.00 per tonne will result in a projected savings of $150,000 per year per unit

  2. Dicty_cDB: SHI251 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHI251 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11819-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) SHI251F 125 - - - - - - Show SHI251 Library SH (Link to library) Clone ID SHI251 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U11819-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...XX sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence ilfqilkistnk**IKNYYVNRVYEIIIIINICT...YKKK--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ilfqilkistnk**IKNYYVNRVYEIIIIINICT

  3. Neutron reflector design with Californium 252 neutron for Boron neutron chapter therapy facility using MCNP5 simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Fakhrurreza; Kusminanto; Y Sardjono

    2014-01-01

    In this research has made a reflector design to provide beams of Neutron for BNCT with Californium-252 radioactive source. This collimator is useful to obtain optimum epithermal neutron flux with the smallest impurity radiation (thermal neutron, fast neutron, and gamma). The design process is done using Monte Carlo N-Particle simulation version 5 (MCNP5) code to calculate the neutron flux tally form. The chosen reflector design is the reflectors which use material such as BeO ceramic with 13 cm thick. Moderator use sulfur material with the slope angle of the cone is 30°. From the calculation result, it is obtained that Reflector with 1 gram Californium-252 source can produce a neutron output thermal which has thermal neutron specification 2.23189 x 10 9 n/s.cm 2 , epithermal neutron 3.51548 x 10 9 n/s.cm 2 , and fast neutron 4.82241 x 10 9 n/s.cm 2 From the result, it needs additional collimator because the BNCT requirement. (author)

  4. Hypoxic versus normoxic external-beam irradiation of cervical carcinoma combined with californium-252 neutron brachytherapy. Comparative treatment results of a 5-year randomized study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tačev, T.; Vacek, Antonín; Ptáčková, B.; Strnad, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 5 (2005), s. 273-284 ISSN 0179-7158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : cervical carcinoma * hypoxyradiotherapy * californium-252 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2005

  5. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252; Estudio de blindaje para fuentes de fision espontanea de Californio-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila R, I

    1991-06-15

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  6. 5 CFR 251.302 - All other organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false All other organizations. 251.302 Section... RELATIONSHIPS WITH ORGANIZATIONS REPRESENTING FEDERAL EMPLOYEES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Dues Withholding § 251.302 All other organizations. Under 5 CFR 550.311(b), an agency may permit an employee to make an...

  7. 36 CFR 251.52 - Delegation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation of authority. 251... USES Special Uses § 251.52 Delegation of authority. Special use authorizations shall be issued, granted, amended, renewed, suspended, terminated, or revoked by the Chief, or through delegation, by the Regional...

  8. 40 CFR 265.251 - Protection from wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection from wind. 265.251 Section... FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.251 Protection from wind. The owner or operator of a pile containing hazardous waste which could be subject to dispersal by wind must cover or otherwise manage the pile so that wind...

  9. Simulation and design of an electron beam ion source charge breeder for the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Dickerson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An electron beam ion source (EBIS will be constructed and used to charge breed ions from the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade (CARIBU for postacceleration into the Argonne tandem linear accelerator system (ATLAS. Simulations of the EBIS charge breeder performance and the related ion transport systems are reported. Propagation of the electron beam through the EBIS was verified, and the anticipated incident power density within the electron collector was identified. The full normalized acceptance of the charge breeder with a 2 A electron beam, 0.024π  mm mrad for nominal operating parameters, was determined by simulating ion injection into the EBIS. The optics of the ion transport lines were carefully optimized to achieve well-matched ion injection, to minimize emittance growth of the injected and extracted ion beams, and to enable adequate testing of the charge bred ions prior to installation in ATLAS.

  10. Californium-252 Brachytherapy Combined With External-Beam Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Long-Term Treatment Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Xin; Qian Chengyuan; Qing Yi; Zhao Kewei; Yang Zhengzhou; Dai Nan; Zhong Zhaoyang; Tang Cheng; Li Zheng; Gu Xianqing; Zhou Qian; Feng Yan; Xiong Yanli; Shan Jinlu; Wang Dong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To observe, by retrospective analysis, the curative effects and complications due to californium-252 ( 252 Cf) neutron intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From February 1999 to December 2007, 696 patients with cervical cancer (Stages IB to IIIB) were treated with 252 Cf-ICBT in combination of EBRT. Of all, 31 patients were at Stage IB, 104 at IIA, 363 at IIB, 64 at IIIA, and 134 at IIIB. Californium-252 ICBT was delivered at 7–12 Gy per insertion per week, with a total dose of 29–45 Gy to reference point A in three to five insertions. The whole pelvic cavity was treated with 8-MV X-ray external irradiation at 2 Gy per fraction, four times per week. After 16–38 Gy of external irradiation, the center of the whole pelvic field was blocked with a 4-cm-wide lead shield, with a total external irradiation dose of 44–56 Gy. The total treatment course was 5 to 6 weeks. Results: Overall survival rate at 3 and 5 years for all patients was 76.0% and 64.9%, respectively. Disease-free 3- and 5-year survival rates of patients were 71.2% and 58.4%, respectively. Late complications included vaginal contracture and adhesion, radiation proctitis, radiation cystitis, and inflammatory bowel, which accounted for 5.8%, 7.1%, 6.2%, and 4.9%, respectively. Univariate analysis results showed significant correlation of stage, age, histopathologic grade, and lymph node status with overall survival. Cox multiple regression analysis showed that the independent variables were stage, histopathologic grade, tumor size, and lymphatic metastasis in all patients. Conclusion: Results of this series suggest that the combined use of 252 Cf-ICBT with EBRT is an effective method for treatment of cervical cancer.

  11. Study of the 249-251Cf + 48Ca reactions: recent results and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A. A.; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Abdullin, F. Sh; Brewer, N. T.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Itkis, M. G.; Miernik, K.; Polyakov, A. N.; Roberto, J. B.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Sabelnikov, A. V.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeiko, M. V.; Stoyer, M. A.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Tsyganov, Yu S.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Vostokin, G. K.

    2018-02-01

    Experiment aiming at the synthesis of heavy isotopes of Z=118 (Og) using beam of 48Ca and a target of 249-251Cf was undertaken in October 2015 - April 2016 employing the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (FLNR JINR). The target of mixed isotopes of 249-251Cf (50.7% of 249Cf, 12.9% of 250Cf, and 36.4% of 251Cf) was irradiated by 48Ca ions at two beam energies of 252 and 258 MeV with the corresponding accumulated beam doses of 1.6×1019 and 1.1×1019. A single event observed at lower beam energy was assigned to the isotope 294Og, the product of the reaction 249Cf(48Ca, 3n); its decay pattern and the observed radioactive properties of the nuclides in the decay chain reproduce in full those observed for 294Og in our earlier experiments of 2002-2005 and 2012. At higher beam energy we observed no decay chains that could be attributed to the isotopes of Og. The possibility of renewal of this experiment in the future is discussed.

  12. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 impairs reconsolidation of pavlovian fear memory in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratano, Patrizia; Everitt, Barry J; Milton, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated the requirement for signaling at CB1 receptors in the reconsolidation of a previously consolidated auditory fear memory, by infusing the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, or the FAAH inhibitor URB597, directly into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in conjunction with memory reactivation. AM251 disrupted memory restabilization, but only when administered after reactivation. URB597 produced a small, transient enhancement of memory restabilization when administered after reactivation. The amnestic effect of AM251 was rescued by coadministration of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline at reactivation, indicating that the disruption of reconsolidation was mediated by altered GABAergic transmission in the BLA. These data show that the endocannabinoid system in the BLA is an important modulator of fear memory reconsolidation and that its effects on memory are mediated by an interaction with the GABAergic system. Thus, targeting the endocannabinoid system may have therapeutic potential to reduce the impact of maladaptive memories in neuropsychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder.

  13. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  14. Neutron flux characterization of californium-252 Neutron Research Facility at the University of Texas - Pan American by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Kareem; Sanchez, Patrick; Hannan, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    In the field of nuclear science, neutron flux is an intrinsic property of nuclear reaction facilities that is the basis for experimental irradiation calculations and analysis. In the Rio Grande Valley (Texas), the UTPA Neutron Research Facility (NRF) is currently the only neutron facility available for experimental research purposes. The facility is comprised of a 20-microgram californium-252 neutron source surrounded by a shielding cascade containing different irradiation cavities. Thermal and fast neutron flux values for the UTPA NRF have yet to be fully investigated and may be of particular interest to biomedical studies in low neutron dose applications. Though a variety of techniques exist for the characterization of neutron flux, neutron activation analysis (NAA) of metal and nonmetal foils is a commonly utilized experimental method because of its detection sensitivity and availability. The aim of our current investigation is to employ foil activation in the determination of neutron flux values for the UTPA NSRF for further research purposes. Neutron spectrum unfolding of the acquired experimental data via specialized software and subsequent comparison for consistency with computational models lends confidence to the results.

  15. 43 CFR 17.251 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from a...

  16. 7 CFR 251.4 - Availability of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... existing food bank networks and other organizations whose ongoing primary function is to facilitate the... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.4...

  17. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to establish policies and procedures implementing the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Brady Act), Public... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer, licensed...

  18. Phenotype abnormality: 251 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lant flowering stage in environment of long day length regimen in environment of long day length regimen htt... 251 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u757i delayed whole p

  19. 37 CFR 251.71 - Commencement of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCEDURE Royalty Fee Distribution Proceedings § 251.71 Commencement of proceedings. (a) Cable. In the case of royalty fees collected under the cable compulsory license (17 U.S.C. 111), any person claiming to... royalty fees collected under the satellite carrier compulsory license (17 U.S.C. 119), any person claiming...

  20. 8 CFR 251.1 - Arrival manifests and lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... List, in accordance with the instructions contained thereon. (2) Longshore work notations. The master... master, captain, or agent shall prepare as a part of the manifest, when one is required for presentation... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arrival manifests and lists. 251.1 Section...

  1. 27 CFR 41.251 - Change in name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporate name. When there is a change in the corporate name of an importer of processed tobacco, the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in name. 41.251... name. (a) Change in individual name. When there is a change in the name of an individual operating...

  2. 48 CFR 2452.251-70 - Contractor employee travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor employee travel... 2452.251-70 Contractor employee travel. As prescribed in 2451.7001, insert the following clause in all cost-reimbursement solicitations and contracts involving travel: Contractor Employee Travel (OCT 1999...

  3. 36 CFR 251.56 - Terms and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to State regulatory or conservation laws governing its purchase by pipeline companies is offered... standards established by or pursuant to applicable Federal or State law; and (D) Require compliance with... making explicit its preexisting understanding of § 251.56(a)(1)(ii)(G) of this subpart in the context of...

  4. 36 CFR 251.93 - Resolution of issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resolution of issues. 251.93... issues. (a) Authorized Forest Service officers shall, to the extent practicable and consistent with the... meetings is to discuss any issues or concerns related to the authorized use and to reach a common...

  5. 37 CFR 251.33 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....33 Section 251.33 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... person outside the Library of Congress shall engage in ex parte communication with the Librarian of... concerning public policies related to royalty fee distribution and rate adjustment so long as they are...

  6. 38 CFR 3.251 - Income of parents; dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.251 Section 3.251 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.251 Income of parents; dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Annual...

  7. 24 CFR 251.6 - Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 251.6 Section 251.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... HOUSING PROJECTS § 251.6 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. In the cases that the... affected lenders, that mortgage insurance premiums be remitted electronically. [63 FR 1303, Jan. 8, 1998] ...

  8. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amari, S., E-mail: siham_amari@yahoo.fr [Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Hassiba Benbouali, Chlef, 02000 (Algeria); Bouhafs, B. [Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation en Sciences des Matériaux, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbés, Sidi Bel-Abbés, 22000 (Algeria)

    2016-09-15

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young’s modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  9. Use of polyethylene pellets in the design and construction of a storage safe, a transport vessel and a portable shield for californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.

    1986-01-01

    A storage and shielding facility for 300 μg of Californium-252 sources was designed and constructed. Though the safe was in a permanent location, the fact that it consisted of a lead bucket surrounded by polyethylene pellets made it simple, movable and inexpensive. If need be, more quantities of Cf-252 could be added without altering the basic design and sacrificing the radiation protection guidelines. The measured radiation levels from 300 μg of stored Cf-252 in and around the storage vault were lower than the expected dose rates by a factor of 5. The measured radiation levels around the occupied environs of the facility were below the maximum permissible yearly dose of 500mrem for non-occupational workers. A transport vessel was designed and constructed to carry up to 50 μg of Californium-252 sources. It consisted of a standard 55 gallon steel drum on casters containing cylindrical lead shield surrounded by polyethylene pellets. The measured maximum surface dose rates on the drum and at one meter away were within the radiation protection guidelines and were less than the expected dose rates. A portable shield was designed and constructed to protect the body in afterloading operations and handling of the sources. It consisted of polyethylene pellets in an aluminum box and an attached 10 cm thick plexiglass eye shield. The simple design, with the ease of using polyethylene pellets can be extended to construct bedside shields

  10. 37 CFR 251.2 - Purpose of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carrier royalty fees and digital audio recording devices and media payments deposited with the Register of... Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.2 Section 251.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY...

  11. 12 CFR 335.251 - Forms for notification of action taken by national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... national securities exchanges. 335.251 Section 335.251 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE... for notification of action taken by national securities exchanges. The applicable forms for notification of action taken by national securities exchanges are codified in subpart A of 17 CFR part 249. All...

  12. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(25)-1 - Deficiency dividend of a qualified investment entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deficiency dividend of a qualified investment entity. 1.381(c)(25)-1 Section 1.381(c)(25)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(25...

  13. TWOS - TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM, VERSION 2.5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenot, S. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is a special-purpose operating system designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation. TWOS is a complete implementation of the Time Warp mechanism, a distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation. Version 2.5.1 supports simulations and other computations using both virtual time and dynamic load balancing; it does not support general time-sharing or multi-process jobs using conventional message synchronization and communication. The program utilizes the underlying operating system's resources. TWOS runs a single simulation at a time, executing it concurrently on as many processors of a distributed system as are allocated. The simulation needs only to be decomposed into objects (logical processes) that interact through time-stamped messages. TWOS provides transparent synchronization. The user does not have to add any more special logic to aid in synchronization, nor give any synchronization advice, nor even understand much about how the Time Warp mechanism works. The Time Warp Simulator (TWSIM) subdirectory contains a sequential simulation engine that is interface compatible with TWOS. This means that an application designer and programmer who wish to use TWOS can prototype code on TWSIM on a single processor and/or workstation before having to deal with the complexity of working on a distributed system. TWSIM also provides statistics about the application which may be helpful for determining the correctness of an application and for achieving good performance on TWOS. Version 2.5.1 has an updated interface that is not compatible with 2.0. The program's user manual assists the simulation programmer in the design, coding, and implementation of discrete-event simulations running on TWOS. The manual also includes a practical user's guide to the TWOS application benchmark, Colliding Pucks. TWOS supports simulations written in the C programming language. It is designed

  14. Modulation of voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels by pumiliotoxin 251D: a "joint venture" alkaloid from arthropods and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriessche, Thomas; Abdel-Mottaleb, Yousra; Maertens, Chantal; Cuypers, Eva; Sudau, Alexander; Nubbemeyer, Udo; Mebs, Dietrich; Tytgat, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Certain amphibians provide themselves with a chemical defense by accumulating lipophilic alkaloids into skin glands from dietary arthropods. Examples of such alkaloids are pumiliotoxins (PTXs). In general, PTXs are known as positive modulators of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Unlike other PTXs, PTX 251D does not share this characteristic. However, mice and insect studies showed that PTX 251D is highly toxic and to date the basis of its toxicity remains unknown. In this work, we searched for the possible target of PTX 251D. The toxin was therefore made synthetically and tested on four VGSCs (mammalian rNa(v)1.2/beta(1), rNa(v)1.4/beta(1), hNa(v)1.5/beta(1) and insect Para/tipE) and five voltage-gated potassium channels (VGPCs) (mammalian rK(v)1.1-1.2, hK(v)1.3, hK(v)11.1 (hERG) and insect Shaker IR) expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes, using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. PTX 251D not only inhibited the Na(+) influx through the mammalian VGSCs but also affected the steady-state activation and inactivation. Interestingly, in the insect ortholog, the inactivation process was dramatically affected. Additionally, PTX 251D inhibited the K(+) efflux through all five tested VGPCs and slowed down the deactivation kinetics of the mammalian VGPCs. hK(v)1.3 was the most sensitive channel, with an IC(50) value 10.8+/-0.5 microM. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a PTX affecting VGPCs.

  15. 30 CFR 251.13 - Reimbursement for the costs of reproducing data and information and certain processing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and information and certain processing costs. 251.13 Section 251.13 Mineral Resources MINERALS... third party for the reasonable costs of processing geophysical information (which does not include cost... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.13 Reimbursement for the costs of reproducing data and information and...

  16. Newcastle disease virus triggers autophagy in U251 glioma cells to enhance virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunchun; Zhou, Zhizhi; Jiang, Ke; Yu, Shengqing; Jia, Lijun; Wu, Yantao; Liu, Yanqing; Meng, Songshu; Ding, Chan

    2012-06-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can replicate in tumor cells and induce apoptosis in late stages of infection. However, the interaction between NDV and cells in early stages of infection is not well understood. Here, we report that, shortly after infection, NDV triggers the formation of autophagosomes in U251 glioma cells, as demonstrated by an increased number of double-membrane vesicles, GFP-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) a dot formations, and elevated production of LC3II. Moreover, modulation of NDV-induced autophagy by rapamycin, chloroquine or small interfering RNAs targeting the genes critical for autophagosome formation (Atg5 and Beclin-1) affects virus production, indicating that autophagy may be utilized by NDV to facilitate its own production. Furthermore, the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Beclin-1 pathway plays a role in NDV-induced autophagy and virus production. Collectively, our data provide a unique example of a paramyxovirus that uses autophagy to enhance its production.

  17. A miR-21 inhibitor enhances apoptosis and reduces G2-M accumulation induced by ionizing radiation in human glioblastoma U251 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Li, Qiang; Asai, Akio; Kawamoto, Keiji; Zhao Shiguang; Zhen Yunbo; Teng Lei

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that take part in diverse biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Elevated expression of miR-21 has been reported in many types of human cancers. Radiotherapy is a standard adjuvant treatment for patients with glioblastoma. However, the resistance of glioblastoma cells to radiation limits the success of this treatment. In this study, we found that miR-21 expression was upregulated in response to ionizing radiation (IR) in U251 cells, which suggested that miR-21 could be involved in the response of U251 cells to radiation. We showed that a miR-21 inhibitor enhanced IR-induced glioblastoma cell growth arrest and increased the level of apoptosis, which was probably caused by abrogation of the G 2 -M arrest induced by IR. Further research demonstrated that the miR-21 inhibitor induced the upregulation of Cdc25A. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-21 inhibitor can increase IR-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in U251 glioblastoma cells, at least in part by abrogating G 2 -M arrest, and that Cdc25A is a potential target of miR-21. (author)

  18. Main alkaloids from the Brazilian dendrobatidae frog Epipedobates flavopictus: pumiliotoxin 251D, histrionicotoxin and decahydroquinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortari, Márcia Renata; Schwartz, Elisabeth N Ferroni; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Pires, Osmindo Rodrigues; Santos, Marcello Moreira; Bloch, Carlos; Sebben, Antonio

    2004-03-01

    Epipedobates flavopictus, Dendrobatidae, is a small aposematic frog found in Brazilian Cerrado bioma. In the present work, we isolated and characterized chemically the most abundant alkaloids present in the cutaneous extract of E. flavopictus. The specimens were collected in Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brazil), their skins were removed and extracted with methanol, and submitted to purification by HPLC and identification by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Pumiliotoxin 251D, histrionicotoxin 285Da and two decahydroquinolines, 219A and 243A, were identified. The pumiliotoxin 251D was tested on isolated frog sciatic nerve and on isolated guinea pig ileum muscle. The pumiliotoxin 251D slightly reduced the action potentials amplitude of frog sciatic nerve. The crude skin extract of E. flavopictus and the pumiliotoxin 251D produced rhythmic contractions and increased the muscular tension on isolated guinea pig ileum.

  19. 29 CFR 779.251 - Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity. 779.251... Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.251 Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity... been processed or manufactured so as to have lost their identity as out-of-State goods before they are...

  20. Schedule-dependent inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein accumulation, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by topotecan in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Annamaria; Zalek, Jessica; Hollingshead, Melinda; Braunschweig, Till; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Bonomi, Carrie A; Borgel, Suzanne D; Carter, John P; Hewitt, Stephen M; Shoemaker, Robert H; Melillo, Giovanni

    2004-10-01

    We have previously shown that topotecan, a topoisomerase I poison, inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha protein accumulation by a DNA damage-independent mechanism. Here, we report that daily administration of topotecan inhibits HIF-1alpha protein expression in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts. Concomitant with HIF-1alpha inhibition, topotecan caused a significant tumor growth inhibition associated with a marked decrease of angiogenesis and expression of HIF-1 target genes in tumor tissue. These results provide a compelling rationale for testing topotecan in clinical trials to target HIF-1 in cancer patients.

  1. THE CANNABINOID RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AM251 INCREASES PARAOXON AND CHLORPYRIFOS OXON TOXICITY IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Pope, Carey

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus anticholinesterases (OPs) elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to acetylcholine accumulation and overstimulation of cholinergic receptors. Endocannabinoids (eCBs, e.g., arachidonoyl ethanolamide [AEA] and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol [2-AG]) are neuromodulators that regulate neurotransmission by reducing neurotransmitter release. The eCBs are degraded by the enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, primarily involved in hydrolysis of AEA) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL, primarily responsible for metabolism of 2-AG). We previously reported that the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 reduced cholinergic toxicity after paraoxon exposure. This study compared the effects of the cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 on acute toxicity following either paraoxon (PO) or chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO). CPO was more potent in vitro than PO at inhibiting AChE (≈ 2 fold), FAAH (≈ 8 fold), and MAGL (≈ 19 fold). Rats were treated with vehicle, PO (0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg, sc.) or CPO (6 and 12 mg/kg, sc.) and subsets treated with AM251 (3 mg/kg, ip; 30 min after OP). Signs of toxicity were recorded for four hours and rats were then sacrificed. OP-treated rats showed dose-related involuntary movements, with AM251 increasing signs of toxicity with the lower dosages. PO and CPO elicited excessive secretions, but AM251 had no apparent effect with either OP. Lethality was increased by AM251 with the higher dosage of PO, but no lethality was noted with either dosage of CPO, with or without AM251. Both OPs caused extensive inhibition of hippocampal AChE and FAAH (>80–90%), but only CPO inhibited MAGL (37–50%). These results provide further evidence that eCB signaling can influence acute OP toxicity. The selective in vivo inhibition of MAGL by CPO may be important in the differential lethality noted between PO and CPO with AM251 co-administration. PMID:25447325

  2. Downregulation of HIF-1a sensitizes U251 glioma cells to the temozolomide (TMZ) treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jun-Hai [Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Ma, Zhi-Xiong [National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China); Huang, Guo-Hao; Xu, Qing-Fu; Xiang, Yan [Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Li, Ningning; Sidlauskas, Kastytis [Division of Neuropathology and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG (United Kingdom); Zhang, Eric Erquan [National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China); Lv, Sheng-Qing, E-mail: lvsq0518@hotmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of downregulation of HIF-1α gene on human U251 glioma cells and examine the consequent changes of TMZ induced effects and explore the molecular mechanisms. Methods: U251 cell line stably expressing HIF-1α shRNA was acquired via lentiviral vector transfection. The mRNA and protein expression alterations of genes involved in our study were determined respectively by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay and colony formation assay, cell invasion/migration capacity was determined by transwell invasion assay/wound healing assay, and cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Results: We successfully established a U251 cell line with highly efficient HIF-1α knockdown. HIF-1a downregulation sensitized U251 cells to TMZ treatment and enhanced the proliferation-inhibiting, invasion/migration-suppressing, apoptosis-inducing and differentiation-promoting effects exerted by TMZ. The related molecular mechanisms demonstrated that expression of O{sup 6}-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) and genes of Notch1 pathway were significantly upregulated by TMZ treatment. However, this upregulation was abrogated by HIF-1α knockdown. We further confirmed important regulatory roles of HIF-1α in the expression of MGMT and activation of Notch1 pathways. Conclusion: HIF-1α downregulation sensitizes U251 glioma cells to the temozolomide treatment via inhibiting MGMT expression and Notch1 pathway activation. - Highlights: • TMZ caused more significant proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in U251 cells after downregulating HIF-1α. • Under TMZ treatment, HIF-1 downregulated U251 cells exhibited weaker mobility and more differentiated state. • TMZ caused MGMT over-expression and Notch1 pathway activation, which could be abrogated by HIF-1α downregulation.

  3. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel—Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, D., E-mail: henzlova@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Menlove, H.O.; Rael, C.D.; Trellue, H.R.; Tobin, S.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-11

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  4. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel—Design concept and experimental demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H.O.; Rael, C.D.; Trellue, H.R.; Tobin, S.J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  5. Pengaruh Bionematisida Berbahan Aktif Jamur Paecilomyces lilacinus Strain 251 terhadap Serangan Pratylenchus coffeae pada Kopi Robusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiment on the effect of P. lilacinus on the infestation of P. coffeae on robusta coffee was conducted in Sumber Asin Experimental Garden, Malang. The treatments were dosages of bionematicide i.e. : 0 (control, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 g; carbofuran (3 % active ingredient 50 g/plant and organic soil treatment (OST at 100 g/plant. Each treatment was replicated four times, and each replication consists of five coffee trees. The results in second year observation revealed that the population of P. coffeae in the roots on PL 251 treatments was not significantly different compared to the control, whereas in soil samples the population of both P. coffeae and Rotylenchulus reniformis inclined to be lower than the control, although they were not statistically significant. The lowest infestation was observed on PL 251 treatment at a dosage level of 4.00 g/tree. On nematode infestation, no significant difference on treatments of carbofuran and OST compared to the control. The yield of green coffee (market coffee was the highest on the treatment of PL 251 at a dosage of 4.00 g/tree and significantly higher than the control and carbofuran treatments, with increasing levels of 225.3 and 198.9%, respectively. Keywords: bionematicide Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 (PL 251, Pratylenchus coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis

  6. Risk modification of colorectal cancer susceptibility by interleukin-8 -251T>A polymorphism in Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mohd Aminudin; Shahpudin, Siti Nurfatimah Mohd; Aziz, Ahmad Aizat Abdul; Ankathil, Ravindran

    2012-06-07

    To investigate the allele and genotype frequencies and associated risk of interleukin (IL)-8 -251T>A polymorphism on colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility risk. Peripheral blood samples of 255 normal controls and 255 clinically and histopathologically confirmed CRC patients were genotyped for IL-8 -251T>A polymorphism employing allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. The relative association of variant allele and genotypes with CRC susceptibility risk was determined by calculating the odds ratios (ORs). Corresponding χ² tests on the CRC patients and controls were carried out and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using Fisher's exact test. The allele frequencies and its risk association were calculated using FAMHAP, haplotype association analysis software. On comparing the frequencies of genotypes of patients and controls, the homozygous variant AA was significantly higher in CRC patients (P = 0.002) compared to controls. Investigation on the association of the polymorphic genotypes with CRC susceptibility risk, showed that the homozygous variant IL-8 -251AA had a significantly increased risk with OR 3.600 (95% CI: 1.550-8.481, P = 0.001). In the case of allele frequencies, variant allele A of IL-8 -251 showed a significantly increased risk of CRC predisposition with OR 1.32 (95% CI: 1.03-1.69, P = 0.003). Variant allele and genotype of IL-8 (-251T>A) was significantly associated with CRC susceptibility risk and could be considered as a high-risk variant for CRC predisposition.

  7. The prosurvival role of autophagy in Resveratrol-induced cytotoxicity in human U251 glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Qin, Zhenghong; Liang, Zhongqin

    2009-01-01

    Previous study reported that resveratrol has anti-tumor activity. In this study, we investigated the involvement of autophagy in the resveratrol-induced apoptotic death of human U251 glioma cells. The growth inhibition of U251 cells induced by resveratrol was assessed with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT). The activation of autophagy and proapoptotic effect were characterized by monodansylcadaverine labeling and Hoechst stain, respectively. Mitochondrialtransmembrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured as a function of drug treatment using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1). The role of autophagy and apoptosis in the resveratrol-induced death of U251 cells was assessed using autophagic and caspase inhibitors. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis were used to study the apoptotic and autophagic mechanisms. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays indicated that resveratrol decreased the viability of U251 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that resveratrol increased cell population at sub-G1 phase, an index of apoptosis. Furthermore, resveratrol-induced cell death was associated with a collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk suppressed resveratrol-induced U251 cell death. Resveratrol stimulated autophagy was evidenced by punctuate monodansylcadaverine(MDC) staining and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) immunoreactivty. Resveratrol also increased protein levels of beclin 1 and membrane form LC3 (LC3-II). Autophagy inhibitors 3-methylademine (3-MA) and bafilomycin A1 sensitized the cytotoxicity of resveratrol. Together, these findings indicate that resveratrol induces autophagy in human U251 glioma cells and autophagy suppressed resveratrol-induced apoptosis. This study thus suggests that autophagy inhibitors can increase the cytotoxicity of resveratrol to glioma cells

  8. U-251 revisited: genetic drift and phenotypic consequences of long-term cultures of glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torsvik, Anja; Stieber, Daniel; Enger, Per Øyvind; Golebiewska, Anna; Molven, Anders; Svendsen, Agnete; Westermark, Bengt; Niclou, Simone P; Olsen, Thale Kristin; Chekenya Enger, Martha; Bjerkvig, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in vitro subculture represents a selection pressure on cell lines, and over time this may result in a genetic drift in the cancer cells. In addition, long-term cultures harbor the risk of cross-contamination with other cell lines. The consequences may have major impact on experimental results obtained in various laboratories, where the cell lines no longer reflect the original tumors that they are supposed to represent. Much neglected in the scientific community is a close monitoring of cell cultures by regular phenotypic and genetic characterization. In this report, we present a thorough characterization of the commonly used glioblastoma (GBM) model U-251, which in numerous publications has been wrongly identified as U-373, due to an earlier cross-contamination. In this work, the original U-251 and three subclones of U-251, commonly referred to as U-251 or U-373, were analyzed with regard to their DNA profile, morphology, phenotypic expression, and growth pattern. By array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we show that only the original low-passaged U-251 cells, established in the 1960s, maintain a DNA copy number resembling a typical GBM profile, whereas all long-term subclones lost the typical GBM profile. Also the long-term passaged subclones displayed variations in phenotypic marker expression and showed an increased growth rate in vitro and a more aggressive growth in vivo. Taken together, the variations in genotype and phenotype as well as differences in growth characteristics may explain different results reported in various laboratories related to the U-251 cell line

  9. 20 CFR 702.251 - Employer's controversion of the right to compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer's controversion of the right to... PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Controverted Claims § 702.251 Employer's controversion of the right to compensation. Where the employer controverts the right to compensation after notice or knowledge of the injury...

  10. 36 CFR 251.103 - Mediation of term grazing permit disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation of term grazing... Lands § 251.103 Mediation of term grazing permit disputes. (a) Decisions subject to mediation. In those States with Department of Agriculture certified mediation programs, any holder of a term grazing permit...

  11. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in the...

  12. 37 CFR 251.72 - Declaration of controversy: Initiation of arbitration proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Royalty Fee Distribution Proceedings § 251.72 Declaration of... royalties, the Librarian shall publish in the Federal Register a declaration of controversy along with a...

  13. 37 CFR 251.44 - Filing and service of written cases and pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.44 Filing and service of written cases and pleadings. (a) Filing of pleadings. In a royalty fee distribution proceeding or...

  14. 37 CFR 251.73 - Deduction of costs of distribution proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Royalty Fee Distribution Proceedings § 251.73 Deduction of costs of... distributions of royalty fees are made, deduct the reasonable costs incurred by the Library of Congress and the...

  15. 37 CFR 251.56 - Order of the Librarian of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Order of the Librarian of... PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.56 Order of the Librarian of Congress. (a... the determination of a panel, the Librarian of Congress shall issue an order accepting the panel's...

  16. 37 CFR 251.53 - Report to the Librarian of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report to the Librarian of... PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.53 Report to the Librarian of Congress... Librarian of Congress a report incorporating its written determination. Such determination shall be...

