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Sample records for californium 250

  1. Californium-252 progress, report No. 7, April 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-12-31

    This report contains discusses of the following topics on Californium-252: First sales of californium-252; encapsulation services discussed; three new participants in market evaluation program; summer training programs to use californium; Californium-252 shipping casks available; Californium-252 questions and answers, radiotherapy; neutron radiography; natural resources exploration; nuclear safeguards; process control; dosimetry; neutron radiography; neutron shielding; and nuclear safeguards.

  2. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, D. H.

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving (252)Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed.

  3. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  4. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial

  5. Unusual structure, bonding and properties in a californium borate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polinski, Matthew J.; Garner, Edward B.; Maurice, Rémi; Planas, Nora; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Parker, T. Gannon; Cross, Justin N.; Green, Thomas D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Van Cleve, Shelley M.; Depmeier, Wulf; Gagliardi, Laura; Shatruk, Michael; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.; Liu, Guokui; Skanthakumar, S.; Soderholm, Lynda; Dixon, David A.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2014-03-23

    The participation of the valence orbitals of actinides in bonding has been debated for decades. Recent experimental and computational investigations demonstrated the involvement of 6p, 6d and/or 5f orbitals in bonding. However, structural and spectroscopic data, as well as theory, indicate a decrease in covalency across the actinide series, and the evidence points to highly ionic, lanthanide-like bonding for late actinides. Here we show that chemical differentiation between californium and lanthanides can be achieved by using ligands that are both highly polarizable and substantially rearrange on complexation. A ligand that suits both of these desired properties is polyborate. We demonstrate that the 5f, 6d and 7p orbitals are all involved in bonding in a Cf(III) borate, and that large crystal-field effects are present. Synthetic, structural and spectroscopic data are complemented by quantum mechanical calculations to support these observations.

  6. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Byrne, T.E. [Roane State Community College, Harriman, TN (United States); Miller, L.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with {sup 252}Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of {sup 252}Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a {sup 252}Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded {sup 252}Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy.

  7. Apparatus for the measurement of total body nitrogen using prompt neutron activation analysis with californium-252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, A; Hannan, W J; Smith, M A; Tothill, P

    1988-01-01

    Details of clinical apparatus designed for the measurement of total body nitrogen (as an indicator of body protein), suitable for the critically ill, intensive-care patient are presented. Californium-252 radio-isotopic neutron sources are used, enabling a nitrogen measurement by prompt neutron activation analysis to be made in 40 min with a precision of +/- 3.2% for a whole body dose equivalent of 0.145 mSv. The advantages of Californium-252 over alternative neutron sources are discussed. A comparison between two irradiation/detection geometries is made, leading to an explanation of the geometry adopted for the apparatus. The choice of construction and shielding materials to reduce the count rate at the detectors and consequently to reduce the pile-up contribution to the nitrogen background is discussed. Salient features of the gamma ray spectroscopy system to reduce spectral distortion from pulse pile-up are presented.

  8. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Box, W.D.; Shappert, L.B.; Seagren, R.D.; Klima, B.B.; Jurgensen, M.C.; Hammond, C.R.; Watson, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations.

  9. Act250 Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The dataset includes the geographic location for Act 250 permits issued since the inception of the law in 1970. Base permit numbers only are included; permit...

  10. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  11. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Rekas, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  12. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252; Estudio de blindaje para fuentes de fision espontanea de Californio-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila R, I

    1991-06-15

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  13. Simulation and design of an electron beam ion source charge breeder for the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Dickerson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An electron beam ion source (EBIS will be constructed and used to charge breed ions from the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade (CARIBU for postacceleration into the Argonne tandem linear accelerator system (ATLAS. Simulations of the EBIS charge breeder performance and the related ion transport systems are reported. Propagation of the electron beam through the EBIS was verified, and the anticipated incident power density within the electron collector was identified. The full normalized acceptance of the charge breeder with a 2 A electron beam, 0.024π  mm mrad for nominal operating parameters, was determined by simulating ion injection into the EBIS. The optics of the ion transport lines were carefully optimized to achieve well-matched ion injection, to minimize emittance growth of the injected and extracted ion beams, and to enable adequate testing of the charge bred ions prior to installation in ATLAS.

  14. Extraction of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides from Californium Campaign Rework Solution Using TODGA-based Solvent Extraction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dryman, Joshua Cory [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report presents the studies carried out to demonstrate the possibility of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides and lanthanides from highly acidic solutions using a neutral ligand-based solvent extraction system. These studies stemmed from the perceived advantage of such systems over cationexchange- based solvent extraction systems that require an extensive feed adjustment to make a low-acid feed. The targeted feed solutions are highly acidic aqueous phases obtained after the dissolution of curium targets during a californium (Cf) campaign. Results obtained with actual Cf campaign solutions, but highly diluted to be manageable in a glove box, are presented, followed by results of tests run in the hot cells with Cf campaign rework solutions. It was demonstrated that a solvent extraction system based on the tetraoctyl diglycolamide molecule is capable of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides from highly acidic solutions. This system was validated using actual feeds from a Cf campaign.

  15. Beyond Californium-A Neutron Generator Alternative for Dosimetry and Instrument Calibration in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Roman K; Mozhayev, Andrey V; Murphy, Mark K; Thompson, Alan K

    2017-09-01

    Evaluations of neutron survey instruments, area monitors, and personal dosimeters rely on reference neutron radiations, which have evolved from the heavy reliance on (α,n) sources to a shared reliance on (α,n) and the spontaneous fission neutrons of californium-252 (Cf). Capable of producing high dose equivalent rates from an almost point source geometry, the characteristics of Cf are generally more favorable when compared to the use of (α,n) and (γ,n) sources or reactor-produced reference neutron radiations. Californium-252 is typically used in two standardized configurations: unmoderated, to yield a fission energy spectrum; or with the capsule placed within a heavy-water moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum that is generally considered more appropriate for evaluating devices used in nuclear power plant work environments. The U.S. Department of Energy Cf Loan/Lease Program, a longtime origin of affordable Cf sources for research, testing and calibration, was terminated in 2009. Since then, high-activity sources have become increasingly cost-prohibitive for laboratories that formerly benefited from that program. Neutron generators, based on the D-T and D-D fusion reactions, have become economically competitive with Cf and are recognized internationally as important calibration and test standards. Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are jointly considering the practicality and technical challenges of implementing neutron generators as calibration standards in the U.S. This article reviews the characteristics of isotope-based neutron sources, possible isotope alternatives to Cf, and the rationale behind the increasing favor of electronically generated neutron options. The evaluation of a D-T system at PNNL has revealed characteristics that must be considered in adapting generators to the task of calibration and testing where accurate determination of a dosimetric quantity is

  16. Californium-252 Brachytherapy Combined With External-Beam Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Long-Term Treatment Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Xin; Qian Chengyuan; Qing Yi; Zhao Kewei; Yang Zhengzhou; Dai Nan; Zhong Zhaoyang; Tang Cheng; Li Zheng; Gu Xianqing; Zhou Qian; Feng Yan; Xiong Yanli; Shan Jinlu [Cancer Center, Research Institute of Surgery and Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wang Dong, E-mail: dongwang64@hotmail.com [Cancer Center, Research Institute of Surgery and Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To observe, by retrospective analysis, the curative effects and complications due to californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) neutron intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From February 1999 to December 2007, 696 patients with cervical cancer (Stages IB to IIIB) were treated with {sup 252}Cf-ICBT in combination of EBRT. Of all, 31 patients were at Stage IB, 104 at IIA, 363 at IIB, 64 at IIIA, and 134 at IIIB. Californium-252 ICBT was delivered at 7-12 Gy per insertion per week, with a total dose of 29-45 Gy to reference point A in three to five insertions. The whole pelvic cavity was treated with 8-MV X-ray external irradiation at 2 Gy per fraction, four times per week. After 16-38 Gy of external irradiation, the center of the whole pelvic field was blocked with a 4-cm-wide lead shield, with a total external irradiation dose of 44-56 Gy. The total treatment course was 5 to 6 weeks. Results: Overall survival rate at 3 and 5 years for all patients was 76.0% and 64.9%, respectively. Disease-free 3- and 5-year survival rates of patients were 71.2% and 58.4%, respectively. Late complications included vaginal contracture and adhesion, radiation proctitis, radiation cystitis, and inflammatory bowel, which accounted for 5.8%, 7.1%, 6.2%, and 4.9%, respectively. Univariate analysis results showed significant correlation of stage, age, histopathologic grade, and lymph node status with overall survival. Cox multiple regression analysis showed that the independent variables were stage, histopathologic grade, tumor size, and lymphatic metastasis in all patients. Conclusion: Results of this series suggest that the combined use of {sup 252}Cf-ICBT with EBRT is an effective method for treatment of cervical cancer.

  17. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  18. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amari, S., E-mail: siham_amari@yahoo.fr [Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Hassiba Benbouali, Chlef, 02000 (Algeria); Bouhafs, B. [Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation en Sciences des Matériaux, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbés, Sidi Bel-Abbés, 22000 (Algeria)

    2016-09-15

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young’s modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  19. Low-Dose-Rate Californium-252 Neutron Intracavitary Afterloading Radiotherapy Combined With Conformal Radiotherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Min [Department of Oncology, Armed Police Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Xu Hongde [Cancer Center, Armed Police Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Pan Songdan; Lin Shan; Yue Jianhua [Department of Oncology, Armed Police Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Liu Jianren, E-mail: liujianren0571@hotmail.com [Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To study the efficacy of low-dose-rate californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) neutron intracavitary afterloading radiotherapy (RT) combined with external pelvic RT for treatment of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The records of 96 patients treated for cervical cancer from 2006 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. For patients with tumors {<=}4 cm in diameter, external beam radiation was performed (1.8 Gy/day, five times/week) until the dose reached 20 Gy, and then {sup 252}Cf neutron intracavitary afterloading RT (once/week) was begun, and the frequency of external beam radiation was changed to four times/week. For patients with tumors >4 cm, {sup 252}Cf RT was performed one to two times before whole-pelvis external beam radiation. The tumor-eliminating dose was determined by using the depth limit of 5 mm below the mucosa as the reference point. In all patients, the total dose of the external beam radiation ranged from 46.8 to 50 Gy. For {sup 252}Cf RT, the dose delivered to point A was 6 Gy/fraction, once per week, for a total of seven times, and the total dose was 42 Gy. Results: The mean {+-} SD patient age was 54.7 {+-} 13.7 years. Six patients had disease assessed at stage IB, 13 patients had stage IIA, 49 patients had stage IIB, 3 patients had stage IIIA, 24 patients had stage IIIB, and 1 patient had stage IVA. All patients obtained complete tumor regression (CR). The mean {+-} SD time to CR was 23.5 {+-} 3.4 days. Vaginal bleeding was fully controlled in 80 patients within 1 to 8 days. The mean {+-} SD follow-up period was 27.6 {+-} 12.7 months (range, 6-48 months). Five patients died due to recurrence or metastasis. The 3-year survival and disease-free recurrence rates were 89.6% and 87.5 %, respectively. Nine patients experienced mild radiation proctitis, and 4 patients developed radiocystitis. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate {sup 252}Cf neutron RT combined with external pelvic RT is effective for treating cervical cancer, with a low incidence of

  20. 48 CFR 1846.673 - Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Distribution of DD Forms... Reports 1846.673 Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c. (a) DD Forms 250 and 250c shall be distributed in accordance with installation procedures. (b) The contractor is responsible for distributing DD Forms 250 and...

  1. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1614 - Mud program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud program. 250.1614 Section 250.1614 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1614 Mud program. (a) The quantities...

  3. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  4. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  5. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1633 - Production measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production measurement. 250.1633 Section 250... SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1633 Production measurement. (a) General. Measurement equipment and security procedures shall be designed, installed, used, maintained, and...

  7. 7 CFR 250.19 - Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reviews. 250.19 Section 250.19 Agriculture Regulations... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General Operating Provisions § 250.19 Reviews. (a) General. Each distributing agency shall establish a review system in order to assess the effectiveness of...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1632 - Production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production rates. 250.1632 Section 250.1632 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1632 Production rates. Each sulphur...

  9. 45 CFR 2541.250 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 2541.250 Section 2541.250 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.250 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the...

  10. 40 CFR 723.250 - Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymers. 723.250 Section 723.250... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION EXEMPTIONS Specific Exemptions § 723.250 Polymers. (a) Purpose and scope. (1) This...) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2604(a)(1)(A)) for the manufacture of certain polymers...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1008 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports. 250.1008 Section 250.1008 Mineral... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1008 Reports. (a) The... lessee or right-of-way holder shall submit a report to the Regional Supervisor within 90 days after...

  12. 7 CFR 250.17 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 250.17 Section 250.17 Agriculture Regulations... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General Operating Provisions § 250.17 Reports. (a) Inventory reports and receipt of donated foods. Distributing agencies shall complete and submit to the FNSRO...

  13. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1605 Drilling requirements. (a) Lessees of OCS sulphur leases shall conduct drilling operations in accordance with §§ 250.1605 through 250... conditions for the proposed season and location of operations. (2) Prior to commencing operation, drilling...

  15. 21 CFR 820.250 - Statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statistical techniques. 820.250 Section 820.250...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Statistical Techniques § 820.250 Statistical techniques. (a... statistical techniques required for establishing, controlling, and verifying the acceptability of process...

  16. 7 CFR 65.250 - Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slaughter. 65.250 Section 65.250 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.250 Slaughter. Slaughter means the point in which...

  17. 7 CFR 250.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 250.2 Section 250.2 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General § 250.2 Administration. (a) Delegation to FNS. Within the Department, FNS shall act on behalf of the Department in the administration of the...

  18. 21 CFR 175.250 - Paraffin (synthetic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Paraffin (synthetic). 175.250 Section 175.250 Food... for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.250 Paraffin (synthetic). Synthetic paraffin may be safely... process from carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are catalytically converted to a mixture of paraffin...

  19. 29 CFR 786.250 - Enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS Newspaper Publishing § 786.250 Enforcement policy. The exemption provided by paragraph 13(a)(8) of the Fair Labor... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy. 786.250 Section 786.250 Labor...

  20. 32 CFR 250.6 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 250.6 Section 250.6 National... WITHHOLDING OF UNCLASSIFIED TECHNICAL DATA FROM PUBLIC DISCLOSURE § 250.6 Responsibilities. (a) The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (USDR&E) shall have overall responsibility for the...

  1. 48 CFR 1846.672 - Preparing DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Preparing DD Forms 250 and 250c. 1846.672 Section 1846.672 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... DD Forms 250 and 250c. ...

  2. 36 CFR 2.50 - Special events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special events. 2.50 Section... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.50 Special events. (a) Sports events, pageants, regattas, public spectator attractions, entertainments, ceremonies, and similar events are allowed: Provided, however, There...

  3. 7 CFR 250.15 - Financial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management. 250.15 Section 250.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Financial management. (a) Distribution charges. (1) Recipient agencies may be required to pay part or all of...

  4. 17 CFR 250.1 - Registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registration. 250.1 Section... AND REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Registration and General Exemptions § 250.1 Registration. (a) Notification of registration. Notifications of registration pursuant to section...

  5. 40 CFR 170.250 - Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.250 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.250 Decontamination. (a) Requirement. During any..., decontamination supplies for washing off pesticides and pesticide residues. (b) General conditions. (1) The...

  6. 30 CFR 250.125 - Service fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service fees. 250.125 Section 250.125 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR... or ancillary system that is protected by one or more of the safety devices required by API RP 14C...

  7. Californium-252 neutron intracavity brachytherapy alone for T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma: A definitive anal sphincter-preserving radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanli; Shan, Jinlu; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Kewei; Chen, Shu; Xu, Wenjing; Zhou, Qian; Yang, Mei; Lei, Xin

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the 4-year results of 32 patients with T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma treated solely with californium-252 (Cf-252) neutron intracavity brachytherapy (ICBT). Patients were solicited into the study from January 2008 to June 2011. All the patients had refused surgery or surgery was contraindicated. The patients were treated with Cf-252 neutron ICBT using a novel 3.5-cm diameter off-axis 4-channel intrarectal applicator designed by the authors. The dose reference point was defined on the mucosa surface, with a total dose of 55–62 Gy-eq/4 f (13–16 Gy-eq/f/wk). All the patients completed the radiotherapy in accordance with our protocol. The rectal lesions regressed completely, and the acute rectal toxicity was mild (≤G2). The 4-year local control, overall survival, disease-free survival, and late complication (≥G2) rates were 96.9%, 90.6%, 87.5% and 15.6%, respectively. No severe late complication (≥G3) occurred. The mean follow-up was 56.1 ± 16.0 months. At the end of last follow-up, 29 patients remained alive. The mean survival time was 82.1 ± 2.7 months. Cf-252 neutron ICBT administered as the sole treatment (without surgery) for patients with T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma is effective with acceptable late complications. Our study and method offers a definitive anal sphincter-preserving radiotherapy for T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:28094790

  8. 7 CFR 1710.250 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (i) A borrower's CWP or special engineering studies must be supported by a Borrower's Environmental Report, and when necessary by an Environmental Analysis or Environmental Impact Statement, as set forth... Plans and Related Studies § 1710.250 General. (a) An ongoing, integrated planning system is needed by...

  9. 20 CFR 632.250 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.250 General. This subpart... Youth Employment and Training Program for Indians and other Native Americans authorized by title II...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR... applicable chapter of the API MPMS, which is incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198. Terms used in... production from a royalty or allocation measurement point. API MPMS—the American Petroleum Institute's Manual...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1203 - Gas measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR... verifiable measurement. You must follow the recommendations in API MPMS as incorporated by reference in 30... recorder is used, you must follow the recommendations in API MPMS as referenced in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) Take...

  12. 30 CFR 250.800 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR... platforms (TLPs); spars, etc.), you must do all of the following: (1) Comply with API RP 14J (incorporated... API RP 2RD (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198); (3) Design all stationkeeping...

  13. 5 CFR 250.301 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supervisors; typically those who are responsible for employees' performance appraisals and approval of their... not have supervisory responsibilities or conduct performance appraisals. Work unit means an immediate... AGENCIES Employee Surveys § 250.301 Definitions. In this part— Agency means an executive agency as defined...

  14. Johann Wilhelm Krause 250 / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti klassitsistliku arhitektuuri suurkuju ning Tartu Ülikooli arhitekti Johann Wilhelm Krause 250. sünniaastapäeva tähistati näitustega Tallinnas ja Tartus. Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogu kunstikogusse kuulub ligi 700 J. W. Krause loodud joonistust

  15. 30 CFR 250.1613 - Diverter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1613 Diverter systems. (a) When drilling a conductor or cap rock hole, all drilling units shall be equipped with a diverter system consisting of a..., installed, and maintained so as to divert gases, water, mud, and other materials away from the facilities...

  16. 32 CFR 250.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permanent residence and is located in the United States. (2) Such data are needed to bid or perform on a... WITHHOLDING OF UNCLASSIFIED TECHNICAL DATA FROM PUBLIC DISCLOSURE § 250.3 Definitions. (a) Qualified U.S..., certifies, as a condition of obtaining export-controlled technical data subject to this Directive from the...

  17. 38 CFR 17.250 - Scope of the grant program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of the grant program. 17.250 Section 17.250 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for Exchange of Information § 17.250 Scope of the grant program. The provisions of § 17.250...

  18. IceMap250—Automatic 250 m Sea Ice Extent Mapping Using MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gignac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea ice cover in the North evolves at a rapid rate. To adequately monitor this evolution, tools with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed. This paper presents IceMap250, an automatic sea ice extent mapping algorithm using MODIS reflective/emissive bands. Hybrid cloud-masking using both the MOD35 mask and a visibility mask, combined with downscaling of Bands 3–7 to 250 m, are utilized to delineate sea ice extent using a decision tree approach. IceMap250 was tested on scenes from the freeze-up, stable cover, and melt seasons in the Hudson Bay complex, in Northeastern Canada. IceMap250 first product is a daily composite sea ice presence map at 250 m. Validation based on comparisons with photo-interpreted ground-truth show the ability of the algorithm to achieve high classification accuracy, with kappa values systematically over 90%. IceMap250 second product is a weekly clear sky map that provides a synthesis of 7 days of daily composite maps. This map, produced using a majority filter, makes the sea ice presence map even more accurate by filtering out the effects of isolated classification errors. The synthesis maps show spatial consistency through time when compared to passive microwave and national ice services maps.

  19. 7 CFR 958.250 - Assessment Credit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment Credit Report. 958.250 Section 958.250... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Rules and Regulations § 958.250 Assessment Credit Report. Each handler may receive a credit for assessments on onions that have been levied in accordance...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1200 - Question index table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Question index table. 250.1200 Section 250.1200... Security § 250.1200 Question index table. The table in this section lists questions concerning Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Surface Commingling, and Security. Frequently asked questions CFR citation 1. What...

  1. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a) A...

