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Sample records for californium 251 target

  1. Californium Electrodepositions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, Rose Ann [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Electrodepositions of californium isotopes were successfully performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the past year involving two different types of deposition solutions, ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) and isobutanol ((CH3)2CHCH2OH). A californium product that was decay enriched in 251Cf was recovered for use in super-heavy element (SHE) research. This neutron-rich isotope, 251Cf, provides target material for SHE research for the potential discovery of heavier isotopes of Z=118. The californium material was recovered from aged 252Cf neutron sources in storage at ORNL. These sources have decayed for over 30 years, thus providing material with a very high 251Cf-to-252Cf ratio. After the source capsules were opened, the californium was purified and then electrodeposited using the isobutanol method onto thin titanium foils for use in an accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Another deposition method, ammonium acetate, was used to produce a deposition containing 1.7 0.1 Ci of 252Cf onto a stainless steel substrate. This was the largest single electrodeposition of 252Cf ever prepared. The 252Cf material was initially purified using traditional ion exchange media, such as AG50-AHIB and AG50-HCl, and further purified using a TEVA-NH4SCN system to remove any lanthanides, resulting in the recovery of 3.6 0.1 mg of purified 252Cf. The ammonium acetate deposition was run with a current of 1.0 amp, resulting in a 91.5% deposition yield. Purification and handling of the highly radioactive californium material created additional challenges in the production of these sources.

  2. Metabolism and toxicity of californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolism of californium can be compared with that of other transplutonium elements. The most important points are as follows: a fast blood clearance and fast bone uptake more important than liver uptake, a relatively high urinary excretion and kidney retention. Blood clearance of californium can be compared with that of americium. Distribution of californium 252 nitrate after intramuscular injection in rats was studied. There are very few experimental data on acute or long term toxicity of californium. (28 references)

  3. Magnetism in californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SQUID-based magnetic susceptometer has been constructed for studying small radioactive samples at temperatures below 350 K and in magnetic fields up to 50 kilogauss. The device has been used to study californium (element 98) in a number of solid-state forms: the dhcp metal, several oxides (Cf2O3 in both the bcc and monoclinic structures, Cf7O12, CfO2 and BaCfO3), several monopnictides (CfN, CfAs and CfSb) and the trichloride (in both the hexagonal and orthorhombic structures). All of these materials were studied in polycrystalline form, and hexagonal CfCl3 was studied in single-crystal form as well. The susceptometer has the sensitivity to measure samples containing less than 10 micrograms of californium. The magnetic susceptibilities of all of the californium materials at temperatures above about 100 K are described well by the Curie-Weiss relationship. This behavior is consistent with the assumption that the magnetic 5f electrons are localized and that the paramagnetic behavior can be interpreted in terms of the properties of the free ion. The measured values of the effective paramagnetic moment, μ/sub eff/, for all the californium materials that were studied are reasonably consistent with theoretical values based on intermediate coupling models. All of the californium materials showed some indications of cooperative magnetic effects. The dhcp metal was observed to order ferromagnetically at 52 K, and all of the californium compounds studied showed signs of antiferromagnetic ordering, mostly at temperatures below 25 K. 91 refs., 50 figs., 19 tabs

  4. Californium Multiplier (CFX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of 252Cf as an economical high-intensity neutron source has made it possible to construct compact neutron irradiation devices with widespread applications. The simplest such device consists of a single 252Cf source within a moderating and shielding medium. Higher neutron flux levels can be attained either through the use of more 252Cf or through source multiplication by means of a subcritical uranium assembly. Although the use of larger 252Cf sources to achieve higher neutron flux is technically straightforward, an economic penalty is paid as the source strength is increased. Larger californium sources imply larger initial investments to cover the cost of source material and larger operating costs resulting from the decay of the 252Cf source. A Californium Multiplier, the CFX, which produces a flux enhancement of 30 when compared to a conventional moderated 252Cf system has been designed, licensed, built, and tested by IRT Corporation. Such systems are now available on a commercial basis for both neutron radiography and neutron activation analysis. The first commercial CFX system was installed at the Research Laboratories of Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, NY, in March 1975. This device, using 1 mg of 252Cf, is very stable and the neutron flux generated by the CFX is very reproducible. The performance characteristics of this system are summarized

  5. Californium--palladium metal neutron source material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, B.L.; Mosly, W.C. Jr.; Smith, P.K.; Albenesius, E.L.

    1974-01-22

    Californium, as metal or oxide, is uniformly dispersed throughout a noble metal matrix, provided in compact, rod or wire form. A solution of californium values is added to palladium metal powder, dried, blended and pressed into a compact having a uni-form distribution of californium. The californium values are decomposed to californium oxide or metal by heating in an inert or reducing atmosphere. Sintering the compact to a high density closes the matrix around the dispersed californium. The sintered compact is then mechanically shaped into an elongated rod or wire form. (4 claims, no drawings) (Official Gazette)

  6. Californium-252 Neutron Sources for Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 neutron sources are being prepared to investigate the value of this radionuclide in diagnosing and treating diseases. A source resembling a cell-loaded radium needle was developed for neutron therapy. Since therapy needles are normally implanted in the body, very conservative design criteria were established to prevent leakage of radioactive. Methods are being developed to prepare very intense californium sources that could be used eventually for neutron radiography and for diagnosis by neutron activation analysis. This paper discusses these methods

  7. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  8. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  9. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 (252Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, 252Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of 252Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the 252Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, 252Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of 252Cf from ORNL is summarized herein

  10. Spontaneous Partitioning of Californium from Curium: Curious Cases from the Crystallization of Curium Coordination Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Samantha K.; Silver, Mark A.; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Jamie C.; Bogart, Justin A.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Arico, Alexandra A.; Hanson, Kenneth; Schelter, Eric J.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2015-12-07

    The reaction of 248CmCl3 with excess 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) under mild solvothermal conditions results in crystallization of the tris-chelate complex Cm(HDPA)3·H2O. Approximately half of the curium remains in solution at the end of this process, and evaporation of the mother liquor results in crystallization of the bis-chelate complex [Cm(HDPA)- (H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O. 248Cm is the daughter of the α decay of 252Cf and is extracted in high purity from this parent. However, trace amounts of 249,250,251Cf are still present in all samples of 248Cm. During the crystallization of Cm(HDPA)3·H2O and [Cm(HDPA)(H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O, californium(III) spontaneously separates itself from the curium complexes and is found doped within crystals of DPA in the form of Cf(HDPA)3. These results add to the growing body of evidence that the chemistry of californium is fundamentally different from that of earlier actinides.

  11. Californium-252 Neutron Therapy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 brachytherapy, believed to be the most successful source for neutron therapy, gives most of the cures as well as long-term and complication-free survivals. Chinese radiation oncologists were interested in californium neutron therapy (Cf-NT) in the early 1980s, but 252Cf sources for medical use were not available in China until 1992 when a californium joint venture was established by the China Institute of Atomic Energy (Beijing) and the Research Institute for Nuclear Reactors (Dimitrovgrad) of Russia. In 1995, 25 seeds of 252Cf with a strength of 3 μg each were sent to China for preclinical investigation. Three years later, a high dose rate (HDR) 252Cf source was imported and transferred into a home-made remote after-loader for intracavitary treatment in Chongqing, and a clinical trail was started in February 1999. This is the first time that Cf-NT was performed for cancer patients in China. Since then, Cf-NT in China has developed rapidly. It is estimated that one-tenth of those radiation oncology centers with brachytherapy practice will be equipped with californium units in 5 yr. That means more than 30 units will be in use in hospitals. That is significant compared with other countries, but it is just one, on average, for each province or one per 40 million people in China. Progress also has been achieved in the 252Cf treatment delivery equipment. Preliminary clinical trails showed complete response observed in all cases treated, with a rapid clearance of tumors and mild reactions in normal tissues. The short-term results are quite encouraging. To deal with problems due to the demand for Cf-NT in China, attention should be paid to the following particulars: (1) A high-strength miniature source is needed for HDR/MDR interstitial therapy to extend the Cf-NT coverage. (2) Basic work on radiophysics and radiobiology needs to be done, including source calibration, clinical dosimetry, clinical RBE determination, and Cf-NT quality assurance

  12. Californium-252 sales and loans at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and distribution in the United States of 252Cf has recently been consolidated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 252Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program and the 252Cf University Load Program, which were formerly located at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), have been combined with the californium production and distribution activities of the Transuranium Element Production Program at ORNL. Californium-252 is sold to commercial users in the form of bulk californium oxide, palladium-californium alloy pellets, or alloy wires. Neutron source capsules, which are fabricated for loans to DOE or other US government agencies, are still available in all forms previously available. The consolidation of all 252Cf distribution activities at the production site is expected to result in better service to users. In particular, customers for neutrons sources will be ale to select from a wider range of neutron source forms, including custom designs, through a single contact point

  13. Californium-252 encapsulation at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1 g of the neutron-emitting isotope californium-252 has been encapsulated at SRL for worldwide medical, industrial, and research uses. Bulk sales packages have been prepared for the USDOE sales program since 1971. Doubly-encapsulated sources have been prepared for USDOE's market evaluation program since 1968. Californium-252 sources for loan and sales packages satisfy the criteria for Special Form Radioactive Material. Encapsulation is performed in special neutron-shielded containment facilities at SRL. Development of improved source and shipping package designs and processes is continuing. 17 figures

  14. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 1011 neutrons s-1. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  15. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R C; Knauer, J B; Balo, P A

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10(11) neutrons s(-1). Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordinance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations. PMID:11003521

  16. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial

  17. Design, construction, and characterization of a facility for neutron capture gamma ray analysis of sulfur in coal using californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of neutron capture gamma ray analysis of sulfur in coal using californium-252 as a neutron source is reported. Both internal and external target geometries are investigated. The facility designed for and used in this study is described. The external target geometry is found to be inappropriate because of the low thermal neutron flux at the sample location, which must be outside the biological shielding. The internal target geometry is found to have a sufficient thermal neutron flux, but an excessive gamma ray background. A water filled plastic facility, rather than the paraffin filled steel one used in this study, is suggested as a means of increasing flexibility and decreasing the beackground in the internal target geometry

  18. Production of extra pure curium and californium preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations of curium-244,245,248 and californium-249,252 are used for the production of ionizing radiation sources for different applications and fundamental nuclear-physical investigations, placing high requirements on the radiochemical and chemical purity of the preparations. Extraction chromatography using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as extractant was chosen to prepare extra pure curium and californium preparations. In order to identify the optimal conditions of Cm-Cf separation and to remove impurities from them (reagent and other impurities), investigations were performed into the effect of impurities (Na+, Ca2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+ taken as example), extractant and eluent concentration and solution flow rate on the efficiency of mutual purification of Cm and Cf. Both theoretical and experimental estimations were made of the maximum concentration at which the impurities do not affect the process. The conditions chosen allow mutual purification of milligram amounts of Cm and Cf from impurity elements at E(pur) =102 - 103 during a single chromatographic cycle (E(pur) =>103) using a column with 5 - 10 cm3 volume. In this case the production yield exceeds 98%. The purification of milligram amounts of curium and californium from fission products (lanthanides in general, cerium in particular) was performed in D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 and D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3-Cit extraction chromatography systems. In order to establish the optimal conditions, the effect of [D2EHPA] and eluent on the mutual purification of Cm and Cf and on their purification from cerium and impurity elements was studied in the D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 system. During a single chromatographic cycle the mutual purification factors of TPE and of their purification from impurity cations achieve 102-103, from cerium - E(pur) > 10. In the D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3Cit system, the effect of concentration of extractant and eluent pH on the efficiency of Cm and Cf purification from lanthanides was

  19. Prompt neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum was measured in the energy range of 0.01 to 10 MeV by the time-of-flight technique using various neutron detectors. The measurements of 252Cf neutron spectrum at energies of 0.01 to 5 MeV were performed as a function of fission fragment kinetic energy. The mean neutron spectrum energy in the range of 0.7 to 10 MeV was found from the results of measurements. The irregularity in the 252Cf neutron spectrum in the neutron energy range of less than 0.7 MeV compared to theoretical values is discussed. The mechanism of 252Cf neutron emission is also discussed on the basis of neutron yield angle measurements. 12 references

  20. Solving the Hydration Structure of the Heaviest Actinide Aqua Ion Known: The Californium(III) Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Auwer, Ch.; Guillaumont, D. [CEA Marcoule, Nucl Energy Div, Radiochem Proc Dept, SCPS LILA, 30 (France); Galbis, E.; Pappalardo, Rafael R.; Marcos Sanchez, E. [Univ Seville, Dept Quim Fis, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Hernandez-Cobos, J. [Inst Ciencias Fis, Cuernavaca 62251, Morelos (Mexico); Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E. [Univ Paris Sud, Inst Phys Nucl Orsay, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    In summary, the first MC simulation of the trivalent cation of californium, based on an exchangeable hydrated ion-water intermolecular potential, has been shown to extend and improve the hydrated ion model. Likewise, the CfL{sub III}-edge EXAFS spectrum of an acidic 1 mm Cf(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3} aqueous solution recorded under optimized experimental conditions has greatly improved the signal/noise ratio of the only previously recorded spectrum. The comparison of the experimental EXAFS spectrum with the two computed ones, obtained from two different intermolecular potentials that predict eight (BP86) or nine (MP2) water molecules in the first coordination shell, leads to the conclusion that the lowest hydration number is preferred. Then, as Cf{sup III} is the heaviest actinide aqua ion for which there is experimental information, the actinide contraction is supported by the present study. (For U{sup III}, R{sub U-O}=2.56 Angstroms, and CN=9{+-}1; for Pu{sup III}, R{sub Pu-O}=2.51 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1; for Cm{sup III}, R{sub Cm-O}=2.47 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1). The role of the second hydration shell is important in defining the structure and dynamics of the Cf{sup III} aqua ion, but the contribution of second-shell water molecules to the EXAFS signal as back-scatters is marginal. Finally, this work gives an illustrative example of the benefits which can be achieved from the combination of experimental X-ray absorption spectroscopy and computer simulations. The usefulness of the simultaneous analysis of the results as well as the importance of the structural statistical average has been clearly demonstrated herein. Each technique independently was not adequate. We believe that this study traces out a still poorly explored combined methodology which may be extremely useful for many other complexes and chemical problems. A systematic theoretical and experimental examination of the other known actinide cations on the same basis should be undertaken to confirm the

  1. Separation of californium from actinides and lanthanides in aqueous solution by electrochemical formation of amalgams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical reduction of transneptunium elements (Pu to Cf) and rare earths (Eu, Tm) from aqueous complexing solutions to amalgams was studied over a wide range of cathodic potentials in order to achieve optimal separation of californium. The reduction in acetate media (pH 4.5-4.6) at potentials around -1.7 to -1.9 V1 leads to a quantitative extraction of californium into the mercury phase, while more negative potentials are required for the reduction of the lighter transuranium elements and of the lanthanides. Hence, the optimal conditions for the separation of californium from the investigated actinides and lanthanides were determined. Separation factors α between 25 and 90 were found except in the case of Cf/Eu, where poor values (α varying from 7 to 12) were observed. More negative cathodic potentials decrease the selectivity of the reduction process. A similar study with lithium citrate solutions (pH ∝6) shows that satisfactory separation of californium from lighter and heavier actinides is achievable. A separation factor of 88 is obtained for Cf/Am at -1.98 V. The anodic stripping of mixed amalgams (Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Tm and Cf) Hg in nitric and acetic acid soultions at potentials ranging from +0.1 to -0.7 V proceeds slowly and proved to be ineffective for the separation of californium from light actinides under conditions described. (orig.)

  2. On-line slurry analyses by californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In chemical processing technology on-line activation methods gain an increasing importance for process monitoring and control. A method is described according to which the different fluorspar contents at various strategic points of a flotation plant are determined through neutron activation by 100 μg californium-252. A continuous analytical system for onstream process control of slurries was designed and constructed. A compact facility, called SUSAC, allows continuous application of the method on an industrial scale. The main components of the SUSAC facility are the irradiation and measurement cells. The cells are equipped with multistage countercurrent stirrers ensuring a proper radial and vertical distribution of the sample. The hollow shaft of the stirrer of the irradiation cell houses the Cf-source. The NaI-detector has been installed in a recess in the bottom of the measuring cell. The volumes are 9 dm3 for the irradiation cell, 7.5 dm3 for the measuring cell, 1/2 dm3 for the vonnection line and 4 dm3 for feed and drainage lines including the pump. Investigations on the following topics are discussed: selection of stirrers, residence time, flow rate, pulp density, calibration measurements. (T.G.)

  3. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy

  4. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Byrne, T.E. [Roane State Community College, Harriman, TN (United States); Miller, L.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with {sup 252}Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of {sup 252}Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a {sup 252}Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded {sup 252}Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy.

  5. Proposed Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL has petitioned to establish a Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science for academic, industrial, and governmental researchers. The REDC Californium Facility (CF) stores the national inventory of sealed 252Cf neutron source for university and research loans. Within the CF, the 252Cf storage pool and two uncontaminated hot cells currently in service for the Californium Program will form the physical basis for the User Facility. Relevant applications include dosimetry and experiments for neutron tumor therapy; fast and thermal neutron activation analysis of materials; experimental configurations for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis; neutron shielding and material damage studies; and hardness testing of radiation detectors, cameras, and electronics. A formal User Facility simplifies working arrangements and agreements between US DOE facilities, academia, and commercial interests

  6. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Samantha K; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E; Stritzinger, Jared T; Green, Thomas D; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N; Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A; DePrince, A Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J; Van Cleve, Shelley M; House, Jane H; Kikugawa, Naoki; Gallagher, Andrew; Arico, Alexandra A; Dixon, David A; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resultant complex with respect to that predicted for the free ion. We expand on this by characterizing the americium and curium analogues for comparison, and show that these pronounced effects result from a second transition in periodicity in the actinide series that occurs, in part, because of the stabilization of the divalent oxidation state. The metastability of californium(II) is responsible for many of the unusual properties of californium including the green photoluminescence. PMID:25880116

  7. 25 CFR 700.251 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees. 700.251 Section 700.251 Indians THE OFFICE OF... § 700.251 Fees. (a) Services for which fees may be charged. (1) Unless waived pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (c) of this section, user fees shall be charged for document search and...

  8. 37 CFR 1.251 - Unlocatable file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unlocatable file. 1.251 Section 1.251 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.251 Unlocatable file. (a) In the event that the Office cannot locate the file of an...

  9. 5 CFR 251.101 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 251.101 Section 251.101... ORGANIZATIONS REPRESENTING FEDERAL EMPLOYEES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 251.101 Introduction... management officials and/or supervisors to the extent permitted by law. Under section 7(d)(2) and (3)...

  10. 14 CFR 29.251 - Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 29.251 Section 29.251... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Miscellaneous Flight Requirements § 29.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and...

  11. 14 CFR 27.251 - Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 27.251 Section 27.251... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Miscellaneous Flight Requirements § 27.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and...

  12. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  13. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.251 Standby power. Standby power shall be tested at...

  14. 15 CFR 904.251 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 904.251 Section 904.251... and Appeal Procedures Hearings § 904.251 Evidence. (a) In general. (1) At the hearing, every party has the right to present oral or documentary evidence in support of its case or defense, to...

  15. Fissile analysis of Hanford waste using Californium Multiplier/Delayed Neutron Counter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of low-level (10 ng/g or lower) fissile material (mainly plutonium) in Hanford waste and process samples is becoming increasingly important. A system has been designed consisting of a Californium Multiplier (CFX) and a Delayed Neutron Counter (DNC) to characterize these samples. This report describes hardware and analytical capability of the CFX/DNC system

  16. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  17. Californium (252Cf) and its use as neutron source in science medicine and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radionuclides in science and nuclear techniques basically is related to unstable isotopes, which are produced from stable elements in nuclear reactor. Their specifications are various from view point of application . Using of physical and chemical properties of radionuclides in chemistry, for with marking the organic compounds we can exactly explain the mechanism of chemical reactions in medical, biology and bio-chemistry. In these cases the behaviour of radionuclides is very important and the selection of the suitable radionuclides is determined between the elements for investigation aims. The special specification of radio-nuclides analysis such as, half-life, kind of ray and energy should be considered with an special accuracy as well as the laws security regulations from view point of ray-protection should be completely observed mean time working these radio-nuclides. It should be considered that application of radio-isotopes is very important from their special specifications point of view. Applying the radionuclides from technology point of view in sciences and nuclear techniques aren't only limited to three analyses of α, β, and γ, but we can use the share of neutron which are produced from spli ting of heavy nucleus such as Californium252 as a neutron source in the depths of the sea and also determining the concentration of low quantity elements on moon and other spheres. The radioisotope of Californium252 is a neutron useful radiator for investigation in nuclear medical and technology because of automatically rapid split to 3.2% Californium252 radiates 1.34 * 109N/m in each mil/GH which suitable replacement for neutron sources based on (a, n) reaction, for example, Radium-Brellium or Amersium-Brellium. The energy distribution of radiated neutrons from analyzing of Californium252 like the spectrum of neutron which is produced from splitting of U235, Pu239 nucleus has the maximum energy in quantity, En=1 MeV in the range of 1.5 MeV. The

  18. 7 CFR 251.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 251.2 Section 251.2 Agriculture... Administration. (a) Food and Nutrition Service. Within the United States Department of Agriculture (the... this section, any information on changes in program administration, including any changes...

  19. 40 CFR 436.251 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 436.251 Section 436.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Jade Subcategory §...

  20. 37 CFR 251.43 - Written cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 251.43 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.43 Written cases. (a) All parties who have filed a notice...

  1. 37 CFR 2.51 - Drawing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawing required. 2.51... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.51 Drawing required. (a) In an application under section 1(a) of the Act, the drawing of the mark must be a substantially exact representation of the...

  2. Contribution to clinical dosimetry of californium 252 sources used at Gustave Roussy institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of californium 252 sources are presented in the first part of the report. Dose measurements around Californium sources were performed with a pair of ionization multiplication chambers: the first one has an Aluminium wall and is filled with Argon, the second one a plastic tissue-equivalent gas. A set of experiments was performed in order to investigate the relative influence of beta rays on the response of both chambers. Besides the experimental work a computer program was written to calculate the dose distribution around the actual sources made of a series of small active sources placed in catheters. Theoretical data around small sources can be found in the litterature. The comparison between experimental results and theoretical ones has shown a good agreement. The computer program will be included as a sub-routine in the more general computer program used for patients treated with interstitial therapy

  3. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  4. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series

    OpenAIRE

    Cary, Samantha K.; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; GREEN, THOMAS D.; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A.; DePrince, A. Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J.; Van Cleve, Shelley M.; House, Jane H.; Kikugawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resu...

  5. 47 CFR 0.251 - Authority delegated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., 309, 315, 317) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 0.251, see the List of CFR... Collection Improvement Act of 1996, Public Law 104-134, 110 Stat. 1321, 1358 (1996) (DCIA), including,...

  6. The biarylpyrazole compound AM251 alters mitochondrial physiology via proteolytic degradation of ERRα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; González-Mariscal, Isabel; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Indig, Fred E; Bernier, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) directs the transcription of nuclear genes involved in energy homeostasis control and the regulation of mitochondrial mass and function. A crucial role for controlling ERRα-mediated target gene expression has been ascribed to the biarylpyrazole compound 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) through direct binding to and destabilization of ERRα protein. Here, we provide evidence that structurally related AM251 analogs also have negative impacts on ERRα protein levels in a cell-type-dependent manner while having no deleterious actions on ERRγ. We show that these off-target cellular effects of AM251 are mediated by proteasomal degradation of nuclear ERRα. Cell treatment with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B did not prevent AM251-induced destabilization of ERRα protein, whereas proteasome inhibition with MG132 stabilized and maintained its DNA-binding function, indicative of ERRα being a target of nuclear proteasomal complexes. NativePAGE analysis revealed that ERRα formed a ∼220-kDa multiprotein nuclear complex that was devoid of ERRγ and the coregulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1. AM251 induced SUMO-2,3 incorporation in ERRα in conjunction with increased protein kinase C activity, whose activation by phorbol ester also promoted ERRα protein loss. Down-regulation of ERRα by AM251 or small interfering RNA led to increased mitochondria biogenesis while negatively impacting mitochondrial membrane potential. These results reveal a novel molecular mechanism by which AM251 and related compounds alter mitochondrial physiology through destabilization of ERRα. PMID:23066093

  7. Measurements of integral cross sections in the californium-252 fission neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a low-scattering arrangement cross sections averaged over the californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were measured. The reactions 27Al(n,α)46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti(n,p), 54Fe,56Fe(n,p), 58Ni(n,p), 64Zn(n,p), 115In(n,n') were studied in order to obtain a consistent set of threshold detectors used in fast neutron flux density measurements. Overall uncertainties between 2 and 2.5% could be achieved; corrections due to neutron scattering in source and samples are discussed

  8. Measurement of californium-252 gamma photons depth dose distribution in tissue equivalent material. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phantom of tissue equivalent material with and without bone was used measuring depth dose distribution of gamma-rays from californium-252 source. The source was positioned at center of perspex walled phantom. Depth dose measurements were recorded for X, Y and Z planes at different distances from source. TLD 700 was used for measuring the dose distribution. Results indicate that implantation of bone in tissue equivalent medium cause changes in the gamma depth dose distribution which varies according to variation in bone geometry. 9 figs

  9. 36 CFR 251.97 - Oral presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral presentation. 251.97... presentation. (a) Purpose. An oral presentation provides an additional opportunity for an appellant, and other..., emphasize, and/or clarify information related to an appeal. Oral presentations are to be conducted in...

  10. 27 CFR 25.251 - Authorized removals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removal of Brewer's Yeast and Other Articles § 25.251 Authorized removals. (a) Brewer's yeast. A brewer may remove brewer's yeast, in liquid or solid form containing not... articles. A brewer may remove malt, malt syrup, wort, and other articles from the brewery. (e) Methods...

  11. 6 CFR 25.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.1 Purpose. This part implements the Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002, sections 441-444 of title 6, United States Code (the “SAFETY Act”...

  12. 36 CFR 251.55 - Nature of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of interest. 251.55 Section 251.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.55 Nature of interest. (a) A holder is authorized only to occupy such land...

  13. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  14. Complex based on Isthmin and RGD motif against glioma U251 cells%基于Isthmin和RGD基序的复合物对胶质瘤U251的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏颉; 曹磊; 王守森; 郑兆聪; 王如密; 汪君

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of complex based on Isthmin and RGD motif against glioma U251 cells.Methods The complex based on Isthmin and RGD motif was prepared,and the glioma U251 cell xenografts were established to observe the antitumor and antiangiogenesis effects of the complex in vivo and in vivo.Results The complex could induce U251 cell apoptosis and attack tumor endothelium cells,which inhibited the growth of glioma U251 cells and improved the lifespan of tumor bearing mice.Conclusion The complex based on Isthmin and RGD motif could dually target tumor and endothelium cells,which provided a promising strategy for glioma gene therapy.%目的 探讨基于Isthmin和BGD基序的复合物对胶质瘤U251的治疗效应.方法 构建Isthmin和RGD基序的复合物,并建立胶质瘤U251移植瘤模型,体内外观察其对U251细胞和血管内皮细胞的影响.结果 该复合物能有效诱导U251细胞的凋亡,抑制肿瘤血管的生成,从而抑制肿瘤的生长和延长荷瘤小鼠的平均生存率.结论 该复合物能同时靶向肿瘤和血管内皮细胞,为胶质瘤的基因治疗提供了较理想的策略.

  15. High-Spin Structures in the N = 153 Nucleus 251Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y.; Hota, S. S.; Chowdhury, P.; Guess, C. J.; Jackson, E. G.; Lister, C. J.; Prasher, V. S.; Khoo, T. L.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Greene, J.; Ahmad, I.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Chen, J.; Chiara, C. J.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Tandel, S. K.

    2013-10-01

    In continuation of our exploration of band structures in neutron-rich Cf nuclei using inelastic and transfer reactions, we report new spectroscopic observations in the 251Cf nucleus. High-spin states of neutron-rich Cf nuclei were populated using a 208Pb beam from the ATLAS facility at Argonne, incident on a radioactive target mixture of 249 , 250 , 251Cf. Prompt γ rays were detected by the Gammasphere array. Both signatures of the ground state band of 251Cf were observed for the first time, with enhanced signal-to-noise achieved through appropriate gates on sum energy and fold parameters. Assignment of the band structure to 251Cf is via coincidence with Cf X-rays as well as the excitation of the 208Pb beam partner. Configurations are assigned to the observed band from experimental M1/E2 branching ratios from clean decays within the band. Further data analysis is in progress, and the new results will be discussed in the context of physics of the highest neutron orbitals accessible to spectroscopy in the A = 250 region. Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumov, P. N., E-mail: ostroumov@anl.gov; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz.

  17. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz

  18. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U233 when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO2(NO3)4 and 18% of thorium Th(NO3)4 as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 107 s-1. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out keff <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  19. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P N; Barcikowski, A; Dickerson, C A; Perry, A; Pikin, A I; Sharamentov, S I; Vondrasek, R C; Zinkann, G P

    2015-08-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz. PMID:26329185

  20. Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide 252Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world's largest inventory of compact 252Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of ≤ 1011 neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 108 cm-2 s-1 at the sample. Total flux of ≥109 cm-2 s-1 is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the 252Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis

  1. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252Cf and 7000 rad from 226Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252Cf and 5000 rad from 226Ra

  2. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction 55Mn (n.gamma)56 Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of 56Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions 56Fe(n,p)56Mn and 59 Co (n, α)56 were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  3. Five-year cure of cervical cancer treated using californium-252 neutron brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female pelvic carcinoma is one of the common malignancies seen at the University of Kentucky Medical Center and often presents in an advanced stage. In 1976, the authors began to test californium-252 neutron brachytherapy (NT) for its efficacy for control of primary and recurrent advanced uterine, cervix, and vaginal cancers. The first protocol used was 5000-5500 rad of whole pelvis irradiation followed by 1-2 Cf-252 insertions using a single tandem placed in the utero-cervico-vaginal region. Of 27 patients with primary carcinomas treated, 10 are alive and well 5 year later (37%). Two of two recurrent tumors were locally controlled but failed later. These patients had advanced cervical, vaginal, or endometrial carcinomas. In 1977, a transitional year, treatment of only unfavorable stages and presentations with NT was initiated. Similar results were obtained with NT as compared to conventional photon therapy (PT). Further improvement in treatment results can be anticipated as NT brachytherapy is used for advanced cancer therapy by more effective treatment schedules and radiation doses. Cf-252 can be used as a radium substitute and achieved similar rates of tumor control and 5-year survivals. 21 references, 2 tables

  4. 7 CFR 251.4 - Availability of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of commodities. 251.4 Section 251.4... Availability of commodities. (a) General. The Department shall make commodities available for distribution and... receiving commodities under this part shall not diminish their normal expenditures for food because...

  5. 24 CFR 221.251 - Cross-reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.251... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cross-reference. 221.251...

  6. 14 CFR 21.251 - Limits of applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits of applicability. 21.251 Section 21.251 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... for which the manufacturer holds, or obtains, a type certificate; (3) The amendment of a...

  7. 37 CFR 251.12 - Conduct of open meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Access to Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Meetings § 251.12 Conduct of open meetings. Meetings of a....12 Section 251.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... possible. Reasonable access for the public will be provided at all public sessions. Any person may...

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHG251 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHG251 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16430-1 VHG251P (Link to Original ... mRNA f... 87 4e-16 DQ383787_1( DQ383787 |pid:none) Rhodomonas ... salina 82 kDa heat shoc... 86 5e-16 AF165818_7( AF ...

  9. 37 CFR 251.15 - Transcripts of closed meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... case of § 251.13(h) and at the discretion of the Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel, detailed minutes... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Public Access to Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Meetings § 251.15 Transcripts of...

  10. 36 CFR 251.59 - Transfer of authorized improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., voluntary sale, transfer, or through enforcement of a valid legal proceeding or operation of law, ceases to... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer of authorized improvements. 251.59 Section 251.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 37 CFR 251.30 - Basic obligations of arbitrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arbitrators. 251.30 Section 251.30 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF... they are violating the law or the ethical standards set forth in this subpart. (9) Arbitrators...

  12. Uptake and distribution of californium-252 chloride administered intraperitoneally, intravenously or intratracheally and the effect of in vivo DTPA chelation on intratracheal instillation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first phase of this investigation, comprising of three groups of animals, was designed to study the fate of californium-252 chloride administered intraperitoneally, intravenously or intratracheally. The second phase, which consisted of two groups of animals, was designed to examine the effectiveness of DTPA chelation therapy in accelerating the excretion and preventing the deposition of californium-252 chloride instilled into the lungs of rats. Immediately following the dose administration of 2 uCi of californium-252 chloride which was dissolved in 0.2 ml of 0.9% NaCl at pH 3.5, each rat was placed in a metabolism cage. Each rat in the first group of phase II was given intraperitoneal injection of CaNa3 DTPA (50 mg/kg) and each rat in the second group was given intraperitoneal injections of 0.9% NaCl. Injections of the DTPA or the NaCl sham were initiated immediately after the intratracheal administration of californium-252 chloride and were continued every three days until sacrifice. Following intraperitoneal, intravenous or intratracheal administration, the whole body retention of californium as a function of time was described by a three component exponential equation. For each mode of administration the short term component exhibited a biological half-life of between 5 and 10 hours; the intermediate component between 4 and 6 days; and the long term component between 200 and 300 days. The organ data obtained following intraperitoneal and intravenous administration were indistinguishable. On day one, the liver retained about 9% of the administered dose and the kidneys retained 2.4%. Retention for these organs decreased to about 1% by day 32. The femurs maintained an almost constant level of 4.5% of the injected dose over the 32 days. The lungs, spleen, heart, and testes showed significant retention of californium

  13. ENEA results in the international comparison organized by BIPM for the measurament of neutron fluxes of a Californium source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period between May 1978 and August 1984 under the auspices of Section III of CCEMRI of CIPM it has been carried out the international intercomparison of Californium neutron source emission rate. The previous intercomparison was based on Ra-Be (α -n) source measuraments, which took place between 1959 and 1965, and the results showed a total spread of +- 3%. Owing to the better accuracy achived over the following decade the Ra-Be intercomparison was no longer representative of the state of the art, therefore it was decided to arrange the intercomparison based on Californium which in the meantime reached a wide use in the world. Contributions to the intercomparison were received from fourteen laboratories representative of twelve Nations plus the BIPM. The results put into evidence a considerable advance on accuracy in the neutron source emission rate measuraments. The standard deviation of the residuals obtained from least square fit of normalized data resulted +- 0,57%. In the present report it is widely described the Manganese bath method used at ENEA, CRE Casaccia in Roma, and the experimental procedure followed for its absolute calibration. All measuraments are reported and analysed, including those effectuated for corrective factors determination. The final results obtained at ENEA for the circulated Californium source is (3,457 +- 0,013) 10*H7 neutron/s. The analysis of data from all partecipantes has been effectuated and concluded by J. Axton in March 1986 and the conclusions which have been showed in the present report put in evidence the satisfactory results achived by the ENEA

  14. Human Cytomegalovirus-Encoded miR-US25-1 Aggravates the Oxidised Low Density Lipoprotein-Induced Apoptosis of Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is linked to the development and severity of the cardiovascular disease atherosclerosis; however, there is little known about the promotion of atherosclerosis. miR-US25-1 is one of HCMV-encoded miRNAs and targets cellular genes that are essential for virus growth to control the life cycle of the virus and host cells. The prominent regulation on cell cycle genes of the miR-US25-1 attracts us to explore its role in the atherosclerosis promotion. It was indicated that miR-US25-1 level was upregulated in subjects or in endothelial cells with HCMV infection; and the miR-US25-1 downregulated the expression of BRCC 3 by targeting the 5′ UTR of BRCC 3. And a miR-US25-1 mimics transfection could reduce the EAhy926 cell viability but did not induce apoptosis in EAhy926 cells. And what is more, miR-US25-1 mimicis transfection deteriorated the ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and aggravated the upregulation of apoptosis-associated molecules by oxidised low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL in EAhy926 cells. And we have also confirmed the deregulation of BRCC 3 expression by miR-US25-1 by targeting the 5′ UTR of it. Given the vital role of BRCC 3 in DNA damage repairing, we speculated that the targeting inhibition of BRCC 3 by miR-US25-1 may contribute to the aggravation of ox-LDL-promoted apoptosis of endothelial EAhy926 cells.