  17. 5 CFR 251.201 - Associations of management officials and/or supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... managers should be included in the decision-making process and notified of executive-level decisions on a... SERVICE REGULATIONS AGENCY RELATIONSHIPS WITH ORGANIZATIONS REPRESENTING FEDERAL EMPLOYEES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Relationships With Organizations Representing Federal Employees and Other Organizations § 251.201...

  18. 40 CFR 81.251 - Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.251 Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  19. Impact of pEGFP mediated ING4 gene on growth of glioma U251 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Impact of pEGFP mediated ING4 gene on growth of glioma U251 cells and its potential molecular mechanism. Yuefei Deng*, Bingxi Lei and Yiying Zhao. Department of Neurosurgery, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120, China.

  20. 36 CFR 251.54 - Proposal and application requirements and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.54 Proposal and application requirements and... activity does not materially impact the characteristics or functions of the environmentally sensitive...-disposal facilities; (3) The availability of sufficient potable drinking water; (4) The risk of disease...

  1. Radiosensitization and relative mechanisms of vanillin derivative BVAN08 on human glioma U-251 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shubin; Zhang Bo; Sun Weijian; Wang Yu; Liu Xiaodan; Xu Qinzhi; Zhou Pingkun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide more convincing evidences and experimental data for exploring vanillin derivative BVAN08, 6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzaldehyde, as a new anticancer drug, and to investigate the effect on the growth, radiosensitization of human glioma cell line U-251 and the relative mechanism. Methods: The effect of BVAN08 on cell proliferation of U-251 and radiosensitivity to 60 Co γ-rays (irradiation dose rate 2.3 Gy/min) were analyzed with MTT and colony-forming ability assay. Change in cellular morphology was observed by using light microscope. Change in cell cycle and apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. The autophagy was observed by using TEM (irradiation dose rate is transmission electron microscope). DNA-PKcs protein level was detected through Western blot analysis. Results: BVAN08 exhibited a dose- and time-dependent inhibition on the proliferation of U-251 cells during the concentration range of 10-100 mol/L (t=1.83-3.07, P 50 at 48 h and 72 h after administration with BVAN08 were 55.3 and 52.7 mol/L, respectively. Obvious G 2 /M arrest was induced in U-251 cells after 4 h administration with BVAN08, and reached peck at 12 h. The G 2 /M population reached 63.3% in U-251 cells after 12 h administration of 60 μmol/L BVAN08 and kept increasing with the time, while both apoptosis and autophagic cell death were induced. The most effective radiosensitization time for BVAN08 treatment was 12 h before irradiation. The enhancement ratio of radiosensitivity was 3.14 for 20 μmol/L of BVAN08 12 h before 2 Gy irradiation. Conclusions: BVAN08 can induce apoptosis as radiosensitizing effect might be associated with the induction of G 2 /M arrest and inhibition of DNA-PKcs expression. BVAN08 seemed to be a promising radiosensitizing anticancer drug. (authors)

  2. 36 CFR 251.10 - Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. 251.10 Section 251.10... areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. The location of mining claims in such areas within...

  3. 76 FR 16038 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Prepaid Card Marketing Customer Survey, CS-10-251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... of social marketing. Social marketing principles and practices apply marketing principles to social... Prepaid Card Marketing Customer Survey, CS-10-251. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury..., the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Prepaid Card Marketing Customer Survey, CS-10-251 DATES...

  4. 43 CFR 30.251 - What happens if an heir or devisee participates in the killing of the decedent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participates in the killing of the decedent? 30.251 Section 30.251 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... if an heir or devisee participates in the killing of the decedent? Any person who knowingly participates, either as a principal or as an accessory before the fact, in the willful and unlawful killing of...

  5. VPA and MEL induce apoptosis by inhibiting the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway in TMZ-resistant U251 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hao; Wang, Handong; Jia, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Li, Liwen; Wu, Qi; Chen, Longbang

    2017-07-01

    Chemoresistance is the primary obstacle to effective treatment of glioblastoma, the most lethal brain tumor. Our previous study demonstrated that Nf-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), a traditional cytoprotective transcription factor, was overexpressed in gliomas and promoted malignancy. The present study aimed to investigate the expression levels of Nrf2‑antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway genes in temozolomide (TMZ)‑resistant U251 human glioblastoma cells (U251‑TMZ). Additionally, the effect of valproic acid (VPA) and melatonin (MEL) on Nrf2 expression in U251‑TMZ cells and their association with chemoresistance was investigated. The results of the present study indicated that the expression levels of components of the Nrf2‑ARE signaling pathway were increased in U251‑TMZ cells compared with U251 parent cells. Silencing of Nrf2 by transfection with small interfering RNA restored the chemosensitivity of U251‑TMZ cells. The Nrf2 inhibitors VPA and MEL successfully reduced Nrf2 expression and survival in U251‑TMZ cells treated with TMZ, accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species levels and apoptosis. Therefore, VPA and MEL may be potential chemotherapeutic sensitizers for the treatment of chemoresistant glioblastoma.

  6. Californium-252 Program Equipment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattin, Fred Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Kenton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    To successfully continue the 252Cf production and meet the needs of the customers, a comprehensive evaluation of the Building 7920 processing equipment was requested to identify equipment critical to the operational continuity of the program.

  7. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  8. Identification of two novel mammographic density loci at 6Q25.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith S; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Karlsson, Robert; Eriksson, Mikael; Ivansson, Emma; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2015-06-03

    Mammographic density (MD) is a strong heritable and intermediate phenotype for breast cancer, but much of its genetic variation remains unexplained. We performed a large-scale genetic association study including 8,419 women of European ancestry to identify MD loci. Participants of three Swedish studies were genotyped on a custom Illumina iSelect genotyping array and percent and absolute mammographic density were ascertained using semiautomated and fully automated methods from film and digital mammograms. Linear regression analysis was used to test for SNP-MD associations, adjusting for age, body mass index, menopausal status and six principal components. Meta-analyses were performed by combining P values taking sample size, study-specific inflation factor and direction of effect into account. Genome-wide significant associations were observed for two previously identified loci: ZNF365 (rs10995194, P = 2.3 × 10(-8) for percent MD and P = 8.7 × 10(-9) for absolute MD) and AREG (rs10034692, P = 6.7 × 10(-9) for absolute MD). In addition, we found evidence of association for two variants at 6q25.1, both of which are known breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs9485370 in the TAB2 gene (P = 4.8 × 10(-9) for percent MD and P = 2.5 × 10(-8) for absolute MD) and rs60705924 in the CCDC170/ESR1 region (P = 2.2 × 10(-8) for absolute MD). Both regions have been implicated in estrogen receptor signaling with TAB2 being a potential regulator of tamoxifen response. We identified two novel MD loci at 6q25.1. These findings underscore the importance of 6q25.1 as a susceptibility region and provide more insight into the mechanisms through which MD influences breast cancer risk.

  9. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  10. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  11. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  12. [Screening serum response special antibodies of U251 cell line from surface display phage antibody library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Tan, De-Yong; Qian, Wei; Lai, Jian-Hua; Sun, Gui-Lin

    2004-05-01

    U251 cell is a sensitive cell line to serum, which stops at G0 phase of cell cycle in no-serum medium, and recovers growth when the serum is added into no-serum medium. The cell can express corresponding proteins in different phase of cell cycle. Therefore it is very signification for the study of cell cycle regulation mechanism that explores these proteins. In this paper, the mouse antibody phage display library was added into the bottle in which the serum starvation U251 cells had been cultured, and the special antibody phages were absorbed. Then the absorbed antibody phages were amplified by adding E. coli TG1 and helper phage M13K07. Amplified antibody phages were added into bottle in which the serum cultured cell after serum starvation (follow named as serum recovered cells) were incubated, so that the cell absorbed the no-special antibody phages for the serum starvation cell and the special antibody phages were in supernatant. The remaining no-special antibody phages in the supernatant were discarded by repeating above program 3-4 times. The pure special antibody phages were gotten, and amplified by adding the host cell E. coli TG1 and helper phage M13K07. Then the host bacterium infected special antibody phage was spread on the plate medium with ampicillin, and the monoclonal antibody phages were gotten. Using same as above program, the monoclonal antibody phages absorbed specially for serum recovered U251 cells were obtained when the serum recovered cells instead of serum starvation cells and serum starvation cells instead of serum recovered cells. In this study, ninety-six positive monoclonal antibody phages that absorbed specially the serum starvation cells and eighty-two positive monoclonal antibody phages that absorbed specially the serum recovered cells were obtained. By using cell immunochemistry assay, two special signification antibodies were obtained. one (No.11) was the strong response in serum starvation cells, the other (No.2) was the strong

  13. Evaluation of potential regulatory function of breast cancer risk locus at 6q25.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaqiong; Ye, Chuanzhong; Guo, Xingyi; Wen, Wanqing; Long, Jirong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao Ou; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin

    2016-02-01

    In a genome-wide association study conducted among Chinese women, we identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2046210 at 6q25.1 for breast cancer risk. To explore a potential regulatory role for this risk locus, we measured expression levels of nine genes at the locus in breast cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue samples obtained from 67 patients recruited in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. We found that rs2046210 had a statistically significant association with the expression levels of the AKAP12 and ESR1 genes in adjacent normal breast tissues. Women who carry the AA/AG risk genotypes had higher expressions of these two genes compared to those who carry G/G genotypes (P = 0.02 and 0.04 for the AKAP12 and ESR1, respectively). However, no significant differences of SNP rs2046210 with gene expression levels were found in tumor tissues. In The Cancer Genome Atlas samples, the AA/AG risk genotypes of SNP rs2046210 were associated with a significantly higher expression level of the AKAP12 gene and a lower level of the ESR1 gene in tumor tissue. Functional analysis using ENCODE data revealed that SNP rs7763637, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with SNP rs2046210, is likely a potential functional variant, regulating the AKAP12 gene. Taken together, these results from our study suggest that the association between the 6q25.1 locus and breast cancer risk may be mediated through SNPs that regulate expressions of the AKAP12 gene. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC 1991... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Interagency Fleet...

  15. 30 CFR 250.251 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP? 250.251 Section 250.251 Mineral Resources... Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP? If you propose development and production activities in the Alaska OCS Region, the following planning information must accompany your DPP: (a...

  16. Adjuvant-dependent innate and adaptive immune signatures of risk of SIVmac251 acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Monica; Gordon, Shari N; Fourati, Slim; Schifanella, Luca; Liyanage, Namal P M; Cameron, Mark; Keele, Brandon F; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Billings, Erik; Rao, Mangala; Chung, Amy W; Dowell, Karen G; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Brown, Eric P; Ackerman, Margaret E; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Whitney, Stephen; Doster, Melvin N; Binello, Nicolo; Pegu, Poonam; Montefiori, David C; Foulds, Kathryn; Quinn, David S; Donaldson, Mitzi; Liang, Frank; Loré, Karin; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A; McDermott, Adrian; Ma, Zhong-Min; Miller, Christopher J; Phan, Tran B; Forthal, Donald N; Blackburn, Matthew; Caccuri, Francesca; Bissa, Massimiliano; Ferrari, Guido; Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi; Ferrari, Maria G; Thompson, DeVon; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Phogat, Sanjay; Barnett, Susan W; Tartaglia, Jim; Venzon, David; Stablein, Donald M; Alter, Galit; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2016-07-01

    A recombinant vaccine containing Aventis Pasteur's canarypox vector (ALVAC)-HIV and gp120 alum decreased the risk of HIV acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial. The substitution of alum with the more immunogenic MF59 adjuvant is under consideration for the next efficacy human trial. We found here that an ALVAC-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and gp120 alum (ALVAC-SIV + gp120) equivalent vaccine, but not an ALVAC-SIV + gp120 MF59 vaccine, was efficacious in delaying the onset of SIVmac251 in rhesus macaques, despite the higher immunogenicity of the latter adjuvant. Vaccine efficacy was associated with alum-induced, but not with MF59-induced, envelope (Env)-dependent mucosal innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that produce interleukin (IL)-17, as well as with mucosal IgG to the gp120 variable region 2 (V2) and the expression of 12 genes, ten of which are part of the RAS pathway. The association between RAS activation and vaccine efficacy was also observed in an independent efficacious SIV-vaccine approach. Whether RAS activation, mucosal ILCs and antibodies to V2 are also important hallmarks of HIV-vaccine efficacy in humans will require further studies.

  17. Spectroscopy of odd Z trans-fermium nuclei: the nuclear structure of Md251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatillon, A.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the structure of trans-fermium nuclei (Z 100) with odd proton number, which remained largely unexplored. These nuclei were produced in fusion-evaporation reactions with small cross sections below 1 μb. The experimental methods of Recoil-Tagging and Recoil-Decay-Tagging were used for their identification. In order to identify the active orbitals in this mass region, 255 Lr, 251 M1d and 247 Es nuclei have been studied by decay spectroscopy at the University of Jyvaskyla and at GANIL with the LISE spectrometer and the α-electron detector BEST coupled to four CLover detectors from the EXOGAM array. New states have been observed in each of the isotopes, and their configuration has been proposed. The collective properties were also studied in two experiments using prompt γ and electron spectroscopy, combining the JUROGAM and SACRED arrays, respectively, with the recoil separator RITU and the GREAT spectrometer at its focal plane. A rotational band has been observed for the first time in a proton-odd trans-fermium nucleus. The interpretation of this collective structure is based on the theoretical HFB calculations. (author)

  18. Optimizing the efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus (strain 251) for the control of root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewnick, S; Sikora, R A

    2004-01-01

    The egg pathogenic fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (strain 251) is a biocontrol fungus with a potential range of activity to control the worldwide most important plant parasitic nematodes. This biological nematicide may be an useful tool in an integrated approach to control mainly sedentary nematodes. Greenhouse experiments were conducted with the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla on tomato. P. lilacinus, formulated as WG (BIOACT WG), was incorporated into soil inoculated with root-knot nematode eggs prior to transplanting the susceptible tomato cultivar "Hellfrucht". Furthermore, soil treatments were combined with seedling treatments 24 hours before transplanting and a soil drench 2 weeks after planting, respectively. Seedling and post planting treatment was also combined with a soil treatment at planting. All single or combination treatments tested decreased the gall index and the number of egg masses compared to the untreated control 12 weeks after planting. However, the combination of the seedling treatment with a pre- or at-planting application of P. lilacinus was necessary to achieve higher levels of control. Additional post plant drenching resulted in only a slight increase In efficacy. To the feasibility of this modified application system for the control of root-knot nematodes, a yield experiment was conducted with M. hapla and the susceptible cultivar "Gnom F1 Hybrid". It could be demonstrated that the above mentioned combination of pre-planting application plus the seedling and one post plant drench gave the best control and resulted in a significant fruit yield increase in concurrence with a decrease in number of galls per root.

  19. The spiral-compact galaxy pair AM 2208-251: Computer simulations versus observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaric, M.; Byrd, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    The system AM2208-251 is a roughly edge-on spiral extending east-west with a smaller round compact E system about 60 arcsec east of the spiral nucleus along the major axis of the spiral. Spectroscopic observations may indicate a tidal interaction in the system. In order to learn more about such pairs, the authors simulated the interaction using the computer model developed by Miller (1976 a,b, 1978) and modified by the authors (Byrd 1986, 1987, 1988). To do the simulation they need an idea of the mutual orbits of the two galaxies. Their computer model is a two-dimensional polar N-body program. It consists of a self-gravitating disk of particles, within an inert axially symmetric stabilizing halo potential. The particles are distributed in a 24(radial) by 36(azimuthal) polar grid. Self consistent calculations can be done only within the grid area. The disk is modeled with a finite Mestel disk, where all the particles initially move in circular orbits with constant tangential velocities (Mestel 1963), resulting in a flat rotation curve. The gas particles in the spiral's disk, which make up 30 percent of its mass, collide in the following manner. The number of particles in each bin of the polar grid is counted every time step. If it is greater than a given critical density, all the particles in the bin collide, obtaining in the result the same velocities, equal to the average for the bin. This process produces clumps of gas particles-the star formation sites. The authors suppress the collision in the inner part of the disk (within the circle r = 6) to represent the hole seen in the gas in the nuclear bulge of spirals. They thus avoid spurious effects due to collisions in that region

  20. Cabotegravir long acting injection protects macaques against intravenous challenge with SIVmac251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Chasity D; Bernard, Leslie St; Poon, Amanda Yee; Mohri, Hiroshi; Gettie, Natanya; Spreen, William R; Gettie, Agegnehu; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Blanchard, James; Hong, Zhi; Ho, David D; Markowitz, Martin

    2017-02-20

    We evaluated the effectiveness of cabotegravir (CAB; GSK1265744 or GSK744) long acting as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against intravenous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge in a model that mimics blood transfusions based on the per-act probability of infection. CAB long acting is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor formulated as a 200 mg/ml injectable nanoparticle suspension that is an effective PrEP agent against rectal and vaginal simian/human immunodeficiency virus transmission in macaques. Three groups of rhesus macaques (n = 8 per group) were injected intramuscularly with CAB long acting and challenged intravenously with 17 animal infectious dose 50% SIVmac251 on week 2. Group 1 was injected with 50 mg/kg on week 0 and 4 to evaluate the protective efficacy of the CAB long-acting dose used in macaque studies mimicking sexual transmission. Group 2 was injected with 50 mg/kg on week 0 to evaluate the necessity of the second injection of CAB long acting for protection against intravenous challenge. Group 3 was injected with 25 mg/kg on week 0 and 50 mg/kg on week 4 to correlate CAB plasma concentrations at the time of challenge with protection. Five additional macaques remained untreated as controls. CAB long acting was highly protective with 21 of the 24 CAB long-acting-treated macaques remaining aviremic, resulting in 88% protection. The plasma CAB concentration at the time of virus challenge appeared to be more important for protection than sustaining therapeutic plasma concentrations with the second CAB long acting injection. These results support the clinical investigation of CAB long acting as PrEP in people who inject drugs.

  1. Rapid detection, differentiation and typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harbouring either mecA or the new mecA homologue mecA(LGA251).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegger, M; Andersen, P S; Kearns, A; Pichon, B; Holmes, M A; Edwards, G; Laurent, F; Teale, C; Skov, R; Larsen, A R

    2012-04-01

    The recent finding of a new mecA homologue, mecA(LGA251) , with only 70% nucleotide homology to the conventional mecA gene has brought the routine testing for mecA as a confirmatory test for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) into question. A multiplex PCR was designed to differentiate mecA(LGA251) from the known mecA together with detection of lukF-PV and the spa gene fragments, enabling direct spa typing by sequencing of the PCR amplicons. The PCR analysis and subsequent spa typing were validated on a large collection (n=185) of contemporary MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates, including 127 isolates carrying mecA(LGA251) . The mecA(LGA251) gene was situated in staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type XI elements, and sequence variation within a 631-bp fragment of mecA(LGA251) in 79 isolates indicated a very conserved gene sequence. Following a successful validation, the multiplex PCR strategy was implemented in the routine testing of MRSA for national surveillance. Over a 2-month period, among 203 samples tested, 12 new MRSA cases caused by isolates carrying mecA(LGA251) were identified, emphasizing the clinical importance of testing for these new MRSA isolates. © 2011 STATENS SERUM INSTITUT. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  2. Preparation of iodine-123 labeled AM251: a potential SPECT radioligand for the brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Ruoxi; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Gatley, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    We report the synthesis and labeling with iodine-123 of N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251). This compound is an analog of the recently described cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR141716A, in which a 4-chlorophenyl group is replaced by 4-iodophenyl. Labeling in good yield (62%) and radiochemical purity (> 95%), and high specific activity (> 2500 Ci/mmol) was achieved by an iododestannylation reaction using the tributyltin precursor, no carrier added I-123 iodide, and chloramine-T. (author)

  3. Preparation of iodine-123 labeled AM251: a potential SPECT radioligand for the brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Ruoxi; Makriyannis, Alexandros [Connecticut Univ., Molecular and Cell Biology Dept., Storrs, CT (United States); Gatley, S.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Medical Dept., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    We report the synthesis and labeling with iodine-123 of N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251). This compound is an analog of the recently described cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR141716A, in which a 4-chlorophenyl group is replaced by 4-iodophenyl. Labeling in good yield (62%) and radiochemical purity (> 95%), and high specific activity (> 2500 Ci/mmol) was achieved by an iododestannylation reaction using the tributyltin precursor, no carrier added I-123 iodide, and chloramine-T. (author).

  4. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  5. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  6. Effect of plant resistance and BioAct WG (Purpureocillium lilacinum strain 251) on Meloidogyne incognita in a tomato-cucumber rotation in a greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Ariadna; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of combining resistant tomato with BioAct WG (Purpureocillium lilacinum strain 251, Pl251) against Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in a tomato-cucumber rotation in a greenhouse over 2 years. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of the fungus, the percentage of fungal egg and juvenile parasitism, cardinal temperatures and the effect of water potential on mycelial growth and the soil receptivity to Pl251 were determined in vitro. Plant resistance was the only factor that suppressed nematode and crop yield losses. Percentage of egg parasitism in plots treated with BioAct WG was less than 2.6%. However, under in vitro conditions, Pl251 showed protease, lipase and chitinase activities and parasitised 94.5% of eggs, but no juveniles. Cardinal temperatures were 14.2, 24-26 and 35.4 °C. The maximum Pl251 mycelial growth was at -0.25 MPa and 25 °C. Soil temperatures and water potential in the greenhouse were in the range of the fungus. However, soil receptivity was lower in greenhouse soil, irrespective of sterilisation, than in sterilised sand. Plant resistance was the only factor able to suppress nematode densities, disease severity and yield losses, and to protect the following cucumber crop. Environmental factors involved in soil receptivity could have negatively affected fungus effectiveness. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Knockdown of NF-E2-related factor 2 inhibits the proliferation and growth of U251MG human glioma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang-Jun; Chen, Sui-Hua; Zhu, Lin; Pan, Hao; Zhou, Yuan; Li, Wei; You, Wan-Chun; Gao, Chao-Chao; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Jiang, Kuan; Wang, Han-Dong

    2013-07-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a pivotal transcription factor of cellular responses to oxidative stress and recent evidence suggests that Nrf2 plays an important role in cancer pathobiology. However, the underlying mechanism has yet to be elucidated, particularly in glioma. In the present study, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in the clinical prognosis, cell proliferation and tumor growth of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We detected overexpression of Nrf2 protein levels in GBM compared to normal brain tissues. Notably, higher protein levels of Nrf2 were significantly associated with poorer overall survival and 1-year survival for GBM patients. Furthermore, we constructed the plasmid Si-Nrf2 and transduced it into U251MG cells to downregulate the expression of Nrf2 and established stable Nrf2 knockdown cells. The downregulation of Nrf2 suppressed cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in mouse xenograft models. We performed immunohistochemistry staining to detect the protein levels of Nrf2, Ki-67, caspase-3 and CD31 in the xenograft tumors and found that the expression levels of Nrf2 and Ki-67 were much lower in the Si-Nrf2 group compared to the Si-control group. In addition, the number of caspase-3-positive cells was significantly increased in the Si-Nrf2 group. By analysis of microvessel density (MVD) assessed by CD31, the MVD value in the Si-Nrf2 group decreased significantly compared to the Si-control group. These findings indicate that the knockdown of Nrf2 may suppress tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation, increasing cell apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. These results highlight the potential of Nrf2 as a candidate molecular target to control GBM cell proliferation and tumor growth.

  8. Preparation and study of elemental californium-249

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, M.; Peterson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Bulk samples of 249 Cf metal were prepared on the 10 μg scale via the Li metal vapor reduction of 249 CfF 3 . Above about 725 0 C elemental Cf exhibits a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure with an average, room-temperature lattice parameter of 5.75(1)A. Between about 600 0 C and 725 0 C, the stable form of Cf metal is another fcc structure with an average, room-temperature lattice parameter of 4.94(1)A. Below 600 0 C metallic Cf exhibits a double hexagonal closest packed (dhcp) structure with average, room temperature lattice parameters of a 0 = 3.39(1)A and c 0 = 11.01(5)A. By comparison of the metallic radii calculated for these three forms with those of the receding transuranium elements, it is suggested that the two, lower temperature modifications represent Cf with a metallic valence of three, while the highest temperature form represents a metallic valence of two. Although the data reported here are from the most complete study to date of elemental Cf, the limitations accompanying such microscale research are duly noted. (U.S.)

  9. Californium Cf-252 for pelvic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Y; Feola, J M; Tai, D; Wilson, L C; Van Nagell, J R; Yoneda, J

    1978-01-01

    Clinical data about therapy concerning tumors of the female gynecological cancers of the cervix, vagina and uterus are reviewed. Dosimetric, laboratory and radiobiological research data form the basis for an approach to such tumors using Cf-252 as a form of boost brachytherapy. Extreme personnel hazards are a real and important consideration and indicate that maximal containment and isolation procedures should be exercised in its use.

  10. Target laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  11. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  12. On-line coupling of the MAT 251 with a Carlo Erba elemental analyzer for carbon isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.

    1986-06-01

    For carbon isotope investigations with a moderate precision demand of about 0.2 per mil in the isotope ratio fast and reliable results are attained by on line combination of the ANA 1500 Elemental Analyzer and the MAT 251 Isotope Mass Spectrometer. The crucial point hereof is the gas splitting device. By proper design and adjustment of the analytical parameters, good sample efficiency and a sharp CO 2 bulk within the He stream is reached. The main characteristics of this combined equipment are described and some isotopic results of organic and anorganic carbon in lake sediment-samples are given as well as deltasup1 3 C-analyses of spiritous liquors. (Author)

  13. Characterization of radioresistant variant from U251 human glioblastoma cell line and the role of antioxdant enzymes in its radioresistancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Chahn; Park, In Chul; Park, Myung Jin; Woo, Sang Hyeok; Rhee, Chang Hum; Hong, Seok-II

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the radioresistant mechanism in glioblastoma multiforme(GBM), we isolated the radioresistant clone (RRC) from U251 human glioblastoma cell line by exposing to repeated fractions of 3 Gy γ-radiation for six months. RRC had higher radioresistance than the parent cell line as measured by clonogenic survival assay. FACS analysis showed that RRC had a delayed G2 arrest after radiation. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), were activated up to 5 folds in RRC after radiation. Erk 1/2 activation was higher in RRC than in the parent cell. Therefore, radioresistancy in RRC might be due to the delayed cell cycle, the coordinated high activation of antioxidant enzyme rather than a single enzyme alone,and higher activation of Erk 1/2

  14. Low dose radiation enhance the anti-tumor effect of high dose radiation on human glioma cell U251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chang; Wang Guanjun; Tan Yehui; Jiang Hongyu; Li Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To detect the effect on the growth of human glioma cell U251 induced by low dose irradiation and low dose irradiation combined with large dose irradiation. Methods: Human glioma cell line U251 and nude mice carried with human glioma were used. The tumor cells and the mice were treated with low dose, high dose, and low dose combined high dose radiation. Cells growth curve, MTT and flow cytometry were used to detect the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of the cells; and the tumor inhibition rate was used to assess the growth of tumor in vivo. Results: After low dose irradiation, there was no difference between experimental group and control group in cell count, MTT and flow cytometry. Single high dose group and low dose combined high dose group both show significantly the suppressing effect on tumor cells, the apoptosis increased and there was cell cycle blocked in G 2 period, but there was no difference between two groups. In vivo apparent anti-tumor effect in high dose radiation group and the combining group was observed, and that was more significant in the combining group; the prior low dose radiation alleviated the injury of hematological system. There was no difference between single low dose radiation group and control. Conclusions: There is no significant effect on human glioma cell induced by low dose radiation, and low dose radiation could not induce adaptive response. But in vivo experience, low dose radiation could enhance the anti-tumor effect of high dose radiation and alleviated the injury of hematological system. (authors)

  15. PTEN-induction in U251 glioma cells decreases the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Randy J.; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Pollak, Michael

    2005-01-01

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene whose loss of function is observed in ∼40-50% of human cancers. Although insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) was classically described as a growth inhibitor, multiple recent reports have shown an association of overexpression and/or high serum levels of IGFBP-2 with poor prognosis of several malignancies, including gliomas. Using an inducible PTEN expression system in the PTEN-null glioma cell line U251, we demonstrate that PTEN-induction is associated with reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and a substantial reduction of the high levels of IGFBP-2 expression. The PTEN-induced decrease in IGFBP-2 expression could be mimicked with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, indicating that the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN is responsible for the observed effect. However, the rapamycin analog CCI-779 did not affect IGFBP-2 expression, suggesting that the PTEN-induced decrease in IGFBP-2 expression is not attributable to decreased mTOR signalling. Recombinant human IGFBP-2 was unable to rescue U251-PTEN cells from the antiproliferative effects of PTEN, and IGFBP-2 siRNA did not affect the IGF-dependent or -independent growth of this cell line. These results suggest that the clinical data linking IGFBP-2 expression to poor prognosis may arise, at least in part, because high levels of IGFBP-2 expression correlate with loss of function of PTEN, which is well known to lead to aggressive behavior of gliomas. Our results motivate translational research regarding the relationship between IGFBP-2 expression and loss of function of PTEN

  16. THE COLLABORATIVE OCULAR TUBERCULOSIS STUDY (COTS)-1: A Multinational Review of 251 Patients With Tubercular Retinal Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekeran, Dinesh V; Agrawal, Rupesh; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Carreño, Ester; Raje, Dhananjay; Aggarwal, Kanika; Kon, Onn M; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Pavesio, Carlos; Gupta, Vishali

    2018-04-24

    Tubercular retinal vasculitis (TRV) is a heterogeneous disease that can be difficult to manage because of nonspecific presentation and limitations of confirmatory tests for tuberculosis. This is a big data analysis on phenotypes and treatment outcomes for TRV. Multicentre retrospective study of patients with TRV between January 2004 and December 2014 and a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Two hundred and fifty-one patients with TRV with a mean age of 38.9 ± 14.4 years (range, 9-86 years) were included. The patients were predominantly males (n = 167/251; 66.5%) of Asian ethnicity (n = 174/246; 70.7%), and geographical origin (n = 137/251; 54.6%). Most patients had features of occlusive type of RV (n = 113/185; 61.1%) except Caucasians (n = 11; 28.2%). There was no significant difference in treatment failure whether patients received antitubercular therapy (ATT) (P = 0.29), although treatment failure was less frequent in patients who received ATT (13.6%; n = 31/228) compared with those who did not (21.7%, n = 5/23). Less treatment failures were observed in patients with occlusive type RV who received ATT; however, this was not significant on survival analysis (P = 0.09). Treatment with ATT was associated with higher failure rates in patients of Hispanic and African American race and those with TRV associated with panuveitis (compared with posterior uveitis). In this multinational study of TRV, there was no significant therapeutic effect of ATT. However, a definitive conclusion about the role of ATT could not be made because of a few patients who did not receive ATT. Because this is a retrospective study with a limited 1-year follow-up, the effect of ATT may have been overestimated (or underestimated) in the duration of follow-up.

  17. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  18. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M

    2011-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs...

  19. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M

    2011-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs...... to a better understanding of the biology of tumour development in these women....