  2. 5 CFR 250.303 - Availability of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of results. 250.303 Section 250.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN AGENCIES Employee Surveys § 250.303 Availability of results. (a) Each agency will make the results of its annual survey available to th...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1202 - Liquid hydrocarbon measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 250.1202 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... the API MPMS as incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198, when obtaining net standard volume and... with the API MPMS as incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198); (ii) The sample container is vapor...

  4. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for U.S...

  5. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality standards...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1606 - Control of wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of wells. 250.1606 Section 250.1606... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1606 Control of wells. The lessee shall take necessary precautions to keep its wells under control at all times. Operations shall be conducted...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1612 - Well-control drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control drills. 250.1612 Section 250.1612 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1612 Well-control drills. Well-control...

  8. 250 Years of the State Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Wechselberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first topographic survey of the Habsburg Monarchy was decreed by Maria Theresa 250 years ago, on May 13, 1764. A conference was held on the occasion of the anniversary by the Austrian State Geodetic Administration (BEV – Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen and the Institute for Military Geosciences (IMG – Institut für Militärisches Geowesen in Vienna on May 13 and 14, 2014. The conference was sort of a time travel through Austrian state surveys. Historical development and methods of the first three state surveys (18th and 19th century were presented on the first conference day. Lectures were held by representatives of Austrian scientific institutions and new countries of the Monarchy. The second conference day was dedicated to the 4th state survey (20th century and its impact on civilian and military application and economy.

  9. Characteristics of spontaneous fission of 250No

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirikhin, A. I.; Andreev, A. V.; Yeremin, A. V.; Izosimov, I. N.; Isaev, A. V.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Kuznetsova, A. A.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Popov, Y. A.; Sokol, E. A.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Schneidman, T. M.; Gall, B.; Dorvaux, O.; Brione, P.; Hauschild, K.; Lopez-Martenz, A.; Rezynkina, K.; Mullins, S.; Jones, P.; Mosat, P.

    2017-07-01

    This study describes an experiment on investigating the properties of spontaneous fission of shortlived neutron-deficient nuclei synthesized in the reaction of complete fusion 48Ca + 204Pb = 252No*. The experiment is performed using the SHELS separator and the beam of multicharged ions at U-400 accelerator (LNR, JINR). Two activities undergoing spontaneous fission, which can be related to the ground and isomeric states of 250No nucleus, are registered. The half-lives, total kinetic energies of fission fragments, and neutron multiplicities are measured for the short-lived nuclei. The average number of neutrons per fission for the activity with t 1/2 = 5.1 ± 0.3 μs is = 4.38 ± 0.13 μs, and for nuclei with the half-life t 1/2 = 36 ± 3 μs it is xxxxx.

  10. Californium-252 Program Equipment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattin, Fred Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Kenton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    To successfully continue the 252Cf production and meet the needs of the customers, a comprehensive evaluation of the Building 7920 processing equipment was requested to identify equipment critical to the operational continuity of the program.

  11. 21 CFR 137.250 - White corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn meal. 137.250 Section 137.250 Food and... Related Products § 137.250 White corn meal. (a) White corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section not less...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1304 - How will MMS require unitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS require unitization? 250.1304... AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Unitization § 250.1304 How will MMS... Regional Supervisor initiates compulsory unitization, MMS will serve all lessees of the proposed unit area...

  13. 30 CFR 250.118 - Will MMS approve gas injection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS approve gas injection? 250.118 Section... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.118 Will MMS... for injection, you must: (1) Show that the injection will not result in undue interference with...

  14. 41 CFR 60-250.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-250... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by all...

  15. 30 CFR 250.292 - What must the DWOP contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must the DWOP contain? 250.292 Section 250.292 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND... schematics and Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (SAFE) charts (API RP 14C, subsection 4.3c, incorporated...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 250.1002 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... American Petroleum Institute (API) Spec 6A, API Spec 6D, or the equivalent. A valve may not be used under..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange...

  17. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are continuously...

  18. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped with...

  19. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.463 Who establishes field drilling rules? (a) The District Manager may... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463...

  20. 17 CFR 250.3 - Exemption of certain banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain banks... Exemptions § 250.3 Exemption of certain banks. (a) General exemption. Subject to the provisions of § 250.6 and to the requirements contained in paragraph (c) of this section, any bank shall be exempt from any...

  1. 40 CFR 795.250 - Developmental neurotoxicity screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... “The effects of inter-trial interval on avoidance learning in the rat.” Journal of Comparative... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Developmental neurotoxicity screen. 795.250 Section 795.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...

  2. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  3. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  4. Aserisse kerkib 250 miljonit krooni maksev tellisetehas / Gerli Romanovitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Romanovitš, Gerli, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik 19. mai 2005, lk. 1, Severnoje Poberezhje 19. mai 2005, lk. 1,3. AS Wienerburger kavatseb rajada Aserisse 250 miljonit krooni maksva tellisetehase, vanas vabrikus hakatakse tootma keraamilisi plokke

  5. Alaska map quadrangles at 1:250,000 scale

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Outlines of 1:250,000 scale map quadrangles in Alaska for use as a geographic reference within Google Earth or other software capable of interpreting KML, with links...

  6. Superfund GIS - 1:250,000 Geology of Tennessee.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a digital representation of the printed 1:250,000 geologic maps from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Geology....

  7. 50 CFR 600.250 - Council member training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Council member training. 600.250 Section... member training. (a) The Secretary shall provide a training course covering a variety of topics relevant to matters before the Councils and shall make the training course available to all Council members...

  8. 30 CFR 250.198 - Documents incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Section 3—Concentric, Square-Edged Orifice Meters; Part 3—Natural Gas Applications; Third Edition, August... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General References § 250.198 Documents...-642-4900; and/or American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 22 Law Drive, P.O. Box 2900...

  9. 6 CFR 27.250 - Inspections and audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.250 Inspections and audits. (a) Authority. In order to... conducting an inspection might be seriously detrimental to security, and the Director of the Chemical...

  10. 40 CFR 1042.250 - Recordkeeping and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for any engine family for which you produce engines after completing the reports required in § 1042... Certifying Engine Families § 1042.250 Recordkeeping and reporting. (a) Send the Designated Compliance Officer... engines you produced during the model year as follows: (1) State the total production volume for each...

  11. 40 CFR 1033.250 - Reporting and recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... report describing the following information about locomotives you produced during the model year: (1) Report the total number of locomotives you produced in each engine family by locomotive model and engine... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Certifying Engine Families § 1033.250 Reporting and...

  12. 30 CFR 250.611 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.611 Section... Traveling-block safety device. After May 31, 1989, all units being used for well-workover operations which have both a traveling block and a crown block shall be equipped with a safety device which is designed...

  13. 30 CFR 250.511 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.511 Section... Traveling-block safety device. All units being used for well-completion operations that have both a traveling block and a crown block must be equipped with a safety device that is designed to prevent the...

  14. 21 CFR 173.250 - Methyl alcohol residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.250 Methyl alcohol residues... beer. (2) The label of the hops extract specifies the presence of methyl alcohol and provides for the...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1603 - Determination of sulphur deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of sulphur deposit. 250.1603... Determination of sulphur deposit. (a) Upon receipt of a written request from the lessee, the District Manager will determine whether a sulphur deposit has been defined that contains sulphur in paying quantities (i...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1007 - What to include in applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 250.1007 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL...); the rated working pressure, as specified by ANSI or API, of all valves, flanges, and fittings; the... standards you used; and (D) A review by a third-party independent verification agent (IVA) according to API...

  17. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....803 Section 250.803 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE....802 of this subpart and the requirements of API RP 14C (incorporated by reference as specified in 30... inspection, rating, repair, and alteration performed in accordance with the applicable provisions of API...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1616 - Supervision, surveillance, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1616 Supervision, surveillance, and training. (a) The lessee shall provide onsite supervision of drilling operations at all times. (b) From the time drilling operations are initiated and until the well is completed...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1615 - Securing of wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1615 Securing of wells. A downhole-safety device such as a cement plug, bridge plug, or packer shall be timely installed when drilling operations are interrupted by events such as those that force evacuation of the drilling crew, prevent station...

  20. 30 CFR 250.101 - Authority and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 250.101 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS... Management Service (MMS) to regulate oil, gas, and sulphur exploration, development, and production... competition; and (5) Minimize or eliminate conflicts between the exploration, development, and production of...

  1. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance and to recipients that...

  2. 38 CFR 3.250 - Dependency of parents; compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency of parents... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.250 Dependency of parents; compensation. (a) Income—(1) Conclusive dependency. Dependency of a parent...

  3. 5 CFR 250.201 - Coverage and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN AGENCIES Strategic Human Capital Management § 250.201 Coverage and purpose. The Chief Human... effective and efficient operation of Government. As a part of OPM's overall leadership responsibilities in...

  4. 9 CFR 2.50 - Time and method of identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time and method of identification. 2... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.50 Time and method of identification. (a... , or shall be identified by a distinctive and legible tattoo marking acceptable to and approved by the...

  5. The Varian MAT-250 mass spectrometer. Steady isotopes laboratory; Espectrometro de masas Varian MAT-250. Laboratorio de isotopos estables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, V.; Tavera D, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This work treats over the performance and applications of the Varian Mat-250 mass spectrometer which is in the environmental isotope laboratory. It can be applied over topics such as: ions formation, acceleration and collimation, ions separation, ions detection, data transformation, sampling, {delta} notation. (Author)

  6. Heavy ion collisions. [250 to 1050 MeV/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, P.J.

    1979-12-01

    The status of research into collisions of nuclei at high energy is reviewed. Reactions and products are classified, and spectator matter is discussed. Then the thermalization of participant matter is considered at some length. Finally, disintegration of the hot matter is addressed. A = 20 and 40 projectiles of 250 to 1050 MeV/A are employed to illustrate the major points. 44 references, 10 figures. (RWR)

  7. Towards 250 m mapping of terrestrial primary productivity over Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, A.; Chen, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are an important part of the climate and global change systems. Their role in climate change and in the global carbon cycle is yet to be well understood. Dataset from satellite earth observation, coupled with numerical models provide the unique tools for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of territorial carbon cycle. The Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is a remote sensing based approach to quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle by that gross and net primary productivity (GPP and NPP) and terrestrial carbon sinks and sources expressed as net ecosystem productivity (NEP). We have currently implemented a scheme to map the GPP, NPP and NEP at 250 m for first time over Canada using BEPS model. This is supplemented by improved mapping of land cover and leaf area index (LAI) at 250 m over Canada from MODIS satellite dataset. The results from BEPS are compared with MODIS GPP product and further evaluated with estimated LAI from various sources to evaluate if the results capture the trend in amount of photosynthetic biomass distributions. Final evaluation will be to validate both BEPS and MODIS primary productivity estimates over the Fluxnet sites over Canada. The primary evaluation indicate that BEPS GPP estimates capture the over storey LAI variations over Canada very well compared to MODIS GPP estimates. There is a large offset of MODIS GPP, over-estimating the lower GPP value compared to BEPS GPP estimates. These variations will further be validated based on the measured values from the Fluxnet tower measurements over Canadian. The high resolution GPP (NPP) products at 250 m will further be used to scale the outputs between different ecosystem productivity models, in our case the Canadian carbon budget model of Canadian forest sector CBM-CFS) and the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon model (InTEC).

  8. 250 år - rejsen fortsætter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian Arly

    2011-01-01

    I 1761 sendte Kong Frederik 5 en videnskabelig ekspedition til den arabiske halvø, der dengang var ukendt land for europæerne. I ekspeditionen deltog seks personer, en tysk geodæt og astronom (Carsten Niebuhr), en dansk filolog (Frederik Christian von Haven), en svensk botaniker og naturforsker (...... (Peter Forsskål), en dansk læge (Christian Carl Kramer) og en kobberstikker (Georg Wilhelm Baurenfeind) samt en oppasser (den svenske dragon Lars Berggren). Kun geodæten og astronomen, Carsten Niebuhr, gennemførte og overlevede rejsen. Læs mere om 250-års-jubilæet på denne hjemmeside....

  9. 30 CFR 250.109 - What documents must I prepare and maintain related to welding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... related to welding? 250.109 Section 250.109 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Performance Standards § 250.109 What documents must I prepare and maintain related to welding? (a) You must submit a Welding Plan to the District Manager before you begin drilling or production activities on a...

  10. 41 CFR 102-117.250 - What are my responsibilities after shipping the household goods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities after shipping the household goods? 102-117.250 Section 102-117.250 Public Contracts and Property... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Household Goods § 102-117.250 What are my responsibilities after shipping the household goods? (a) Each agency should develop an evaluation survey for the employee...

  11. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to prevent the loss of...

  12. 17 CFR 250.26 - Financial statement and recordkeeping requirements for registered holding companies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that it is unnecessary to file a copy of an official chart of accounts which any company subject... recordkeeping requirements for registered holding companies and subsidiaries. 250.26 Section 250.26 Commodity..., PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Forms, Procedure and Accounts § 250.26 Financial statement and...

  13. 21 CFR 250.201 - Preparations for the treatment of pernicious anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... anemia. 250.201 Section 250.201 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Drugs and Foods § 250.201 Preparations for the treatment of pernicious anemia. (a) The ninth announcement of the Anti-anemia Preparations Advisory Board of the United States Pharmacopeia is concerned with...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1159 - May the Regional Supervisor limit my well or reservoir production rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reservoir production rates? 250.1159 Section 250.1159 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Gas Production Requirements Production Rates § 250.1159 May the Regional Supervisor limit my well or reservoir production rates? (a) The Regional Supervisor may set a Maximum Production Rate (MPR) for a...

  15. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Arms Regulations (ITAR). 250.8 Section 250.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE... PUBLIC DISCLOSURE § 250.8 Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). The... releasibility of technical data under the authority of this part. International Traffic in Arms Regulations 22...

  16. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA...

  17. 30 CFR 250.184 - What is the amount of compensation for lease cancellation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the amount of compensation for lease cancellation? 250.184 Section 250.184 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Requirements, Lease Term Extensions, and Lease Cancellations § 250.184 What is the amount of compensation for...

  18. 17 CFR 250.110 - Small entities for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small entities for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. 250.110 Section 250.110 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... OF 1935 Miscellaneous Rules § 250.110 Small entities for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1501 - What is the goal of my training program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the goal of my training program? 250.1501 Section 250.1501 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Safety Training § 250.1501 What is the goal of my training program? The goal of your training program...

  20. 30 CFR 250.901 - What industry standards must your platform meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...? 250.901 Section 250.901 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...) American Petroleum Institute (API) Bulletin 2INT-DG, Interim Guidance for Design of Offshore Structures for Hurricane Conditions, (incorporated by reference as specified in § 250.198); (5) API Bulletin 2INT-EX...

  1. 30 CFR 250.527 - What must I include in my casing pressure request?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... request? 250.527 Section 250.527 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.527 What must I include in my casing pressure request? The following information must be included in the casing pressure request: (a) API number; (b) Lease number; (c...

  2. 30 CFR 250.518 - What are the requirements for casing pressure management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.518 What are the requirements for casing pressure management? Once you install your wellhead, you must meet the casing pressure management requirements of API RP 90... management? 250.518 Section 250.518 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  3. 30 CFR 250.526 - What must I include in my notification of corrective action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... corrective action? 250.526 Section 250.526 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-Completion Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.526 What must I include in my notification of... Operator name; (b) Area name and OCS block number; (c) Well name and API number; and (d) Casing diagnostic...

  4. 30 CFR 250.424 - What are the requirements for prolonged drilling operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drilling operations? 250.424 Section 250.424 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Drilling Operations Casing and Cementing Requirements § 250.424 What are the requirements for prolonged drilling operations? If wellbore operations continue for more than 30 days within a casing string run to...

  5. 30 CFR 250.408 - May I use alternative procedures or equipment during drilling operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during drilling operations? 250.408 Section 250.408 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.408 May I use alternative procedures or equipment during drilling operations? You may use alternative procedures or equipment during drilling operations...

  6. [Prokaryotic expression, purification and antigenicity identification of human renal cell carcinoma-associated antigen G250].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Gao, Jiangping; Gao, Kun; Yan, Jinqi; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Yu; Xu, Yuanji; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Yu, Jiyun

    2013-03-01

    To amplify human renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated antigen G250 gene and construct a recombinant plasmid pET-42a-hG250, express and purify human G250 protein and identify its antigenicity. The gene of human G250 was amplified from pGEM-T-G250 by PCR. After sequencing, the PCR product (112-1242 bp) was cloned into pET-42a prokaryotic expression vector to construct the recombinant plasmid pET-42a-hG250. The plasmid was transformed into BL21 (DE3) and human G250 protein was expressed under the induction of IPTG. The fusion protein was purified and identified by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and ELISA sequentially. The human G250 prokaryotic expression vector pET-42a-hG250 was successfully constructed as confirmed by enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. After transformation into BL21 (DE3), the target protein was successfully induced to express and purified as expected. Western blotting and ELISA demonstrated that the purified human G250 protein had a desirable immunogenicity. The recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pET-42a-hG250 has been constructed successfully. The purified human G250 protein has a good antigenicity.

  7. 21 CFR 250.105 - Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.105 Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs. It is the consensus of informed medical opinion that the margin of safety between the... prescription drugs. 250.105 Section 250.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  8. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.108 Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs. (a) There have been a number of reports in the medical literature of serious injuries to... prescription drugs. 250.108 Section 250.108 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  9. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production-safety systems. 250.802 Section 250.802 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.802 Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems. (a) General. All production facilities, including separators, treaters, compressors...

  10. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory... general requirements in § 250.14(b) for the storage and inventory management of donated foods. (b) Storage...

  11. 30 CFR 250.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.246 Section 250.246 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.246 What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP...

  12. 27 CFR 24.250 - Application for use of new treating material or process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treating material or process. 24.250 Section 24.250 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.250 Application for use of new treating material or process. (a) General. If the proprietor...

  13. 33 CFR 148.250 - Who must be served before a document is filed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must be served before a document is filed? 148.250 Section 148.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Hearings § 148.250 Who must be served before a document is filed? Before a document may be filed by any...

  14. Bayesian demography 250 years after Bayes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijak, Jakub; Bryant, John

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian statistics offers an alternative to classical (frequentist) statistics. It is distinguished by its use of probability distributions to describe uncertain quantities, which leads to elegant solutions to many difficult statistical problems. Although Bayesian demography, like Bayesian statistics more generally, is around 250 years old, only recently has it begun to flourish. The aim of this paper is to review the achievements of Bayesian demography, address some misconceptions, and make the case for wider use of Bayesian methods in population studies. We focus on three applications: demographic forecasts, limited data, and highly structured or complex models. The key advantages of Bayesian methods are the ability to integrate information from multiple sources and to describe uncertainty coherently. Bayesian methods also allow for including additional (prior) information next to the data sample. As such, Bayesian approaches are complementary to many traditional methods, which can be productively re-expressed in Bayesian terms.

  15. Remote (250 km Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lopez-Amo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system.

  16. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  17. Grammaire pour adolescents 250 exercices : niveau débutant

    CERN Document Server

    Bié, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Ce nouveau livre d'exercices de grammaire, de la collection Le Nouvel Entraînez-vous, s'adresse à un public d'adolescents débutants et faux débutants en français langue étrangère. L'ouvrage propose 250 exercices de compréhension et de mémorisation à travers des activités de déduction et de réemploi des notions grammaticales étudiées. Le contenu des exercices est organisé autour de contextes langagiers proches de la réalité des adolescents afin de placer la communication au cœur de l'apprentissage. L'introduction des contenus grammaticaux suit la même progression que les méthodes usuelles. Chaque chapitre débute par une séquence Rappel permettant à l'apprenant de revoir rapidement les règles grammaticales développées dans les exercices. Chaque exercice est introduit par une consigne brève et concise accompagnée d'un exemple. L'ouvrage a été conçu en tenant compte des centres d'intérêts des adolescents et propose de nombreuses illustrations intégrées aux exercices. A la fin d...

  18. Modeling global Hammond landform regions from 250-m elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagulle, Deniz; Frye, Charlie; Sayre, Roger; Breyer, Sean P.; Aniello, Peter; Vaughan, Randy; Wright, Dawn J.

    2017-01-01

    In 1964, E.H. Hammond proposed criteria for classifying and mapping physiographic regions of the United States. Hammond produced a map entitled “Classes of Land Surface Form in the Forty-Eight States, USA”, which is regarded as a pioneering and rigorous treatment of regional physiography. Several researchers automated Hammond?s model in GIS. However, these were local or regional in application, and resulted in inadequate characterization of tablelands. We used a global 250 m DEM to produce a new characterization of global Hammond landform regions. The improved algorithm we developed for the regional landform modeling: (1) incorporated a profile parameter for the delineation of tablelands; (2) accommodated negative elevation data values; (3) allowed neighborhood analysis window (NAW) size to vary between parameters; (4) more accurately bounded plains regions; and (5) mapped landform regions as opposed to discrete landform features. The new global Hammond landform regions product builds on an existing global Hammond landform features product developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, which, while globally comprehensive, did not include tablelands, used a fixed NAW size, and essentially classified pixels rather than regions. Our algorithm also permits the disaggregation of “mixed” Hammond types (e.g. plains with high mountains) into their component parts.