  15. Feasibility and market potential of protein determination of wheat using californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the feasibility of protein determination by capture gamma-ray analysis using californium-252 neutrons, an in-situ protein analysis system for use by grain handlers has been examined. Three 227 kilogram (approximately) lots of wheat were used to determine the amount of nitrogen present. Protein analyses by the Kjeldahl method were obtained from samples taken before and after the capture gamma-ray analyses. The 5.267-MeV gamma-ray was selected for use in this study as a compromise between efficiency and interference from other elements. The associated counting equipment was a multichannel analyzer with pulse shaping electronic and analysis computing equipment. A linear regression program was used to compare the regions of interest to the Kjeldahl protein averages. The counts composing each peak were summed and normalized using the total count of the hydrogen peak. The normalized nitrogen percentages indicate a significant correlation between the spectral regions and the Kjeldahl analyses. To a first approximation, the value of wheat is the wheat protein. At the present time, protein testing of wheat is destructive, cumbersome, and time-consuming as compared to the potential for capture gamma-ray analysis testing. Assuming that such a protein analysis unit can analyze 42 tonne of wheat per hour, over 120 units would be needed to monitor one-half the U.S. annual wheat production. A 0.5% improvement in processor realizations and grain throughput value of $167.00 per tonne will result in a projected savings of $150,000 per year per unit

  16. Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and therapeutic gain factor (GF) for californium-252 at low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential benefit of the introduction of californium-252 in interstitial and intracavitary therapy is related to the greater efficiency of its neutron emission against anoxic cancer cells. In that respect, the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of the 252Cf emission has been determined for a continuous low dose rate irradiation. The biological system is growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. A new Vicia faba ''BelB'' strain has been used, which better tolerates long periods (up to about 10 hours) of anoxia. In a first series of experiments, for a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.11 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.4+-0.1 was observed (the γ contribution Dγ to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) was 0.35 at the position of the root tips). In a second series of experiments, in somewhat different geometrical conditions with a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.13 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.5+-0.1 was observed (Dγ/Dsub(n+γ)=0.42). The OER values observed for similar irradiation times, with iridium-192 γ-rays, were 2.3+-0.2 and 2.6+-0.1 respectively, which leads to therapeutic gain factors (GF) of 1.6 and 1.7 respectively. These GF values are slightly lower than those previously obtained (GF=1.8) on the same system, with d(50)-Be p(75)-Be and 15 MeV neutron beams

  17. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  18. Divalent and trivalent gas-phase coordination complexes of californium: evaluating the stability of Cf(ii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Phuong D; Shuh, David K; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Abergel, Rebecca J; Gibson, John K

    2016-08-01

    The divalent oxidation state is increasingly stable relative to the trivalent state for the later actinide elements, with californium the first actinide to exhibit divalent chemistry under moderate conditions. Although there is evidence for divalent Cf in solution and solid compounds, there are no reports of discrete complexes in which Cf(II) is coordinated by anionic ligands. Described here is the divalent Cf methanesulfinate coordination complex, Cf(II)(CH3SO2)3(-), prepared in the gas phase by reductive elimination of CH3SO2 from Cf(III)(CH3SO2)4(-). Comparison with synthesis of the corresponding Sm and Cm complexes reveals reduction of Cf(III) and Sm(III), and no evidence for reduction of Cm(III). This reflects the comparative 3+/2+ reduction potentials: Cf(3+) (-1.60 V) ≈ Sm(3+) (-1.55 V) ≫ Cm(3+) (-3.7 V). Association of O2 to the divalent complexes is attributed to formation of superoxides, with recovery of the trivalent oxidation state. The new gas-phase chemistry of californium, now the heaviest element to have been studied in this manner, provides evidence for Cf(II) coordination complexes and similar chemistry of Cf and Sm. PMID:27424652

  19. Hypoxic versus normoxic external-beam irradiation of cervical carcinoma combined with californium-252 neutron brachytherapy. Comparative treatment results of a 5-year randomized study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tačev, T.; Vacek, Antonín; Ptáčková, B.; Strnad, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 5 (2005), s. 273-284. ISSN 0179-7158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : cervical carcinoma * hypoxyradiotherapy * californium-252 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2005

  20. Protein engineering of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251

    OpenAIRE

    Penninga, Dirk

    1996-01-01

    An enormous diversity of molecular functions in living organisms is carried out by proteins. Our studies have focussed on the functional analysis of a starch-converting enzyme, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Bacillus circulans strain 251. Zie: Summary

  1. Dicty_cDB: SFK251 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFK251 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16397-1 SFK251F (Link to Original ... 03344 ) Dictyostelium discoideum mRNA for cysteine proteina ... 174 6e-40 1 ( M16039 ) Dictyostelium discoideum ... ts: (bits) Value ( P04989 ) RecName: Full=Cysteine proteina se 2; EC=3.4.22... 65 9e-10 protein update 2009. 1. ...

  2. Cytotoxic activity of allogeneic natural killer cells on U251 glioma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Wu, Tingting; Wan, Lixin

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to observe the cytotoxic activity of allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells on U251 glioma cells and to investigate their mechanism of action to establish an effective treatment strategy for neuroglioma. Cell survival curves, colony formation assays and karyotype analysis were performed to investigate the characteristics of U251 glioma cells. The present study demonstrated that natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D)‑major histocompatibility complex class I‑related chain A/B (MICA/B) interactions contributed to the cytotoxic effect of NK cells on K562 and U251 cells. In antibody‑blocking assays to inhibit NKG2D ligands, the cytotoxic activity was not completely attenuated, which suggested that other signaling pathways contribute to the cytotoxic activity of NK cells on tumor cells in addition to the NKG2D‑mediated activity. The present study identified that the expression levels of NKG2D ligands on the surface of target cells influenced the strength of the NK cell immune response. Furthermore, allogeneic NK cells were observed to kill glioma cells in vitro, and this anticancer activity is associated with the rate of NKG2D expression on the surface of glioma cells. PMID:27175912

  3. Transuranium element production. II. Chemical processing of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical processing described concerns small experimental targets irradiated in OSIRIS or EL-III and industrial targets irradiated in the CELESTIN reactors. In view of the difficulties encountered when processing highly irradiated targets (760MWd.kg-1) by liquid-liquid extraction (interface sludges leading to stable emulsion) the new processes developed are based on inverse phase chromatography. This technique applied to targets of americium 241, plutonium 239 and a plutonium mixture rich in isotope 242 has given tens of milligrams of curium 242, grams of americium 243 and curium 244 and micrograms of californium 252

  4. 36 CFR 251.56 - Terms and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plan governing the area (36 CFR part 219). (c) Preconstruction approvals. Forest Service approval of... Special Uses § 251.56 Terms and conditions. (a) General. (1) Each special use authorization must contain... and economic interests; (B) Manage efficiently the lands subject to the use and adjacent thereto;...

  5. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  6. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer, licensed... procedures for persons who have been denied the right to obtain a firearm as a result of a NICS...

  7. 37 CFR 251.32 - Financial disclosure statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nomination, each nominated arbitrator shall file with the Librarian of Congress a confidential financial... Librarian and designated Library staff to determine what conflicts of interest, if any, exist according to § 251.31. (b) If any conflicts do exist, the Librarian shall not choose that person for the...

  8. 48 CFR 2452.251-70 - Contractor employee travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor employee travel... 2452.251-70 Contractor employee travel. As prescribed in 2451.7001, insert the following clause in all cost-reimbursement solicitations and contracts involving travel: Contractor Employee Travel (OCT...

  9. 37 CFR 251.62 - Content of petition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Rate Adjustment Proceedings § 251.62 Content of petition. (a) In the case of a petition for rate adjustment... similar interests may file a petition jointly. (b) In the case of a petition for rate...

  10. 37 CFR 251.71 - Commencement of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Royalty Fee Distribution Proceedings § 251.71 Commencement of proceedings. (a) Cable. In the case... year in accordance with the requirements of this subchapter. (b) Satellite carriers. In the case...

  11. 37 CFR 251.45 - Discovery and prehearing motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.45 Discovery and prehearing motions. (a) Request for comment, notice of intention to participate. In the case of a royalty fee...

  12. 37 CFR 251.61 - Commencement of adjustment proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Rate Adjustment Proceedings § 251.61 Commencement of adjustment proceedings. (a) In the case of... programming exclusivity. (c) In the case of noncommercial educational broadcasting, a petition is...

  13. 37 CFR 251.4 - Arbitrator lists: Objections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Organization § 251.4 Arbitrator lists: Objections. (a) In the case of a rate adjustment proceeding... be objectionable. (b) In the case of a royalty distribution proceeding, any party to the...

  14. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of bFGF small interfering RNA increases levels of connexin 43 in the glioma cell line, U251

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongsheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background bFGF is an important growth factor for glioma cell proliferation and invasion, while connexin 43 is implicated in the suppression of glioma growth. Correspondingly, gliomas have been shown to have reduced, or compromised, connexin 43 expression. Methods In this study, a bFGF-targeted siRNA was delivered to the glioma cell line, U251, using adenovirus (Ad-bFGF-siRNA and the expression of connexin 43 and its phosphorylation state were evaluated. U251 cells were infected with Ad-bFGF-siRNA (100, 50, or 25 MOI, and infection with adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP at 100 MOI served as a control. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression levels, phosphorylation, and localization of connexin 43 in U251 cells infected, and not infected, with Ad-bFGF-siRNA. Results Significantly higher levels of connexin 43 were detected in U251 cells infected with Ad-bFGF-siRNA at 100 and 50 MOI than in cells infected with Ad-GFP, and the same amount of connexin 43 was detected in Ad-GFP-infected and uninfected U251 cells. Connexin 43 phosphorylation did not differ between Ad-bFGF-siRNA-infected and uninfected U251 cells. However, the ratio of phosphorylated to unphosphorylated connexin 43 in Ad-bFGF-siRNA cells was lower, and connexin 43 was predominantly localized to the cytoplasm. Using a scrape loading dye transfer assay, more Lucifer Yellow was transferred to neighboring cells in the Ad-bFGF-siRNA treated group than in the control group. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first description of a role for connexin 43 in the inhibition of U251 growth using Ad-bFGF-siRNA.

  15. 37 CFR 251.72 - Declaration of controversy: Initiation of arbitration proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Initiation of arbitration proceeding. 251.72 Section 251.72 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Royalty Fee Distribution Proceedings § 251.72 Declaration...

  16. 37 CFR 251.64 - Disposition of petition; initiation of arbitration proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; initiation of arbitration proceeding. 251.64 Section 251.64 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Rate Adjustment Proceedings § 251.64 Disposition of...

  17. 37 CFR 251.2 - Purpose of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.2 Section 251.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Organization § 251.2 Purpose of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels....

  18. 37 CFR 251.7 - Actions of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.7 Section 251.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Organization § 251.7 Actions of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels....

  19. 37 CFR 251.54 - Assessment of costs of arbitration panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arbitration panels. 251.54 Section 251.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.54 Assessment of costs...

  20. 37 CFR 251.6 - Composition and selection of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.6 Section 251.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Organization § 251.6 Composition and selection of...

  1. 36 CFR 251.23 - Experimental areas and research natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experimental areas and research natural areas. 251.23 Section 251.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Designation of Areas § 251.23 Experimental...

  2. 46 CFR 251.11 - Applications under Title VI, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications under Title VI, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended. 251.11 Section 251.11 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AID § 251.11 Applications under Title VI, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended. (a)...

  3. Operational experience with the Argonne National Laboratory Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade facility and electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R.; Clark, J.; Levand, A.; Palchan, T.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility provides low-energy and accelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics and astrophysics questions. A 350 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The ECR charge breeder has achieved stable beam charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+, 17.9% for 39K10+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 12.4% for 133Cs27+. For the radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The typical breeding times are 10 ms/charge state, but the source can be tuned such that this value increases to 100 ms/charge state with the best breeding efficiency corresponding to the longest breeding times—the variation of efficiencies with breeding time will be discussed. Efforts have been made to characterize and reduce the background contaminants present in the ion beam through judicious choice of q/m combinations. Methods of background reduction are being investigated based upon plasma chamber cleaning and vacuum practices.

  4. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  5. Results with the electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder for the 252Cf fission source project (Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade) at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is nearing completion. The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci 252Cf source; thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams, an existing ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source was redesigned to function as an ECR charge breeder. Thus far, the charge breeder has been tested with stable beams of rubidium and cesium achieving charge breeding efficiencies of 9.7% into 85Rb17+ and 2.9% into 133Cs20+.

  6. Preparation of actinide targets by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N.; Folger, H.

    1989-10-01

    Actinide targets with varying thicknesses on different substrates have been prepared by electrodeposition either from aqueous solutions or from solutions of their nitrates in isopropyl alcohol. With these techniques the actinides can be deposited almost quantitatively on various backing materials within 15 to 30 min. Targets of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and californium with areal densities from almost carrier-free up to 1.4 mg/cm 2 on thin beryllium, carbon, titanium, tantalum and platinum foils have been prepared. In most cases, prior to the deposition, the actinides had to be purified chemically and for some of them, due to the limited amount of material available, recycling procedures were required. Applications of actinide targets in heavy-ion reactions are briefly discussed.

  7. Inhibition of X-rays irradiaiton combined with thalidomide on glioma U251 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the inhibition effect of X-rays combined with thalidomide on glioma U251 cells, the cell scratch assay was used to detect the inhibition of thalidomide on U251 cells. And H3-TdR incorporation assay and colony formation were used to investigate the enhancement effect of thalidomide on the sensitivity of U251 cells to X-rays. It has been found that thalidomide has synergistic effect on therapy of glioma U251 cells if it is combined with X-rays irradiation as it can inhibit cells infiltration, DNA synthesis and colony formation. When the survival rate of glioma U251 cells is 50%, the radio-sensitization factors of 60 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL thalidomide is 1.18 and 1.51 respectively. The results reveal that thalidomide could significantly improve radio-sensitivity of glioma U251 cells. (authors)

  8. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Bouhafs, B.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young's modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  9. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  10. 37 CFR 251.36 - Pre-arbitration and post-arbitration employment restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-arbitration and post-arbitration employment restrictions. 251.36 Section 251.36 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES...

  11. Anatomy of a controversy: Application of the Langevin technique to the analysis of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis method for subcriticality determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expressions for the power spectral density of the noise equivalent sources have been calculated explicitly for the (a) stochastic transport equation, (b) the one-speed transport equaton, (c) the one-speed P1 equations, (d) the one-speed diffusion equation and (e) the point kinetic equation. The stochastic nature of Fick's law in (d) has been emphasized. The Langevin technique has been applied at various levels of approximation to the interpretation of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis (CSDNA) experiment for determining the reactivity in subcritical media. The origin of the controversy surrounding this method has been explained. The foundations of the CSDNA method as a viable experimental technique to infer subcriticality from a measured ratio of power spectral densities of the outputs of two neutron detectors and a third external source detector has been examined by solving the one-speed stochastic diffusion equation for a point external Californium-252 source and two detectors in an infinite medium. The expression relating reactivity to the measured ratio of PSDs was found to depend implicitly on k itself. Through a numerical analysis fo this expression, the authors have demonstrated that for a colinear detector-source-detector configuration for neutron detectors far from the source, the expression for the subcritical multiplication factor becomes essentially insensitive to k, hence, demonstrating some possibility for the viability of this technique. However, under more realistic experimental conditions, i.e., for finite systems in which diffusion theroy is not applicable, the measurement of the subcritical multiplication factor from a single measured ratio of PSDs, without extensive transport calculations, remains doubtful

  12. Application of SCGE assay, classical cytogenetics and FISH for studying in vitro californium-252 neutrons irradiations and BSH pretreatment on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there has been observed a tendency to apply various energy neutrons for tumor therapy and particularly low energy neutrons from various sources, including californium-252 source, for cancer radiotherapy based on the neutron capture. In this study peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells and three methods were applied to assess the effectiveness of californium-252 neutrons irradiations in vitro in normal cells or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with neutrons from isotopic 252Cf source at the Faculty of Nuclear Physics and Technics at University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with BSH (Na210B12H11SH) was done to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetics was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics and rings). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of whole genome) and pancentromeric probe was performed to evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations. Linear (or close to linear) increase of DNA damage and aberration frequency was observed with dose of radiation both for lymphocytes untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Very little differences (statistically insignificant) due to radiation dose and BSH pretreatment were observed in the frequencies of SCEs detected in the second mitosis. There is no significant difference between boron pre-treated and not treated cells, and even slightly higher effects were observed in case of the highest dose without BSH pretreatment. The level of translocations observed is comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. (author)

  13. TWOS - TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM, VERSION 2.5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenot, S. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is a special-purpose operating system designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation. TWOS is a complete implementation of the Time Warp mechanism, a distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation. Version 2.5.1 supports simulations and other computations using both virtual time and dynamic load balancing; it does not support general time-sharing or multi-process jobs using conventional message synchronization and communication. The program utilizes the underlying operating system's resources. TWOS runs a single simulation at a time, executing it concurrently on as many processors of a distributed system as are allocated. The simulation needs only to be decomposed into objects (logical processes) that interact through time-stamped messages. TWOS provides transparent synchronization. The user does not have to add any more special logic to aid in synchronization, nor give any synchronization advice, nor even understand much about how the Time Warp mechanism works. The Time Warp Simulator (TWSIM) subdirectory contains a sequential simulation engine that is interface compatible with TWOS. This means that an application designer and programmer who wish to use TWOS can prototype code on TWSIM on a single processor and/or workstation before having to deal with the complexity of working on a distributed system. TWSIM also provides statistics about the application which may be helpful for determining the correctness of an application and for achieving good performance on TWOS. Version 2.5.1 has an updated interface that is not compatible with 2.0. The program's user manual assists the simulation programmer in the design, coding, and implementation of discrete-event simulations running on TWOS. The manual also includes a practical user's guide to the TWOS application benchmark, Colliding Pucks. TWOS supports simulations written in the C programming language. It is designed

  14. Californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major production programs for the Savannah River reactors and the High Flux Isotopes Reactor at Oak Ridge have made 252Cf one of the most available and, at the USAEC's sales price of $10/μg, one of the least-expensive isotopic neutron sources. Reactor production has totaled approximately 2 g, and, based on expected demand, an additional 10 g will be produced in the next decade. The approximately 800 mg chemically separated to date has been used to prepare over 600 neutron sources. Most, about 500, have been medical sources containing 1 to 5 μg of 252Cf plated in needles for experimental cancer therapy studies. The remainder have generally been point sources containing 10 μg to 12 mg of oxide for activation, well logging, or radiography uses. Bulk sources have also been supplied to the commercial encapsulators. The latest development has been the production of 252Cf cermet wire which can be cut into almost contamination-free lengths of the desired 252Cf content. Casks are available for transport of sources up to 50 mg. Subcritical assemblies have been developed to multiply the source neutrons by a factor of 10 to 40, and collimators and thermalizers have also been extensively developed to shape the neutron flux and energy distributions for special applications. (U.S.)

  15. Calculations of Nuclear Astrophysics and Californium Fission Neutron Spectrum Averaged Cross Section Uncertainties Using ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and Low-fidelity Covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear astrophysics and californium fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections and their uncertainties for ENDF materials have been calculated. Absolute values were deduced with Maxwellian and Mannhart spectra, while uncertainties are based on ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and Low-Fidelity covariances. These quantities are compared with available data, independent benchmarks, EXFOR library, and analyzed for a wide range of cases. Recommendations for neutron cross section covariances are given and implications are discussed

  16. 8 CFR 251.3 - Departure manifests and lists for vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vessels. (a) Form I-418, Passenger List-Crew List. The master or agent of every vessel departing from the... compliance with section 251(c) of the Act. (b) Exception for certain Great Lakes vessels. The required...

  17. 29 CFR 779.251 - Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity. 779.251... Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.251 Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity... been processed or manufactured so as to have lost their identity as out-of-State goods before they...

  18. Localization of phosphorylated TrkA in carrier vesicles involved in its nuclear translocation in U251 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A number of transmembrane receptors are targeted to the nucleus and convincingly localized therein. However, what remains a conundrum is how these cell-surface receptors end up in the nucleus. In this study, we reported that the transmembrane receptor phosphorylated TrkA was located in a series of carrier vesicles, including ring-like vesicles near the plasma membrane, large core vesicles and small dense core vesicles around the nuclei, as well as in the nucleus in human glioma cell line U251 using immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Meanwhile, we also showed that small dense core vesicles budded from large core vesicles, and interacted with the nuclear envelope. Accordingly, our results suggested that such a series of membrane compartments might be involved in the pathway of nuclear translocation of the transmembrane receptor TrkA.

  19. Localization of phosphorylated TrkA in carrier vesicles involved in its nuclear translocation in U251 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG AiHua; ZHANG ZhiJian; XIAO DeSheng; YANG Yong; WANG YongZhong; CHEN YongChang

    2007-01-01

    A number of transmembrane receptors are targeted to the nucleus and convincingly localized therein.However, what remains a conundrum is how these cell-surface receptors end up in the nucleus. In this study, we reported that the transmembrane receptor phosphorylated TrkA was located in a series of carrier vesicles, including ring-like vesicles near the plasma membrane, large core vesicles and small dense core vesicles around the nuclei, as well as in the nucleus in human glioma cell line U251 using immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Meanwhile, we also showed that small dense core vesicles budded from large core vesicles, and interacted with the nuclear envelope. Accordingly,our results suggested that such a series of membrane compartments might be involved in the pathway of nuclear translocation of the transmembrane receptor TrkA.

  20. Radiosensitivity of brain cancer stem cells from malignant glicoma cell line U251 in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the radiosensitivity of brain cancer stem cells of different conditions isolated from malignant glioma cell line U251 irt vitro. Methods: The brain cancer stem cells in U251 or the brain cancer stem cells isolated from U251 were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays. TUNEL and Annexin-FITC were employed to detect the apoptosis. The brain cancer stem cells were subcutaneously transplanted to nude mouse. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle. Results: The brain cancer stem cells isolated from malignant glioma cell line U251 were in active cell cycle and sensitive to 60Co γ-rays. Thed apoptotic cells were increased obviously after irradiation. After subcutaneously transplanted to unde mouse, there was no tumor appear. However; the brain cancer stem cells existed in U251 were in G0-G1 and resisted to 60Co γ-rays. They differentiated into the parent glioma type after traqnsplantation. Conclusions: The brain cancer stem cells existed in the malignant glioma cell line is resisted to irradiation, and this phenomenon may explain the glioma relapse irt situ after radiation therapy. (authors)

  1. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel-Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Trellue, H. R.; Tobin, S. J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be orientation in the instrument.

  2. 24 CFR 983.251 - How participants are selected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) The protections for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in 25 CFR part 5.... (However, the PHA may deny assistance for the grounds specified in 24 CFR 982.552 and 982.553.) Admission of such families is not subject to income-targeting under 24 CFR 982.201(b)(2)(i), and such...

  3. Analysis of 251 cases of adverse drug reactions in our hospital report%我院251例药品不良反应报告分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐锦辉

    2013-01-01

      purpose: to understand adverse drug reactions in our hospital (Adverse Drug Reaction) the incidence and relevant factors, provide reference for rational drug use, avoid the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Methods: 251 cases on our 2011 colection statistics, analysis of ADR reports. Results 251 cases ADR report total involved 16 class drugs, vein drops note is caused ADR of main to drug way (201 cases); antibiotics occurred rate Supreme (142 cases), second is proprietary Chinese medicines (28 cases), and antipyretic analgesia drug (20 cases), and anti-tumor drug (16 cases), and effect blood and hematopoietic system of drug (12 cases); clinical performance main for skin and damage (99 cases), accounted for 39.44%, digestive system of of damage (75 cases) accounted for 29.88%. Conclusion: ADR is related to many factors relevant to clinical ADR monitoring work should be strengthened to reduce or avoid the occurrence of ADR.

  4. Chronic administration of AM251 improves albuminuria and renal tubular structure in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Kayte A; O'Keefe, Lannie; Simcocks, Anna C; Grinfeld, Esther; Mathai, Michael L; McAinch, Andrew J; Hryciw, Deanne H

    2015-05-01

    Modulation of the endocannabinoid system as an anti-obesity therapeutic is well established; however, the direct effects of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonism on renal function and structure in a model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterise the renal effects of the CB1 antagonist AM251 in a model of DIO. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low- or high-fat diet (HFD: 40% digestible energy from lipids) for 10 weeks to elicit DIO (n=9). In a different cohort, rats were fed a HFD for 15 weeks. After 9 weeks consuming a HFD, rats were injected daily for 6 weeks with 3 mg/kg AM251 (n=9) or saline via i.p. injection (n=9). After 10 weeks consuming a HFD, CB1 and megalin protein expression were significantly increased in the kidneys of obese rats. Antagonism of CB1 with AM251 significantly reduced weight gain, systolic blood pressure, plasma leptin, and reduced albuminuria and plasma creatinine levels in obese rats. Importantly, there was a significant reduction in tubular cross-section diameter in the obese rats treated with AM251. An improvement in albuminuria was likely due to the reduction in tubular size, reduced leptinaemia and maintenance of megalin expression levels. In obese rats, AM251 did not alter diastolic blood pressure, sodium excretion, creatinine clearance or expression of the fibrotic proteins VEGFA, TGFB1 and collagen IV in the kidney. This study demonstrates that treatment with CB1 antagonist AM251 improves renal outcomes in obese rats. PMID:25804605

  5. U-251 revisited: genetic drift and phenotypic consequences of long-term cultures of glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that in vitro subculture represents a selection pressure on cell lines, and over time this may result in a genetic drift in the cancer cells. In addition, long-term cultures harbor the risk of cross-contamination with other cell lines. The consequences may have major impact on experimental results obtained in various laboratories, where the cell lines no longer reflect the original tumors that they are supposed to represent. Much neglected in the scientific community is a close monitoring of cell cultures by regular phenotypic and genetic characterization. In this report, we present a thorough characterization of the commonly used glioblastoma (GBM) model U-251, which in numerous publications has been wrongly identified as U-373, due to an earlier cross-contamination. In this work, the original U-251 and three subclones of U-251, commonly referred to as U-251 or U-373, were analyzed with regard to their DNA profile, morphology, phenotypic expression, and growth pattern. By array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we show that only the original low-passaged U-251 cells, established in the 1960s, maintain a DNA copy number resembling a typical GBM profile, whereas all long-term subclones lost the typical GBM profile. Also the long-term passaged subclones displayed variations in phenotypic marker expression and showed an increased growth rate in vitro and a more aggressive growth in vivo. Taken together, the variations in genotype and phenotype as well as differences in growth characteristics may explain different results reported in various laboratories related to the U-251 cell line

  6. The prosurvival role of autophagy in Resveratrol-induced cytotoxicity in human U251 glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous study reported that resveratrol has anti-tumor activity. In this study, we investigated the involvement of autophagy in the resveratrol-induced apoptotic death of human U251 glioma cells. The growth inhibition of U251 cells induced by resveratrol was assessed with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT). The activation of autophagy and proapoptotic effect were characterized by monodansylcadaverine labeling and Hoechst stain, respectively. Mitochondrialtransmembrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured as a function of drug treatment using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1). The role of autophagy and apoptosis in the resveratrol-induced death of U251 cells was assessed using autophagic and caspase inhibitors. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis were used to study the apoptotic and autophagic mechanisms. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays indicated that resveratrol decreased the viability of U251 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that resveratrol increased cell population at sub-G1 phase, an index of apoptosis. Furthermore, resveratrol-induced cell death was associated with a collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk suppressed resveratrol-induced U251 cell death. Resveratrol stimulated autophagy was evidenced by punctuate monodansylcadaverine(MDC) staining and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) immunoreactivty. Resveratrol also increased protein levels of beclin 1 and membrane form LC3 (LC3-II). Autophagy inhibitors 3-methylademine (3-MA) and bafilomycin A1 sensitized the cytotoxicity of resveratrol. Together, these findings indicate that resveratrol induces autophagy in human U251 glioma cells and autophagy suppressed resveratrol-induced apoptosis. This study thus suggests that autophagy inhibitors can increase the cytotoxicity of resveratrol to glioma cells

  7. 30 CFR 251.11 - Submission, inspection, and selection of geological data and information collected under a permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 CFR part 250, subpart N; and (2) A permittee or third party that sells, trades, licenses, or... geological data and information collected under a permit and processed by permittees or third parties. 251.11... GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.11 Submission,...

  8. 30 CFR 251.13 - Reimbursement for the costs of reproducing data and information and certain processing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursement for the costs of reproducing data and information and certain processing costs. 251.13 Section 251.13 Mineral Resources MINERALS... certain processing costs. (a) MMS will reimburse you or a third party for reasonable costs of...

  9. 47 CFR 24.251 - Dispute resolution under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dispute resolution under the Cost-Sharing Plan... 1850-1990 Mhz Band § 24.251 Dispute resolution under the Cost-Sharing Plan. Disputes arising out of the cost-sharing plan, such as disputes over the amount of reimbursement required, must be brought, in...

  10. 8 CFR 251.5 - Paper arrival and departure manifests for crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from the United States must submit arrival and departure manifests in a paper format in accordance with... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paper arrival and departure manifests for... REGULATIONS ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.5 Paper arrival...

  11. 7 CFR 1710.251 - Construction work plans-distribution borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction work plans-distribution borrowers. 1710... LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.251 Construction work plans..., including the related costs of installation, is limited to capital equipment designed to influence the...

  12. Role of Autophagy in Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis in U251 Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Ping; Dong, Fu-Xing; Chai, Xiang; Zhu, Shuang; Zhang, Bao-Le; Gao, Dian-Shuai

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the role of capsaicin in cancer prevention and treatment has gained people's attention. However, the mechanism of anti-glioma cells by capsaicin has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the mechanism of capsaicin in U251 cells. Cell viability was detected by MTT and extracellular LDH measurements, while immunofluorescence was performed to measure changes of LC3 in U251 cells. The expressions of LC3II, Puma-α, Beclin1, P62, Procaspase-3, and P53 were observed by immunoblotting. The cell viability decreased and the punctate patterns of LC3 in U251 cells were observed after Capsaicin treatment. Meanwhile, the expressions of Beclin1, P62, and Puma-α increased. After using 3-MA, the expressions of Beclin1 and Procaspase-3 were reduced while those of P53 and Puma-α increased. The expression of LC3II was increased after Pifithrin-α treatment. Therefore, we believed that capsaicin could induce apoptosis in U251 cells, and the inhibition of autophagy could contribute to apoptosis. PMID:26351174

  13. 37 CFR 251.56 - Order of the Librarian of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Order of the Librarian of... PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.56 Order of the Librarian of Congress. (a... the determination of a panel, the Librarian of Congress shall issue an order accepting the...

  14. 37 CFR 251.53 - Report to the Librarian of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report to the Librarian of... PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.53 Report to the Librarian of Congress... Librarian of Congress a report incorporating its written determination. Such determination shall...

  15. 36 CFR 251.103 - Mediation of term grazing permit disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permit, in whole or in part, as authorized by 36 CFR 222.4 (a)(2)(i), (ii), (iv), (v), and (a)(3) through... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation of term grazing... Lands § 251.103 Mediation of term grazing permit disputes. (a) Decisions subject to mediation. In...

  16. 37 CFR 251.44 - Filing and service of written cases and pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.44 Filing and service..., as necessary. In no case shall a party tender any written case or pleading by facsimile...

  17. 37 CFR 251.47 - Conduct of hearings: Witnesses and counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.47 Conduct of hearings... may present its opening statement with the presentation of its direct case. (c) All witnesses shall...

  18. In vitro study on siRNA integrin α_vβ_3 gene expression inhibiting glioma U251 cells proliferation%siRNA干扰整合素α_vβ_3表达抑制脑胶质瘤细胞U251增殖的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵天书; 王策; 王雪峰; 董白晶; 孙庆喜; 张尧; 李利; 刘晓谦

    2010-01-01

    目的 探索特异性siRNA靶向干扰恶性胶质瘤U251细胞中INTα_vβ_3表达后对细胞生长的作用.方法 将INTα_vβ_3特异性siRNA经脂质体(LipofectamineTM~(2000))转染U251细胞.RT-PCR、免疫细胞化学和Western blot法检测INTα_vβ_3蛋白表达.MTT检测干扰后细胞增殖变化.结果 INTα_vβ_3特异siRNA对U251细胞增殖有明显抑制作用.siRNA组、脂质体组与对照组各时间点的结果 差异有统计学意义.免疫细胞化学对照组和脂质体组均见INTα_vβ_3呈绿色表达,siRNA组表达降低.Western blot法和RT-PCR结果 证实转染特异siRNA后的细胞在蛋白及mRNA水平均能抑制INTα_vβ_3的表达.结论 特异性siRNA可干扰INTα_vβ_3在脑胶质瘤U251细胞中的表达并抑制细胞增殖.%Objective Explore the specificity of siRNA interference targeting malignant glioma U251 cells, INTα_vβ_3 expression of cell growth after the role. Method U251 cells were transfected with INT α_vβ_3 specific siRNA by lipofectamine(LipefectamineTM~(2000)). RT-PCR, immune ceils staining and Western blot were used to determine the expression of INTα_vβ_3. Cell proliferation after the detection of changes in interference was tested by MTT. Results INTα_vβ_3 specific siRNA shown to inhibit U251 cell proliferation. There were statistical significance between siRNA group, liposome group and the control group at different time points. Green INTα_vβ_3 expression was found in control group and lipesome groups, and reduced in siRNA group. Western blotting and RT-PCR results shown that the expression of integrin could be inhibited by α_vβ_3 transfection in the protein and mRNA level Conclusions Integrin-specific siRNA INTα_vβ_3 can inhibit the U251 glioma cell proliferation.

  19. Biological Efficiency of Californium-252 Source Evaluated by Comet Assay, Classical Cytogenetics and FISH in Human Lymphocytes Irradiated without and with BSH Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological effectiveness of californium-252 source was evaluated after irradiations in vitro of normal or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells. DNA and chromosomal damage were studied to compare biological effectiveness of irradiation. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with the isotopic source of 252Cf, at the Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques at the University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in ''infinite'' polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with Na210B12H11SH (BSH) was performed to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Single cell gel electrophoresis also known as the Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetic analysis was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics, rings and a centric fragments). To evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of the whole genome) was performed. Linear (or close to linear) increase with radiation dose were observed for the DNA damage and aberration frequencies in lymphocytes both untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Levels of translocations evaluated for the whole genome were comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. No significant differences were detected due to radiation dose in the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) detected in the second mitosis. No statistically significant differences were observed in various biological end-points between normal or boron pre-treated cells. (author)

  20. Radiosensitization and relative mechanisms of vanillin derivative BVAN08 on human glioma U-251 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To provide more convincing evidences and experimental data for exploring vanillin derivative BVAN08, 6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzaldehyde, as a new anticancer drug, and to investigate the effect on the growth, radiosensitization of human glioma cell line U-251 and the relative mechanism. Methods: The effect of BVAN08 on cell proliferation of U-251 and radiosensitivity to 60Co γ-rays (irradiation dose rate 2.3 Gy/min) were analyzed with MTT and colony-forming ability assay. Change in cellular morphology was observed by using light microscope. Change in cell cycle and apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. The autophagy was observed by using TEM (irradiation dose rate is transmission electron microscope). DNA-PKcs protein level was detected through Western blot analysis. Results: BVAN08 exhibited a dose- and time-dependent inhibition on the proliferation of U-251 cells during the concentration range of 10-100 mol/L (t=1.83-3.07, P50 at 48 h and 72 h after administration with BVAN08 were 55.3 and 52.7 mol/L, respectively. Obvious G2/M arrest was induced in U-251 cells after 4 h administration with BVAN08, and reached peck at 12 h. The G2/M population reached 63.3% in U-251 cells after 12 h administration of 60 μmol/L BVAN08 and kept increasing with the time, while both apoptosis and autophagic cell death were induced. The most effective radiosensitization time for BVAN08 treatment was 12 h before irradiation. The enhancement ratio of radiosensitivity was 3.14 for 20 μmol/L of BVAN08 12 h before 2 Gy irradiation. Conclusions: BVAN08 can induce apoptosis as radiosensitizing effect might be associated with the induction of G2/M arrest and inhibition of DNA-PKcs expression. BVAN08 seemed to be a promising radiosensitizing anticancer drug. (authors)

  1. Isoform of Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Inhibitor (VEGI72-251) Increases Interleukin-2 Production by Activation of T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Juan YAO; Min ZHANG; Xiao-Hui MIAO; Ping ZHAO; Shi-Ying ZHU; Hui DING; Zhong-Tian QI

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the recombinant variant of human vascular endothelial cell growth inhibitor, VEGI72-251, and compare its biological activities with that of its prototype VEGI24-174. The recombinant plasmid containing the variant VEGI72-251 gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The effects of the expressed VEGI72-251 on cell proliferations were checked in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line and certain tumor cell lines (ECV304 and B 16). The inhibition of VEGI72-251 on angiogenesis was detected in the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos. In comparison with VEGI24-174, the recombinant human VEGI72-251 seems to have no effect on the proliferation of endothelial cells and the angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane in vitro. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assaybased method was used for the measurement of interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) treated with VEGI72-251. PBMCs were pretreated with VEGI72-251 (1.25-12.50 μg/ml) for 24 h in vitro, and the IL-2 concentration in PBMC medium was increased from 354 pg/ml to 1256 pg/ml. It can be concluded that VEGI72-251 is able to increase the level of human IL-2 production by the activation of T lymphocytes. Differing from VEGI24-174 on anti-angiogenesis, VEGI72-251 may serve as an anti-cancer factor through its activation of T lymphocytes.