  20. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); C. Kartsonaki (Christiana); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); P. Soucy (Penny); L. McGuffog (Lesley); S. Healey (Sue); A. Lee (Andrew); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (D.); E. Cattaneo (Elisa); M. Barile (Monica); V. Pensotti (Valeria); B. Pasini (Barbara); R. Dolcetti (Riccardo); G. Giannini (Giuseppe); A.L. Putignano; L. Varesco (Liliana); P. Radice (Paolo); P.L. Mai (Phuong); M.H. Greene (Mark); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); G. Glendon (Gord); H. Ozcelik (Hilmi); M. Thomassen (Mads); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); T.A. Kruse (Torben); U.B. Jensen; D. Cruger (Dorthe); M.A. Caligo (Maria); Y. Laitman (Yael); R. Milgrom (Roni); B. Kaufman (Bella); S. Paluch-Shimon (Shani); E. Friedman (Eitan); N. Loman (Niklas); K. Harbst (Katja); A. Lindblom (Annika); B. Melin (Beatrice); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.M. Domchek (Susan); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); J. Gronwald (Jacek); T. Huzarski (Tomasz); T. Byrski (Tomasz); C. Cybulski (Cezary); B. Górski (Bohdan); A. Osorio (Ana); T.R. Cajal; F. Fostira (Florentia); R. Andres (Raquel); J. Benitez (Javier); U. Hamann (Ute); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); M.A. Rookus (Matti); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); M.R. Nelen (Marcel); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); P. Devilee (Peter); H. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); E.B.G. Garcia; S. Peock (Susan); M. Cook (Margaret); D. Frost; R. Platte (Radka); J. Leyland (Jean); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L. Izatt (Louise); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); D. Eccles (Diana); K.-R. Ong; F. Douglas (Fiona); J. Paterson (Joan); M.J. Kennedy (John); Z. Miedzybrodzka (Zosia); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); B. Buecher (Bruno); M. Belotti (Muriel); C. Tirapo (Carole); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); L. Barjhoux (Laure); C. Lasset (Christine); D. Leroux (Dominique); L. Faivre (Laurence); M. Bronner (Myriam); F. Prieur (Fabienne); C. Nogues (Catherine); E. Rouleau (Etienne); P. Pujol (Pascal); I. Coupier (Isabelle); M. Frenay (Marc); J. Hopper (John); M.J. Daly (Mark); M-B. Terry (Mary-beth); E.M. John (Esther); S.S. Buys (Saundra); Y. Yassin (Yosuf); A. Miron (Alexander); D. Goldgar (David); C.F. Singer (Christian); M.-K. Tea; G. Pfeiler (Georg); C. Dressler (Catherina); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); L. Jønson (Lars); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); R.B. Barkardottir (Rosa); T. Kircchoff (Tomas); K. Offit (Kenneth); M. Piedmonte (Marion); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); L. Small (Laurie); J.F. Boggess (John); S.V. Blank (Stephanie); J. Basil (Jack); M. Azodi (Masoud); A.E. Toland (Amanda); M. Montagna (Marco); S. Tognazzo (Silvia); S. Agata (Simona); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C. Lazaro (Conxi); I. Blanco (Ignacio); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); L. Sucheston (Lara); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); C.S. Walsh (Christine); E. Olah (Edith); A. Bozsik (Aniko); S.-H. Teo (Soo-Hwang); J.L. Seldon (Joyce); M.S. Beattie (Mary); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); M.D. Sluiter (Michelle); O. Diez (Orland); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); C. Engel (Christoph); A. Meindl (Alfons); I. Ruehl (Ina); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); K. Kast (Karin); H. Deissler (Helmut); D. Niederacher (Dieter); N. Arnold (Norbert); D. Gadzicki (Dorothea); I. Schönbuchner (Ines); T. Caldes (Trinidad); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); M. Dumont (Martine); J. Chiquette (Jocelyne); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J. Beesley (Jonathan); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); X. Wang (Xing); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J. Simard (Jacques); D.F. Easton (Douglas); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); P. Karlsson (Per); M. Nordling (Margareta); A. Bergman (Annika); Z. Einbeigi (Zakaria); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (M.); S. Liedgren (Sigrun); Å. Borg (Åke); H. Olsson (Hans); U. Kristoffersson (Ulf); H. Jernström (H.); K. Henriksson (Karin); A. von Wachenfeldt (Anna); A. Liljegren (Annelie); G. Barbany-Bustinza (Gisela); J. Rantala (Johanna); H. Grönberg (Henrik); E.-L. Stattin; M. Emanuelsson (Monica); R.R. Brandell; N. Dahl (Niklas); S. Verhoef; M. Verheus (Martijn); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); F.E. van Leeuwen; J.M. Collée (Margriet); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); A. Jager (Agnes); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); M.P. Vreeswijk (Maaike); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); M.J. Ligtenberg (Marjolijn); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); J.J.P. Gille (Jan); Q. Waisfisz (Quinten); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); C.E. van Roozendaal (Cees); M.J. Blok (Marinus); B. Caanen; J.C. Oosterwijk; A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); M.J. Mourits; H.F. Vasen (Hans); H. Gregory (Helen); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); L. Jeffers (Lisa); T.J. Cole (Trevor); C. McKeown (Carole); J. Hoffman (Jonathan); A. Donaldson (Alan); S. Downing (Sarah); A. Taylor (Amy); A. Murray (Alexandra); M.T. Rogers (Mark); E. McCann (Emma); M.E. Porteous (Mary); S. Drummond (Sarah); C. Brewer (Carole); E. Kivuva (Emma); A. Searle (Anne); S. Goodman (Selina); K. Hill (Kathryn); V. Murday (Victoria); N. Bradshaw (Nicola); L. Snadden (Lesley); M. Longmuir (Mark); C. Watt (Catherine); S. Gibson (Sarah); E. Haque (Eshika); E. Tobias (Ed); A. Duncan (Alexis); C. Jacobs (Chris); C. Langman (Caroline); A. Whaite (Anna); H. Dorkins (Huw); J. Barwell (Julian); C. Chu (Chengbin); J. Miller (Julie); I.O. Ellis (Ian); C. Houghton (Catherine); L. Side (Lucy); A. Male (Alison); C. Berlin (Cheryl); J. Eason (Jacqueline); R. Collier (Rebecca); O. Claber (Oonagh); I. Jobson (Irene); L.J. Walker (Lisa); D. McLeod (Diane); D. Halliday (Dorothy); S. Durell (Sarah); B. Stayner (Barbara); S. Shanley (Susan); N. Rahman (Nazneen); R. Houlston (Richard); E.K. Bancroft (Elizabeth); L. D'Mello (Lucia); E. Page (Elizabeth); A. Ardern-Jones (Audrey); K. Kohut (Kelly); J. Wiggins (Jennifer); E. Castro (Elena); A. Mitra (Anita); L. Robertson (Lisa); O. Quarrell (Oliver); C. Bardsley (Cathryn); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); D.E. Barton (David); S. Goff (Sheila); G. Brice (Glen); L. Winchester (Lizzie); C. Eddy (Charlotte); V. Tripathi (Vishakha); V. Attard (Virginia); A. Lucassen (Anneke); G. Crawford (Gillian); D. McBride (Donna); S. Smalley (Sarah); J.W. Adlard (Julian); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTwo single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility

  1. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Barile, Monica; Pensotti, Valeria; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Putignano, Anna Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Birk Jensen, Uffe; Crüger, Dorthe G.; Caligo, Maria A.; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Friedman, Eitan; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Ehrencrona, Hans; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; van Os, Theo A. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Aalfs, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants:

  2. Down-regulation of Connexin43 expression reveals the involvement of caveolin-1 containing lipid rafts in human U251 glioblastoma cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strale, Pierre-Olivier; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Lamiche, Coralie; Cronier, Laurent; Mesnil, Marc; Defamie, Norah

    2012-11-01

    Glioblastoma cells are characterized by high proliferation and invasive capacities. Tumor development has been associated with a decrease of gap-junctional intercellular communication, but the concrete involvement of gap junction proteins, connexins, remains elusive since they are also suspected to promote cell invasion. In order to better understand how connexins control the glioma cell phenotype, we studied the consequences of inhibiting the intrinsic expression of the major astrocytic connexin, Connexin43, in human U251 glioblastoma cells by the shRNA strategy. The induced down-regulation of Cx43 expression has various effects on the U251 cells such as increased clonogenicity, angiogenesis and decreased adhesion on specific extracellular matrix proteins. We demonstrate that the invasion capacity measured in vitro and ex vivo correlates with Cx43 expression level. For the first time in a cancer cell context, our work demonstrates that Cx43 cofractionates, colocalizes and coimmunoprecipitates with a lipid raft marker, caveolin-1 and that this interaction is inversely correlated to the level of Cx43. This localization of Cx43 in these lipid raft microdomains regulates both homo- and heterocellular gap junctional communications (respectively between U251 cells, or between U251 cells and astrocytes). Moreover, the adhesive and invasive capacities are not dependent, in our model, on Cav-1 expression level. Our results tend to show that heterocellular gap junctional communication between cancer and stroma cells may affect the behavior of the tumor cells. Altogether, our data demonstrate that Cx43 controls the tumor phenotype of glioblastoma U251 cells and in particular, invasion capacity, through its localization in lipid rafts containing Cav-1. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Spectroscopy of odd Z trans-fermium nuclei: the nuclear structure of Md{sup 251}; Spectroscopie des transfermiums impairs en proton: la structure du noyau de {sup 251}Md

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatillon, A

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the structure of trans-fermium nuclei (Z 100) with odd proton number, which remained largely unexplored. These nuclei were produced in fusion-evaporation reactions with small cross sections below 1 {mu}b. The experimental methods of Recoil-Tagging and Recoil-Decay-Tagging were used for their identification. In order to identify the active orbitals in this mass region, {sup 255}Lr, {sup 251}M1d and {sup 247}Es nuclei have been studied by decay spectroscopy at the University of Jyvaskyla and at GANIL with the LISE spectrometer and the {alpha}-electron detector BEST coupled to four CLover detectors from the EXOGAM array. New states have been observed in each of the isotopes, and their configuration has been proposed. The collective properties were also studied in two experiments using prompt {gamma} and electron spectroscopy, combining the JUROGAM and SACRED arrays, respectively, with the recoil separator RITU and the GREAT spectrometer at its focal plane. A rotational band has been observed for the first time in a proton-odd trans-fermium nucleus. The interpretation of this collective structure is based on the theoretical HFB calculations. (author)

  4. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  5. A retrospective study of artificial insemination of 251 mares using chilled and fixed time frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, C A M; Ravenhill, P J; Hepburn, R J; Shepherd, C H

    2008-09-01

    Historically, artificial insemination (AI) using frozen semen has been perceived to have poorer success rates and be more labour intensive than using chilled semen. A retrospective study was therefore conducted to compare the conception rate achieved by AI between chilled and frozen semen, using fixed time insemination protocols over 2 breeding seasons. Artificial insemination using chilled semen produces a higher conception rate than that achieved with frozen semen. Mares (n = 251) were inseminated with either chilled (n = 112) or frozen (n = 139) semen in the 2006 and 2007 northern hemisphere breeding season. Per rectum ultrasonography of the mare's reproductive tract determined the timing of insemination, and deslorelin acetate was used to induce ovulation. Chilled semen insemination was performed using a single preovulatory dose delivered into the uterine body. Frozen semen was administered as 2 doses (pre- and post ovulation) using a deep uterine insemination technique. Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically at 15 days post insemination. Conception rates were compared using a Chi-squared test. Insemination with frozen semen produced a significantly (P = 0.022) higher seasonal conception rate (82.0%) than that achieved with chilled semen (69.6%). Insemination with frozen semen can achieve conception rates equal to those with chilled semen, enabling the mare owner a greater selection of stallions.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase-1 A251G and catalase C-262T with the risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamhiri, Iman; Saadat, Iraj; Omidvari, Shahpour

    2017-06-01

    Oxidative stress is significant in numerous types of disease including cancer. To protect cells and organs against reactive oxygen species (ROS), the body has evolved an antioxidant protection system that involved in the detoxification of ROS. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of anti-oxidative enzymes may dramatically change the activity of the encoded proteins; therefore, certain alleles can be established as risk factors for some kind of multi-factorial diseases including cancer. In present study we investigate the possible association between polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase 1 ( SOD1 , OMIM: 147450) and catalase ( CAT , OMIM: 115500) genes and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The study included 204 colorectal cancer patients and 239 healthy control group matched for gender and age. Genotyping of SOD1 A251G and CAT C-262T were done by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. There was no significant association between CAT C-262T polymorphism and susceptibility to CRC (P>0.05). The carries of the G allele of SOD1 significantly showed higher prevalence in CRC patients compared with the control group (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.13-2.98, P=0.013). We assessed the effect of combination of genotypes of the study polymorphisms on the risk of CRC. We found that the combination of AG+GG ( SOD1 ) and CC ( CAT ) increases the risk of developing CRC (OR=2.38, 95% CI=1.25-4.52, P=0.008).

  7. Low dose rectal inoculation of rhesus macaques by SIV smE660 or SIVmac251 recapitulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hraber, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, Elena E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keele, Brandon [UNIV OF ALABAMA; Li, Hui [UNIV OF ALABAMA; Learn, Gerald [UNIV OF ALABAMA

    2008-01-01

    We recently developed a novel strategy to identify transmitted HIV-1 genomes in acutely infected humans using single-genome amplification and a model of random virus evolution. Here, we used this approach to determine the molecular features of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission in 18 experimentally infected Indian rhesus macaques. Animals were inoculated intrarectally (i.r.) or intravenously (i.v.) with stocks of SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660 that exhibited sequence diversity typical of early-chronic HIV-1 infection. 987 full-length SIV env sequences (median of 48 per animal) were determined from plasma virion RNA 1--5 wk after infection. i.r. inoculation was followed by productive infection by one or a few viruses (median 1; range 1--5) that diversified randomly with near starlike phylogeny and a Poisson distribution of mutations. Consensus viral sequences from ramp-up and peak viremia were identical to viruses found in the inocula or differed from them by only one or a few nucleotides, providing direct evidence that early plasma viral sequences coalesce to transmitted/founder viruses. i.v. infection was >2,000-fold more efficient than i.r. infection, and viruses transmitted by either route represented the full genetic spectra of the inocula. These findings identify key similarities in mucosal transmission and early diversification between SIV and HIV-1, and thus validate the SIV-macaque mucosal infection model for HIV-1 vaccine and microbicide research.

  8. A clinical epidemiological study of 251 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the south of Brazil Estudo clínico epidemiológico de 251 casos de esclerose lateral amiotrófica no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and the possible presence of risk factors in order to verify if there is any difference between cases in Paraná, Brazil. METHOD: We studied 251 cases, all of which fulfilled the diagnosis criteria proposed in El Escorial (WFN. Between 1977 and 2004, 157 male and 94 female patients were examined. RESULTS: 220 cases were classified as ALS-Spinal Onset (ALS-SO, 24 as ALS-Bulbar Onset (ALS-BO and 7 as Familial ALS. The mean age at time of evaluation was 54.4±12.3 years, and symptoms had started 17.9±15.7months previously. In the group studied, statistical relationships were found between heavy occupations and males; previous surgeries and females; ALS-BO and dysphagia and dysarthria in females; and ALS-SO and males, cramps, weakness, muscle atrophy, hypertonia, increased deep tendon reflex and abnormal gait. CONCLUSION: The average age at time of evaluation was lower than that registered in the literature but similar to the Brazilian series. Domestic work and heavy occupations appear to be related to precocious perception of the symptoms by interference with daily functions. The socioeconomically higher classes seek medical care early. There was no relationship with exposure to toxic agents or trauma.OBJETIVO: Estudar as formas clínicas de esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA e possíveis fatores de risco, a fim de verificar se existem diferenças entre os casos do Paraná, Brasil. MÉTODO: Estudamos 251 casos entre 1977 e 2004, que preencheram os critérios propostos em El Escorial (WFN, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 94 do feminino. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados como ELA de início espinhal (ELA-IE 220 casos, ELA de início bulbar (ELA-IB 24 casos e 7 casos como ELA familiar. A idade média na avaliação foi 54,4±12,3 anos cujos sintomas iniciaram 17,9 ±15,7 meses antes. Foram encontradas relações estatísticas entre ocupação que demandam esforços físicos com

  9. Targeting and killing of glioblastoma with activated T cells armed with bispecific antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitron, Ian M; Thakur, Archana; Norkina, Oxana; Barger, Geoffrey R; Lum, Lawrence G; Mittal, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Since most glioblastomas express both wild-type EGFR and EGFRvIII as well as HER2/neu, they are excellent targets for activated T cells (ATC) armed with bispecific antibodies (BiAbs) that target EGFR and HER2. ATC were generated from PBMC activated for 14 days with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody in the presence of interleukin-2 and armed with chemically heteroconjugated anti-CD3×anti-HER2/neu (HER2Bi) and/or anti-CD3×anti-EGFR (EGFRBi). HER2Bi- and/or EGFRBi-armed ATC were examined for in vitro cytotoxicity using MTT and 51 Cr-release assays against malignant glioma lines (U87MG, U118MG, and U251MG) and primary glioblastoma lines. EGFRBi-armed ATC killed up to 85% of U87, U118, and U251 targets at effector:target ratios (E:T) ranging from 1:1 to 25:1. Engagement of tumor by EGFRBi-armed ATC induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion by armed ATC. HER2Bi-armed ATC exhibited comparable cytotoxicity against U118 and U251, but did not kill HER2-negative U87 cells. HER2Bi- or EGFRBi-armed ATC exhibited 50—80% cytotoxicity against four primary glioblastoma lines as well as a temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant variant of U251. Both CD133– and CD133+ subpopulations were killed by armed ATC. Targeting both HER2Bi and EGFRBi simultaneously showed enhanced efficacy than arming with a single BiAb. Armed ATC maintained effectiveness after irradiation and in the presence of TMZ at a therapeutic concentration and were capable of killing multiple targets. High-grade gliomas are suitable for specific targeting by armed ATC. These data, together with additional animal studies, may provide the preclinical support for the use of armed ATC as a valuable addition to current treatment regimens

  10. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  11. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  12. Identification of a 251 gene expression signature that can accurately detect M. tuberculosis in patients with and without HIV co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Dawany

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with tuberculosis (TB is the leading cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. However, diagnosis of TB, especially in the presence of an HIV co-infection, can be limiting due to the high inaccuracy associated with the use of conventional diagnostic methods. Here we report a gene signature that can identify a tuberculosis infection in patients co-infected with HIV as well as in the absence of HIV. METHODS: We analyzed global gene expression data from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples of patients that were either mono-infected with HIV or co-infected with HIV/TB and used support vector machines to identify a gene signature that can distinguish between the two classes. We then validated our results using publically available gene expression data from patients mono-infected with TB. RESULTS: Our analysis successfully identified a 251-gene signature that accurately distinguishes patients co-infected with HIV/TB from those infected with HIV only, with an overall accuracy of 81.4% (sensitivity = 76.2%, specificity = 86.4%. Furthermore, we show that our 251-gene signature can also accurately distinguish patients with active TB in the absence of an HIV infection from both patients with a latent TB infection and healthy controls (88.9-94.7% accuracy; 69.2-90% sensitivity and 90.3-100% specificity. We also demonstrate that the expression levels of the 251-gene signature diminish as a correlate of the length of TB treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A 251-gene signature is described to (a detect TB in the presence or absence of an HIV co-infection, and (b assess response to treatment following anti-TB therapy.

  13. Neonatal Caffeine Treatment and Respiratory Function at 11 Years in Children under 1,251 g at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Lex W; Ranganathan, Sarath; Cheong, Jeanie L Y

    2017-11-15

    Caffeine in the newborn period shortens the duration of assisted ventilation and reduces the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but its effects on respiratory function in later childhood are unknown. To determine if children born with birth weight less than 1,251 g who were treated with neonatal caffeine had improved respiratory function at 11 years of age compared with children treated with placebo. Children enrolled in the CAP (Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity) randomized controlled trial and assessed at the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne at 11 years of age had expiratory flow rates measured according to the standards of the American Thoracic Society. Values were converted to z-scores predicted for age, height, ethnicity, and sex. Parents completed questionnaires related to their child's respiratory health. A total of 142 children had expiratory flows measured. Expiratory flows were better in the caffeine group, by approximately 0.5 SD for most variables (e.g., FEV 1 ; mean z-score, -1.00 vs. -1.53; mean difference, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.94; P = 0.008). Fewer children in the caffeine group had values for FVC below the fifth centile (11% vs. 28%; odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.77; P = 0.012). When adjusted for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the difference in flow rates between groups diminished. Caffeine treatment in the newborn period improves expiratory flow rates in midchildhood, which seems to be achieved by improving respiratory health in the newborn period. Follow-up lung function testing in adulthood is vital for these individuals. Future placebo-controlled randomized trials of neonatal caffeine are unlikely. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00182312).

  14. Single-centre experience with the frozen elephant trunk technique in 251 patients over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Malakh; Martens, Andreas; Kaufeld, Tim; Beckmann, Erik; Bertele, Sebastian; Krueger, Heike; Neuser, Julia; Fleissner, Felix; Ius, Fabio; Abd Alhadi, Firas; Hanke, Jasmin; Schmitto, Jan D; Cebotari, Serghei; Karck, Matthias; Haverich, Axel; Chavan, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    Our goal was to present our 15-year experience (2001-2015) with the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique. A total of 251 patients (82 with aortic aneurysms, 96 with acute aortic dissection type A, 4 with acute type B dissections, 52 with chronic aortic dissection type A, 17 with chronic type B dissection and 67 redo cases) underwent FET implantation with either the custom-made Chavan-Haverich (n = 66), the Jotec E-vita (n = 31) or the Vascutek Thoraflex hybrid (n = 154) prosthesis. The cases were assigned to an early period (2001-2011) and a contemporary period (2012-present). Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time, aortic cross-clamp time, circulatory arrest time and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion time were 241 ± 72, 125 ± 59, 56 ± 30 and 81 ± 34 min, respectively. Incidence of rethoracotomy for bleeding, stroke, spinal cord injury, prolonged ventilatory support (>96 h) and long-term dialysis were 18, 14, 2, 24 and 2%, respectively. The in-hospital mortality rate was 11% (in acute aortic dissection type A, 12%). Of the 2 patients with graft infections, 1 died and the other had a protracted hospital stay. There were 49 second-stage procedures in the downstream aorta: either open surgical [n = 25 (thoraco-abdominal, n = 15; descending, n = 6; infrarenal, n = 4)] or transfemoral endovascular (n = 23). Elective thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair R implantation was successful in all 23 cases. FET results are comparable with those of the published results of the conventional elephant trunk technique. FET is an ideal landing zone for subsequent transfemoral endovascular completion. Patients with graft infections may have dismal results. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. A Chimeric Protein PTEN-L-p53 Enters U251 Cells to Repress Proliferation and Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; An, Yang; Wang, Fengling; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Chu; Xin, Junfang; Duan, Yongjian; Zhao, Xiaofang; Fang, Na; Ji, Shaoping

    2018-05-23

    PTEN, a well-known tumor suppressor, dephosphorylates PIP3 and inhibits AKT activity. A translational variant of PTEN has been identified and termed PTEN-Long (PTEN-L). The additional 173 amino acids (PTEN-L leader) at the N-terminal constitute a potential signal peptide. Differing from canonical PTEN, PTEN-L is secreted into the extracellular fluid and re-enters recipient cells, playing the similar roles as PTEN in vivo and in vitro. This character confers the PTEN-L a therapeutic ability via directly protein delivering instead of traditional DNA and RNA vector options. In the present study, we employed PTEN-L leader to assemble a fusion protein, PTEN-L-p53, inosculated with the transcriptional regulator TP53, which is another powerful tumor suppressor. We overexpressed PTEN-L-p53 in HEK293T cells and detected it in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Subsequently, we found that PTEN-L-p53 was secreted outside of the cells and detected in the culture media by immunoblotting. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PTEN-L-p53 freely entered the cells and suppressed the viability of U251cells (p53 R273H , a cell line with p53 R273H-mutation). PTEN-L-p53 is composed of endogenous protein/peptide bearing low immunogenicity, and only the junction region between PTEN-L leader and p53 can act as a new immune epitope. Accordingly, this fusion protein can potentially be used as a therapeutic option for TP53-abnormality cancers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. PDF 25(1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Cette étude montre la situation des pertes post-récolte de ces légumes telle que ... techniques, the development of transport and storage infrastructures, as well as an efficient marketing system. ..... des secteurs publics (l'Etat, les services de.

  17. Functional simian immunodeficiency virus Gag-specific CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes in the mucosae of SIVmac251- or simian-human immunodeficiency virus KU2-infected macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevceva, Liljana; Moniuszko, Marcin; Alvarez, Xavier; Lackner, Andrew A.; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2004-01-01

    The vaginal and rectal mucosae are the first line of cellular immune defense to sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry. Thus, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) may be important in the immune response to HIV infection. Here we investigated whether functional IELs in mucosal compartments could be visualized by direct staining with a tetrameric complex specific for the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) immunodominant Gag epitope in either separated IEL cells or tissues of macaques infected with SIVmac251. Of the 15 Mamu-A*01-positive macaques studied here, eight were chronically infected with either SIVmac251 or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) KU2 and the remaining seven were exposed mucosally to SIVmac251 and sacrificed within 48 h to assess the local immune response. Gag-specific CD8+ T-cells were found in separated IELs from the rectum, colon, jejunum, and vagina of most infected animals. Direct staining of tetramers also revealed their presence in intact tissue. These Gag-specific IELs expressed the activation marker CD69 and produced IFN-γ, suggesting an active immune response in this locale

  18. Polysaccharide peptide isolated from grass-cultured Ganoderma lucidum induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in the human U251 glioma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Lin, Dongmei; Chen, Quan; Lin, Shuqian; Shi, Songsheng; Chen, Chunmei

    2018-04-01

    The Ganoderma lucidum ( G. lucidum ) mushroom is one of the most extensively studied functional foods, known for its numerous health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. The present study assessed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of a novel G. lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GL-PP) in human glioma U251 cells, which was purified from grass-cultured G. lucidum . GL-PP is a glycopeptide with an average molecular weight of 42,635 Da and a polysaccharide-to-peptide ratio of 88.70:11.30. The polysaccharides were composed of l-arabinose, d-mannose and d-glucose at a molar ratio of 1.329:0.372:2.953 and a total of 17 amino acids were detected. The results of the current study demonstrated that GL-PP significantly inhibited U251 cellular proliferation. The proportion of G 0 /G 1 phase cells and sub-G 1 phase cells significantly increased as the concentration of GL-PP increased, as did the activity of caspase-3. These results indicate that GL-PP directly inhibited human glioma U251 proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and promoting apoptosis.

  19. Preparation and characterization of Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted nanoparticles for MRI of human glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yaoqi; Zhong, Yuejiao; Ji, Guozhong; Lu, Qianling; Dai, Xinyu; Guo, Zhirui; Zhang, Peng; Peng, Gang; Zhang, Kangzhen; Li, Yuntao

    2018-01-01

    To study the characterization of Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs. Fe3O4@Au-C225 was prepared by the absorption method. The immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate its absorption efficiency at C225 Fc. ZETA SIZER3000 laser particle size analyzer, ultraviolet photometer and its characteristics were analyzed by VSM. the targeting effect of Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs on U251 cells in vitro were detected by 7.0 Tesla Micro-MR; and subcutaneous transplanted human glioma in nude mice were performed the targeting effect in vivo after tail vein injection of Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs by MRI. The self-prepared Fe3O4@Au composite MNPs can adsorb C225 with high efficiency of adsorption so that Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs were prepared successfully. Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs favorably targeted human glioma cell line U251 in vitro; Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs have good targeting ability to xenografted glioma on nude mice in vivo, and can be traced by MRI. The Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs have the potential to be used as a tracer for glioma in vivo.

  20. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, J.B.; Alexander, C.W.; Boll, R.A.; Burns, J.D.; Ezold, J.G.; Felker, L.K.; Hogle, S.L.; Rykaczewski, K.P.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of "4"8Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including "2"4"2Pu, "2"4"4Pu, "2"4"3Am, "2"4"5Cm, "2"4"8Cm, "2"4"9Cf, and "2"4"9Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including "2"4"9Bk, "2"5"1Cf, and "2"5"4Es are described.

  1. Targeting of human glioma xenografts in vivo utilizing radiolabeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.A.; Wessels, B.W.; Wharam, M.D.; Order, S.E.; Wanek, P.M.; Poggenburg, J.K.; Klein, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies provide a potential basis for selective radiotherapy of human gliomas. We have measured tumor targeting by radiolabeled monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against neuroectodermal and tumor-associated antigens in nude mice bearing human glioma xenografts. Monoclonal P96.5, a mouse IgG2a immunoglobulin, defines an epitope of a human melanoma cell surface protein, and specifically binds the U-251 human glioma as measured by immunoperoxidase histochemistry. 111In-radiolabeled P96.5 specifically targets the U-251 human glioma xenograft and yields 87.0 microCuries (microCi) of tumor activity per gram per 100 microCi injected activity compared to 4.5 microCi following administration of radiolabeled irrelevant monoclonal antibody. Calculations of targeting ratios demonstrate deposited dose to be 11.6 times greater with radiolabeled P96.5 administration compared to irrelevant monoclonal antibody. The proportion of tumor dose found in normal organs is less than 10%, further supporting specific targeting of the human glioma xenograft by this antibody. Monoclonal antibody ZME018, which defines a second melanoma-associated antigen, and polyclonal rabbit antiferritin, which defines a tumor-associated antigen, demonstrate positive immunoperoxidase staining of the tumor, but comparatively decreased targeting. When compared to the 111In-radiolabeled antibody, 90Y-radiolabeled P96.5 demonstrates comparable tumor targeting and percentages of tumor dose found in normal organs. To test the therapeutic potential of 90Y-radiolabeled P96.5, tumors and normal sites were implanted with miniature thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Seven days following administration of 100 microCi 90Y-radiolabeled P96.5, average absorbed doses of 3770, 980, 353, and 274 cGy were observed in tumor, liver, contralateral control site, and total body, respectively

  2. Polymorphisms of TNF-α -308 G/A and IL-8 -251 T/A Genes Associated with Urothelial Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chang Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke are well-known risk factors for urothelial carcinoma (UC. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study involving 287 UC cases and 574 cancer-free controls to investigate the joint effects of cigarette smoking and polymorphisms of inflammatory genes on UC risk. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α -308 G/A and interleukin-8 (IL-8 -251 T/A polymorphisms were determined using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. People who had ever smoked and those who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke had significantly increased UC odds ratios (ORs of 1.65 and 1.68, respectively. Participants who had smoked more than 18 pack-years had a significantly increased UC OR of 2.64. People who had ever smoked and who carried the A/A genotype of the TNF-α -308 G/A polymorphism had a significantly higher UC OR (10.25 compared to people who had never smoked and who carried the G/G or G/A genotype. In addition, people who had ever smoked and who carried the IL-8 -251 T/T genotype had a significantly increased UC OR (3.08 compared to people who had never smoked and who carried the T/A or A/A genotype. In a combined analysis of three major risk factors (cumulative cigarette smoking, the TNF-α -308 A/A genotype, and the IL-8 -251 T/T genotype, subjects with any one, any two, and all three risk factors experienced significantly increased UC ORs of 1.55, 2.89, and 3.77, respectively, compared to individuals with none of the risk factors. Conclusions. Our results indicate that the combined effects of cumulative cigarette exposure and the TNF-α -308 A/A genotype and/or the IL-8 -251 T/T genotype on UC OR showed a significant dose-response relationship.

  3. Lithologic and geophysical logs of drill holes Felderhoff Federal 5-1 and 25-1, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, W.J.; Grow, J.A.; Keller, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Two wildcat oil and gas exploration holes drilled in 1991 on the northern edge of the Amargosa Desert penetrated Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks, alluvium, and basalt, possible Tertiary volcanic or volcaniclastic rocks, and Tertiary (?) and Paleozoic carbonate rocks. The easternmost of the two holes, Felderhoff-Federal 5-1, encountered about 200 feet of alluvium, underlain by 305 feet of basalt breccia and basalt, about 345 feet of probable Tertiary tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and 616 feet of dense limestone and dolomite of uncertain age. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated 240 feet of alluvium and marl (?), and 250 feet of basalt breccia (?) and basalt, 270 feet of tuff (?) and/or tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, 360 feet of slide blocks (?) and large boulders of Paleozoic carbonate rocks, and 2,800 feet of Paleozoic limestone and dolomite. The two drill holes are located within a northerly trending fault zone defined largely by geophysical data; this fault zone lies along the east side of a major rift containing many small basalt eruptive centers and, farther north, several caldera complexes. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated an inverted paleozoic rock sequence; drill hole 5-1 encountered two large cavities 24-inches wide or more in dense carbonate rock of uncertain, but probable Paleozoic age. These openings may be tectonic and controlled by a regional system of northeast-striking faults

  4. Inhibition of CLIC4 enhances autophagy and triggers mitochondrial and ER stress-induced apoptosis in human glioma U251 cells under starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiateng Zhong

    Full Text Available CLIC4/mtCLIC, a chloride intracellular channel protein, localizes to mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, nucleus and cytoplasm, and participates in the apoptotic response to stress. Apoptosis and autophagy, the main types of the programmed cell death, seem interconnected under certain stress conditions. However, the role of CLIC4 in autophagy regulation has yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate upregulation and nuclear translocation of the CLIC4 protein following starvation in U251 cells. CLIC4 siRNA transfection enhanced autophagy with increased LC3-II protein and puncta accumulation in U251 cells under starvation conditions. In that condition, the interaction of the 14-3-3 epsilon isoform with CLIC4 was abolished and resulted in Beclin 1 overactivation, which further activated autophagy. Moreover, inhibiting the expression of CLIC4 triggered both mitochondrial apoptosis involved in Bax/Bcl-2 and cytochrome c release under starvation and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis with CHOP and caspase-4 upregulation. These results demonstrate that CLIC4 nuclear translocation is an integral part of the cellular response to starvation. Inhibiting the expression of CLIC4 enhances autophagy and contributes to mitochondrial and ER stress-induced apoptosis under starvation.