  19. Bionics by examples 250 scenarios from classical to modern times

    CERN Document Server

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Bionics means learning from the nature for the development of technology. The science of "bionics" itself is classified into several sections, from materials and structures over procedures and processes until evolution and optimization. Not all these areas, or only a few, are really known in the public and also in scientific literature. This includes the Lotus-effect, converted to the contamination-reduction of fassades and the shark-shed-effect, converted to the  resistance-reduction of airplanes. However, there are hundreds of highly interesting examples that contain the transformation of principles of the nature into technology. From the large number of these examples, 250 were selected for the present book according to "prehistory", "early-history", "classic" and "modern time". Most examples are new. Every example includes a printed page in a homogeneous arrangement. The examples from the field "modern time" are joint in blocks corresponding to the sub-disciplines of bionics.

  20. 250 labels used to stigmatise people with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfold Vanessa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stigma against people with mental illness is a major barrier to help-seeking in young people for mental health problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of stigma in relation to treatment avoidance in 14 year-old school students in England in relation to how they refer to people with mental illness. Methods This is a qualitative, cross-sectional study. The data were gathered as part of the baseline assessment for an intervention study intended to reduce stigma among 14 year old school students. The participating schools were two grammar (selective schools and three comprehensive (non-selective schools. At the start of the lesson, the students were asked 'What sorts of words or phrases might you use to describe someone who experiences mental health problems?' Words and terms used to refer to mental illness were enumerated. Using the grounded theory approach, words and terms were grouped in terms of their denotative and connotative meanings. Labels were then derived to capture the key themes attached by the students to the concepts of mental illness. The frequencies of occurrence for each word were also tabulated. Results 400 of the 472 participating students (85% provided 250 words and terms to describe a person with mental illness. Five themes were identified from the data. The first theme called 'popular derogatory terms' (116 items accounted for nearly half of the words examined. The second theme occurred less often and was described as 'negative emotional state' (61 items. The third theme demonstrated the confusion of young people between physical disabilities, learning difficulties and mental health problems (38 items. The use of psychiatric diagnoses (15 items and terms related to violence (9 items were unexpectedly uncommon. Conclusion Our findings suggest the hypothesis that help-seeking by mentally ill young people may be improved by interventions that address both their lack of factual

  1. BAF250a Expression in Atypical Endometriosis and Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, John P; Gilks, C Blake; Wesseling, Martine; Eshragh, Sima; Ceballos, Kathy; Anglesio, Michael S; Kwon, Janice S; Tone, Alicia; Huntsman, David G; Carey, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Atypical endometriosis (AE) is thought to be a precursor lesion to the ovarian cancer subtypes associated with endometriosis, namely, endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas. ARID1A encodes a nuclear protein (BAF250a) governing chromatin remodeling, and mutations in ARID1A have been found in 30% to 50% of clear cell and endometrioid ovarian cancers. As BAF250a expression loss by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been documented in the endometriosis precursor lesions closely associated with these ovarian cancers subtypes, our goal was to further study the association between BAF250a expression in cases of AE with and without an associated cancer. Three separate databases were screened for suspected cases of AE. Based on a detailed review of the pathology reports, we selected cases likely to contain AE for slide review. After slide review, tissue blocks were recalled to perform IHC for BAF250a in the associated cancer, AE, or typical endometriosis when present. There were 35 cases of endometriosis-associated cancer and 8 cases of AE not associated with cancer. Atypical endometriosis was found on pathology review in 23 endometriosis-associated cancer cases (66%). In the 35 cancer cases, BAF250a IHC showed loss of expression in 14 cases. Atypical endometriosis was present in 10 of these cases, 6 of which showed BAF250a loss (60%). BAF250a loss was not observed in the 8 cases of AE not associated with cancer or in the contiguous AE of 13 cases, whereby BAF250a expression was retained in the associated cancer. BAF250a loss in AE is consistently associated with the development of BAF250a-negative endometriosis-associated cancers and appears to be an early event in most of these cases. This research provides additional evidence that in the absence of cancer, BAF250a expression should be evaluated as a biomarker of cancer risk in patients diagnosed with AE.

  2. 30 CFR 250.1158 - How do I receive approval to downhole commingle hydrocarbons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons? 250.1158 Section 250.1158 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... hydrocarbons? (a) Before you perforate a well, you must request and receive approval from the Regional Supervisor to commingle hydrocarbons produced from multiple reservoirs within a common wellbore. The Regional...

  3. 41 CFR 102-33.250 - May we report as excess, or replace, declassified aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parts or other property” on your property records under the appropriate Federal Supply Classification... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May we report as excess, or replace, declassified aircraft? 102-33.250 Section 102-33.250 Public Contracts and Property...

  4. 41 CFR 60-250.44 - Required contents of affirmative action programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Required contents of affirmative action programs. 60-250.44 Section 60-250.44 Public Contracts and Property Management Other... career days, youth motivation programs, and related activities in their communities. (6) The contractor...

  5. 30 CFR 250.428 - What must I do in certain cementing and casing situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... situations? 250.428 Section 250.428 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...) Have unexpected formation pressures or conditions that warrant revising your casing design Submit a... these techniques. (d) Inadequate cement job Re-cement or take other remedial actions as approved by the...

  6. Galvanic interactions of HE15 /MDN138 & HE15 /MDN250 alloys in natural seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, G. T.; Subramanian, G.; Muthuraman, K.; Ramakrishna Rao, P.

    2017-06-01

    HE15 is a heat treatable high strength alloy with excellent machinability find wide applications in aerospace and defence industries. In view of their excellent mechanical properties, workability, machinability, heat treatment characteristics and good resistance to general and stress corrosion cracking, MDN138 & MDN250 have been widely used in petrochemical, nuclear and aerospace industries. The galvanic corrosion behaviour of the metal combinations HE15 /MDN138 and HE15 /MDN250, with 1:1 area ratio, has been studied in natural seawater using the open well facility of CECRI's Offshore Platform at Tuticorin for a year. The open circuit potentials of MDN138, MDN250 and HE15 of the individual metal, the galvanic potential and galvanic current of the couples HE15 /MDN138 and HE15 /MDN250 were periodically monitored throughout the study period. The calcareous deposits on MDN138 and MDN250 in galvanic contact with HE15 were analyzed using XRD. The electrochemical behaviors of MDN138, MDN250 and HE15 in seawater have been studied using an electrochemical work station. The surface characteristics of MDN138 and MDN250 in galvanic contact with HE15 have been examined with scanning electron microscope. The results of the study reveal that HE15 offered required amount of protection to MDN138 & MDN250.

  7. 17 CFR 250.2 - Exemption of holding companies which are intrastate or predominantly operating companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... holding company need file only the initial statement on Form U-3A-2. ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of holding companies which are intrastate or predominantly operating companies. 250.2 Section 250.2 Commodity and Securities...

  8. 17 CFR 250.5 - Exemption of certain foreign holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain foreign... and General Exemptions § 250.5 Exemption of certain foreign holding companies. Any holding company not... of the issuer, except an issuer within any class specified in § 250.10(a). ...

  9. 17 CFR 250.8 - Exemption of subsidiaries subject to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission. 250.8 Section 250.8 Commodity and Securities... to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission. Any subsidiary company of a registered holding company, which subsidiary is subject to the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission but is not...

  10. 17 CFR 250.7 - Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies. 250.7 Section 250.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935...

  11. 41 CFR Appendix A to Part 61 - 250-Federal Contractor Veterans' Employment Report VETS-100

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 250-Federal Contractor Veterans' Employment Report VETS-100 A Appendix A to Part 61 Public Contracts and Property Management Other... Appendix A to Part 61-250—Federal Contractor Veterans' Employment Report VETS-100 ER05NO08.000 ER05NO08.001...

  12. 17 CFR 250.40 - Exemption of certain acquisitions from nonaffiliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... securities of the class acquired. (b) Section 9(a) (49 Stat. 817; 15 U.S.C. 79i) shall not apply to the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain acquisitions from nonaffiliates. 250.40 Section 250.40 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

  13. 17 CFR 250.49 - Certain exemptions granted to non-utility subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Act (49 Stat. 814; 15 U.S.C. 79f) with respect to the issuance or sale of any securities to the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain exemptions granted to non-utility subsidiaries. 250.49 Section 250.49 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

  14. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on your platform because of the results of...

  15. 30 CFR 250.806 - Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality assurance requirements. 250.806 Section 250.806 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... of Safety and Pollution Prevention Equipment Used in Offshore Oil and Gas Operations; and (ii) API... specifications of API Spec 6A and 6AV1. All SSSVs must meet the technical specifications of API Specification 14A...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1630 - Safety-system testing and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 250.1630 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL.... Testing must be in accordance with API RP 14C, Appendix D (incorporated by reference as specified in § 250.198). For safety system devices other than those listed in API RP 14C, Appendix D, you must utilize...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1629 - Additional production and fuel gas system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements. 250.1629 Section 250.1629 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., repair, and alteration performed in accordance with the applicable provisions of API Pressure Vessel Inspections Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alteration, API 510 (except Sections 5.8 and 9.5...

  18. 30 CFR 250.446 - What are the BOP maintenance and inspection requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....11, Maintenance; and Sections 17.12 and 18.12, Quality Management, described in API RP 53... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the BOP maintenance and inspection requirements? 250.446 Section 250.446 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  19. 30 CFR 250.920 - What are the MMS requirements for assessment of fixed platforms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fixed platforms? 250.920 Section 250.920 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... in API RP 2A-WSD, Section 17.3. If MMS objects to the assessment category you used for your... (see Sections 17.2.1 through 17.2.5 of API RP 2A-WSD for a description of assessment initiators). (c...

  20. 30 CFR 250.804 - Production safety-system testing and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 250.804 Section 250.804 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... or more frequently if operating conditions warrant. Testing must be in accordance with API RP 14C... removed, repaired and reinstalled, or replaced. Testing shall be in accordance with API RP 14B to ensure...

  1. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... drilling fluid-handling areas? You must classify drilling fluid-handling areas according to API RP 500... API RP 505, Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at...

  2. 30 CFR 250.114 - How must I install and operate electrical equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment? 250.114 Section 250.114 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.... (a) You must classify all areas according to API RP 500, Recommended Practice for Classification of... Division 2, or API RP 505, Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1628 - Design, installation, and operation of production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production systems. 250.1628 Section 250.1628 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... allowable working pressures as determined in accordance with API RP 14E, Recommended Practice for Design and... of each platform deck, outlining all hazardous areas classified according to API RP 500, Recommended...

  4. 30 CFR 250.403 - What drilling unit movements must I report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.403 What drilling unit movements must I report? (a) You must report the... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What drilling unit movements must I report? 250...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1625 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuing operations in cases where cement is not drilled out; (3) At least once each week, but not... not functional, further drilling operations shall be suspended until that system becomes operable. A... drills. 250.1625 Section 250.1625 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  6. 30 CFR 250.422 - When may I resume drilling after cementing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Casing and Cementing Requirements § 250.422 When may I resume drilling after cementing? (a) After... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may I resume drilling after cementing? 250...

  7. 30 CFR 250.414 - What must my drilling prognosis include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.414 What must my drilling prognosis include? Your drilling prognosis... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must my drilling prognosis include? 250...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1506 - How often must I train my employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How often must I train my employees? 250.1506... Training § 250.1506 How often must I train my employees? You determine the frequency of the training you provide your employees. You must do all of the following: (a) Provide periodic training to ensure that...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1505 - Where may I get training for my employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may I get training for my employees? 250... Safety Training § 250.1505 Where may I get training for my employees? You may get training from any source that meets the requirements of your training plan. ...

  10. 30 CFR 250.288 - When and how must I submit the Conceptual Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... you have decided on the general concept(s) for development and before you begin engineering design of... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When and how must I submit the Conceptual Plan? 250.288 Section 250.288 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  11. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.59 Storage and inventory management of donated foods. (a) General requirements. Distributing agencies, subdistributing agencies, and...

  12. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., injury or other loss to citizens or institutions of the United States. Block certification means SAFETY... homeland security may be deemed a technology. SAFETY Act certification means a determination by DHS... Designation/Certification. 52.250-3 Section 52.250-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1507 - How will MMS measure training results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... how effective the training was. (c) Employee or contract personnel testing. MMS or its authorized... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS measure training results? 250.1507... Training § 250.1507 How will MMS measure training results? MMS may periodically assess your training...

  14. 12 CFR 250.182 - Terms defining competitive effects of proposed mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mergers. 250.182 Section 250.182 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... competitive effects of proposed mergers. Under the Bank Merger Act (12 U.S.C. 1828(c)), a Federal Banking agency receiving a merger application must request the views of the other two banking agencies and the...

  15. 30 CFR 250.401 - What must I do to keep wells under control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do to keep wells under control? 250... General Requirements § 250.401 What must I do to keep wells under control? You must take necessary precautions to keep wells under control at all times. You must: (a) Use the best available and safest drilling...

  16. 30 CFR 250.154 - What identification signs must I display?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What identification signs must I display? 250... Facilities and Wells (does Not Include Modus) § 250.154 What identification signs must I display? (a) You... maintained in a legible condition. (1) You must display an identification sign that can be viewed from the...

  17. UOP PSY 250 Week 5 Person-Situation Interactions (2 Papers) NEW

    OpenAIRE

    UOP PSY 250

    2017-01-01

    UOP PSY 250 Week 5 Person-Situation Interactions (2 Papers) NEW Check this A+ tutorial guideline at http://www.assignmentcloud.com/psy-250-uop/psy-250-week-5-person-situation-interactions-new For more classes visit http://www.assignmentcloud.com Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper analyzing the humanistic approaches to personality. Your paper should cover the following areas: § Compare person-centered theory with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. § Use Maslow’s hiera...

  18. 1:250,000-scale geology of the Carson River Basin, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital continuous geologic data for the Carson River Basin, Nevada and California. It was compiled from individual county 1:250,000-scale...

  19. 1:250,000-scale geology of the Dry Valley Hydrographic Area, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of digital geologic data for the Dry Valley Hydrographic area, Nevada and California. It was compiled from individual 1:250,000-scale geologic...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS image data for bands 1 and 2 at 250m (Nadir) resolution, calibrated from raw counts into physically meaningful radiances and reflectances. Corrections for...

  1. 30 CFR 250.407 - What tests must I conduct to determine reservoir characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.407 What tests must I conduct to determine...

  2. 30 CFR 250.412 - What requirements must the location plat meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.412 What requirements must the location plat meet? The location plat...

  3. 30 CFR 250.460 - What are the requirements for conducting a well test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.460 What are the requirements for conducting a well test? (a) If you...

  4. MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 250m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD09GQ Version 6 product provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance of Terra MODIS 250 m bands 1-2 corrected for atmospheric conditions such as...

  5. Bioavailability study of calcium sandoz-250 by atomic absorption spectroscopy in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bimalkumar N; Krishnaveni, N; Jivani, Nurrrudin P; Khodakiya, Akruti S; Khodakiya, Moorti S; Parida, Saswat K

    2014-01-01

    Calcium sandoz-250 is an Ayurvedic calcium supplement, containing Khatika Churna. Bioavailability study of the formulation is essential for estimation of peak plasma concentration (C max), time to C max and rate of absorption. To evaluate the absorption parameters of calcium sandoz-250 in albino rats by atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) method. Study was carried out as a single dose, open-label, randomized study. Estimation of calcium was carried out by AAS, after validating the method for a few parameters for the estimation. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as C max, time to peak concentration (T max), area under the plasma concentration - time curve were calculated for calcium on administration of calcium sandoz-250. Linearity curve was plotted for 0.5-2.5 ppm, given R (2) value 0.9975. The C max, i.e. C max after administration of calcium sandoz-250 was 0.793 mg/ml at 90 min (T max). Measurable calcium-blood levels were noticed in all subjects up to 3.0 h after administration of calcium sandoz-250. Calcium sandoz-250, consisting of Khatika Churna, increases the blood calcium level in albino rats.

  6. Transmission of the P250R mutation of the FGFR3 gene in four generations with highly variable phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Hanne Buciek; Dunø, Morten; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette

    Transmission of the P250R mutation of the FGFR3 gene in four generations with highly variable phenotype.......Transmission of the P250R mutation of the FGFR3 gene in four generations with highly variable phenotype....

  7. 17 CFR 250.12 - Exemption of certain public utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of holding companies. 250.12 Section 250.12... REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Registration and General Exemptions § 250.12 Exemption of certain public utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of holding companies...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1163 - How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? 250.1163 Section 250..., and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1163 How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? (a) If your facility processes more than an...

  9. 30 CFR 250.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.260 Section 250.260 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.260 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must...

  10. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.107 What must ...

  11. 30 CFR 250.417 - What must I provide if I plan to use a mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.417 What must I provide if I plan to use... environment. Actions must include the suspension, curtailment, or modification of drilling or rig operations... offshore drilling unit (MODU)? 250.417 Section 250.417 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE...

  12. 17 CFR 250.47 - Exemption of public utility subsidiaries as to certain securities issued to the Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of public utility subsidiaries as to certain securities issued to the Rural Electrification Administration. 250.47 Section 250.47... Transactions 2 § 250.47 Exemption of public utility subsidiaries as to certain securities issued to the Rural...

  13. Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of HT250 Gray Cast Iron for Engine Cylinder Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, K. L.; He, G. Q.; She, M.; Liu, X. S.; Yang, Y.; Lu, Q.; shen, Y.; Tian, D. D.

    2014-08-01

    The strain-controlled low cycle fatigue properties were evaluated on specimens of HT250 gray cast iron (GCI) at room temperature. The material exhibited cyclic stabilization at a low strain amplitude of 0.1% and cyclic softening characteristic at higher strain amplitudes (0.15-0.30%). At a representative total strain amplitude (0.30%), the hysteresis loops of HT250 GCI were asymmetric with a large amount of plastic deformation in the compressive phases. Furthermore, the hysteresis loop became larger in both width and height with increasing total strain amplitude (from 0.10 to 0.30%), and tended to exhibit a clockwise rotation. The fatigue crack propagation mechanisms were different at various total strain amplitudes, where high stress concentration due to dislocation pile-up favored fatigue crack initiation in the examined HT250. Finally, the roughness-induced crack closure was a key to determine the crack growth rate as well as fatigue life.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Draco nebula Herschel 250um map (Miville-Deschenes+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miville-Deschenes, M.-A.; Salome, Q.; Martin, P. G.; Joncas, G.; Blagrave, K.; Dassas, K.; Abergel, A.; Beelen, A.; Boulanger, F.; Lagache, G.; Lockman, F. J.; Marshall, D. J.

    2017-03-01

    Draco was observed with Herschel PACS (110 and 170um) and SPIRE (250, 350 and 500um) as part of the open-time program "First steps toward star formation: unveiling the atomic to molecular transition in the diffuse interstellar medium" (P.I. M-A Miville-Deschenes). A field of 3.85x3.85 was observed in parallel mode. Unfortunately, an error occurred during the acquisition of the PACS data making them unusable. Therefore, the results presented here are solely based on SPIRE data, especially the 250um map that has the highest angular resolution. (2 data files).

  15. 30 CFR 250.110 - What must I include in my welding plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my welding plan? 250.110... must I include in my welding plan? You must include all of the following in the Welding Plan that you... qualified personnel weld; (c) Practices and procedures for safe welding that address: (1) Welding in...

  16. 30 CFR 250.111 - Who oversees operations under my welding plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who oversees operations under my welding plan... § 250.111 Who oversees operations under my welding plan? A welding supervisor or a designated person in charge must be thoroughly familiar with your welding plan. This person must ensure that each welder is...

  17. 30 CFR 250.113 - What procedures must I follow when welding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What procedures must I follow when welding? 250....113 What procedures must I follow when welding? (a) Before you weld, you must move any equipment containing hydrocarbons or other flammable substances at least 35 feet horizontally from the welding area...

  18. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain the following drilling fluid-system... indicators on the rig floor: (a) Pit level indicator to determine drilling fluid-pit volume gains and losses...

  19. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required... Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must use, maintain, and replenish quantities of drilling fluid and drilling fluid materials at the drill site as...

  20. 30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What safe practices must the drilling fluid... Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.456 What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? Your drilling fluid program must include the following safe practices: (a) Before starting out of the...

  1. 12 CFR 250.403 - Service of member bank and real estate investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of member bank and real estate... Glass-Steagall Act § 250.403 Service of member bank and real estate investment company. (a) The Board recently considered two inquiries regarding the question whether proposed real estate investment companies...

  2. 30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equivalent well-control fluid volume shall be calculated and posted near the operator's station. A mechanical... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations... Operations § 250.514 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1162 - When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1162 When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... hydrocarbons. The Regional Supervisor may allow you to burn liquid hydrocarbons if you demonstrate that...