  2. 慢病毒介导的 RWDD3沉默对人胶质瘤 U251细胞增殖和侵袭的影响%Effects of lentivirus-mediated RWDD3 silencing on proliferation and inva-sion of human glioma U251 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范阳华; 祝新根; 吕世刚; 吴淼经; 柴毅; 叶敏华; 肖兵; 吴雷

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of RWDD3 gene silencing on the biological characteristics of human glioma U251 cells.METHODS: A lentiviral vector expressing RWDD3 shRNA was constructed and transfeeted into the U251 cells.The expression of RWDD3 at mRNA and protein levels was detected by real-time PCR and Western blot , re-spectively .The cell activity was determined by MTT assay .The colony formation ability was detected by the colony forma-tion assay .The cell proliferation ability was detected by BrdU incorporation assay .The cell invasion and migration were evaluated by Transwell assay .Flow cytometry was used to monitor the changes of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis .RE-SULTS:Recombinant lentivirus was successfully transfected into U 251 cells.Compared with the cells transfected with the scrambled shRNA and control cells, the cell activity, colony formation ability, and the invasive and migratory activities were inhibited, the cell cycle was arrested in G 0/G1 phase, and the apoptosis was increased in the U 251 cells transfected with RWDD3 shRNA ( P <0.05 ) .CONCLUSION: RWDD3 plays a vital role in proliferation and invasion of glioma cells.It may serve as a potential target of gene therapy for glioma .%目的:探讨沉默RWDD3表达对人胶质瘤U251细胞生物学特征的影响。方法:构建靶向RWDD3的shRNA重组慢病毒并转染U251细胞,通过real-time PCR和Western blot 在mRNA及蛋白水平鉴定转染结果。MTT法检测转染后细胞的细胞活力;平板克隆实验检测克隆形成能力;BrdU实验检测细胞增殖能力;Transwell 实验检测细胞迁移和侵袭能力的变化;流式细胞术检测细胞周期及细胞凋亡的改变。结果: real-time PCR和Western blot结果均表明成功建立稳定沉默RWDD3的U251细胞株。与空白对照组及阴性对照组比较,转染RWDD3-shR-NA组的细胞活力和克隆形成能力降低;侵袭及迁移能力均下降,穿膜细胞

  3. COST251 results on the ionospheric quasi-periodic variability caused by gravity and planetary waves - a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    Didcot: CLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, 1999 - (Vernon, A.), s. 142-154 [COST251 Workshop 'Impact of the Upper Atmosphere on Terrestrial and Earth-Space Communications' /4./. Madeira (PT), 22.03.1999-25.03.1999] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 251.10; GA ČR GA205/98/0058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  4. Study of apoptosis of glioma cells line U251 cells induced by sodium nitroprusside%硝普钠诱导胶质瘤细胞株U251细胞凋亡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴越; 徐国政; 杜浩; 吴长松; 黄河; 宋健

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of sodium nitroprusside(SNP) on glioma cell line U251 cells apoptosis and its mechanism.Methods U251 cells were cultured in the media containing SNP of the different concentrations.The rates of the inhibition of U251 cells growth induced by SNP were detected by MTT assay.Nitic oxide (NO) concentration in U251 cells was determined by Griess method.The rate of U251 cells apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry.The expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were detected by western blot in U251 cells before and after the treatment with SNP.Results The significantly inhibitory effects of the different concentration SNP on U251 cells were observed (P<0.01) and they were SNP dose-dependent.The NO concentration rose with the increase in SNP concentration.There was significantly positive correlation between the inhibitory rate and NO concentration (P<0.01).The apoptotic rates of U251 cells in 0.5 mmol/L,1.0 mmol/L and 20 mmol/L SNP groups were 15.25%,20.56% and 40.73% respectively and they were significantly higher than that (5.04%) in the control group.The apoptotic effects of SNP on U251 cells were SNP dose-dependent (P<0.01).The expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly lower and the expression level of caspase-3 was significantly higher in all the experiment groups than those in the control group (P<0.05).The levels of Bcl-2 expression were negatively related and the levels of caspase-3 expression were positively related to SNP concentration (P<0.05).Conclusions SNP can inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis of U251 cells.The effect of SNP on of U251 cells growth may be related to NO released by SNP and the apoptotic effect of SNP on U251 cells may be related to the SNP-induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of caspase-3 in of U251 cells.%目的 探讨一氧化氮(NO)供体药物硝普钠(SNP)对胶质瘤细胞株U251细胞凋亡诱导效应及其机制.方法 以0.2、0.5、1.5和2.0 mmol

  5. Effect of combination of STAT3 RNAi and 60Co γ-irradiation on U251 cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To construct signal transduction and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) small interference RNA (siRNA) expression vector and to study its effect on STAT3 expression and U251 cell line proliferation. Methods: STAT3 specific 19 bp oligonucleotides were designed and synthesized. These oligonucleotides were annealed to form the double strand DNA fragments and these fragments were cloned into Psilence2.1-U6-H1 vector. The recombinant of STAT3-siRNA expressing construction was confirmed by Hind III and BamH I double digestion and sequencing. The STAT3-siRNA was transfected into U251 cell. The inhibitory effect of STAT3-siRNA construction was tested by Western blot. Cellular proliferation activities were measured by tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry. Cloning efficiency and MTF were used to confirm the radiation dose. Results: STAT3-siRNA expression vector was successfully constructed, and it could effectively down-regulate the protein levels of STAT3 in transfected U251 cell line; and the radiation dose was confirmed to 2 Gy. U251 cells transfected with STAT3-siRNA expression vector showed lower cellular proliferation compared with non-transfected U251 cells (P60Co γ-irradiation showed lower cellular proliferation compared with non-irradiated U251 cells (P60Co γ irradiation can enhance the inhibitory efficiency. (authors)

  6. 125I uptake in U251 glioma cell co-transfected with the human sodium/iodide symporter and the human thyroperoxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the iodide uptake by U251 glioma cell lines which were transferred with both human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) and human thyroperoxidase (hTPO) genes. Methods: Recombinant adenosine virus AdTPO was constructed through cloning, recombination, packaging and amplifying. The viral titers were calculated after purification. The protein expression of AdTPO was tested by Western-Blotting and the recombinant plasmids PcDNA3. 1/hNIS were constructed. After hNIS gene was transfected into human glioma cell lines U251 through liposome, the cell lines with stable hNIS expression (hNIS-U251) selected by G418 antibiotics were defined as hNIS-U251 group. Then, hTPO was transduced into hNIS-U251 with adenosine virus (AdTPO-hNIS-U251 group). U251 cells with no plasmid were used as the control group (U251). Cultured cells from each group were studied for 125I uptake as well as 125I efflux rate. Student-Newman-Keuls in multiple range test was used. Results: AdTPO-hNIS-U251 with stable expression was successfully established by transfecting hNIS and hTPO genes into human glioma cell lines. The 125I uptake by AdTPO-hNIS-U251, hNIS-U251 and U251 cell lines was (74 647.53±3605.88), (55 769.96±4353.26) and (507.67±57.69) counts/min, respectively (F = 836. 17, P125I efflux rate was prolonged in AdTPO-hNIS-U251 group and its effective half time was 13 min. Conclusion: Enhanced 125I uptake by the human glioma cell lines can be achieved with combined transfection of hNIS and hTPO genes. (authors)

  7. [Protease and alpha-amylase synthesis by washed cells of Aspergillus oryzae 251-90].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustiuzhanina, S V; Iarovenko, V L; Voĭnarskiĭ, I N

    1985-01-01

    Regularities of protease and alpha-amylase production by washed cells of Aspergillus oryzae 251-90 were being studied. The results obtained enabled us to assume a constitutive character of the both enzymes synthesis by the given producer. Sources of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur take part in regulation of the protease production, whereas in the case of the alpha-amylase synthesis only carbon sources that are important. Elimination of phosphorus from the medium affects the synthesis of both enzymes. Celatin stimulates the production of the two enzymes, being a supplier of amino acids. PMID:3885211

  8. Fine mapping of chromosome 15q25.1 lung cancer susceptibility in African-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Helen M.; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Rice, Terri; Bracci, Paige M.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Sison, Jennette D.; Chang, Jeffery S.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; Patoka, Joseph; Seldin, Michael F; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Wiencke, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Several genome-wide association studies identified the chr15q25.1 region, which includes three nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNA5-B4) and the cell proliferation gene (PSMA4), for its association with lung cancer risk in Caucasians. A haplotype and its tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encompassing six genes from IREB2 to CHRNB4 were most strongly associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 1.3; P < 10−20). In order to narrow the region of association and identify potential c...

  9. siRNA epidermal growth factor receptor silencing in U251 glioma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunsheng Kang; Zhiyong Zhang; Zhifan Jia; Qiang Huang; Guangxiu Wang; Mingzhe Qiu; Peiyu Pu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dicer, a large multidomain ribonuclease, is responsible for processing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) to 20-bp-long small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which act as effectors during RNA interference (RNAi). OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of siRNA cocktails generated by recombinant human Dicer on the down-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in human glioma cells. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The following in vitro experiment was performed at the Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital and Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute. MATERIALS: Mini-RNA isolation kit, human placenta complimentary DNA (cDNA) was produced by Tiangen Biotech (Beijing, China), human glioblastoma U251-MG cells were produced by the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. METHODS: A PCR product from the human EGFR, which corresponded to the tyrosine kinase domain of the 3'-end fragment, was used as the T7-promotor for in vitro transcription, siRNA cocktails were generated by in vitro dicing of double stranded RNA. A total of 500, 250 and 125 μg siRNA cocktails were transiently transfected into U251 glioma cells through the use of the GeneSilencer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Expression of EGFR was detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The total PCR product of the human EGFR, corresponding to the tyrosine kinase domain, is approximately 680 bp in length. The PCR transcriptants included GCC leader sequences and a T7 promoter sequence, with a fragment of EGFR cDNA at the center. The T7 promoter was prepared for in vitro transcription of dsRNA. After dicing for 24 hours, the 21-nt siRNA cocktails were verified by 4% agarose gel. The difference between threshold cycle of a sample assay and threshold cycle of the corresponding endogenous reference (△ Ct) among parental U251 cells and cells transfected with different doses of siRNA cocktails were determined to be 3.06, 7.35, and 10

  10. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  11. MicroRNA-21 inhibitor sensitizes human glioblastoma cells U251 (PTEN-mutant) and LN229 (PTEN-wild type) to taxol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantial data indicate that the oncogene microRNA 21 (miR-21) is significantly elevated in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and regulates multiple genes associated with cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness. Thus, miR-21 can theoretically become a target to enhance the chemotherapeutic effect in cancer therapy. So far, the effect of downregulating miR-21 to enhance the chemotherapeutic effect to taxol has not been studied in human GBM. Human glioblastoma U251 (PTEN-mutant) and LN229 (PTEN wild-type) cells were treated with taxol and the miR-21 inhibitor (in a poly (amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer), alone or in combination. The 50% inhibitory concentration and cell viability were determined by the MTT assay. The mechanism between the miR-21 inhibitor and the anticancer drug taxol was analyzed using the Zheng-Jun Jin method. Annexin V/PI staining was performed, and apoptosis and the cell cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Expression of miR-21 was investigated by RT-PCR, and western blotting was performed to evaluate malignancy related protein alteration. IC(50) values were dramatically decreased in cells treated with miR-21 inhibitor combine with taxol, to a greater extent than those treated with taxol alone. Furthermore, the miR-21 inhibitor significantly enhanced apoptosis in both U251 cells and LN229 cells, and cell invasiveness was obviously weakened. Interestingly, the above data suggested that in both the PTEN mutant and the wild-type GBM cells, miR-21 blockage increased the chemosensitivity to taxol. It is worth noting that the miR-21 inhibitor additively interacted with taxol on U251cells and synergistically on LN229 cells. Thus, the miR-21 inhibitor might interrupt the activity of EGFR pathways, independently of PTEN status. Meanwhile, the expression of STAT3 and p-STAT3 decreased to relatively low levels after miR-21 inhibitor and taxol treatment. The data strongly suggested that a regulatory loop between miR-21 and STAT3 might

  12. The study on the mechanism of enhanced radio-sensitivity of glioma cell U251 by thalidomide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the inhibition of DNA synthesis and the mechanism of thalidomide enhanced radio-sensitivity on glioma U251 cells, survival rate of the cells was assessed by MTT assay; and 3H-TdR incorporation assay was used to investigate the inhibition of DNA synthesis by thalidomide alone and combined with X-rays; VEGF mRNA expressions were evaluated using RT-PCR assay. Protein expression (VEGF) was detected by Western blot analysis. Thalidomide inhibited DNA synthesis depending on the concentration of thalidomide and radiation dose. Thalidomide markedly down-regulated VEGF mRNA combined with X-rays in which a synergistic action appeared. Low dose X-rays can induce VEGF protein expression in 24 h. Thalidomide was a low toxicity to U251 cells. Thalidomide inhibited DNA synthesis of U251 cells. (authors)

  13. Fine mapping of chromosome 15q25.1 lung cancer susceptibility in African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helen M; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Rice, Terri; Bracci, Paige M; Wrensch, Margaret R; Sison, Jennette D; Chang, Jeffery S; Smirnov, Ivan V; Patoka, Joseph; Seldin, Michael F; Quesenberry, Charles P; Kelsey, Karl T; Wiencke, John K

    2010-09-15

    Several genome-wide association studies identified the chr15q25.1 region, which includes three nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNA5-B4) and the cell proliferation gene (PSMA4), for its association with lung cancer risk in Caucasians. A haplotype and its tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encompassing six genes from IREB2 to CHRNB4 were most strongly associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 1.3; P < 10(-20)). In order to narrow the region of association and identify potential causal variations, we performed a fine-mapping study using 77 SNPs in a 194 kb segment of the 15q25.1 region in a sample of 448 African-American lung cancer cases and 611 controls. Four regions, two SNPs and two distinct haplotypes from sliding window analyses, were associated with lung cancer. CHRNA5 rs17486278 G had OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.54 and P = 0.008, whereas CHRNB4 rs7178270 G had OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.94 and P = 0.008 for lung cancer risk. Lung cancer associations remained significant after pack-year adjustment. Rs7178270 decreased lung cancer risk in women but not in men; gender interaction P = 0.009. For two SNPs (rs7168796 A/G and rs7164594 A/G) upstream of PSMA4, lung cancer risks for people with haplotypes GG and AA were reduced compared with those with AG (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.38-0.82; P = 0.003 and OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.90, P = 0.004, respectively). A four-SNP haplotype spanning CHRNA5 (rs11637635 C, rs17408276 T, rs16969968 G) and CHRNA3 (rs578776 G) was associated with increased lung cancer risk (P = 0.002). The identified regions contain SNPs predicted to affect gene regulation. There are multiple lung cancer risk loci in the 15q25.1 region in African-Americans. PMID:20587604

  14. 46 CFR 251.21 - Applications under sections 803, 804, 805 (a) and (d), and 605 (b), Merchant Marine Act, 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), and 605 (b), Merchant Marine Act, 1936. 251.21 Section 251.21 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION... (b), Merchant Marine Act, 1936. Form VI-B of instructions is the required form for the preparation of... chapter (General Order 86)) and (d), and 605(b), Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (49 Stat. 2012, 2013, 2003;...

  15. Transient axonal glycoprotein-1 induces apoptosis-related gene expression without triggering apoptosis in U251 glioma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haigang Chang; Xiaodan Jiang; Shanshan Song; Zhongcan Chen; Yaxiao Wang; Lujun Yang; Mouxuan Du; Yiquan Ke; Ruxiang Xu; Baozhe Jin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that transient axonal glycoprotein-1, a ligand of amyloid precursor pro-tein, increases the secretion of amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain and is involved in apoptosis in Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, we examined the effects of transient axonal glyco-protein-1 on U251 glioma cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that transient axonal glycoprotein-1 did not inhibit the proliferation of U251 cells, but promoted cell viability. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay showed that transient axonal glycoprotein-1 did not induce U251 cell apoptosis. Real-time PCR revealed that transient axonal glycoprotein-1 substantially upregulated levels of amyloid precursor protein intracellular C-terminal domain, and p53 and epidermal growth factor recep-tor mRNA expression. Thus, transient axonal glycoprotein-1 increased apoptosis-related gene expression in U251 cells without inducing apoptosis. Instead, transient axonal glycoprotein-1 promoted the proliferation of these glioma cells.

  16. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Interagency Fleet... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  17. Risk modification of colorectal cancer susceptibility by interleukin-8-251T>A polymorphism in Malaysians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd Aminudin Mustapha; Siti Nurfatimah Mohd Shahpudin; Ahmad Aizat Abdul Aziz; Ravindran Ankathil

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the allele and genotype frequencies and associated risk of interleukin (IL)-8-251T>A polymorphism on colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility risk.METHODS:Peripheral blood samples of 255 normal controls and 255 clinically and histopathologically confirmed CRC patients were genotyped for IL-8-251T>A polymorphism employing allele-specific polymerase chain reaction.The relative association of variant allele and genotypes with CRC susceptibility risk was determined by calculating the odds ratios (ORs).Corresponding x2 tests on the CRC patients and controls were carried out and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using Fisher's exact test.The allele frequencies and its risk association were calculated using FAMHAP,haplotype association analysis software.RESULTS:On comparing the frequencies of genotypes of patients and controls,the homozygous variant AA was significantly higher in CRC patients (P =0.002)compared to controls.Investigation on the association of the polymorphic genotypes with CRC susceptibility risk,showed that the homozygous variant IL-8-251AA had a significantly increased risk with OR 3.600 (95%CI:1.550-8.481,P =0.001).In the case of allele frequencies,variant allele A of IL-8-251 showed a significantly increased risk of CRC predisposition with OR 1.32(95% CI:1.03-1.69,P =0.003).CONCLUSION:Variant allele and genotype of IL-8 (-251T>A) was significantly associated with CRC susceptibility risk and could be considered as a high-risk variant for CRC predisposition.

  18. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of p53 augments hyperthermia-induced apoptosis in U251 glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Hyperthermia kills glioma cells by inducing apoptosis and is thereby an effective therapeutic modality for the treatment of malignant gliomas. However, cells harboring mutated p53 are refractory to hyperthermia-induced apoptosis. In this study, we assessed whether or not adenovirus (Adv)-mediated transduction of p53 overrides this resistant mechanism. Methods and Materials: We transduced the p53 wild-type tumor suppressor gene into U251 glioma cells harboring mutated p53 using Adv vectors in combination with hyperthermia (43, 44.5 deg. C), and evaluated the degree of cell death and apoptosis. Results: The percentage of cells that had died, as measured by trypan blue staining, among U251 cells infected with the Adv for p53 (Adv-p53) and treated with hyperthermia, was significantly higher than the percentage of cells that had died among U251 cells infected with Adv-p53 and not treated with hyperthermia, or those infected with the control Adv for dE (Adv-dE) and treated with hyperthermia. The degree of apoptosis, measured at 24 h after treatment, in hyperthermia-treated U251 cells infected with Adv-p53 (43 deg. C, 73%; 44.5 deg. C, 92%) was much higher than that infected with Adv-p53 (41%), or that infected with control Adv-dE and treated with hyperthermia (43 deg. C, 1.3%; 44.5 deg. C, 19%). Treatment with combined hyperthermia and Adv-p53 infection induced cleavage of caspase-3 in U251 cells. Conclusion: These results indicate that Adv-mediated transduction of p53 would render glioma cells highly sensitive to hyperthermia

  19. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  20. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  1. Nematode assemblages from the Kandalaksha Depression (White Sea, 251-288 m water depth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljutin, Dmitry M.; Miljutina, Maria A.; Tchesunov, Alexei V.; Mokievsky, Vadim O.

    2014-03-01

    The shallow-water nematodes of the White Sea are relatively well studied; however, information on the nematode fauna inhabiting the deepest part of this sea is very scarce. The composition of the nematode assemblages (at species and genus level) was studied in samples collected during four sampling occasions in the deepest part of the Kandalaksha Depression (the White Sea) in July 1998, October 1998, May 1999, and November 1999. Samples were collected from a depth of 251-288 m with the aid of a multicorer. In total, 59 nematode morphotypes belonging to 37 genera and 18 families were distinguished. The genera Sabatieria and Filipjeva dominated at all stations, followed by Aponema, Desmoscolex, and Quadricoma. The composition of the dominant genera can be considered typical for this depth range in temperate and Arctic waters, although Filipjeva and Aponema were among the dominant genera for the first time. The most abundant species were Sabatieria ornata, Aponema bathyalis, and Filipjeva filipjevi. In general, diversity of the nematode assemblages was lower than in the temperate and Arctic continental shelf and slope with reduced evenness and species richness. The evenness of nematode assemblages and other diversity indices decreased with increasing sediment depth. Based on the valid species and genera recorded, the nematode fauna of the Kandalaksha Depression showed a higher resemblance to that found in the shallow waters of Kandalaksha Bay.

  2. More Evidence for the Intermediate Broad Line Region of the Mapped AGN PG 0052+251

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, XueGuang

    2013-01-01

    In the manuscript, the properties of the proposed intermediate BLR are checked for the mapped AGN PG 0052+251. With the considerations of the apparent effects of the broad He {\\sc ii} line on the observed broad H$\\beta$ profile, the line parameters (especially the line width and the line flux) of the observed broad H$\\alpha$ and the broad H$\\beta$ are carefully determined. Based on the measured line parameters, the model with two broad components applied for each observed broad balmer line is preferred, and then confirmed by the calculated much different time lags for the inner/intermediate broad components and the corresponding virial BH masses ratio determined by the properties of the inner and the intermediate broad components. Then, the correlation between the broad line width and the broad line flux is checked for the two broad components: one clearly strong negative correlation for the inner broad component, but one positive correlation for the intermediate broad component. The different correlations fo...

  3. Evidence for Intermediate BLR of Reverberation-Mapped AGN PG 0052+251

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript, we study properties of BLR of well-known reverberation-mapped AGN, in order to find reliable evidence for intermediate BLR. We firstly check properties of mapped AGN collected from literature in plane of $\\sHb^2/\\sHa^2$ vs $\\RHa/\\RHb$. Commonly, virial BH masses based on observed broad H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ should be coincident. However, among the mapped objects, PG0052 and NGC4253 are two apparent outliers in the plane of $\\sHb^2/\\sHa^2$ vs $\\RHa/\\RHb$, which indicate BLRs of PG0052 and NGC4253 have some special characters. Then based on the 55 public spectra of PG0052, BLR of PG0052 is been carefully studied in detail. We find that line width ratio of total observed broad H$\\alpha$ to total observed broad H$\\beta$ is $\\sim$0.7, which is much smaller than theoretical/observational value of $\\sim$0.9. Furthermore, flux ratio of total broad H$\\alpha$ to total broad H$\\beta$ is about 6.8 (Balmer Decrement), which is not one reasonable value for BLUE quasar PG 0052+251. Moreover, properties ...

  4. Exploring High AR 2 μm TSV (25:1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostermans, Maarten; Baier, Ulrich; Boullart, Werner; Brouri, Mohand; Vertommen, Johan; Pageau, Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    3D integration allows for reduction of the system size, both in area and volume. It improves performance since 3D interconnects are shorter than traditional interconnects in a 2D configuration, enabling a higher operation speed and smaller power consumption. In order to ensure a reliable pattern transfer, a basic requirement for the etch mechanism is to provide anisotropy. Traditionally, through-silicon vias (TSVs) are achieved by means of the Bosch process, where anisotropic etch occurs via cycles of deposition and etch steps. This work investigates the etch process for 2 μm diameter vias with an aspect ratio up to 25:1, by means of an industrial ICP etch chamber with pulsed low frequency bias and ramping of different parameters like gasflows, bias voltage and separate etch and deposition step times. In order to reduce bowing while maintaining acceptable top/bottom CDs and reduce sidewall roughness, mechanisms of sidewall passivation have been studied by changing bias power duty cycle, modifying gas flow ramps, and O2 addition. Finally, scaling rules have been established that allow to predict etch time for various TSV diameters and A/R.

  5. Adjuvant-dependent innate and adaptive immune signatures of risk of SIVmac251 acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Monica; Gordon, Shari N; Fourati, Slim; Schifanella, Luca; Liyanage, Namal P M; Cameron, Mark; Keele, Brandon F; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Billings, Erik; Rao, Mangala; Chung, Amy W; Dowell, Karen G; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Brown, Eric P; Ackerman, Margaret E; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Whitney, Stephen; Doster, Melvin N; Binello, Nicolo; Pegu, Poonam; Montefiori, David C; Foulds, Kathryn; Quinn, David S; Donaldson, Mitzi; Liang, Frank; Loré, Karin; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A; McDermott, Adrian; Ma, Zhong-Min; Miller, Christopher J; Phan, Tran B; Forthal, Donald N; Blackburn, Matthew; Caccuri, Francesca; Bissa, Massimiliano; Ferrari, Guido; Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi; Ferrari, Maria G; Thompson, DeVon; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Phogat, Sanjay; Barnett, Susan W; Tartaglia, Jim; Venzon, David; Stablein, Donald M; Alter, Galit; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2016-07-01

    A recombinant vaccine containing Aventis Pasteur's canarypox vector (ALVAC)-HIV and gp120 alum decreased the risk of HIV acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial. The substitution of alum with the more immunogenic MF59 adjuvant is under consideration for the next efficacy human trial. We found here that an ALVAC-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and gp120 alum (ALVAC-SIV + gp120) equivalent vaccine, but not an ALVAC-SIV + gp120 MF59 vaccine, was efficacious in delaying the onset of SIVmac251 in rhesus macaques, despite the higher immunogenicity of the latter adjuvant. Vaccine efficacy was associated with alum-induced, but not with MF59-induced, envelope (Env)-dependent mucosal innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that produce interleukin (IL)-17, as well as with mucosal IgG to the gp120 variable region 2 (V2) and the expression of 12 genes, ten of which are part of the RAS pathway. The association between RAS activation and vaccine efficacy was also observed in an independent efficacious SIV-vaccine approach. Whether RAS activation, mucosal ILCs and antibodies to V2 are also important hallmarks of HIV-vaccine efficacy in humans will require further studies. PMID:27239761

  6. Efficient transmission and persistence of low-frequency SIVmac251 variants in CD8-depleted rhesus macaques with different neuropathology

    OpenAIRE

    Strickland, Samantha L.; Gray, Rebecca R; Lamers, Susanna L.; Burdo, Tricia H.; Huenink, Ellen; Nolan, David J.; Nowlin, Brian; Alvarez, Xavier; Midkiff, Cecily C.; Goodenow, Maureen M.; Williams, Kenneth; Salemi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Infection of CD8-depleted rhesus macaques with the genetically heterogeneous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac251 viral swarm provides a rapid-disease model for simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome and SIV-encephalitis (SIVE). The objective was to evaluate how the diversity of the swarm influences the initial seeding of the infection that may potentially affect disease progression. Plasma, lymphoid and non-lymphoid (brain and lung) tissues were collected from two infected macaques ...

  7. Reciprocal regulation of Abl kinase by Crk Y251 and Abi1 controls invasive phenotypes in glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Lu, Bin; Dixit, Updesh; Hossain, Sajjad; Liu, Yongzhang; Li, Jing; Hornbeck, Peter; Zheng, Weiming; Sowalsky, Adam G.; Kotula, Leszek; Birge, Raymond B.

    2015-01-01

    Crk is the prototypical member of a class of Src homology 2 (SH2) and Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-containing adaptor proteins that positively regulate cell motility via the activation of Rac1 and, in certain tumor types such as GBM, can promote cell invasion and metastasis by mechanisms that are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that Crk, via its phosphorylation at Tyr251, promotes invasive behavior of tumor cells, is a prominent feature in GBM, and correlating with aggressive glioma grade IV staging and overall poor survival outcomes. At the molecular level, Tyr251 phosphorylation of Crk is negatively regulated by Abi1, which competes for Crk binding to Abl and attenuates Abl transactivation. Together, these results show that Crk and Abi1 have reciprocal biological effects and act as a molecular rheostat to control Abl activation and cell invasion. Finally, these data suggest that Crk Tyr251 phosphorylation regulate invasive cell phenotypes and may serve as a biomarker for aggressive GBM. PMID:26473374

  8. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    CERN Document Server

    Wollack, Edward J; Rinehart, Stephan A

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, $R \\le 0.003$, from $800-4,800\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(12-2\\,\\mu$m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to $400-10,000\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(25-1\\,\\mu$m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to $R \\le 0.02$ at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to $\\sim4\\,$K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials -- Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder -- are character...

  9. The spiral-compact galaxy pair AM 2208-251: Computer simulations versus observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaric, Mario; Byrd, Gene G.

    1990-01-01

    The system AM2208-251 is a roughly edge-on spiral extending east-west with a smaller round compact E system about 60 arcsec east of the spiral nucleus along the major axis of the spiral. Bertola, Huchtmeier, and Zeilinger (1990) have presented optical spectroscopic as well as single dish 21 cm observations of this system. Their spectroscopic data show, via emission lines lambda lambda 3727-29A, a rising rotation curve near the nucleus. These spectroscopic observations may indicate a tidal interaction in the system. In order to learn more about such pairs, the authors simulated the interaction using the computer model developed by Miller (1976 a,b, 1978) and modified by the authors (Byrd 1986, 1987, 1988). To do the simulation they need an idea of the mutual orbits of the two galaxies. Their computer model is a two-dimensional polar N-body program. It consists of a self-gravitating disk of particles, within an inert axially symmetric stabilizing halo potential. The particles are distributed in a 24(radial) by 36(azimuthal) polar grid. Self consistent calculations can be done only within the grid area. The disk is modeled with a finite Mestel disk, where all the particles initially move in circular orbits with constant tangential velocities (Mestel 1963), resulting in a flat rotation curve. The gas particles in the spiral's disk, which make up 30 percent of its mass, collide in the following manner. The number of particles in each bin of the polar grid is counted every time step. If it is greater than a given critical density, all the particles in the bin collide, obtaining in the result the same velocities, equal to the average for the bin. This process produces clumps of gas particles-the star formation sites. The authors suppress the collision in the inner part of the disk (within the circle r = 6) to represent the hole seen in the gas in the nuclear bulge of spirals. They thus avoid spurious effects due to collisions in that region. They also varied the size of

  10. The spiral-compact galaxy pair AM 2208-251: Computer simulations versus observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaric, Mario; Byrd, Gene G.

    1990-11-01

    The system AM2208-251 is a roughly edge-on spiral extending east-west with a smaller round compact E system about 60 arcsec east of the spiral nucleus along the major axis of the spiral. Bertola, Huchtmeier, and Zeilinger (1990) have presented optical spectroscopic as well as single dish 21 cm observations of this system. Their spectroscopic data show, via emission lines lambda lambda 3727-29A, a rising rotation curve near the nucleus. These spectroscopic observations may indicate a tidal interaction in the system. In order to learn more about such pairs, the authors simulated the interaction using the computer model developed by Miller (1976 a,b, 1978) and modified by the authors (Byrd 1986, 1987, 1988). To do the simulation they need an idea of the mutual orbits of the two galaxies. Their computer model is a two-dimensional polar N-body program. It consists of a self-gravitating disk of particles, within an inert axially symmetric stabilizing halo potential. The particles are distributed in a 24(radial) by 36(azimuthal) polar grid. Self consistent calculations can be done only within the grid area. The disk is modeled with a finite Mestel disk, where all the particles initially move in circular orbits with constant tangential velocities (Mestel 1963), resulting in a flat rotation curve. The gas particles in the spiral's disk, which make up 30 percent of its mass, collide in the following manner. The number of particles in each bin of the polar grid is counted every time step. If it is greater than a given critical density, all the particles in the bin collide, obtaining in the result the same velocities, equal to the average for the bin. This process produces clumps of gas particles-the star formation sites. The authors suppress the collision in the inner part of the disk (within the circle r = 6) to represent the hole seen in the gas in the nuclear bulge of spirals. They thus avoid spurious effects due to collisions in that region. They also varied the size of

  11. Mechanism of thalidomide to enhance cytotoxicity of temozolomide in U251-MG glioma cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Song; YANG Xue-jun; ZHANG Wen-gao; JI Yan-wei; PAN Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Background Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. Temozolomide has been used with thalidomide to treat gliomas. We investigated the synergistic mechanism of these two drugs in vitro.Methods Human malignant glioma cells U251-MG were cultured and assigned to four groups with different treatments for 3 days: temozolomide group (100 pmol/L), thalidomide group (100 pg/L), temozolomide (100 IJmol/L) plus thalidomide group (100 pg/L) and control group. MTT assay was applied to evaluate the cell viability. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ultra-structural features of autophagosomes were observed with electron microscope. Acridine orange and monodansylcadavedne were adopted to label autophagosomes and flow cytometry was applied for quantification of autophagosomes. The expression of autophagy-associated protein was detected by Western blotting.Results Proliferation of tumor cell was obviously suppressed by temozolomide with thalidomide treatment than by either drug used alone (P=-0.000 for each day). The combination treatment induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase.Typical autophagic ultra-structural character was found after the combined treatment. Thalidomide promoted the autophagy induced by temozolomide. The autophagy-associated proteins - microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAPILC3) and Beclinl were more significantly up-regulated by the combined treatment than temozolomide used alone (MAP1LC3, P=-0.000; Beclinl, P=-0.004). The expression level of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), which promoted autophagy by suppressing PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, was elevated by thalidomide (thalidomide group: P=-0.000; combined group: P=0.002).Conclusions Thalidomide enhances the cytotoxicity of temozolomide by promoting the autophagy induced by temozolomide. Contributing to the up-regulation of PTEN by thalidomide, the expression of autophagy associated protein-MAP1LC3 and Beclinl was enhanced

  12. A clinical epidemiological study of 251 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the south of Brazil Estudo clínico epidemiológico de 251 casos de esclerose lateral amiotrófica no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lineu Cesar Werneck; Ruth Bezerra; Octavio da Silveira Neto; Rosana Herminia Scola

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the possible presence of risk factors in order to verify if there is any difference between cases in Paraná, Brazil. METHOD: We studied 251 cases, all of which fulfilled the diagnosis criteria proposed in El Escorial (WFN). Between 1977 and 2004, 157 male and 94 female patients were examined. RESULTS: 220 cases were classified as ALS-Spinal Onset (ALS-SO), 24 as ALS-Bulbar Onset (ALS-BO) and 7 as Familial ALS. T...

  13. On-line coupling of the MAT 251 with a Carlo Erba elemental analyzer for carbon isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For carbon isotope investigations with a moderate precision demand of about 0.2 per mil in the isotope ratio fast and reliable results are attained by on line combination of the ANA 1500 Elemental Analyzer and the MAT 251 Isotope Mass Spectrometer. The crucial point hereof is the gas splitting device. By proper design and adjustment of the analytical parameters, good sample efficiency and a sharp CO2 bulk within the He stream is reached. The main characteristics of this combined equipment are described and some isotopic results of organic and anorganic carbon in lake sediment-samples are given as well as deltasup13C-analyses of spiritous liquors. (Author)

  14. Preparation of iodine-123 labeled AM251: a potential SPECT radioligand for the brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the synthesis and labeling with iodine-123 of N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251). This compound is an analog of the recently described cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR141716A, in which a 4-chlorophenyl group is replaced by 4-iodophenyl. Labeling in good yield (62%) and radiochemical purity (> 95%), and high specific activity (> 2500 Ci/mmol) was achieved by an iododestannylation reaction using the tributyltin precursor, no carrier added I-123 iodide, and chloramine-T. (author)

  15. Preparation of iodine-123 labeled AM251: a potential SPECT radioligand for the brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Ruoxi; Makriyannis, Alexandros [Connecticut Univ., Molecular and Cell Biology Dept., Storrs, CT (United States); Gatley, S.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Medical Dept., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    We report the synthesis and labeling with iodine-123 of N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251). This compound is an analog of the recently described cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR141716A, in which a 4-chlorophenyl group is replaced by 4-iodophenyl. Labeling in good yield (62%) and radiochemical purity (> 95%), and high specific activity (> 2500 Ci/mmol) was achieved by an iododestannylation reaction using the tributyltin precursor, no carrier added I-123 iodide, and chloramine-T. (author).

  16. The effect of combination of ErbB2 RNAi and 60Co γ-irradiation on U251 cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To construct erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ErbB2) small interference RNA (siRNA) expression vector and to study its effect on U251 cell line proliferation and apoptosis combining with 60Co γ-irradiation. ErbB2 specific 19bp oligonucleotides were designed and synthesized. These oligonucleotides were annealed to form the double strand DNA fragments, which was cloned into pSilence2.1-U6-H1 vector. The recombinant pSilence2.1-ErbB2 expression construct was confirmed by Hind III and BamH I double digestion and sequencing. The pSilence 2.1-ErbB2 was transfected into U251 cell. Cellular proliferation activities were assayed by tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry. The apoptosis of transfected U251 cell was examined with Hoechst 33258 staining and Annexin-V kit. Psilence 2.1-ErbB2 expression vector was successfully constructed and it can effectively inhibit pro- liferation(p60Co γ-irradiation, the effect of inhibiting proliferation was more significant compared with non-irradiated U251 cells(p60Co γ-irradiation can enhance the inhibitory efficiency in U251 cell line. (authors)

  17. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  18. Impact of carrier recombination on fill factor for large area heterojunction crystalline silicon solar cell with 25.1% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Daisuke; Hernández, José Luis; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    We have achieved a certified 25.1% conversion efficiency in a large area (151.9 cm2) heterojunction (HJ) crystalline Si (c-Si) solar cell with amorphous Si (a-Si) passivation layer. This efficiency is a world record in a both-side-contacted c-Si solar cell. Our high efficiency HJ c-Si solar cells are investigated from the standpoint of the effective minority carrier lifetime (τe), and the impact of τe on fill factor (FF) is discussed. The τe measurements of our high efficiency HJ c-Si solar cells reveal that τe at an injection level corresponding to an operation point of maximum power is dominated by the carrier recombination at the a-Si/c-Si interface. By optimization of the process conditions, the carrier recombination at the a-Si/c-Si interface is reduced, which leads to an improvement of the FF by an absolute value of 2.7%, and a conversion efficiency of 25.1% has been achieved. These results indicate that the reduction of carrier recombination centers at the a-Si/c-Si interface should be one of the most crucial issues for further improvement of FF even in the HJ c-Si solar cells with efficiency over 25%.