  5. Durable protection of rhesus macaques immunized with a replicating adenovirus-SIV multigene prime/protein boost vaccine regimen against a second SIVmac251 rectal challenge: role of SIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkevitch, Nina V; Patterson, L Jean; Aldrich, M Kristine; Wu, Yichen; Venzon, David; Florese, Ruth H; Kalyanaraman, V S; Pal, Ranajit; Lee, Eun Mi; Zhao, Jun; Cristillo, Anthony; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2006-09-15

    Previously, priming with replication-competent adenovirus-SIV multigenic vaccines and boosting with envelope subunits strongly protected 39% of rhesus macaques against rectal SIV(mac251) challenge. To evaluate protection durability, eleven of the protected and two SIV-infected unimmunized macaques that controlled viremia were re-challenged rectally with SIV(mac251). Strong protection was observed in 8/11 vaccinees, including two exhibiting protected macaques. Durable protection was associated with significantly increased SIV-specific ELISPOT responses and lymphoproliferative responses to p27 at re-challenge. After CD8 depletion, 2 of 8 re-challenged, protected vaccinees maintained protection against re-challenge.

  6. Prevention of drug priming- and cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviors by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Yoko; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki

    2016-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a methamphetamine (METH) derivative, exhibits METH-like actions at monoamine transporters and positive reinforcing effects in rodents and primates. The purposes of the present study were to determine whether cross-reinstatement would be observed between MDMA and METH and if the cannabinoid receptor, a receptor known to play critical roles in the brain reward system, could modulate MDMA craving. Rats were trained to press a lever for intravenous MDMA (0.3mg/infusion) or METH (0.02mg/infusion) infusions under a fixed ratio 1 schedule paired with drug-associated cues (light and tone). Following drug self-administration acquisition training, rats underwent extinction training (an infusion of saline). Reinstatement tests were performed once the extinction criteria were achieved. In MDMA-trained rats, the MDMA-priming injection (3.2mg/kg, i.p.) or re-exposure to MDMA-associated cues reinstated MDMA-seeking behavior. Additionally, a priming injection of METH (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) also reinstated MDMA-seeking behavior. In contrast, none of the MDMA doses reinstated METH-seeking behavior in the METH-trained rats. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 markedly attenuated the MDMA-seeking behaviors induced by MDMA-priming injection or re-exposure to MDMA-associated cues in a dose-dependent manner. These findings show that MDMA has obvious addictive potential for reinstating drug-seeking behavior and that METH can be an effective stimulus for reinstating MDMA-seeking behaviors. Furthermore, based on the attenuating effect of AM251 in the reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviors, drugs that suppress CB1 receptors may be used in treatment of MDMA dependence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor ligands WIN 55,212-2 and AM 251 alter anxiety-like behaviors of marmoset monkeys in an open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagni, Priscila; Barros, Marilia

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1r) are an important modulatory site for emotional behavior. However, little is known on the effects of CB1r ligands on emotionality aspects of primates, even with their highly similar behavioral response and receptor density/distribution as humans. Thus, we analyzed the effects of the CB1r agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 1mg/kg) and the antagonist AM 251 (AM; 2mg/kg), systemically administered prior to a single brief (15 min) exposure to a novel open-field (OF) environment, on the behavior of individually tested adult black tufted-ear marmosets. Both WIN- and AM-treated subjects, compared to vehicle controls, had significantly lower rates of long (contact) calls and exploration, while higher levels of vigilance-related behaviors (scan/glance); these are indicators of anxiolysis in this setup. Changes in locomotion were not detected. However, in the vehicle and AM-groups, sojourn in the peripheral zone of the OF was significantly higher than in its central region. WIN-treated marmosets spent an equivalent amount of time in both zones. Therefore, activation or blockade CB1r function prior to a short and individual exposure to an unfamiliar environment exerted a significant and complex influence on different behavioral indicators of anxiety in these monkeys (i.e., a partially overlapping anxiolytic-like profile). AM 251, however, has no anxiolytic effect when the time spent in the center of the OF is considered. This is a major difference when compared to the WIN-treated group. Data were compared to the response profile reported in other pre-clinical (rodent) and clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MiR-18a regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cell by targeting neogenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yichen, E-mail: jeff200064017@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang, Ping, E-mail: pingwang8000@163.com [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zhao, Wei, E-mail: 15669746@qq.com [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Yao, Yilong, E-mail: yaoyilong_322@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Xiaobai, E-mail: paganizonda1991@qq.com [The 96th Class, 7-year Program, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: majun_724@163.com [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Xue, Yixue, E-mail: xueyixue888@163.com [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Yunhui, E-mail: liuyh@sj-hospital.org [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2014-05-15

    MiR-17-92 cluster has recently been reported as an oncogene in some tumors. However, the association of miR-18a, an important member of this cluster, with glioblastoma remains unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the expression of miR-18a in glioblastoma and its role in biological behavior of U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that miR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines compared with that in human brain tissues and primary normal human astrocytes, and the expression levels were increased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a by dual-luciferase reporter assays. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that its expression levels were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Inhibition of miR-18a expression was established by transfecting exogenous miR-18a inhibitor into U87 and U251 cells, and its effects on the biological behavior of glioblastoma cells were studied using CCK-8 assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry. Inhibition of miR-18a expression in U87 and U251 cells significantly up-regulated neogenin, and dramatically suppressed the abilities of cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cellular apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that miR-18a may regulate biological behavior of human glioblastoma cells by targeting neogenin, and miR-18a can serve as a potential target in the treatment of glioblastoma. - Highlights: • MiR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines. • Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a. • Neogenin expressions were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. • Inhibition of miR-18a suppressed biological behavior of glioma cells by up-regulating neogenin.

  9. MiR-18a regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cell by targeting neogenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yichen; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Yilong; Liu, Xiaobai; Ma, Jun; Xue, Yixue; Liu, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    MiR-17-92 cluster has recently been reported as an oncogene in some tumors. However, the association of miR-18a, an important member of this cluster, with glioblastoma remains unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the expression of miR-18a in glioblastoma and its role in biological behavior of U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that miR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines compared with that in human brain tissues and primary normal human astrocytes, and the expression levels were increased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a by dual-luciferase reporter assays. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that its expression levels were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Inhibition of miR-18a expression was established by transfecting exogenous miR-18a inhibitor into U87 and U251 cells, and its effects on the biological behavior of glioblastoma cells were studied using CCK-8 assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry. Inhibition of miR-18a expression in U87 and U251 cells significantly up-regulated neogenin, and dramatically suppressed the abilities of cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cellular apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that miR-18a may regulate biological behavior of human glioblastoma cells by targeting neogenin, and miR-18a can serve as a potential target in the treatment of glioblastoma. - Highlights: • MiR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines. • Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a. • Neogenin expressions were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. • Inhibition of miR-18a suppressed biological behavior of glioma cells by up-regulating neogenin

  10. Heavy-ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  11. Antibodies with High Avidity to the gp120 Envelope Protein in Protection from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251 Acquisition in an Immunization Regimen That Mimics the RV-144 Thai Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegu, Poonam; Vaccari, Monica; Gordon, Shari; Keele, Brandon F.; Doster, Melvin; Guan, Yongjun; Ferrari, Guido; Pal, Ranajit; Ferrari, Maria Grazia; Whitney, Stephen; Hudacik, Lauren; Billings, Erik; Rao, Mangala; Montefiori, David; Tomaras, Georgia; Alam, S. Munir; Fenizia, Claudio; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Stablein, Donald; Tartaglia, Jim; Michael, Nelson; Kim, Jerome; Venzon, David

    2013-01-01

    The recombinant canarypox vector, ALVAC-HIV, together with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 envelope glycoprotein, has protected 31.2% of Thai individuals from HIV acquisition in the RV144 HIV vaccine trial. This outcome was unexpected, given the limited ability of the vaccine components to induce CD8+ T-cell responses or broadly neutralizing antibodies. We vaccinated macaques with an immunization regimen intended to mimic the RV144 trial and exposed them intrarectally to a dose of the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251 that transmits few virus variants, similar to HIV transmission to humans. Vaccination induced anti-envelope antibodies in all vaccinees and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. Three of the 11 macaques vaccinated with ALVAC-SIV/gp120 were protected from SIVmac251 acquisition, but the result was not significant. The remaining vaccinees were infected and progressed to disease. The magnitudes of vaccine-induced SIVmac251-specific T-cell responses and binding antibodies were not significantly different between protected and infected animals. However, sera from protected animals had higher avidity antibodies to gp120, recognized the variable envelope regions V1/V2, and reduced SIVmac251 infectivity in cells that express high levels of α4β7 integrins, suggesting a functional role of antibodies to V2. The current results emphasize the utility of determining the titer of repeated mucosal challenge in the preclinical evaluation of HIV vaccines. PMID:23175374

  12. Antibodies with high avidity to the gp120 envelope protein in protection from simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac251) acquisition in an immunization regimen that mimics the RV-144 Thai trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegu, Poonam; Vaccari, Monica; Gordon, Shari; Keele, Brandon F; Doster, Melvin; Guan, Yongjun; Ferrari, Guido; Pal, Ranajit; Ferrari, Maria Grazia; Whitney, Stephen; Hudacik, Lauren; Billings, Erik; Rao, Mangala; Montefiori, David; Tomaras, Georgia; Alam, S Munir; Fenizia, Claudio; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Stablein, Donald; Tartaglia, Jim; Michael, Nelson; Kim, Jerome; Venzon, David; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2013-02-01

    The recombinant canarypox vector, ALVAC-HIV, together with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 envelope glycoprotein, has protected 31.2% of Thai individuals from HIV acquisition in the RV144 HIV vaccine trial. This outcome was unexpected, given the limited ability of the vaccine components to induce CD8(+) T-cell responses or broadly neutralizing antibodies. We vaccinated macaques with an immunization regimen intended to mimic the RV144 trial and exposed them intrarectally to a dose of the simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac251) that transmits few virus variants, similar to HIV transmission to humans. Vaccination induced anti-envelope antibodies in all vaccinees and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses. Three of the 11 macaques vaccinated with ALVAC-SIV/gp120 were protected from SIV(mac251) acquisition, but the result was not significant. The remaining vaccinees were infected and progressed to disease. The magnitudes of vaccine-induced SIV(mac251)-specific T-cell responses and binding antibodies were not significantly different between protected and infected animals. However, sera from protected animals had higher avidity antibodies to gp120, recognized the variable envelope regions V1/V2, and reduced SIV(mac251) infectivity in cells that express high levels of α(4)β(7) integrins, suggesting a functional role of antibodies to V2. The current results emphasize the utility of determining the titer of repeated mucosal challenge in the preclinical evaluation of HIV vaccines.

  13. Replication and functional genomic analyses of the breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q25.1 generalize its importance in women of chinese, Japanese, and European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiuyin; Wen, Wanqing; Qu, Shimian; Li, Guoliang; Egan, Kathleen M; Chen, Kexin; Deming, Sandra L; Shen, Hongbing; Shen, Chen-Yang; Gammon, Marilie D; Blot, William J; Matsuo, Keitaro; Haiman, Christopher A; Khoo, Ui Soon; Iwasaki, Motoki; Santella, Regina M; Zhang, Lina; Fair, Alecia Malin; Hu, Zhibin; Wu, Pei-Ei; Signorello, Lisa B; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Tajima, Kazuo; Henderson, Brian E; Chan, Kelvin Y K; Kasuga, Yoshio; Newcomb, Polly A; Zheng, Hong; Cui, Yong; Wang, Furu; Shieh, Ya-Lan; Iwata, Hiroji; Le Marchand, Loic; Chan, Sum Yin; Shrubsole, Martha J; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Long, Jirong; Li, Chun; Shi, Jiajun; Huang, Bo; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2011-02-15

    We evaluated the generalizability of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2046210 (A/G allele), associated with breast cancer risk that was initially identified at 6q25.1 in a genome-wide association study conducted among Chinese women. In a pooled analysis of more than 31,000 women of East-Asian, European, and African ancestry, we found a positive association for rs2046210 and breast cancer risk in Chinese women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.30 (1.22-1.38) and 1.64 (1.50-1.80) for the AG and AA genotypes, respectively, P for trend = 1.54 × 10⁻³⁰], Japanese women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.31 (1.13-1.52) and 1.37 (1.06-1.76), P for trend = 2.51 × 10⁻⁴], and European-ancestry American women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.07 (0.99-1.16) and 1.18 (1.04-1.34), P for trend = 0.0069]. No association with this SNP, however, was observed in African American women [ORs (95% CI) = 0.81 (0.63-1.06) and 0.85 (0.65-1.11) for the AG and AA genotypes, respectively, P for trend = 0.4027]. In vitro functional genomic studies identified a putative functional variant, rs6913578. This SNP is 1,440 bp downstream of rs2046210 and is in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2046210 in Chinese (r(2) = 0.91) and European-ancestry (r² = 0.83) populations, but not in Africans (r² = 0.57). SNP rs6913578 was found to be associated with breast cancer risk in Chinese and European-ancestry American women. After adjusting for rs2046210, the association of rs6913578 with breast cancer risk in African Americans approached borderline significance. Results from this large consortium study confirmed the association of rs2046210 with breast cancer risk among women of Chinese, Japanese, and European ancestry. This association may be explained in part by a putatively functional variant (rs6913578) identified in the region. ©2011 AACR.

  14. Organelle targeting: third level of drug targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhrani NM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Niraj M Sakhrani, Harish PadhDepartment of Cell and Molecular Biology, BV Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development (PERD Centre, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: Drug discovery and drug delivery are two main aspects for treatment of a variety of disorders. However, the real bottleneck associated with systemic drug administration is the lack of target-specific affinity toward a pathological site, resulting in systemic toxicity and innumerable other side effects as well as higher dosage requirement for efficacy. An attractive strategy to increase the therapeutic index of a drug is to specifically deliver the therapeutic molecule in its active form, not only into target tissue, nor even to target cells, but more importantly, into the targeted organelle, ie, to its intracellular therapeutic active site. This would ensure improved efficacy and minimize toxicity. Cancer chemotherapy today faces the major challenge of delivering chemotherapeutic drugs exclusively to tumor cells, while sparing normal proliferating cells. Nanoparticles play a crucial role by acting as a vehicle for delivery of drugs to target sites inside tumor cells. In this review, we spotlight active and passive targeting, followed by discussion of the importance of targeting to specific cell organelles and the potential role of cell-penetrating peptides. Finally, the discussion will address the strategies for drug/DNA targeting to lysosomes, mitochondria, nuclei and Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum.Keywords: intracellular drug delivery, cancer chemotherapy, therapeutic index, cell penetrating peptides

  15. Optical simulations for the S3 project - Super separator spectrometer - gamma-electron coincidence spectroscopy of a transfermium nucleus: the 251Md101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechery, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    In analogy with the atomic closed shells giving rise to the stability and high ionisation energies of noble gases, nuclear physics also has its magic numbers of protons and neutrons which enhance nuclear structure stability. Knowledge of the structure of doubly-magic nuclei, both proton and neutron numbers, is crucial to parameterize theoretical models. The discovery of the next and ultimate magic numbers will provide a strong constraint on the many predictions. These two numbers are like the centre coordinates of an area of enhanced stability of the nuclear chart, well known as 'island of stability'. These superheavy nuclei only exist due to pure quantum shell effects. My thesis work deals with two distinct, but complementary, aspects of fundamental physics with the common goal of studying these extreme mass nuclei structure. The first part corresponds to the development of a next generation instrument for nuclear physics to allow synthesis and spectroscopy studies of superheavy nuclei: the Super Separator Spectrometer S 3 . This project will be installed at SPIRAL2 (GANIL) and has been approved by the French Research National Agency (ANR) within the EQUIPEX framework. It has been designed to take advantage of the high intensity heavy ion beam from the LINAC, giving access to a wide range of physical programs. The second part corresponds to the preparation, realisation and analysis of an experiment on 251-Mendelevium in which the very first prompt gamma-electron coincidence spectroscopy was performed for a transfermium nuclei. (author) [fr

  16. Low dose rectal inoculation of rhesus macaques by SIV SME660 or SIV MAC251 recapitulates human mucosal infection by HIV-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koraber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hraber, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharya, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we developed a novel approach to the identification of transmitted or early founder HIV -1 genomes in acutely infected humans based on single genome amplification and sequencing. Here we tested this approach in 18 acutely infected Indian rhesus macaques to determine the molecular features of SIV transmission. Animals were inoculated intrarectally (IR) or intravenously (IV) with stocks of SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660 that exhibited sequence diversity typical of early-chronic HIV -1 infection. 987 full-length SIV env sequences (median of 48 per animal) were determined from plasma virion RNA one to five weeks after infection. IR inoculation was followed by productive infection by one or few viruses (median 1; range 1-5) that diversified randomly with near star-like phylogeny and a Poisson distribution of mutations. Consensus viral sequences from ramp-up and peak viremia were identical to viruses found in the inocula or differed from them by only one or few nuc1eotides, providing direct evidence that early plasma viral sequences coalesce to transmitted/founder virus( es). IV infection was approximately 10,000-fold more efficient than IR infection, and viruses transmitted by either route represented the full genetic spectra of the inocula. These findings identify key similarities in mucosal transmission and early diversification between SIV and HIV -1.

  17. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e hematológicos de 251 cães portadores de mórula de Ehrlichia spp. naturalmente infectados Epidemiological, clinical, and hematological aspects of 251 dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia spp. morulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo dos aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos, dados de exame físico e alterações hematológicas da erliquiose em 251 cães naturalmente infectados por Ehrlichia spp. Dos 4407 casos atendidos em hospital veterinário no período de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2003, verificou-se que 251 cães eram portadores de mórula de Ehrlichia spp. em leucócitos de sangue periférico. Destes, 48 foram eliminados das avaliações por apresentarem patologias concomitantes. Nos 203 cães restantes, verificou-se que houve maior ocorrência em fêmeas (61,1% e que a doença manteve-se constante durante todo o período avaliado. Observou-se que 38% encontravam-se na faixa etária entre um e 23 meses e 58,6% eram de raça definida. As principais alterações clínicas observadas foram apatia, anorexia/hiporexia, vômito, secreção oculonasal e esplenomegalia. Cento e cinco cães apresentaram temperatura retal entre 38 e 39,5°C. As alterações observadas com maior frequência no hemograma foram anemia, predominando o tipo normocítica normocrômica (58,2%; desvio nuclear de neutrófilos para a esquerda (67% e eosinopenia (58,1%.A study of epidemiological and clinical aspects, alterations of physical exams, and hematological changes of canine ehrlichiosis was performed. A retrospective study was performed in 4,407 dogs referred to a Veterinary Hospital from January 2002 to December 2003. Of all cases, 251 dogs showed Ehrlichia spp. morulae. Among these, 48 were excluded from the study due to other co-infection by other pathologies. In the other 203 evaluated dogs, females (61.1% were more infected than males. The dogs aged from one to 23 months (68.6% and 58.6% were definite breed. Emesis, apathy, anorexia/hypoxeria, spleenomegaly, and nasal discharge were the most common signs presented. Rectal temperature was 38 - 39.5ÚC in 105 dogs. The most usual changes seen during the hematological tests were normochromic and

  18. Savannah River Plant californium-252 Shuffler electronics manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, S.C.; Crane, T.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Gallegos, E.A.; Garcia, D.L.

    1980-03-01

    Detailed information is presented in this report, an electronics manual for the Savannah River Plant Shuffler, about the electronics associated with the various control and data acquisition functions of the Shuffler subsystems. Circuit diagrams, interconnection information, and details about computer control and programming are included

  19. Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    Potential applications for devices or systems containing 252 Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on 252 Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of 252 Cf devices should increase from 1.5 million dollars in 1975 to 10.8 million dollars in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of 252 Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US

  20. The protective cell petrus for the production of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontag, R.; Berger, R.

    1967-01-01

    The alpha, beta, gamma, neutron cell which is described in the present paper is devoted to the transplutonium element production and study. It is located at the CEN in Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). The 4 feet ordinary concrete shielding made of stacked blocs allows the manipulation of radioactive sources as high as 1000 curies of 1 MeV gamma rays and with a fast neutrons flux of 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -1 . The airtight alpha containment box is equipped with two transfer systems, one consists of a parallelepiped shaped airtight box located in a turntable, the other uses standard cylindrical containers made of polyethylene. The general equipment and the main setting up are also described. (authors) [fr

  1. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg 252 Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17 O. Detection sensitivities of 239 Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  2. Savannah River Plant Californium-252 Shuffler software manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.S.; Crane, T.W.; Eccleston, G.W.

    1979-03-01

    A software manual for operating the Savannah River Plant Shuffler nondestructive assay instrument is presented. The procedures for starting up the instrument, making assays, calibrating, and checking the performance of the hardware units are described. A list of the error messages with an explanation of the circumstances prompting the message and possible corrective measures is given. A summary of the software package is included showing the names and contents of the files and subroutines. The procedure for modifying the software package is outlined

  3. Californium-252 interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtyurin, B.M.; Ivanov, V.N.; Medvedev, V.S.; Galantseva, G.F.; Abdulkadyrov, S.A.; Ivanova, L.F.; Petrovskaya, G.A.; Plichko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A clinical study using 252 Cf sources in brachytherapy of tumors began in the Research Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1973. 252 Cf afterloading cells were utilized by the method of simple afterloading. Dosimetry and radiation protection of medical personnel were developed. To substantiate optimal therapeutic doses of 252 Cf neutrons, a correlation of dose, time, and treatment volume factors with clinical results of 252 Cf interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue for 47 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year was studied. Forty-nine interstitial implants have been performed. Seventeen patients received 252 Cf implants alone (Group I), 17 other patients received 252 Cf implants in combination with external radiation (Group II), and 15 patients were treated with interstitial implants for recurrent or residual tumors (Groups III). Complete regression of carcinoma of the tongue was obtained in 48 patients (98%). Thirteen patients (27%) developed radiation necrosis. The therapeutic dose of neutron radiation from 252 Cf sources in interstitial radiotherapy of primary tongue carcinomas (Group I) was found to be 7 to 9 Gy. Optimal therapeutic neutron dose in combined interstitial and external radiotherapy of primary tumors (Group II) was 5 to 6 Gy with an external radiation dose of 40 Gy. For recurrent and residual tumors (Group III), favorable results were obtained with tumor doses of 6.5 to 7 Gy

  4. Undergraduate experiments using the neutron radiation from californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossel, J.; Golecki, I.

    1976-01-01

    Three experiments designed to demonstrate and measure several properties of the neutron radiation emitted by a 3μg 252 Cf source are described. The experiments constitute a special project carried out by a third-year undergraduate student at the Institute of Physics of the University of Neuchatel. The 252 Cf source is enclosed in a shield which allows a pencil of fast neutrons to pass through a central tube, while reducing the ambient radiation below the tolerance level. The shield consists of layers of borated paraffin wax, iron and cadmium. The first experiment uses an air-alcohol diffusion cloud chamber for the demonstration of tracks of recoil protons produced by the neutrons. Semi-quantitative measurements of track lengths give the correct order of magnitude of the proton energies. In the second experiment a liquid scintillator detector is used to scan the beam profile across the radiation shield enclosing the source. A pulse-shape-discrimination system discriminates between neutrons and gamma photons. The third experiment makes use of the nuclear emulsion technique to study the neutron energy distribution of 252 Cf. Preliminary results are compared with published values. (author)

  5. Deuterium pass through target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alger, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron emitting target is described for use in neutron generating apparatus including a deuteron source and an accelerator vacuum chamber. The target consists of a tritium-containing target layer, a deuteron accumulation layer, and a target support containing passages providing communication between the accumulation layer and portions of the surface of the support exposed to the accelerator vacuum chamber. With this arrangement, deuterons passing through the target layer and implanting in and diffusing through the accumulation layer, diffuse into the communicating passages and are returned to the accelerator vacuum chamber. The invention allows the continuous removal of deuterons from the target in conventional water cooled neutron generating apparatus. Preferably, the target is provided with thin barrier layers to prevent undesirable tritium diffusion out of the target layer, as well as deuteron diffusion into the target layer

  6. A targeted resequencing gene panel for focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Michael S; Myers, Candace T; Carvill, Gemma L; Regan, Brigid M; Damiano, John A; Mullen, Saul A; Newton, Mark R; Nair, Umesh; Gazina, Elena V; Milligan, Carol J; Reid, Christopher A; Petrou, Steven; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Berkovic, Samuel F; Mefford, Heather C

    2016-04-26

    We report development of a targeted resequencing gene panel for focal epilepsy, the most prevalent phenotypic group of the epilepsies. The targeted resequencing gene panel was designed using molecular inversion probe (MIP) capture technology and sequenced using massively parallel Illumina sequencing. We demonstrated proof of principle that mutations can be detected in 4 previously genotyped focal epilepsy cases. We searched for both germline and somatic mutations in 251 patients with unsolved sporadic or familial focal epilepsy and identified 11 novel or very rare missense variants in 5 different genes: CHRNA4, GRIN2B, KCNT1, PCDH19, and SCN1A. Of these, 2 were predicted to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic, explaining ∼0.8% of the cohort, and 8 were of uncertain significance based on available data. We have developed and validated a targeted resequencing panel for focal epilepsies, the most important clinical class of epilepsies, accounting for about 60% of all cases. Our application of MIP technology is an innovative approach that will be advantageous in the clinical setting because it is highly sensitive, efficient, and cost-effective for screening large patient cohorts. Our findings indicate that mutations in known genes likely explain only a small proportion of focal epilepsy cases. This is not surprising given the established clinical and genetic heterogeneity of these disorders and underscores the importance of further gene discovery studies in this complex syndrome. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  8. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  9. Charged particle fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Meeker, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The power, voltage, energy and other requirements of electron and ion beam fusion targets are reviewed. Single shell, multiple shell and magnetically insulated target designs are discussed. Questions of stability are also considered. In particular, it is shown that ion beam targets are stabilized by an energy spread in the ion beam

  10. Liquid helium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  11. Graphite targets at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Rotating polycrystalline and stationary pyrolytic graphite target designs for the LAMPF experimental area are described. Examples of finite element calculations of temperatures and stresses are presented. Some results of a metallographic investigation of irradiated pyrolytic graphite target plates are included, together with a brief description of high temperature bearings for the rotating targets

  12. Metformin and Ara-a Effectively Suppress Brain Cancer by Targeting Cancer Stem/Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek H. Mouhieddine

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gliomas and neuroblastomas pose a great health burden worldwide with a poor and moderate prognosis, respectively. Many studies have tried to find effective treatments for these primary malignant brain tumors. Of interest, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK pathway was found to be associated with tumorigenesis and tumor survival, leading to many studies on AMPK drugs, especially Metformin, and their potential role as anti-cancer treatments. Cancer stem cells (CSCs are a small population of slowly-dividing, treatment-resistant, undifferentiated cancer cells that are being discovered in a multitude of cancers. They are thought to be responsible for replenishing the tumor with highly proliferative cells and increasing the risk of recurrence. Methods: Metformin and 9-β-d-Arabinofuranosyl Adenine (Ara-a were used to study the role of the AMPK pathway in vitro on U251 (glioblastoma and SHSY-5Y (neuroblastoma cell lines.Results: We found that both drugs are able to decrease the survival of U251 and SH-SY5Y cell lines in a 2D as well as a 3D culture model. Metformin and Ara-a significantly decreased the invasive ability of these cancer cell lines. Treatment with these drugs decreased the sphere-forming units (SFU of U251 cells, with Ara-a being more efficient, signifying the extinction of the CSC population. However, if treatment is withdrawn before all SFUs are extinguished, the CSCs regain some of their sphere-forming capabilities in the case of Metformin but not Ara-a treatment. Conclusion: Metformin and Ara-a have proved to be effective in the treatment of glioblastomas and neuroblastomas, in vitro, by targeting their cancer stem/progenitor cell population, which prevents recurrence.

  13. Wake Shield Target Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2003-01-01

    The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed

  14. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  15. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  16. Assessment of the toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile and interleukin-8 -251 polymorphisms in the risk for the development of distal gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado-Garza Hector J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intensity of the inflammation induced by Helicobacter pylori colonization is associated with the development of distal gastric cancer (GC. The host response to H. pylori has been related to genetic polymorphisms that influence both innate and adaptive immune responses. Our aim was to investigate whether the presence of the TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR4 Thr399Ile and IL-8-251 A/T polymorphisms had any influence in the development of distal GC in a Mexican population. Methods We studied 337 patients that were divided in two groups: 78 patients with histologically confirmed distal GC and 259 non-cancer controls. The presence of H. pylori in the control population was defined by positive results of at least two of four diagnostic tests: serology, histology, rapid urease test and culture. Human DNA was purified and genotyped for TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism by pyrosequencing, for TLR4 Thr399Ile by PCR-RFLP and for IL8-251 by the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS-PCR. Results The non-cancer control group was found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the polymorphic loci studied (chi-square H-W = 0.58 for IL8-251, 0.42 for TLR4 Asp299Gly and 0.17 for TLR4 Thr399Ile. The frequencies of mutated alleles (homozygous plus heterozygous were compared between cases and controls. We found no significant difference for TLR4- Asp299Gly [the 7.7% of distal GC patients and 7.7 % non-cancer controls (p = 0.82] and for TLR4 Thr399Ile [the 1.3% of GC patients and the 5% of the control population (p = 0.2]. In contrast, for IL-8-251 A/T, 80.77% of the GC patients and 66.4% in the control group age and gender matched had at least one copy of mutated allele (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.1–4.2 (p = 0.023. Conclusion This study showed that the IL8-251*A allele could be related to the development of distal gastric cancer in this Mexican population.