  4. LCD OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS PHASE 2: FORD F250 AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life cycle design methodology was applied to the design analysis of three alternatives for the lower plehum of the air intake manifold for us with a 5.4L F-250 truck engine: a sand cast aluminum, a lost core molded nylon composite, and a vibration welded nylon composite. The ...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application and other required information are found to be in compliance with applicable laws and regulations... AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a right-of-way, the...

  6. 13 CFR 107.250 - Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion of stock options issued... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.250 Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses. Stock options...

  7. 30 CFR 250.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental impact analysis (EIA... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.227 What environmental impact analysis (EIA... requirements. Your EIA must: (1) Assess the potential environmental impacts of your proposed exploration...

  8. Silver City, NM AZ 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  9. Tularosa, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  10. Saint Johns, AZ NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  11. Fort Sumner, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  12. Tucumcari, NM TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  13. Gallup, NM AZ 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  14. Roswell, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  15. Aztec, NM CO 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  16. Carlsbad, NM TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  17. Socorro, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  18. Clifton, AZ NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  19. El Paso, TX NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  20. Clovis, NM TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  1. Hobbs, NM TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  2. 30 CFR 250.189 - Reporting requirements for incidents requiring immediate notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting requirements for incidents requiring... Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.189 Reporting requirements for incidents requiring immediate...) Lease number, OCS area, and block; (e) Platform/facility name and number, or pipeline segment number; (f...

  3. 30 CFR 250.190 - Reporting requirements for incidents requiring written notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting requirements for incidents requiring... Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.190 Reporting requirements for incidents requiring written... pipeline segment number; (6) Type of incident or injury; (7) Operation or activity at time of incident (i.e...

  4. 31 CFR 363.250 - May Public Debt waive these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May Public Debt waive these... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Subpart H Miscellaneous § 363.250 May Public Debt waive these regulations...

  5. 47 CFR 10.250 - Notification to existing subscribers of non-participation in CMAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Election to Participate in Commercial Mobile Alert System § 10.250... service agreement. (b) For purposes of this section, a CMS provider that elects not to transmit CMAS Alert... Rule 47 CFR 10.240. (c) In the case of prepaid customers, if a mailing address is available, the CMS...

  6. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine... and the methamphetamine they contain is being used as a substitute for amphetamine tablets...

  7. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with spark arrestors and drip pans; (b...

  8. Muusikamaailm. Maailmaesiettekanne Krimmis. Herderi preemiad 2002. Opera Metz 250. Günter Wand 90 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Krimmis leiab aset Alemdar Karamanovi sümfoonia "Täideläinu" maailma esiettekanne. Johann Gottfried Herderi muusikapreemia sai nimekas rumeenia helilooja Aurel Stroe. Opera Metz Prantsusmaal tähistab oma 250ndat aastapäeva mitmete uuslavastustega. Dirigent Günter Wand tähistab 90ndat juubelit

  9. Raton, NM CO 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  10. 7 CFR 250.64 - Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of... DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED STATES, ITS TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.64 Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1400 - How does MMS begin the civil penalty process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS begin the civil penalty process...) Civil Penalties § 250.1400 How does MMS begin the civil penalty process? This subpart explains MMS's civil penalty procedures whenever a lessee, operator or other person engaged in oil, gas, sulphur or...

  12. 7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (iv) All initial data regarding the cost of the current warehousing and distribution system and the... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods... General Operating Provisions § 250.14 Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods. (a...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1153 - When must I conduct a static bottomhole pressure survey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Well Tests and Surveys § 250.1153 When must I conduct a static bottomhole pressure survey? (a) You... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I conduct a static bottomhole...

  14. 41 CFR 60-250.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...

  15. Experimental f″ of As at 170, 200, 250 and 300 K from the Bijvoet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Experimental f″ of As at 170, 200, 250 and 300 K from the Bijvoet pairs of GaAs. G RAJA SUDHA, K VIMALA DEVI, D ARTHI, S PRASANNA SUBRAMANIAN,. N SRINIVASAN* and R SARAVANAN†. Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625 009, India. †The Madura College, Madurai 625 011, India.

  16. 30 CFR 250.402 - When and how must I secure a well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.402 When and how must I secure a well? Whenever you interrupt drilling operations, you must... that may cause you to interrupt drilling operations are: (1) Evacuation of the drilling crew; (2...

  17. 30 CFR 250.199 - Paperwork Reduction Act statements-information collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Gas and Drilling Operations (1010-0141), including Forms MMS-123, Application for Permit to Drill... the equipment and procedures to be used in drilling operations on the OCS. To ensure that drilling... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General References § 250.199...

  18. 30 CFR 250.461 - What are the requirements for directional and inclination surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.461 What are the requirements for directional and inclination... exceed 1,000 feet during the normal course of drilling; (2) You must also conduct a directional survey...

  19. 30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.413 What must my description of well... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must my description of well drilling...

  20. 30 CFR 250.409 - May I obtain departures from these drilling requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.409 May I obtain departures from these drilling requirements? The District... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I obtain departures from these drilling...

  1. 30 CFR 250.427 - What are the requirements for pressure integrity tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Casing and Cementing Requirements § 250.427 What are the requirements for pressure integrity tests... must suspend drilling operations and remedy the situation. ...

  2. 30 CFR 250.420 - What well casing and cementing requirements must I meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Casing and Cementing Requirements § 250.420 What well casing and cementing requirements must I... drilling out of the casing or before commencing completion operations. ...

  3. Spin vectors of asteroids 21 Lutetia, 196 Philomela, 250 Bettina, 337 Devosa, and 804 Hispania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Tadeusz

    1992-01-01

    Such parameters as shape, orientation of spin axis, prograde or retrograde rotation are important for understanding the collisional evolution of asteroids since the primordial epochs of solar system history. These parameters remain unknown for most asteroids and poorly constrained for all but a few. This work presents results for five asteroids: 21, 196, 250, 337, and 804.

  4. 20 CFR 411.250 - How will SSA evaluate a PM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 411.250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Use of One or More Program Managers To Assist in Administration of the Ticket to Work Program... determine the PM's final rating. (c) These performance evaluations will be made part of our database on...

  5. 30 CFR 250.289 - What must the Conceptual Plan contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 250.289 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... the general design basis and philosophy that you will use to develop the field. You must include the following information: (a) An overview of the development concept(s); (b) A well location plat; (c) The...

  6. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88 micron region of the...

  7. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88 micron region of the...

  8. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88 micron region of the...

  9. Alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperature and pressure of 250 °C and 42 bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    A new type of alkaline electrolysis cells with nickel foam based gas diffusion electrodes and KOH (aq) immobilized in mesoporous SrTiO3 has been developed and tested at temperatures and pressures up to 250 °C and 42 bar, respectively. Current densities of 1.0 A cm−2 have been measured at a cell...

  10. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88 micron region of the...

  11. 7 CFR 250.66 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.66 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants... Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC Program) under part 246 of... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women...

  12. 30 CFR 250.416 - What must I include in the diverter and BOP descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rams installed in the BOP stack (both surface and subsea stacks) are capable of shearing the drill pipe... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.416 What must I include in the diverter and BOP descriptions? You must...

  13. 50 CFR 216.250 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.250 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a... within the Eglin Air Force Base Gulf Test and Training Range within the northern Gulf of Mexico. The... truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), dwarf sperm whales (Kogia simus) and pygmy sperm...

  14. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations... Operations § 250.614 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. The following requirements apply during all well-workover operations with the tree removed: (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...

  15. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for well-control... Other Drilling Requirements § 250.462 What are the requirements for well-control drills? You must conduct a weekly well-control drill with each drilling crew. Your drill must familiarize the crew with its...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B Near Real Time (NRT) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88...

  17. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88 micron region of the...

  18. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B Near Real Time (NRT) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88...

  19. Las Cruces, NM TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  20. Correlation of the Largest Craters, Stratigraphic Impact Signatures, and Extinction Events Over the Past 250 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The six largest known impact craters of the last 250 Myr (greater than or equal to 70 km in diameter), which are capable of causing significant environmental damage, coincide with four times of recognized extinction events at 36 (with 2 craters), 66, and 145 Myr ago, and possibly with two provisional extinction events at 168 and 215 Myr ago. These impact cratering events are accompanied by layers in the geologic record interpreted as impact ejecta. Chance occurrences of impacts and extinctions can be rejected at confidence levels of 99.96 percent (for 4 impact/extinctions) to 99.99 percent (for 6 impact/extinctions). These results argue that several extinction events over the last 250 Myr may be related to the effects of large-body impacts.

  1. Oh, la physique ! 250 casse-tête pour tester votre sens physique

    CERN Document Server

    Perelman, Yakov

    2000-01-01

    Grâce à 250 petits problèmes choisis dans la vie quotidienne, ce livre permet de mieux comprendre un vaste ensemble de notions de base en physique. Ne vous fiez pas à l'apparente facilité des questions et réfléchissez plutôt deux fois qu'une avant de répondre... C'est un conseil !

  2. Vernier Scan Results from the First RHIC Proton Run at 250 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Drees, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    Using the Vernier scan or Van der Meer scan technique, where one beam is swept stepwise transversely across the other while measuring the collision rate as a function of beam displacement, the transverse beam profiles, the luminosity and the effective cross section of the detector in question can be measured. This report briefly recalls the vernier scan technique and presents results from the first RHIC polarized proton run at 250GeV per beam in 2009

  3. 78 FR 45521 - Desert Sunlight 250, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Desert Sunlight 250, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Desert Sunlight 250, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity in... connection with the treatment, control, or management of obesity in patients having normal thyroid function... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1390 - Laminate structures for use at temperatures of 250 °F and above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Laminate structures for use at temperatures of 250... Laminate structures for use at temperatures of 250 °F and above. (a) The high-temperature laminates identified in this section may be safely used for food contact at temperatures not exceeding 135 °C (275 °F...

  6. 20 CFR 410.250 - Effect of conviction of felonious and intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits. 410.250 Section 410.250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... conviction of felonious and intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits. An individual who has been finally convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction of the felonious and intentional homicide of a...

  7. 21 CFR 250.12 - Stramonium preparations labeled with directions for use in self-medication regarded as misbranded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for use in self-medication regarded as misbranded. 250.12 Section 250.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... for use in self-medication regarded as misbranded. (a) Stramonium products for inhalation have been... ingredients, will be regarded as misbranded if they are labeled with directions for use in self-medication. (2...

  8. 30 CFR 250.192 - What reports and statistics must I submit relating to a hurricane, earthquake, or other natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relating to a hurricane, earthquake, or other natural occurrence? 250.192 Section 250.192 Mineral Resources... statistics must I submit relating to a hurricane, earthquake, or other natural occurrence? (a) You must... tropical storm, or an earthquake. Statistics include facilities and rigs evacuated and the amount of...

  9. Memory timeline: Brain ERP C250 (not P300) is an early biomarker of short-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert M; Gardner, Margaret N; Mapstone, Mark; Dupree, Haley M; Antonsdottir, Inga M

    2015-04-16

    Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) offer a quantitative link between neurophysiological activity and cognitive performance. ERPs were measured while young adults performed a task that required storing a relevant stimulus in short-term memory. Using principal components analysis, ERP component C250 (maximum at 250 ms post-stimulus) was extracted from a set of ERPs that were separately averaged for various task conditions, including stimulus relevancy and stimulus sequence within a trial. C250 was more positive in response to task-specific stimuli that were successfully stored in short-term memory. This relationship between C250 and short-term memory storage of a stimulus was confirmed by a memory probe recall test where the behavioral recall of a stimulus was highly correlated with its C250 amplitude. ERP component P300 (and its subcomponents of P3a and P3b, which are commonly thought to represent memory operations) did not show a pattern of activation reflective of storing task-relevant stimuli. C250 precedes the P300, indicating that initial short-term memory storage may occur earlier than previously believed. Additionally, because C250 is so strongly predictive of a stimulus being stored in short-term memory, C250 may provide a strong index of early memory operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... valves and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. 250.807... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250... pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. (a) If you plan to install SSSVs and related equipment in an...

  11. 20 CFR 668.250 - What happens if two or more entities apply for the same area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the same area? 668.250 Section 668.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... for the same area? (a) Every two years, unless there has been a waiver of competition for the area, we... or more entities apply for grants for the same service area, or for overlapping service areas, and a...

  12. 30 CFR 250.108 - What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other material-handling equipment? 250.108 Section 250.108 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Petroleum Institute's Recommended Practice for Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Cranes (API RP 2D... for Offshore Pedestal Mounted Cranes (API Spec 2C), incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR...

  13. 12 CFR 250.412 - Interlocking relationships between member bank and insurance company-mutual fund complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., annual gross sales receipts of over $1 million. Insurance Company's total gross income for its last... correct, the annual rate of sale might well rise to that level before the end of the first year of... and insurance company-mutual fund complex. 250.412 Section 250.412 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE...

  14. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... at McIntire Road Project in Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City of Charlottesville, Virginia... approvals for the following project in the State of Virginia: Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

  15. A study of N250 event-related brain potential during face and non-face detection tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Shahin; Esteky, Hossein

    2009-05-08

    Face perception relies on activation of a complex set of different neural modules. In this study, we assessed the stimulus selectivity of the occipitotemporal N250 ERP component and the possible link between its neural substrates and modules underlying preceding (N170/VPP) and following (P400) category selective ERPs. We recorded N250 during face and leaf detection tasks while we varied stimulus visibility from trial to trial by using a backward masking paradigm. Our results revealed that N250, but not the other tested potentials, was exclusively sensitive to the visibility of faces even when the non-face stimuli served as the task target. We also found a correlation between evoked N170 and N250, in response to face stimuli and to a lesser extent in response to other non-face objects, irrespective of the subjects' task. Besides N250, P400 also showed a strong correlation with N170, but here, the amount of correlation was not affected by stimulus category. Interestingly, despite N250 and N400 correlation with N170, we did not find any correlation between N250 and P400, suggesting that modules underlying these ERP components belong to two different face-processing pathways. We suggest that N250 is initiated by N170 and indexes processes exclusively responsible for encoding faces.

  16. 30 CFR 250.445 - What are the requirements for kelly valves, inside BOPs, and drill-string safety valves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor and use drill pipe instead of a kelly, you must install one kelly valve above, and one strippable kelly valve below, the joint of drill pipe used in place of a kelly; (d) On a top-drive system equipped..., inside BOPs, and drill-string safety valves? 250.445 Section 250.445 Mineral Resources MINERALS...

  17. Alveolar macrophage accumulation rates, for 28 nm and 250 nm PSL, are mediated by separate mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, O R; Wong, V A, E-mail: moss@thehamner.or [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27509-2137 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    When macrophages accumulate 28 nm and 250 nm diameter polystyrene latex (PSL) beads, the accumulation rates should reflect differences in molecular and cellular function. We used a confocal microscope to measure the accumulation rates of nanoparticles by F344-rat-alveolar macrophages (approx25,000 cells adhered to a 0.7 cm{sup 2} surface). Over the cells were layered 0.1 ml of media, and 0.1 ml of media-with-beads. Fresh cells were introduced for each exposure scenario. The maximum possible individual macrophage exposures were as follows: 8x10{sup 6}, 8x10{sup 5}, and 8x10{sup 4} 28 nm beads per macrophage; and 8x10{sup 4} and 1.12x10{sup 4} 250 nm beads per macrophage. Accumulation rates were estimated over 23 minutes. The increase in bead accumulation-rate matched changes in bead-availability: 7x increase for 250 nm beads; 100x increase for 28 nm beads; and 700x increase for all bead availabilities. The maximum sustained 28 nm bead accumulation rate was > 30,000 /min (for 5 min). Increases in bead accumulation could be explained by two mechanisms: bead-diffusion; and, for the macrophage, macropinocytosis. Also for the highest concentrations of 28 nm beads, we saw a colligative threshold - possibly due to beads masking the cell surface or obstructing cellular mechanisms.

  18. Alveolar macrophage accumulation rates, for 28 nm and 250 nm PSL, are mediated by separate mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, O. R.; Wong, V. A.

    2009-02-01

    When macrophages accumulate 28 nm and 250 nm diameter polystyrene latex (PSL) beads, the accumulation rates should reflect differences in molecular and cellular function. We used a confocal microscope to measure the accumulation rates of nanoparticles by F344-rat-alveolar macrophages (~25,000 cells adhered to a 0.7 cm2 surface). Over the cells were layered 0.1 ml of media, and 0.1 ml of media-with-beads. Fresh cells were introduced for each exposure scenario. The maximum possible individual macrophage exposures were as follows: 8x106, 8x105, and 8x104 28 nm beads per macrophage; and 8x104 and 1.12x104 250 nm beads per macrophage. Accumulation rates were estimated over 23 minutes. The increase in bead accumulation-rate matched changes in bead-availability: 7x increase for 250 nm beads; 100x increase for 28 nm beads; and 700x increase for all bead availabilities. The maximum sustained 28 nm bead accumulation rate was > 30,000 /min (for 5 min). Increases in bead accumulation could be explained by two mechanisms: bead-diffusion; and, for the macrophage, macropinocytosis. Also for the highest concentrations of 28 nm beads, we saw a colligative threshold -- possibly due to beads masking the cell surface or obstructing cellular mechanisms.

  19. Baerveldt 250 mm2 Glaucoma Drainage Devices in Eyes With Preexisting Scleral Buckles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linda; Blachley, Taylor S; Weizer, Jennifer S

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate eyes with preexisting scleral buckles (SBs) that underwent placement of a 250 mm Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device (GDD). Records of all patients with a preexisting SB who underwent 250 mm Baerveldt GDD placement at the Kellogg Eye Center between January 1, 2005 and September 30, 2012 were reviewed. Outcome measures included visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and number of glaucoma medications prescribed. Seventeen eyes of 17 patients were analyzed. Mean follow-up was 23.9 months. Twelve eyes (70.6%) achieved successful control of IOP (IOP reduction procedures, and no devastating complications). Preoperatively, mean IOP was 25.5 mm Hg, mean number of glaucoma medications was 3.5, and mean logMAR VA was 1.1 (Snellen equivalent 20/200). At 1 and 2 years postoperatively, mean IOP was 9.2 and 8.8 mm Hg (Pglaucoma medications was 0.9 and 0.3 (Pdevice (2 eyes, 12%), phthisis (2 eyes, 12%), and hemorrhagic choroidal detachment (1 eye, 6%). In eyes with preexisting SBs, the Baerveldt 250 mm GDD effectively lowers IOP and reduces the number of glaucoma medications. Complications related to conjunctival dehiscence are not uncommon in these eyes with significantly scarred conjunctiva.

  20. A 4 Gbps current-mode transmitter for 12-bit 250 MSPS ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhai; Yu, Zongguang; Wei, Jinghe; Zhou, Dejin; Su, Xiaobo; Zou, Jiaxuan

    2017-08-01

    A 4 Gbps transmitter for a 12-bit 250 MSPS pipelined ADCs is presented. A low power current mode (CM) output driver with reverse scaling technique is proposed. A high speed, low power combined serializer is implemented to convert 12 bit parallel data into a seria1 data stream. The whole transmitter is used in a 12-bit 250 MSPS pipelined ADC for the digital output buffer and fabricated in 180 nm 1. 8 V 1P5M CMOS technology. Test results show that the transmitter provides an eye height greater than 800 mV for data rates of both 2 Gbps and 4 Gbps, the 12-bit 250 MSPS ADC achieves the SNR of 69.92 dBFS and SFDR of 81.17 dB with 20.1 MHz input at full sampling speed. The ADC with the 4 Gbps transmitter consumes the power consumption of 395 mW, where the power consumption of transmitter is 75 mW. The ADC occupies an area of 2.5× 3.2 {{mm}}2, where the active area of the transmitter block is 0.5× 1.2 {{mm}}2. Project supported by the National Science Foundation of China (No. 61474092) and Key Project of Natural Science of Anhui Provincial Department of Education (No. KJ2017A396).

  1. [Quantitative determination of total urinary protein utilizing the principle of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 binding to protein (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L; Winckelmann, M; Michaelis, H C; Walb, D

    1981-04-01

    Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 was used for the determination of total urinary protein and compared with the biuret-procedure. In the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250-assay 0.10 ml urine are added to 5.0 ml Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 reagent and the sample is read against the reagent blank. The Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 method seems to be superior to the biuret-procedure because of better reproducibility, higher sensitivity and simpler handling. The upper limit or urinary protein excretion in 49 healthy subjects was 120 mg/24 h. To evaluate the clinical significance of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 method the urinary protein concentration of 134 patients with metabolic, systemic and organ diseases was compared with the biuret-procedure. The regression line was y = 0.827 X + 8.713 mg/l with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.966. The type of proteinuria (mixed, glomerular, tubular) had no influence on the protein value measured with the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 method. However in selective proteinuria, like Bence-Jones protein excretion, there is no correlation between the two methods, because the concentration of Bence-Jones protein is underestimated. Lower protein values were also frequently obtained for patients with diabetes mellitus. Some specimens from patients with chronic renal failure treated by haemodialysis showed elevated values. In spite of these limitations the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 method might become the method of choice for the determination of total urinary protein.