  19. Sputter target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  20. Target capture and target ghosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Steven P.

    1996-05-01

    Optimal detection methods for small targets rely on whitened matched filters, which convolve the measured data with the signal model, and whiten the result with the noise covariance. In real-world implementations of such filters, the noise covariance must be estimated from the data, and the resulting covariance estimate may be corrupted by presence of the target. The resulting loss in SNR is called 'target capture'. Target capture is often thought to be a problem only for bright targets. This presentation shows that target capture also arises for dim targets, leading to an SNR loss which is independent of target strength and depends on the averaging method used to estimate the noise covariance. This loss is due to a 'coherent beat' between the true noise and that portion of the estimated noise covariance due to the target. This beat leads to 'ghost targets', which diminish the target SNR by producing a negative target ghost at the target's position. A quantitative estimate of this effect will be given, and shown to agree with numerical results. The effect of averaging on SNR is also discussed for data scenes with synthetic injected targets, in cases where the noise covariance is estimated using 'no target' data. For these cases, it is shown that the so-called 'optimal' filter, which uses the true noise covariance, is actually worse than a 'sub-optimal' filter which estimates the noise from scene. This apparent contradiction is resolved by showing that the optimal filter is best if the same filter is used for many scenes, but is outperformed by a filter adapted to a specific scene.

  1. Energy levels of 251Cf populated in the α decay of 100255Fm and EC decay of 99251Es

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray singles spectra of extremely pure (chemically and isotopically) samples of 255Fm, with strengths of ∼1 mCi, have been measured with a high-resolution 2-cm2x10-mm germanium LEPS detector and with a 25% Ge spectrometer. Gamma rays with intensities as low as 1.0x10-6% per 255Fm α decay have been identified. The electron spectrum of a mass-separated 251Es source was measured with a cooled Si(Li) electron spectrometer. The spectrum provided the conversion coefficients of low-energy transitions in 251Cf and thereby their multipolarities. The present measurements confirm the previous assignments of single-particle states in 251Cf. These include 1/2+[620], 0.0 keV; 7/2+[613], 106.30 keV; 3/2+[622], 177.59 keV; 11/2-[725], 370.47 keV; 9/2-[734], 433.91 keV; 5/2+[622], 543.98 keV; 1/2-[750], 632.0 keV; 9/2+[615], 683 keV; and 9/2+[604], 974.0 keV. A vibrational band was identified in previous studies at 981.4 keV and given an assignment of {7/2+[613]x2-}3/2-. Three new vibrational bands are identified in the present work at 942.5, 1086.5, and 1250.0 keV with tentative assignments {7/2+[613]x1-}5/2-,{7/2+[613]x1-}9/2-, and {7/2+[613]x0+}7/2+, respectively. A level was identified at 1185.5 keV with spin of 5/2 or 7/2 but it was not given any configuration assignment. Another level was identified at 1077.5 keV and given a spin of 9/2. Again, no configuration could be assigned to this level

  2. Mind Bomb-2 promotes U251 proliferation by regulating nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways%Mind Bomb-2基因通过调控核因子κB信号通路促进 U251增殖的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯阳; 许重远

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study effects of Mind Bomb -2 ( MIB2 ) gene expression ’ s promotion on proliferation of U 251.Methods The expression of MIB2 protein in astrocyte and US251 was detected by Western blot.U251, U251 transduction with FLAG ( A 20 base coded marker protein ) plasmid and U251transfection with MIB2 -FLAG plasmid were divided into blank group , control group and test group correspondingly.The relative content of MIB 2 in three groups was detected by Western blotting .The MIB2 -FLAG plasmid was transfected to U251 cells.The real -time quantitative PCR was used to detect MIB 2 mRNA expression in U251.The expression of MIB2, I kappa B ( IkB) and nuclear factor kappa B ( NF-κB) was detected by Western blotting after transfection.MTT experiment was used to detect the proliferation of U251 cells after transfection.Results The relative content of MIB 2 in U251 cells increased by ( 17.04 ±2.91 ) compared with astrocytes.MIB2 mRNA in test group increased by ( 20.02 ±2.11 ) compared with control group.The expression of MIB 2 and NF-κB proteins in test group increased by ( 6.33 ±0.32 ) and ( 5.21 ±0.21 ) compared with control group, the expression of IkB in test group was attenuated by (0.43 ±0.04 ) compared with control group .Com-pared with both blank and control group , test group grew significantly ( P<0.001 ) .Conclusion MIB2 promoted U251 proliferation by regulating NF-κB signaling pathways.%目的:研究Mind Bomb-2(MIB2)的表达对脑胶质瘤细胞U251增殖的影响。方法用蛋白质印迹法检测正常星形胶质细胞和胶质瘤细胞U251和MIB2蛋白的表达情况。将U251细胞、转染FLAG (一种20个碱基编码的标记蛋白)质粒的U251细胞和转染MIB2-FLAG质粒的U251细胞对应分为空白组、对照组和实验组。以蛋白质印迹法检测上述3组中MIB2的相对含量;采用实时定量PCR技术检测MIB2 mRNA在3组U251细胞中的表达情况;以蛋白质印迹法检测转染后U251细胞中MIB2

  3. Two-dimensional Langevin modeling of fission dynamics of the excited compound nuclei 188Pt, 227Pa and 251Es

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizadeh, H.

    2016-02-01

    A stochastic approach based on one- and two-dimensional Langevin equations is applied to calculate the pre-scission neutron multiplicity, fission probability, anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution, fission cross section and the evaporation cross section for the compound nuclei 188Pt, 227Pa and 251Es in an intermediate range of excitation energies. The chaos weighted wall and window friction formula are used in the Langevin equations. The elongation parameter, c, is used as the first dimension and projection of the total spin of the compound nucleus onto the symmetry axis, K, considered as the second dimension in Langevin dynamical calculations. A constant dissipation coefficient of K, γK = 0.077(MeV zs)-1/2, is used in two-dimensional calculations to reproduce the above mentioned experimental data. Comparison of the theoretical results of the pre-scission neutron multiplicity, fission probability, fission cross section and the evaporation cross section with the experimental data shows that the results of two-dimensional calculations are in better agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, it is shown that the two-dimensional Langevin equations together with a dissipation coefficient of K, γK = 0.077(MeV zs)-1/2, can satisfactorily reproduce the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution for the heavy compound nucleus 251Es. However, a larger value of γK = 0.250(MeV zs)-1/2 is needed to reproduce the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution for the lighter compound nucleus 227Pa.

  4. Targeting and killing of glioblastoma with activated T cells armed with bispecific antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since most glioblastomas express both wild-type EGFR and EGFRvIII as well as HER2/neu, they are excellent targets for activated T cells (ATC) armed with bispecific antibodies (BiAbs) that target EGFR and HER2. ATC were generated from PBMC activated for 14 days with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody in the presence of interleukin-2 and armed with chemically heteroconjugated anti-CD3×anti-HER2/neu (HER2Bi) and/or anti-CD3×anti-EGFR (EGFRBi). HER2Bi- and/or EGFRBi-armed ATC were examined for in vitro cytotoxicity using MTT and 51Cr-release assays against malignant glioma lines (U87MG, U118MG, and U251MG) and primary glioblastoma lines. EGFRBi-armed ATC killed up to 85% of U87, U118, and U251 targets at effector:target ratios (E:T) ranging from 1:1 to 25:1. Engagement of tumor by EGFRBi-armed ATC induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion by armed ATC. HER2Bi-armed ATC exhibited comparable cytotoxicity against U118 and U251, but did not kill HER2-negative U87 cells. HER2Bi- or EGFRBi-armed ATC exhibited 50—80% cytotoxicity against four primary glioblastoma lines as well as a temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant variant of U251. Both CD133– and CD133+ subpopulations were killed by armed ATC. Targeting both HER2Bi and EGFRBi simultaneously showed enhanced efficacy than arming with a single BiAb. Armed ATC maintained effectiveness after irradiation and in the presence of TMZ at a therapeutic concentration and were capable of killing multiple targets. High-grade gliomas are suitable for specific targeting by armed ATC. These data, together with additional animal studies, may provide the preclinical support for the use of armed ATC as a valuable addition to current treatment regimens

  5. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M;

    2011-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs...

  6. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Barile, Monica; Pensotti, Valeria; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Putignano, Anna Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Crueger, Dorthe G.; Caligo, Maria A.; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Friedman, Eitan; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Ehrencrona, Hans; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Gorski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Ramon y Cajal, Teresa; Fostira, Florentia; Andres, Raquel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Nelen, Marcel R.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Os, Theo A. M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Leyland, Jean; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Paterson, Joan; Kennedy, M. John; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Bronner, Myriam; Prieur, Fabienne; Nogues, Catherine; Rouleau, Etienne; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Frenay, Marc; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Jonson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Small, Laurie; Boggess, John; Blank, Stephanie; Basil, Jack; Azodi, Masoud; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine S.; Olah, Edith; Bozsik, Aniko; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Seldon, Joyce L.; Beattie, Mary S.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Sluiter, Michelle D.; Diez, Orland; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Deissler, Helmut; Niederacher, Dieter; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Schoenbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Dumont, Martine; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tischkowitz, Marc; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Fredericksen, Zachary; Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Couch, Fergus; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs112

  7. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); C. Kartsonaki (Christiana); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); P. Soucy (Penny); L. McGuffog (Lesley); S. Healey (Sue); A. Lee (Andrew); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (D.); E. Cattaneo (Elisa); M. Barile (Monica); V. Pensotti (Valeria); B. Pasini (Barbara); R. Dolcetti (Riccardo); G. Giannini (Giuseppe); A.L. Putignano; L. Varesco (Liliana); P. Radice (Paolo); P.L. Mai (Phuong); M.H. Greene (Mark); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); G. Glendon (Gord); H. Ozcelik (Hilmi); M. Thomassen (Mads); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); T.A. Kruse (Torben); U.B. Jensen; D. Cruger (Dorthe); M.A. Caligo (Maria); Y. Laitman (Yael); R. Milgrom (Roni); B. Kaufman (Bella); S. Paluch-Shimon (Shani); E. Friedman (Eitan); N. Loman (Niklas); K. Harbst (Katja); A. Lindblom (Annika); B. Melin (Beatrice); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.M. Domchek (Susan); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); J. Gronwald (Jacek); T. Huzarski (Tomasz); T. Byrski (Tomasz); C. Cybulski (Cezary); B. Górski (Bohdan); A. Osorio (Ana); T.R. Cajal; F. Fostira (Florentia); R. Andres (Raquel); J. Benitez (Javier); U. Hamann (Ute); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); M.A. Rookus (Matti); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); M.R. Nelen (Marcel); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); P. Devilee (Peter); H. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); E.B.G. Garcia; S. Peock (Susan); M. Cook (Margaret); D. Frost; R. Platte (Radka); J. Leyland (Jean); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L. Izatt (Louise); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); D. Eccles (Diana); K.-R. Ong; F. Douglas (Fiona); J. Paterson (Joan); M.J. Kennedy (John); Z. Miedzybrodzka (Zosia); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); B. Buecher (Bruno); M. Belotti (Muriel); C. Tirapo (Carole); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); L. Barjhoux (Laure); C. Lasset (Christine); D. Leroux (Dominique); L. Faivre (Laurence); M. Bronner (Myriam); F. Prieur (Fabienne); C. Nogues (Catherine); E. Rouleau (Etienne); P. Pujol (Pascal); I. Coupier (Isabelle); M. Frenay (Marc); J. Hopper (John); M.J. Daly (Mark); M-B. Terry (Mary-beth); E.M. John (Esther); S.S. Buys (Saundra); Y. Yassin (Yosuf); A. Miron (Alexander); D. Goldgar (David); C.F. Singer (Christian); M.-K. Tea; G. Pfeiler (Georg); C. Dressler (Catherina); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); L. Jønson (Lars); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); R.B. Barkardottir (Rosa); T. Kircchoff (Tomas); K. Offit (Kenneth); M. Piedmonte (Marion); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); L. Small (Laurie); J.F. Boggess (John); S.V. Blank (Stephanie); J. Basil (Jack); M. Azodi (Masoud); A.E. Toland (Amanda); M. Montagna (Marco); S. Tognazzo (Silvia); S. Agata (Simona); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C. Lazaro (Conxi); I. Blanco (Ignacio); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); L. Sucheston (Lara); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); C.S. Walsh (Christine); E. Olah (Edith); A. Bozsik (Aniko); S.-H. Teo; J.L. Seldon (Joyce); M.S. Beattie (Mary); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); M.D. Sluiter (Michelle); O. Diez (Orland); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); C. Engel (Christoph); A. Meindl (Alfons); I. Ruehl (Ina); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); K. Kast (Karin); H. Deissler (Helmut); D. Niederacher (Dieter); N. Arnold (Norbert); D. Gadzicki (Dorothea); I. Schönbuchner (Ines); T. Caldes (Trinidad); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); M. Dumont (Martine); J. Chiquette (Jocelyne); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J. Beesley (Jonathan); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); X. Wang (Xing); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J. Simard (Jacques); D.F. Easton (Douglas); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); P. Karlsson (Per); M. Nordling (Margareta); A. Bergman (Annika); Z. Einbeigi (Zakaria); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (M.); S. Liedgren (Sigrun); Å. Borg (Åke); H. Olsson (Hans); U. Kristoffersson (Ulf); H. Jernström (H.); K. Henriksson (Karin); A. von Wachenfeldt (Anna); A. Liljegren (Annelie); G. Barbany-Bustinza (Gisela); J. Rantala (Johanna); H. Grönberg (Henrik); E.-L. Stattin; M. Emanuelsson (Monica); R.R. Brandell; N. Dahl (Niklas); S. Verhoef; M. Verheus (Martijn); L.v. Veer; F.E. van Leeuwen; J.M. Collee (Margriet); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); A. Jager; M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); M.P. Vreeswijk (Maaike); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); M.J. Ligtenberg (Marjolijn); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); J.J.P. Gille (Jan); Q. Waisfisz (Quinten); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); C.E. van Roozendaal (Cees); M.J. Blok (Marinus); B. Caanen; J.C. Oosterwijk; A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); M.J. Mourits; H.F. Vasen (Hans); H. Gregory (Helen); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); L. Jeffers (Lisa); T.J. Cole (Trevor); C. McKeown (Carole); J. Hoffman (Jonathan); A. Donaldson (Alan); S. Downing (Sarah); A. Taylor (Amy); A. Murray (Alexandra); M.T. Rogers (Mark); E. McCann (Emma); M.E. Porteous (Mary); S. Drummond (Sarah); C. Brewer (Carole); E. Kivuva (Emma); A. Searle (Anne); S. Goodman (Selina); K. Hill (Kathryn); V. Murday (Victoria); N. Bradshaw (Nicola); L. Snadden (Lesley); M. Longmuir (Mark); C. Watt (Catherine); S. Gibson (Sarah); E. Haque (Eshika); E. Tobias (Ed); A. Duncan (Alexis); C. Jacobs (Chris); C. Langman (Caroline); A. Whaite (Anna); H. Dorkins (Huw); J. Barwell (Julian); C. Chu (Chengbin); J. Miller (Julie); I.O. Ellis (Ian); C. Houghton (Catherine); L. Side (Lucy); A. Male (Alison); C. Berlin (Cheryl); J. Eason (Jacqueline); R. Collier (Rebecca); O. Claber (Oonagh); I. Jobson (Irene); L.J. Walker (Lisa); D. McLeod (Diane); D. Halliday (Dorothy); S. Durell (Sarah); B. Stayner (Barbara); S. Shanley; N. Rahman (Nazneen); R. Houlston (Richard); E. Bancroft (Elizabeth); L. D'Mello (Lucia); E. Page (Elizabeth); A. Ardern-Jones (Audrey); K. Kohut (Kelly); J. Wiggins (Jennifer); E. Castro (Elena); A. Mitra (Anita); L. Robertson (Lisa); O. Quarrell (Oliver); C. Bardsley (Cathryn); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); D.E. Barton (David); S. Goff (Sheila); G. Brice (Glen); L. Winchester (Lizzie); C. Eddy (Charlotte); V. Tripathi (Vishakha); V. Attard (Virginia); A. Lucassen (Anneke); G. Crawford (Gillian); D. McBride (Donna); S. Smalley (Sarah); J.W. Adlard (Julian); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTwo single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility var

  8. 25 CFR 1000.251 - What happens when a Tribe/Consortium is suspended for substantial failure to carry out the terms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... substantial failure to carry out the terms of an AFA without good cause and does not correct the failure... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.251 What happens when a Tribe/Consortium is suspended for substantial failure to carry out the terms of an AFA without...

  9. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  10. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  11. 美洲商陆抗病毒蛋白对人神经胶质瘤细胞U251细胞增殖和凋亡的影响%Effects of recombinant pokeweed antiviral proteins from Phytolacca amercana on the proliferation and apoptosis of Human Gliomaous Cells U251

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向莉; 李书剑; 张杰文

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察美洲商陆抗病毒蛋白(PAP)对入神经胶质瘤细胞U251细胞增殖和凋亡的影响.方法:采用MTT法检测0、20、40、60、80和100 mg/L PAP处理48 h以及40 mg/L PAP处理24、36、48和72 h对神经胶质瘤细胞U251细胞生长的影响;40 mg/L PAP处理U251细胞36 h后,采用荧光染色技术检测细胞凋亡,采用流式细胞仪检测U251细胞周期分布的影响;采用Northern blot和Western blot检测40 mg /L PAP处理24、48、72和96 h对U251细胞周期调控蛋白FasL和Fas的影响.结果:0、20、40、60、80和100 mg/L PAP处理48 h,U251细胞的增殖抑制率间的差异有统计学意义(F =284.560,P=0.007),40 mg/L PAP处理24、36、48和72 h,U251细胞的增殖抑制率间的差异有统计学意义(F=280.250,P=0.045).PAP促进U251细胞凋亡(t=106.350,P=0.007),PAP改变细胞周期分布,使G0+ G1期细胞比例增高,S期比例降低.PAP还可上调FasL蛋白表达,下调Fas蛋白表达.结论:PAP可改变细胞周期分布,影响细胞周期调控蛋白表达,并可诱导U251细胞凋亡,从而抑制细胞增殖.%Aim; To study the effects of pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) on cell proliferation and apoptosis on U251 cells and to elucidate its molecular mechanism. Methods:The proportion of the periodic tumor cells were altered by 0,20, 40, 60,80, 100 mg/L PAP treated 48 h using MTT and Sub-G, curves were displayed at 40 mg/L PAP treated 36 h by flow cytometry analysis. With fluorescence staining assay to detect the U2S1 apoptosis. The mRNAs and protein expression of the FasL and Fas treated at 40 mg/L PAP was examined by Northern blot and Western blot. Results: PAP significantly suppressed U251 cell proliferation by 0,20,40,60,80,100 mg/L PAP treated 48 h(f = 284. 560,P = 0.007) or40ng/LPAP treated 24,36,48,72 h ( F = 28. 250,P =0. 045). The proportion of the periodic tumor cells were altered by PAP. PAP decreased the proportion of cells in S phase and increased the proportion of cells in Go/G, and G2/M

  12. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, J. B.; Alexander, C. W.; Boll, R. A.; Burns, J. D.; Ezold, J. G.; Felker, L. K.; Hogle, S. L.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.

  13. The influence of the combined treatment with Vadimezan (ASA404 and taxol on the growth of U251 glioblastoma xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Dušan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most important biological characteristics of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is high vascular density. Vadimezan (ASA404, DMXAA belongs to the class of small molecule vascular disrupting agents (VDA that cause disruption of established tumor vessels and subsequent tumor hemorrhagic necrosis. Its selective antivascular effect is mediated by intratumoral induction of several cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that ASA404 acts synergistically with taxanes. In this study, we investigated if treatment of mice bearing U251 human glioblastoma xenografts with ASA404 and taxol may be synergistic. Therapy response was evaluated by measuring changes in tumor size and metabolic activity using 18F-FDG PET (Fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emision tomography imaging. Methods U251 cells were inoculated s.c. in the right hind limb of NMRI-Foxn1nu athymic female nude mice. Animals were randomly assigned into 4 groups (7–9 animals/group for treatment: control, taxol, ASA404, and ASA404 plus taxol. The animals received either a single dose of taxol (10 mg/kg, ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg, or taxol (10 mg/kg plus ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg administered i.p.; ASA404 was administred 24 h after the treatment with taxol. 4 and 24 h after treatment with ASA404 (28 and 48 h hours after treatment with taxol 18 F-FDG PET scans were performed. Results The treatment with taxol did not affect the tumor growth in comparison to untreated controls. The treatment of animals with single dose ASA404 alone or in combination with taxol caused a significant delay in tumor growth. The combined treatment did not decrease the growth of the xenografts significantly more than ASA404 alone, but early changes in tumor 18 F-FDG uptake preceded subsequent growth inhibition. The tumor weights

  14. The influence of the combined treatment with Vadimezan (ASA404) and taxol on the growth of U251 glioblastoma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important biological characteristics of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is high vascular density. Vadimezan (ASA404, DMXAA) belongs to the class of small molecule vascular disrupting agents (VDA) that cause disruption of established tumor vessels and subsequent tumor hemorrhagic necrosis. Its selective antivascular effect is mediated by intratumoral induction of several cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α). Preclinical studies have demonstrated that ASA404 acts synergistically with taxanes. In this study, we investigated if treatment of mice bearing U251 human glioblastoma xenografts with ASA404 and taxol may be synergistic. Therapy response was evaluated by measuring changes in tumor size and metabolic activity using 18F-FDG PET (Fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emision tomography) imaging. U251 cells were inoculated s.c. in the right hind limb of NMRI-Foxn1nu athymic female nude mice. Animals were randomly assigned into 4 groups (7–9 animals/group) for treatment: control, taxol, ASA404, and ASA404 plus taxol. The animals received either a single dose of taxol (10 mg/kg), ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg), or taxol (10 mg/kg) plus ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg) administered i.p.; ASA404 was administred 24 h after the treatment with taxol. 4 and 24 h after treatment with ASA404 (28 and 48 h hours after treatment with taxol) 18 F-FDG PET scans were performed. The treatment with taxol did not affect the tumor growth in comparison to untreated controls. The treatment of animals with single dose ASA404 alone or in combination with taxol caused a significant delay in tumor growth. The combined treatment did not decrease the growth of the xenografts significantly more than ASA404 alone, but early changes in tumor 18 F-FDG uptake preceded subsequent growth inhibition. The tumor weights, which were determined at the end of treatment, were lower in

  15. Spectroscopy of odd Z trans-fermium nuclei: the nuclear structure of Md{sup 251}; Spectroscopie des transfermiums impairs en proton: la structure du noyau de {sup 251}Md

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatillon, A

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the structure of trans-fermium nuclei (Z 100) with odd proton number, which remained largely unexplored. These nuclei were produced in fusion-evaporation reactions with small cross sections below 1 {mu}b. The experimental methods of Recoil-Tagging and Recoil-Decay-Tagging were used for their identification. In order to identify the active orbitals in this mass region, {sup 255}Lr, {sup 251}M1d and {sup 247}Es nuclei have been studied by decay spectroscopy at the University of Jyvaskyla and at GANIL with the LISE spectrometer and the {alpha}-electron detector BEST coupled to four CLover detectors from the EXOGAM array. New states have been observed in each of the isotopes, and their configuration has been proposed. The collective properties were also studied in two experiments using prompt {gamma} and electron spectroscopy, combining the JUROGAM and SACRED arrays, respectively, with the recoil separator RITU and the GREAT spectrometer at its focal plane. A rotational band has been observed for the first time in a proton-odd trans-fermium nucleus. The interpretation of this collective structure is based on the theoretical HFB calculations. (author)

  16. Research on biological functions of U251 astroglioma cells infected with human herpesvirus type 6(HHV-6)%人类疱疹病毒6型感染U251细胞及其生物学功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭一迪; 姚堃; 周锋; 李凌云; 茌静; 刘根焰; 陈云

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究人类疱疹病毒6型(HHV-6)感染人星形胶质瘤细胞U251,及感染后对其生物学功能的影响.方法:HHV-6感染U251细胞建立HHV-6体外感染模型,倒置显微镜观察细胞病变.PCR法检测HHV-6 u22基因.间接免疫荧光(IFA)检测HHV-6即刻早期蛋白(IEI)和晚期蛋白(gB)的表达.MTT法检测U251感染HHV-6后细胞增殖的改变.流式细胞术(FCM)检测U251细胞周期改变.结果:在感染3天后U251出现典型细胞病变,细胞肿胀增大数倍,透亮,呈多形性.PCR检测到HHV-6u22基因.IFA检测到HHV-6 IE1蛋白和异B蛋白的表达.MTT法显示HHV-6能增强U251细胞的增殖能力.FCM检测表明,HHV-6感染后U251细胞周期发生改变,感染组和对照组相比,前者G1期的细胞减少,S期和G2期细胞增多.结论:HHV-6能感染U251细胞引起细胞病变.促进细胞的增殖.使细胞周期发生改变.本研究结果提示人类疱疹病毒6型可能参与人神经胶质瘤的发生、发展,对其机制尚不清楚.

  17. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  18. Earth System Chemistry Integrated Modelling (ESCiMo with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy, version 2.51

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jöckel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With version 2.51 of the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model three types of reference simulations as recommended by the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI have been performed: hindcast simulations (1950–2011, hindcast simulations with specified dynamics (1978–2013, i.e., nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and combined hindcast and projection simulations (1950–2100. The manuscript summarises the updates of the model system and details the different model setups used, including the on-line calculated diagnostics. Simulations have been performed with two different nudging setups, with and without interactive tropospheric aerosol, and with and without a coupled ocean model. Two different vertical resolutions have been applied. The on-line calculated sources and sinks of reactive species are quantified and a first evaluation of the simulation results from a global perspective is provided as a quality check of the data. The focus is on the inter-comparison of the different model setups. The simulation data will become publicly available via CCMI and the CERA database of the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ. This manuscript is intended to serve as an extensive reference for further analyses of the ESCiMo simulations.

  19. [Intravenous regional sympathetic block with guanethidine. Retrospective study of 251 blocks of the upper limb in 68 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, D V; Piaget, F

    1989-01-01

    68 patients have been treated by regional intravenous blocks with guanethidine. 251 blocks have been realized. The majority of the patients received 3 blocks of one week. Some of them got a second series of 3 blocks after a minimum interval of one month. The study included 3 groups of patients. The first group showed 12 patients in the first stage of Sudeck; the second group 22 patients in the second stage. The third group included 34 patients for which the indication to blockade had been a chronic painful stage (19 cases), an ankylosis (8 cases), a Dupuytren post-traumatic contracture (3 cases) a stage before the operation predisposing to dystrophy reflex (3 cases) and one case of hyperhidrosis of the hand. Considering the three groups it can be stated that the first one responded the best to the treatment with a success in 80% of the cases. This success confirms the necessity of intervening as soon as possible in case of an algoneurodystrophy. The third group reveals that this therapeutical method can be useful in other situations than the dystrophy reflexes. The indication herewith is more founded on a possible sympathetic origin of the troubles as on the comportment psycho-affective of the patient. PMID:2481373

  20. Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) version 2.51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöckel, Patrick; Tost, Holger; Pozzer, Andrea; Kunze, Markus; Kirner, Oliver; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Brinkop, Sabine; Cai, Duy S.; Dyroff, Christoph; Eckstein, Johannes; Frank, Franziska; Garny, Hella; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Graf, Phoebe; Grewe, Volker; Kerkweg, Astrid; Kern, Bastian; Matthes, Sigrun; Mertens, Mariano; Meul, Stefanie; Neumaier, Marco; Nützel, Matthias; Oberländer-Hayn, Sophie; Ruhnke, Roland; Runde, Theresa; Sander, Rolf; Scharffe, Dieter; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Three types of reference simulations, as recommended by the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), have been performed with version 2.51 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model: hindcast simulations (1950-2011), hindcast simulations with specified dynamics (1979-2013), i.e. nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and combined hindcast and projection simulations (1950-2100). The manuscript summarizes the updates of the model system and details the different model set-ups used, including the on-line calculated diagnostics. Simulations have been performed with two different nudging set-ups, with and without interactive tropospheric aerosol, and with and without a coupled ocean model. Two different vertical resolutions have been applied. The on-line calculated sources and sinks of reactive species are quantified and a first evaluation of the simulation results from a global perspective is provided as a quality check of the data. The focus is on the intercomparison of the different model set-ups. The simulation data will become publicly available via CCMI and the Climate and Environmental Retrieval and Archive (CERA) database of the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ). This manuscript is intended to serve as an extensive reference for further analyses of the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) simulations.

  1. Low dose rectal inoculation of rhesus macaques by SIV smE660 or SIVmac251 recapitulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hraber, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, Elena E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keele, Brandon [UNIV OF ALABAMA; Li, Hui [UNIV OF ALABAMA; Learn, Gerald [UNIV OF ALABAMA

    2008-01-01

    We recently developed a novel strategy to identify transmitted HIV-1 genomes in acutely infected humans using single-genome amplification and a model of random virus evolution. Here, we used this approach to determine the molecular features of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission in 18 experimentally infected Indian rhesus macaques. Animals were inoculated intrarectally (i.r.) or intravenously (i.v.) with stocks of SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660 that exhibited sequence diversity typical of early-chronic HIV-1 infection. 987 full-length SIV env sequences (median of 48 per animal) were determined from plasma virion RNA 1--5 wk after infection. i.r. inoculation was followed by productive infection by one or a few viruses (median 1; range 1--5) that diversified randomly with near starlike phylogeny and a Poisson distribution of mutations. Consensus viral sequences from ramp-up and peak viremia were identical to viruses found in the inocula or differed from them by only one or a few nucleotides, providing direct evidence that early plasma viral sequences coalesce to transmitted/founder viruses. i.v. infection was >2,000-fold more efficient than i.r. infection, and viruses transmitted by either route represented the full genetic spectra of the inocula. These findings identify key similarities in mucosal transmission and early diversification between SIV and HIV-1, and thus validate the SIV-macaque mucosal infection model for HIV-1 vaccine and microbicide research.

  2. Identification of a 251 gene expression signature that can accurately detect M. tuberculosis in patients with and without HIV co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Dawany

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with tuberculosis (TB is the leading cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. However, diagnosis of TB, especially in the presence of an HIV co-infection, can be limiting due to the high inaccuracy associated with the use of conventional diagnostic methods. Here we report a gene signature that can identify a tuberculosis infection in patients co-infected with HIV as well as in the absence of HIV. METHODS: We analyzed global gene expression data from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples of patients that were either mono-infected with HIV or co-infected with HIV/TB and used support vector machines to identify a gene signature that can distinguish between the two classes. We then validated our results using publically available gene expression data from patients mono-infected with TB. RESULTS: Our analysis successfully identified a 251-gene signature that accurately distinguishes patients co-infected with HIV/TB from those infected with HIV only, with an overall accuracy of 81.4% (sensitivity = 76.2%, specificity = 86.4%. Furthermore, we show that our 251-gene signature can also accurately distinguish patients with active TB in the absence of an HIV infection from both patients with a latent TB infection and healthy controls (88.9-94.7% accuracy; 69.2-90% sensitivity and 90.3-100% specificity. We also demonstrate that the expression levels of the 251-gene signature diminish as a correlate of the length of TB treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A 251-gene signature is described to (a detect TB in the presence or absence of an HIV co-infection, and (b assess response to treatment following anti-TB therapy.

  3. Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) version 2.51

    OpenAIRE

    Jöckel, Patrick; Tost, Holger; Pozzer, Andrea; Kunze, Markus; Kirner, Oliver; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Brinkop, Sabine; Cai, Duy S.; Dyroff, Christoph; Eckstein, Johannes; Frank, Franziska; Garny, Hella; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Graf, Phoebe; Grewe, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Three types of reference simulations, as recommended by the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), have been performed with version 2.51 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts – Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model: hindcast simulations (1950–2011), hindcast simulations with specified dynamics (1979–2013), i.e. nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and combined hindcast and projection simulations (1950–...

  4. A clinical epidemiological study of 251 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the south of Brazil Estudo clínico epidemiológico de 251 casos de esclerose lateral amiotrófica no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and the possible presence of risk factors in order to verify if there is any difference between cases in Paraná, Brazil. METHOD: We studied 251 cases, all of which fulfilled the diagnosis criteria proposed in El Escorial (WFN. Between 1977 and 2004, 157 male and 94 female patients were examined. RESULTS: 220 cases were classified as ALS-Spinal Onset (ALS-SO, 24 as ALS-Bulbar Onset (ALS-BO and 7 as Familial ALS. The mean age at time of evaluation was 54.4±12.3 years, and symptoms had started 17.9±15.7months previously. In the group studied, statistical relationships were found between heavy occupations and males; previous surgeries and females; ALS-BO and dysphagia and dysarthria in females; and ALS-SO and males, cramps, weakness, muscle atrophy, hypertonia, increased deep tendon reflex and abnormal gait. CONCLUSION: The average age at time of evaluation was lower than that registered in the literature but similar to the Brazilian series. Domestic work and heavy occupations appear to be related to precocious perception of the symptoms by interference with daily functions. The socioeconomically higher classes seek medical care early. There was no relationship with exposure to toxic agents or trauma.OBJETIVO: Estudar as formas clínicas de esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA e possíveis fatores de risco, a fim de verificar se existem diferenças entre os casos do Paraná, Brasil. MÉTODO: Estudamos 251 casos entre 1977 e 2004, que preencheram os critérios propostos em El Escorial (WFN, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 94 do feminino. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados como ELA de início espinhal (ELA-IE 220 casos, ELA de início bulbar (ELA-IB 24 casos e 7 casos como ELA familiar. A idade média na avaliação foi 54,4±12,3 anos cujos sintomas iniciaram 17,9 ±15,7 meses antes. Foram encontradas relações estatísticas entre ocupação que demandam esforços físicos com

  5. Calmodulin and the target size of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase of human red-cell ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, J D

    1984-04-11

    An average target size of 251 kDa has been obtained for the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase of calmodulin-depleted erythrocyte ghosts by radiation inactivation with 16 MeV electrons. This is close to twice the size of the purified calcium-pump polypeptide. When calmodulin was included during the ATPase assay, a component of about 1 MDa appeared in addition to the activated dimer. PMID:6142728

  6. Functional simian immunodeficiency virus Gag-specific CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes in the mucosae of SIVmac251- or simian-human immunodeficiency virus KU2-infected macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vaginal and rectal mucosae are the first line of cellular immune defense to sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry. Thus, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) may be important in the immune response to HIV infection. Here we investigated whether functional IELs in mucosal compartments could be visualized by direct staining with a tetrameric complex specific for the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) immunodominant Gag epitope in either separated IEL cells or tissues of macaques infected with SIVmac251. Of the 15 Mamu-A*01-positive macaques studied here, eight were chronically infected with either SIVmac251 or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) KU2 and the remaining seven were exposed mucosally to SIVmac251 and sacrificed within 48 h to assess the local immune response. Gag-specific CD8+ T-cells were found in separated IELs from the rectum, colon, jejunum, and vagina of most infected animals. Direct staining of tetramers also revealed their presence in intact tissue. These Gag-specific IELs expressed the activation marker CD69 and produced IFN-γ, suggesting an active immune response in this locale

  7. Rabies virus-based vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies, poly-functional CD8+ T cell, and protect rhesus macaques from AIDS-like disease after SIVmac251 challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Elizabeth J.; Aye, Pyone P.; Papaneri, Amy B.; Pahar, Bapi; McGettigan, James P.; Schiro, Faith; Chervoneva, Inna; Montefiori, David C.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2010-01-01

    Highly attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine vectors were evaluated for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic SIVmac251 challenge. Mamu-A*01 negative rhesus macaques were immunized in groups of four with either: RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, a combination of RV expressing SIVmac239-Env and RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, or with empty RV vectors. Eight weeks later animals received a booster immunization with a heterologous RV expressing the same antigens. At twelve weeks post-boost, all animals were challenged intravenously with 100 TCID50 of pathogenic SIVmac251-CX. Immunized macaques in both vaccine groups had 1.3–1.6-log fold decrease in viral set point compared to control animals. The GagPol/Env immunized animals also had a significantly lower peak viral load. When compared to control animals following challenge, vaccinated macaques had a more rapid induction of SIVmac251 neutralizing antibodies and of CD8+ T cell responses to various SIV epitopes. Moreover, vaccinated macaques better-maintained peripheral memory CD4+ T cells and were able to mount a poly-functional CD8+ T cell response in the mucosa. These findings indicate promise for RV-based vectors and have important implications for the development of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:19879223

  8. Immune modulation through 4-1BB enhances SIV vaccine protection in non-human primates against SIVmac251 challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Hirao

    Full Text Available Costimulatory molecules play a central role in the development of cellular immunity. Understanding how costimulatory pathways can be directed to positively influence the immune response may be critical for the generation of an effective HIV vaccine. Here, we evaluated the ability of intravenous administration of a blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb directed against the negative costimulatory molecule CTLA-4, and an agonist mAb directed against the positive costimulatory molecule 4-1BB, either alone or in combination, to augment intramuscular SIV DNA immunizations. We then tested the ability these of these responses to impact a high-dose SIVmac251 challenge. Following immunization, the groups infused with the anti-4-1BB mAb exhibited enhanced IFN-γ responses compared to the DNA vaccine only group. Interestingly, although CTLA-4 blockade alone did not enhance IFN-γ responses it did increase the proliferative capacity of the CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. The combination of both mAbs enhanced the magnitude of the polyfunctional CD8(+ T cell response. Following challenge, the group that received both mAbs exhibited a significant, ∼2.0 log, decrease in plasma viral load compared to the naïve group the included complete suppression of viral load in some animals. Furthermore, the use of the CTLA-4 blocking antibody resulted in significantly higher viral loads during chronic infection compared to animals that received the 4-1BB mAb, likely due to the higher CD4(+ T cell proliferative responses which were driven by this adjuvant following immunization. These novel studies show that these adjuvants induce differential modulation of immune responses, which have dramatically different consequences for control of SIV replication, suggesting important implications for HIV vaccine development.