  17. Nova target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1985-11-01

    The Nova laser, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, provides unique opportunities for target experiments. It has unprecedented energy on target and significant flexibility. The paper presented by John Hunt described the capabilities and the status of Nova. This paper discusses plans for future experiments using Nova, and the present status of target experiments. We plan to perform high-quality physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of Nova. Because this is our goal, we are fielding an extensive array of well-characterized target diagnostics to measure the emissions from the target. The first section of this paper discusses the basic target diagnostics. We are also taking care to quantify the performance of the laser

  18. Targeting MT1-MMP as an ImmunoPET-Based Strategy for Imaging Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G de Lucas

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in the management of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM tumors is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of tumor progression in a noninvasive manner. We have identified Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP as an attractive biomarker for GBM imaging since this protein is actively involved in tumor growth and progression, correlates with tumor grade and is closely associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. Here, we report the development of an immunoPET tracer for effective detection of MT1-MMP in GBM models.An anti-human MT1-MMP monoclonal antibody (mAb, LEM2/15, was conjugated to p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (DFO-NCS for 89Zr labeling. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed in xenograft mice bearing human GBM cells (U251 expressing MT1-MMP and non-expressing breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 as negative control. Two orthotopic brain GBM models, patient-derived neurospheres (TS543 and U251 cells, with different degrees of blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption were also used for PET imaging experiments.89Zr labeling of DFO-LEM2/15 was achieved with high yield (>90% and specific activity (78.5 MBq/mg. Biodistribution experiments indicated that 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed excellent potential as a radiotracer for detection of MT1-MMP positive GBM tumors. PET imaging also indicated a specific and prominent 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 uptake in MT1-MMP+ U251 GBM tumors compared to MT1-MMP- MCF-7 breast tumors. Results obtained in orthotopic brain GBM models revealed a high dependence of a disrupted BBB for tracer penetrance into tumors. 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed much higher accumulation in TS543 tumors with a highly disrupted BBB than in U251 orthotopic model in which the BBB permeability was only partially increased. Histological analysis confirmed the specificity of the immunoconjugate in all GBM models.A new anti MT1-MMP-mAb tracer, 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15, was synthesized efficiently. In vivo validation showed high

  19. Mucosal B Cells Are Associated with Delayed SIV Acquisition in Vaccinated Female but Not Male Rhesus Macaques Following SIVmac251 Rectal Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Tuero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many viral infections, including HIV, exhibit sex-based pathogenic differences. However, few studies have examined vaccine-related sex differences. We compared immunogenicity and protective efficacy of monomeric SIV gp120 with oligomeric SIV gp140 in a pre-clinical rhesus macaque study and explored a subsequent sex bias in vaccine outcome. Each immunization group (16 females, 8 males was primed twice mucosally with replication-competent Ad-recombinants encoding SIVsmH4env/rev, SIV239gag and SIV239nefΔ1-13 and boosted twice intramuscularly with SIVmac239 monomeric gp120 or oligomeric gp140 in MF59 adjuvant. Controls (7 females, 5 males received empty Ad and MF59. Up to 9 weekly intrarectal challenges with low-dose SIVmac251 were administered until macaques became infected. We assessed vaccine-induced binding, neutralizing, and non-neutralizing antibodies, Env-specific memory B cells and plasmablasts/plasma cells (PB/PC in bone marrow and rectal tissue, mucosal Env-specific antibodies, and Env-specific T-cells. Post-challenge, only one macaque (gp140-immunized remained uninfected. However, SIV acquisition was significantly delayed in vaccinated females but not males, correlated with Env-specific IgA in rectal secretions, rectal Env-specific memory B cells, and PC in rectal tissue. These results extend previous correlations of mucosal antibodies and memory B cells with protective efficacy. The gp140 regimen was more immunogenic, stimulating elevated gp140 and cyclic V2 binding antibodies, ADCC and ADCP activities, bone marrow Env-specific PB/PC, and rectal gp140-specific IgG. However, immunization with gp120, the form of envelope immunogen used in RV144, the only vaccine trial to show some efficacy, provided more significant acquisition delay. Further over 40 weeks of follow-up, no gp120 immunized macaques met euthanasia criteria in contrast to 7 gp140-immunized and 2 control animals. Although males had higher binding antibodies than females, ADCC

  20. Multiple independent loci at chromosome 15q25.1 affect smoking quantity: a meta-analysis and comparison with lung cancer and COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Saccone

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, genetic association findings for nicotine dependence, smoking behavior, and smoking-related diseases converged to implicate the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which includes the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit genes. In particular, association with the nonsynonymous CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 and correlates has been replicated in several independent studies. Extensive genotyping of this region has suggested additional statistically distinct signals for nicotine dependence, tagged by rs578776 and rs588765. One goal of the Consortium for the Genetic Analysis of Smoking Phenotypes (CGASP is to elucidate the associations among these markers and dichotomous smoking quantity (heavy versus light smoking, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We performed a meta-analysis across 34 datasets of European-ancestry subjects, including 38,617 smokers who were assessed for cigarettes-per-day, 7,700 lung cancer cases and 5,914 lung-cancer-free controls (all smokers, and 2,614 COPD cases and 3,568 COPD-free controls (all smokers. We demonstrate statistically independent associations of rs16969968 and rs588765 with smoking (mutually adjusted p-values<10(-35 and <10(-8 respectively. Because the risk alleles at these loci are negatively correlated, their association with smoking is stronger in the joint model than when each SNP is analyzed alone. Rs578776 also demonstrates association with smoking after adjustment for rs16969968 (p<10(-6. In models adjusting for cigarettes-per-day, we confirm the association between rs16969968 and lung cancer (p<10(-20 and observe a nominally significant association with COPD (p = 0.01; the other loci are not significantly associated with either lung cancer or COPD after adjusting for rs16969968. This study provides strong evidence that multiple statistically distinct loci in this region affect smoking behavior. This study is also the first report of association between rs588765

  1. ESR1 Is Co-Expressed with Closely Adjacent Uncharacterised Genes Spanning a Breast Cancer Susceptibility Locus at 6q25.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbier, Anita K.; Anderson, Helen; Ghazoui, Zara; Lopez-Knowles, Elena; Pancholi, Sunil; Ribas, Ricardo; Drury, Suzanne; Sidhu, Kally; Leary, Alexandra; Martin, Lesley-Ann; Dowsett, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 80% of human breast carcinomas present as oestrogen receptor α-positive (ER+ve) disease, and ER status is a critical factor in treatment decision-making. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the region immediately upstream of the ER gene (ESR1) on 6q25.1 have been associated with breast cancer risk. Our investigation of factors associated with the level of expression of ESR1 in ER+ve tumours has revealed unexpected associations between genes in this region and ESR1 expression that are important to consider in studies of the genetic causes of breast cancer risk. RNA from tumour biopsies taken from 104 postmenopausal women before and after 2 weeks treatment with an aromatase (oestrogen synthase) inhibitor was analyzed on Illumina 48K microarrays. Multiple-testing corrected Spearman correlation revealed that three previously uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs) located immediately upstream of ESR1, C6ORF96, C6ORF97, and C6ORF211 were highly correlated with ESR1 (Rs = 0.67, 0.64, and 0.55 respectively, FDRaccount for the correlations. The correlations were maintained in cultured cells. An ERα antagonist did not affect the ORFs' expression or their correlation with ESR1, suggesting their transcriptional co-activation is not directly mediated by ERα. siRNA inhibition of C6ORF211 suppressed proliferation in MCF7 cells, and C6ORF211 positively correlated with a proliferation metagene in tumours. In contrast, C6ORF97 expression correlated negatively with the metagene and predicted for improved disease-free survival in a tamoxifen-treated published dataset, independently of ESR1. Our observations suggest that some of the biological effects previously attributed to ER could be mediated and/or modified by these co-expressed genes. The co-expression and function of these genes may be important influences on the recently identified relationship between SNPs in this region and breast cancer risk. PMID:21552322

  2. ESR1 is co-expressed with closely adjacent uncharacterised genes spanning a breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q25.1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Dunbier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 80% of human breast carcinomas present as oestrogen receptor α-positive (ER+ve disease, and ER status is a critical factor in treatment decision-making. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the region immediately upstream of the ER gene (ESR1 on 6q25.1 have been associated with breast cancer risk. Our investigation of factors associated with the level of expression of ESR1 in ER+ve tumours has revealed unexpected associations between genes in this region and ESR1 expression that are important to consider in studies of the genetic causes of breast cancer risk. RNA from tumour biopsies taken from 104 postmenopausal women before and after 2 weeks treatment with an aromatase (oestrogen synthase inhibitor was analyzed on Illumina 48K microarrays. Multiple-testing corrected Spearman correlation revealed that three previously uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs located immediately upstream of ESR1, C6ORF96, C6ORF97, and C6ORF211 were highly correlated with ESR1 (Rs =  0.67, 0.64, and 0.55 respectively, FDR<1 × 10(-7. Publicly available datasets confirmed this relationship in other groups of ER+ve tumours. DNA copy number changes did not account for the correlations. The correlations were maintained in cultured cells. An ERα antagonist did not affect the ORFs' expression or their correlation with ESR1, suggesting their transcriptional co-activation is not directly mediated by ERα. siRNA inhibition of C6ORF211 suppressed proliferation in MCF7 cells, and C6ORF211 positively correlated with a proliferation metagene in tumours. In contrast, C6ORF97 expression correlated negatively with the metagene and predicted for improved disease-free survival in a tamoxifen-treated published dataset, independently of ESR1. Our observations suggest that some of the biological effects previously attributed to ER could be mediated and/or modified by these co-expressed genes. The co-expression and function of these genes may be

  3. Mucosal B Cells Are Associated with Delayed SIV Acquisition in Vaccinated Female but Not Male Rhesus Macaques Following SIVmac251 Rectal Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuero, Iskra; Mohanram, Venkatramanan; Musich, Thomas; Miller, Leia; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Demberg, Thorsten; Venzon, David; Kalisz, Irene; Kalyanaraman, V S; Pal, Ranajit; Ferrari, Maria Grazia; LaBranche, Celia; Montefiori, David C; Rao, Mangala; Vaccari, Monica; Franchini, Genoveffa; Barnett, Susan W; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2015-08-01

    Many viral infections, including HIV, exhibit sex-based pathogenic differences. However, few studies have examined vaccine-related sex differences. We compared immunogenicity and protective efficacy of monomeric SIV gp120 with oligomeric SIV gp140 in a pre-clinical rhesus macaque study and explored a subsequent sex bias in vaccine outcome. Each immunization group (16 females, 8 males) was primed twice mucosally with replication-competent Ad-recombinants encoding SIVsmH4env/rev, SIV239gag and SIV239nefΔ1-13 and boosted twice intramuscularly with SIVmac239 monomeric gp120 or oligomeric gp140 in MF59 adjuvant. Controls (7 females, 5 males) received empty Ad and MF59. Up to 9 weekly intrarectal challenges with low-dose SIVmac251 were administered until macaques became infected. We assessed vaccine-induced binding, neutralizing, and non-neutralizing antibodies, Env-specific memory B cells and plasmablasts/plasma cells (PB/PC) in bone marrow and rectal tissue, mucosal Env-specific antibodies, and Env-specific T-cells. Post-challenge, only one macaque (gp140-immunized) remained uninfected. However, SIV acquisition was significantly delayed in vaccinated females but not males, correlated with Env-specific IgA in rectal secretions, rectal Env-specific memory B cells, and PC in rectal tissue. These results extend previous correlations of mucosal antibodies and memory B cells with protective efficacy. The gp140 regimen was more immunogenic, stimulating elevated gp140 and cyclic V2 binding antibodies, ADCC and ADCP activities, bone marrow Env-specific PB/PC, and rectal gp140-specific IgG. However, immunization with gp120, the form of envelope immunogen used in RV144, the only vaccine trial to show some efficacy, provided more significant acquisition delay. Further over 40 weeks of follow-up, no gp120 immunized macaques met euthanasia criteria in contrast to 7 gp140-immunized and 2 control animals. Although males had higher binding antibodies than females, ADCC and ADCP

  4. Targeting and Persuasive Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Egli, Alain (Autor/in)

    2015-01-01

    Firms face a prisoner's dilemma when advertising in a competitive environment. In a Hotelling framework with persuasive advertisingfirms counteract this prisoner's dilemma with targeting. The firms even solve the prisoner's problem if targeted advertising is effective enough. Advertising turns from wasteful competition into profits. This is in contrast to wasteful competition as argument for regulations. A further result is maximum advertising differentiation: thefirms target their advertisin...

  5. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  6. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  7. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  8. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  9. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  10. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  11. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  12. Target reactor development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.D.; Vigil, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Target-blanket design studies are discussed for an accelerator-breeder concept employing a linear accelerator in conjunction with a modified conventional power reactor to produce both fissile fuel and power. The following problems in target and blanket system design are discussed: radiation damage, heat removal, neutronic design, and economics

  13. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  14. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    target for which a speci c treatment/drug is intended (Fig. 1). eranostics .... Using an anti-CD20 antibody as a delivery device to target the follicular ... systems combine diagnostic imaging (Ga-68-DOTATATE PET/CT) .... Intra-articular injected ...

  15. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  16. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit

  17. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  18. Internal targets for LEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, K.; Gspann, J.; Mohl, D.; Poth, H.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of thin internal targets in conjunction with phase-space cooling at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Topics considered include the merits of internal target operation; the most efficient use of antiprotons and of proton synchrotron (PS) protons, highest center-of-mass (c.m.) energy resolution; highest angular resolution and access to extreme angles; the transparent environment for all reaction products; a windowless source and pure targets; highest luminosity and count rates; access to lowest energies with increasing resolution; internal target thickness and vacuum requirements; required cooling performance; and modes of operation. It is demonstrated that an internal target in conjunction with phase-space cooling has the potential of better performance in terms of the economic use of antiprotons and consequently of PS protons; energy resolution; angular resolution; maximum reaction rate capability (statistical precision); efficient parasitic operation; transparency of the target for reaction products; access to low energies; and the ease of polarized target experiments. It is concluded that all p - experiments which need high statistics and high p - flux, such as studies of rare channels or broad, weak resonance structures, would profit from internal targets

  19. Fusion target design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Most detailed fusion target design is done by numerical simulation using large computers. Although numerical simulation is briefly discussed, this lecture deals primarily with the way in which basic physical arguments, driver technology considerations and economical power production requirements are used to guide and augment the simulations. Physics topics discussed include target energetics, preheat, stability and symmetry. A specific design example is discussed

  20. Electron beam fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.; Sweeney, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    R The behavior of the DT filled gold shells when irradiated by a variety of pulse shapes was studied. In these pulses the power (and beam current) was varied, but the voltage was kept constant at 1 MeV. In general the performance of the target, for a given peak power, was not significantly affected by the pulse shape. Pulses with rise times of up to half the implosion time do not significantly degrade the target performance. The use of the ''optimal pulse'' of laser fusion with a fixed peak power does not appear to improve the performance of these targets. The main function of the ''optimal pulse'' is to produce a large rho r of the target during the thermonuclear burn. In e-beam targets a total rho r of 5--10 g/cm 2 can be obtained without pulse shaping; the problem here is one of achieving high enough temperatures to ignite the DT. (U.S.)

  1. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  2. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  3. Shiva target irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manes, K.R.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Coleman, L.W.; Storm, E.K.; Glaze, J.A.; Hurley, C.A.; Rienecker, F.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    The first laser/plasma studies performed with the Shiva laser system will be two sided irradiations extending the data obtained by other LLL lasers to higher powers. The twenty approximately 1 TW laser pulses will reach the target simultaneously from above and below in nested pentagonal clusters. The upper and lower clusters of ten beams each are radially polarized so that they strike the target in p-polarization and maximize absorption. This geometry introduces laser system isolation problems which will be briefly discussed. The layout and types of target diagnostics will be described and a brief status report on the facility given

  4. STANFORD: Internal targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-05-15

    Of burgeoning interest to many nuclear and particle physicists is a storage ring technique for fixed target experiments. It hinges on the use of gas-jet targets, shooting a narrow stream of atoms through a circulating beam of electrons or protons. Pioneered at CERN and the Soviet Novosibirsk Laboratory, more such 'internal targets' are being built or contemplated for storage rings in Europe, the Soviet Union, and the United States. From 9-12 January, physicists from around the world met at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to discuss prospects and problems in this expanding field.

  5. TARGET Research Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    TARGET researchers use various sequencing and array-based methods to examine the genomes, transcriptomes, and for some diseases epigenomes of select childhood cancers. This “multi-omic” approach generates a comprehensive profile of molecular alterations for each cancer type. Alterations are changes in DNA or RNA, such as rearrangements in chromosome structure or variations in gene expression, respectively. Through computational analyses and assays to validate biological function, TARGET researchers predict which alterations disrupt the function of a gene or pathway and promote cancer growth, progression, and/or survival. Researchers identify candidate therapeutic targets and/or prognostic markers from the cancer-associated alterations.

  6. A t(3;9)(q25.1;q34.3) translocation leading to OLFM1 fusion transcripts in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, OCD and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, Linea; Jensen, Lars Riff

    2015-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a strong genetic etiology; however, finding of candidate genes is hampered by its genetic heterogeneity and the influence of non-genetic factors on disease pathogenesis. We report a case of a male patient with GTS, obsessive...... compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder, as well as other comorbidities, and a translocation t(3;9)(q25.1;q34.3) inherited from a mother with tics. Mate-pair sequencing revealed that the translocation breakpoints truncated the olfactomedin 1 (OLFM1) gene and two uncharacterized...

  7. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogeneous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous 1-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  8. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Lackner-Russo, D.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Hoffmann, I.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogenous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous l-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  9. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  10. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  11. Targeted Cancer Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are sometimes referred to as the product of "rational" drug design.) One approach to identify potential targets ... molecules that stimulate new blood vessel growth. Immunotherapies trigger the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Some ...

  12. Targeting radiation to tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Greater Glasgow Health Board, Glasgow

    1994-01-01

    Biologically targeted radiotherapy entails the preferential delivery of radiation to solid tumours or individual tumour cells by means of tumour-seeking delivery vehicles to which radionuclides can be conjugated. Monoclonal antibodies have attracted attention for some years as potentially selective targeting agents, but advances in tumour and molecular biology are now providing a much wider choice of molecular species. General radiobiological principles may be derived which are applicable to most forms of targeted radiotherapy. These principles provide guidelines for the appropriate choice of radionuclide in specific treatment situations and its optimal combination with other treatment modalities. In future, the availability of gene targeting agents will focus attention on the use of Auger electron emitters whose high potency and short range selectivity makes them attractive choices for specific killing of cancer cells whose genetic peculiarities are known. (author)

  13. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Galeotti; Jose Luis Moraga

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit random advertising --to induce an unequal distribution of information in the market-- and random pricing --to obtain profits from badly informed buyers--. We characterize a positive profits equilibrium...

  14. Targets and teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy C.; Lange, Karin S.; Hoey, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    differences in mean HbA1c between centers ranging from 7.3±0.8% (53mmol/mol±8.7) to 8.9±1.1% (74mmol/mol±12.0). Centers with lower mean HbA1c had (1) parents who reported lower targets for their children, (2) health-care professionals that reported lower targets and more frequent testing, and (3) teams...

  15. Targets and special materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Bouriant, M.; Richaud, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The target preparation group supplied a large number of samples to nuclear physicists for experiments using SARA and also other accelerators throughout the world. Particular preparation and projects include: 208 Pb, 116 Cd, 6 LiF, 123 Sb, In and Ta targets, strippers for SARA and GANIL, optical silicone disks for POLDER and GRAAL experiments, active participations for the AMS project and finally filament preparation for the GENEPI project. (authors)

  16. The ISIS target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carne, A.; Broome, T.A.; Hogston, J.R.; Holding, M.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation discusses the two target failures that have occurred, gives the understanding of the causes and indicates the steps being taken to alleviate the problems. At the outset of the design it was understood that the target would have a finite lifetime, due to radiation damage effects, exacerbated by mechanical damage due to thermal cycling and fatigue. Estimates of target lifetime at full intensity are about 2 years for radiation damage swelling and about 10E4 gross thermal excursions. The latter number is the one which gives uncertainty in defining the life of the target, since it is dependent on the reliability of the accelerator and quality of the proton beam. The commissioning of an accelerator system and bringing it up to high beam intensities have their own special problems. There must be protection of components against uncontrolled beam loss, which produces thermal damage, prompt radiation and induced activity. Fast beam trips for beam loss protection, or equipment failures, result in quenches from high temperature in the target which get bigger with increasing beam intensity. But the target itself is a difficult device to make, taking about 12 months to manufacture. Further, changing one is a complex and time consuming task, not without its hazards. There is thus something of a balancing act to bring the accelerator towards specification before the target fails due to thermal cycling fatigue. In the early days of ISIS beam loss protection was the dominant consideration and the target was regarded somewhat as a sacrificial lamb to the goddess of machine reliability. 2 refs., 6 figs

  17. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  18. Laser targets: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The laser target design group was engaged in three main tasks in 1984: (1) analyzing Novette implosion and hohlraum-scaling data, (2) planning for the first experiments on Nova, and (3) designing laboratory x-ray laser targets and experiments. The Novette implosion and hohlraum scaling data are mostly classified and are therefore not discussed in detail here. The authors achieved average final/initial pusher pr ratios of about 50, some 3 times higher than the value achieved in the best Shiva shots. These pr values imply a fuel compression to 100 times liquid density, although this figure and other aspects of the experiments are subject to further interpretation because of detailed questions of target symmetry and stability. Their main long-term goal for Nova is to produce a so-called hydrodynamically equivalent target (HET) - that is, a target whose hydrodynamic behavior (implosion velocity, convergence ratio, symmetry and stability requirements, etc.) is very much like that of a high-gain target, but one that is scaled down in size to match the energy available from Nova and is too small to achieve enough hot-spot pr to ignite the cold, near-Fermi-degenerate fuel around it. Their goal for Nova's first year is to do experiments that will teach them how to achieve the symmetry and stability conditions required by an HET

  19. Argus target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F. Jr.; Glaros, S.S.; Kobierecki, M.

    1975-01-01

    A target chamber for application in the laser fusion program must satisfy some very basic requirements. (1) Provide a vacuum on the order of 10 -6 torr. (2) Support a microscopically small target in a fixed point in space and verify its location within 5 micrometers. (3) Contain an adjustable beam focusing system capable of delivering a number of laser beams onto the target simultaneously, both in time and space. (4) Provide access for diagnostics to evaluate the results of target irradiation. (5) Have flexibility to allow changes in targets, focusing optics and number of beams. The ARGUS laser which is now under construction at LLL will have a target chamber which meets these requirements in a simple economic manner. The chamber and auxiliary equipment are described, with reference to two double beam focusing systems; namely, lenses and ellipsoidal mirrors. Provision is made for future operation with four beams, using ellipsoidal mirrors for two-sided illumination and lens systems for tetragonal and tetrahedral irradiation

  20. Increased radiosensitivity and radiothermosensitivity of human pancreatic MIA PaCa-2 and U251 glioblastoma cell lines treated with the novel Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanović, Dušan; Firat, Elke; Grosu, Anca Ligia; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that folds, stabilizes, and functionally regulates many cellular proteins involved in oncogenic signaling and in the regulation of radiosensitivity. It is upregulated in response to stress such a heat. Hyperthermia is a potent radiosensitizer, but induction of Hsp90 may potentially limit its efficacy. Our aim was to investigate whether the new Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 increases radiosensitivity, thermosensitivity and radiothermosensitivity of human tumor cell lines. U251 glioblastoma and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cells were used. To determine clonogenic survival, colony forming assays were performed. Cell viability and proliferation were assesed by Trypan blue staining. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses were performed by flow cytometry. DAPI staining was used to detect mitotic catastrophe. NVP-HSP990 increased the thermosensitivity, radiosensitivity and radio-thermosensitivity of both cell lines in clonogenic assays. 72 hours after irradiation with 4 Gy, a significant reduction in cell number associated with considerable G2/M acumulation and mitotic catastrophe as well as cell death by apoptosis/necrosis was observed. Treatment with NVP-HSP990 strongly sensitized U251 and MIA PaCa-2 cells to hyperthermia and ionizing radiation or combination thereof through augmentation of G2/M arrest, mitotic catastrophe and associated apoptosis

  1. Burglar Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  2. LANSCE target system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Robinson, H.; Legate, G.L.; Bridge, A.; Sanchez, R.J.; Brewton, R.J.; Woods, R.; Hughes, H.G. III

    1989-01-01

    We measured neutron beam fluxes at LANSCE using gold foil activation techniques. We did an extensive computer simulation of the as-built LANSCE Target/Moderator/Reflector/Shield geometry. We used this mockup in a Monte Carlo calculation to predict LANSCE neutronic performance for comparison with measured results. For neutron beam fluxes at 1 eV, the ratio of measured data to calculated varies from ∼0.6-0.9. The computed 1 eV neutron leakage at the moderator surface is 3.9 x 10 10 n/eV-sr-s-μA for LANSCE high-intensity water moderators. The corresponding values for the LANSCE high-resolution water moderator and the liquid hydrogen moderator are 3.3 and 2.9 x 10 10 , respectively. LANSCE predicted moderator intensities (per proton) for a tungsten target are essentially the same as ISIS predicted moderator intensities for a depleted uranium target. The calculated LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal (E 13 n/cm 2 -s. The unique LANSCE split-target/flux-trap-moderator system is performing exceedingly well. The system has operated without a target or moderator change for over three years at nominal proton currents of ∼25 μA of 800-MeV protons. (author)

  3. Targeting α4β7 integrin reduces mucosal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus and protects gut-associated lymphoid tissue from infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Kallam, Brianne; Arthos, James; Cicala, Claudia; Nawaz, Fatima; Hiatt, Joseph; Kersh, Ellen N; McNicholl, Janet M; Hanson, Debra; Reimann, Keith A; Brameier, Markus; Walter, Lutz; Rogers, Kenneth; Mayne, Ann E; Dunbar, Paul; Villinger, Tara; Little, Dawn; Parslow, Tristram G; Santangelo, Philip J; Villinger, Francois; Fauci, Anthony S; Ansari, Aftab A

    2014-12-01

    α4β7 integrin-expressing CD4(+) T cells preferentially traffic to gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and have a key role in HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) pathogenesis. We show here that the administration of an anti-α4β7 monoclonal antibody just prior to and during acute infection protects rhesus macaques from transmission following repeated low-dose intravaginal challenges with SIVmac251. In treated animals that became infected, the GALT was significantly protected from infection and CD4(+) T cell numbers were maintained in both the blood and the GALT. Thus, targeting α4β7 reduces mucosal transmission of SIV in macaques.

  4. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  5. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  6. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  7. Fine target of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Diaz, J.; Granados Gonzalez, C. E.; Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1959-01-01

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm 2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  8. Targeting the right journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piterman, L; McCall, L

    1999-07-01

    While research is scientific, publication is a mixture of science and political pragmatism. Targeting the right journal is influenced by the following factors: the discipline that best represents the subject; the purpose of the message; the audience who are to be recipients of the message; the realities of geographic parochialism; the desire of authors to maximise personal and professional opportunities. If the originally targeted journal rejects the article, authors should have alternative publication strategies that give them professional recognition without requiring them to compromise the message or their ethics.

  9. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  10. Targets and tactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woo, V; Shestakova, M V; Ørskov, C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes is reaching pandemic proportions, impacting patients and healthcare systems across the globe. Evidence suggests that a majority of patients are not achieving recommended blood glucose targets resulting in an increased risk of micro- and macro-vascular ......BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes is reaching pandemic proportions, impacting patients and healthcare systems across the globe. Evidence suggests that a majority of patients are not achieving recommended blood glucose targets resulting in an increased risk of micro- and macro...... diabetes has never been more compelling; with a clear focus on strategies for glycaemic control, the impact of the diabetes pandemic can be limited....

  11. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available -of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study... for the following equation: n∑ i=r ( n i ) pi(1− p)n−i = 0.95 . (1) Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results METHODS (cont. . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION...

  12. A Novel Splice-Site Mutation in Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene, c.3691+1G>A (IVS25+1G>A), Causes a Dramatic Increase in Circulating ACE through Deletion of the Transmembrane Anchor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persu, Alexandre; Lambert, Michel; Deinum, Jaap; Cossu, Marta; de Visscher, Nathalie; Irenge, Leonid; Ambroise, Jerôme; Minon, Jean-Marc; Nesterovitch, Andrew B.; Churbanov, Alexander; Popova, Isolda A.; Danilov, Sergei M.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (EC 4.15.1) metabolizes many biologically active peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated ACE levels are associated with different cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Methods and Results Two Belgian families with a 8-16-fold increase in blood ACE level were incidentally identified. A novel heterozygous splice site mutation of intron 25 - IVS25+1G>A (c.3691+1G>A) - cosegregating with elevated plasma ACE was identified in both pedigrees. Messenger RNA analysis revealed that the mutation led to the retention of intron 25 and Premature Termination Codon generation. Subjects harboring the mutation were mostly normotensive, had no left ventricular hypertrophy or cardiovascular disease. The levels of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system components in the mutated cases and wild-type controls were similar, both at baseline and after 50 mg captopril. Compared with non-affected members, quantification of ACE surface expression and shedding using flow cytometry assay of dendritic cells derived from peripheral blood monocytes of affected members, demonstrated a 50% decrease and 3-fold increase, respectively. Together with a dramatic increase in circulating ACE levels, these findings argue in favor of deletion of transmembrane anchor, leading to direct secretion of ACE out of cells. Conclusions We describe a novel mutation of the ACE gene associated with a major familial elevation of circulating ACE, without evidence of activation of the renin-angiotensin system, target organ damage or cardiovascular complications. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that membrane-bound ACE, rather than circulating ACE, is responsible for Angiotensin II generation and its cardiovascular consequences. PMID:23560051

  13. Chromatin modification of Notch targets in olfactory receptor neuron diversification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Endo, K.; Karim, M. R.; Taniguchi, H.; Krejčí, Alena; Kinameri, E.; Siebert, M.; Ito, K.; Bray, S. J.; Moore, A. W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2012), s. 224-233 ISSN 1097-6256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : neuron diversification Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 15.251, year: 2012

  14. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  15. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Thomas; Moore, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research project, entitled ''Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,'' was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the "2"1"2"P"b"/"2"0"3Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of "2"1"2Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter "2"1"2Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  16. Targets of curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S.; Huang, Shile

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-κB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer’s disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here. PMID:20955148

  17. Target-Rich Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Target marketing is defining school enrollment goals and then developing a strategic plan to accomplish those goals through the use of specific communication vehicles and community focus. It is critical to reach the right audience, with the right message, at the right time, for the right cost. In this brief article, the author describes several…

  18. Targeted enzyme prodrug therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellmann, N; Deckert, P M; Bachran, D; Fuchs, H; Bachran, C

    2010-09-01

    The cure of cancer is still a formidable challenge in medical science. Long-known modalities including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are successful in a number of cases; however, invasive, metastasized and inaccessible tumors still pose an unresolved and ongoing problem. Targeted therapies designed to locate, detect and specifically kill tumor cells have been developed in the past three decades as an alternative to treat troublesome cancers. Most of these therapies are either based on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs or tumor site-specific activation of prodrugs. The latter is a two-step procedure. In the first step, a selected enzyme is accumulated in the tumor by guiding the enzyme or its gene to the neoplastic cells. In the second step, a harmless prodrug is applied and specifically converted by this enzyme into a cytotoxic drug only at the tumor site. A number of targeting systems, enzymes and prodrugs were investigated and improved since the concept was first envisioned in 1974. This review presents a concise overview on the history and latest developments in targeted therapies for cancer treatment. We cover the relevant technologies such as antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) as well as related therapies such as clostridial- (CDEPT) and polymer-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (PDEPT) with emphasis on prodrug-converting enzymes, prodrugs and drugs.

  19. Targeting trichothecene biosynthetic genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Songhong; Lee, van der Theo; Verstappen, Els; Gent, van Marga; Waalwijk, Cees

    2017-01-01

    Biosynthesis of trichothecenes requires the involvement of at least 15 genes, most of which have been targeted for PCR. Qualitative PCRs are used to assign chemotypes to individual isolates, e.g., the capacity to produce type A and/or type B trichothecenes. Many regions in the core cluster

  20. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  1. The targets of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S; Huang, Shile

    2011-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-kB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer's disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here.

  2. Parameter measurement of target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dangzhong

    2001-01-01

    The progress of parameter measurement of target (ICF-15) in 1999 are presented, including the design and contract of the microsphere equator profiler, the precise air bearing manufacturing, high-resolution X-ray image of multi-layer shells and the X-ray photos processed with special image and data software, some plastic shells measured in precision of 0.3 μm, the high-resolution observation and photograph system of 'dew-point method', special fixture of target and its temperature distribution measuring, the dew-point temperature and fuel gas pressure of shells measuring with internal pressure of 5 - 15 (x10 5 ) Pa D 2 and wall thickness of 1.5∼3 μm

  3. Guilty Feelings, Targeted Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryder, Cynthia E.; Springer, Stephen; Morewedge, Carey K.