  2. Generation of chimeric bispecific G250/anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, a tool to combat renal cell carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Luiten, R. M.; Coney, L R; Fleuren, G J; Warnaar, S. O.; Litvinov, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody (MAb) G250 binds to a tumour-associated antigen, expressed in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which has been demonstrated to be a suitable target for antibody-mediated immunotherapy. A bispecific antibody having both G250 and anti-CD3 specificity can cross-link G250 antigen-expressing RCC target cells with T cells and can mediate lysis of such targets. Therapy studies with murine antibodies are limited by immune responses to the antibodies injected (HAMA response), which c...

  3. TRAP230/ARC240 and TRAP240/ARC250 Mediator subunits are functionally conserved through evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsen, Camilla O.; Baraznenok, Vera; Khorosjutina, Olga; Spåhr, Henrik; Kieselbach, Thomas; Holmberg, Steen; Gustafsson, Claes M.

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator, a subgroup of proteins (Srb8, Srb9, Srb10, and Srb11) form a module, which is involved in negative regulation of transcription. Homologues of Srb10 and Srb11 are found in some mammalian Mediator preparations, whereas no clear homologues have been reported for Srb8 and Srb9. Here, we identify a TRAP240/ARC250 homologue in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and demonstrate that this protein, spTrap240, is stably associated with a larger form of Mediator, which...

  4. Dosing of Ertapenem in an Extreme Obesity: A Case Report of 250 kg Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited available data for dosing in obesity of the medicines used in this case are discussed, with the emphasis on ertapenem. The case illustrates the difficulties in dosing medicines to morbidly overweight patients. The number of such patients is increasing but data on adequate doses of medicines are scarce. We demonstrate that ertapenem 1,5 g i.v. once daily provided adequate drug exposure for susceptible bacteria in a 250 kg patient with normal renal function. The case suggests the usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring of antibiotics, especially in critically ill patients.

  5. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  6. Metastable charge-transfer state of californium(iii) compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guokui; Cary, Samantha K; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2015-06-28

    Among a series of anomalous physical and chemical properties of Cf(iii) compounds revealed by recent investigations, the present work addresses the characteristics of the optical spectra of An(HDPA)3·H2O (An = Am, Cm, and Cf), especially the broadband photoluminescence from Cf(HDPA)3·H2O induced by ligand-to-metal charge transfer (CT). As a result of strong ion-ligand interactions and the relative ease of reducing Cf(iii) to Cf(ii), a CT transition occurs at low energy (transfer state undergoes radiative and non-radiative relaxations. Broadening of the CT transition arises from strong vibronic coupling and hole-charge interactions in the valence band. The non-radiative relaxation of the metastable CT state results from a competition between phonon-relaxation and thermal tunneling that populates the excited states of Cf(iii).

  7. A multipurpose solid-phase method for protein determination with Coomassie brilliant blue G-250.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Fernández, S; González-Garza, M T; Mata-Cárdenas, B D; Navarro-Marmolejo, L

    1990-11-15

    The multipurpose method for protein determination (MMPD) is based in the Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 binding to immobilized and washed proteins in paper filter disks, and the A600 measurement of the eluted protein-dye complexes. The analysis requires 5-microliters samples, put in 7-mm paper filter disks, which can be stored for up to 2 weeks, without sensible changes in their protein content. The A600 is a logarithmic function of the log of bovine serum albumin quantity, between 2.5 and 250 micrograms with two linear segments used as standard curves: one between 2.5 to 20 micrograms and the other between 20 and 80 micrograms. Results with the MMPD were quantitatively comparable with those obtained with the method of Lowry et al., and those reported by other workers, assaying the following material: (i) bovine serum albumin, in doubly distilled water or in presence of several substances that interfere with the current methods; and (ii) total homogenates and their respective trichloroacetic acid-insoluble extracts, which were obtained from several phenol-rich vegetal specimens and complex animal products. The MMPD is proposed as an alternative for protein determination for its versatility and reliability, in both vegetal or animal products, especially when the analysis with traditional methods is made difficult by the presence of natural or added interfering substances and the sample volume is too small to discard them, or when the material must be stored for relatively long periods of time, prior to its processing.

  8. Radiation damage studies on STAR250 CMOS sensor at 300 keV for electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A. R.; Henderson, R.; Holmes, J.

    2006-09-01

    There is a pressing need for better electronic detectors to replace film for recording high-resolution images using electron cryomicroscopy. Our previous work has shown that direct electron detection in CMOS sensors is promising in terms of resolution and efficiency at 120 keV [A.R. Faruqi, R. Henderson, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, P. Allport, A. Evans, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 546 (2005) 170], but in addition, the detectors must not be damaged by the electron irradiation. We now present new measurements on the radiation tolerance of a 25 μm pitch CMOS active-pixel sensor, the STAR250, which was designed by FillFactory using radiation-hard technology for space applications. Our tests on the STAR250 aimed to establish the imaging performance at 300 keV following irradiation. The residual contrast, measured on shadow images of a 300 mesh grid, was >80% after corrections for increased dark current, following irradiation with up to 5×10 7 electrons/pixel (equivalent to 80,000 electron/μm 2). A CMOS sensor with this degree of radiation tolerance would survive a year of normal usage for low-dose electron cryomicroscopy, which is a very useful advance.

  9. Radiation damage studies on STAR250 CMOS sensor at 300 keV for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqi, A.R. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: arf@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk; Henderson, R. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH (United Kingdom); Holmes, J. [Sira Technology Ltd., South Hill, Chislehurst, Kent BR7 5EH (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-01

    There is a pressing need for better electronic detectors to replace film for recording high-resolution images using electron cryomicroscopy. Our previous work has shown that direct electron detection in CMOS sensors is promising in terms of resolution and efficiency at 120 keV [A.R. Faruqi, R. Henderson, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, P. Allport, A. Evans, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 546 (2005) 170], but in addition, the detectors must not be damaged by the electron irradiation. We now present new measurements on the radiation tolerance of a 25 {mu}m pitch CMOS active-pixel sensor, the STAR250, which was designed by FillFactory using radiation-hard technology for space applications. Our tests on the STAR250 aimed to establish the imaging performance at 300 keV following irradiation. The residual contrast, measured on shadow images of a 300 mesh grid, was >80% after corrections for increased dark current, following irradiation with up to 5x10{sup 7} electrons/pixel (equivalent to 80,000 electron/{mu}m{sup 2}). A CMOS sensor with this degree of radiation tolerance would survive a year of normal usage for low-dose electron cryomicroscopy, which is a very useful advance.

  10. Estabilidad acelerada de tabletas de levodopa-carbidopa (250-25 mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Fernández Cervera

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio de estabilidad acelerada de tabletas de levodopa-carbidopa (250-25 mg con el empleo de un método de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución y se comprobó su especificidad para estos fines. Se analizó la influencia de medios degradantes artificiales sobre los productos activos, además del efecto de la humedad sobre la estabilidad del producto, colocándolo en hidrostatos con humedades controladas. Este medicamento, producción nacional, cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la USP 23 y mostró una alta estabilidad térmica.An accelerated stability study of levodopa-carbidopa tablets (250-25 mg was made using high-performance liquid chromatography which specificity for these purposes was proved. The influence of the artificial degrading media on the active products was analyzed and also the effect of humidity on the product´s satbility was examined after placing the tablets into hydrostats under controlled humidity levels. This domestically-made drug met the quality standards described in USP 23 and showed high heat stability.

  11. MODIS/Terra Land Water Mask Derived from MODIS and SRTM L3 Global 250m SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS 250 m land-water mask (Short Name: MOD44W) is an improvement over the existing MODIS Nadir Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)-Adjusted...

  12. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Vegetation Indices Daily Rolling-8-Day L3 Global 250m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) level-3 Vegetation Indices Daily Rolling8Day data, MOD13Q4N, are provided everyday at 250-meter spatial resolution as a gridded leve-3...

  13. 30 CFR 250.465 - When must I submit an Application for Permit to Modify (APM) or an End of Operations Report to MMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Modify (APM) or an End of Operations Report to MMS? 250.465 Section 250.465 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Modify and Well Records § 250.465...

  14. Three-dimensional magnetic cloak working from d.c. to 250 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianfei; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Yichao; Yin, Ge; Yuan, Jun; He, Sailing; Ma, Yungui

    2015-11-01

    Invisible cloaking is one of the major outcomes of the metamaterial research, but the practical potential, in particular for high frequencies (for example, microwave to visible light), is fatally challenged by the complex material properties they usually demand. On the other hand, it will be advantageous and also technologically instrumental to design cloaking devices for applications at low frequencies where electromagnetic components are favourably uncoupled. In this work, we vastly develop the bilayer approach to create a three-dimensional magnetic cloak able to work in both static and dynamic fields. Under the quasi-static approximation, we demonstrate a perfect magnetic cloaking device with a large frequency band from 0 to 250 kHz. The practical potential of our device is experimentally verified by using a commercial metal detector, which may lead us to having a real cloaking application where the dynamic magnetic field can be manipulated in desired ways.

  15. Three-dimensional magnetic cloak working from d.c. to 250 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianfei; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Yichao; Yin, Ge; Yuan, Jun; He, Sailing; Ma, Yungui

    2015-11-24

    Invisible cloaking is one of the major outcomes of the metamaterial research, but the practical potential, in particular for high frequencies (for example, microwave to visible light), is fatally challenged by the complex material properties they usually demand. On the other hand, it will be advantageous and also technologically instrumental to design cloaking devices for applications at low frequencies where electromagnetic components are favourably uncoupled. In this work, we vastly develop the bilayer approach to create a three-dimensional magnetic cloak able to work in both static and dynamic fields. Under the quasi-static approximation, we demonstrate a perfect magnetic cloaking device with a large frequency band from 0 to 250 kHz. The practical potential of our device is experimentally verified by using a commercial metal detector, which may lead us to having a real cloaking application where the dynamic magnetic field can be manipulated in desired ways.

  16. 250 kA compact linear transformer driver for wire array z-pinch loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Bott

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of a short rise (∼150  ns 250 kA linear transformer driver (LTD to wire array z-pinch loads for the first time. The generator is a modification of a previous driver in which a new conical power feed provides a low inductance coupling to wire loads. Performance of the new design using both short circuit and plasma loads is presented and discussed. The final design delivers ∼200  kA to a wire array load which is in good agreement with SCREAMER calculations using a simplified representative circuit. Example results demonstrate successful experiments using cylindrical, conical, and inverse wire arrays as well as previously published work on x-pinch loads.

  17. Structure function scaling in a Reλ = 250 turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2011-12-22

    A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Reλ = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor\\'s frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.

  18. Instruction manual for installation, operation, and maintenance of the Q-250 LLNL filter-life tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, K.L.; da Roza, R.A.

    1990-12-21

    This manual describes the installation, operation, and maintenance of the LLNL, filter-life tester Q-250. This apparatus is designed to determined the gas life of a variety of chemical filters, such as M10-A1, M11, M13-A2, C2, and similar filters. The LLNL filter-life tester can generate isopropymethylphosphonoflouridate (GB) or dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) vapors in air at flow rates of up to 50 1pm. These filters and their specifications are listed in Appendix A. CAUTION: Personnel performing operations with this tester must be completely familiar with the contents of this manual, knowledgeable in system operation, and knowledgeable of materials used in operation of the LLNL filter-life tester.

  19. Laser system generating 250-mJ bunches of 5-GHz repetition rate, 12-ps pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Antonio; Braggio, Caterina; Carrà, Luca; Pirzio, Federico; Lodo, Stefano; Messineo, Giuseppe; Scarpa, Daniele; Tomaselli, Alessandra; Reali, Giancarlo; Vacchi, Carla

    2008-09-29

    We report on a high-energy solid-state laser based on a master-oscillator power-amplifier system seeded by a 5-GHz repetition-rate mode-locked oscillator, aimed at the excitation of the dynamic Casimir effect by optically modulating a microwave resonator. Solid-state amplifiers provide up to 250 mJ at 1064 nm in a 500-ns (macro-)pulse envelope containing 12-ps (micro-)pulses, with a macro/micropulse format and energy resembling that of near-infrared free-electron lasers. Efficient second-harmonic conversion allowed synchronous pumping of an optical parametric oscillator, obtaining up to 40 mJ in the range 750-850 nm.

  20. Trace determination of ethyl methanesulfonate in Viracept 250 mg tablets by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebiere, H; Maggio, A-F; Gimeno, P; Levaillant, D; Civade, C; Bonnet, P-A; Tissier, M-H

    2008-02-01

    Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) is a potential human mutagenic and carcinogenic compound which has been found by Roche laboratories in nelfinavir mesylate, the active pharmaceutical ingredient of Viracept. In order to verify the quality of the medicinal product, a gas chromatographic method using mass spectrometry detection was developed for the trace analysis of EMS in Viracept 250 mg tablets from Roche laboratories. Combined with suitable sample preparation including a liquid/liquid extraction this method allows the EMS quantification with a reporting limit of 5 ppm. The extract is injected on a gas chromatographic system with a CP624-CB capillary column. Selected Ion Monitoring mode was used for the EMS quantification. Some validation elements of the method are reported. The validation study was performed over a range from 5 ppm to 100 ppm.

  1. Glacial ice and atmospheric forcing on the Mertz Glacier Polynya over the past 250 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, P; Crosta, Xavier; Houssais, M N; Swingedouw, D; Schmidt, S; Martin, A; Devred, E; Capo, S; Marieu, V; Closset, I; Massé, G

    2015-03-24

    The Mertz Glacier Polynya off George V Land, East Antarctica, is a source of Adélie Land Bottom Water, which contributes up to ~25% of the Antarctic Bottom Water. This major polynya is closely linked to the presence of the Mertz Glacier Tongue that traps pack ice upstream. In 2010, the Mertz Glacier calved a massive iceberg, deeply impacting local sea ice conditions and dense shelf water formation. Here we provide the first detailed 250-year long reconstruction of local sea ice and bottom water conditions. Spectral analysis of the data sets reveals large and abrupt changes in sea surface and bottom water conditions with a ~70-year cyclicity, associated with the Mertz Glacier Tongue calving and regrowth dynamics. Geological data and atmospheric reanalysis, however, suggest that sea ice conditions in the polynya were also very sensitive to changes in surface winds in relation to the recent intensification of the Southern Annular Mode.

  2. Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-KYR ice-core record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    1993-01-01

    interglacial seems to have lasted longer than is implied by the deep-sea SPECMAP record4, in agreement with other land-based observations5,6. We suggest that climate instability in the early part of the last interglacial may have delayed the melting of the Saalean ice sheets in America and Eurasia, perhaps...... results1,2 from two ice cores drilled in central Greenland have revealed large, abrupt climate changes of at least regional extent during the late stages of the last glaciation, suggesting that climate in the North Atlantic region is able to reorganize itself rapidly, perhaps even within a few...... decades. Here we present a detailed stable-isotope record for the full length of the Greenland Ice-core Project Summit ice core, extending over the past 250 kyr according to a calculated timescale. We find that climate instability was not confined to the last glaciation, but appears also to have been...

  3. Snow Cover Maps from MODIS Images at 250 m Resolution, Part 2: Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Zebisch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new algorithm for binary snow cover monitoring based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite images at 250 m resolution is validated using snow cover maps (SCA based on Landsat 7 ETM+ images and in situ snow depth measurements from ground stations in selected test sites in Central Europe. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are the improved ground resolution of 250 m and the near real-time availability with respect to the 500 m standard National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA MODIS snow products (MOD10 and MYD10. It allows a more accurate snow cover monitoring at a local scale, especially in mountainous areas characterized by large landscape heterogeneity. The near real-time delivery makes the product valuable as input for hydrological models, e.g., for flood forecast. A comparison to sixteen snow cover maps derived from Landsat ETM/ETM+ showed an overall accuracy of 88.1%, which increases to 93.6% in areas outside of forests. A comparison of the SCA derived from the proposed algorithm with standard MODIS products, MYD10 and MOD10, indicates an agreement of around 85.4% with major discrepancies in forested areas. The validation of MODIS snow cover maps with 148 in situ snow depth measurements shows an accuracy ranging from 94% to around 82%, where the lowest accuracies is found in very rugged terrain restricted to in situ stations along north facing slopes, which lie in shadow in winter during the early morning acquisition.

  4. A framework for global terrain classification using 250-m DEMs to predict geohazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, J.; Matsuoka, M.; Yong, A.

    2016-12-01

    Geomorphology is key for identifying factors that control geohazards induced by landslides, liquefaction, and ground shaking. To systematically identify landforms that affect these hazards, Iwahashi and Pike (2007; IP07) introduced an automated terrain classification scheme using 1-km-scale Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEMs). The IP07 classes describe 16 categories of terrain types and were used as a proxy for predicting ground motion amplification (Yong et al., 2012; Seyhan et al., 2014; Stewart et al., 2014; Yong, 2016). These classes, however, were not sufficiently resolved because coarse-scaled SRTM DEMs were the basis for the categories (Yong, 2016). Thus, we develop a new framework consisting of more detailed polygonal global terrain classes to improve estimations of soil-type and material stiffness. We first prepare high resolution 250-m DEMs derived from the 2010 Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data (GMTED2010). As in IP07, we calculate three geometric signatures (slope, local convexity and surface texture) from the DEMs. We create additional polygons by using the same signatures and multi-resolution segmentation techniques on the GMTED2010. We consider two types of surface texture thresholds in different window sizes (3x3 and 13x13 pixels), in addition to slope and local convexity, to classify pixels within the DEM. Finally, we apply the k-means clustering and thresholding methods to the 250-m DEM and produce more detailed polygonal terrain classes. We compare the new terrain classification maps of Japan and California with geologic, aerial photography, and landslide distribution maps, and visually find good correspondence of key features. To predict ground motion amplification, we apply the Yong (2016) method for estimating VS30. The systematic classification of geomorphology has the potential to provide a better understanding of the susceptibility to geohazards, which is especially vital in populated areas.

  5. Characterization of TAP Ambr 250 disposable bioreactors, as a reliable scale-down model for biologics process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Clark, Colleen; Ryder, Todd; Sparks, Colleen; Zhou, Jiping; Wang, Michelle; Russell, Reb; Scott, Charo

    2017-03-01

    Demands for development of biological therapies is rapidly increasing, as is the drive to reduce time to patient. In order to speed up development, the disposable Automated Microscale Bioreactor (Ambr 250) system is increasingly gaining interest due to its advantages, including highly automated control, high throughput capacity, and short turnaround time. Traditional early stage upstream process development conducted in 2 - 5 L bench-top bioreactors requires high foot-print, and running cost. The establishment of the Ambr 250 as a scale-down model leads to many benefits in process development. In this study, a comprehensive characterization of mass transfer coefficient (kL a) in the Ambr 250 was conducted to define optimal operational conditions. Scale-down approaches, including dimensionless volumetric flow rate (vvm), power per unit volume (P/V) and kL a have been evaluated using different cell lines. This study demonstrates that the Ambr 250 generated comparable profiles of cell growth and protein production, as seen at 5-L and 1000-L bioreactor scales, when using kL a as a scale-down parameter. In addition to mimicking processes at large scales, the suitability of the Ambr 250 as a tool for clone selection, which is traditionally conducted in bench-top bioreactors, was investigated. Data show that cell growth, productivity, metabolite profiles, and product qualities of material generated using the Ambr 250 were comparable to those from 5-L bioreactors. Therefore, Ambr 250 can be used for clone selection and process development as a replacement for traditional bench-top bioreactors minimizing resource utilization during the early stages of development in the biopharmaceutical industry. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:478-489, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Electron confinement in multi-anode saw tooth silicon drift detectors with an anode pitch of 250 {micro}m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonsky, J.; Valk, H.; Huizenga, J.; Hollander, R.W.; Eijk, C.W.E. van; Sarro, P.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1999-06-01

    Recently it has been experimentally shown that saw tooth shaped p{sup +} strips allows confinement of drifting electrons in the lateral direction. This is achieved by means of potential gutters induced by an appropriate saw tooth design p{sup +} cathodes. The saw tooth period p{sub x} = 500 {micro}m. The final detector is intended to have an anode pitch of 250 {micro}m. The simulation of a saw tooth configuration with p{sub x} = 250 {micro}m, p{sub y} = 200 {micro}m, and {alpha} = 60{degree} showed that potential gutters with a depth of 80 mV will be produced assuming a drift field of 250 V/cm. The authors will give experimental evidence of these shallow charge confining potential gutters.