  9. Accelerator target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Koehler, Conrad (Miller Place, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  10. Characterization of Mycobacterium leprae Genotypes in China--Identification of a New Polymorphism C251T in the 16S rRNA Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Youhua; Wen, Yan; You, Yuangang; Xing, Yan; Li, Huanying; Weng, Xiaoman; Wu, Nan; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Shanshan; Zhang, Wenhong; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy continues to be prevalent in some mountainous regions of China, and genotypes of leprosy strains endemic to the country are not known. Mycobacterium lepromatosis is a new species that was discovered in Mexico in 2008, and it remains unclear whether this species exists in China. Here, we conducted PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to classify genotypes of 85 DNA samples collected from patients from 18 different provinces. All 171 DNA samples from skin biopsies of leprosy patients were tested for the presence of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene using nested PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. The new species M. lepromatosis was not found among the 171 specimens from leprosy patients in 22 provinces in China. However, we found three SNP genotypes among 85 leprosy patients. A mutation at C251T in the 16S rRNA gene was found in 76% of the strains. We also found that the strains that showed the 16S rRNA C251T mutation belonged to SNP type 3, whereas strains without the point mutation belonged to SNP type 1. The SNP type 3 leprosy strains were observed in patients from both the inner and coastal regions of China, but the SNP type 1 strains were focused only in the coastal region. This indicated that the SNP type 3 leprosy strains were more prevalent than the SNP type 1 strains in China. In addition, the 16S rRNA gene sequence mutation at C251T also indicated a difference in the geographical distribution of the strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a new polymorphism in 16S rRNA gene in M. leprae in China. Our findings shed light on the prevalent genotypes and provide insight about leprosy transmission that are important for leprosy control in China. PMID:26196543

  11. Characterization of Mycobacterium leprae Genotypes in China--Identification of a New Polymorphism C251T in the 16S rRNA Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Yuan

    Full Text Available Leprosy continues to be prevalent in some mountainous regions of China, and genotypes of leprosy strains endemic to the country are not known. Mycobacterium lepromatosis is a new species that was discovered in Mexico in 2008, and it remains unclear whether this species exists in China. Here, we conducted PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis to classify genotypes of 85 DNA samples collected from patients from 18 different provinces. All 171 DNA samples from skin biopsies of leprosy patients were tested for the presence of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene using nested PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. The new species M. lepromatosis was not found among the 171 specimens from leprosy patients in 22 provinces in China. However, we found three SNP genotypes among 85 leprosy patients. A mutation at C251T in the 16S rRNA gene was found in 76% of the strains. We also found that the strains that showed the 16S rRNA C251T mutation belonged to SNP type 3, whereas strains without the point mutation belonged to SNP type 1. The SNP type 3 leprosy strains were observed in patients from both the inner and coastal regions of China, but the SNP type 1 strains were focused only in the coastal region. This indicated that the SNP type 3 leprosy strains were more prevalent than the SNP type 1 strains in China. In addition, the 16S rRNA gene sequence mutation at C251T also indicated a difference in the geographical distribution of the strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a new polymorphism in 16S rRNA gene in M. leprae in China. Our findings shed light on the prevalent genotypes and provide insight about leprosy transmission that are important for leprosy control in China.

  12. Variants Located Upstream of CHRNB4 on Chromosome 15q25.1 Are Associated with Age at Onset of Daily Smoking and Habitual Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, Manav; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Bertelsen, Sarah; Bucholz, Kathy; Budde, John P; Hinrichs, Anthony; Agrawal, Arpana; Brooks, Andrew; Chorlian, David; Dick, Danielle; Hesselbrock, Victor; Foroud, Tatiana; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Manz, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Several genome-wide association and candidate gene studies have linked chromosome 15q24–q25.1 (a region including the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster) with alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence and smoking-related illnesses such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To further examine the impact of these genes on the development of substance use disorders, we tested whether variants within and flanking the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster affect the transition to dail...

  13. Spectroscopic and structural elucidation of merocyanine dye 2,5-[1-metyl-4-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl)]piridinium]-hexane tetraphenylborate. Aggregation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Bojidarka B.; Stoyanov, Stanimir; Kolev, Tsonko; Petkov, Ivan; Spiteller, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Structural and spectroscopic elucidation of merocyanine dye, 2,5-[1-metyl-4-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl)]piridinium]-hexane tetraphenylborate, is performed in gas and condense phase by means of solution and solid-state conventional and linear-polarized IR-spectroscopy of oriented colloids in nematic liquid crystal suspension, UV-vis and fluorescence methods, HPLC MS/MS tandem and ESI mass spectrometry, 1H, 13C and 1H- 1H COSY NMR, TGV and DSC methods. Quantum chemical DFT calculations are performed for structural optimization and spectroscopic properties prediction.

  14. Rabies virus-based vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies, poly-functional CD8+ T cell, and protect rhesus macaques from AIDS-like disease after SIVmac251 challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth J. Faul; Aye, Pyone P.; Papaneri, Amy B.; Pahar, Bapi; McGettigan, James P.; Schiro, Faith; Chervoneva, Inna; Montefiori, David C.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2009-01-01

    Highly attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine vectors were evaluated for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic SIVmac251 challenge. Mamu-A*01 negative rhesus macaques were immunized in groups of four with either: RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, a combination of RV expressing SIVmac239-Env and RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, or with empty RV vectors. Eight weeks later animals received a booster immunization with a heterologous RV expressing the same antigens. At twelve weeks post-bo...

  15. High Frequency of Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells in the Central Nervous System of Macaques Chronically Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251

    OpenAIRE

    Moniuszko, Marcin; Brown, Charlie; Pal, Ranajit; Tryniszewska, Elzbieta; Tsai, Wen-Po; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2003-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) induces virus-specific CD8+ T cells that traffic to lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. In this study, we used Gag-specific tetramer staining to investigate the frequency of CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood and the central nervous system of Mamu-A*01-positive SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Most of these infected macaques were vaccinated prior to SIVmac251 exposure. The frequency of Gag181-189 CM9 tetramer-positive...

  16. Influence of the CB1 receptor antagonist, AM 251, on the regional haemodynamic effects of WIN-55212-2 or HU 210 in conscious rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, S. M.; March, J. E.; Kemp, P. A.; Bennett, T.

    2002-01-01

    In conscious, freely-moving, male, Sprague-Dawley rats, the regional haemodynamic responses to the synthetic cannabinoids, WIN-55212-2 and HU 210, were compared. The possible involvement of cannabinoid, CB1-receptors, or β2-adrenoceptors in the responses to WIN-55212-2 and HU 210 were investigated using the CB1-receptor antagonist, AM 251, or the β2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI 118551, respectively.Both WIN-55212-2 (150 μg kg−1) and HU 210 (100 μg kg−1) had pressor, renal, and mesenteric vaso...

  17. Comparison of the transcriptional activity of the long terminal repeats of simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 in T-cell lines and macrophage cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, M G; Clements, J E

    1991-01-01

    The U3 regions of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 were analyzed for basal transcriptional activity and for interaction with cellular factors in the T-cell line HUT-78 and the monocyte/macrophage cell line U937. A number of 5' deletions and mutations were made in the U3 regions of the two LTRs, and these constructs were placed upstream of a plasmid containing the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. The nucleotid...

  18. MiR-18a regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cell by targeting neogenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MiR-17-92 cluster has recently been reported as an oncogene in some tumors. However, the association of miR-18a, an important member of this cluster, with glioblastoma remains unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the expression of miR-18a in glioblastoma and its role in biological behavior of U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that miR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines compared with that in human brain tissues and primary normal human astrocytes, and the expression levels were increased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a by dual-luciferase reporter assays. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that its expression levels were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Inhibition of miR-18a expression was established by transfecting exogenous miR-18a inhibitor into U87 and U251 cells, and its effects on the biological behavior of glioblastoma cells were studied using CCK-8 assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry. Inhibition of miR-18a expression in U87 and U251 cells significantly up-regulated neogenin, and dramatically suppressed the abilities of cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cellular apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that miR-18a may regulate biological behavior of human glioblastoma cells by targeting neogenin, and miR-18a can serve as a potential target in the treatment of glioblastoma. - Highlights: • MiR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines. • Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a. • Neogenin expressions were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. • Inhibition of miR-18a suppressed biological behavior of glioma cells by up-regulating neogenin

  19. MiR-18a regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cell by targeting neogenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yichen, E-mail: jeff200064017@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang, Ping, E-mail: pingwang8000@163.com [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zhao, Wei, E-mail: 15669746@qq.com [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Yao, Yilong, E-mail: yaoyilong_322@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Xiaobai, E-mail: paganizonda1991@qq.com [The 96th Class, 7-year Program, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: majun_724@163.com [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Xue, Yixue, E-mail: xueyixue888@163.com [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Yunhui, E-mail: liuyh@sj-hospital.org [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2014-05-15

    MiR-17-92 cluster has recently been reported as an oncogene in some tumors. However, the association of miR-18a, an important member of this cluster, with glioblastoma remains unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the expression of miR-18a in glioblastoma and its role in biological behavior of U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that miR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines compared with that in human brain tissues and primary normal human astrocytes, and the expression levels were increased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a by dual-luciferase reporter assays. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that its expression levels were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Inhibition of miR-18a expression was established by transfecting exogenous miR-18a inhibitor into U87 and U251 cells, and its effects on the biological behavior of glioblastoma cells were studied using CCK-8 assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry. Inhibition of miR-18a expression in U87 and U251 cells significantly up-regulated neogenin, and dramatically suppressed the abilities of cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cellular apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that miR-18a may regulate biological behavior of human glioblastoma cells by targeting neogenin, and miR-18a can serve as a potential target in the treatment of glioblastoma. - Highlights: • MiR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines. • Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a. • Neogenin expressions were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. • Inhibition of miR-18a suppressed biological behavior of glioma cells by up-regulating neogenin.

  20. In vitro effect of p21WAF-1/CIP1 gene on growth of human glioma cells mediated by EGFR targeted non-viral vector GE7 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永新; 许秀兰; 张光霁; 王韦; 金海英; 卢亦成; 朱诚; 顾健人

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To construct the EGFR targeted non-viral vector GE7 system and explore the in vitro effect of p21WAF-1/CIP1 gene on growth of human glioma cells mediated by the GE7 system. Methods: The EGFR targeted non-viral vector GE7 gene delivery system was constructed. The malignant human glioma cell line U251MG was transfected in vitro with β-galactosidase gene(reporter gene) and p21WAF-1/CIP1 gene (therapeutic gene) using the GE7 system. By means of X-gal staining, MTS and FACS, the transfection efficiency of exogenous gene and apoptosis rate of tumor cells were examined. The expression of p21WAF-1/CIP1 gene in transfected U251MG cell was examined by immunohistochemistry staining. Results: The highest transfer rate of exogenous gene was 70%. After transfection with p21WAF-1/CIP1 gene, the expression of WAF-1 increased remarkably and steadily; the growth of U251MG cells were inhibited evidently. FACS examination showed G1 arrest. The average apoptosis rate was 25.2%. Conclusion: GE7 system has the ability to transfer exogenous gene to targeted cells efficiently, and expression of p21WAF-1/CIP1 gene can induce apoptosis of glioma cell and inhibit its growth.

  1. H{sub 2} reduction of surface oxides on Pd-based membrane model systems – The case of Pd(1 0 0) and Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, V.R. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Gustafson, J. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 117, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Farstad, M.H.; Walle, L.E. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Blomberg, S.; Lundgren, E. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 117, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Venvik, H.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Borg, A., E-mail: anne.borg@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • H{sub 2} reduction of the surface oxide is significantly slower for Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) compared to Pd(1 0 0). • The reduction behavior shows complex temperature dependence, not well described by Avrami kinetics. • Oxygen spillover effects during the surface oxide reduction are observed for Pd(1 0 0). • For Pd(1 0 0) the observed reduction rate is rather independent of temperature. • For Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) the reduction rate displays a non-monotonic variation with temperature. - Abstract: Reduction of the (√(5)×√(5))R27° surface oxide on Pd(1 0 0) and Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) surfaces by H{sub 2} has been studied using high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy in situ at H{sub 2} pressures 5 × 10{sup −9} mbar and 5 × 10{sup −8} mbar and selected temperatures in the range 30 °C to 170 °C. The reduction is slower on Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) compared to Pd(1 0 0) for all temperatures and pressures investigated. For Pd(1 0 0), the surface oxide reduction rate is rather independent of temperature, while for Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) a non-monotonic variation is observed. As indicated by kinetic analysis, the complex reduction behavior is not well described by Avrami kinetics. Oxygen spillover effects contribute to this picture for Pd(1 0 0), while surface compositional effects appear to dominate the performance for Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0). These findings may have implications for understanding the oxidation, reduction and hydrogen transport properties of Pd–Ag membranes.

  2. Chronic Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration Reduces IgE(+)B Cells but Unlikely Enhances Pathogenic SIVmac251 Infection in Male Rhesus Macaques of Chinese Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Liu, Li; Cong, Zhe; Wu, Xiaoxian; Wang, Hui; Qin, Chuan; Molina, Patricia; Chen, Zhiwei

    2016-09-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) is the major psychoactive component of the cannabis plant. Δ(9)-THC has been used in the active ingredient of Marinol as an appetite stimulant for AIDS patients. Its impact on progression of HIV-1 infection, however, remains debatable. Previous studies indicated that Δ(9)-THC administration enhanced HIV-1 infection in huPBL-SCID mice but seemingly decreased early mortality in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected male Indian-derived rhesus macaques. Here, we determine the chronic effect of Δ(9)-THC administration using 0.32 mg/kg or placebo (PBO), i.m., twice daily for 428 days on SIVmac251 infected male Chinese-derived rhesus macaques. Sixteen animals were divided into four study groups: Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+), Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(-), PBO/SIV(+) and PBO/SIV(-) (n = 4/group). One-month after daily Δ(9)-THC or PBO administrations, macaques in groups one and three were challenged intravenously with pathogenic SIVmac251/CNS, which was isolated from the brain of a Chinese macaque with end-staged neuroAIDS. No significant differences in peak and steady state plasma viral loads were seen between Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+) and PBO/SIV(+) macaques. Regardless of Δ(9)-THC, all infected macaques displayed significant drop of CD4/CD8 T cell ratio, loss of CD4(+) T cells and higher persistent levels of Ki67(+)CD8(+) T cells compared with uninfected animals. Moreover, long-term Δ(9)-THC treatment reduced significantly the frequency of circulating IgE(+)B cells. Only one Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+) macaque died of simian AIDS with paralyzed limbs compared with two deaths in the PBO/SIV(+) group during the study period. These findings indicate that chronic Δ(9)-THC administration resulted in reduction of IgE(+)B cells, yet it unlikely enhanced pathogenic SIVmac251/CNS infection in male Rhesus macaques of Chinese origin. PMID:27109234

  3. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Target Awareness: Lupus Jan. 15, 2009 Target Awareness: Lupus Target Awareness: Lupus provides a brief overview of ... Email Print Tags for this Story treatments symptoms Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  4. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Target Awareness: Lupus Jan. 15, 2009 Target Awareness: Lupus Target Awareness: Lupus provides a brief overview of ... Email Print Tags for this Story treatments symptoms Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  5. Target factory in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target factory diagram has been constructed for an analysis of the shell coating process system in relation to target production. The number of deposition units needed to achieve the coating requirements will be a major target production operating cost

  6. Functionalized magnetic nanochains with enhanced MR imaging: A novel nanosystem for targeting and inhibition of early glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Huang, Zhongbing; Wu, Zhi; Yin, Guangfu; Wang, Lei; Gao, Fabao

    2016-04-01

    Absence of efficient targeting limits the application of magnetic nanochains (NCs) in the diagnosis of early brain cancer. Herein, dextran-coated NCs (more than 100nm length and ∼10nm cores diameter), which were modified by cyclic pentapeptide c(RGDyC) or chlorotoxin (CTX) as the targeting molecules, were fabricated via carbodiimide chemistry and thiol technique. The analysis results revealed that the obtained slender NCs exhibited good biocompatibility, superparamagnetic property, high transverse relaxivity (R2) and longer blood circulation time. The test results of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and U251 human glioma cells indicated that the conjugation of c(RGDyC) could obviously increase the cyto-internalization of c(RGDyC)-NCs, however, CTX modification could significantly enhance accumulation of CTX-NCs in U251 cells, leading to cellular apoptosis. The results of in vivo biodistribution tests and in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging indicated that, although the c(RGDyC)-NCs could target early glioma to some extent and obviously enhance the contrast of MR imaging, CTX-NCs possessed higher tumor-targeting ability and good inhibition effect than the c(RGDyC)-NCs, suggesting that CTX-NCs are promising candidates for the diagnosis and therapy of early glioma. PMID:26803007

  7. 美洲商陆抗病毒蛋白在毕赤酵母中的表达及其诱发人神经胶质瘤细胞U251凋亡的研究%Cloning and Expression of Pokeweed Antiviral Protein Gene from Phytolacca amercana in Pichia pastoris and the Study of Apoptosis of Human Neuroglioma Cells U251 Induced by Recombinant PAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向莉; 胡亚梅; 张杰文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To clone the pokeweed anti-viral protein (PAP) gene, to express it in Pichia pas-troris, and to study the inhibitory effect of PAP on U251 in vitro. Methods The cDNA sequence encoding PAP was cloned by Real-time PCR from Phytolacca amercana. The recombinant PAP was subcloned into the expression vector pPICZaA and expressed in Pichia pastroris GSM 5 after methanol induction. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the expressed PAP existed in the yeast culture supernatant. The drug cytotoxicity to U251 cells was assessed using MTT assay and the obvious apoptotic nuclei of the tumor cells detected using the method of single cell gel electrophoresis. Results The full-length PAP gene was cloned. The recombinant expression plasmid pPICZaA-PAP was constructed successfully. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the relative molecular mass (M) of the recombinant protein was about 35 kDa. The degradation of the genome of the apoptotic cells induced by PAP was detected using the method of single cell gel electrophoresis. PAP possessed very high ability to inhibit the growth of U251. The anti-tumor activities (IC50) to U251 cells of PAP was 81. 0 pg/mL. Conclusion PAP could be a potent anti-tumor candidate for inhibiting the growth of U251 and inducing its apoptosis.%目的 研究美洲商陆抗病毒蛋白(pokeweed antiviral protein,PAP)基因的克隆表达,进而研究其诱发人神经胶质瘤细胞U251凋亡.方法 利用RT-PCR技术克隆PAP基因,构建PAP毕赤酵母表达质粒pPIC-ZaA-PAP并导入毕赤酵母Pichia pastoris CS115.SDS-PAGE检测PAP的分泌表达.采用镍离子亲合层析纯化PAP,并通过单细胞凝胶电泳和MTT检测其抑制人神经胶质瘤细胞U251的生长.结果 分泌表达的PAP融合蛋白分子量约为35/kD,纯化的PAP在体外能诱发人神经胶质瘤细胞U251凋亡.PAP对U251半数抑制浓度(IC50)为81.0μg/mL,通过单细胞凝胶电泳,能看到明显的慧星尾,表明PAP引起了神经胶质瘤细

  8. Effective neutron targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the lack of a free neutron target, deuterium targets have been used extensively in studying the neutron structure. The unique spin structure of the 3He ground state wave function and the recent developments in laser technologies made polarized 3He targets widely used in many experiments from neutron electromagnetic form factor studies to nucleon spin structure function measurements at all major electron accelerator facilities. In this talk, the current status of the polarized 3He targets will be reviewed. The author will focus on neutron electromagnetic form factor studies using polarized 3He targets. The polarized nucleon spin structure function measurements using polarized 3He targets will also be discussed

  9. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  10. Targeting MT1-MMP as an ImmunoPET-Based Strategy for Imaging Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G de Lucas

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in the management of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM tumors is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of tumor progression in a noninvasive manner. We have identified Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP as an attractive biomarker for GBM imaging since this protein is actively involved in tumor growth and progression, correlates with tumor grade and is closely associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. Here, we report the development of an immunoPET tracer for effective detection of MT1-MMP in GBM models.An anti-human MT1-MMP monoclonal antibody (mAb, LEM2/15, was conjugated to p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (DFO-NCS for 89Zr labeling. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed in xenograft mice bearing human GBM cells (U251 expressing MT1-MMP and non-expressing breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 as negative control. Two orthotopic brain GBM models, patient-derived neurospheres (TS543 and U251 cells, with different degrees of blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption were also used for PET imaging experiments.89Zr labeling of DFO-LEM2/15 was achieved with high yield (>90% and specific activity (78.5 MBq/mg. Biodistribution experiments indicated that 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed excellent potential as a radiotracer for detection of MT1-MMP positive GBM tumors. PET imaging also indicated a specific and prominent 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 uptake in MT1-MMP+ U251 GBM tumors compared to MT1-MMP- MCF-7 breast tumors. Results obtained in orthotopic brain GBM models revealed a high dependence of a disrupted BBB for tracer penetrance into tumors. 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed much higher accumulation in TS543 tumors with a highly disrupted BBB than in U251 orthotopic model in which the BBB permeability was only partially increased. Histological analysis confirmed the specificity of the immunoconjugate in all GBM models.A new anti MT1-MMP-mAb tracer, 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15, was synthesized efficiently. In vivo validation showed high

  11. Low dose rectal inoculation of rhesus macaques by SIV SME660 or SIV MAC251 recapitulates human mucosal infection by HIV-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koraber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hraber, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharya, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we developed a novel approach to the identification of transmitted or early founder HIV -1 genomes in acutely infected humans based on single genome amplification and sequencing. Here we tested this approach in 18 acutely infected Indian rhesus macaques to determine the molecular features of SIV transmission. Animals were inoculated intrarectally (IR) or intravenously (IV) with stocks of SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660 that exhibited sequence diversity typical of early-chronic HIV -1 infection. 987 full-length SIV env sequences (median of 48 per animal) were determined from plasma virion RNA one to five weeks after infection. IR inoculation was followed by productive infection by one or few viruses (median 1; range 1-5) that diversified randomly with near star-like phylogeny and a Poisson distribution of mutations. Consensus viral sequences from ramp-up and peak viremia were identical to viruses found in the inocula or differed from them by only one or few nuc1eotides, providing direct evidence that early plasma viral sequences coalesce to transmitted/founder virus( es). IV infection was approximately 10,000-fold more efficient than IR infection, and viruses transmitted by either route represented the full genetic spectra of the inocula. These findings identify key similarities in mucosal transmission and early diversification between SIV and HIV -1.

  12. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism at 6q25.1,rs2046210, with endometrial cancer risk among Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang Li; Qiuyin Cai; Yong-Bing Xiang; Regina Courtney; Jia-Rong Cheng; Bo Huang; Ji-Rong Long; Hui Cai; Wei Zheng; Xiao-Ou Shu

    2011-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study identified a new susceptibility locus for breast cancer, rs2046210, which is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located upstream of the estrogen receptor α (ESR1) gene on chromosome 6q25.1. Given that endometrial cancer shares many risk factors with breast cancer and both are related to estrogen exposure and that rs2046210 is in close proximity to the ESR1 gene, we evaluated the association of SNP rs2046210 with endometrial cancer risk among 953 cases and 947 controls in a population-based, case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression models were used to derive odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% Cis) after adjusting for potential confounders. We found that the A allele of rs2046210, linked to an increased risk of breast cancer, was associated with increased but not statistically significant risk of endometrial cancer (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.96-1.41 for the GA and AA genotypes compared with the GG genotype); the association was stronger among post-menopausal women (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.00-1.65). The association tended to be stronger among women with higher or longer estrogen exposure than among women with relatively lower or shorter exposure to estrogen. Our study suggests that rs2046210 may play a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer. Additional studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  13. "Perfect Zoom System" which enables both a zoom ratio of 25:1 and a high-resolution in stereo microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Norio; Mizuta, Masahiro; Shinada, Nobuhiro; Nakayama, Hiroaki; Ohuchi, Yumiko

    2015-09-01

    A stereomicroscope can stereoscopically observe an object with protrusions and recesses as if the object were viewed by both eyes. Such stereomicroscopes use an optical system to create two slightly different viewing angles of an object. The different images are both enlarged and viewed through two eyepieces. Each of the observation optical systems includes a variable magnification mechanism which is called a zoom lens system. In recent years, a demand for stereomicroscopes that can observe a wide variable magnification range has been increasing along with the diversification of applications. However, there are no stereomicroscope zoom lenses with both a high resolution and a large zoom ratio. We developed the "Perfect Zoom System" which can reduce the light flux diameter going through the objective lens in the low-power state. In the "Perfect Zoom System", the zoom lens groups move along not only the optical axes but also perpendicular to the axes. Therefore, the objective lens could be made smaller by decentering the G2 and G3 group lenses in zoom lens group. We achieved a high resolution and a zoom ratio of 25:1.

  14. A novel autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment locus (DFNB47) maps to chromosome 2p25.1-p24.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Santos, Regie Lyn P; Rafiq, Muhammad Arshad; Chahrour, Maria H; Pham, Thanh L; Wajid, Muhammad; Hijab, Nadine; Wambangco, Michael; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Yan, Kai; Ahmad, Wasim; Leal, Suzanne M

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary hearing impairment (HI) displays extensive genetic heterogeneity. Autosomal recessive (AR) forms of prelingual HI account for approximately 75% of cases with a genetic etiology. A novel AR non-syndromic HI locus (DFNB47) was mapped to chromosome 2p25.1-p24.3, in two distantly related Pakistani kindreds. Genome scan and fine mapping were carried out using microsatellite markers. Multipoint linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score of 4.7 at markers D2S1400 and D2S262. The three-unit support interval was bounded by D2S330 and D2S131. The region of homozygosity was found within the three-unit support interval and flanked by markers D2S2952 and D2S131, which corresponds to 13.2 cM according to the Rutgers combined linkage-physical map. This region contains 5.3 Mb according to the sequence-based physical map. Three candidate genes, KCNF1, ID2 and ATP6V1C2 were sequenced, and were found to be negative for functional sequence variants. PMID:16261342

  15. Optical simulations for the S3 project - Super separator spectrometer - gamma-electron coincidence spectroscopy of a transfermium nucleus: the 251Md101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In analogy with the atomic closed shells giving rise to the stability and high ionisation energies of noble gases, nuclear physics also has its magic numbers of protons and neutrons which enhance nuclear structure stability. Knowledge of the structure of doubly-magic nuclei, both proton and neutron numbers, is crucial to parameterize theoretical models. The discovery of the next and ultimate magic numbers will provide a strong constraint on the many predictions. These two numbers are like the centre coordinates of an area of enhanced stability of the nuclear chart, well known as 'island of stability'. These superheavy nuclei only exist due to pure quantum shell effects. My thesis work deals with two distinct, but complementary, aspects of fundamental physics with the common goal of studying these extreme mass nuclei structure. The first part corresponds to the development of a next generation instrument for nuclear physics to allow synthesis and spectroscopy studies of superheavy nuclei: the Super Separator Spectrometer S3. This project will be installed at SPIRAL2 (GANIL) and has been approved by the French Research National Agency (ANR) within the EQUIPEX framework. It has been designed to take advantage of the high intensity heavy ion beam from the LINAC, giving access to a wide range of physical programs. The second part corresponds to the preparation, realisation and analysis of an experiment on 251-Mendelevium in which the very first prompt gamma-electron coincidence spectroscopy was performed for a transfermium nuclei. (author)

  16. Enhanced cytotoxic effect of radiation and temozolomide in malignant glioma cells: targeting PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling, HSP90 and histone deacetylases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite aggressive treatment with radiation therapy and concurrent adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ), glioblastoma multiform (GBM) still has a dismal prognosis. We aimed to identify strategies to improve the therapeutic outcome of combined radiotherapy and TMZ in GBM by targeting pro-survival signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Glioma cell lines U251, T98G were used. Colony formation, DNA damage repair, mode of cell death, invasion, migration and vasculogenic mimicry as well as protein expression were determined. U251 cells showing a low level of methyl guanine transferase (MGMT) were highly responsive to the radiosensitizing effect of TMZ compared to T98G cells having a high level of MGMT. Treatment with a dual inhibitor of Class I PI3K/mTOR, PI103; a HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG; or a HDAC inhibitor, LBH589, further increased the cytotoxic effect of radiation therapy plus TMZ in U251 cells than in T98G cells. However, treatment with a mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, did not discernibly potentiate the radiosensitizing effect of TMZ in either cell line. The mechanism of enhanced radiosensitizing effects of TMZ was multifactorial, involving impaired DNA damage repair, induction of autophagy or apoptosis, and reversion of EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition). Our results suggest possible strategies for counteracting the pro-survival signaling from EGFR to improve the therapeutic outcome of combined radiotherapy and TMZ for high-grade gliomas

  17. Price level targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Shukayev, Malik; Ueberfeldt, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Various papers have suggested that Price-Level targeting is a welfare improving policy relative to Inflation targeting. From a practical standpoint, this raises an important yet unanswered question: What is the optimal price index to target? This paper derives the optimal price level targeting index defined over the eight main components of the Consumer Price Index. It finds that such an index places a heavier weight, relative to the expenditure weight, on sectors with slow price adjustments....

  18. Multilayer polymer microspot targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year the authors reported on the development of a seeded microspot x-ray diagnostic target. This target consisted of a 300-μm-diam, 2-μm-thick disk of silicon or sulfur-seeded hydrocarbon polymer nested tightly in a hole in a 2-μm-thick film of pure hydrocarbon polymer. This year they extended our work on the microspot target, fully encapsulating the microspot in what they call the multilayer polymer microspot target

  19. Target Price Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown) 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio). However, target price accuracy is positive...

  20. The Targeting of Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Iyer; David Soberman; J. Miguel Villas-Boas

    2005-01-01

    An important question that firms face in advertising is developing effective media strategy. Major improvements in the quality of consumer information and the growth of targeted media vehicles allow firms to precisely target advertising to consumer segments within a market. This paper examines advertising strategy when competing firms can target advertising to different groups of consumers within a market. With targeted advertising, we find that firms advertise more to consumers who have a st...

  1. TARGET COSTING FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dimi OFILEANU

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the concept of Target Costing. Based on the characteristics of Target Costing, identified in specialized literature, the article presents its main advantages and disadvantages. Also, a comparison is being made between Target Cost and Traditional Cost (in its traditional form, the cost represents an independent variable on the basis of which the sell price is established; and in the Target Cost form the cost represents a dependent variable which is determined on ...

  2. An actionable climate target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The Paris Agreement introduced three mitigation targets. In the future, the main focus should not be on temperature targets such as 2 or 1.5 °C, but on the target with the greatest potential to effectively guide policy: net zero emissions.

  3. Response of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251 to raltegravir: a basis for a new treatment for simian AIDS and an animal model for studying lentiviral persistence during antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenhouse Jack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we successfully created a new approach to ART in SIVmac251 infected nonhuman primates. This drug regimen is entirely based on drugs affecting the pre-integration stages of replication and consists of only two nucleotidic/nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors (Nt/NRTIs and raltegravir, a promising new drug belonging to the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI class. Results In acutely infected human lymphoid CD4+ T-cell lines MT-4 and CEMx174, SIVmac251 replication was efficiently inhibited by raltegravir, which showed an EC90 in the low nanomolar range. This result was confirmed in primary macaque PBMCs and enriched CD4+ T cell fractions. In vivo monotherapy with raltegravir for only ten days resulted in reproducible decreases in viral load in two different groups of animals. When emtricitabine (FTC and tenofovir (PMPA were added to treatment, undetectable viral load was reached in two weeks, and a parallel increase in CD4 counts was observed. In contrast, the levels of proviral DNA did not change significantly during the treatment period, thus showing persistence of this lentiviral reservoir during therapy. Conclusions In line with the high conservation of the three main amino acids Y143, Q148 and N155 (responsible for raltegravir binding and molecular docking simulations showing similar binding modes of raltegravir at the SIVmac251 and HIV-1 IN active sites, raltegravir is capable of inhibiting SIVmac251 replication both in tissue culture and in vivo. This finding may help to develop effective ART regimens for the simian AIDS model entirely based on drugs adopted for treatment in humans. This ART-treated AIDS nonhuman primate model could be employed to find possible strategies for virus eradication from the body.

  4. Tracking past changes in lake-water phosphorus with a 251-lake calibration dataset in British Columbia: tool development and application in a multiproxy assessment of eutrophication and recovery in Osoyoos Lake, a transboundary lake in Western North America

    OpenAIRE

    Cumming, Brian F.; Laird, Kathleen R.; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Simpson, Kyle G.; Sokal, Michael A.; Nordin, Rick N.; Walker, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been an active discussion about the potential and challenges of tracking past lake-water trophic state using paleolimnological methods. Herein, we present analyses of the relationship between modern-day diatom assemblages from the surface sediments of 251 fresh-water lakes from British Columbia and contemporary limnological variables. Total phosphorus (TP) was significantly related to the modern distribution of diatom assemblages. The large size of this new calibration dat...

  5. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  6. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  7. Rabies virus-based vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies, poly-functional CD8+ T cell, and protect rhesus macaques from AIDS-like disease after SIV(mac251) challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Elizabeth J; Aye, Pyone P; Papaneri, Amy B; Pahar, Bapi; McGettigan, James P; Schiro, Faith; Chervoneva, Inna; Montefiori, David C; Lackner, Andrew A; Schnell, Matthias J

    2009-12-11

    Highly attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine vectors were evaluated for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic SIV(mac251) challenge. Mamu-A*01 negative rhesus macaques were immunized in groups of four with either: RV expressing SIV(mac239)-GagPol, a combination of RV expressing SIV(mac239)-Env and RV expressing SIV(mac239)-GagPol, or with empty RV vectors. Eight weeks later animals received a booster immunization with a heterologous RV expressing the same antigens. At 12 weeks post-boost, all animals were challenged intravenously with 100 TCID(50) of pathogenic SIV(mac251-CX). Immunized macaques in both vaccine groups had 1.3-1.6-log-fold decrease in viral set point compared to control animals. The GagPol/Env immunized animals also had a significantly lower peak viral load. When compared to control animals following challenge, vaccinated macaques had a more rapid induction of SIV(mac251) neutralizing antibodies and of CD8(+) T cell responses to various SIV epitopes. Moreover, vaccinated macaques better maintained peripheral memory CD4(+) T cells and were able to mount a poly-functional CD8(+) T cell response in the mucosa. These findings indicate promise for RV-based vectors and have important implications for the development of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:19879223

  8. Variants located upstream of CHRNB4 on chromosome 15q25.1 are associated with age at onset of daily smoking and habitual smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manav Kapoor

    Full Text Available Several genome-wide association and candidate gene studies have linked chromosome 15q24-q25.1 (a region including the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster with alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence and smoking-related illnesses such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To further examine the impact of these genes on the development of substance use disorders, we tested whether variants within and flanking the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster affect the transition to daily smoking (individuals who smoked cigarettes 4 or more days per week in a cross sectional sample of adolescents and young adults from the COGA (Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism families. Subjects were recruited from families affected with alcoholism (either as a first or second degree relative and the comparison families. Participants completed the SSAGA interview, a comprehensive assessment of alcohol and other substance use and related behaviors. Using the Quantitative trait disequilibrium test (QTDT significant association was detected between age at onset of daily smoking and variants located upstream of CHRNB4. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model further revealed that these variants significantly predict the age at onset of habitual smoking among daily smokers. These variants were not in high linkage disequilibrium (0.28

  9. Location and dynamics of the immunodominant CD8 T cell response to SIVΔnef immunization and SIVmac251 vaginal challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K Sasikala-Appukuttan

    Full Text Available Live-attenuated SIV vaccines (LAVs have been the most effective to date in preventing or partially controlling infection by wild-type SIV in non-human primate models of HIV-1 transmission to women acting by mechanisms of protection that are not well understood. To gain insights into mechanisms of protection by LAVs that could aid development of effective vaccines to prevent HIV-1 transmission to women, we used in situ tetramer staining to determine whether increased densities or changes in the local distribution of SIV-specific CD8 T cells correlated with the maturation of SIVΔnef vaccine-induced protection prior to and after intra-vaginal challenge with wild-type SIVmac251. We evaluated the immunodominant Mamu-A1*001:01/Gag (CM9 and Mamu-A1*001:01/Tat (SL8 epitope response in genital and lymphoid tissues, and found that tetramer+ cells were present at all time points examined. In the cervical vaginal tissues, most tetramer+ cells were distributed diffusely throughout the lamina propria or co-localized with other CD8 T cells within lymphoid aggregates. The distribution and densities of the tetramer+ cells at the portal of entry did not correlate with the maturation of protection or change after challenge. Given these findings, we discuss the possibility that changes in other aspects of the immune system, including the quality of the resident population of virus-specific effector CD8 T cells could contribute to maturation of protection, as well as the potential for vaccine strategies that further increase the size and quality of this effector population to prevent HIV-1 transmission.