    2014-01-01

    Early investigations of guilt cast it as an emotion that prompts broad reparative behaviors that help guilty individuals feel better about themselves or about their transgressions. The current investigation found support for a more recent representation of guilt as an emotion designed to identify and correct specific social offenses. Across five experiments, guilt influenced behavior in a targeted and strategic way. Guilt prompted participants to share resources more generously with others, but only did so when those others were persons whom the participant had wronged and only when those wronged individuals could notice the gesture. Rather than trigger broad reparative behaviors that remediate one’s general reputation or self-perception, guilt triggers targeted behaviors intended to remediate specific social transgressions. PMID:22337764

  4. Inertial confinement fusion target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.

    2001-12-01

    A simple, zero-dimensional model describing the temporal behaviour of an imploding-shell, magnetized fuel inertial confinement fusion target is formulated. The addition of a magnetic field to the fuel reduces thermal conduction losses. As a consequence, it might lead to high gains and reduce the driver requirements. This beneficial effect of the magnetic field on thermonuclear gains is confirmed qualitatively by the zero-dimensional model results. Still, the extent of the initial-condition space for which significant gains can occur is not, by far, as large as previously reported. One-dimensional CEA code simulations which confirm this results are also presented. Finally, we suggest to study the approach proposed by Hasegawa. In this scheme, the laser target is not imploded, and the life-time of the plasma can be very much increased. (author)

  5. Hohlraum targets for HIDIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramis, R.; Ramirez, J.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    2000-01-01

    An optimized high gain IFE indirect target design is presented. Beam parameters (5 MJ of 5 GeV Bi + ions in 10-20 ns and focal spot of 3 mm radius) are in agreement to the ones considered recently for the European Study Group on Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF). The energy yield is close to 530 MJ, giving a large enough gain appropriate for industrial energy production. Numerical and analytical modeling are described and discussed. (authors)

  6. Target Glint Suppression Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Rayleigh for either horizontal or vertical polarization). 2.1.2 Spatial Characterization. Before the effects of diversity on target detection can be...ncs) dRCS T If the lower intergration limit is taken as zero for the Rayleigh targct model of interest, then this quantity is unbounded. In...port wing, inner section Trailing edge of starboard .:ing, inner section Leading edge of horizontal stabilizer, inner section, port side TLeal, -g

  7. Conditional targeting for communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Anselmo; Caldas, Ibere L.; Baptista, Murilo S.; Piqueira, Jose Roberto C.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we propose the use of a targeting method applied to chaotic systems in order to reach special trajectories that encode arbitrary sources of messages. One advantage of this procedure is to overcome dynamical constraints which impose limits in the amount of information that the chaotic trajectories can encode. Another advantage is the message decoding, practically instantaneous and independent of any special technique or algorithm. Furthermore, with this procedure, information can be transmitted with no errors due to bounded noise

  8. Heterogeneous chromatin target model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Makoto

    1996-01-01

    The higher order structure of the entangled chromatin fibers in a chromosome plays a key role in molecular control mechanism involved in chromosome mutation due to ionizing radiations or chemical mutagens. The condensed superstructure of chromatin is not so rigid and regular as has been postulated in general. We have proposed a rheological explanation for the flexible network system ('chromatin network') that consists of the fluctuating assembly of nucleosome clusters linked with supertwisting DNA in a chromatin fiber ('Supertwisting Particulate Model'). We have proposed a 'Heterosensitive Target Model' for cellular radiosensitivity that is a modification of 'Heterogeneous Target Model'. The heterogeneity of chromatin target is derived from the highly condensed organization of chromatin segments consist of unstable and fragile sites in the fluctuating assembly of nucleosome clusters, namely 'supranucleosomal particles' or 'superbeads'. The models have been principally supported by our electron microscopic experiments employing 'surface - spreading whole - mount technique' since 1967. However, some deformation and artifacts in the chromatin structure are inevitable with these electron microscopic procedures. On the contrary, the 'atomic force microscope (AFM)' can be operated in liquid as well as in the air. A living specimen can be examined without any preparative procedures. Micromanipulation of the isolated chromosome is also possible by the precise positional control of a cantilever on the nanometer scale. The living human chromosomes were submerged in a solution of culture medium and observed by AFM using a liquid immersion cell. The surface - spreading whole - mount technique was applicable for this observation. The particulate chromatin segments of nucleosome clusters were clearly observed within mitotic human chromosomes in a living hydrated condition. These findings support the heterogeneity of chromatin target in a living cell. (J.P.N.)

  9. Implementing Target Value Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K

    2017-04-01

    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  10. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  11. Symmetrical upper limb peromelia and lower limb phocomelia associated with a de novo apparently balanced reciprocal translocation: 46,XX,t(2; 12)(p25.1;q24.1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R S; Keeling, J W; Ellis, P M; FitzPatrick, D R

    2002-04-01

    We report a female fetus of 20 weeks gestation with severe symmetrical deformity affecting all four limbs. These deformities were unusual in that there was upper limb peromelia and lower limb phocomelia. No additional major malformations were identified on postmortem examination. In particular there was no evidence of splenogonadal fusion or micrognathia and hypoglossia. The limb malformations in this case are associated with a de novo apparently balanced reciprocal translocation 46,XX,t(2;12)(p25.1;q24.1). The cytogenetic features of Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome were not detected. Unfortunately, the fibroblast line died and no FISH or DNA analysis could be carried out. In spite of this, the case is presented as it may be useful to other researchers in the selection of candidate genes for mendelian forms of peromelia and phocomelia.

  12. Spectroscopy of the {sup 29}Si({ital p},{gamma}) reaction for {ital E}{sub {ital p}}=1.75{endash}2.51 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, P.M.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Bybee, C.R.; Mitchell, G.E.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D.; Shriner, J.F. Jr.; Vavrina, G.A.; Westerfeldt, C.R. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The {sup 29}Si({ital p},{gamma}) reaction has been studied for 30 resonances in the range {ital E}{sub {ital p}}=1.75{endash}2.51 MeV. Branching ratios have been measured for 28 of these resonances. The separation energy {ital S}{sub {ital p}} for {sup 30}P has been determined to be 5594.5{plus_minus}0.5 keV. Improved spin, parity, and isospin assignments have been made to a number of the resonant states. A new level has been identified in {sup 30}P at {ital E}{sub {ital x}}=6006 keV, and its {gamma}-ray branching ratios have been measured. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Differences in time of virus appearance in the blood and virus-specific immune responses in intravenous and intrarectal primary SIVmac251 infection of rhesus macaques; a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Parks Robyn

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-I can be transmitted by intravenous inoculation of contaminated blood or blood product or sexually through mucosal surfaces. Here we performed a pilot study in the SIVmac251 macaque model to address whether the route of viral entry influences the kinetics of the appearance and the size of virus-specific immune in different tissue compartments. Methods For this purpose, of 2 genetically defined Mamu-A*01-positive macaques, 1 was exposed intravenously and the other intrarectally to the same SIVmac251 viral stock and virus-specific CD8+ T-cells were measured within the first 12 days of infection in the blood and at day 12 in several tissues following euthanasia. Results Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses to Gag, Env, and particularly Tat appeared earlier in the blood of the animal exposed by the mucosal route than in the animal exposed intravenously. The magnitude of these virus-specific responses was consistently higher in the systemic tissues and GALT of the macaque exposed by the intravenous route, suggesting a higher viral burden in the tissues as reflected by the faster appearance of virus in plasma. Differences in the ability of the virus-specific CD8+ T-cells to respond in vitro to specific peptide stimulation were also observed and the greatest proliferative ability was found in the GALT of the animal infected by the intrarectal route. Conclusions These data may suggest that the natural mucosal barrier may delay viral spreading. The consequences of this observation, if confirmed in studies with a larger number of animals, may have implications in vaccine development.

  14. Prior DNA immunization enhances immune response to dominant and subdominant viral epitopes induced by a fowlpox-based SIVmac vaccine in long-term slow-progressor macaques infected with SIVmac251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radaelli, Antonia; Nacsa, Janos; Tsai, W.-P.; Edghill-Smith, Yvette; Zanotto, Carlo; Elli, Veronica; Venzon, David; Tryniszewska, Elzbieta; Markham, Phil; Mazzara, Gail P.; Panicali, Dennis; Morghen, Carlo De Giuli; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2003-01-01

    A therapeutic vaccine for individuals infected with HIV-1 and treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be able to replenish virus-specific CD4+ T-cells and broaden the virus-specific CD8+ T-cell response in order to maintain CD8+ T-cell function and minimize viral immune escape after ART cessation. Because a combination of DNA and recombinant poxvirus vaccine modalities induces high levels of virus-specific CD4+ T-cell response and broadens the cytolytic activity in naive macaques, we investigated whether the same results could be obtained in SIVmac251-infected macaques. The macaques studied here were long-term nonprogressors that naturally contained viremia but were nevertheless treated with a combination of antiviral drugs to assess more carefully the effect of vaccination in the context of ART. The combination of a DNA expressing the gag and pol genes (DNA-SIV-gp) of SIVmac239 followed by a recombinant fowlpox expressing the same SIVmac genes (FP-SIV-gp) was significantly more immunogenic than two immunizations of FP-SIV-gp in SIVmac251-infected macaques treated with ART. The DNA/FP combination significantly expanded and broadened Gag-specific T-cell responses measured by tetramer staining, ELISPOT, and intracellular cytokine staining and measurement of ex vivo cytolytic function. Importantly, the combination of these vaccine modalities also induced a sizeable expansion in most macaques of Gag-specific CD8-(CD4+) T-cells able to produce TNF-α. Hopefully, this modality of vaccine combination may be useful in the clinical management of HIV-1-infected individuals

  15. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  16. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  17. Targeted mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Aloria, Kerman; Omaetxebarria, Miren J.

    2017-01-01

    Following the rapid expansion of the proteomics field, the investigation of post translational modifications (PTM) has become extremely popular changing our perspective of how proteins constantly fine tune cellular functions. Reversible protein phosphorylation plays a pivotal role in virtually all...... for becoming the method of choice to study with high precision and sensitivity already known site-specific phosphorylation events. This review summarizes the contribution of large-scale unbiased MS analyses and highlights the need of targeted MS-based approaches for follow-up investigation. Additionally...

  18. Fixed target beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Fraser, M A; Gatignon, L; Goddard, B; Velotti, F

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) serves asLHC injector and provides beam for the North Area fixedtarget experiments. At low energy, the vertical acceptancebecomes critical with high intensity large emittance fixed tar-get beams. Optimizing the vertical available aperture is a keyingredient to optimize transmission and reduce activationaround the ring. During the 2016 run a tool was developed toprovide an automated local aperture scan around the entirering.The flux of particles slow extracted with the1/3inte-ger resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERNshould ideally be constant over the length of the extractionplateau, for optimum use of the beam by the fixed target ex-periments in the North Area. The extracted intensity is con-trolled in feed-forward correction of the horizontal tune viathe main SPS quadrupoles. The Mains power supply noiseat 50 Hz and harmonics is also corrected in feed-forwardby small amplitude tune modulation at the respective fre-quencies with a dedicated additional quad...

  19. Aquaporin-2 membrane targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma T B; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells is regulated mainly by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). This process is of crucial importance for the maintenance of body water homeostasis...... of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct (CD) principal cells (10, 20). This process is mainly regulated by the actions of AVP on the type 2 AVP receptor (V2R), although the V1a receptor may also play a minor role (26). The V2R is classified within the group of 7-transmembrane....... For example, 1) stimulation with the nonspecific AC activator forskolin increases AQP2 membrane accumulation in a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line [e.g., Norregaard et al. (16)]; 2) cAMP increases CD water permeability (15); 3) the cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) can phosphorylate AQP2 on its...

  20. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  1. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  2. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available prospective map are the weights-of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote.... . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION φWMSD+V(Sn) = λ N(A) ∑ −→x ∈A P(−→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣−→x −QSn( −→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ +(1− λ)s2(OSn) , (2) where QSn( −→x ) is the location vector of an optimal exploration focal point in Sn nearest to −→x , and s2(OSn) is the variance...

  3. Bradycardia During Targeted Temperature Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Nielsen, Niklas; Hassager, Christian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bradycardia is common during targeted temperature management, likely being a physiologic response to lower body temperature, and has recently been associated with favorable outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in smaller observational studies. The present study sought...... to confirm this finding in a large multicenter cohort of patients treated with targeted temperature management at 33°C and explore the response to targeted temperature management targeting 36°C. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a prospective randomized study. SETTING: Thirty-six ICUs in 10 countries. PATIENTS......: We studied 447 (targeted temperature management = 33°C) and 430 (targeted temperature management = 36°C) comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with available heart rate data, randomly assigned in the targeted temperature management trial from 2010 to 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Targeted...

  4. Solid Polarized Targets and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    Examples are given of dynamically polarized targets in use today and how the subsystems have changed to meet the needs of todays experiments. Particular emphasis is placed on target materials such as ammonia and lithium deuteride. Recent polarization studies of irradiated materials such as butanol, deuterated butanol, polyethylene, and deuterated polyethylene are presented. The operation of two non-DNP target systems as well as applications of traditional DNP targets are briefly discussed

  5. Techniques for preparing isotopic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoji; Guan Shouren; Luo Xinghua; Sun Shuhua

    1987-12-01

    The techniques of making isotopic targets for nuclear physics experiments are introduced. Vacuum evaporation, electroplating, centrifugal precipitation, rolling and focused heavy-ion beam sputtering used to prepare various isotopic targets at IAE are described. Reduction-distillation with active metals and electrolytic reduction for converting isotope oxides to metals are mentioned. The stripping processes of producing self-supporting isotopic targets are summarized. The store methods of metallic targets are given

  6. Nova target diagnostics control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year the Nova target diagnostics control system was finished and put in service. The diagnostics loft constructed to the north of the target room provides the environmental conditions required to collect reliable target diagnostic data. These improvements include equipment cooling and isolation of the power source with strict control of instrumentation grounds to eliminate data corruption due to electromagnetic pulses from the laser power-conditioning system or from target implosion effects

  7. Stanford polarized atomic beam target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavis, D.G.; Dunham, J.S.; Hugg, J.W.; Glavish, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    A polarized atomic beam source was used to produce an atomic hydrogen beam which was in turn used as a polarized proton target. A target density of 2 x 10'' atoms/cm 3 and a target polarization of 0.37 without the use of rf transitions were measured. These measurements indicate that a number of experiments are currently feasible with a variety of polarized target beams

  8. Targets for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes some of the basic principles of fusion target implosions, using some simple targets designed for irradiation by ion beams. Present estimates are that ion beams with 1-5 MJ, and 100-500 TW will be required to ignite high gain targets. (orig.) [de

  9. Beam heating of target foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corwin, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    A target rotator, built to reduce the effects of beam spot heating, is fully adjustable, holds three targets, is chamber independent, and takes up limited space. The expected temperature rise in the target is calculated from the Stefan--Boltzmann law

  10. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearling, J.L.

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ( 64 Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64 Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64 Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  11. Liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougon, M.; Marquet, M.; Prugne, P.

    1961-01-01

    A description is given of 1) Atmospheric pressure target: liquid hydrogen, 400 mm thickness; thermal insulation: styrofoam; the hydrogen vapors are used to improve the target cooling; Mylar windows. 2) Vacuum target: 12 liter content: hydrogen or deuterium; liquid thickness 400 mm; thermal insulation is afforded by a vacuum vessel and a liquid nitrogen shield. Recovery and liquefaction of deuterium vapors are managed in the vacuum vessel which holds the target. The target emptying system is designed for operating in a few minutes. (author) [fr

  12. Oxide fuels and targets for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudreau, F.; Bonnerot, J.M.; Warin, D.; Gaillard-Groleas, G.; Ferroud-Plattet, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Direction 1 of the French Act dated 30 December 1991 on the management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste involves exploring solutions designed to separate long-lived radionuclides from the spent fuel and to transmute them under neutron flux into shorter half-lives or stable elements. In the French research programme conducted by CEA, these radionuclides are mainly minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium) and fission products (particularly caesium, iodine and technetium). Within this context, this paper aims at illustrating the vast programme that CEA has performed in order to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of minor actinide transmutation. An important part of the research was carried out in collaboration with French research (CNRS) and industrial (EDF, AREVA) organisations, and also in the framework of international co-operation programmes with the European Institute for Transuranium Elements in Karlsruhe (ITU), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (now JAEA) and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and the Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy (ROSATOM). Such research made it possible to evaluate the capacity of MOX fuels to be used as a support for minor actinide transmutation (homogeneous method). Simulations of pressurised water reactor (PWR) fuels have revealed the limits of this transmutation method, which are mainly related to the pressurization of the fuel rods and the formation of high active californium. On the contrary, for sodium-cooled fast reactor fuels possibly designed with large expansion plenums a first experimental demonstration of the transmutation of americium and neptunium has been successful in the Phenix reactor. Various studies designed to demonstrate the theoretical and experimental feasibility of transmutation using an inert support (heterogeneous method) have been carried out in HFR (EFTTRA

  13. Isomeric Targets and Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Karamyan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One of the main topics of modern nuclear physics is the investigation of exotic nuclei including hyper-nuclei, trans fermium elements, proton and neutron rich isotopes near drip lines as well as high-spin excited states and states with anomalous deformation. The isomerism of nuclei is closely related with such phenomena as the alignment of single-particle orbitals, the coexistence of various deformations and the manifestation of intruder-levels from neighbouring shells. The investigation of electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of isomers could give important information on their shell structure and its role in the mechanism of nuclear reactions. For such experiments one can either make isomeric targets (sufficiently long-lived) or use the methods of acceleration of isomeric nuclei. Recently, an exotic 16 + four-quasiparticle isomer of 178 Hf m 2 was produced in a micro weight quantity and the first nuclear reactions on it were successfully observed. The talk describes these experiments as well as new ideas for the continuation of the studies and some advantageous ways for the isomeric beams production by the method of direct acceleration or by the secondary beam method. 35 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs

  14. EURISOL High Power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Lindroos, M; Ridikas, D; Stora, T; Tecchio, L; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Modern Nuclear Physics requires access to higher yields of rare isotopes, that relies on further development of the In-flight and Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) production methods. The limits of the In-Flight method will be applied via the next generation facilities FAIR in Germany, RIKEN in Japan and RIBF in the USA. The ISOL method will be explored at facilities including ISAC-TRIUMF in Canada, SPIRAL-2 in France, SPES in Italy, ISOLDE at CERN and eventually at the very ambitious multi-MW EURISOL facility. ISOL and in-flight facilities are complementary entities. While in-flight facilities excel in the production of very short lived radioisotopes independently of their chemical nature, ISOL facilities provide high Radioisotope Beam (RIB) intensities and excellent beam quality for 70 elements. Both production schemes are opening vast and rich fields of nuclear physics research. In this article we will introduce the targets planned for the EURISOL facility and highlight some of the technical and safety cha...

  15. Molecularly targeted therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It is generally agreed that current focus of nuclear medicine development should be on molecular imaging and therapy. Though, the widespread use of the terminology 'molecular imaging' is quite recent, nuclear medicine has used molecular imaging techniques for more than 20 years ago. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for the internal therapy of malignant and inflammatory lesions in nuclear medicine. In the field of bio/medical imaging, nuclear medicine is one of the disciplines which has the privilege of organized and well developed chemistry/ pharmacy section; radio-chemistry/radiopharmacy. Fundamental principles have been developed more than 40 years ago and advanced research is going well into postgenomic era. The genomic revolution and dramatically increased insight in the molecular mechanisms underlying pathology have led to paradigm shift in drug development. Likewise does in the nuclear medicine. Here, the author will present current clinical and pre-clinical therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on molecular targets such as membrane-bound receptors, enzymes, nucleic acids, sodium iodide symporter, etc, in correlation with fundamentals of radiopharmacy. (author)

  16. New type of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharov, A.V.; Ankudinov, V.B.; Ogorodnikov, V.P.; Marukhin, Y.A.

    2014-01-01

    Now the technologies based on interaction of high-intensity beams with substance of a target are being intensively developed. As a target it is possible to use the new type of monodisperse metal targets. The principal advantages of new targets type are: target cooling isn't required; there is no induced activity: the target can be used many times; small dispersion on the speed, the size and interaction points with a beam. The basis of a target is the jet of molten metal, following in the vacuum chamber .Under the influence of the special disturbance superimposed on the liquid jet, the jet disintegrated into identical drops. In the vacuum chamber the drops freeze and form into the solid granules. It is possible to receive monodisperse targets from different metals, alloys and salts (diameter of targets is from 30 .m to 1.5 mm). Dispersion by the sizes and speed is less than 1%. The technique allows to receive not only continuous targets, but also hollow targets with dispersion on thickness of wall within 1...2%.

  17. Using the Nova target chamber for high-yield targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The existing 2.2-m-radius Nova aluminum target chamber, coated and lined with boron-seeded carbon shields, is proposed for use with 1000-MJ-yield targets in the next laser facility. The laser beam and diagnostic holes in the target chamber are left open and the desired 10 -2 Torr vacuum is maintained both inside and outside the target chamber; a larger target chamber room is the vacuum barrier to the atmosphere. The hole area available is three times that necessary to maintain a maximum fluence below 12 J/cm 2 on optics placed at a radius of 10 m. Maximum stress in the target chamber wall is 73 MPa, which complies with the intent of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. However, shock waves passing through the inner carbon shield could cause it to comminute. We propose tests and analyses to ensure that the inner carbon shield survives the environment. 13 refs

  18. The target effect: visual memory for unnamed search targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark D; Williams, Carrick C

    2014-01-01

    Search targets are typically remembered much better than other objects even when they are viewed for less time. However, targets have two advantages that other objects in search displays do not have: They are identified categorically before the search, and finding them represents the goal of the search task. The current research investigated the contributions of both of these types of information to the long-term visual memory representations of search targets. Participants completed either a predefined search or a unique-object search in which targets were not defined with specific categorical labels before searching. Subsequent memory results indicated that search target memory was better than distractor memory even following ambiguously defined searches and when the distractors were viewed significantly longer. Superior target memory appears to result from a qualitatively different representation from those of distractor objects, indicating that decision processes influence visual memory.

  19. Immunotherapy Targets in Pediatric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orentas, Rimas J.; Lee, Daniel W.; Mackall, Crystal, E-mail: rimas.orentas@nih.gov, E-mail: mackallc@mail.nih.gov [Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-01-30

    Immunotherapy for cancer has shown increasing success and there is ample evidence to expect that progress gleaned in immune targeting of adult cancers can be translated to pediatric oncology. This manuscript reviews principles that guide selection of targets for immunotherapy of cancer, emphasizing the similarities and distinctions between oncogene-inhibition targets and immune targets. It follows with a detailed review of molecules expressed by pediatric tumors that are already under study as immune targets or are good candidates for future studies of immune targeting. Distinctions are made between cell surface antigens that can be targeted in an MHC independent manner using antibodies, antibody derivatives, or chimeric antigen receptors versus intracellular antigens which must be targeted with MHC restricted T cell therapies. Among the most advanced immune targets for childhood cancer are CD19 and CD22 on hematologic malignancies, GD2 on solid tumors, and NY-ESO-1 expressed by a majority of synovial sarcomas, but several other molecules reviewed here also have properties which suggest that they too could serve as effective targets for immunotherapy of childhood cancer.

  20. Immunotherapy Targets in Pediatric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orentas, Rimas J.; Lee, Daniel W.; Mackall, Crystal

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy for cancer has shown increasing success and there is ample evidence to expect that progress gleaned in immune targeting of adult cancers can be translated to pediatric oncology. This manuscript reviews principles that guide selection of targets for immunotherapy of cancer, emphasizing the similarities and distinctions between oncogene-inhibition targets and immune targets. It follows with a detailed review of molecules expressed by pediatric tumors that are already under study as immune targets or are good candidates for future studies of immune targeting. Distinctions are made between cell surface antigens that can be targeted in an MHC independent manner using antibodies, antibody derivatives, or chimeric antigen receptors versus intracellular antigens which must be targeted with MHC restricted T cell therapies. Among the most advanced immune targets for childhood cancer are CD19 and CD22 on hematologic malignancies, GD2 on solid tumors, and NY-ESO-1 expressed by a majority of synovial sarcomas, but several other molecules reviewed here also have properties which suggest that they too could serve as effective targets for immunotherapy of childhood cancer.

  1. [Target volume margins for lung cancer: internal target volume/clinical target volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, A; Pourel, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of margins that should be used for the delineation of target volumes in lung cancer, with a focus on margins from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV) and internal target volume (ITV) delineation. Our review was based on a PubMed literature search with, as a cornerstone, the 2010 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommandations by De Ruysscher et al. The keywords used for the search were: radiotherapy, lung cancer, clinical target volume, internal target volume. The relevant information was categorized under the following headings: gross tumour volume definition (GTV), CTV-GTV margin (first tumoural CTV then nodal CTV definition), in field versus elective nodal irradiation, metabolic imaging role through the input of the PET scanner for tumour target volume and limitations of PET-CT imaging for nodal target volume definition, postoperative radiotherapy target volume definition, delineation of target volumes after induction chemotherapy; then the internal target volume is specified as well as tumoural mobility for lung cancer and respiratory gating techniques. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to planning target volume definition and another to small cell lung cancer. For each heading, the most relevant and recent clinical trials and publications are mentioned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Comparative evaluation of oral and intranasal priming with replication-competent adenovirus 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr)-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinant vaccines on immunogenicity and protective efficacy against SIV(mac251).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifeng; Hidajat, Rachmat; Peng, Bo; Venzon, David; Aldrich, M Kristine; Richardson, Ersell; Lee, Eun Mi; Kalyanaraman, V S; Grimes, George; Gómez-Román, V Raúl; Summers, L Ebonita; Malkevich, Nina; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2007-11-19

    Oral, replication-competent Ad-HIV vaccines are advancing to human trials. Previous evaluation of protective efficacy in non-human primates has primarily followed upper respiratory tract administrations. Here we compared sequential oral (O/O) versus intranasal/oral (I/O) priming of rhesus macaques with Ad5 host range mutant-SIV recombinants expressing SIV env/rev, gag, and nef genes followed by boosting with SIV gp120 protein. Cellular immune responses in PBMC were stronger and more frequent after I/O administration. Both groups developed mucosal immunity, including memory cells in bronchial alveolar lavage, and gut-homing receptors on PBMC. Following intrarectal SIV(mac251) challenge, both groups exhibited equivalent, significant protection and robust post-challenge cellular immunity. Our results illustrate the promise of oral replication-competent Ad-recombinant vaccines. Pre-challenge PBMC ELISPOT and proliferative responses did not predict protection in the O/O group, highlighting the need for simple, non-invasive methods to reliably assess mucosal immunity.

  3. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  4. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  5. Targeted Nanotechnology for Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Randall; Bauer, Lisa; Hoimes, Christopher; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    Targeted nanoparticle imaging agents provide many benefits and new opportunities to facilitate accurate diagnosis of cancer and significantly impact patient outcome. Due to the highly engineerable nature of nanotechnology, targeted nanoparticles exhibit significant advantages including increased contrast sensitivity, binding avidity and targeting specificity. Considering the various nanoparticle designs and their adjustable ability to target a specific site and generate detectable signals, nanoparticles can be optimally designed in terms of biophysical interactions (i.e., intravascular and interstitial transport) and biochemical interactions (i.e., targeting avidity towards cancer-related biomarkers) for site-specific detection of very distinct microenvironments. This review seeks to illustrate that the design of a nanoparticle dictates its in vivo journey and targeting of hard-to-reach cancer sites, facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and interrogation of the most aggressive forms of cancer. We will report various targeted nanoparticles for cancer imaging using X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging and optical imaging. Finally, to realize the full potential of targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging, we will describe the challenges and opportunities for the clinical translation and widespread adaptation of targeted nanoparticles imaging agents. PMID:25116445

  6. Target imaging and backlighting diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaakobi, B.; Shvarts, D.; Marshall, F.J.; Epstein, R.; Su, Q.

    1995-01-01

    The expected backlighting and self-emission images of a particular CH target to be imploded on the Omega Upgrade are calculated for a variety of experimental parameters. It is shown that to overcome the problem of target self-emission, the image has to be monochromatized with a diffracting crystal. For the target studied, the two image components are then comparable in intensity and both provide useful information on target behavior. A particularly interesting feature is the appearance in the self-emission of a circular spike which closely delineates the fuel-shell interface, but requires high spatial resolution to be observed

  7. Literature evidence in open targets - a target validation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Şenay; Dunham, Ian; McEntyre, Johanna

    2017-06-06

    We present the Europe PMC literature component of Open Targets - a target validation platform that integrates various evidence to aid drug target identification and validation. The component identifies target-disease associations in documents and ranks the documents based on their confidence from the Europe PMC literature database, by using rules utilising expert-provided heuristic information. The confidence score of a given document represents how valuable the document is in the scope of target validation for a given target-disease association by taking into account the credibility of the association based on the properties of the text. The component serves the platform regularly with the up-to-date data since December, 2015. Currently, there are a total number of 1168365 distinct target-disease associations text mined from >26 million PubMed abstracts and >1.2 million Open Access full text articles. Our comparative analyses on the current available evidence data in the platform revealed that 850179 of these associations are exclusively identified by literature mining. This component helps the platform's users by providing the most relevant literature hits for a given target and disease. The text mining evidence along with the other types of evidence can be explored visually through https://www.targetvalidation.org and all the evidence data is available for download in json format from https://www.targetvalidation.org/downloads/data .

  8. Internal Targeting and External Control: Phototriggered Targeting in Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrue, Lily; Ratjen, Lars

    2017-12-07

    The photochemical control of structure and reactivity bears great potential for chemistry, biology, and life sciences. A key feature of photochemistry is the spatiotemporal control over secondary events. Well-established applications of photochemistry in medicine are photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photopharmacology (PP). However, although both are highly localizable through the application of light, they lack cell- and tissue-specificity. The combination of nanomaterial-based drug delivery and targeting has the potential to overcome limitations for many established therapy concepts. Even more privileged seems the merger of nanomedicine and cell-specific targeting (internal targeting) controlled by light (external control), as it can potentially be applied to many different areas of medicine and pharmaceutical research, including the aforementioned PDT and PP. In this review a survey of the interface of photochemistry, medicine and targeted drug delivery is given, especially focusing on phototriggered targeting in nanomedicine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no

  10. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1995-08-01

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  11. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhengdong; He Wuliang; Zheng Xiaodong; Cheng Jiayuan; Peng Wen; Pei Chunlan; Song Chen

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  12. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1978-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  13. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards this t...

  14. Spinning targets for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.E.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-09-01

    Several techniques for spinning the ICF targets up prior to or in the course of their compression are suggested. Interference of the rotational shear flow with Rayleigh-Taylor instability is briefly discussed and possible consequences for the target performance are pointed out

  15. Multiple Target Laser Designator (MTLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Optimized Liquid Crystal Scanning Element Optimize the Nonimaging Predictive Algorithm for Target Ranging, Tracking, and Position Estimation...commercial potential. 3.0 PROGRESS THIS QUARTER 3.1 Optimization of Nonimaging Holographic Antenna for Target Tracking and Position Estimation (Task 6) In

  16. Scheduling with target start times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Velde, van de S.L.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Vrieze, O.J.; Kallenberg, L.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    We address the single-machine problem of scheduling n independent jobs subject to target start times. Target start times are essentially release times that may be violated at a certain cost. The goal is to minimize an objective function that is composed of total completion time and maximum

  17. Optimum target thickness for polarimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters with thick targets are a tool to measure the proton polarization. But the question about the optimum target thickness is still the subject of discussion. An attempt to calculate the most common parameters concerning this problem, in a few GeV region, is made

  18. Target-Searching on Percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shijie

    2005-01-01

    We study target-searching processes on a percolation, on which a hunter tracks a target by smelling odors it emits. The odor intensity is supposed to be inversely proportional to the distance it propagates. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed on a 2-dimensional bond-percolation above the threshold. Having no idea of the location of the target, the hunter determines its moves only by random attempts in each direction. For lager percolation connectivity p ∼> 0.90, it reveals a scaling law for the searching time versus the distance to the position of the target. The scaling exponent is dependent on the sensitivity of the hunter. For smaller p, the scaling law is broken and the probability of finding out the target significantly reduces. The hunter seems trapped in the cluster of the percolation and can hardly reach the goal.

  19. Targeted marketing and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  20. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure...... results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on the secondary mirror, largely co-aligned with the telescope. This CHU accurately determines the telescope......'s pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target...

  1. Legal Issues in Cyber Targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    Imagine this scenario: Two states are in armed conflict with each other. In order to gain an advantage, one side launches a cyber-attack against the opponent’s computer network. The malicious malware paralyze the military computer network, as intended, but the malware spreads into the civilian...... system with physical damage to follow. This can happen and the natural question arises: What must be considered lawful targeting according to the international humanitarian law in cyber warfare? What steps must an attacker take to minimize the damage done to unlawful targets when conducting an offensive...... operation? How can the attacker separate military targets from civilian targets in cyber space? This paper addresses these questions and argues that a network (civilian or military) consist of several software components and that it is the individual components that is the target. If the components are used...