  7. Concentration of ions Co(II), Ni(II) at the Tokem-250 carboxylic cation exchange for catalysts development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Bobkova, Ludmila; Brichkov, Anton; Kozik, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Sorption and catalytic properties of the cation exchanger are investigated. It was found that the Tokem-250 has a wide operating range of pH. The value of the effective ionization constant of the functional groups of the cation exchanger (pKa) is 6.59. The Tokem-250 cation exchanger exhibits selectivity to Ni2+ ions to Co2+ (D˜103). This is probably due to the stability of ion-exchange complexes detected by the method of diffuse reflectance electron spectroscopy (ESDD). According to these data, for Co2+ ions, in contrast to Ni2+, tetragonal distortion of octahedral coordination is characteristic, which has a positive effect on the stability of complexes with Co2+. To obtain spherical catalysts on the basis of Tokem-250, cobalt-containing samples of cation exchanger were used. The developed spherical materials have catalytic activity in the reactions of deep and partial oxidation of n-heptane.

  8. Snow Cover Maps from MODIS Images at 250 m Resolution, Part 1: Algorithm Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Notarnicola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for snow cover monitoring at 250 m resolution based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS images is presented. In contrast to the 500 m resolution MODIS snow products of NASA (MOD10 and MYD10, the main goal was to maintain the resolution as high as possible to allow for a more accurate detection of snow covered area (SCA. This is especially important in mountainous regions characterized by extreme landscape heterogeneity, where maps at a resolution of 500 m could not provide the desired amount of spatial details. Therefore, the algorithm exploits only the 250 m resolution bands of MODIS in the red (B1 and infrared (B2 spectrum, as well as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI for snow detection, while clouds are classified using also bands at 500 m and 1 km resolution. The algorithm is tailored to process MODIS data received in real-time through the EURAC receiving station close to Bolzano, Italy, but also standard MODIS products are supported. It is divided into three steps: first the data is preprocessed, including reprojection, calculation of physical reflectance values and masking of water bodies. In a second step, the actual classification of snow, snow in forested areas, and clouds takes place based on MODIS images both from Terra and Aqua satellites. In the third step, snow cover maps derived from images of both sensors of the same day are combined to reduce cloud coverage in the final SCA product. Four different quality indices are calculated to verify the reliability of input data, snow classification, cloud detection and viewing geometry. Using the data received through their own station, EURAC can provide SCA maps of central Europe to end users in near real-time. Validation of the algorithm is outlined in a companion paper and indicates good performance with accuracies ranging from 94% to around 82% compared to in situ snow depth measurements, and around 93% compared to SCA derived from

  9. Preliminary methodology investigation of mask pattern fidelity for 250-nm design rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Thomas P.; Sauer, Charles A.; Naber, Robert J.; Hamaker, Henry Chris

    1995-07-01

    Techniques have been developed that can quickly and accurately measure corner rounding and contact fill as key indicators of pattern fidelity. Using these techniques, we have examined writing variables for their effect on the lithographic quality of 1.0 micrometers contact. A small contact is perhaps the most demanding figure to achieve, so the results shown can be considered the worst case for 4X radicle manufacturing at 250 nm design rules. A MEBES 4500 was used as the writing tool, using PBS resist on quartz masks. Standard printing methods, single-phase printing (SPP) and multiphase printing (2X MPP) were examined. Results indicate that excellent corner rounding results can be achieved with small address sizes, regardless of the writing strategy or the dose used. As expected, larger spot sizes increase the amount of corner rounding, regardless of the address. As the pattern address is increased, judicious choices of spot size reduce potential pattern fidelity loss when imaging small contracts and other fine features. Multiphase printing is a technique that offers advantages to the user. Its use of offset scan voting (OSV) is a significant factor in reducing placement errors. MPP (2X) has an additional advantage of providing higher dosages. This provides flexibility in resist choices and in the selection of a process window. With 2X MPP, the user has a wide range of addresses and spot sizes that will give excellent results. The dynamic range of operating conditions possible with 2X MPP when writing 1.0 micrometers contacts is a reduced subset of those available using SPP, due to the 2X writing grid (output address). Implementation of 2X MPP has been limited on previous MEBES models due to increased write times of multipass writing. The MEBES 4500 data path supports 2X MPP with write times that approximate SPP. The practical operating envelope of both writing strategies are detailed in this paper. Overall, the MEBES 4500 has a large dynamic operating range. When

  10. Crop Dominance Mapping with IRS-P6 and MODIS 250-m Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna Gumma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to accurately separate out and quantify crop dominance areas in the major command area in the Krishna River Basin. Classification was performed using IRS-P6 (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, series P6 and MODIS eight-day time series remote sensing images with a spatial resolution of 23.6 m, 250 m for the year 2005. Temporal variations in the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index pattern obtained in crop dominance classes enables a demarcation between long duration crops and short duration crops. The NDVI pattern was found to be more consistent in long duration crops than in short duration crops due to the continuity of the water supply. Surface water availability, on the other hand, was dependent on canal water release, which affected the time of crop sowing and growth stages, which was, in turn, reflected in the NDVI pattern. The identified crop-wise classes were tested and verified using ground-truth data and state-level census data. The accuracy assessment was performed based on ground-truth data through the error matrix method, with accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual crop dominance classes, with an overall accuracy of 79% for all classes. The derived major crop land areas were highly correlated with the sub-national statistics with R2 values of 87% at the mandal (sub-district level for 2005–2006. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms and datasets used in this study are ideal for rapid, accurate and large-scale mapping of paddy rice, as well as for generating their statistics over large areas. This study demonstrates that IRS-P6 23.6-m one-time data fusion with MODIS 250-m time series data is very useful for identifying crop type, the source of irrigation water and, in the case of surface water irrigation, the way in which it is applied. The results from this study have assisted in improving surface water and groundwater irrigated areas of the command area and also

  11. Evaluation of the MEBES 4500 reticle writer to commercial requirements of 250-nm design rule IC devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Alexander, David W.; Coleman, Thomas P.; Cook, Allen; Gasiorek, Leonard; Naber, Robert J.; Raymond, Frederick; Sauer, Charles A.

    1996-07-01

    The design rule requirements and error budget allocation for maskmaking have made the mask a critical component in the fabrication of 250 nm design rule IC devices. The MEBES 4500 raster-scan reticle writer was designed to meet the mask requirements for pilot production of this generation of devices. In this paper, we will review the IC device and user requirements that drove the design criteria of the MEBES 4500 system. The architecture of the MEBES 4500 system is described and compared to these design criteria. MEBES 4500 perfonnance results during development, manufacture, and installation are also compared to the commercial requirements of 250 nm design rule ICs.

  12. Mapping irrigated lands at 250-m scale by merging MODIS data and National Agricultural Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate geospatial information on the extent of irrigated land improves our understanding of agricultural water use, local land surface processes, conservation or depletion of water resources, and components of the hydrologic budget. We have developed a method in a geospatial modeling framework that assimilates irrigation statistics with remotely sensed parameters describing vegetation growth conditions in areas with agricultural land cover to spatially identify irrigated lands at 250-m cell size across the conterminous United States for 2002. The geospatial model result, known as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Irrigated Agriculture Dataset (MIrAD-US), identified irrigated lands with reasonable accuracy in California and semiarid Great Plains states with overall accuracies of 92% and 75% and kappa statistics of 0.75 and 0.51, respectively. A quantitative accuracy assessment of MIrAD-US for the eastern region has not yet been conducted, and qualitative assessment shows that model improvements are needed for the humid eastern regions where the distinction in annual peak NDVI between irrigated and non-irrigated crops is minimal and county sizes are relatively small. This modeling approach enables consistent mapping of irrigated lands based upon USDA irrigation statistics and should lead to better understanding of spatial trends in irrigated lands across the conterminous United States. An improved version of the model with revised datasets is planned and will employ 2007 USDA irrigation statistics.

  13. Anatomic variations of the hepatic arteries in 250 patients studied with 64-row CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecco, Carlo Nicola de [University of Rome Sapienza, Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Latina (Italy); University of Rome Sapienza, St. Andrea Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Ferrari, Riccardo; Rengo, Marco; Paolantonio, Pasquale; Vecchietti, Fabrizio; Laghi, Andrea [University of Rome Sapienza, Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Latina (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of different hepatic arterial variants identified on abdominal CT angiography (CTA) with a 64-row CT system and a high resolution protocol. A total of 250 consecutive abdominal CTAs performed on a 64-row CT system were evaluated. Two radiologists in consensus analyzed arterial phase images; the anatomical findings were grouped according to Michels' classification. An anomalous arterial pattern was observed in 34% of the cases. The most common anomaly was Michels type III (9.2%), followed by types II and V (5.2%), type VI (4.0%), types IV, VII, and IX (2.0%), and type VIII (0.6%). No cases of type X were detected. Unclassified variations were observed in 3.3% of the cases. The new generation of 64-row MDCT allows optimal visualization of splanchnic vascular anomalies with a minimally invasive examination. This visualization is extended to those vessels with a small caliber and slow flow resulting in difficult recognition by classic angiographic studies. The knowledge of anomalous arterial patterns could be very useful in the preoperative planning of surgical and interventional liver procedures. (orig.)

  14. Report on acoustic and vibration measurements on 250 MVA transformer at St. Vital Station, Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, K. [QuietPower Systems, Inc., New York, NE (United States); McLoughlin, M. [Noise Cancellation Technologies, Inc., Linthicum, MD (United States); Schott, R. [Western Canada Testing, Inc., Portage Laprairie, MB (Canada); Tennese, G. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Daneryd, A. [SECRC ABB Corporate Research, Vasteras (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    Vibroacoustic behaviour of a power transformer was characterized prior to employing active noise control (ANC) to control transformer noise. The effect of changes in temperature and loading conditions on the vibration pattern of the transformer tank received particular attention. The transformer quieting technology has been developed and implemented by QuietPower Systems of New York and Noise Cancellation Technologies Inc., of Maryland. Results of the study will be used to ensure that actuator placement is appropriate for each of the seasons experienced throughout the year, as well as to build boundary element and finite element models of the tank vibration and the associated radiated noise. Boundary element results show that the first four harmonics are the primary contributors to radiated noise. The finite element model used to examine the modal response of the tank structure showed high modal densities, even around the lower order harmonics (120 Hz). This can be interpreted to mean that statistical techniques normally associated with high frequency noise problems may be applicable here because of the high modal density. Results of the completed summer and winter measurements permit an evaluation of the effects of loading conditions, temperature and other environmental factors on transformer noise. Appendix B contains the results of numerical simulations on a 250 MVA transformer. 3 refs., 72 figs., 2 appendices.

  15. Neanderthal Use of Fish, Mammals, Birds, Starchy Plants and Wood 125-250,000 Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bruce L.; Moncel, Marie-Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Neanderthals are most often portrayed as big game hunters who derived the vast majority of their diet from large terrestrial herbivores while birds, fish and plants are seen as relatively unimportant or beyond the capabilities of Neanderthals. Although evidence for exploitation of other resources (small mammals, birds, fish, shellfish, and plants) has been found at certain Neanderthal sites, these are typically dismissed as unusual exceptions. The general view suggests that Neanderthal diet may broaden with time, but that this only occurs sometime after 50,000 years ago. We present evidence, in the form of lithic residue and use-wear analyses, for an example of a broad-based subsistence for Neanderthals at the site of Payre, Ardèche, France (beginning of MIS 5/end of MIS 6 to beginning of MIS 7/end of MIS 8; approximately 125–250,000 years ago). In addition to large terrestrial herbivores, Neanderthals at Payre also exploited starchy plants, birds, and fish. These results demonstrate a varied subsistence already in place with early Neanderthals and suggest that our ideas of Neanderthal subsistence are biased by our dependence on the zooarchaeological record and a deep-seated intellectual emphasis on big game hunting. PMID:21887315

  16. MUSE-INGS ON AM1354-250: COLLISIONS, SHOCKS, AND RINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, Blair C. [Gemini Observatory, Recinto AURA, Colina El Pino, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Fogarty, L. M. R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, A28, Sydney, 2006 (Australia); Smith, Rory [Yonsei University, Graduate School of Earth System Sciences-Astronomy-Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei-ro 50, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Candlish, Graeme N., E-mail: bconn@gemini.edu [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2016-03-10

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of AM1354-250, confirming its status as a collisional ring galaxy that has recently undergone an interaction, creating its distinctive shape. We analyze the stellar and gaseous emission throughout the galaxy finding direct evidence that the gaseous ring is expanding with a velocity of ∼70 km s{sup −1} and that star formation is occurring primarily in H ii regions associated with the ring. This star formation activity is likely triggered by this interaction. We find evidence for several excitation mechanisms in the gas, including emission consistent with shocked gas in the expanding ring and a region of LINER-like emission in the central core of the galaxy. Evidence of kinematic disturbance in both the stars and gas, possibly also triggered by the interaction, can be seen in all of the velocity maps. The ring galaxy retains a weak spiral structure, strongly suggesting the progenitor galaxy was a massive spiral prior to the collision with its companion an estimated 140 ± 12 Myr ago.

  17. A Star-forming Ring around κ Ori 250 pc from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Megeath, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here, we report on XMM-Newton observations that detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641 S and κ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the YSOs detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250-280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of κ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5-8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by κ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the κ Ori ring is one of several shells swept up by massive stars within the Orion Eridanus Superbubble and is unrelated to the southern portion of Orion A/L1641 S.

  18. Neanderthal use of fish, mammals, birds, starchy plants and wood 125-250,000 years ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L Hardy

    Full Text Available Neanderthals are most often portrayed as big game hunters who derived the vast majority of their diet from large terrestrial herbivores while birds, fish and plants are seen as relatively unimportant or beyond the capabilities of Neanderthals. Although evidence for exploitation of other resources (small mammals, birds, fish, shellfish, and plants has been found at certain Neanderthal sites, these are typically dismissed as unusual exceptions. The general view suggests that Neanderthal diet may broaden with time, but that this only occurs sometime after 50,000 years ago. We present evidence, in the form of lithic residue and use-wear analyses, for an example of a broad-based subsistence for Neanderthals at the site of Payre, Ardèche, France (beginning of MIS 5/end of MIS 6 to beginning of MIS 7/end of MIS 8; approximately 125-250,000 years ago. In addition to large terrestrial herbivores, Neanderthals at Payre also exploited starchy plants, birds, and fish. These results demonstrate a varied subsistence already in place with early Neanderthals and suggest that our ideas of Neanderthal subsistence are biased by our dependence on the zooarchaeological record and a deep-seated intellectual emphasis on big game hunting.

  19. A 250a speleothem record from Bärenhöhle, Austria: comparison with instrumental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetscher, Marc; Hellstrom, John; Fohlmeister, Jens; Müller, Wolfgang; Spötl, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Bärenhöhle, a cave at the northern rim of the European Alps, is ideally situated to capture paleo-rainfall patterns associated with the advection of North Atlantic moisture. Stable isotope and trace element data from a modern speleothem reveal a marked seasonal signal reflecting a dynamic system subject to forced convection. We examined the uppermost section of a 280 mm-long stalagmite covering the last 250 a. Age control is provided by petrographic and chemical lamina counts and validated by the atmospheric radiocarbon peak as well as U-series ages. Results show a strongly variable signal both in oxygen isotopes and trace element data suggesting a high sensitivity to variations in the hydrological budget. Here, we explore the significance of a major change in the d18O variability starting around 1810 AD and coinciding with the end of a prolonged low in solar activity. We compared these data with instrumental records and identified a close relationship between our proxy signal and decadal solar cycles. We surmise that solar insolation may control local evapotranspiration and thus the hydrological recharge of the karst aquifer during the summer season. The implications of our model are discussed with respect to local environmental conditions during the Little Ice Age.

  20. Neanderthal use of fish, mammals, birds, starchy plants and wood 125-250,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bruce L; Moncel, Marie-Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Neanderthals are most often portrayed as big game hunters who derived the vast majority of their diet from large terrestrial herbivores while birds, fish and plants are seen as relatively unimportant or beyond the capabilities of Neanderthals. Although evidence for exploitation of other resources (small mammals, birds, fish, shellfish, and plants) has been found at certain Neanderthal sites, these are typically dismissed as unusual exceptions. The general view suggests that Neanderthal diet may broaden with time, but that this only occurs sometime after 50,000 years ago. We present evidence, in the form of lithic residue and use-wear analyses, for an example of a broad-based subsistence for Neanderthals at the site of Payre, Ardèche, France (beginning of MIS 5/end of MIS 6 to beginning of MIS 7/end of MIS 8; approximately 125-250,000 years ago). In addition to large terrestrial herbivores, Neanderthals at Payre also exploited starchy plants, birds, and fish. These results demonstrate a varied subsistence already in place with early Neanderthals and suggest that our ideas of Neanderthal subsistence are biased by our dependence on the zooarchaeological record and a deep-seated intellectual emphasis on big game hunting.

  1. A Unified Cropland Layer at 250-m for global agriculture monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, François; Fritz, Steffen; Di Gregorio, Antonio; Plotnikov, Dmitry; Bartalev, Sergey; Kussul, Nataliia; Gong, Peng; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Hazeu, Gerard; Klein, Igor; Löw, Fabian; Miettinen, Jukka; Dadhwal, Vinay Kumar; Lamarche, Céline; Bontemps, Sophie; Defourny, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and timely information on the global cropland extent is critical for food security monitoring, water management and earth system modeling. Principally, it allows for analyzing satellite image time-series to assess the crop conditions and permits isolation of the agricultural component to focus on food security and impacts of various climatic scenarios. However, despite its critical importance, accurate information on the spatial extent, cropland mapping with remote sensing imagery remains a major challenge. Following an exhaustive identification and collection of existing land cover maps, a multi-criteria analysis was designed at the country level to evaluate the fitness of a cropland map with regards to four dimensions: its timeliness, its legend, its resolution adequacy and its confidence level. As a result, a Unified Cropland Layer that combines the fittest products into a 250 m global cropland map was assembled. With an evaluated accuracy ranging from 82% to 95%, the Unified Cropland Layer successfully improved the accuracy compared to single global products.

  2. Carbonation of Rock Minerals by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide at 250 degrees C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.; Ecker, L.; Butcher, T.

    2010-06-01

    Wet powder-samples of five rock minerals, granite, albite, hornblende, diorite, and biotite mica, were exposed in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) for 3 days at 250 C under 17.23 MPa pressure, and then the susceptibility of the various crystalline phases present in these mineral structures to reactions with hot scCO2 was investigated by XRD and FT-IR. The anorthite present in diorite was identified as the most vulnerable phase to carbonation. In contrast, biotite displayed a great resistance, although its phase was transformed hydrothermally to sanidine and quartz. Granite comprised of two phases, anorthoclase-type albite and quartz. The carbonation of former phase led to the formation of amorphous sodium and potassium carbonates coexisting with the clay-like by-products of the carbonation reaction. The reactivity of quartz to scCO2 was minimal, if any. Among these rock minerals, only hornblende formed crystalline carbonation products, such as calcite and magnesite after exposure, reflecting the likelihood of an increase in its volume. Based upon the feldspar ternary diagram, the carbonation rate of various different minerals in the plagioclase feldspar family depended primarily on the amount of anorthite. On the other hand, alkali feldspar minerals involving anorthoclase-type albite and sanidine had a lower reactivity with scCO2, compared with that of plagioclase feldspar minerals.

  3. Conceptual study of a 250 kW planar SOFC system for CHP application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontell, E.; Kivisaari, T.; Christiansen, N.; Hansen, J.-B.; Pålsson, J.

    In August 2002, Wärtsilä Corporation and Haldor Topsøe A/S entered into a co-operation agreement to start joint development program within the planar SOFC technology. The development program aims to bring to the market highly efficient, clean and cost competitive fuel cell systems with power outputs above 200 kW for distributed power generation with CHP and for marine applications. In this study, the product concept for a 250 kW natural gas-fuelled atmospheric SOFC plant has been studied. The process has been calculated and optimised for high electrical efficiency. In the calculations, system efficiencies more than 55-85% (electrical co-generation) have been reached. The necessary balance of plant (BoP) components have been identified and the concept for grid connection has been defined. The BoP includes fuel and air supply, anode re-circulation, start-up steam, purge gas, exhaust gas heat recovery, back-up power, power electronics and control system. Based on the analysed system and component information, a conceptual design and cost break down structure for the product have been made. The cost breakdown shows that the stack, system control and power electronics are the major cost factors, while the remaining BoP equipment stands for a minor share of the manufacturing cost. Finally, the feasibility of the SOFC plants has been compared to gas engines.

  4. Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Russell H.; Rosenzweig, William D.; Powers, Dennis W.

    2000-10-01

    Bacteria have been found associated with a variety of ancient samples, however few studies are generally accepted due to questions about sample quality and contamination. When Cano and Borucki isolated a strain of Bacillus sphaericus from an extinct bee trapped in 25-30 million-year-old amber, careful sample selection and stringent sterilization techniques were the keys to acceptance. Here we report the isolation and growth of a previously unrecognized spore-forming bacterium (Bacillus species, designated 2-9-3) from a brine inclusion within a 250million-year-old salt crystal from the Permian Salado Formation. Complete gene sequences of the 16S ribosomal DNA show that the organism is part of the lineage of Bacillus marismortui and Virgibacillus pantothenticus. Delicate crystal structures and sedimentary features indicate the salt has not recrystallized since formation. Samples were rejected if brine inclusions showed physical signs of possible contamination. Surfaces of salt crystal samples were sterilized with strong alkali and acid before extracting brines from inclusions. Sterilization procedures reduce the probability of contamination to less than 1 in 10 9.