  10. GWAS and drug targets

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Chen; Moult, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of links between genome variation and complex disease. Among other benefits, it is expected that these insights will lead to new therapeutic strategies, particularly the identification of new drug targets. In this paper, we evaluate the power of GWAS studies to find drug targets by examining how many existing drug targets have been directly 'rediscovered' by this technique, and the extent to which GWAS results may ...

  11. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  12. Inertial Confinement fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  13. Deuterium High Pressure Target

    CERN Document Server

    Perevozchikov, V; Vinogradov, Yu I; Vikharev, M D; Ganchuk, N S; Golubkov, A N; Grishenchkin, S K; Demin, A M; Demin, D L; Zinov, V G; Kononenko, A A; Lobanov, V N; Malkov, I L; Yukhimchuk, S A

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm^3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system.

  14. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  15. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  16. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  17. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  18. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  19. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  20. The Target Visitation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Hildenbrandt, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The thesis considers the target visitation problem, a combinatorial optimization problem, which merges the classical traveling salesman problem with the linear ordering problem. In more detail, we are looking for a tour which visits a set of targets and which is optimal with respect to two different aspects: On the one hand, we have given a travel cost from each target to every other. On the other hand, we have preference values which tell us how much we would like to visit one target before ...

  1. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  2. Pure HD polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HD polarized target project is now ready to use a target in a physics experiment. This must be done in early 1998 at LEGS (BNL). The IPN cryogenic group takes its part in this venture by doing the transfer and in-beam cryostats. (authors)

  3. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  4. Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential applications for devices or systems containing 252Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on 252Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of 252Cf devices should increase from 1.5 million dollars in 1975 to 10.8 million dollars in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of 252Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US

  5. The protective cell petrus for the production of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha, beta, gamma, neutron cell which is described in the present paper is devoted to the transplutonium element production and study. It is located at the CEN in Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). The 4 feet ordinary concrete shielding made of stacked blocs allows the manipulation of radioactive sources as high as 1000 curies of 1 MeV gamma rays and with a fast neutrons flux of 109 n.cm-2.s-1. The airtight alpha containment box is equipped with two transfer systems, one consists of a parallelepiped shaped airtight box located in a turntable, the other uses standard cylindrical containers made of polyethylene. The general equipment and the main setting up are also described. (authors)

  6. Californium-252 neutron activation facility at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron irradiation facility has been established to develop new analytical methods and for the support of research programs. A major component of this facility is a 252Cf source which provides both fission spectrum and thermal neutrons. (U.S.)

  7. Californium-252 brachytherapy for anal and ano-rectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery has historically been the standard treatment for anal, ano-rectal and rectal carcinoma but is prone to local or regional failure. Over the past 15 years there has been increasing interest in and success with radiation therapy and combined chemoradiotherapy for treatment of anal and ano-rectal cancers. Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with external beam teletherapy has been investigated for anal and ano-rectal lesions at the Univ. of Kentucky with encouraging results

  8. Mobile equipment for neutron radiography using a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirements for successful neutron radiography are first summarised and the use of 252Cf is placed in perspective by comparing its properties with those of sources based on the Be (γ, n) and Be (α, n) reactions which have a broadly similar range of applications. The more essential design features of mobile neutron radiography equipment are next examined in some detail, to show how the often conflicting requirements of optimum beam production and adequate shielding may be reconciled. An assembly with a maximum dimension around 1 m with a source of 1 mg is used as an example. The design data used are reproduced in graphical form to permit designs to be scaled to suit the source available and the requirements. The selection of suitable image recorders for 252Cf radiography is discussed with the conclusion that the gadolinium foil-film combinations are likely to remain the normal choice. Demonstration radiographs are presented with particular reference to the location of residual casting sand in gas-cooled turbine blades. Finally, it is suggested that other applications for mobile 252Cf-based neutron radiography equipment will be found in the ordnance, aero-space, chemical and nuclear fuel manufacturing industries. (author)

  9. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  10. Californium-based neutron radiography for corrosion detection in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of an overall program aimed at minimizing disassembly and reducing inspection time during aircraft maintenance, a series of projects has been carried out to determine the feasibility of applying neutron radiographic techniques to the nondestructive (NDT) inspection of aircraft and aircraft components. These investigations have clearly demonstrated the superiority of neutron radiography over all other NDT techniques in its ability to detect surface and subsurface corrosion in aircraft structure. This capability is particularly significant where the corrosion is hidden behind thick metallic structural members. The neutron radiographic technique has been applied successfully to detect corrosion in the wing tank of E-2C, C-130, and DC-9 aircraft; rear stabilators of F-4 and F-111 aircraft; aft spar, starboard and port wing, and rudder of the F-8; fuselage skin of the 727; rotary blades of AH-1 and SH-3 helicopters; rotary tail flaps of the UH-2 helicopter; and nose landing gear of A-7 aircraft

  11. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 100-mg 252Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17O. Detection sensitivities of 239Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  12. Targeted therapy in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Discovery of new treatments for lymphoma that prolong survival and are less toxic than currently available agents represents an urgent unmet need. We now have a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma, such as aberrant signal transduction pathways, which have led to the discovery and development of targeted therapeutics. The ubiquitin-proteasome and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways are examples of pathological mechanisms that are being targeted in drug development efforts. Bortezomib (a small molecule protease inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus are some of the targeted therapies currently being studied in the treatment of aggressive, relapsed/refractory lymphoma. This review will discuss the rationale for and summarize the reported findings of initial and ongoing investigations of mTOR inhibitors and other small molecule targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphoma.

  13. ESR1 is co-expressed with closely adjacent uncharacterised genes spanning a breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q25.1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Dunbier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 80% of human breast carcinomas present as oestrogen receptor α-positive (ER+ve disease, and ER status is a critical factor in treatment decision-making. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the region immediately upstream of the ER gene (ESR1 on 6q25.1 have been associated with breast cancer risk. Our investigation of factors associated with the level of expression of ESR1 in ER+ve tumours has revealed unexpected associations between genes in this region and ESR1 expression that are important to consider in studies of the genetic causes of breast cancer risk. RNA from tumour biopsies taken from 104 postmenopausal women before and after 2 weeks treatment with an aromatase (oestrogen synthase inhibitor was analyzed on Illumina 48K microarrays. Multiple-testing corrected Spearman correlation revealed that three previously uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs located immediately upstream of ESR1, C6ORF96, C6ORF97, and C6ORF211 were highly correlated with ESR1 (Rs =  0.67, 0.64, and 0.55 respectively, FDR<1 × 10(-7. Publicly available datasets confirmed this relationship in other groups of ER+ve tumours. DNA copy number changes did not account for the correlations. The correlations were maintained in cultured cells. An ERα antagonist did not affect the ORFs' expression or their correlation with ESR1, suggesting their transcriptional co-activation is not directly mediated by ERα. siRNA inhibition of C6ORF211 suppressed proliferation in MCF7 cells, and C6ORF211 positively correlated with a proliferation metagene in tumours. In contrast, C6ORF97 expression correlated negatively with the metagene and predicted for improved disease-free survival in a tamoxifen-treated published dataset, independently of ESR1. Our observations suggest that some of the biological effects previously attributed to ER could be mediated and/or modified by these co-expressed genes. The co-expression and function of these genes may be

  14. Mucosal B Cells Are Associated with Delayed SIV Acquisition in Vaccinated Female but Not Male Rhesus Macaques Following SIVmac251 Rectal Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Tuero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many viral infections, including HIV, exhibit sex-based pathogenic differences. However, few studies have examined vaccine-related sex differences. We compared immunogenicity and protective efficacy of monomeric SIV gp120 with oligomeric SIV gp140 in a pre-clinical rhesus macaque study and explored a subsequent sex bias in vaccine outcome. Each immunization group (16 females, 8 males was primed twice mucosally with replication-competent Ad-recombinants encoding SIVsmH4env/rev, SIV239gag and SIV239nefΔ1-13 and boosted twice intramuscularly with SIVmac239 monomeric gp120 or oligomeric gp140 in MF59 adjuvant. Controls (7 females, 5 males received empty Ad and MF59. Up to 9 weekly intrarectal challenges with low-dose SIVmac251 were administered until macaques became infected. We assessed vaccine-induced binding, neutralizing, and non-neutralizing antibodies, Env-specific memory B cells and plasmablasts/plasma cells (PB/PC in bone marrow and rectal tissue, mucosal Env-specific antibodies, and Env-specific T-cells. Post-challenge, only one macaque (gp140-immunized remained uninfected. However, SIV acquisition was significantly delayed in vaccinated females but not males, correlated with Env-specific IgA in rectal secretions, rectal Env-specific memory B cells, and PC in rectal tissue. These results extend previous correlations of mucosal antibodies and memory B cells with protective efficacy. The gp140 regimen was more immunogenic, stimulating elevated gp140 and cyclic V2 binding antibodies, ADCC and ADCP activities, bone marrow Env-specific PB/PC, and rectal gp140-specific IgG. However, immunization with gp120, the form of envelope immunogen used in RV144, the only vaccine trial to show some efficacy, provided more significant acquisition delay. Further over 40 weeks of follow-up, no gp120 immunized macaques met euthanasia criteria in contrast to 7 gp140-immunized and 2 control animals. Although males had higher binding antibodies than females, ADCC

  15. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  16. The LLNL Heavy Element Facility -- Facility Management, Authorization Basis, and Readiness Assessment Lessons Learned in the Heavy Element Facility (B251) Transition from Category II Nuclear Facility to Radiological Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents Facility Management, Readiness Assessment, and Authorization Basis experience gained and lessons learned during the Heavy Element Facility Risk Reduction Program (RRP). The RRP was tasked with removing contaminated glove boxes, radioactive inventory, and contaminated ventilation systems from the Heavy Element Facility (B251) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The RRP was successful in its goal in April 2005 with the successful downgrade of B251 from a Category II Nuclear Facility to a Radiological Facility. The expertise gained and the lessons learned during the planning and conduct of the RRP included development of unique approaches in work planning/work control (''Expect the unexpected and confirm the expected'') and facility management. These approaches minimized worker dose and resulted in significant safety improvements and operational efficiencies. These lessons learned can help similar operational and management activities at other sites, including facilities restarting operations or new facility startup. B251 was constructed at LLNL to provide research areas for conducting experiments in radiochemistry using transuranic elements. Activities at B251 once included the preparation of tracer sets associated with the underground testing of nuclear devices and basic research devoted to a better understanding of the chemical and nuclear behavior of the transuranic elements. Due to the age of the facility, even with preventative maintenance, facility safety and experimental systems were deteriorating. A variety of seismic standards were used in the facility design and construction, which encompassed eight building increments constructed over a period of 26 years. The cost to bring the facility into compliance with the current seismic and other requirements was prohibitive, and simply maintaining B251 as a Category II nuclear facility posed serious cost considerations under a changing regulatory environment. Considering the high

  17. The LLNL Heavy Element Facility -- Facility Management, Authorization Basis, and Readiness Assessment Lessons Learned in the Heavy Element Facility (B251) Transition from Category II Nuclear Facility to Radiological Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M; Anderson, B; Brown, E; Gray, L

    2006-04-10

    This paper presents Facility Management, Readiness Assessment, and Authorization Basis experience gained and lessons learned during the Heavy Element Facility Risk Reduction Program (RRP). The RRP was tasked with removing contaminated glove boxes, radioactive inventory, and contaminated ventilation systems from the Heavy Element Facility (B251) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The RRP was successful in its goal in April 2005 with the successful downgrade of B251 from a Category II Nuclear Facility to a Radiological Facility. The expertise gained and the lessons learned during the planning and conduct of the RRP included development of unique approaches in work planning/work control (''Expect the unexpected and confirm the expected'') and facility management. These approaches minimized worker dose and resulted in significant safety improvements and operational efficiencies. These lessons learned can help similar operational and management activities at other sites, including facilities restarting operations or new facility startup. B251 was constructed at LLNL to provide research areas for conducting experiments in radiochemistry using transuranic elements. Activities at B251 once included the preparation of tracer sets associated with the underground testing of nuclear devices and basic research devoted to a better understanding of the chemical and nuclear behavior of the transuranic elements. Due to the age of the facility, even with preventative maintenance, facility safety and experimental systems were deteriorating. A variety of seismic standards were used in the facility design and construction, which encompassed eight building increments constructed over a period of 26 years. The cost to bring the facility into compliance with the current seismic and other requirements was prohibitive, and simply maintaining B251 as a Category II nuclear facility posed serious cost considerations under a changing regulatory environment

  18. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be untrue. Possible side effects from targeted therapies include: Diarrhea Liver problems Skin problems such as rash, dry skin, and nail changes Problems with blood clotting and wound healing High blood pressure As with any treatment, you ...

  19. SETI target selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, D. W.; Soderblom, D. R.

    1995-06-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey consists of two complementary elements: a Sky Survey of the entire sky to a moderate level of sensitivity; and a Targeted Search of nearby stars, one at a time, to a much deeper level of sensitivity. The authors propose strategies for target selection with two goals: to improve the chances of successful detection of signals from technical civilizations that inhabit planets around solar-type stars, and to minimize the chances of missing signals from unexpected sites.

  20. High pressure gas target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B.

    2012-12-01

    Compact, high pressure, high current gas target features all metal construction and semi-automatic window assembly change. The unique aspect of this target is the domed-shaped window. The Havar alloy window is electron beam welded to a metal ring, thus forming one, interchangeable assembly. The window assembly is sealed by knife-edges locked by a pneumatic toggle allowing a quick, in situ window change.

  1. Chromatin modification of Notch targets in olfactory receptor neuron diversification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Endo, K.; Karim, M. R.; Taniguchi, H.; Krejčí, Alena; Kinameri, E.; Siebert, M.; Ito, K.; Bray, S. J.; Moore, A. W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2012), s. 224-233. ISSN 1097-6256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : neuron diversification Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 15.251, year: 2012

  2. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  3. Radar target detection simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Ibrahim Osman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard radar detection process requires that the sensor output is compared to a predetermined threshold. The threshold is selected based on a-priori knowledge available and/or certain assumptions. However, any knowledge and/or assumptions become in adequate due to the presence of multiple targets with varying signal return and usually non stationary background. Thus, any predetermined threshold may result in either increased false alarm rate or increased track loss. Even approaches where the threshold is adaptively varied will not perform well in situations when the signal return from the target of interest is too low compared to the average level of the background .Track-before-detect techniques eliminate the need for a detection threshold and provide detecting and tracking targets with lower signal-to-noise ratios than standard methods. However, although trackbefore-detect techniques eliminate the need for detection threshold at sensor's signal processing stage, they often use tuning thresholds at the output of the filtering stage .This paper presents a computerized simulation model for target detection process. Moreover, the proposed model method is based on the target motion models, the output of the detection process can easily be employed for maneuvering target tracking.

  4. The Sinuous Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  5. Targeted assets risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwsema, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessments utilising the consolidated risk assessment process as described by Public Safety Canada and the Centre for Security Science utilise the five threat categories of natural, human accidental, technological, human intentional and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE). The categories of human intentional and CBRNE indicate intended actions against specific targets. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify which pieces of critical infrastructure represent the likely targets of individuals with malicious intent. Using the consolidated risk assessment process and the target capabilities list, coupled with the CARVER methodology and a security vulnerability analysis, it is possible to identify these targeted assets and their weaknesses. This process can help emergency managers to identify where resources should be allocated and funding spent. Targeted Assets Risk Analysis (TARA) presents a new opportunity to improve how risk is measured, monitored, managed and minimised through the four phases of emergency management, namely, prevention, preparation, response and recovery. To reduce risk throughout Canada, Defence Research and Development Canada is interested in researching the potential benefits of a comprehensive approach to risk assessment and management. The TARA provides a framework against which potential human intentional threats can be measured and quantified, thereby improving safety for all Canadians. PMID:23615063

  6. Production Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  7. Inflation Forecast Targeting: Implementing and Monitoring Inflation Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Lars E.O. Svensson

    1996-01-01

    Inflation targeting is shown to imply inflation forecast targeting: the central bank's inflation forecast becomes an intermediate target. Inflation forecast targeting simplifies both implementing and monitoring of monetary policy. The inflation forecast is actually an ideal intermediate target: it is most correlated with the goal, easier to control than the goal, more observable than the goal, and very transparent. Money growth targeting generally leads to higher inflation variability than in...

  8. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  9. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses...... how the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish...

  10. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  11. Phoenix Color Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Increased radiosensitivity and radiothermosensitivity of human pancreatic MIA PaCa-2 and U251 glioblastoma cell lines treated with the novel Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that folds, stabilizes, and functionally regulates many cellular proteins involved in oncogenic signaling and in the regulation of radiosensitivity. It is upregulated in response to stress such a heat. Hyperthermia is a potent radiosensitizer, but induction of Hsp90 may potentially limit its efficacy. Our aim was to investigate whether the new Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 increases radiosensitivity, thermosensitivity and radiothermosensitivity of human tumor cell lines. U251 glioblastoma and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cells were used. To determine clonogenic survival, colony forming assays were performed. Cell viability and proliferation were assesed by Trypan blue staining. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses were performed by flow cytometry. DAPI staining was used to detect mitotic catastrophe. NVP-HSP990 increased the thermosensitivity, radiosensitivity and radio-thermosensitivity of both cell lines in clonogenic assays. 72 hours after irradiation with 4 Gy, a significant reduction in cell number associated with considerable G2/M acumulation and mitotic catastrophe as well as cell death by apoptosis/necrosis was observed. Treatment with NVP-HSP990 strongly sensitized U251 and MIA PaCa-2 cells to hyperthermia and ionizing radiation or combination thereof through augmentation of G2/M arrest, mitotic catastrophe and associated apoptosis

  13. Targeted polypeptide degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M.; Janse, Daniel M.

    2008-05-13

    This invention pertains to compositions, methods, cells and organisms useful for selectively localizing polypeptides to the proteasome for degradation. Therapeutic methods and pharmaceutical compositions for treating disorders associated with the expression and/or activity of a polypeptide by targeting these polypeptides for degradation, as well as methods for targeting therapeutic polypeptides for degradation and/or activating therapeutic polypeptides by degradation are provided. The invention provides methods for identifying compounds that mediate proteasome localization and/or polypeptide degradation. The invention also provides research tools for the study of protein function.

  14. Fine target of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  15. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  16. Major Targets for 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ This year, the main targets we have set for economic and social development are: increasing GDP by approximately 8 percent, creating jobs for more than 9 million people, keeping the urban registered unemployment rate no higher than 4.6 percent, holding the rise in consumer prices to around 3 percent, and improving the balance of payments.

  17. 12. Target fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of papers presents the requirements and critical issues for IFE (inertial fusion energy) target fabrication and injection. The critical issues for target fabrication are: -) ability to fabricate target capsules and hohlraums, -) ability to fabricate them economically, and -) ability to fabricate, assemble, fill and layer at the required rate. Potential fabrication processes or methodologies include: micro-encapsulation (for foam shells and thick ablators), phase-inversion technique (for CH foams), super-fast cooling techniques, emulsion technique, injection molding (for higher density foam shells), sputter coating (for density high-Z coating), permeation (for DT filling) and cryogenic fluidized beds (for layering of individual capsules). The cooling-induced deformation (CID) of polystyrene shells is characterized in detail (2 papers). Another paper deals with the fabrication of hollow pellets with high Z metal oxide coating of the inner surface. In order to achieve high density compression in laser experiments, the non-contact suspension of pellets is required, Japanese teams propose 2 ways to get it: magnetic suspension and the use of electromagnetic force. The last paper summarizes the major steps in cost reduction that will be taken to economically supply targets for IFE power plants. (A.C.)

  18. Target Chamber Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Anthony; Watson, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    A system has been developed to allow remote actuation of sensors in a high vacuum target chamber used with a particle accelerator. Typically, sensors of various types are placed into the target chamber at specific radial and angular positions relative to the beam line and target. The chamber is then evacuated and the experiments are performed for those sensor positions. Then, the chamber is opened, the sensors are repositioned to new angles or radii, and the process is repeated, with a separate pump-down cycle for each set of sensor positions. The new sensor positioning system allows scientists to pre-set the radii of up to a dozen sensors, and then remotely actuate their angular positions without breaking the vacuum of the target chamber. This reduces the time required to reposition sensors from 6 hours to 1 minute. The sensors are placed into one of two tracks that are separately actuated using vacuum-grade stepping motors. The positions of the sensors are verified using absolute optical rotary encoders, and the positions are accurate to 0.5 degrees. The positions of the sensors are electronically recorded and time-stamped after every change. User control is through a GUI using LabVIEW.

  19. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  20. Enhanced target factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel

    2016-03-10

    Target testing or target factor analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target Factor Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets. PMID:26893084

  1. The targets of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S; Huang, Shile

    2011-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-kB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer's disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here. PMID:20955148

  2. Polarization discrimination between repeater false-target and radar target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI LongFei; WANG XueSong; XIAO ShunPing

    2009-01-01

    High fidelity repeater false-target badly affects a radar system's detecting, tracking, and data processing. It is an available approach of confronting false-target for radar that discriminates firstly and then eliminates. Whereas for the technique progress about the repeater false-target jam, it is more and more difficult to discriminate this jam in the time-domain, frequency-domain, or space-domain. The technique using polarization information to discriminate the target and false-target is discussed in this paper. With the difference that false-target signal vector's polarization ratio is fixed and target echo signal vector's polarization ratio is variational along with radar transmission signal's polarization, we transform the discrimination problem to beeline distinguish problem in the 2-dim complex space. The distributing characteristic expression of the false-target discrimination statistic is constructed, with which the discrimination ratio of false-target is analyzed. For the target case, the decomposed model of target scattering matrix and the concept of distinguish quantity are proposed. Then, the discrimination ratio of target can be forecasted according to target distinguish quantity. Thus, the performance of discrimination method has been analyzed integrally. The simulation results demonstrate the method in this paper is effective on the discrimination of target and false-target.

  3. Evolution with Drifting Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kanade, Varun; Vaughan, Jennifer Wortman

    2010-01-01

    We consider the question of the stability of evolutionary algorithms to gradual changes, or drift, in the target concept. We define an algorithm to be resistant to drift if, for some inverse polynomial drift rate in the target function, it converges to accuracy 1 -- \\epsilon , with polynomial resources, and then stays within that accuracy indefinitely, except with probability \\epsilon , at any one time. We show that every evolution algorithm, in the sense of Valiant (2007; 2009), can be converted using the Correlational Query technique of Feldman (2008), into such a drift resistant algorithm. For certain evolutionary algorithms, such as for Boolean conjunctions, we give bounds on the rates of drift that they can resist. We develop some new evolution algorithms that are resistant to significant drift. In particular, we give an algorithm for evolving linear separators over the spherically symmetric distribution that is resistant to a drift rate of O(\\epsilon /n), and another algorithm over the more general prod...

  4. Physics of polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  5. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz;

    2003-01-01

    determination two ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory...... determination of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used for......For the deep space asteroid mission, Bering, the main goal is the detection and tracking of near Earth objects (NEOs) and asteroids. One of the key science instruments is the 0.3-m telescope used for imaging and tracking of the detected asteroidal objects. For efficient use of the observation time...

  6. Careful price level targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Waters , George A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a class of interest rate rules that respond to public expectations and to lagged variables. Varying levels of commitment correspond to varying degrees of response to lagged output and targeting of the price level. If the response rises (unintentionally) above the optimal level, the outcome deteriorates severely. Hence, the optimal level of commitment is sensitive to the method of expectations formation and partial commitment is the robust, optimal policy.

  7. Targeting fragile X

    OpenAIRE

    Gantois, Ilse; Kooy, R. Frank

    2002-01-01

    Ten years after the identification of the gene responsible for fragile X syndrome, recent studies have revealed a list of mRNAs bound by the fragile X gene product and have identified specific sequences required for the interaction between the fragile X protein and its targets. These results are a breakthrough in understanding why absence of the fragile X protein leads to mental retardation.

  8. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  9. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  10. TNF-alpha and IL-8: serum levels and gene polymorphisms (-308G>A and -251A>T) are associated with classical biomarkers and medical history in children with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajado, C; Cerqueira, B A V; Couto, F D; Moura-Neto, J P; Vilas-Boas, W; Dorea, M J; Lyra, I M; Barbosa, C G; Reis, M G; Goncalves, M S

    2011-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a disorder characterized by a heterogeneous clinical outcome. In the present study, we investigated the associations between Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) -308G>A and Interleukin 8 (IL-8) -251A>T gene polymorphisms, medical history and classical biomarkers in children with steady-state SCA. In total, 210 SCA patients aged 2-21 years and 200 healthy controls were studied. Gene polymorphisms, betaS-globin haplotypes and a 3.7-kb deletion in alpha2-thalassemia (α2-thal3.7 kb) were investigated by PCR/RFLP analysis, and cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. Splenomegaly (p=.032) was more prevalent among children younger than 5 years of age. The A allele of the TNF-alpha -308G>A gene polymorphism and the presence of α2-thal3.7 kb were associated with an increase risk of splenic sequestration events (p=.001; p=.046), while the T allele of the IL-8 -251A>T gene polymorphism was considered to be a protective factor for splenomegaly events (p=.032). Moreover, the A allele of the TNF-alpha -308G>A gene polymorphism was associated with high TNF-alpha levels (p=.021), and the hemoglobin F and hemoglobin S haplotypes were correlated with serum levels of IL-8. The logistic regression analysis showed significant effects of the TNF-alpha and IL-8 gene polymorphisms, beta(S)-globin gene haplotypes and α2-thal3.7 kb on the occurrence of splenic sequestration events. Our study emphasizes that the identification of new genetic and immunological biomarkers and their associations with classical markers is an important strategy to elucidate the underlying causes of different SCA phenotypes and their effects on patient outcome. PMID:21802960

  11. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV envelope quasispecies transmission and evolution in infant rhesus macaques after oral challenge with uncloned SIVmac251: increased diversity is associated with neutralizing antibodies and improved survival in previously immunized animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Patricia

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral infection of infant macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV is a useful animal model to test interventions to reduce postnatal HIV transmission via breast-feeding. We previously demonstrated that immunization of infant rhesus macaques with either modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA expressing SIV Gag, Pol and Env, or live-attenuated SIVmac1A11 resulted in lower viremia and longer survival compared to unimmunized controls after oral challenge with virulent SIVmac251 (Van Rompay et al., J. Virology 77:179–190, 2003. Here we evaluate the impact of these vaccines on oral transmission and evolution of SIV envelope variants. Results Limiting dilution analysis of SIV RNA followed by heteroduplex mobility assays of the V1–V2 envelope (env region revealed two major env variants in the uncloned SIVmac251 inoculum. Plasma sampled from all infants 1 week after challenge contained heterogeneous SIV env populations including one or both of the most common env variants in the virus inoculum; no consistent differences in patterns of env variants were found between vaccinated and unvaccinated infants. However, SIV env variant populations diverged in most vaccinated monkeys 3 to 5 months after challenge, in association with the development of neutralizing antibodies. Conclusions These patterns of viral envelope diversity, immune responses and disease course in SIV-infected infant macaques are similar to observations in HIV-infected children, and underscore the relevance of this pediatric animal model. The results also support the concept that neonatal immunization with HIV vaccines might modulate disease progression in infants infected with HIV by breast-feeding.

  12. Differences in time of virus appearance in the blood and virus-specific immune responses in intravenous and intrarectal primary SIVmac251 infection of rhesus macaques; a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Parks Robyn

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-I can be transmitted by intravenous inoculation of contaminated blood or blood product or sexually through mucosal surfaces. Here we performed a pilot study in the SIVmac251 macaque model to address whether the route of viral entry influences the kinetics of the appearance and the size of virus-specific immune in different tissue compartments. Methods For this purpose, of 2 genetically defined Mamu-A*01-positive macaques, 1 was exposed intravenously and the other intrarectally to the same SIVmac251 viral stock and virus-specific CD8+ T-cells were measured within the first 12 days of infection in the blood and at day 12 in several tissues following euthanasia. Results Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses to Gag, Env, and particularly Tat appeared earlier in the blood of the animal exposed by the mucosal route than in the animal exposed intravenously. The magnitude of these virus-specific responses was consistently higher in the systemic tissues and GALT of the macaque exposed by the intravenous route, suggesting a higher viral burden in the tissues as reflected by the faster appearance of virus in plasma. Differences in the ability of the virus-specific CD8+ T-cells to respond in vitro to specific peptide stimulation were also observed and the greatest proliferative ability was found in the GALT of the animal infected by the intrarectal route. Conclusions These data may suggest that the natural mucosal barrier may delay viral spreading. The consequences of this observation, if confirmed in studies with a larger number of animals, may have implications in vaccine development.

  13. Prior DNA immunization enhances immune response to dominant and subdominant viral epitopes induced by a fowlpox-based SIVmac vaccine in long-term slow-progressor macaques infected with SIVmac251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A therapeutic vaccine for individuals infected with HIV-1 and treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be able to replenish virus-specific CD4+ T-cells and broaden the virus-specific CD8+ T-cell response in order to maintain CD8+ T-cell function and minimize viral immune escape after ART cessation. Because a combination of DNA and recombinant poxvirus vaccine modalities induces high levels of virus-specific CD4+ T-cell response and broadens the cytolytic activity in naive macaques, we investigated whether the same results could be obtained in SIVmac251-infected macaques. The macaques studied here were long-term nonprogressors that naturally contained viremia but were nevertheless treated with a combination of antiviral drugs to assess more carefully the effect of vaccination in the context of ART. The combination of a DNA expressing the gag and pol genes (DNA-SIV-gp) of SIVmac239 followed by a recombinant fowlpox expressing the same SIVmac genes (FP-SIV-gp) was significantly more immunogenic than two immunizations of FP-SIV-gp in SIVmac251-infected macaques treated with ART. The DNA/FP combination significantly expanded and broadened Gag-specific T-cell responses measured by tetramer staining, ELISPOT, and intracellular cytokine staining and measurement of ex vivo cytolytic function. Importantly, the combination of these vaccine modalities also induced a sizeable expansion in most macaques of Gag-specific CD8-(CD4+) T-cells able to produce TNF-α. Hopefully, this modality of vaccine combination may be useful in the clinical management of HIV-1-infected individuals

  14. Deletion 6(p25.1) in a child with mild dysmorphic features and absence of major eye malformations: Implications for the location of genes involved in ocular development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepperberg, J.H.; Rao, K.W.; Albright, S.G. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The authors describe a young girl with an apparently terminal deletion of chromosome 6 at p25.1 Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a chromosome 6 painting probe (ONCOR), showed that the abnormal chromosome 6 is composed entirely of chromosome 6 material. Analysis of the parents chromosomes with the same paint probe ruled out an inherited structural abnormality. To our knowledge, this case is the smallest terminal deletion of 6p yet reported. The patient is a 4 year, 6 month old female who was 3300g at birth. She has global developmental delay and little intelligible speech. Her weight is at the 25th centile, height at the 50th centile for a 3 1/2-year-old, and head circumference at the 25th centile. The eyes are prominent with shallow orbits. She has mild hyperopia and astigmatism. The philtrum is short and the vermillion border is thin. The midface is hypoplastic and there is dental malocclusion. Some of the common features reported in individuals with larger 6p terminal deletions include mental retardation, microcephaly, eye and ear abnormalities, short neck/excess nuchal skin, and flat broad nasal bridge. Our patient lacks several of the features reported in patients with larger deletions of 6p, including the more severe eye defects (e.g., anterior segment malformations including Peters and Rieger anomalies) described in individuals with 6p23 or 24 terminal deletions. This patient could be important in mapping the critical region for 6p deletion syndrome and for localizing clinical findings to a specific area of 6p. This case also raises the possibility that the gene(s) on 6p important for ocular growth and development are located proximal to 6p25.1.

  15. Low intensity beam target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    This is a wheel fitted with many targets around its periphery (each with three longitudinally arranged thin rods) of which one is placed into the beam via a rotation of the wheel. Upstream of each target is placed a luminescent screen, aligbed on each target axis and viewed with a TV camera, to make sure that one is hitting the target. This target unit was probably used to study target's behaviour (like beam heating). Gualtiero Del Torre stands on the left, Pierre Gerdil on the right.

  16. Target Housing Material Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    With gas cooling, heat transfer coefficients are low compared to water. The benefit of gas from a heat transfer point of view is that there is really no upper temperature limit for the coolant, as compared to water, which is limited ultimately by the critical point, and in practice the critical heat flux. In our case with parallel flow channels, water is limited to even lower operating limits by nucleate boiling. So gas can get as hot as the containment material will allow, but to get the density and heat transfer up to something reasonable, we must also increase pressure, thus increasing stress on the containment, namely the front and back faces. We are designing to ASME BPVC, which, for most materials allows a maximum stress of UTS/3. So we want the highest possible UTS. For reference, the front face stress in the 12 mm target at 300 psi was about 90 MPa. The inconel 718 allowable stress at 900°C is 1/3 of 517 or 172 MPa. So we are in a very safe place, but the uTS is dropping rapidly with temperature above 900°C. As we increase target diameter, the challenge will be to keep the stress down. We are probably looking at keeping the allowable at or above the present value, and at as high a temperature as possible.

  17. Some Issues in Inflation Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Haldane

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the operational issues relevant to the implementation of an inflation-targeting regime. In particular it focuses on: whether inflation targeting is 'new'; whether (and how) the forward-looking nature of inflation-targeting helps to prevent instabilities in inflation; whether inflation-targeting potentially destabilises output; and whether it requires too much knowledge on the part of the authorities. The paper argues that none of these propositions is in general c...

  18. Targeting of Antibodies using Aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Missailidis, Sotiris

    2003-01-01

    The chapter presents a methodology for the rapid selection of aptamers against antibody targets. It is a detailed account of the various methodological steps that describe the selection of aptamers, including PCR steps, buffers to be used, target immobilisation, partitioning and amplification of aptamers, clonning and sequencing, to results in high affinity and specificity ligands for the chosen target antibody.

  19. STRATEGIES (LEVELS) OF TARGET MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna Mohan Rao Munaga

    2015-01-01

    Generally target marketing can be carried out in several different levels. They are Target-Market Strategies or Mass (Undifferentiated) Marketing: Choosing the Number of Markets to Target, Multi segment (Differentiated) Marketing, Concentrated Marketing or Niche Marketing, Micro Marketing or Single or Individual Marketing. Firms that compete in the global marketplace can use any combination of the segmenting strategies or none at all.

  20. After treat-to-target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Naredo, Esperanza;

    2012-01-01

    rheumatologists who have recently formed a research network - the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI) group. The statement proposes that targeting therapy to PD activity provides superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone and introduces the rationale for a new randomised trial using...

  1. After treat-to-target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Naredo, Esperanza;

    2012-01-01

    rheumatologists who have recently formed a research network--the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI) group. The statement proposes that targeting therapy to PD activity provides superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone and introduces the rationale for a new randomised trial using...

  2. Targets for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some of the basic principles of fusion target implosions, using some simple targets designed for irradiation by ion beams. Present estimates are that ion beams with 1-5 MJ, and 100-500 TW will be required to ignite high gain targets. (orig.)

  3. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  4. ORION laser target diagnosticsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.; Wright, M. J.; Hood, B. A.; Kemshall, P.

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  5. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics. PMID:23126904

  6. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes (64Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  7. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearling, J.L

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ({sup 64}Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective {sup 64}Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective {sup 64}Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential

  8. Molecularly targeted therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is generally agreed that current focus of nuclear medicine development should be on molecular imaging and therapy. Though, the widespread use of the terminology 'molecular imaging' is quite recent, nuclear medicine has used molecular imaging techniques for more than 20 years ago. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for the internal therapy of malignant and inflammatory lesions in nuclear medicine. In the field of bio/medical imaging, nuclear medicine is one of the disciplines which has the privilege of organized and well developed chemistry/ pharmacy section; radio-chemistry/radiopharmacy. Fundamental principles have been developed more than 40 years ago and advanced research is going well into postgenomic era. The genomic revolution and dramatically increased insight in the molecular mechanisms underlying pathology have led to paradigm shift in drug development. Likewise does in the nuclear medicine. Here, the author will present current clinical and pre-clinical therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on molecular targets such as membrane-bound receptors, enzymes, nucleic acids, sodium iodide symporter, etc, in correlation with fundamentals of radiopharmacy. (author)

  9. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  10. ICF target positioning robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the function analysis of target positioner for inertial confinement fusion, a kind of ICF target positioning robot system is designed to realize the adjustment and the alignment of a target. The robot system includes a target storage sub-system, a target exchange subsystem, a target transport subsystem and a 6-degree of freedom precision parallel robot subsystem, the structure and principle of every subsystem are dissertated. The system realizes micro scale position by parallel structure which is in the front of the system, and has the advantages of low mass, high stiffness, small cone angle, small volume and high precision. The robot system can position a target into a very small micro scale scope around the center of the target chamber whose diameter is several meters, the precision of the position reaches micro scale. Motion parameter of the positioning robot system has been tested. Experiment proves that the robot system has realized precision target position and target exchange on the condition of vacuum. (authors)

  11. Windowless target: Design of the XT-ADS spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the XT-ADS spallation target is performed within the European integrated project EUROTRANS (FP6 Contract FI6W-516520) that has started in April 2005. At the current status of the spallation target design process, the boundary conditions for the spallation target loop with respect to the XT-ADS performance requirements and the design of the subcritical core and primary system have been established. The next steps will concentrate on further development of the spallation target nozzle, the vacuum and spallation product confinement system and the pumping, LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) and cooling system

  12. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  13. Oxide Fiber Targets at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Carminati, D; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Correia, J G; Crepieux, B; Dietrich, M; Elder, K; Fedosseev, V; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Fynbo, H O U; Georg, U; Giles, T; Joinet, A; Jonsson, O C; Kirchner, R; Lau, C; Lettry, Jacques; Maier, H J; Mishin, V I; Oinonen, M; Peräjärvi, K; Ravn, H L; Rinaldi, T; Santana-Leitner, M; Wahl, U; Weissman, L

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxyde fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxyde fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce...