  2. Gas target neutron generator studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatoorgoon, V.

    1978-01-01

    The need for an intense neutron source for the study of radiation damage on materials has resulted in the proposal of various solid, liquid, and gas targets. Among the gas targets proposed have been the transonic gas target, two types of hypersonic gas target, and the subsonic gas target (SGT). It has been suggested that heat deposition in a subsonic channel might create a gas density step which would constitute an attractive gas target type. The first part of the present study examines this aspect of the SGT and shows that gas density gradients are indeed formed by heat deposition in subsonic flow. The variation of beam voltage, gas density, gas pressure, and gas temperature within the channel have been calculated as functions of the system parameters: beam voltage, beam current, channel diameter, stagnation tank temperature and pressure. The analysis is applicable to any beam particle and target gas. For the case of T + on D 2 , which is relevant to the fusion application, the 14 MeV neutron profiles are presented as a function of system parameters. It is found that the SGT is compatible with concentrated intense source operation. The possibility of instability was investigated in detail using a non-linear analysis which made it possible to follow the complete time development of the SGT. It was found that the SGT is stable against all small perturbations and certain types of large perturbations. It appears that the SGT is the most advantageous type of gas target, operating at a lower mass flow and less severe stagnation tank conditions than the other types. The second part of the thesis examines a problem associated with the straight hypersonic target, the deuterium spill into the tritium port. The regime of practical operation for this target is established. (auth)

  3. The protective cell petrus for the production of californium 252; Cellule blindee petrus pour la production et l'etude du californium 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sontag, R; Berger, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The alpha, beta, gamma, neutron cell which is described in the present paper is devoted to the transplutonium element production and study. It is located at the CEN in Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). The 4 feet ordinary concrete shielding made of stacked blocs allows the manipulation of radioactive sources as high as 1000 curies of 1 MeV gamma rays and with a fast neutrons flux of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. The airtight alpha containment box is equipped with two transfer systems, one consists of a parallelepiped shaped airtight box located in a turntable, the other uses standard cylindrical containers made of polyethylene. The general equipment and the main setting up are also described. (authors) [French] La cellule alpha, beta, gamma, neutron, qui fait l'objet du present article, est destinee a la production et a l'etude des elements transplutoniens. Elle est construite au C.E.N. de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). La protection biologique, calculee pour une activite de 1000 curies de rayonnement gamma d'energie 1 MeV accompagnee d'un flux de neutrons rapides de 10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s, est constituee par des parois en beton de 1,20 m d'epaisseur. L'enceinte alpha est une boite etanche qui comporte devx systemes de transferts: l'un consiste en une boite parallelepipedique etanche logee dans un barillet, l'autre fait appel a des recipients cylindriques standard en polyethylene. L'equipement general et les installations les plus importantes sont ensuite decrits. (auteurs)

  4. Sequential priming with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) DNA vaccines, with or without encoded cytokines, and a replicating adenovirus-SIV recombinant followed by protein boosting does not control a pathogenic SIVmac251 mucosal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demberg, Thorsten; Boyer, Jean D; Malkevich, Nina; Patterson, L Jean; Venzon, David; Summers, Ebonita L; Kalisz, Irene; Kalyanaraman, V S; Lee, Eun Mi; Weiner, David B; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2008-11-01

    Previously, combination DNA/nonreplicating adenovirus (Ad)- or poxvirus-vectored vaccines have strongly protected against SHIV(89.6P), DNAs expressing cytokines have modulated immunity elicited by DNA vaccines, and replication-competent Ad-recombinant priming and protein boosting has strongly protected against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge. Here we evaluated a vaccine strategy composed of these promising components. Seven rhesus macaques per group were primed twice with multigenic SIV plasmid DNA with or without interleukin-12 (IL-12) DNA or IL-15 DNA. After a multigenic replicating Ad-SIV immunization, all groups received two booster immunizations with SIV gp140 and SIV Nef protein. Four control macaques received control DNA plasmids, empty Ad vector, and adjuvant. All vaccine components were immunogenic, but the cytokine DNAs had little effect. Macaques that received IL-15-DNA exhibited higher peak anti-Nef titers, a more rapid anti-Nef anamnestic response postchallenge, and expanded CD8(CM) T cells 2 weeks postchallenge compared to the DNA-only group. Other immune responses were indistinguishable between groups. Overall, no protection against intrarectal challenge with SIV(mac251) was observed, although immunized non-Mamu-A*01 macaques as a group exhibited a statistically significant 1-log decline in acute viremia compared to non-Mamu-A*01 controls. Possible factors contributing to the poor outcome include administration of cytokine DNAs to sites different from the Ad recombinants (intramuscular and intratracheal, respectively), too few DNA priming immunizations, a suboptimal DNA delivery method, failure to ensure delivery of SIV and cytokine plasmids to the same cell, and instability and short half-life of the IL-15 component. Future experiments should address these issues to determine if this combination approach is able to control a virulent SIV challenge.

  5. Changes in soluble factor-mediated CD8+ cell-derived antiviral activity in cynomolgus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251: relationship to biological markers of progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioszeghy, Vincent; Benlhassan-Chahour, Kadija; Delache, Benoit; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Aubenque, Celine; Gras, Gabriel; Le Grand, Roger; Vaslin, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that the capacity of CD8+ cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVmac-infected macaques to suppress the replication of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in vitro depends on the clinical stage of disease, but little is known about changes in this antiviral activity over time in individual HIV-infected patients or SIV-infected macaques. We assessed changes in the soluble factor-mediated noncytolytic antiviral activity of CD8+ cells over time in eight cynomolgus macaques infected with SIVmac251 to determine the pathophysiological role of this activity. CD8+ cell-associated antiviral activity increased rapidly in the first week after viral inoculation and remained detectable during the early phase of infection. The net increase in antiviral activity of CD8+ cells was correlated with plasma viral load throughout the 15 months of follow-up. CD8+ cells gradually lost their antiviral activity over time and acquired virus replication-enhancing capacity. Levels of antiviral activity correlated with CD4+ T-cell counts after viral set point. Concentrations of beta-chemokines and interleukin-16 in CD8+ cell supernatants were not correlated with this antiviral activity, and alpha-defensins were not detected. The soluble factor-mediated antiviral activity of CD8+ cells was neither cytolytic nor restricted to major histocompatibility complex. This longitudinal study strongly suggests that the increase in noncytolytic antiviral activity from baseline and the maintenance of this increase over time in cynomolgus macaques depend on both viral replication and CD4+ T cells.

  6. Changes in Soluble Factor-Mediated CD8+ Cell-Derived Antiviral Activity in Cynomolgus Macaques Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251: Relationship to Biological Markers of Progression†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioszeghy, Vincent; Benlhassan-Chahour, Kadija; Delache, Benoit; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Aubenque, Celine; Gras, Gabriel; Le Grand, Roger; Vaslin, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that the capacity of CD8+ cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVmac-infected macaques to suppress the replication of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in vitro depends on the clinical stage of disease, but little is known about changes in this antiviral activity over time in individual HIV-infected patients or SIV-infected macaques. We assessed changes in the soluble factor-mediated noncytolytic antiviral activity of CD8+ cells over time in eight cynomolgus macaques infected with SIVmac251 to determine the pathophysiological role of this activity. CD8+ cell-associated antiviral activity increased rapidly in the first week after viral inoculation and remained detectable during the early phase of infection. The net increase in antiviral activity of CD8+ cells was correlated with plasma viral load throughout the 15 months of follow-up. CD8+ cells gradually lost their antiviral activity over time and acquired virus replication-enhancing capacity. Levels of antiviral activity correlated with CD4+ T-cell counts after viral set point. Concentrations of β-chemokines and interleukin-16 in CD8+ cell supernatants were not correlated with this antiviral activity, and α-defensins were not detected. The soluble factor-mediated antiviral activity of CD8+ cells was neither cytolytic nor restricted to major histocompatibility complex. This longitudinal study strongly suggests that the increase in noncytolytic antiviral activity from baseline and the maintenance of this increase over time in cynomolgus macaques depend on both viral replication and CD4+ T cells. PMID:16352548

  7. Genetic variants at chromosomes 2q35, 5p12, 6q25.1, 10q26.13, and 16q12.1 influence the risk of breast cancer in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Orr

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Male breast cancer accounts for approximately 1% of all breast cancer. To date, risk factors for male breast cancer are poorly defined, but certain risk factors and genetic features appear common to both male and female breast cancer. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have recently identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that influence female breast cancer risk; 12 of these have been independently replicated. To examine if these variants contribute to male breast cancer risk, we genotyped 433 male breast cancer cases and 1,569 controls. Five SNPs showed a statistically significant association with male breast cancer: rs13387042 (2q35 (odds ratio (OR  = 1.30, p = 7.98×10⁻⁴, rs10941679 (5p12 (OR = 1.26, p = 0.007, rs9383938 (6q25.1 (OR = 1.39, p = 0.004, rs2981579 (FGFR2 (OR = 1.18, p = 0.03, and rs3803662 (TOX3 (OR = 1.48, p = 4.04×10⁻⁶. Comparing the ORs for male breast cancer with the published ORs for female breast cancer, three SNPs--rs13387042 (2q35, rs3803662 (TOX3, and rs6504950 (COX11--showed significant differences in ORs (p<0.05 between sexes. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease; the relative risks associated with loci identified to date show subtype and, based on these data, gender specificity. Additional studies of well-defined patient subgroups could provide further insight into the biological basis of breast cancer development.

  8. Tracking past changes in lake-water phosphorus with a 251-lake calibration dataset in British Columbia: tool development and application in a multiproxy assessment of eutrophication and recovery in Osoyoos Lake, a transboundary lake in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fraser Cumming

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an active discussion about the potential and challenges of tracking past lake-water trophic state using paleolimnological methods. Herein, we present analyses of the relationship between modern-day diatom assemblages from the surface sediments of 251 fresh-water lakes from British Columbia and contemporary limnological variables. Total phosphorus (TP was significantly related to the modern distribution of diatom assemblages. The large size of this new calibration dataset resulted in higher abundances and occurrences of many diatom taxa thereby allowing a more accurate quantification of the optima of diatom taxa to TP in comparison to previous smaller calibration datasets. Robust diatom-based TP inference models with a moderate predictive power were developed using weighted-averaging regression and calibration. Information from the calibration dataset was used to interpret changes in the diatom assemblages from the north and south basins of Osoyoos Lake, in conjunction with fossil pigment analyses. Osoyoos Lake is a large salmon-bearing lake that straddles the British Columbia-Washington border and has undergone cultural eutrophication followed by recovery due to substantial mitigation efforts in managing sources of nutrients. Both diatom assemblages and sedimentary pigments indicate that eutrophication began c. 1950 in the north basin and c. 1960 in the southern basin, reaching peak levels of production between 1960 and 1990, after which decreases in sedimentary pigments occurred, as well as decreases in the relative abundance and concentrations of diatom taxa inferred to have high TP optima. Post-1990 changes in the diatom assemblage suggests conditions have become less productive with a shift to taxa more indicative of lower TP optima in concert with measurements of declining TP, two of these diatom taxa, Cyclotella comensis and Cyclotella gordonensis, that were previously rare are now abundant.

  9. 37 CFR 251.31 - Financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any stocks, bonds, or other securities, or deriving any income from the prohibited entity. (c) “Direct or indirect financial interest” shall not include— (1) Owning shares in any stock or bond mutual fund or blind trust which might have an interest in a prohibited entity but whose decisions to invest or...

  10. 24 CFR 92.251 - Property standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., as applicable, one of three model codes: Uniform Building Code (ICBO), National Building Code (BOCA), Standard (Southern) Building Code (SBCCI); or the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) one or two...) Housing that is constructed or rehabilitated with HOME funds must meet all applicable local codes...

  11. 15 CFR 904.251 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... taken to establish matters of aggravation or mitigation. (b) Objections and offers of proof. (1) A party...) Whenever evidence is excluded from the record, the party offering such evidence may make an offer of proof... the agency as an expert body. Where a decision or part thereof rests on official notice of a material...

  12. 25 CFR 700.251 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... international organizations when to do so without charge is an appropriate courtesy, or when the recipient is... established business custom (e.g., furnishing personal reference data to prospective employers of former...

  13. 37 CFR 251.40 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of royalty fees. This subpart does not apply to other arbitration proceedings specified by 17 U.S.C... Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of...

  14. 37 CFR 251.70 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Royalty Fee... provisions of subpart E generally regulating the conduct of proceedings shall apply to royalty fee...

  15. 36 CFR 251.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of motion picture, videotaping, sound recording, or any other moving image or audio recording... CFR parts 1500-1508, 7 CFR part 1b, Forest Service Manual Chapter 1950, and Forest Service Handbook... to the operation and support of skiing activities. Sound business management principles—a phrase that...

  16. Publications | Page 251 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The study assesses water quality change of the Akaki river system since the introduction of ... Local Governance and ICTs in Africa: Case Studies and Guidelines for ... focalization, subsidies on demand, decentralization and privatization.

  17. 47 CFR 0.251 - Authority delegated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...' comparative qualifications. (d) When an adjudicatory proceeding is before the Commission for the issuance of a... Collection Improvement Act of 1996, Public Law 104-134, 110 Stat. 1321, 1358 (1996) (DCIA), including, but...

  18. 36 CFR 251.57 - Rental fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration the reconditioning and maintenance of the government-owned or controlled structures, improvements... (that is, acting in an individual capacity), as opposed to those who are commercial, other corporate, or business or government entities, may, at their option, elect to make either annual payments or payments...

  19. 30 CFR 251.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., gas, and sulphur mean oil, gas, sulphur, geopressured-geothermal, and associated resources. Outer..., laboratory analyses of physical and chemical properties, well logs or charts, results from formation fluid... authorized to act on the Director's behalf. Exploration means the commercial search for oil, gas, and sulphur...

  20. 36 CFR 251.58 - Cost recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... resulting from an act of God, an act of war, or negligence of the United States; (iv) The application is for... by using the annual rate of change, second quarter to second quarter, in the Implicit Price Deflator...

  1. 251 - 258_Hajara_Mobile exhaust

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    Furthermore, there was no significant difference based on the type ... environmental stress which could be recommended in high traffic den ... may exert control over their gas exchange rate .... into the plants' system through the openings.

  2. 47 CFR 1.251 - Summary decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an attachment to pleadings filed by him pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Within 14 days... or memoranda of law. The presiding officer, giving appropriate weight to the nature of the proceeding... decision to the extent that the pleadings, affidavits, materials obtained by discovery or otherwise...

  3. 16 CFR 251.1 - The guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... introduction of a new product or service offered for sale at a specified price unless the offeror expects, in... and Labeling Regulation Regarding ‘Cents-Off’ and Guides Against Deceptive Pricing.”) (b) Meaning of... the sale of a product or service (See paragraph (f) of this section), an offer of “Free” merchandise...

  4. 40 CFR 60.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of coal through indirect heating of the coal through contact with a heat transfer medium. If the... heat transfer medium. (s) Transfer and loading system means any facility used to transfer and load coal... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants...

  5. 5 CFR 251.101 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS AGENCY RELATIONSHIPS WITH... to agency operations and personnel management. (c) The purposes of consultation and communication are... communication with organizations representing Federal employees and with other organizations under this part may...

  6. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., James Madison Memorial Building, Room LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000...: Copyright Office General Counsel/CARP, Room 403, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue...

  7. 24 CFR 207.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... laws of the State, district or territory in which the real estate is located, together with the credit.... (d) The term insured mortgage means a mortgage which has been insured by the endorsement of the credit instrument by the Commissioner, or his duly authorized representative. (e) The term contract of...

  8. 24 CFR 203.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that stands for “Technology Open to Approved Lenders.” TOTAL is a mortgage scorecard based on a... substitute for the mortgagee's reasonable consideration of risk and credit worthiness. Direct Endorsement...

  9. 36 CFR 251.53 - Authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... structures and facilities for recreation, public convenience, or safety; (ii) industrial or commercial... stores; (e) Permits or easements for a right-of-way for a pipeline for the transportation of oil, gas, or...

  10. 44 CFR 206.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Public Assistance Insurance Requirements... result of a major disaster. (b) Building means a walled and roofed structure, other than a gas, or liquid storage tank, that is principally above ground and affixed to a permanent site, as well as a manufactured...

  11. 36 CFR 251.121 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... partnership, limited partnership, joint venture, or individual entrepreneurship, a beneficial ownership of or..., have the intention of returning to it. (2) For corporations, partnerships, limited partnerships, joint ventures, individual entrepreneurships, and other circumstances—where the controlling interest is held by...

  12. Publications | Page 251 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rules of origin and development of regional production network in Asia : case studies of selected industries (restricted access). Simpler Rules of Origin (RoO) with product specific rules can act as a catalyst in trade even if tariff rates are not low. Sector specific restrictiveness across trade agreements are assessed, in view of ...

  13. Preparation of thin nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1979-03-01

    Thin film backings, sources and targets are needed for many applications in low energy nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry experiments. A survey of techniques used in the preparation of nuclear targets is first briefly discussed. These are classified as chemical, mechanical and physical preparations. Vacuum evaporation, being the most generally used technique, is discussed in detail. It is highly desirable to monitor the film thickness and control the deposition rate during evaporation and to measure the final target thickness after deposition has concluded. The relative merits of various thickness measuring techniques are described. Stages in the fabrication and mounting of self-supporting foils are described in detail, with emphasis given to the preparation of thin self-supporting carbon foils used as target backings and stripper foils. Various target backings, and the merits of the more generally used release agents are described in detail. The preparations of more difficult elemental targets are discussed, and a comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  14. Spallation source neutron target systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.; Brown, R.; Collier, M.; Donahue, J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report for a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to design a next-generation spallation source neutron target system for the Manuel Lujan, Jr., Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos. It has been recognized for some time that new advanced neutron sources are needed in the US if the country is to maintain a competitive position in several important scientific and technological areas. A recent DOE panel concluded that the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (a nuclear reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and a high-power pulsed spallation source are both needed in the near future. One of the most technically challenging designs for a spallation source is the target station itself and, more specifically, the target-moderator-reflector arrangement. Los Alamos has demonstrated capabilities in designing, building, and operating high-power spallation-neutron-source target stations. Most of the new design ideas proposed worldwide for target system design for the next generation pulsed spallation source have either been conceived and implemented at LANSCE or proposed by LANSCE target system designers. These concepts include split targets, flux-trap moderators, back scattering and composite moderators, and composite reflectors

  15. Simulations of effusion from ISOL target/ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the low- and high-conductivity Target/Ion Source systems used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for effusion measurements are performed. Comparisons with the corresponding experimental data for the different geometries are presented and discussed. Independent checks of the simulation using data for simple geometries and using the conductance approach well known in vacuum technology are performed. A simulation-based comparison between the low- and high-conductivity systems is also presented

  16. PENETAPAN TARGET TERHADAP STICKINESS COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windyastuti Windyastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the influence of manager targeting to the stickiness cost. The research data was amanufacturing company’s financial statements during 1999-2011 published at BEI. The research data includedcost of sales, administration and general, net sales and Price Earnings Ratio (PER. This study used adynamic panel data regression analysis. The results showed that cost of sales, administration and general weresticky. Furthermore, manager targeting caused the stickiness degree of sales, administration and general costlower. Manager targeting changed the manager’s behavior. When the net sales declined, manager reduced theresource use drastically so the cost of sales, administration and general also decreased drastically.

  17. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Guillermina; Villarreal, Jose E.; Garcia, Laura; Tendilla, Jose I.; Paredes, Lydia; Murphy, Consuelo A.; Pedraza, Martha

    2001-01-01

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry

  18. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS....... Levels of evidence, strength of recommendations and levels of agreement were derived. RESULTS: The treat-to-target activity resulted in 10 recommendations. The treatment aim was defined as remission with low disease activity being an alternative goal in patients with long-standing disease. Regular follow...

  19. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to approx.4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented

  20. Obstacles to Effective Joint Targeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patch, John

    2007-01-01

    .... Notwithstanding the most precise and capable weaponry ever, any targeting effort absent coherent strategy or executed outside the art and rules of war can spell campaign defeat even amidst tactical successes...

  1. Immunotherapy Targets Common Cancer Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a study of an immune therapy for colorectal cancer that involved a single patient, researchers identified a method for targeting the cancer-causing protein produced by a mutant form of the KRAS gene.

  2. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov......–Zhabotinsky reaction catalyzed by ruthenium-tris-bipyridyl are presented. Moving target and spiral foci are found, and the speed and direction of movement of single as well as double spiral foci are investigated. For the experiments analyzed in this paper it is found that the movement of a focus correlates with foci...

  3. Obstacles to Effective Joint Targeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patch, John

    2007-01-01

    No foe can beat the modern-day American military machine in combined arms warfare, yet this machine is subject to strategic targeting vulnerabilities that military and policy leaders would do well to appreciate...

  4. Vascular targeting with peptide libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, R. [La Jolla Cancer Research Center The Burnham Inst., La Jolla CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The authors have developed an 'in vivo' selection system in which phage capable of selective homing to different tissues are recovered from a phage display peptide library following intravenous administration. Using this strategy, they have isolate several organ and tumor-homing peptides. They have shown that each of those peptides binds of different receptors that are selectively expressed on the vasculature of the target tissue. The tumor-homing peptides bind to receptors that are up regulated in tumor angiogenic vasculature. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to angiogenic vasculature using these peptides in animals models decrease toxicity and increased the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Vascular targeting may facilitate the development of other treatment strategies that rely on inhibition of angio genesis and lead to advances to extend the potential for targeting of drugs, genes and radionuclides in the context of many diseases.

  5. Navy Advertising: Targeting Generation Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT NAVY ADVERTISING : TARGETING GENERATION Z December......study recommends improvements for Navy advertising efficiency by examining characteristics of recruits defined as Generation Z. Data gathered from five

  6. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  7. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere

  8. Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy in oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Keshtgar, Mohammed; Wenz, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy is a major advance in the management of cancer patients. With an emphasis on practical aspects, this book offers an ideal introduction to this innovative  technology for clinicians.

  9. Special hydrogen target (Prop. 210)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, C.E.

    1979-11-01

    This guide contains a description of the electrical control and automatic vacuum systems for the Special Hydrogen Target (Prop. 210) together with the flow diagram and the mimic control panel layout for the system. (U.K.)

  10. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-01-01

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  11. Theoretical aspects of inflation targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflation targeting is one of the possible strategies used by central banks during conducting monetary policy. The basic characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of inflation targeting will be presented in this paper. The focus is on the the presentation and interpretation of the understanding of this strategy from the perspective of monetarist and Keynesian theory, the theory of rational expectations, and methodological analysis of the strategy in light of the game theory using payoff matrix.

  12. Targeting Splicing in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Effrosyni Antonopoulou; Michael Ladomery

    2018-01-01

    Over 95% of human genes are alternatively spliced, expressing splice isoforms that often exhibit antagonistic functions. We describe genes whose alternative splicing has been linked to prostate cancer; namely VEGFA, KLF6, BCL2L2, ERG, and AR. We discuss opportunities to develop novel therapies that target specific splice isoforms, or that target the machinery of splicing. Therapeutic approaches include the development of small molecule inhibitors of splice factor kinases, splice isoform speci...

  13. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0472 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lawrence Fong CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David Quigley...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We performed the screen of gastric cancer cell lines for their

  14. Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0413 TITLE: Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Buttitta CONTRACTING...Quiescence in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting uiescence in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0413 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A major problem in prostate cancer is finding and eliminating the non-proliferating or “quiescent” cancer cells. This is because early

  15. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0470 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yelena Janjigian CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York, NY 10065 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David

  16. Gas target with thin wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenchenko, A.S.; Korenchenko, S.M.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Filippov, A.I.; Fursov, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of targets manufacture with thin wall diameter 100 mm and lengthwise 700 mm from composition kevlar + epoxy resin is described. The test's results on pressure and vacuum are reported. The created targets are supposed to be used on the installation ARES for an investigation of muons and pions interactions with light nuclei and rare pions decay 'on flying'. 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  18. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  19. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  20. Market segmentation, targeting and positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on ...

  1. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Knapp DW. Targeting folate receptors to treat invasive urinary bladder cancer . Cancer Res 2013;73(2):875–884. 71. Holm J, Hansen SI, Hoier-Madsen M...purpose of this review, active targeting in cancer research encompasses strategies wherein a ligand for a cell surface receptor expressed on tumor...trafficking, thus impacting the efficacy of receptor -mediated drug delivery for cancer therapy. These factors include the following: (i) the rate of ligand

  2. Target-oriented chaos control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattani, Justine; Blake, Jack C.H.; Hilker, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Designing intervention methods to control chaotic behavior in dynamical systems remains a challenging problem, in particular for systems that are difficult to access or to measure. We propose a simple, intuitive technique that modifies the values of the state variables directly toward a certain target. The intervention takes into account the difference to the target value, and is a combination of traditional proportional feedback and constant feedback methods. It proves particularly useful when the target corresponds to the equilibrium of the uncontrolled system, and is available or can be estimated from expert knowledge (e.g. in biology and economy). -- Highlights: → We propose a chaos control method that forces the system to a certain target. → The intervention takes into account the difference to the target value. → It can be seen as a combination of proportional and constant feedback methods. → The method is very robust and highly efficient in the long-term. → It is particularly applicable when suitable target values are known or available.

  3. Target cells in internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessner, W

    2003-07-01

    Data related to radium induced bone sarcomas in humans are used as a model for defining target cells on bone surfaces and in the bone marrow. The differential distribution of radiation induced bone sarcoma types with a high ratio of non-bone producing, mainly fibroblastic tumours, challenges the ICRP concept that the bone lining cells are target cells. Multipotential mesenchymal stem cells are located within the range of alpha particles, and are the most likely target cells for the fibroblastic type of bone sarcoma. The histogenesis of bone sarcomas after irradiation with alpha emitters shows that their final histopathology is not dependent on a single target cell. Each target cell has a microenvironment, which has to be regarded as a synergistic morpho-functional tissue unit. For this the concept of 'histion', a term used in general pathology, is proposed. Interactions between target cells that have been hit by alpha-particles, leading to lethal, mutational or transformation events with all components of a 'histion', will prove critical to understanding the pathogenesis of both deterministic and stochastic late effects. (author)

  4. Target cells in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Data related to radium induced bone sarcomas in humans are used as a model for defining target cells on bone surfaces and in the bone marrow. The differential distribution of radiation induced bone sarcoma types with a high ratio of non-bone producing, mainly fibroblastic tumours, challenges the ICRP concept that the bone lining cells are target cells. Multipotential mesenchymal stem cells are located within the range of alpha particles, and are the most likely target cells for the fibroblastic type of bone sarcoma. The histogenesis of bone sarcomas after irradiation with alpha emitters shows that their final histopathology is not dependent on a single target cell. Each target cell has a microenvironment, which has to be regarded as a synergistic morpho-functional tissue unit. For this the concept of 'histion', a term used in general pathology, is proposed. Interactions between target cells that have been hit by alpha-particles, leading to lethal, mutational or transformation events with all components of a 'histion', will prove critical to understanding the pathogenesis of both deterministic and stochastic late effects. (author)

  5. Target assignment for security officers to K targets (TASK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, J.R.; Shelton, K.W.; Stunkel, C.B.

    1983-02-01

    A probabilistic algorithm is developed to provide an optimal Target Assignment for Security officers to K targets (TASK) using a maximin criterion. Under the assumption of only a limited number (N) of security officers, the TASK computer model determines deployment assignments which maximize the system protection against sabotage by an adversary who may select any link in the system, including the weakest, for the point of attack. Applying the TASK model to a hypothetical nuclear facility containing a nine-level building reveals that aggregate targets covering multiple vital areas should be utilized to reduce the number of possible target assignments to a value equal to or only slightly larger than N. The increased probability that a given aggregate target is covered by one or more security officers offsets the slight decrease in interruption probability due to its occurring earlier in the adversary's path. In brief, the TASK model determines the optimal maximin deployment strategy for limited numbers of security officers and calculates a quantitative measure of the resulting system protection

  6. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: koester@ill.fr; Arndt, O. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Franberg, H. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Joinet, A. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Jost, C. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Kerkines, I.S.K. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Zografou 157 71, GR (Greece); Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Kirchner, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  7. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, U.; Arndt, O.; Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Franberg, H.; Joinet, A.; Jost, C.; Kerkines, I.S.K.; Kirchner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  8. STOPGAP: a database for systematic target opportunity assessment by genetic association predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Judong; Song, Kijoung; Slater, Andrew J; Ferrero, Enrico; Nelson, Matthew R

    2017-09-01

    We developed the STOPGAP (Systematic Target OPportunity assessment by Genetic Association Predictions) database, an extensive catalog of human genetic associations mapped to effector gene candidates. STOPGAP draws on a variety of publicly available GWAS associations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) measures, functional genomic and variant annotation sources. Algorithms were developed to merge the association data, partition associations into non-overlapping LD clusters, map variants to genes and produce a variant-to-gene score used to rank the relative confidence among potential effector genes. This database can be used for a multitude of investigations into the genes and genetic mechanisms underlying inter-individual variation in human traits, as well as supporting drug discovery applications. Shell, R, Perl and Python scripts and STOPGAP R data files (version 2.5.1 at publication) are available at https://github.com/StatGenPRD/STOPGAP . Some of the most useful STOPGAP fields can be queried through an R Shiny web application at http://stopgapwebapp.com . matthew.r.nelson@gsk.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Review of polarized ammonium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Recently, ammonia (NH 3 ) and deutron ammonia (ND 3 ), instead of conventional alcohol substances, have been used more frequently as a polarized target substance for experiments of polarization at high energy regions. This article reviews major features of the polarized (deutron) ammonia targets. The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNT) method is widely used in high energy polarization experiments. While only a low polarization degree of hydrogen nucleus of 1.7 percent can be obtained by the Brute force method, DNP can produce polarization as high as ∼ 90 percent (2.5 T, ∼ 200 mK). In 1979, ammonia was irradiated with radiations to form NH 2 free radicals, resulting in the achievement of a high polarization degree of greater than 90 percent (hydrogen). Since then, ammonia and deutron ammonia have increasingly been replacing alcohols including butanol. Irradiation of a target substance with radiations destroys the structure of the substance, leading to a decrease in polarization degree. However, ammonia produces unpaired electrons as a result of irradiation, allowing it to be highly resistant to radiation. This report also present some study results, including observations on effects of radiation on the polarization degree of a target, effects of annealing, and polarization of 14 N. A process for producing an ammonia target is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  10. Polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Abdullah; Xiong, Xiao-Bing; Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2007-11-01

    Polymeric micelles are nano-delivery systems formed through self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in an aqueous environment. The nanoscopic dimension, stealth properties induced by the hydrophilic polymeric brush on the micellar surface, capacity for stabilized encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs offered by the hydrophobic and rigid micellar core, and finally a possibility for the chemical manipulation of the core/shell structure have made polymeric micelles one of the most promising carriers for drug targeting. To date, three generations of polymeric micellar delivery systems, i.e. polymeric micelles for passive, active and multifunctional drug targeting, have arisen from research efforts, with each subsequent generation displaying greater specificity for the diseased tissue and/or targeting efficiency. The present manuscript aims to review the research efforts made for the development of each generation and provide an assessment on the overall success of polymeric micellar delivery system in drug targeting. The emphasis is placed on the design and development of ligand modified, stimuli responsive and multifunctional polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

  11. China's energy efficiency target 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government has set an ambitious target: reducing China's energy intensity by 20%, or 4.36% each year between 2006 and 2010 on the 2005 level. Real data showed that China missed its target in 2006, having reduced its energy intensity only by 1.3%. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Chinese to achieve the target. This paper presents issues of macro-economy, population migration, energy savings, and energy efficiency policy measures to achieve the target. A top-down approach was used to analyse the relationship between the Chinese economic development and energy demand cycles and to identify the potentials of energy savings in sub-sectors of the Chinese economy. A number of factors that contribute to China's energy intensity are identified in a number of energy-intensive sectors. This paper concludes that China needs to develop its economy at its potential GDP growth rate; strengthen energy efficiency auditing, monitoring and verification; change its national economy from a heavy-industry-dominated mode to a light industry or a commerce-dominated mode; phase out inefficient equipment in industrial sectors; develop mass and fast railway transportation; and promote energy-efficient technologies at the end use. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for designing their policy to achieve China's energy efficiency target

  12. A triple axes multiple target holder assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribedi, L.C.; Narvekar, S.D.; Pillay, R.G.; Tandon, P.N.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a rotatable target holder assembly capable of accommodating 27 targets. The target foils are mounted along two concentric circles on a ss wheel. On the outer circle 18 targets can be mounted each 20deg apart, and on the inner circle the remaining targets are positioned each 40deg apart. The self supporting or carbon backed targets are mounted on thin frames and are placed concentrically at the targets are mounted on thin frames and are placed concentrically at the target position on the wheel. Three degrees of freedom are provided to the target holder assembly. (author). 1 fig

  13. Target-Centric Network Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence...... reporting formats, along with a tested process that facilitates the production of a wide range of analytical products for civilian, military, and hybrid intelligence environments. Readers will learn how to perform the specific actions of problem definition modeling, target network modeling......, and collaborative sharing in the process of creating a high-quality, actionable intelligence product. The case studies reflect the complexity of twenty-first century intelligence issues by dealing with multi-layered target networks that cut across political, economic, social, technological, and military issues...