  5. 30 CFR 250.172 - When may the Regional Supervisor grant or direct an SOO or SOP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activities pose a threat of serious, irreparable, or immediate harm or damage. This would include a threat to life (including fish and other aquatic life), property, any mineral deposit, or the marine, coastal, or human environment. MMS may require you to do a site-specific study. (See § 250.177(a).) (c) When...

  6. 250 saarlast ja hiidlast ohustab töötajäämine / Toivo Tänavsuu, Vallo Toomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2004-01-01

    Saaremaa Laevakompaniis töötavad 250 saarlast ja hiidlast võivad jääda töötuks, sest majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Meelis Atonen ei välista saarte liinidele praamide renti välismaalt koos meeskondadega

  7. 19 CFR 123.7 - Manifest used as an entry for unconditionally free merchandise value not over $250.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manifest used as an entry for unconditionally free merchandise value not over $250. 123.7 Section 123.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General...

  8. Shiprock, AZ NM CO UT 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  9. 40 CFR 1054.250 - What records must I keep and what reports must I send to EPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Certifying Emission Families § 1054.250 What records must I keep and what reports... model year, you must send us a report describing information about engines you produced during the model year as follows: (1) State the total production volume for each engine family that is not subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 1039.250 - What records must I keep and what reports must I send to EPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a report describing the following information about engines you produced during the model year: (1) Report the total number of engines you produced in each engine family by maximum engine power, total...-IGNITION ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1039.250 What records must I keep and what reports must I...

  11. 17 CFR 250.53 - Certain registered holding company financings in connection with the acquisition of one or more...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... company shall proceed in good faith, to the extent reasonable under the circumstances, to cause: (A) The... company financings in connection with the acquisition of one or more exempt wholesale generators. 250.53... RULES AND REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Regulation and Exemption of Various...

  12. Review and evaluation of sentinel node procedures in 250 melanoma patients with a median follow-up of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estourgie, Susanne H.; Nieweg, Omgo E.; Valdés Olmos, Renato A.; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A.; Kroon, Bin B. R.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of sentinel node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma at our institute. METHODS: A total of 250 patients with cutaneous melanoma were studied prospectively. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed after injection of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid

  13. The desing and calibration of the AHEAD deuteron polarimeter for 120 < E sub d < 250 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, J.M.; Ni, B. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). University Cyclotron Facility); Antonuk, L.E.; Cairns, E.B.; Fielding, H.W.; Holm, L.; Igarashi, R.; Lapointe, C.; McDonald, W.J.; Pasos, J.; Rodning, N.L.; Roy, G.; Soukup, J.; Ziegler, W. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics); Arvieux, J.; Tinslay, J.; Yonnet, J. (CEN-Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. National Saturne); Bonin, B.; Boudard, A.; Garcon, M. (CEN-Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Nucleaire a Moyenne Energie); Bachelier, D. (Paris-Sud Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire); The, I. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Middleton, MA (USA). Bates Linear Accelerator Center)

    1991-07-20

    A new type of deuteron polarimeter to work in the energy range 120 < E{sub d} < 250 MeV has been designed, constructed, and calibrated. The figure of merit ({radical}{epsilon}{Tau}{sub kq}) has been determined for various polarization components from the calibration data. (orig.).

  14. Evaluation of the Performance of Vortex Generators on the DU 91-W2-250 Profile using Stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    Stereoscopic PIV measurements investigating the effect of Vortex Generators on the lift force near stall and on glide ratio at best aerodynamic performance have been carried out in the LM Glasfiber wind tunnel on a DU 91-W2-250 profile. Measurements at two Reynolds numbers were analyzed; Re=0...

  15. Evaluation of the Performance of Vortex Generators on the DU 91-W2-250 Profile using Stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2008-01-01

    Stereoscopic PIV measurements investigating the effect of Vortex Generators on the lift force near stall and on glide ratio at best aerodynamic performance have been carried out in the LM Glasfiber wind tunnel on a DU 91-W2-250 profile. Measurements at two Reynolds numbers were analyzed; Re=0...

  16. 30 CFR 250.451 - What must I do in certain situations involving BOP equipment or systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.451 What must I do in... Suspend further drilling operations until that station or pod is operable. (e) Want to drill with a...

  17. 30 CFR 250.432 - How do I obtain a departure to diverter design and installation requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Diverter System Requirements § 250.432 How do I obtain a departure to diverter... diverter line for floating drilling operations on a dynamically positioned drillship Maintain an...

  18. Heat flow diagrams with and without a deaerator for steam turbine plants with T-250/300-23.5 turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A T-250/300-240 turbine (currently known as T-250/300-23.5), which is operated at 31 steam turbine plants, is the largest in the world extraction turbine (by the heating extraction load) and one of the largest by the nominal capacity. All steam turbine plants equipped with T-250/300-23.5 turbines of different modifications are operated in large cities of Russia and the neighboring countries covering a significant part of the needs of cities for the electric power and almost fully supplying them with heat power. The design life of a significant part of the operated steam turbine plants of this family is either expired or almost expired. It refers to both the turbine unit (including a turbine and a generator) and the turbine plant equipment. For steam turbine plants equipped with T-250/300-23.5 turbines, which were initially designed and mounted for work with deaerators at electric power stations, the heat flow diagrams with and without a deaerator were compared. The main advantages and disadvantages of each scheme were shown. It was concluded that, for the newly constructed power units with supercritical steam parameters, it is preferable to use the heat flow diagram without a deaerator; for the upgraded blocks, if there are no objective reasons for the removal of a deaerator, it is recommended to keep the existing heat flow diagram of a turbine plant.

  19. 30 CFR 250.524 - When am I required to take action from my casing diagnostic test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cannot bleed to 0 psig through a 1/2-inch needle valve within 24 hours, or is not bled to 0 psig during a... § 250.521; (e) Any hybrid well with casing or riser pressure exceeding 100 psig; or (f) Any subsea well...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B Near Real Time (NRT) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88...

  1. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B Near Real Time (NRT) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88...

  2. 30 CFR 250.214 - What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geological and geophysical (G&G... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.214 What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the EP? The following G&G information must accompany your EP: (a) Geological...

  3. 30 CFR 250.244 - What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geological and geophysical (G&G... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.244 What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following G&G information must accompany your DPP or DOCD: (a) Geological...

  4. Surface circulation patterns in the Gulf of California derived from MODIS Aqua 250 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, G.; Salinas-González, F.; Gutiérrez de Velasco-Sanromán, G.; Godínez-Orta, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of California (GC) is a marginal elongated and semi-enclosed sea located at northwest of Mexico, between the Peninsula of Baja California and the mainland Mexico. The considered area average 150 km in width and 1500 km in length, from the mouth of the Colorado River to Cabo Corrientes, Jalisco. It has a maximum depth of 3600 m at the southern inlet and the northern region average 200 m in deep. The study of superficial circulation patterns in the GC is of interest because its relevance to the mechanisms of transport for distribution of a variety of materials -plankton, contaminants, microalgae, etc.- and its association with areas of sedimentary deposits, zones where there is a higher probability for fishing or related to the presence of certain species of marine life. Recent studies explain the circulation of the GC as a result of the Pacific Ocean's forcing, wind, heat fluxes on the sea surface and the interaction between the flow produced by these agents and bathymetry. The objective of this work was to obtain evidence of the patterns of surface circulation using a spatial resolution of 250 m over a period of two to seven days (depending on cloud cover), which offered images from the MODIS Level 1B. This essay is an attempt to contribute with more information to the understanding of the regional dynamics of the GC and its local influence on the zones bordering the coast. Thus, MODIS Aqua 250 m data was used, to which algorithms were applied in order to enhance the contrast of reflectance levels of these bands (0.620-0.670 and 0.841-0.876 µm) within the marine environment. The results are associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which we used as tracers of the surface circulation, using a sequence of images from January 2004 to December 2008. Algorithms for dust and cloud detection were used and incorporated with thermal band images, in which zones of terrigenous contribution by eolian transport were identified. Furthermore, pluvial

  5. Evidence of four prehistoric supernovae <250 pc from Earth during the past 50,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of the radiocarbon record for the past 50 ka indicates that four supernovae exploded near Earth 44 ka (~110 pc), 37 ka (~180 pc), 32 ka (~160 pc), and 22 ka (250 pc) ago. Each SN left a unique signature in the radiocarbon record consisting of a sudden increase in atmospheric radiocarbon at the time of the initial explosion due to the arrival of γ-rays and neutrinos, followed by a much larger increase in global radiocarbon spanning centuries due to cosmic rays produced by diffusive shock in the SN remnant, and concluding with the decay of the excess global 14C produced in these events. Temporal evolution of this signature is identical for each SN as if it were a “standard candle”. The ~22 ka SN is most likely the Vela SN that is known to have exploded 10-30 ka ago 250 pc from Earth. The distances of the other SNe are calculated from the relative amounts of radiocarbon produced on Earth with respect to the Vela SN assuming a 1/r2 relationship. The rate of these nearby prehistoric SNe is comparable to that expected from the more distant historical SNe observed during the past 1000 years and it is consistent with the galactic cosmic ray rate at Earth. Global radiocarbon doubled after the ~44 ka SN which exploded 110 pc from Earth, a distance consistent with the Upper Scorpius OB Association. It coincides with the advent of modern man, mutations leading to the development of type A and B blood, and major megafaunal extinctions in Southeast Asia. An exponential fit to the past 18 ka of INTCAL04 Δ14C data gives a half-life of 5700±700 yr, consistent with the half-life of 14C (5730 yr), and establishes an absolute scale of Δ14C=5±2% for T=0 in 1950. Small variations about the exponential decay curve correlate with observed changes in the strength of Earth’s virtual axial dipole moment (VADM). Analysis of the energy necessary to produce the excess global radiocarbon indicates that these SNe explosions released ~3x1050 ergs of energy into the production

  6. 200 Jahre Darwin und 250 Jahre Theory of Moral Sentiments von Adam Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Bluemle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The author emphasizes that 2009 must be remembered not only for the 200 birthday of Charles Darwin, but as well as the 250-year anniversary of Adam Smith’s “Theory of Moral Sentiments”. Proceeding from the fact that Darwin as well as Robert Malthus refer to a classical economist, it is investigated whether the analogies between Evolution Theory and Economy are justified. In both fields, the competition between the selfishly functioning units plays an important/dominating role. Smith, indeed, stresses in his “Theory of Moral Sentiments” apart from the ‘self-interest’ principle, the meaning of the principle of ‘Sympathy’ as a second in importance one which, as the author indicates, forms a prerequisite for the successful co-operation and harmony that the“invisible hand” establishes. The one-sided meaning of the “Wealth of Nations” as an eulogy of the egoism, that is the only motive, has its cause in the political interest of the rising liberalism. Finally, it is investigated whether Smith’s optimism for a free developing social harmony is justified nowadays, in relation to the rising centra lization and globalization. The author arrives at a conclusion that an economic regulation according to the “Freiburger Schule” views, which will be accomplished by the state and it will correspond with the previous developments, it will be in the position to setmeasures to the consequences of ethic deficit.Der Autor betont, dass 2009 neben dem 200. Geburtstag von Charles Darwin als zweitesJubiläum an das Erscheinen der „Theory of Moral Sentiments“ von Adam Smith vor250 Jahren zu erinnern ist. Ausgehend davon, dass sich Darwin selbst mit RobertMalthus auf einen Klassiker der Ökonomen berief, wird der Frage nachgegangeninwieweit Analogien zwischen der Evolutionstheorie und der Ökonomik gerechtfertigtsind. Bei beiden Ansätzen kommt ja dem Wettbewerb zwischen egoistisch handelndenWesen zentrale Bedeutung zu. Smith indessen

  7. Statistics and scaling of turbulence in a spatially developing mixing layer at Reλ = 250

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2012-03-21

    The turbulent flow originating from the interaction between two parallel streams with different velocities is studied by means of direct numerical simulation. Rather than the more common temporal evolving layer, a spatially evolving configuration, with perturbed laminar inlet conditions is considered. The streamwise evolution and the self-similar state of turbulence statistics are reported and compared to results available in the literature. The characteristics of the transitional region agree with those observed in other simulations and experiments of mixing layers originating from laminar inlets. The present results indicate that the transitional region depends strongly on the inlet flow. Conversely, the self-similar state of turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation agrees quantitatively with those in a temporal mixing layer developing from turbulent initial conditions [M. M. Rogers and R. D. Moser, “Direct simulation of a self-similar turbulent mixing layer,” Phys. Fluids6, 903 (1994)]. The statistical features of turbulence in the self-similar region have been analysed in terms of longitudinal velocity structure functions, and scaling exponents are estimated by applying the extended self-similarity concept. In the small scale range (60 < r/η < 250), the scaling exponents display the universal anomalous scaling observed in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The hypothesis of isotropy recovery holds in the turbulent mixing layer despite the presence of strong shear and large-scale structures, independently of the means of turbulence generation. At larger scales (r/η > 400), the mean shear and large coherent structures result in a significant deviation from predictions based on homogeneous isotropic turbulence theory. In this second scaling range, the numerical values of the exponents agree quantitatively with those reported for a variety of other flows characterized by strong shear, such as boundary layers, as well as channel and wake flows.

  8. Staining of proteins in gels with Coomassie G-250 without organic solvent and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ann-Marie; Besir, H Uuml Seyin

    2009-08-14

    In classical protein staining protocols using Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB), solutions with high contents of toxic and flammable organic solvents (Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol) and acetic acid are used for fixation, staining and destaining of proteins in a gel after SDS-PAGE. To speed up the procedure, heating the staining solution in the microwave oven for a short time is frequently used. This usually results in evaporation of toxic or hazardous Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol and a strong smell of acetic acid in the lab which should be avoided due to safety considerations. In a protocol originally published in two patent applications by E.M. Wondrak (US2001046709 (A1), US6319720 (B1)), an alternative composition of the staining solution is described in which no organic solvent or acid is used. The CBB is dissolved in bidistilled water (60-80 mg of CBB G-250 per liter) and 35 mM HCl is added as the only other compound in the staining solution. The CBB staining of the gel is done after SDS-PAGE and thorough washing of the gel in bidistilled water. By heating the gel during the washing and staining steps, the process can be finished faster and no toxic or hazardous compounds are evaporating. The staining of proteins occurs already within 1 minute after heating the gel in staining solution and is fully developed after 15-30 min with a slightly blue background that is destained completely by prolonged washing of the stained gel in bidistilled water, without affecting the stained protein bands.

  9. MEBES reticle writers for 350-nm and 250-nm design rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Naber, Robert J.; Dean, Robert L.; Sauer, Charles A.

    1994-11-01

    New MEBES reticle writers are described that meet the production requirements of the 350- nm and 250-nm design rules required for 64 Mb and first generation 256 Mb DRAM techniques. These raster scan e-beam systems are based on the MEBES IV thermal field emission (TFE) exposure system, in production use since early 1992. The MEBES IV-TFE system exceeds its 500-nm design rule requirement and is routinely used to product reticles of first-generation 64 Mb DRAMs, prototype 256 Mb DRAMs, and phase shift masks. The success of MEBES IV-TFE is based on a close working relationship with system users, who provided input to establish the requirements of the new reticle writers. The new reticle writers are the result of a two-phase development program. The initial phase, completed in 1993, focused on productivity improvements to the base system, which proved to have excellent accuracy. These improvements ease the handling of the large pattern files, improve the use of the 160 MHz writing rate with a faster data path and more efficient writing strategy, and improve overall system utilization with in situ (maskless) beam-calibration techniques. The second phase of development, completed early in 1994, focused on the production reticle requirements of second-generation 64 Mb DRAM, including optical proximity correction features, and first-generation 256 Mb DRAM. The second development phase improves data path speed, system accuracy, and system productivity. System and subsystem performance is shown for the first and second development phases. Lithographic and write-time performance on the product is presented and discussed in the context of system requirements.

  10. A 250 plastome phylogeny of the grass family (Poaceae): topological support under different data partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sean V.; Wysocki, William P.; Clark, Lynn G.

    2018-01-01

    The systematics of grasses has advanced through applications of plastome phylogenomics, although studies have been largely limited to subfamilies or other subgroups of Poaceae. Here we present a plastome phylogenomic analysis of 250 complete plastomes (179 genera) sampled from 44 of the 52 tribes of Poaceae. Plastome sequences were determined from high throughput sequencing libraries and the assemblies represent over 28.7 Mbases of sequence data. Phylogenetic signal was characterized in 14 partitions, including (1) complete plastomes; (2) protein coding regions; (3) noncoding regions; and (4) three loci commonly used in single and multi-gene studies of grasses. Each of the four main partitions was further refined, alternatively including or excluding positively selected codons and also the gaps introduced by the alignment. All 76 protein coding plastome loci were found to be predominantly under purifying selection, but specific codons were found to be under positive selection in 65 loci. The loci that have been widely used in multi-gene phylogenetic studies had among the highest proportions of positively selected codons, suggesting caution in the interpretation of these earlier results. Plastome phylogenomic analyses confirmed the backbone topology for Poaceae with maximum bootstrap support (BP). Among the 14 analyses, 82 clades out of 309 resolved were maximally supported in all trees. Analyses of newly sequenced plastomes were in agreement with current classifications. Five of seven partitions in which alignment gaps were removed retrieved Panicoideae as sister to the remaining PACMAD subfamilies. Alternative topologies were recovered in trees from partitions that included alignment gaps. This suggests that ambiguities in aligning these uncertain regions might introduce a false signal. Resolution of these and other critical branch points in the phylogeny of Poaceae will help to better understand the selective forces that drove the radiation of the BOP and PACMAD

  11. Oversized 250 GHz Traveling Wave Tube with a Photonic Band-Gap Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Guy; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    The challenge in manufacturing traveling wave tubes (TWTs) at high frequencies is that the sizes of the structures scale with, and are much smaller than, the wavelength. We have designed and are building a 250 GHz TWT that uses an oversized structure to overcome fabrication and power handling issues that result from the small dimensions. Using a photonic band-gap (PBG) structure, we succeeded to design the TWT with a beam tunnel diameter of 0.72 mm. The circuit consists of metal plates with the beam tunnel drilled down their center. Twelve posts are protruding on one side of each plate in a triangular array and corresponding sockets are drilled on the other side. The posts of each plate are inserted into the sockets of an adjacent plate, forming a PBG lattice. The vacuum spacing between adjacent plates forms the `PBG cavity''. The full structure is a series of PBG coupled cavities, with microwave power coupling through the beam tunnel. The PBG lattice provides confinement of microwave power in each of the cavities and can be tuned to give the right amount of diffraction per cavity so that no sever is needed to suppress oscillations in the operating mode. CST PIC simulations predict over 38 dB gain with 67 W peak power, using a 30 kV, 310 mA electron beam, 0.6 mm in diameter. Research supported by the AFOSR Program on Plasma and Electro-Energetic Physics and by the NIH National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.

  12. [Totally extraperitoneal endoscopic surgery of inguinal hernia: results of 250 hernia repairs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Amorós, Carmen; Calado-Leal, Carlos; Illán-Riquelme, Azahara; Camacho-Lozano, Julio; Ripoll-Martín, Roberto; Diego-Esteve, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    The totally extraperitoneal endoscopic approach in the surgery of the inguinal hernia has experienced an important change, enabling a mesh to be implanted in the pre-peritoneal space with a comfortable access, as well as contributing to the advantages of minimally invasive surgery (less post-operative pain and a faster recovery). The objective of this study is to analyse the results of TEP endoscopic hernioplasty, mainly in the repair of bilateral hernias and recurrences or multiple recurrences. A total of 250 TEP endoscopic hernioplasties have been performed on 150 patients in the las 5 years. The majority (63%) of the patients subjected to surgery had bilateral hernias, and 16%, recurrent. Large and complicated iguinal-scrotal hernias were excluded. A short stay regimen was followed, establishing a protocol of, analgesia, antibiotic, antithrombotic prophylaxis, and collection of post-surgical data such as analgesia demand. The patients were given a questionnaire on discharge, in which they filled in the fields on post-surgical pain, as well as an attached satisfaction questionnaire. The reduced need for post-surgical analgesia was noteworthy in this series, being totally unnecessary at 24h in 70 patients (46.6%), reaching 121 (80.6%) one month after surgery. There were 6 cases (4%) of reconversion, always due to opening of the peritoneal sac. There were no wound infections, 2% mild orchiepididymitis, 6 (2.4%) recurrence, and one (0.4%) inguinal neuralgia. There was a high level of satisfaction (95%). TEP endoscopic hernioplasty is a very effective and safe procedure in the hands of experienced surgeons with specific training. It is an interesting option in bliateral and recurrent hernia as it obtains satisfactory results in terms of postoperative pain and morbidity. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Aspectos generales de la Ley número 17.250 de relaciones de consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Mercader Pizzorno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El 20 de setiembre de 1999 el Poder Ejecutivo de nuestro país promulgó una ley, la 17.189, por la que se establecían normas destinadas a regular las relaciones de consumo, la que fue publicada en el Diario Oficial del 30 de setiembre de 1999.Su último art., el 52, establecía que comenzaría a regir a los nueve meses contados desde su publicación. Por tanto, la fecha de entrada en vigencia fue ello. de julio del presente año.Sin embargo, un error acaecido en el proceso de elaboración determinó que, en forma prácticamente inmediata a su entrada en vigor, se procediera a elaborar un proyecto de ley para derogarla y sustituirla por otra, que fue promulgada el 11 de agosto de 2000 con el número 17.250 Y fue reglamentada por decreto 244/2000 del 23 de agosto del mismo año.El texto de la nueva leyes prácticamente igual al de la anterior, excepto, claro está, el artículo 33 que es el que había sido aprobado en el trámite de sanción en una y otra Cámara con distinto texto,También en la segunda ley se sustituyó el artículo 52 antes citado (...