  14. The OLYMPUS Internal Hydrogen Target

    CERN Document Server

    Bernauer, J C; Ciullo, G; Henderson, B S; Ihloff, E; Kelsey, J; Lenisa, P; Milner, R; Schmidt, A; Statera, M

    2014-01-01

    An internal hydrogen target system was developed for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY, in Hamburg, Germany. The target consisted of a long, thin-walled, tubular cell within an aluminum scattering chamber. Hydrogen entered at the center of the cell and exited through the ends, where it was removed from the beamline by a multistage pumping system. A cryogenic coldhead cooled the target cell to counteract heating from the beam and increase the density of hydrogen in the target. A fixed collimator protected the cell from synchrotron radiation and the beam halo. A series of wakefield suppressors reduced heating from beam wakefields. The target system was installed within the DORIS storage ring and was successfully operated during the course of the OLYMPUS experiment in 2012. Information on the design, fabrication, and performance of the target system is reported.

  15. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  16. Target properties and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the properties of the target on nuclear data was shown. In the case of targets consisting of fissionable material, this influence was demonstrated in experiments involving fission cross-section, average number of neutrons, and prompt fission neutron spectrum. The experimental methods for determining certain corrections were analysed. The method of tritium density determination for a solid target used as neutron source was likewise demonstrated. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  17. 'Inflation Targeting and Inflation Persistence'

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Bratsiotis; Jakob Madsen; Christopher Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the adoption of an inflation target reduces the persistence of inflation. We develop the theoretical literature on inflation persistence by introducing a Taylor rule for monetary policy into a model of persistence and showing that inflation targets reduce inflation persistence. We investigate changes in the time series properties of inflation in seven countries that introduced inflation targets in the late 1980s or early 1990s. We find that the persistenc...

  18. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W. Klein; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  19. Target repurposing for neglected diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Pollastri, Michael P.; Campbell, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases are an enormous burden to global health and since drug discovery is costly, those infectious diseases that affect the developing world are often not pursued by commercial drug-discovery efforts. Therefore, pragmatic means by which new therapeutics can be discovered are needed. One such approach is target repurposing, where pathogen targets are matched with homologous human targets that have been pursued for drug discovery for other indications. In many cases, the medicinal...

  20. Targeting Nominal Income: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth D. West

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares nominal income and monetary targets in a standard aggregate demand - aggregate supply framework. If the desirability of policies is measured by their effect on the unconditional variance of output, nominal income targeting is preferable if and only if the aggregate elasticity of demand for real balances is greater than one. This is precisely the opposite of the condition that in Bean (1984) is sufficient to make nominal income targeting preferable.This points out the impor...

  1. Nominal Income and Inflation Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Arayssi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a macro- economic model in the area of monetary policy game theory is extended to one-sided dismissal rules concerning observed nominal output and inflation targets for the central banker. These rules specify firing the central banker if some observed policy targets have been exceeded. Such rules are shown to reduce inflationary bias if the central banker perceives her reappointment chances as being strong and is preferred to discretionary monetary policy. Various policy targets...

  2. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on...

  3. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  4. Limits of Inflation Targeting Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Niculescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the trade-off between output volatility and the variability of the inflation rate around its target (Romanian case. The optimal choice for National Bank of Romania (NBR, in our opinion, is the flexible inflation targeting. For this purpose, NBR must explain the loss function and the optimal monetary policy rule. We then argued that this Romanian authority – NBR – can substantially improve its credibility under inflation targeting policy regime by becoming more accountable and transparent. Is the direct inflation targeting the best choice for the monetary policy regime in Romanian economy?

  5. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  6. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2003-01-01

    's pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target is...... inside the telescope FOV. During the telescope observation time, the ASC will constantly control the folding mirror to correctly position the target at the center of the telescope, basically performing a standard telescope tracking service. The telescope will alter the initial target acquisition track...

  7. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Kathrin; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT), which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination methods, and

  8. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Kathrin; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT), which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination methods, and

  9. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Jäger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT, which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination

  10. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no

  11. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 4-(2-Bromophenyl)-3,4,7,8-tetrahydro-7,7-dimethyl-1-p-tolylquinoline-2,5(1H,6H)-dione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang-Shan; LI Qing; WU Jian-Rong; YAO Chang-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The title compound 4-(2-bromophenyl)-3,4,7,8-tetrahydro-7,7-dimethyl-1-p-tolyl-quinoline-2,5(1H,6H)-dione 1 (C24H24BrNO2,Mr=438.35) was synthesized and characterized by IR,1H NMR and elemental analysis.The crystal belongs to monoclinic,space group C21c with a=27.565(14),b=10.079(5),c=15.917(8) (A),β=111.059(9)°,Z=8,V=4127(4)(A)3,Dc=1.411g·cm-3,μ(MoKα)=2.011 mm-1,F(000)=1808,the final R=0.0417 and wR=0.1032 for 2393 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)).X-ray analysis reveals that the pyridine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation,while another six-membered ring takes a half-chair conformation.In addition,there are non-classical hydrogen bonds of C-H…O and C-H…Br in the structure.The short distance (3.481 (A))between the adjacent 2-bromophenyl rings indicates the existence of π-π interaction.

  12. LAMPF polarized 13C targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethylene glycol, 1-butanol, and toluene highly enriched in 13C have been used at LAMPF to produce dynamically polarized 13C targets for scattering experiments with protons and pions. Preparation of the materials and characteristic properties of these targets are described. 17 refs., 1 fig

  13. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  14. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS...

  15. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards this...

  16. Targeted anti-cancerous therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowning decades of efforts in fundamental and applied research, the first generation of targeted anti cancerous drugs is now on the market. Drugs coming from a new approach, conceived from molecular knowledge of cancer and directed against beforehand identified targets. In theory: a miracle of precision and technical success. In practice: a new sources of questions and new problems. (N.C.)

  17. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    CERN Document Server

    Li Zheng Dong; He Wu Liang; Pei Chun Lan; Peng Wen; SongChen; Zheng Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  18. High-Purity Chromium Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Rudoy, A.; Milman, Yu.; Korzhova, N.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure for producing large-scale chromium ingots by means of induction-arc melting was developed. From the high-purity, low-alloyed chromium ingots obtained, chromium targets were produced by of thermoplastic treatment techniques. The method of electron-beam evaporation of high-purity chromium was also used for production of targets.

  19. Nominal GDP: Target or Benchmark?

    OpenAIRE

    Hetzel, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Some observers have argued that the Federal Reserve would best fulfill its mandate by adopting a target for nominal gross domestic product (GDP). Insights from the monetarist tradition suggest that nominal GDP targeting could be destabilizing. However, adopting benchmarks for both nominal and real GDP could offer useful information about when monetary policy is too tight or too loose.

  20. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  1. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  2. The proteome targets of intracellular targeting antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pramod; Hsiao, Felix Shih-Hsiang; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been considered well-deserving candidates to fight the battle against microorganisms due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Several studies have suggested that membrane disruption is the basic mechanism of AMPs that leads to killing or inhibiting microorganisms. Also, AMPs have been reported to interact with macromolecules inside the microbial cells such as nucleic acids (DNA/RNA), protein synthesis, essential enzymes, membrane septum formation and cell wall synthesis. Proteins are associated with many intracellular mechanisms of cells, thus protein targets may be specifically involved in mechanisms of action of AMPs. AMPs like pyrrhocoricin, drosocin, apidecin and Bac 7 are documented to have protein targets, DnaK and GroEL. Moreover, the intracellular targeting AMPs are reported to influence more than one protein targets inside the cell, suggesting for the multiple modes of actions. This complex mechanism of intracellular targeting AMPs makes them more difficult for the development of resistance. Herein, we have summarized the current status of AMPs in terms of their mode of actions, entry to cytoplasm and inhibition of macromolecules. To reveal the mechanism of action, we have focused on AMPs with intracellular protein targets. We have also included the use of high-throughput proteome microarray to determine the unidentified AMP protein targets in this review. PMID:26648572

  3. Oxide fiber targets at ISOLDE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, U.; Bergmann, U.C.; Carminati, D.; Catherall, R.; Cederkäll, J.; Correia, J.G.; Crepieux, B.; Dietrich, M.; Elder, K.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Fraile, L.; Franchoo, S.; Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall; Georg, U.; Giles, T.; Joinet, A.; Jonsson, Olle; Lau, Ch.; Lettry, J.; Oinonen, M.; Peräjärvi, K.; Ravn, H.L.; Rinaldi, T.; Santana-Leitner, M.; Weissman, L.; Mishin, V.I.; Kirchner, R.; Maier, H.J.; Wahl, U.; Rinaldi Barkat, Tania

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxide fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some...... contact points. The experience with various oxide fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils......, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process...

  4. Target-Searching on Percolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We study target-searching processes on a percolation, on which a hunter tracks a target by smelling odors it emits. The odor intensity is supposed to be inversely proportional to the distance it propagates. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed on a 2-dimensional bond-percolation above the threshold. Having no idea of the location of the target, the hunter determines its moves only by random attempts in each direction. For lager percolation connectivity p (>~) 0.90, it reveals a scaling law for the searching time versus the distance to the position of the target. The scaling exponent is dependent on the sensitivity of the hunter. For smaller p, the scaling law is broken and the probability of finding out the target significantly reduces. The hunter seems trapped in the cluster of the percolation and can hardly reach the goal.

  5. Target animacy influences gorilla handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian S; Leavens, David A; Quaresmini, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the unimanual actions of a biological family group of twelve western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) using a methodological approach designed to assess behavior within social context from a bottom-up perspective. Measures of both the lateralization of unimanual actions (left, right) and the target of the action (animate, inanimate) were assessed during dual, synchronized video observations of naturalistic behavior. This paper demonstrates a corelationship between handedness and the animate quality of the target object. Analyses demonstrated a significant interaction between lateralized unimanual actions and target animacy and a right-hand bias for actions directed toward inanimate targets. We suggest that lateralized motor preference reflects the different processing capabilities of the left and right hemispheres, as influenced by the emotive (animate) and/or functional (inanimate) characteristics of the target, respectively. PMID:21562817

  6. Preparation of thin nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film backings, sources and targets are needed for many applications in low energy nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry experiments. A survey of techniques used in the preparation of nuclear targets is first briefly discussed. These are classified as chemical, mechanical and physical preparations. Vacuum evaporation, being the most generally used technique, is discussed in detail. It is highly desirable to monitor the film thickness and control the deposition rate during evaporation and to measure the final target thickness after deposition has concluded. The relative merits of various thickness measuring techniques are described. Stages in the fabrication and mounting of self-supporting foils are described in detail, with emphasis given to the preparation of thin self-supporting carbon foils used as target backings and stripper foils. Various target backings, and the merits of the more generally used release agents are described in detail. The preparations of more difficult elemental targets are discussed, and a comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  7. CLCA2, a target of the p53 family, negatively regulates cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yasushi; Koyama, Ryota; Maruyama, Reo; Hirano, Takehiro; Tamura, Miyuki; Sugisaka, Jun; Suzuki, Hiromu; Idogawa, Masashi; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Tokino, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 transcriptionally regulates a number of genes that are involved in cell-cycle inhibition, apoptosis and the maintenance of genetic stability. Recent studies suggest that p53 also contributes to the regulation of cell migration and invasion. Here, we show that human chloride channel accessory-2 (CLCA2) is a target gene of the p53 family (p53, p73 and p63). CLCA2 is induced by DNA damage in a p53-dependent manner. The p53 family proteins activate the CLCA2 promoter by binding directly to the conserved consensus p53-binding site present in the CLCA2 promoter. In terms of function, ectopic expression of CLCA2 inhibited cancer cell migration. In contrast, silencing CLCA2 with siRNA stimulated cancer cell migration and invasion. We also found that inactivation of CLCA2 enhanced the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), as well as its promoter activation. A small-molecule FAK inhibitor reduced the effect of CLCA2 siRNA on cell migration and invasion, suggesting that CLCA2 inhibits cancer cell migration and invasion through suppression of the FAK signaling pathway. Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between CLCA2 and FAK expression in 251 human breast cancer tissues. These results strongly suggest that CLCA2 is involved in the p53 tumor suppressor network and has a significant effect on cell migration and invasion. PMID:22990203

  8. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads;

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov...

  9. Mycothiol: a promising antitubercular target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilewar, S S; Kathiravan, M K

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the world's second commonest cause of death next to HIV/AIDS. The increasing emergence of multi drug resistance and the recalcitrant nature of persistent infections pose an additional challenge for the treatment of TB. Due to the development of resistance to conventional antibiotics there is a need for new therapeutic strategies to combat M. tuberculosis. One such target is Mycothiol (MSH), a major low molecular-mass thiol in mycobacteria, an important cellular anti-oxidant. MSH is present only in actinomycetes and hence is a good target. This review explores mycothiol as a potential target against tuberculosis and various research ongoing worldwide. PMID:24368170

  10. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry

  11. MiR-218 Inhibited Growth and Metabolism of Human Glioblastoma Cells by Directly Targeting E2F2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaxuan; Han, Dongfeng; Wei, Wenjin; Cao, Wenping; Zhang, Rui; Dong, Qingsheng; Zhang, Junxia; Wang, Yingyi; Liu, Ning

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, microRNA has become a hotspot in research on diseases, especially in the initiation and progression of different types of cancer. In this study, we found that miR-218 could inhibit growth and metabolism in gliomas by directly targeting E2F2. First, we obtained data from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database to analyze miR-218 expression in different grades of gliomas. The effects of miR-218 on cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in U87 and U251 cell lines were investigated by flow cytometry, specifically CCK8 assay and tablet cloning, respectively. Glucose consumption and lactate production of glioma cell lines were measured by correlative test kits. Furthermore, we used Western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assay to identify the direct and functional target of miR-218. Data from the CGGA database and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that miR-218 was obviously reduced in human glioblastoma tissues, as well as in the cell lines. When miR-218 level was elevated in vitro, cell cycle progression was arrested in the G1 phase, and cell proliferation was dramatically inhibited. Both glucose consumption and lactate production of glioma cells were significantly reduced. Western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed that E2F2 was a direct target of miR-218 in glioma cells. This investigation demonstrated that elevated E2F2 expression could partly weaken the effect of miR-218 in vitro. This study also showed that miR-218 may be a repressor in glioma by directly targeting E2F2, as well as a potential therapeutic target in gliomas. PMID:26012781

  12. Targeted therapy: tailoring cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yan; Quentin Qiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Targeted therapies include small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies,have made treatment more tumor-specific and less toxic,and have opened new possibilities for tailoring cancer treatment.Nevertheless,there remain several challenges to targeted therapies,including molecular identification,drug resistance,and exploring reliable biomarkers.Here,we present several selected signaling pathways and molecular targets involved in human cancers including Aurora kinases,PI3K/mTOR signaling,FOXO-FOXM1 axis,and MDM2/MDM4-p53 interaction.Understanding the molecular mechanisms for tumorigenesis and development of drug resistance will provide new insights into drug discovery and design of therapeutic strategies for targeted therapies.

  13. Heavy flavors at fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation of Heavy Flavor physics at fixed target experiments is reviewed. High statistics charm production and decay data are summarized and new results on beauty physics are presented. (author)

  14. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  15. Special hydrogen target (Prop. 210)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide contains a description of the electrical control and automatic vacuum systems for the Special Hydrogen Target (Prop. 210) together with the flow diagram and the mimic control panel layout for the system. (U.K.)

  16. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere

  17. IUCF liquid hydrogen target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid hydrogen or deuterium target system is described for use with intermediate energy light ion beams at IUCF. In its present use as a production target for polarized neutrons, the target cell is mounted within the beamline. Thus, certain safety features are required which prevent a possible hydrogen explosion inside the beamline or the cyclotron. These safety devices include an acoustical delay line which slows the hydrogen gas shock wave and a fast valve which closes before any large volume of escaping gas reaches it. Other safety interlocks to reduce the chances of target cell breakage and to quickly shut off ignition sources are discussed. A device involving a variable heat load which is coupled directly to the cryocondenser and is used to continually monitor and stabilize the pressure and temperature of the liquid hydrogen is described here

  18. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  19. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  20. Targeting cancer with peptide aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Seigneuric, Renaud; Gobbo, Jessica; Colas, Pierre; Garrido, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A major endeavour in cancer chemotherapy is to develop agents that specifically target a biomolecule of interest. There are two main classes of targeting agents: small molecules and biologics. Among biologics (e.g.: antibodies), DNA, RNA but also peptide aptamers are relatively recent agents. Peptide aptamers are seldom described but represent attractive agents that can inhibit a growing panel of oncotargets including Heat Shock Proteins. Potential pitfalls and coming challenges towards succe...

  1. Proactive Steering Toward Oriented Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Boulic, R

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a real-time steering controller ensuring the reach of a (possible mobile) target position and orientation, without requiring to build/update the full trajectory to that target. We name it the funnelling control. The final orientation is achieved through the continuous adjustment of the heading direction. This control mode is proactive in the sense that it anticipates the success/failure of the reach and adjusts the desired speed accordingly. Both features rely on an...

  2. Plug Off: Target Group Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Kortbaek, Allan; Neubauer, Nathalie; Carreras, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This project is a study of how a sample of defined target group of a campaign, build meaning through their introduction to such a campaign. With ethno-methodology as a focal point within the overlying context of discourse psychology and more importantly, social constructivism, the aim is to analyze how a defined target group make sense of a proto awareness raising campaign. Proto in this case denotes a planned communication effort in the form of a campaign encouraging responsible use of wirel...

  3. A Theory of Child Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Donni, Olivier; Bargain, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    There is a large empirical literature on policy measures targeted at children but surprisingly very little theoretical foundation to ground the debate on the optimality of the different instruments. In the present paper, we examine the merit of targeting children through two general policies, namely selective commodity taxation and cash transfer to family with children. We consider a household that comprises an adult and a child. The household behavior is described by the ma...

  4. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  5. Twenty years of inflation targeting

    OpenAIRE

    David Baqaee; Christie Smith

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, in conjunction with Northwestern University’s Centre for International Economics and Development (CIED), hosted a monetary policy conference to mark the 20th anniversary of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act. Passed in December 1989, the Act was one of the seminal events in the development of inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. As of 2009, 26 countries have explicitly adopted inflation targeting, including Canada, the UK, Austral...

  6. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes Latin America’s recent experience with the use of inflation targeting (IT) while the region has made substantial progress toward eradicating high inflation. The paper assesses the implementation and results of inflation targeting in Latin America from a broad perspective. It starts by reviewing the issues relevant for the choice of exchange-rate regimes and monetary frameworks, documenting the evolution of exchange rate and monetary regimes in Latin America during the last...

  7. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  8. Symmetric solid target transport system

    OpenAIRE

    Tomov, D.; Lawrence, L; Gaehle, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The expansion of our PET isotope production with a new TR-19 cyclotron necessitated a suitable solid target transport system. None of the known existing and proposed solid target transport systems (STTS) was able to meet the technical and budget requirements of the MIR cyclotron facility [5]. A unique carrier design allowed us to develop a fully automated 50.8 mm inner diameter pneumatic tube STTS with an in-hot-cell compact form factor receiving station. The cyclotron or v...

  9. Ion stopping in heated targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion stopping departs from classical, cold material values as the target material heats to appreciable ionization levels. The authors are investigating this phenomenon experimentally on the Proto I accelerator with a radial, Applied-B field ion diode. When the beam is focused to 0.5 TW/cm3 on thin aluminum foil targets the time-resolved departure from cold stopping is clear. Their observations and early interpretations will be presented. 9 references, 9 figures

  10. Target assignment for security officers to K targets (TASK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probabilistic algorithm is developed to provide an optimal Target Assignment for Security officers to K targets (TASK) using a maximin criterion. Under the assumption of only a limited number (N) of security officers, the TASK computer model determines deployment assignments which maximize the system protection against sabotage by an adversary who may select any link in the system, including the weakest, for the point of attack. Applying the TASK model to a hypothetical nuclear facility containing a nine-level building reveals that aggregate targets covering multiple vital areas should be utilized to reduce the number of possible target assignments to a value equal to or only slightly larger than N. The increased probability that a given aggregate target is covered by one or more security officers offsets the slight decrease in interruption probability due to its occurring earlier in the adversary's path. In brief, the TASK model determines the optimal maximin deployment strategy for limited numbers of security officers and calculates a quantitative measure of the resulting system protection

  11. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  12. Tracking past changes in lake-water phosphorus with a 251-lake calibration dataset in British Columbia: tool development and application in a multiproxy assessment of eutrophication and recovery in Osoyoos Lake, a transboundary lake in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fraser Cumming

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an active discussion about the potential and challenges of tracking past lake-water trophic state using paleolimnological methods. Herein, we present analyses of the relationship between modern-day diatom assemblages from the surface sediments of 251 fresh-water lakes from British Columbia and contemporary limnological variables. Total phosphorus (TP was significantly related to the modern distribution of diatom assemblages. The large size of this new calibration dataset resulted in higher abundances and occurrences of many diatom taxa thereby allowing a more accurate quantification of the optima of diatom taxa to TP in comparison to previous smaller calibration datasets. Robust diatom-based TP inference models with a moderate predictive power were developed using weighted-averaging regression and calibration. Information from the calibration dataset was used to interpret changes in the diatom assemblages from the north and south basins of Osoyoos Lake, in conjunction with fossil pigment analyses. Osoyoos Lake is a large salmon-bearing lake that straddles the British Columbia-Washington border and has undergone cultural eutrophication followed by recovery due to substantial mitigation efforts in managing sources of nutrients. Both diatom assemblages and sedimentary pigments indicate that eutrophication began c. 1950 in the north basin and c. 1960 in the southern basin, reaching peak levels of production between 1960 and 1990, after which decreases in sedimentary pigments occurred, as well as decreases in the relative abundance and concentrations of diatom taxa inferred to have high TP optima. Post-1990 changes in the diatom assemblage suggests conditions have become less productive with a shift to taxa more indicative of lower TP optima in concert with measurements of declining TP, two of these diatom taxa, Cyclotella comensis and Cyclotella gordonensis, that were previously rare are now abundant.

  13. Anti-glioma Effect and Mechanism of Alkali Hydrolysate of Total Saponins from Pulsatilla chinensis on Human Glioma U251 Cells%白头翁总皂苷碱水解产物的抗胶质瘤作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭翠平; 许琼明; 张天; 李笑然; 杨世林; 周英; 刘艳丽

    2014-01-01

    To investigate antitumor effect and mechanism of alkali hydrolysate of total saponins from Pulsatilla chinensis on human glioma U251 cells. Methods MTT assay and colony formation test were used to examine the growth of human glioma cells and colony formation rate. Meanwhile, Giemsa staining was used to observe the morphology of tumor cells, flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis of tumor cells, Hoechst 33342 assay kits were adopted to observe the morphology of apoptotic cells, and the expression levels of Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 protein were evaluated by Western blot assay. Results Alkali hydrolysate of total saponins from Pulsatilla chinensis exhibited an inhibition effect on the proliferation and colony formation of U251 cells in dose-dependent manner. The alkali hydrolysate at the dosage of 6.25, 9.375, 12.5 μg·mL-1 could induce apoptosis of U251 cells, and the apoptotic rates were(6.00±2.05)%, (46.19±0.24)% and(78.26±2.10)%, respectively. Western blotting results showed that the alkali hydrolysate could up-regulate the expression levels of Caspase-3 and Bcl-2. Conclusions Alkali hydrolysate of total saponins from Pulsatilla chinensis exerts satisfactory anti-glioma action, and the mechanism might be related with the regulation of Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 protein expression.%目的:探讨白头翁总皂苷碱水解产物(PAHS)的抗胶质瘤作用及机制。方法采用MTT法、集落形成实验分别检测细胞存活率和集落形成率,同时采用 Giemsa 染色观察 PAHS 对肿瘤细胞形态学变化;采用hoechest33342染色观察人脑胶质母细胞瘤细胞株U251凋亡细胞形态变化;用流式细胞仪检测细胞的凋亡;用Western Blot法检测Bcl-2和Caspase-3蛋白的表达变化。结果 PAHS可以剂量依赖性的抑制U251细胞的增殖,抑制U251细胞集落的形成; PAHS(6.25,9.375,12.5μg·mL-1)可以诱导U251细胞凋亡,抑制率分别为(6.00±2.05)%、(46.19±0.24)%、(78.26±2.10

  14. CPHD filter derivation for extended targets

    OpenAIRE

    Orguner, Umut

    2010-01-01

    This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.

  15. Monoclonal antibodies in targeted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Powroźnik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy is a new therapeutic method consisting in the inhibition of specific molecular pathways. In modern therapy, the key role is played by monoclonal antibodies, included in the group of biological agents. The success of molecularly targeted therapy is to define the proper “molecular target”, selecting the right drug active against a specific “target” and selecting a group of patients who benefit from treatment. Introduction of targeted therapy resulted in improved results of the treatment of many serious and chronic diseases. In general, targeted molecular therapies have good toxicity profiles, but some patients are exquisitely sensitive to these drugs and can develop particular and severe toxicities. Patient selection and proper monitoring significantly decrease the risk of life-threatening adverse events. Data concerning late side effects are still unavailable because of the short follow-up of molecularly targeted therapy. Currently in the U.S. and Europe there are approximately 31 registered therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, while 160 are subjected to clinical trials. This paper presents an overview of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies currently used in therapy and the present state of knowledge about them. 

  16. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  17. Target-Centric Network Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence...... reporting formats, along with a tested process that facilitates the production of a wide range of analytical products for civilian, military, and hybrid intelligence environments. Readers will learn how to perform the specific actions of problem definition modeling, target network modeling, and...... collaborative sharing in the process of creating a high-quality, actionable intelligence product. The case studies reflect the complexity of twenty-first century intelligence issues by dealing with multi-layered target networks that cut across political, economic, social, technological, and military issues...

  18. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolay, Rainer; Schmidt, Sabine; Schlömer, Renate; Deuerling, Elke; Nierhaus, Knud H

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors. PMID:27240412

  19. Target identification by image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetz, V; Prochnow, H; Brönstrup, M; Sasse, F

    2016-05-01

    Covering: 1997 to the end of 2015Each biologically active compound induces phenotypic changes in target cells that are characteristic for its mode of action. These phenotypic alterations can be directly observed under the microscope or made visible by labelling structural elements or selected proteins of the cells with dyes. A comparison of the cellular phenotype induced by a compound of interest with the phenotypes of reference compounds with known cellular targets allows predicting its mode of action. While this approach has been successfully applied to the characterization of natural products based on a visual inspection of images, recent studies used automated microscopy and analysis software to increase speed and to reduce subjective interpretation. In this review, we give a general outline of the workflow for manual and automated image analysis, and we highlight natural products whose bacterial and eucaryotic targets could be identified through such approaches. PMID:26777141

  20. Integrin Targeted Delivery of Radiotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofei Liu, Fan Wang, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radionuclide therapy, which is based on the selective delivery of a sufficient radiation dose to tumors without significantly affecting normal tissues, is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Integrins, a family of cell adhesion molecules, play key roles during tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Among all the integrins, αvβ3 seems to be the most important in the process of tumor angiogenesis. Integrin αvβ3 is highly expressed on activated endothelial cells, new-born vessels as well as some tumor cells, but is not present in resting endothelial cells and most normal organ systems, making it a suitable target for anti-tumor therapy. In this review, we summarize the current development and applications of antibody-, peptide-, and other ligand-based integrin targeted radiotherapeutics for tumor radiation therapy.

  1. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. 36 CFR 251.57 - Rental fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... enterprises, and which is engaged in public or semi-public activity to further public health, safety, or... authorized officer, when equitable and in the public interest, for the use and occupancy of National Forest... in the fees for an authorized use or occupancy for which the United States is already...

  3. 36 CFR 251.61 - Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plans, map(s), or survey(s) upon completion of construction. (c) A holder shall obtain prior approval... continued or revised, or a new authorization issued. (2) Changes during construction, or at any other...

  4. 30 CFR 206.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Lease means any contract, profit-share arrangement, joint venture, or other agreement issued or approved..., consortium, or joint venture. Sales type code means the contract type or general disposition (e.g., arm's... costs incurred by the lessee for coal washing. Transportation allowance means an allowance for...

  5. 40 CFR 60.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17). (b) Bag leak detection system means a system that is capable of... bag leaks and other upset conditions. A bag leak detection system includes, but is not limited to, an... limited to, breakers, crushers, screens, and conveyor belts. Equipment located at the mine face is...

  6. 37 CFR 251.3 - Arbitrator lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may consider relevant. (b) After January 1, 1998, and every two years thereafter, the Librarian of..., submitted to the Librarian from at least three professional arbitration associations or organizations. The.... With respect to persons on the arbitrator list, the Librarian will make available for copying...

  7. 37 CFR 251.21 - Public records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records of the Librarian of Congress assembled and/or created under 17 U.S.C. 801 and 802, are available..., reports, and findings on any CARP matter or proceeding; (6) Communications among the Librarian of Congress...) Records not herein listed but which may be withheld as “exempted” if a CARP or the Librarian of...

  8. 30 CFR 251.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., geopressured-geothermal and associated resources, and all other minerals which are authorized by an Act of... National Register of Historic Places as defined in 36 CFR 60.4. Third Party means any person other than the... meaning: Act means the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA), as amended (43 U.S.C. 1331 et...

  9. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Forest timber (36 CFR part 223). In any removal of timber from the watershed, the Forest Supervisor shall... 36 CFR 261.1b. (e) The Forest Supervisor of the Stikine Area of the Tongass National Forest may... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petersburg watershed....

  10. 37 CFR 251.39 - Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....39 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Standards of... standards of conduct of this section may include, but are not limited to, the following— (a) In the case...

  11. 37 CFR 251.31 - Financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE... indirect financial interest— (1) In the case of a distribution proceeding, in any claimant to the... from such claimants because of their representation; (2) In the case of a rate adjustment...

  12. 16 CFR 251.1 - The guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... questions include “__ Cents-Off”, “Half-Price Sale”, “1/2 Off”, etc. See the Commission's “Fair Packaging... informs the customer of the location, elsewhere on the package or label, where the disclosures required...

  13. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels (CARPs) must be addressed as follows: (a) If hand delivered by a... Friday between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. (b) If hand delivered by a commercial courier (excluding...

  14. 36 CFR 251.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR parts 1500-1508, 7 CFR part 1b, Forest Service Manual Chapter 1950, and Forest Service Handbook... equipment on National Forest System lands that involves the advertisement of a product or service, the... may require an environmental impact statement. Minor category—A processing or monitoring...

  15. 7 CFR 251.10 - Miscellaneous provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... financial records in accordance with 7 CFR part 3016, State agencies must maintain records to document the... warehousing practices, inventory controls, approval of distribution sites, reporting and...

  16. 37 CFR 251.13 - Closed meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an arbitration, or a particular case of formal agency adjudication pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 554, or...; or (g) If there would be disclosure of investigatory records compiled for law enforcement, or... confidential source or, in the case of a criminal investigation or a national security...

  17. Inflation Targeting at 20 - Achievements and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of inflation targeting frameworks and macroeconomic performance under inflation targeting. Inflation targeting frameworks are generally quite similar across countries, and a broad consensus has developed in favor of "flexible" inflation targeting. The evidence shows that, although inflation target ranges are missed frequently in most countries, the inflation and growth performance under inflation targeting compares very favorably with performance under alternat...

  18. USING OPTIMAL FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR CHAOS TARGETING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG ZHAO-WANG; ZHONG TING-XIU

    2000-01-01

    Since the conventional open-loop optimal targeting of chaos is very sensitive to noise, a close-loop optimal targeting method is proposed to improve the targeting performance under noise. The present optimal targeting model takes into consideration both precision and speed of the targeting procedure. The parameters, rather than the output, of the targeting controller, are directly optimized to obtain optimal chaos targeting. Analysis regarding the mechanism is given from physics aspect and numerical experiment on the Hénon map is carried out to compare the targeting performance under noise between the close-loop and the open-loop methods.

  19. Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Ray

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX. SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

  20. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio;

    2003-01-01

    telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...

  1. Target selection for direct marketing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, Jan Roelf

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we concentrated on the use ol direct mail for targeting potential buyers. The major characteristics that influences the success of a plomotional direct mail campaign are the of-fbr,the communication elements, the timing or sequence of these communication elements, and the list of cus

  2. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references.

  3. Tumor targeting via integrin ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HorstKessler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

  4. Target-point formation control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, Shaoshuai; Cao, Ming; Morse, A. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new distributed feedback strategy is proposed for controlling a rigid, acyclic formation of kinematic point-modeled mobile autonomous agents in the plane. The strategy makes use of a new concept called a "target point" and is applicable to any two-dimensional, acyclic formation whose

  5. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references

  6. High power neutron production targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  7. Cooling of the ISIS target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the methods used to analyse and predict cooling of the uranium target of the ISIS facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory by means of a combination of computer models (using the PHOENICS finite difference package) and practical tests. (author)

  8. Multi beam laser target illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to compress matter to high densities by the application of intense pulses of laser energy it is necessary for the implosion of the target to be both stable and spherical. This imposes certain constraints on the uniformity of illumination of the target, and, this in turn places requirements on the illuminating optics and the laser beam quality. This report discusses the uniformity of illumination of a spherical target as provided by a variety of optical systems and for different numbers of laser beams and beam profiles. The results are compared with similar conclusions obtained by other workers. An alternative presentation of the calculations is given which is believed to be a more realistic estimate of the uniformity. Comments are made on the approximations that have been assumed and the results likely to be obtained from the full treatment are discussed. The effects of this non-uniform illumination on the target implosion are considered using the linear theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Finally, comments are made on other factors of a more practical nature which also govern the final choice of illumination system and the scope of experiments made possible by such a system. (author)

  9. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: saliba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl{sub x} dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of {sup 235}U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  10. Toward targeted hypertension screening guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, S; Boshuizen, HC; Reijneveld, SA

    2006-01-01

    Background. guidelines for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension vary widely between countries. Part Of this variation can be attributed to systematic differences between Populations, but little is known about the way in which guidelines should be targeted to the population of interest.

  11. Polarized Sources, Targets and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Guiseppe; Contalbrigo, Marco; Lenisa, P.

    2011-01-01

    Remarks on the history of workshops on "spin tools" / E. Steffens -- Polarized proton beams in RHIC / A. Zelenski -- The COSY/Julich polarized H[symbol] and D[symbol] ion source / O. Felden -- The new source of polarized ions for the JINR accelerator complex / V. V. Fimushkin -- Resonance effects in nuclear dichroism - an inexpensive source of tensor-polarized deuterons / H. Seyfarth -- Polarized electrons and positrons at the MESA accelerator / K. Aulenbacher -- Status report of the Darmstadt polarized electron injector / Y. Poltoratska -- The Mott polarimeter at MAMI / V. Tioukine -- Proton polarimetry at the relativistic heavy ion collider / Y. Makdisi -- Polarisation and polarimetry at HERA / B. Sobloher -- Polarisation measurement at the ILC with a Compton polarimeter / C. Bartels -- Time evolution of ground motion-dependent depolarisation at linear colliders / A. Hartin -- Electron beam polarimetry at low energies and its applications / R. Barday -- Polarized solid targets: recent progress and future prospects / C. D. Keith -- HD gas distillation and analysis for HD frozen spin targets / A. D'Angelo -- Electron spin resonance study of hydrogen and alkyl free radicals trapped in solid hydrogen aimed for dynamic nuclear polarization of solid HD / T. Kumada -- Change of ultrafast nuclear-spin polarization upon photoionization by a short laser pulse / T. Nakajima -- Radiation damage and recovery in polarized [symbol]NH[symbol] ammonia targets at Jefferson lab / J. D. Maxwell.Polarized solid proton target in low magnetic field and at high temperature / T. Uesaka -- Pulse structure dependence of the proton spin polarization rate / T. Kawahara -- Proton NMR in the large COMPASS [symbol]NH[symbol] target / J. Koivuniemi -- DNP with TEMPO and trityl radicals in deuterated polystyrene / L. Wang -- The CLIC electron and positron polarized sources / L. Rinolfi -- Status of high intensity polarized electron gun at MIT-Bates / E. Tsentalovich -- Target section for spin

  12. Targeted multi-pinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with focused multi-pinhole collimation geometries allows scanning modes in which large amounts of photons can be collected from specific volumes of interest. Here we present new tools that improve targeted imaging of specific organs and tumours, and validate the effects of improved targeting of the pinhole focus. A SPECT system with 75 pinholes and stationary detectors was used (U-SPECT-II). An XYZ stage automatically translates the animal bed with a specific sequence in order to scan a selected volume of interest. Prior to stepping the animal through the collimator, integrated webcams acquire images of the animal. Using sliders, the user designates the desired volume to be scanned (e.g. a xenograft or specific organ) on these optical images. Optionally projections of an atlas are overlaid semiautomatically to locate specific organs. In order to assess the effects of more targeted imaging, scans of a resolution phantom and a mouse myocardial phantom, as well as in vivo mouse cardiac and tumour scans, were acquired with increased levels of targeting. Differences were evaluated in terms of count yield, hot rod visibility and contrast-to-noise ratio. By restricting focused SPECT scans to a 1.13-ml resolution phantom, count yield was increased by a factor 3.6, and visibility of small structures was significantly enhanced. At equal noise levels, the small-lesion contrast measured in the myocardial phantom was increased by 42%. Noise in in vivo images of a tumour and the mouse heart was significantly reduced. Targeted pinhole SPECT improves images and can be used to shorten scan times. Scan planning with optical cameras provides an effective tool to exploit this principle without the necessity for additional X-ray CT imaging. (orig.)