  14. 3-Bromopyruvate: targets and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Maria C

    2012-02-01

    The pyruvate mimetic 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is generally presented as an inhibitor of glycolysis and has shown remarkable efficacy in not only preventing tumor growth, but even eradicating existant tumors in animal studies. We here review reported molecular targets of 3-BP and suggest that the very range of possible targets, which pertain to the altered energy metabolism of tumor cells, contributes both to the efficacy and the tumor specificity of the drug. Its in vivo efficacy is suggested to be due to a combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial targets, as well as to secondary effects affecting the tumor microenvironment. The cytotoxicity of 3-BP is less due to pyruvate mimicry than to alkylation of, e.g., key thiols. Alkylation of DNA/RNA has not been reported. More research is warranted to better understand the pharmacokinetics of 3-BP, and its potential toxic effects to normal cells, in particular those that are highly ATP-/mitochondrion-dependent.

  15. Pharmacogenomics of GPCR Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Chavali, Sreenivas; Masuho, Ikuo

    2018-01-01

    Natural genetic variation in the human genome is a cause of individual differences in responses to medications and is an underappreciated burden on public health. Although 108 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of 475 (∼34%) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs...... and account for a global sales volume of over 180 billion US dollars annually, the prevalence of genetic variation among GPCRs targeted by drugs is unknown. By analyzing data from 68,496 individuals, we find that GPCRs targeted by drugs show genetic variation within functional regions such as drug......- and effector-binding sites in the human population. We experimentally show that certain variants of μ-opioid and Cholecystokinin-A receptors could lead to altered or adverse drug response. By analyzing UK National Health Service drug prescription and sales data, we suggest that characterizing GPCR variants...

  16. Voyager 2 Neptune targeting strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, C. L.; Francis, K.; Matousek, S. E.; Cesarone, R. J.; Gray, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The success of the Voyager 2 flybys of Neptune and Triton depends upon the ability to correct the spacecraft's trajectory. Accurate spacecraft delivery to the desired encounter conditions will promote the maximum science return. However, Neptune's great distance causes large a priori uncertainties in Neptune and Triton ephemerides and planetary system parameters. Consequently, the 'ideal' trajectory is unknown beforehand. The targeting challenge is to utilize the gradually improving knowledge as the spacecraft approaches Neptune to meet the science objectives, but with an overriding concern for spacecraft safety and a desire to limit propellant expenditure. A unique targeting strategy has been developed in response to this challenge. Through the use of a Monte Carlo simulation, candidate strategies are evaluated by the degree to which they meet these objectives and are compared against each other in determining the targeting strategy to be adopted.

  17. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...... autonomous star tracker the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). One feature of this instrument is that potential targets are registered directly in terms of date, right ascension, declination, and intensity, which greatly facilitates both tracking search and registering. Results from ground and inflight tests...

  18. INFLATION TARGETING IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian Lungu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the inflation targeting approach in three transition economies, namely Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic with the use of Taylor rules as benchmarks. The three economies considered have been successful at achieving disinflation, but deviations of inflation from its target have been persistent in all cases. Except for the Czech Republic, deviations from the Taylor rule are large and persistent, with Hungary displaying the largest fluctuations. Polish interest rates have consistently exceeded those suggested by the Taylor rule and given the prevalence of high unemployment, these undershootings do not augur well for the stability of monetary policy. Finally, the behaviour of Czech interest rates can be remarkably captured by the simple Taylor rule proposed in this paper, suggesting that the Czech National Bank has been the most successful at stabilising inflation and output around their target levels.

  19. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  20. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  1. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  2. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection

  3. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0390 TITLE: Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zheng Li CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0390 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Zheng Li 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...14 Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast  Cancer   A. Introduction (1paragraph) The overall goal of this proposal is to prepare TrkC

  4. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....... to be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC...

  5. Targeted therapies for bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Therapy success in bone sarcoma is significantly better compared to history cohorts with 60 - 70 % overall survival to date. Unfortunately, there is yet no shift and movement in better survival of patients with relapsed and refractory bone sarcomas during last twenty years. This article reviews targeted therapeutics for bone sarcomas which are under investigation and which could give chance to patients suffering from relapsed and chemo resistant bone sarcomas. Majority of the targeted drugs are given as part of phase 1 or 2 studies. (author)

  6. The OPERA experiment Target Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, T; Borer, K.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Con-Sen, N.; de La Taille, C.; Dick, N.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grapton, J.-N.; Guyonnet, J.-L.; Hess, M.; Igersheim, R.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kocher, H.; Krasnoperov, A.; Krumstein, Z.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Moser, U.; Nozdrin, A.; Olchevski, A.; Porokhovoi, S.; Raux, L.; Sadovski, A.; Schuler, J.; Schutz, H.-U.; Schwab, C.; Smolnikov, A.; Van Beek, G.; Vilain, P.; Walchli, T.; Wilquet, G.; Wurtz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The main task of the Target Tracker detector of the long baseline neutrino oscillation OPERA experiment is to locate in which of the target elementary constituents, the lead/emulsion bricks, the neutrino interactions have occurred and also to give calorimetric information about each event. The technology used consists in walls of two planes of plastic scintillator strips, one per transverse direction. Wavelength shifting fibres collect the light signal emitted by the scintillator strips and guide it to both ends where it is read by multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. All the elements used in the construction of this detector and its main characteristics are described.

  7. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)

  8. Nuclear Security: Target Analysis-rev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surinder Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gibbs, Philip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bultz, Garl A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand target identification, including roll-up and protracted theft; evaluate target identification in the SNRI; recognize the target characteristics and consequence levels; and understand graded safeguards.

  9. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: saliba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl{sub x} dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of {sup 235}U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  10. Natural products to target inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allijn, Iris Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 Most Western lifestyle diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer have a chronic inflammatory process at its base. Therefore, inflammation is an important therapeutic target. Due to their potency, steroidal drugs dominate the current treatment of

  11. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references

  12. Targeted drugs in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaudon, V.; Hennequin, C.; Hennequin, C.

    2004-01-01

    New drugs aiming at the development of targeted therapies have been assayed in combination with ionizing radiation over the past few years. The rationale of this concept comes from the fact that the cytotoxic potential of targeted drugs is limited, thus requiring concomitant association with a cytotoxic agent for the eradication of tumor cells. Conversely a low level of cumulative toxicity is expected from targeted drugs. Most targeted drugs act through inhibition of post-translational modifications of proteins, such as dimerization of growth factor receptors, prenylation reactions, or phosphorylation of tyrosine or serine-threonine residues. Many systems involving the proteasome, neo-angiogenesis promoters, TGF-β, cyclooxygenase or the transcription factor NF-κB, are currently under investigation in hopes they will allow a control of cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, tumor angiogenesis and inflammation. A few drugs have demonstrated an antitumor potential in particular phenotypes. In most instances, however, radiation-drug interactions proved to be strictly additive in terms of cell growth inhibition or induced cell death. Strong potentiation of the response to radiotherapy is expected to require interaction with DNA repair mechanisms. (authors)

  13. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...

  14. CERN neutrino project on target

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at CERN announced the completion of the target assembly for the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso project, CNGS. On schedule for start-up in May 2006, CNGS will send a beam of neutrinos through the Earth to the Gran Sasso laboratory 730 km away in Italy in a bid to unravel the mysteries of nature's most elusive particles (½ page)

  15. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1977-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (<100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  16. Ion backscattering from layered targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, O.S.; Robinson, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    The present work investigated the reflection of hydrogen atoms, whose incident energy ranged from 0.01 to 1 keV, from layered targets. The calculations used the binary collisions computer program MARLOWE modified to treat layered target structures. Briefly, the projectile ion strikes the surface normally and is followed collision-by-collision until it leaves the surface again or until its energy falls below a present value (1 eV). Each collision consists of an elastic and an inelastic part. The elastic part is treated by classical scattering mechanics using the Moliere approximation to the Thomas-Fermi interatomic potential with the screening lengths proposed by Firsov. The inelastic part is described by the (nonlocal) electronic stopping theory of Lindhard et al. The calculations were made using MARLOWE to simulate amorphous solids, and a typical run consisted of following the motions of 1000-2000 incident particles. The targets studied were chosen to have large differences between the atomic numbers of the overlayer and the substrate in order to emphasize possible reflection differences from that of monoatomic targets

  17. Distinguishing targets in armed conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main object of international humanitarian law (IHL) is the amelioration of the effect of armed conflict on the populace. It seeks to accomplish this by establishing rules that ensure that objects the destruction of which will not give military advantage e are protected; thus, such objects are not to be targeted or destroyed.

  18. Pharmacogenomics of GPCR Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Chavali, Sreenivas; Masuho, Ikuo

    2018-01-01

    Natural genetic variation in the human genome is a cause of individual differences in responses to medications and is an underappreciated burden on public health. Although 108 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of 475 (∼34%) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and a...

  19. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live...

  20. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce 99 Mo- 99m Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl x dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of 235 U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  1. How are inflation targets set?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, R.; Matějů, Jakub

    -, č. 426 (2010), s. 1-35 ISSN 1211-3298 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) SVV-2010-261801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : inflation targeting * central bank * credibility Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp426.pdf

  2. Harnessing off-target effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saginc, Gaye; Voellmy, Franziska; Linding, Rune

    2017-01-01

    The 'off-targets' of a drug are often poorly characterized yet could be harnessed in the treatment of complex diseases. A recent study used a small-molecule screening in non-small-cell lung cancer to repurpose an FDA-approved ALK/IGF1R inhibitor and uncover its mechanism of action....

  3. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  4. Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Ray

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX. SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

  5. Target selection for direct marketing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, Jan Roelf

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we concentrated on the use ol direct mail for targeting potential buyers. The major characteristics that influences the success of a plomotional direct mail campaign are the of-fbr,the communication elements, the timing or sequence of these communication elements, and the list of

  6. Radioligand Recognition of Insecticide Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E

    2018-04-04

    Insecticide radioligands allow the direct recognition and analysis of the targets and mechanisms of toxic action critical to effective and safe pest control. These radioligands are either the insecticides themselves or analogs that bind at the same or coupled sites. Preferred radioligands and their targets, often in both insects and mammals, are trioxabicyclooctanes for the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, avermectin for the glutamate receptor, imidacloprid for the nicotinic receptor, ryanodine and chlorantraniliprole for the ryanodine receptor, and rotenone or pyridaben for NADH + ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Pyrethroids and other Na + channel modulator insecticides are generally poor radioligands due to lipophilicity and high nonspecific binding. For target site validation, the structure-activity relationships competing with the radioligand in the binding assays should be the same as that for insecticidal activity or toxicity except for rapidly detoxified or proinsecticide analogs. Once the radioligand assay is validated for relevance, it will often help define target site modifications on selection of resistant pest strains, selectivity between insects and mammals, and interaction with antidotes and other chemicals at modulator sites. Binding assays also serve for receptor isolation and photoaffinity labeling to characterize the interactions involved.

  7. Novel GABA receptor pesticide targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has four distinct but overlapping and coupled targets of pesticide action importantly associated with little or no cross-resistance. The target sites are differentiated by binding assays with specific radioligands, resistant strains, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Three of the targets are for non-competitive antagonists (NCAs) or channel blockers of widely varied chemotypes. The target of the first generation (20th century) NCAs differs between the larger or elongated compounds (NCA-IA) including many important insecticides of the past (cyclodienes and polychlorocycloalkanes) or present (fiproles) and the smaller or compact compounds (NCA-IB) highly toxic to mammals and known as cage convulsants, rodenticides or chemical threat agents. The target of greatest current interest is designated NCA-II for the second generation (21st century) of NCAs consisting for now of isoxazolines and meta-diamides. This new and uniquely different NCA-II site apparently differs enough between insects and mammals to confer selective toxicity. The fourth target is the avermectin site (AVE) for allosteric modulators of the chloride channel. NCA pesticides vary in molecular surface area and solvent accessible volume relative to avermectin with NCA-IBs at 20-22%, NCA-IAs at 40-45% and NCA-IIs at 57-60%. The same type of relationship relative to ligand-docked length is 27-43% for NCA-IBs, 63-71% for NCA-IAs and 85-105% for NCA-IIs. The four targets are compared by molecular modeling for the Drosophila melanogaster GABA-R. The principal sites of interaction are proposed to be: pore V1' and A2' for NCA-IB compounds; pore A2', L6' and T9' for NCA-IA compounds; pore T9' to S15' in proximity to M1/M3 subunit interface (or alternatively an interstitial site) for NCA-II compounds; and M1/M3, M2 interfaces for AVE. Understanding the relationships of these four binding sites is important in resistance management and in the discovery and use

  8. Cellular Targets of Dietary Polyphenol Resveratrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that resveratrol, a grape derived polyphenol, exerts its chemopreventive properties against prostate cancer by interacting with specific cellular targets, denoted resveratrol targeting proteins (RTPs...

  9. Exploiting target amplitude information to improve multi-target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrman, Lisa M.; Blair, W. Dale

    2006-05-01

    Closely-spaced (but resolved) targets pose a challenge for measurement-to-track data association algorithms. Since the Mahalanobis distances between measurements collected on closely-spaced targets and tracks are similar, several elements of the corresponding kinematic measurement-to-track cost matrix are also similar. Lacking any other information on which to base assignments, it is not surprising that data association algorithms make mistakes. One ad hoc approach for mitigating this problem is to multiply the kinematic measurement-to-track likelihoods by amplitude likelihoods. However, this can actually be detrimental to the measurement-to-track association process. With that in mind, this paper pursues a rigorous treatment of the hypothesis probabilities for kinematic measurements and features. Three simple scenarios are used to demonstrate the impact of basing data association decisions on these hypothesis probabilities for Rayleigh, fixed-amplitude, and Rician targets. The first scenario assumes that the tracker carries two tracks but only one measurement is collected. This provides insight into more complex scenarios in which there are fewer measurements than tracks. The second scenario includes two measurements and one track. This extends naturally to the case with more measurements than tracks. Two measurements and two tracks are present in the third scenario, which provides insight into the performance of this method when the number of measurements equals the number of tracks. In all cases, basing data association decisions on the hypothesis probabilities leads to good results.

  10. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Multi-targeted or single-targeted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekman, Fleur; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peters, Godefridus J

    2011-02-10

    Since in most tumors multiple signaling pathways are involved, many of the inhibitors in clinical development are designed to affect a wide range of targeted kinases. The most important tyrosine kinase families in the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors are the ABL, SCR, platelet derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor families. Both multi-kinase inhibitors and single-kinase inhibitors have advantages and disadvantages, which are related to potential resistance mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, selectivity and tumor environment. In different malignancies various tyrosine kinases are mutated or overexpressed and several resistance mechanisms exist. Pharmacokinetics is influenced by interindividual differences and differs for two single targeted inhibitors or between patients treated by the same tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Different tyrosine kinase inhibitors have various mechanisms to achieve selectivity, while differences in gene expression exist between tumor and stromal cells. Considering these aspects, one type of inhibitor can generally not be preferred above the other, but will depend on the specific genetic constitution of the patient and the tumor, allowing personalized therapy. The most effective way of cancer treatment by using tyrosine kinase inhibitors is to consider each patient/tumor individually and to determine the strategy that specifically targets the consequences of altered (epi)genetics of the tumor. This strategy might result in treatment by a single multi kinase inhibitor for one patient, but in treatment by a couple of single kinase inhibitors for other patients.

  11. Targeting an efficient target-to-target interval for P300 speller brain–computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Eric W.; Wang, Xingyu

    2013-01-01

    Longer target-to-target intervals (TTI) produce greater P300 event-related potential amplitude, which can increase brain–computer interface (BCI) classification accuracy and decrease the number of flashes needed for accurate character classification. However, longer TTIs requires more time for each trial, which will decrease the information transfer rate of BCI. In this paper, a P300 BCI using a 7 × 12 matrix explored new flash patterns (16-, 18- and 21-flash pattern) with different TTIs to assess the effects of TTI on P300 BCI performance. The new flash patterns were designed to minimize TTI, decrease repetition blindness, and examine the temporal relationship between each flash of a given stimulus by placing a minimum of one (16-flash pattern), two (18-flash pattern), or three (21-flash pattern) non-target flashes between each target flashes. Online results showed that the 16-flash pattern yielded the lowest classification accuracy among the three patterns. The results also showed that the 18-flash pattern provides a significantly higher information transfer rate (ITR) than the 21-flash pattern; both patterns provide high ITR and high accuracy for all subjects. PMID:22350331

  12. A blow-in windowless gas target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, K.; Motoshima, A.; Fujita, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Nishimori, N.

    1996-01-01

    A new-type windowless gas target has been developed to realize a dense target with a low gas flow rate. The target is similar to the conventional differentially pumped windowless gas target except that the target gas is blown into the target region from both the side holes of the beam entrance and exit. Due to the gas-confining action caused by the blown-in gas, the target thickness is about twice increased and the target density sharply falls in the holes. Most of the target gas is at rest and the density is uniform. The gas flow rate is the same as that of the conventional target and is about an order of magnitude lower than that of the dense gas-jet target. (orig.)

  13. Tritium target manufacturing for use in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, P.; Monnin, C.; Van Rompay, M.; Ballanger, A.

    2001-07-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium target on copper substrate, and going to more sophisticated devices. A wide range of possible uses is covered, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets for higher lifetimes, or large size rotating targets for accelerators used in boron neutron therapy. Activity of targets lies in the 1 to 1000 Curie, diameter of targets being up to 30 cm. Special targets are also considered, including surface layer targets for lowering tritium desorption under irradiation, or those made from different kinds of occluders such as titanium, zirconium, erbium, scandium, with different substrates. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output, or lifetime and stability, or thermal behavior.

  14. Cryogenic polarized target facility: status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, C.; Nash, H.K.; Roberson, N.; Schneider, M.; Seagondollar, W.; Soderstrum, J.

    1985-01-01

    The TUNL cryogenically polarized target facility consists of a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator and a superconducting magnet, together capable of maintaining samples at between 10 and 20 mK in magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla. At these temperatures and magnetic fields brute-force nuclear orientation occurs. Polarizations from 20 to 60% are attainable in about twenty nonzero spin nuclei. Most are metals, ranging in mass from 6 Li to 209 Bi, but the nuclei 1 H and 3 He are also polarizable via this method. The main effort is directed towards a better determination of the effective spin-spin force in nuclei. These experiments are briefly described and the beam stabilization system, cryostat and polarized 3 He targets are discussed

  15. Downstream targets of WRKY33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Klaus; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Mundy, John

    2008-01-01

    Innate immunity signaling pathways in both animals and plants are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. In a recent publication we show that MPK4 and its substrate MKS1 interact with WRKY33 in vivo, and that WRKY33 is released from complexes with MPK4 upon infection....... Transcriptome analysis of a wrky33 loss-of-function mutant identified a subset of defense-related genes as putative targets of WRKY33. These genes include PAD3 and CYP71A13, which encode cytochrome P450 monoxygenases required for synthesis of the antimicrobial phytoalexin camalexin. Chromatin...... immunoprecipitation confirmed that WRKY33 bound the promoter of PAD3 when plants were inoculated with pathogens. Here we further discuss the involvement of two other targets of WRKY33, NUDT6 and ROF2 in defense responses against invading pathogens....

  16. Targeted Learning in Healthcare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Susan

    2015-12-01

    The increasing availability of Big Data in healthcare encourages investigators to seek answers to big questions. However, nonparametric approaches to analyzing these data can suffer from the curse of dimensionality, and traditional parametric modeling does not necessarily scale. Targeted learning (TL) combines semiparametric methodology with advanced machine learning techniques to provide a sound foundation for extracting information from data. Predictive models, variable importance measures, and treatment benefits and risks can all be addressed within this framework. TL has been applied in a broad range of healthcare settings, including genomics, precision medicine, health policy, and drug safety. This article provides an introduction to the two main components of TL, targeted minimum loss-based estimation and super learning, and gives examples of applications in predictive modeling, variable importance ranking, and comparative effectiveness research.

  17. Targeting Wnt Pathways in Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Zachary F.; Moon, Randall T.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt-mediated signal transduction pathways have long been recognized for their roles in regulating embryonic development, and have more recently been linked to cancer, neurologic diseases, inflammatory diseases, and disorders of endocrine function and bone metabolism in adults. Although therapies targeting Wnt signaling are attractive in theory, in practice it has been difficult to obtain specific therapeutics because many components of Wnt signaling pathways are also involved in other cellular processes, thereby reducing the specificity of candidate therapeutics. New technologies, and advances in understanding the mechanisms of Wnt signaling, have improved our understanding of the nuances of Wnt signaling and are leading to promising new strategies to target Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:23001988

  18. Voyager 2 Uranus targeting strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, R. J.; Gray, D. L.; Potts, C. L.; Francis, K.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major challenges involved in the Voyager 2 Uranus flyby is to deliver the spacecraft to an appropriate aimpoint at the optimum time, so as to maximize the science return of the mission, while yet keeping propellant expenditure low. An unusual targeting strategy has been devised to satisfy these requirements. Its complexity arises from the great distance of the planet Uranus and the limited performance capabilities of Voyager. This selected strategy is developed in relation to a set of candidate strategies, mission requirements and shifting science objectives. The analysis of these candidates is conducted via a Monte Carlo simulation, the results of which yield data for the comparative evaluation and eventual and selection of the actual targeting strategy to be employed.

  19. Jet target intense neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    A jet target Intense Neutron Source (INS) is being built by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory with DOE/MFE funding in order to perform radiation damage experiments on materials to be used in fusion power reactors. The jet target can be either a supersonic or a subsonic jet. Each type has its particular advantages and disadvantages, and either of the jets can be placed inside the spherical blanket converter which will be used to simulate a fusion reactor neutron environment. Preliminary mock-up experiments with a 16-mA, 115 keV, H + ion beam on a nitrogen gas supersonic jet show no serious problems in the beam formation, transport, or jet interaction

  20. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark

    2014-05-01

    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  1. Super liquid density target designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.L.; Bailey, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    The success of laser fusion depends on obtaining near isentropic compression of fuel to very high densities and igniting this fuel. To date, the results of laser fusion experiments have been based mainly on the exploding pusher implosion of fusion capsules consisting of thin glass microballoons (wall thickness of less than 1 micron) filled with low density DT gas (initial density of a few mg/cc). Maximum DT densities of a few tenths of g/cc and temperatures of a few keV have been achieved in these experiments. We will discuss the results of LASNEX target design calculations for targets which: (a) can compress fuel to much higher densities using the capabilities of existing Nd-glass systems at LLL; (b) allow experimental measurement of the peak fuel density achieved

  2. Swimbladder on Fish Target Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.

  3. CATAMARAN targeted at innovative radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impens, N.; Aerts, A.

    2010-01-01

    In cancer therapy there is a great need for specific treatments: therapies that kill cancer cells selectively without affecting the healthy cells. In the CATAMARAN project (Cancer Targeting Molecules Attached to Radionuclides) SCK-CEN develops, in a preclinical trial, products that deliver the right radiation doses at the right place in the human body. With the new multidisciplinary expertise that has been built up in the project, SCK-CEN is contributing to new medical applications of radiation.

  4. Targeted advertising in magazine markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Ambarish; Kaiser, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    We examine the scope and value of targeted advertising in the magazine industry. We use data on reader characteristics at individual media, in contrast to previous work that has needed to infer this information from aggregate data. Our results show a strong relationship between subscriber characteristics and advertising prices. Advertisers clearly value more homogenous groups of readers, measured according to income, gender and age. Our results explain recent trends of declining advertising e...

  5. Peptide-targeted polymer cancerostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhmová, Eliška; Pola, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl. 2 (2016), S153-S164 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : HPMA copolymers * tumor targeting * peptides Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/65%20Suppl%202/65_S153.pdf

  6. Target Advertising and Market Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Stühmeier, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of increased transparency over online news sources, e.g. due to news aggregators, on online news outlets and the advertising industry. The role of news aggregators is controversially discussed, where the discussion widely points on user side effect. The present paper widens the discussion on the advertising side and shows that aggregators can help to better target advertising messages to a more homogenous group of users and, in turn, may both benefit advertiser...

  7. Targeting phenotypically tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of

  8. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    , the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread...... is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression....

  9. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  10. Therapeutic targets in liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallowfield, Jonathan A

    2011-05-01

    Detailed analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate liver fibrosis has provided a framework for therapeutic approaches to prevent, slow down, or even reverse fibrosis and cirrhosis. A pivotal event in the development of liver fibrosis is the activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to scar-forming myofibroblast-like cells. Consequently, HSCs and the factors that regulate HSC activation, proliferation, and function represent important antifibrotic targets. Drugs currently licensed in the US and Europe for other indications target HSC-related components of the fibrotic cascade. Their deployment in the near future looks likely. Ultimately, treatment strategies for liver fibrosis may vary on an individual basis according to etiology, risk of fibrosis progression, and the prevailing pathogenic milieu, meaning that a multiagent approach could be required. The field continues to develop rapidly and starts to identify exciting potential targets in proof-of-concept preclinical studies. Despite this, no antifibrotics are currently licensed for use in humans. With epidemiological predictions for the future prevalence of viral, obesity-related, and alcohol-related cirrhosis painting an increasingly gloomy picture, and a shortfall in donors for liver transplantation, the clinical urgency for new therapies is high. There is growing interest from stakeholders keen to exploit the market potential for antifibrotics. However, the design of future trials for agents in the developmental pipeline will depend on strategies that enable equal patient stratification, techniques to reliably monitor changes in fibrosis over time, and the definition of clinically meaningful end points.

  11. Fixed Target Collisions at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Kathryn C.

    2016-12-15

    The RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program was proposed to look for the turn-off of signatures of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), search for a possible QCD critical point, and study the nature of the phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter. Previous results have been used to claim that the onset of deconfinement occurs at a center-of-mass energy of 7 GeV. Data from lower energies are needed to test if this onset occurs. The goal of the STAR Fixed-Target Program is to extend the collision energy range in BES II to energies that are likely below the onset of deconfinement. Currently, STAR has inserted a gold target into the beam pipe and conducted test runs at center-of-mass energies of 3.9 and 4.5 GeV. Tests have been done with both Au and Al beams. First physics results from a Coulomb potential analysis of Au + Au fixed-target collisions are presented and are found to be consistent with results from previous experiments. Furthermore, the Coulomb potential, which is sensitive to the Z of the projectile and degree of baryonic stopping, will be compared to published results from the AGS.

  12. Treat to target in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Moreno-Lledó, Aitana; Urionagüena, Irati; Dickson, Alastair J

    2018-01-01

    The treat-to-target (T2T) approach has been successfully implemented in a number of diseases. T2T has been proposed for rheumatic diseases such as RA, spondyloarthritis, lupus, and recently for gout. The level of evidence for such approaches differs from one condition to the other (moderate to high for hyperlipidaemia, for example). Practice is based on the best available evidence at any time, and in absence of good evidence for T2T in gout, some suggest a conservative only-treat-symptoms approach. Evidence suggests that not treating gout to target in the long term is overall associated with worsening outcomes, such as flares, tophi and structural damage, which is associated to loss of quality of life and mortality. Different targets have been proposed for hyperuricaemia in gout; lower than 6 mg/dl (0.36 mmol/l) for all patients, at least gout. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A cryogenic infrared calibration target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R ⩽ 0.003, from 800 to 4800 cm-1 (12 - 2 μm). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10 000 cm-1 (25 - 1 μm) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R ⩽ 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to ˜4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials—Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder—are characterized and presented.

  14. Targeting the Brain with Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Felix; Cruz, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we review innovative nanomedicine-based approaches for treating, preventing and diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases. We focus on nanoscale systems such as polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), liposomes, micelles and other vehicles (e.g. dendrimers, nanogels, nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions) for targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to the brain. To ensure maximum selectivity for optimal therapeutic or diagnostic results, researchers must employ delivery systems that are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. This entails: (i) use of "safe" materials, such as polymers or lipids; (ii) targeting to the brain and, specifically, to the desired active site within the brain; (iii) controlled release of the loaded agent; and (iv) use of agents that, once released into the brain, will exhibit the desired pharmacologic activity. Here, we explore the design and preclinical use of representative delivery systems that have been proposed to date. We then analyze the principal challenges that have delayed clinical application of these and other approaches. Lastly, we look at future developments in this area, addressing the needs for increased penetration of the blood brain barrier (BBB), enhanced targeting of specific brain sites, improved therapeutic efficacy and lower neurotoxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Fixed-Target Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, William K.

    2001-01-01

    A tremendous amount of scientific insight has been garnered over the past half-century by using particle accelerators to study physical systems of sub-atomic dimensions. These giant instruments begin with particles at rest, then greatly increase their energy of motion, forming a narrow trajectory or beam of particles. In fixed-target accelerators, the particle beam impacts upon a stationary sample or target which contains or produces the sub-atomic system being studied. This is in distinction to colliders, where two beams are produced and are steered into each other so that their constituent particles can collide. The acceleration process always relies on the particle being accelerated having an electric charge; however, both the details of producing the beam and the classes of scientific investigations possible vary widely with the specific type of particle being accelerated. This article discusses fixed-target accelerators which produce beams of electrons, the lightest charged particle. As detailed in the report, the beam energy has a close connection with the size of the physical system studied. Here a useful unit of energy is a GeV, i.e., a giga electron-volt. (ne GeV, the energy an electron would have if accelerated through a billion volts, is equal to 1.6 x 10 -10 joules.) To study systems on a distance scale much smaller than an atomic nucleus requires beam energies ranging from a few GeV up to hundreds of GeV and more

  16. Internal magnetic target of proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachurin, V.V.; Kats, M.M.; Kondrat'ev, L.N.; Rogal', A.D.; Rusinov, V.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Proton extraction from a synchrotron by means of an internal target of magnetized iron is described. The particles that are aimed at the target pass directly through it and are deflected by the internal magnetic field of the target in the extraction direction. The general properties of magnetic targets are examined theoretically and a specific devices and results of its testing are described

  17. Ice targets for use at NTOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    This report describes ice targets which were used during an experiment at the Neutron Time of Flight facility (NTOF) at LAMPF. Reasons for using the ice targets are given, and the construction, refrigeration system, and target preparation are detailed. Results of the research using these ice targets will be published at a later date

  18. Application of fission track detectors to californium-252 neutron dosimetry in tissue near the radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, R.A.; Lanzl, L.H.; Rozenfeld, M.

    1981-01-01

    Fission track detectors were applied to a unique problem in neutron dosimetry. Measurements of neutron doses were required at locations within a tumor of 1 cm diameter implanted on the back of a mouse and surrounded by a square array of four 252 Cf medical sources. Measurements made in a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom showed that the neutron dose rate to the center of the tumor was 2.18 rads mg -1 h -1 +- 8.4%. The spatial variation of neutron dose to the tumor ranged from 1.88 to 2.55 rads mg -1 h -1 . These measurements agree with calculated values of neutron dose to those locations in the phantom. Fission track detectors have been found to be a reliable tool for neutron dosimetry for geometries in which one wishes to know neutron dose values which may vary considerably over distances of 1 cm or less

  19. Application of fission track detectors to californium-252 neutron dosimetry in tissue near the radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, R.A.; Lanzl, L.H.; Rozenfeld, M.

    1981-01-01

    Fission track detectors were applied to a unique problem in neutron dosimetry. Measurements of neutron doses were required at locations within a tumor of 1 cm diameter implanted on the back of a mouse and surrounded by a square array of four 252 Cf medical sources. Measurements made in a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom showed that the neutron dose rate to the center of the tumor was 2.18 rads micrograms-1 h-1 +/- 8.4%. The spatial variation of neutron dose to the tumor ranged from 1.88 to 2.55 rads micrograms-1 h-1. These measurements agree with calculated values of neutron dose to those locations in the phantom. Fission track detectors have been found to be a reliable tool for neutron dosimetry for geometries in which one wishes to know neutron dose values which may vary considerably over distances of 1 cm or less

  20. Neutron Protection Factor Determination and Validation for a Vehicle Surrogate Using a Californium Fission Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    study the laws governing shock wave propagation, and evaluate the suitability of military operations after being subjected to their use. During...14]. MCNP6.1 then outputs a dose spectrum, instead of the standard fluence spectrum created from the “ f4 ” tally [14]. In order to produce the dose...manually, an unmodified fluence tally ( f4 ) was exported externally to a spreadsheet. The energy bins were summed and grouped to mimic the energy bin