  13. Targeting targeted agents: open issues for clinical trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannarelli Diana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecularly targeted agents for the treatment of solid tumors had entered the market in the last 5 years, with a great impact upon both the scientific community and the society. Many randomized phase III trials conducted in recent years with new targeted agents, despite previous data coming from preclinical research and from phase II trials were often promising, have produced disappointingly negative results. Some other trials have actually met their primary endpoint, demonstrating a statistically significant result favouring the experimental treatment. Unfortunately, with a few relevant exceptions, this advantage is often small, if not negligible, in absolute terms. The difference between statistical significance and clinical relevance should always be considered when translating clinical trials' results in the practice. The reason why this 'revolution' did not significantly impact on cancer treatment to displace chemotherapy from the patient' bedside is in part due to complicated, and in many cases, unknown, mechanisms of action of such drugs; indeed, the traditional way the clinical investigators were used to test the efficacy of 'older' chemotherapeutics, has become 'out of date' from the methodological perspective. As these drugs should be theoretically tailored upon featured bio-markers expressed by the patients, the clinical trial design should follow new rules based upon stronger hypotheses than those developed so far. Indeed, the early phases of basic and clinical drug development are crucial in the correct process which is able to correctly identify the target (when present. Targeted trial designs can result in easier studies, with less, better selected, and supported by stronger proofs of response evidences, patients, in order to not waste time and resources.

  14. Gated viewing for target detection and target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove K.; Olsson, Hakan; Bolander, Goeran; Groenwall, Christina A.; Letalick, Dietmar

    1999-05-01

    Gated viewing using short pulse lasers and fast cameras offers many new possibilities in imaging compared with passive EO imaging. Among these we note ranging capability, large target-to-background contrast also in low visibility, good penetration capability trough obscurants and vegetation as well as through shadows in buildings, cars, etc. We also note that short wavelength laser systems have better angular resolution than long-wave infrared systems of the same aperture size. This gives an interesting potential of combined IR and laser systems for target detection and classification. Beside military applications civilian applications of gated viewing for search and rescue as well as vehicle enhanced vision and other applications are in progress. This presentation investigates the performance for gated viewing systems during different atmospheric conditions, including obscurants and gives examples of experimental data. The paper also deals with signal processing of gated viewing images for target detection. This is performed in two steps. First, image frames containing information of interest are found. In a second step those frames are investigated further to evaluate if man-made objects are present. In this step a sequence of images (video frames) are set up as a 3-D volume to incorporate spatial information. The object will then be detected using a set of quadrature filters operating on the volume.

  15. Progress of gene targeting in mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gene targeting is a powerful approach of study- ing the genefunction in vivo. Specific genetic modifications, including simple gene disruption, point mutations, large chromosomal deletions and rearrangements, targeted incor- poration of foreign genes, could be introduced into the mouse genome by gene targeting. Recent studies make it possible to do the gene targeting with temporal and spatial control.

  16. Targeted Learning in Healthcare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Susan

    2015-12-01

    The increasing availability of Big Data in healthcare encourages investigators to seek answers to big questions. However, nonparametric approaches to analyzing these data can suffer from the curse of dimensionality, and traditional parametric modeling does not necessarily scale. Targeted learning (TL) combines semiparametric methodology with advanced machine learning techniques to provide a sound foundation for extracting information from data. Predictive models, variable importance measures, and treatment benefits and risks can all be addressed within this framework. TL has been applied in a broad range of healthcare settings, including genomics, precision medicine, health policy, and drug safety. This article provides an introduction to the two main components of TL, targeted minimum loss-based estimation and super learning, and gives examples of applications in predictive modeling, variable importance ranking, and comparative effectiveness research. PMID:27441404

  17. CNOOC Lifts 2011 Production Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), China's top offshore oil and gas producer, has lifted its 2011 production target by up to 11 percent as new projects at home and overseas come on stream.The offshore oil giant, with a market capitalization of about US$105 billion, said in a statement released in late January 2011 that it aimed to produce between 355 and 365 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE).Oil prices climbed 15 percent in 2010 on the back of expectations that a global economic recovery will drive the demand.Analysts are similarly bullish for 2011, predicting crude prices to trade at around US$100 for the year.CNOOC, the smallest of China's triumvirate of energy companies that also includes CNPC and Sinopee, said it targeted US$8.8 billion in capital expenditure for 2011.

  18. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark

    2014-05-01

    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  19. Geometric characterization of macroshell targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating methods of fabricating and characterizing large diameter, thin-walled glass capsules for Inertial Fusion (IF) experiments. Dimensional requirements for the capsules specify diameters of two to ten millimeters and a wide range of aspect ratios (diameter/wall). These shells are larger in diameter than shells made in drop towers. Because of their larger size, they have been given the designation, macroshell. Glass macroshell targets are transparent, seamless, fuel containers which are currently used in beta-heating experiments at KMSF. The capsules are also potentially useful for neutron production experiments with IF drivers like Nova. The technology developed to fabricate these fuel containers may be useful in the fabrication of polymer shells necessary for the proposed Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF); some work with polymers has started. Accurate target characterization is essential to ensure the accurate measurement of fuel layers produced by radioactively induced sublimation of cyrogenically cooled deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. 3 refs., 4 figs

  20. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC are...... considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug...... delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....

  1. Anticancer Agents Targeted to Sirtuins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Kozako

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent deacetylases of which there are seven isoforms (SIRT1–7. Sirtuin activity is linked to gene expression, lifespan extension, neurodegeneration, and age-related disorders. Numerous studies have suggested that sirtuins could be of great significance with regard to both antiaging and tumorigenesis, depending on its targets in specific signaling pathways or in specific cancers. Recent studies have identified small chemical compounds that modulate sirtuins, and these modulators have enabled a greater understanding of the biological function and molecular mechanisms of sirtuins. This review highlights the possibility of sirtuins, especially SIRT1 and SIRT2, for cancer therapy targets, and focuses on the therapeutic potential of sirtuin modulators both in cancer prevention and treatment.

  2. Nanodelivery System for Mitochondrial Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sia Lee; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondria are indispensable in cellular functions such as energy production and death execution. They are emerging as intriguing therapeutic target as their dysregulation was found to be monumental in diseases such as neurodegenerative disease, obesity, and cancer etc. Despite tremendous interest being focused on therapeutically intervening mitochondrial function, few mito-active drugs were successfully developed, particularly due to challenges in delivering active compound to this organelle. In this review, effort in utilizing nanotechnology for targeted mitochondrial delivery of compound is expounded based on the nature of the nanomaterial used. The advantage and potential offered are discussed alongside the limitation. Finally the review is concluded with perspectives of the application of nanocarrier in mitochondrial medicine, given the unresolved concern on potential complications.

  3. Electronic warfare target location methods

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  4. Chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haiguang; Lv, Lin; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conventional chemotherapy is the main treatment for cancer and benefits patients in the form of decreased relapse and metastasis and longer overall survival. However, as the target therapy drugs and delivery systems are not wholly precise, it also results in quite a few side effects, and is less efficient in many cancers due to the spared cancer stem cells, which are considered the reason for chemotherapy resistance, relapse, and metastasis. Conventional chemotherapy limitations and the cance...

  5. Aptamers and aptamer targeted delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Amy C.; Levy, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    When aptamers first emerged almost two decades ago, most were RNA species that bound and tagged or inhibited simple target ligands. Very soon after, the ‘selectionologists’ developing aptamer technology quickly realized more potential for the aptamer. In recent years, advances in aptamer techniques have enabled the use of aptamers as small molecule inhibitors, diagnostic tools and even therapeutics. Aptamers are now being employed in novel applications. We review, herein, some of the recent a...

  6. Therapeutic targeting of Janus kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Pesu, Marko; Laurence, Arian; Kishore, Nandini; Zwillich, Sam; Chan, Gary; O’Shea, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity and inflammation, and targeting cytokines and their receptors is an effective means of treating such disorders. Type I and II cytokine receptors associate with Janus family kinases (JAKs) to effect intracellular signaling. These structurally unique protein kinases play essential and specific roles in immune cell development and function. One JAK, JAK3, has particularly selective functions. Mutations of this kinase underlie severe combined immunodeficie...

  7. Targeted advertising in magazine markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Ambarish; Kaiser, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    We examine the scope and value of targeted advertising in the magazine industry. We use data on reader characteristics at individual media, in contrast to previous work that has needed to infer this information from aggregate data. Our results show a strong relationship between subscriber characteristics and advertising prices. Advertisers clearly value more homogenous groups of readers, measured according to income, gender and age. Our results explain recent trends of declining advertising e...

  8. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is...... summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression....

  9. Target Advertising and Market Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Stühmeier, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of increased transparency over online news sources, e.g. due to news aggregators, on online news outlets and the advertising industry. The role of news aggregators is controversially discussed, where the discussion widely points on user side effect. The present paper widens the discussion on the advertising side and shows that aggregators can help to better target advertising messages to a more homogenous group of users and, in turn, may both benefit advertiser...

  10. Philippines; Preparations for Inflation Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Piyabha Kongsamut

    2001-01-01

    The Philippines is planning to shift toward adoption of an inflation targeting framework in 2001. This paper reviews key policy issues in this context, describes various operational and technical preparations, and presents an empirical analysis of the factors driving inflation. Among the key policy requirements, while central bank independence appears assured, the exchange rate has been allowed to fluctuate largely freely, and the authorities are embarking on a medium-term plan for fiscal con...

  11. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range. F...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  12. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas, Adolfo; Steiner, Roberto; Villar, Leonardo; Pabon, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of conventional Taylor rules for Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru shows that central banks increase their repo rate in response to increases in the output gap and, except in Peru, to deviations of inflation expectations from target. Using a Markov-Switching methodology, it is found that, in the presence of external shocks, Chile, Colombia and Peru temporarily abandoned their conventional reaction function. The Taylor Rule is expanded and variables are included related to exchange r...

  13. Inflation Targeting in Dollarized Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Leiderman; Rodolfo Maino; Eric Parrado

    2006-01-01

    The shift to inflation targeting has contributed to the relatively low inflation observed in some emerging market economies although, as noted by many economists, the preconditions required for a successful implementation were not in place. The existence of managed exchange rate regimes, a narrow base of domestic nominal financial assets, the lack of market instruments to hedge exchange rate risks, together with fear of floating and dollarization, have been stressed as factors that might weak...

  14. Targeting the lysosome in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Piao, Shengfu; Amaravadi, Ravi K.

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound intracellular organelles that receive macromolecules delivered by endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy for degradation and recycling. Over the last decade, advances in lysosome research have established a broad role for the lysosome in the pathophysiology of disease. In this review, we highlight the recent discoveries in lysosome biology, with an emphasis on their implications for cancer therapy. We focus on targeting the lysosome in cancer by exploring lysoso...

  15. Toward targeted hypertension screening guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Buuren, S. van; Boshuizen, HC; Reijneveld, SA

    2006-01-01

    Background. guidelines for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension vary widely between countries. Part Of this variation can be attributed to systematic differences between Populations, but little is known about the way in which guidelines should be targeted to the population of interest. Optimal guidelines should have high yield and low complexity. The goal is to fit procedures for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension optimally to a specific population. Methods. Simu...

  16. Anticancer Agents Targeted to Sirtuins

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiro Kozako; Takayoshi Suzuki; Makoto Yoshimitsu; Naomichi Arima; Shin-ichiro Honda; Shinji Soeda

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent deacetylases of which there are seven isoforms (SIRT1–7). Sirtuin activity is linked to gene expression, lifespan extension, neurodegeneration, and age-related disorders. Numerous studies have suggested that sirtuins could be of great significance with regard to both antiaging and tumorigenesis, depending on its targets in specific signaling pathways or in specific cancers. Recent studies have identified small chemical compounds that m...

  17. Target fragmentation at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of measurements of the average target fragment momenta and energies in the interaction of 12.0 and 18.4 MeV/u 160, and 45.4 and 83.8 MeV/u 12C with 197Au. We compare these data with previously published studies of the interaction of 380 MeV/u 20Ne and 400 and 2100 MeV/u 12C with 197Au

  18. Cancer Immunotherapy of Targeting Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianmeiHou; LingTian; YuquanWei

    2004-01-01

    Tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis-dependent. Anti-angiogenic therapy may be a useful approach to cancer therapy. This review discussed tumor angiogenesis and immunotherapy of targeting tumor angiogenesis from two main aspects: (1) active vaccination to induce effective anti-angiogenesis immunity; (2) passive immunotherapy with anti-pro-angiogenic molecules relevant antibody. Evidence from the recent years suggested that anti-angiogenic therapy should be one of the most promising approaches to cancer therapy.

  19. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  20. Fixed-Target Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tremendous amount of scientific insight has been garnered over the past half-century by using particle accelerators to study physical systems of sub-atomic dimensions. These giant instruments begin with particles at rest, then greatly increase their energy of motion, forming a narrow trajectory or beam of particles. In fixed-target accelerators, the particle beam impacts upon a stationary sample or target which contains or produces the sub-atomic system being studied. This is in distinction to colliders, where two beams are produced and are steered into each other so that their constituent particles can collide. The acceleration process always relies on the particle being accelerated having an electric charge; however, both the details of producing the beam and the classes of scientific investigations possible vary widely with the specific type of particle being accelerated. This article discusses fixed-target accelerators which produce beams of electrons, the lightest charged particle. As detailed in the report, the beam energy has a close connection with the size of the physical system studied. Here a useful unit of energy is a GeV, i.e., a giga electron-volt. (ne GeV, the energy an electron would have if accelerated through a billion volts, is equal to 1.6 x 10-10 joules.) To study systems on a distance scale much smaller than an atomic nucleus requires beam energies ranging from a few GeV up to hundreds of GeV and more

  1. Strategies for SETI target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, David W.; Soderblom, David R.

    1993-08-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey consists of two complementary elements: a Sky Survey of the entire sky to a moderate level of sensitivity; and a Targeted Search of nearby stars, one at a time, to a much deeper level of sensitivity. In this paper we present a strategy for target selection and observing. The strategy has two goals: to improve the chances of successful detection of signals from technical civilizations that inhabit planets around solar- type stars, and to minimize the chances of missing signals from unexpected sites. For the main Targeted Search survey of approximately 1000 nearby solar-type stars, we argue that the selection criteria should be heavily biased by what we know about the origin and evolution of life here on earth. We propose that observations of stars with stellar companions orbiting near the habitable zone should be de-emphasized, because such companions would prevent the formation of habitable planets. We also propose that observations of stars younger than about three billion years should be de-emphasized in favor of older stars, because our own technical civilization took longer than three billion years to evolve here on earth.

  2. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens. PMID:26332195

  3. Drug targeting to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardridge, William M

    2007-09-01

    The goal of brain drug targeting technology is the delivery of therapeutics across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), including the human BBB. This is accomplished by re-engineering pharmaceuticals to cross the BBB via specific endogenous transporters localized within the brain capillary endothelium. Certain endogenous peptides, such as insulin or transferrin, undergo receptor-mediated transport (RMT) across the BBB in vivo. In addition, peptidomimetic monoclonal antibodies (MAb) may also cross the BBB via RMT on the endogenous transporters. The MAb may be used as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry across the BBB large molecule pharmaceuticals, including recombinant proteins, antibodies, RNA interference drugs, or non-viral gene medicines. Fusion proteins of the molecular Trojan horse and either neurotrophins or single chain Fv antibodies have been genetically engineered. The fusion proteins retain bi-functional properties, and both bind the BBB receptor, to trigger transport into brain, and bind the cognate receptor inside brain to induce the pharmacologic effect. Trojan horse liposome technology enables the brain targeting of non-viral plasmid DNA. Molecular Trojan horses may be formulated with fusion protein technology, avidin-biotin technology, or Trojan horse liposomes to target to brain virtually any large molecule pharmaceutical. PMID:17554607

  4. Aluminum-lithium target behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1989-10-01

    Information on physical properties and irradiation behavior of aluminum-lithium target alloys employed for the production of tritium in Savannah River reactors has been reviewed to support development of technology for the New Production Reactor (NPR). Phase compositions and microstructures, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, and constituent diffusion phenomena of the alloys, established in prior site studies, are presented. Irradiation behavior, including distributions of product tritium and helium and related exposure limits due to swelling and cracking of the target alloys is discussed, along with gas release processes occurring during subsequent product recovery operations. The property review supports designation of the aluminum-lithium alloys as ideally well-suited target materials for low-temperature, tritium-producing reactors, demonstrated over 35 years of Savannah River reactor operation. Low temperature irradiation and reaction with lithium in the alloy promotes tritium retention during reactor exposure, and the aluminum provides a matrix from which the product is readily recovered on heating following irradiation. 33 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Therapeutic targets in liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallowfield, Jonathan A

    2011-05-01

    Detailed analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate liver fibrosis has provided a framework for therapeutic approaches to prevent, slow down, or even reverse fibrosis and cirrhosis. A pivotal event in the development of liver fibrosis is the activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to scar-forming myofibroblast-like cells. Consequently, HSCs and the factors that regulate HSC activation, proliferation, and function represent important antifibrotic targets. Drugs currently licensed in the US and Europe for other indications target HSC-related components of the fibrotic cascade. Their deployment in the near future looks likely. Ultimately, treatment strategies for liver fibrosis may vary on an individual basis according to etiology, risk of fibrosis progression, and the prevailing pathogenic milieu, meaning that a multiagent approach could be required. The field continues to develop rapidly and starts to identify exciting potential targets in proof-of-concept preclinical studies. Despite this, no antifibrotics are currently licensed for use in humans. With epidemiological predictions for the future prevalence of viral, obesity-related, and alcohol-related cirrhosis painting an increasingly gloomy picture, and a shortfall in donors for liver transplantation, the clinical urgency for new therapies is high. There is growing interest from stakeholders keen to exploit the market potential for antifibrotics. However, the design of future trials for agents in the developmental pipeline will depend on strategies that enable equal patient stratification, techniques to reliably monitor changes in fibrosis over time, and the definition of clinically meaningful end points. PMID:21233278

  6. Three Essays on Analyst Target Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Noor

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on analyst target prices. The essays contribute to the major debate on the value of analyst target prices in the capital market by addressing the following three questions: Does a bull-bear valuation analysis increase the accuracy of analysts’ target prices? Does analyst ranking affect how informative target prices are to institutional investors? And, do analysts use their cash flow forecasts when setting target prices?In the first essay, I explore whether co...

  7. MiRNA-125a-5p inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation and promotes cell differentiation by targeting TAZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Expression of miR-125a-5p is inversely correlated with that of TAZ in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p represses TAZ expression in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p directly targets the 3′ UTR of TAZ mRNA and promotes its degradation. • MiR-125a-5p represses CTGF and survivin via TAZ, and inhibits glioma cell growth. • MiR-125a-5p inhibits the stem cell features of HFU-251 MG cells. - Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor due to the resistance to conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. TAZ, an important mediator of the Hippo pathway, was found to be up-regulated in diverse cancers, including in GBM, and plays important roles in tumor initiation and progression. However, little is known about the regulation of TAZ expression in tumors. In this study, we found that miR-125a-5p is an important regulator of TAZ in glioma cells by directly targeting the TAZ 3′ UTR. MiR-125a-5p levels are inversely correlated with that of TAZ in normal astrocytes and a panel of glioma cell lines. MiR-125a-5p represses the expression of TAZ target genes, including CTGF and survivin, and inhibits cell proliferation and induces the differentiation of GBM cells; whereas over-expression of TAZ rescues the effects of miR-125a-5p. This study revealed a mechanism for TAZ deregulation in glioma cells, and also demonstrated a tumor suppressor role of miR-125a-5p in glioblastoma cells

  8. MiRNA-125a-5p inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation and promotes cell differentiation by targeting TAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jian; Xiao, Gelei [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Peng, Gang [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Liu, Dingyang [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Wang, Zeyou [Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Liao, Yiwei; Liu, Qing [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Wu, Minghua [The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Yuan, Xianrui, E-mail: xry69@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • Expression of miR-125a-5p is inversely correlated with that of TAZ in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p represses TAZ expression in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p directly targets the 3′ UTR of TAZ mRNA and promotes its degradation. • MiR-125a-5p represses CTGF and survivin via TAZ, and inhibits glioma cell growth. • MiR-125a-5p inhibits the stem cell features of HFU-251 MG cells. - Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor due to the resistance to conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. TAZ, an important mediator of the Hippo pathway, was found to be up-regulated in diverse cancers, including in GBM, and plays important roles in tumor initiation and progression. However, little is known about the regulation of TAZ expression in tumors. In this study, we found that miR-125a-5p is an important regulator of TAZ in glioma cells by directly targeting the TAZ 3′ UTR. MiR-125a-5p levels are inversely correlated with that of TAZ in normal astrocytes and a panel of glioma cell lines. MiR-125a-5p represses the expression of TAZ target genes, including CTGF and survivin, and inhibits cell proliferation and induces the differentiation of GBM cells; whereas over-expression of TAZ rescues the effects of miR-125a-5p. This study revealed a mechanism for TAZ deregulation in glioma cells, and also demonstrated a tumor suppressor role of miR-125a-5p in glioblastoma cells.

  9. Experimental identification of microRNA targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Lund, Anders H

    microRNAs are small RNAs that regulate protein synthesis post-transcriptionally. Animal microRNAs recognize their targets by incomplete base pairing to sequence motifs most often present in the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNAs. This partial complementarity vastly expands the repertoire...... of potential targets and constitutes a problem for computational target prediction. Although computational analyses have shed light on important aspects of microRNA target recognition, several questions remain regarding how microRNAs can recognize and regulate their targets. Forward experimental...... approaches allow for an unbiased study of microRNA target recognition and may unveil novel, rare or uncommon target binding patterns. In this review we focus on animal microRNAs and the experimental approaches that have been described for identification of their targets....

  10. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  11. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  12. Conotoxins: Molecular and Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J.

    Marine molluscs known as cone snails produce beautiful shells and a complex array of over 50,000 venom peptides evolved for prey capture and defence. Many of these peptides selectively modulate ion channels and transporters, making them a valuable source of new ligands for studying the role these targets play in normal and disease physiology. A number of conopeptides reduce pain in animal models, and several are now in pre-clinical and clinical development for the treatment of severe pain often associated with diseases such as cancer. Less than 1% of cone snail venom peptides are pharmacologically characterised.

  13. Nova target chamber decontamination study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering study was performed to determine the most effective method for decontamination of the Nova target chamber. Manual and remote decontamination methods currently being used were surveyed. In addition, a concept that may not require in-situ decontamination was investigated. Based on the presently available information concerning material and system compatibility and particle penetration, it is recommended that a system of removable aluminum shields be considered. It is also recommended that a series of tests be performed to more precisely determine the vacuum compatibility and penetrability of other materials discussed in this report

  14. De novo assembly of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus hemocytes transcriptome to identify miRNA targets associated with skin ulceration syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: De novo transcriptome sequencing is a robust method of predicting miRNA target genes, especially samples without reference genomes. Differentially expressed miRNAs have been previously identified in hemocytes collected from healthy skin and from skin affected by skin ulceration syndrome (SUS in Apostichopusjaponicus. Target identification for these differentially expressed miRNAs is a major challenge for this non-model organism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To thoroughly understand the function of miRNAs, a normalized cDNA library was sequenced with the Illumina Hiseq2000 technology. A total of 91,098,474 clean reads corresponding to 251,148 unigenes, each with an average length of 494bp, were obtained. Blastx analysis against a nonredundant (nr NCBI protein database revealed that in this set, 52,680 unigenes coded for 3,893 annotated proteins. Two digital gene expression (DGE libraries from healthy and SUS samples showed that 4,858 of the unigenes were expressed at significantly different levels; 2,163 were significantly up-regulated, while 2,695 were significantly down-regulated. The computational prediction of miRNA targets from these differentially expressed genes identified 732 unigenes as the targets of 57 conserved and 8 putative novel miRNA families, including spu-miRNA-31 and spu-miRNA-2008. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying miRNA targets by transcriptome analysis. The DGE assembly data represent a substantial increase in the genomic resources available for this species and will provide insights into the gene expression profile analysis and the miRNAs function annotations of further studies.

  15. Antiviral targets of human noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bv Venkataram; Shanker, Sreejesh; Muhaxhiri, Zana; Deng, Lisheng; Choi, Jae-Mun; Estes, Mary K; Song, Yongcheng; Palzkill, Timothy; Atmar, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    Human noroviruses are major causative agents of sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis both in children and adults. Currently there are no licensed therapeutic intervention measures either in terms of vaccines or drugs available for these highly contagious human pathogens. Genetic and antigenic diversity of these viruses, rapid emergence of new strains, and their ability to infect a broad population by using polymorphic histo-blood group antigens for cell attachment, pose significant challenges for the development of effective antiviral agents. Despite these impediments, there is progress in the design and development of therapeutic agents. These include capsid-based candidate vaccines, and potential antivirals either in the form of glycomimetics or designer antibodies that block HBGA binding, as well as those that target essential non-structural proteins such as the viral protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In addition to these classical approaches, recent studies suggest the possibility of interferons and targeting host cell factors as viable approaches to counter norovirus infection. This review provides a brief overview of this progress. PMID:27318434

  16. Multifunction sensor for target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William M.; Lindberg, Perry C.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Army has a critical need for the capability provided by a multifunction sensor. This is (in effect) a smart sensor system that can adapt to environmental conditions and adjust its mode of operation to effectively counter any threat it meets. It will have an intelligent signal processor which has all of the system's sensor signals to choose from. The processor chooses the appropriate signal information to rapidly detect, acquire, track, and automatically identify all targets in the vicinity of the sensor under a wide variety of battlefield scenarios and environmental conditions. The multiphenomenology signal information provides the flexibility to overcome the adverse effects of clutter, countermeasures (both active and passive), illumination, obscurants, target orientation, and weather. It should be noted, however, that the types of sensory information required is dependent on the mission and the operating environment. For instance, a strategic defense sensor operating in space can use (and will need) different types of sensor data than the multifunction sensor employed on an attack helicopter. In fact, the sensor configuration on a helicopter operating in Saudi Arabia may be quite different from one that is deployed to Vietnam. For the purpose of this paper we generalize about the technologies desired for an adaptable, `smart' sensor system. We do not specify a particular mission nor define a specific threat. However, in any case, we can assume the need to fuse sensor signal information in an intelligent processor to provide robust performance in the battlefield environment. 12

  17. Hypoxia-mediated tumour targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binley, K; Askham, Z; Martin, L; Spearman, H; Day, D; Kingsman, S; Naylor, S

    2003-04-01

    Hypoxia is a common physiological feature of tumours. It activates a signalling cascade that culminates in the stabilization of the HIF-1 transcription factor and activation of genes that possess a hypoxia response element (HRE). We have used an optimized hypoxia responsive promoter (OBHRE) to investigate hypoxia-targeted gene expression in vivo in the context of an adenovirus vector. The OBHRE promoter showed limited activity in the liver or spleen such that expression was 1000-fold lower than that driven by the strong CMV/IE promoter. However, in the context of the tumour microenvironment, the OBHRE promoter achieved expression levels comparable to that of the CMV/IE promoter. Next, we showed that an adenovirus expressing the human cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6) regulated by the OBHRE promoter delays tumour growth in response to the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA). Finally, we exploited the hepatotropism of adenovirus to investigate whether the OBHRE promoter could mitigate the hepatotoxicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing thymidine kinase (TK) in the context of the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). High-dose Ad.CMVTK/GCV treatment caused significant liver necrosis whereas the same dose of Ad.HRETK was well tolerated. These in vivo data demonstrate that hypoxia-targeted gene expression via the OBHRE promoter can be used to increase the therapeutic window of cytotoxic cancer gene therapy. PMID:12646859

  18. Aquaporins as potential drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang WANG; Xue-chao FENG; Yong-ming LI; Hong YANG; Tong-hui MA

    2006-01-01

    The aquaporins (AQP) are a family of integral membrane proteins that selectively transport water and,in some cases,small neutral solutes such as glycerol and urea.Thirteen mammalian AQP have been molecularly identified and localized to various epithelial,endothelial and other tissues.Phenotype studies of transgenic mouse models of AQP knockout,mutation,and in some cases humans with AQP mutations have demonstrated essential roles for AQP in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology,including urinary concentrating function,exocrine glandular fluid secretion,brain edema formation,regulation of intracranial and intraocular pressure,skin hydration,fat metabolism,tumor angiogenesis and cell migration.These studies suggest that AQP may be potential drug targets for not only new diuretic reagents for various forms of pathological water retention,but also targets for novel therapy of brain edema,inflammatory disease,glaucoma,obesity,and cancer.However,potent AQP modulators for in vivo application remain to be discovered.

  19. HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An internal cluster target was built and installed at HIRFL–CSR. • The target thickness for H2 amounts up to 6.6 × 1012 atoms/cm2. • The feasibility and stability of the internal cluster target were verified by on-line experiments. -- Abstract: Since HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL–CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 1012 atoms/cm2, and those of other targets are larger than 1013 atoms/cm2 with the background pressure of 10−11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability

  20. Progress on the SNS target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review gives progress and modifications covering the last eighteen months, under the five broad areas of target, target assembly, control system, bulk shield and remote handling. Finally a discussion of additional facilities to the SNS is presented

  1. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.;

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed in...... different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published micro......RNA targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  2. Preparation of targets by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various factors are described which are involved in target preparation by direct ion implantation and the limitations and pitfalls of the method are emphasized. Examples are given of experiments for which ion implanted targets are well suited. (author)

  3. Generating target probability sequences and events

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Vaignana Spoorthy

    2013-01-01

    Cryptography and simulation of systems require that events of pre-defined probability be generated. This paper presents methods to generate target probability events based on the oblivious transfer protocol and target probabilistic sequences using probability distribution functions.

  4. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jesse D; Malekos, Steven; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Korgan, Grant; Cowan, Thomas; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2016-05-17

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  5. HIRFL-CSR internal target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and the design of the HIRFL-CSR internal target system is reported. The HIRFL-CSR internal target can operate in two modes: cluster target mode and polarized target mode. The cluster target may provide the gas target of H2, N2, noble gases and small molecular gases with a density of ≥ 1013 atoms/cm2, and the polarized target may provide polarized H and D beams with a density of about 2 x 1011 atoms/cm2. The target polarization is expected to be +0.90/-0.90 for hydrogen beam, and the vector polarization is expected to +0.95/-0.95 for deuterium beam

  6. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowna, Thomas; Malekos, Steven; Korgan, Grant; Adams, Jesse; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; LeGalloudec, Nathalie

    2014-06-10

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  7. Target for optically activated seekers and trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, C. T.; Willett, N. F.

    1984-05-01

    This abstract discloses a target for optically activated seekers and trackers (TOAST) which provides for calibrated and variable target characteristics such as size, intensity, spatial position, color and interfering background. The TOAST has a first ilumination system providing a target light beam through an adjustable iris which controls image size. The target beam passes through a collimator lens which focuses the light at infinity. With the target beam focused at infinity, the motion of an elevation plate lengthens or shortens the distance from the collimator lens to a one motion mirror. The target beam is attenuated by a variable filter driven by a servo-motor, and a color selection process is provided by passing the beam through spectral filters. A background light beam with background imagery is provided to the beamsplitter mirror and mixed with the target image so as to simulate the target environment encountered by an operating optically activated seeker and tracker.

  8. A rotating target for Ra production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target wheel with pyrolytic graphite targets is designed and constructed at the TRIμP facility to boost the production rate of Ra isotopes. Simulation, design properties and production results are discussed.

  9. Does inflation targeting make a difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic S. Mishkin; Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Yes, as inferred from panel evidence for inflation-targeting countries and a control group of high-achieving industrial countries that do not target inflation. Our evidence suggests that inflation targeting helps countries achieve lower inflation in the long run, have smaller inflation response to oil-price and exchange-rate shocks, strengthen monetary policy independence, improve monetary policy efficiency, and obtain inflation outcomes closer to target levels. Some benefits of inflation tar...

  10. Targeting Nominal Income Growth or Inflation?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Within a simple New Keynesian model emphasizing forward-looking behaviour of private agents, I evaluate optimal nominal income growth targeting versus optimal inflation targeting. When the economy under consideration is mainly subject to shocks that do not involve monetary policy trade-offs for society, inflation targeting is preferable. Otherwise, nominal income growth targeting may be superior because it induces inertial interest rate behaviour that improves the inflation-output gap trade-o...

  11. Capacitive Sensors And Targets Would Measure Alignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenstrom, Del T.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple capacitive sensors and active targets used to measure distance between, and relative orientation of, two objects. Sensed target signals processed and used by control systems to align objects to be joined. Shapes, sizes, and layouts of sensors and targets optimized for specific application. Particular layout of targets and sensors enables determination of relative position and orientation of two objects in all six degrees of freedom.

  12. The Simplest Test of Inflation Target Credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Lars E.O.

    1994-01-01

    A simple test of inflation target credibility is constructed by subtracting the maximum and minimum inflation rates consistent with the inflation targets from the yields to maturity on nominal bonds. This results in a target-consistent range of real yields on nominal bonds. If expected real yields, or market real interest rates on real bonds if such are available, fall outside the range of target- consistent real yields, credibility is rejected. Two concepts of credibility, called absolute cr...

  13. Evaluation and validation of drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-huaDU

    2004-01-01

    Drug target is one of the key factors for discovering and developing new drugs. To find and validate drug targets is a crucial technique required in drug discovery by the strategy of high throughput screening. Based on the knowledge of molecular biology, human genomics and proteomics, it has been predicted that 5000 to 10000 drug targets exist in human. So, it is important orocedure to evaluate and validate the drug targets.

  14. Targeting Radiotherapy to Cancer by Gene Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. Mairs; Boyd, M.

    2003-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is an alternative method of radiation treatment which uses a tumor-seeking agent carrying a radioactive atom to deposits of tumor, wherever in the body they may be located. Recent experimental data signifies promise for the amalgamation of gene transfer with radionuclide targeting. This review encompasses aspects of the integration of gene manipulation and targeted radiotherapy, highlighting the possibilities of gene transfer to assist the targeting of cancer ...

  15. Predicting new molecular targets for known drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Keiser, Michael J.; Setola, Vincent; Irwin, John J.; Laggner, Christian; Abbas, Atheir; Hufeisen, Sandra J.; Jensen, Niels H.; Kuijer, Michael B.; Matos, Roberto C.; Tran, Thuy B.; Whaley, Ryan; Glennon, Richard A.; Hert, Jérôme; THOMAS, KELAN L. H.; Edwards, Douglas D.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas drugs are intended to be selective, at least some bind to several physiologic targets, explaining both side effects and efficacy. As many drug-target combinations exist, it would be useful to explore possible interactions computationally. Here, we compared 3,665 FDA-approved and investigational drugs against hundreds of targets, defining each target by its ligands. Chemical similarities between drugs and ligand sets predicted thousands of unanticipated associations. Thirty were tested...

  16. Behavioral targeting: a European legal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Zuiderveen Borgesius

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral targeting, or online profiling, is a hotly debated topic. Much of the collection of personal information on the Internet is related to behavioral targeting, although research suggests that most people don't want to receive behaviorally targeted advertising. The World Wide Web Consortium i

  17. Research and development for the SPES target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The target is one of the key issues of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facilities. SPES, now under development at LNL-INFN, is an innovative ISOL facility possessing a target characterized by seven separate uranium dicarbide thin disks. The research on the materials development and target prototyping is discussed in the following. (orig.)

  18. Automated laser fusion target production concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target production concept is described for the production of multilayered cryogenic spherical inertial confinement fusion targets. The facility is to deliver targets to the reactor chamber at rates up to 10 per second and at costs consistent with economic production of power

  19. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    people get out of the information provided in the pamphlet. The receivers that are subjected to the original pamphlet do not see the experimental version. Likewise the receivers that are subjected to the amended version do not see the original. I do so in order for the reception situations to be as......The paper proposal is part of a full-scale discourse analysis of a series of service information pamphlets published by the county of Ringkjøbing in Western Denmark. The project is an investigation of various aspects of the fact that government agencies as well as local and regional authorities...... very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live. In the...

  20. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking as a...... market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type...