  14. A role for the septation initiation network in septum assembly revealed by genetic analysis of sid2-250 suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Quan-Wen; Zhou, Mian; Bimbo, Andrea; Balasubramanian, Mohan K; McCollum, Dannel

    2006-04-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe the septation initiation network (SIN) is required for stabilization of the actomyosin ring in late mitosis as well as for ring constriction and septum deposition. In a genetic screen for suppressors of the SIN mutant sid2-250, we isolated a mutation, ace2-35, in the transcription factor Ace2p. Both ace2Delta and ace2-35 show defects in cell separation, and both can rescue the growth defects of some SIN mutants at low restrictive temperatures, where the SIN single mutants lyse at the time of cytokinesis. By detailed analysis of the formation and constriction of the actomyosin ring and septum in the sid2-250 mutant at low restrictive temperatures, we show that the lysis phenotype of the sid2-250 mutant is likely due to a weak cell wall and septum combined with enzymatic activity of septum-degrading enzymes. Consistent with the recent findings that Ace2p controls transcription of genes involved in cell separation, we show that disruption of some of these genes can also rescue sid2-250 mutants. Consistent with SIN mutants having defects in septum formation, many SIN mutants can be rescued at the low restrictive temperature by the osmotic stabilizer sorbitol. The small GTPase Rho1 is known to promote cell wall formation, and we find that Rho1p expressed from a multi-copy plasmid can also rescue sid2-250 at the low restrictive temperature. Together these results suggest that the SIN has a role in promoting proper cell wall formation at the division septa.

  15. TOPOAFRICA project: reconstruction and quantification of the past topography of Africa over the last 250 My.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillocheau, François

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this project is to quantify the growth of long wavelength (x1000 km) topography over the last 250 My at the scale of a continent - Africa - and to understand (1) their relationship with the underlying mantle dynamics over such a time period and (2) their consequence over some Earth surface processes. Most studies of past topography reconstruction have focused on orogenic areas. Few efforts have been devoted to characterizing the more subtle long wavelength topography, such as the doming or plateau uplift of continental areas at the 1000 km wavelength, with a paleoelevation of few hundreds of meters to a maximum of 1000-2000m. A direct inversion of the geological data into estimates of paleotopography is difficult. Quantification of past topographies of a continent requires coupling of geological data with a sediment production (erosion) and transport numerical model. The quantification of the Meso-Cenozoic topographies of the African continent is based on uplift (mean time interval 10 my) and paleoprecipitation maps (input of the model) and siliciclastic sedimentary fluxes and thermochronological data. One of the advance of this project is to draw new-style paleogeographic reconstructions focussed on the continental environments yielding the geometry of paleocatchments, the lacustrine baselevel, the type and the flow direction of the fluvial systems… All those data are registered in database and GIS (ArcGis). Uncertainties are quantified. The uplift maps, in a first step semi-quantitative, are based on the paleogeographical changes and on synthesis of the tectonically induced-unconformities both onland and offhore (seismic) and their consequences (incised valleys, forced-regression wedges, changes of weathering types….). The paleoprecipitation maps are product by coupling climatic numerical models with a geological database (GIS) including all the climate recorders (lithology, type of clays, paleosoils; woods, pollens…). The measure of the

  16. Does the Loss of ARID1A (BAF-250a Expression in Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinomas Have Any Clinicopathologic Significance? A Pilot Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole Fadare, Idris L. Renshaw, Sharon X. Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SWI/SNF chromatin-modification complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomes and to affect transcription and several cellular processes. Accordingly, their loss of function has been associated with malignant transformation. ARID1A (the expression of whose product, BAF250a, a key complex component, is lost when mutated has recently been identified as a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in 46-57% of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC. The purposes of this study are to assess the frequency of loss of BAF250a expression in endometrial CCC and whether this loss has any discernable clinicopathologic implications. 34 endometrial carcinomas with a CCC component (including 22 pure CCC, 8 mixed carcinomas with a 10% CCC component, and 4 carcinosarcomas with a CCC epithelial component, were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody directed against the human BAF250a protein. 5 (22.7% of the 22 pure CCC were entirely BAF250a negative, whereas the remainder showed diffuse immunoreactivity. None of 4 carcinosarcomas and only 1 (12.5% of the 8 mixed carcinomas were BAF250a negative. There was no discernable relationship between BAF250a immunoreactivity status and tumor architectural patterns (solid, papillary or tubulocystic areas or cell type (flat, hobnail or polygonal. Of the 22 patients with pure CCC, 14, 2, 3, and 3 were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages 1, II, III and IV respectively. Interestingly, all 5 BAF250a negative cases were late stage [stages III or IV] as compared with 1 of 17 BAF250a positive cases (p=0.0002. Thus, 83% (5/6 of all late stage cases were BAF250a [-], as compared with 0 (0% of the 16 early stage (I or II cases (p=.0002. BAF250a negative and positive cases did not show any statistically significant difference regarding patient age and frequency of lymphovascular invasion or myometrial invasion. As may be anticipated from the concentration of late stage cases in

  17. Two-color infrared FEL facility employing a 250-MeV linac injector of Saga synchrotron light source

    CERN Document Server

    Tomimasu, T; Koga, N; Hashiguchi, Y; Ochiai, Y; Ishibashi, M

    2001-01-01

    A two-color infrared free electron laser (FEL) facility is proposed. This FEL facility will employ a new 250-MeV linac injector of the Saga synchrotron light source (SLS). The linac has two operation modes: short macropulse mode of 1 mu s at 250 MeV is for injection to a 1.4-GeV storage ring and long macropulse mode of 13 mu s at 40 MeV is for the two-color FEL facility. The two-color FEL uses a single electron beam and simultaneously provides both infrared (IR) and far-IR laser pulses for pump-probe studies of quantum-well structures and studying vibrational relaxation of molecules. The Saga SLS will be operated in 2004 to promote material science, bio-medical and industrial applications in Kyushu.

  18. Leptin Induces Hippocampal Synaptogenesis via CREB-Regulated MicroRNA-132 Suppression of p250GAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Matasha; Zhu, Mingyan; Impey, Soren; Lambert, Talley J.; Bland, Tyler; Karatsoreos, Ilia N.; Nakazawa, Takanobu

    2014-01-01

    Leptin acts in the hippocampus to enhance cognition and reduce depression and anxiety. Cognitive and emotional disorders are associated with abnormal hippocampal dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis. Although leptin has been shown to induce synaptogenesis in the hypothalamus, its effects on hippocampal synaptogenesis and the mechanism(s) involved are not well understood. Here we show that leptin receptors (LepRs) are critical for hippocampal dendritic spine formation in vivo because db/db mice lacking the long form of the leptin receptor (LepRb) have reduced spine density on CA1 and CA3 neurons. Leptin promotes the formation of mature spines and functional glutamate synapses on hippocampal pyramidal neurons in both dissociated and slice cultures. These effects are blocked by short hairpin RNAs specifically targeting the LepRb and are absent in cultures from db/db mice. Activation of the LepR leads to cAMP response element–binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and initiation of CREB-dependent transcription via the MAPK kinase/Erk pathway. Furthermore, both Mek/Erk and CREB activation are required for leptin-induced synaptogenesis. Leptin also increases expression of microRNA-132 (miR132), a well-known CREB target, which is also required for leptin-induced synaptogenesis. Last, leptin suppresses the expression of p250GAP, a miR132 target, and this suppression is obligatory for leptin's effects as is the downstream target of p250GAP, Rac1. LepRs appear to be critical in vivo as db/db mice have lowered hippocampal miR132 levels and elevated p250GAP expression. In conclusion, we identify a novel signaling pathway by which leptin increases synaptogenesis through inducing CREB transcription and increasing microRNA-mediated suppression of p250GAP activity, thus removing a known inhibitor of Rac1-stimulated synaptogenesis. PMID:24877561

  19. Complete Set of Deuteron Analyzing Powers for dp Elastic Scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon and Three Nucleon Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Y.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of a complete set of deuteron analyzing powers (iT11, T20, T21, T22 for elastic deuteron–proton scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon have been performed with polarized deuteron beams at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. The obtained data are compared with the Faddeev calculations based on the modern nucleon–nucleon forces together with the Tucson-Melbourne’99, and UrbanaIX three nucleon forces.

  20. 12 CFR 250.220 - Whether member bank acting as trustee is prohibited by section 20 of the Banking Act of 1933 from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whether member bank acting as trustee is prohibited by section 20 of the Banking Act of 1933 from acquiring majority of shares of mutual fund. 250.220 Section 250.220 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

  1. 12 CFR 250.408 - Short-term negotiable notes of banks not securities under section 32, Banking Act of 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Short-term negotiable notes of banks not securities under section 32, Banking Act of 1933. 250.408 Section 250.408 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... securities under section 32, Banking Act of 1933. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether short...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1157 - How do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap? 250.1157 Section 250.1157 Mineral Resources... do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap? (a...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1156 - What steps must I take to receive approval to produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line? 250.1156 Section 250.1156 Mineral Resources MINERALS... I take to receive approval to produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line? (a) You must obtain... any portion of the completed interval less than 500 feet from a unit or lease line. Submit to MMS the...

  4. The Javalambre Survey Telescope (JST/T250): a multi-filter surveying machine for the Northern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenarro, Javier; Marin-Franch, Antonio; Moles, Mariano; Cristobal-Hornillos, David; Dupke, Renato a.; Benitez, Txitxo; Taylor, Keith

    2015-08-01

    The Javalambre Survey Telescope (JST/T250) is a 2.55m Richey-Chretien, alt-azimuthal telescope with a field of view of diameter 3 deg and an effective etendue of 26.5 m2deg2 operated by the Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA) at the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ). JST/T250 is particularly conceived and defined for carrying out large sky multi-filter surveys, like J-PAS (http://j-pas.org), which will be the main survey to be conducted during the first years of operation. To guarantee a seeing limited image quality all over the ~0.5m diameter focal plane, JST/T250 hosts state-of-the-arte optics, including complex hyperbolic M1 and M2 mirrors and a challenging field corrector of three lenses with 4 aspherical surfaces and high slopes. The optical configuration ends up with the powered entrance window of JPCam, the panoramic camera for J-PAS, with ~1200Mpix in a mosaic of 14 large format CCDs of 9.2k x 9.2k, and a set of 56 narrow-band, contiguous, optical filters. In this poster we present a detailed view of the telescope configuration, its optical performance and the expected operation for the J-PAS survey execution.

  5. The G-250A polymorphism in the hepatic lipase gene promoter is associated with changes in hepatic lipase activity and LDL cholesterol: The KANWU Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindi, Virpi; Schwab, Ursula; Louheranta, Anne

    2007-01-01

    acids (SFA diet) or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet). Within groups there was a second random assignment to supplements with fish oil (3.6g n-3 FA/day) or placebo. At baseline, the A-250A genotype was associated with high serum LDL cholesterol concentration (P=0.030 among three genotypes......). On the MUFA diet carriers of the A-250A genotype presented a greater decrease in LDL cholesterol concentration than subjects with other genotypes (P=0.007 among three genotypes). The rare -250A allele was related to low HL activity (P... activity among the genotypes. CONCLUSION: The A-250A genotype of the LIPC gene was associated with high LDL cholesterol concentration, but the MUFA-enriched diet reduced serum LDL cholesterol concentration especially in subjects with the A-250A genotype. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  6. Should the dose of tenofovir be reduced to 200–250 mg/day, when combined with protease inhibitors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hill

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The approved dose of tenofovir disproxil fumarate, 300 mg once daily, was established in clinical trials in combination with efavirenz, which does not significantly affect tenofovir concentrations. Combining tenofovir with lopinavir/r, darunavir/r or atazanavir/r increases tenofovir concentrations, which could raise the risk of renal adverse events. Newly approved tenofovir tablets are available at lower strength (200 or 250 mg for use in paediatrics. Methods: A literature search was used to assess the effects of lopinavir/r, darunavir/r and atazanavir/r on tenofovir plasma Cmax, AUC and Cmin (Geometric Mean Ratio and 90% confidence intervals. Assuming linear dose-proportional pharmacokinetics (as observed in dose-ranging studies, the 250 mg tablet was predicted to achieve plasma concentrations 17% lower than the 300 mg dose, and the 200 mg tablet to achieve plasma levels 33% lower. Effects on tenofovir plasma Cmax, AUC and Cmin concentrations were assessed for combined dosing of each protease inhibitor with 250 or 200 mg daily doses of tenofovir, versus standard dose tenofovir (300 mg daily without protease inhibitors. Results: In drug-drug interaction studies, lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increased tenofovir Cmax, AUC and Cmin. Effects of each PI on tenofovir Cmin were greater than effects on Cmax or AUC. Using a 250 mg paediatric dose of tenofovir with lopinavir/ritonavir, tenofovir Cmin was predicted to remain higher than tenofovir 300 mg used with efavirenz (GMR=1.26, 95% CI 1.14–1.38. Similar results were observed for use of tenofovir 250 mg with atazanavir/ritonavir (GMR=1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.13 and with darunavir/ritonavir (GMR=1.14, 95% CI 0.99–1.31. Predicted tenofovir AUC levels for the 250 mg dose with protease inhibitors were all within the bioequivalence range, relative to use with efavirenz. Using a 200 mg paediatric dose of tenofovir with lopinavir/ritonavir, the tenofovir Cmin was predicted to be

  7. High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft X-ray polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Mingwu; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Huang, Qiushi [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Zhanshan, E-mail: wangzs@tongji.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); She, Rui; Feng, Hua [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Hongchang [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    X-ray reflection near 45° via multilayer mirrors can be used for astronomical polarization measurements. A Cr/C multilayer mirror (designed for X-ray polarimetry at 250 eV), with a period thickness of 3.86 nm and a bi-layer number of 100, was fabricated using direct current magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8 keV and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the multilayer structure. Different models were introduced to fit the hard X-ray reflectivity curve, which indicates that the layer thickness of two materials slightly drifts from the bottom to the top of the stack. Both the chromium and carbon layers are amorphous with asymmetric interfaces, while the Cr-on-C interface is slightly wider. Based on the good quality of the multilayer structure, a high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV at a grazing incidence angle of 40.7°. The fabricated Cr/C multilayer mirror exhibits high reflectivity and polarization levels in the energy region of 240 eV–260 eV. - Highlights: • We fabricated Cr/C multilayer with 3.8 nm d-spacing. • X-ray reflectometry was used to determine the exact structure of Cr/C multilayer. • A high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV. • Both Cr and C were found to be amorphous with slightly asymmetric interfaces. • A 4-layer model was used to fit and explain the results.

  8. MODIS 250M burnt area detection algorithm: A case study applied, optimized and evaluated over continental Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Bernardo; Benali, Akli; Pereira, Jose Miguel

    2014-05-01

    The dependence on satellites to derive burnt area (BA) maps is unquestionable. High resolution inventories normally result from change detection algorithms applied to pre and post fire season high resolution imagery. But these have no temporal discrimination within the occurring season. Limited to the larger fire scars, coarser resolution imagery based on reflectance or thermal information can help to map the individual fire progression. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250m imagery bands, freely available, can be used to provide quick areal estimates and provide the needed temporal discrimination with four times the standard spatial resolution BA products. The scope of this study is to assess the spatial and temporal accuracy of burnt area maps derived by the MODIS 250m resolution Burnt Area algorithm (M250BA) presented by Mota et al., (2013) on an Mediterranean landscape. The algorithm is an improved adaptation of one of the burnt area algorithms developed within the scope of the Fire_CCI project and was applied to an area covering continental Portugal for the period of 2001-2013. The algorithm comprises a temporal analysis based on change point detections and a spatial analysis based on Markov random fields. We explored the benefits of applying standard optimization techniques to the algorithm and achieved significant performance improvements.. Temporal and spatial accuracy assessments were performed by comparing the results with spatial and temporal distribution of active fire maps and with high resolution burnt area maps, derived by the MCD14ML thermal anomalies dataset and by Landsat BA classifications, respectively. Accuracy results highlight the potential applications for this BA algorithm and the advantages of using 250m spatial resolution images for BA detection. The study also extends the current national burnt area atlas since 2010. Due to the open-access data policy, the algorithm can be easily parameterised and applied to any

  9. Analysis of MODIS 250 m Time Series Product for LULC Classification and Retrieval of Crop Biophysical Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A. K.; Garg, P. K.; Prasad, K. S. H.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture is a backbone of Indian economy, providing livelihood to about 70% of the population. The primary objective of this research is to investigate the general applicability of time-series MODIS 250m Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data for various Land use/Land cover (LULC) classification. The other objective is the retrieval of crop biophysical parameter using MODIS 250m resolution data. The Uttar Pradesh state of India is selected for this research work. A field study of 38 farms was conducted during entire crop season of the year 2015 to evaluate the applicability of MODIS 8-day, 250m resolution composite images for assessment of crop condition. The spectroradiometer is used for ground reflectance and the AccuPAR LP-80 Ceptometer is used to measure the agricultural crops Leaf Area Index (LAI). The AccuPAR measures Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) and can invert these readings to give LAI for plant canopy. Ground-based canopy reflectance and LAI were used to calibrate a radiative transfer model to create look-up table (LUT) that was used to simulate LAI. The seasonal trend of MODIS-derived LAI was used to find crop parameter by adjusting the LAI simulated from climate-based crop yield model. Cloud free MODIS images of 250m resolution (16 day composite period) were downloaded using LP-DAAC website over a period of 12 months (Jan to Dec 2015). MODIS both the VI products were found to have sufficient spectral, spatial and temporal resolution to detect unique signatures for each class (water, fallow land, urban, dense vegetation, orchard, sugarcane and other crops). Ground truth data were collected using JUNO GPS. Multi-temporal VI signatures for vegetation classes were consistent with its general phenological characteristic and were spectrally separable at some point during the growing season. The MODIS NDVI and EVI multi-temporal images tracked similar seasonal responses for all croplands and were

  10. Effect of Diacetyl Monoxime Thiosemicarbazone on the Corrosion of Aged 18 Ni 250 Grade Maraging Steel in Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Poornima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition of the aged 18 Ni 250 grade maraging steel in 0.5 M sulphuric acid by diacetyl monoxime thiosemicarbazone (DAMTSC at 303–323 K has been investigated by potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, and SEM techniques. Good inhibition efficiency of DAMTSC was revealed even at low concentrations, which increased with the increase in DAMTSC concentration and decreased with the increase in temperature. The activation energies, , as well as other thermodynamic parameters (; ; , were evaluated and discussed. The adsorption of DAMTSC on the aged maraging steel surface was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and shows mixed type inhibition behavior.

  11. Immunoscintigraphy of septic loosening of knee endoprosthesis: a retrospective evaluation of the antigranulocyte antibody BW 250/183

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, Rigobert; Khalisi, Alexander; Puille, Maximillian; Steiner, Dagmar; Bauer, Richard [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Giessen, Friedrichstrasse 25, 35385, Giessen (Germany); Kordelle, Jens [Orthopedic Clinic, University Hospital Giessen (Germany); Stahl, Ulrich [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Giessen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Immunoscintigraphy with the use of the antigranulocyte antibody BW 250/183 is a reliable method for detecting infection, especially in septic loosening of hip prostheses, for which purpose quantitative interpretation of the time-activity course is employed. Therefore, we retrospectively studied whether similar results could be achieved in knee prostheses. We verified 28 scintigraphic examinations in 26 patients by histology. Scintigraphy was performed during an early (4-6 h post injection) and a late phase (23-25 h post injection). Infection was diagnosed when activity around the knee prosthesis increased by more than 10% compared with bone marrow. We found a sensitivity and a negative predictive value of 100%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 81% and an accuracy of 89%. Specificity and accuracy are lower than in the evaluation of hip prostheses; however, in comparison to other scintigraphic modalities, scintigraphy with the antigranulocyte antibody BW 250/183 is superior in excluding infection and has better specificity and accuracy. Therefore, as in the case of hip prostheses, the described methodology appears to be the scintigraphic modality of choice for knee prostheses. (orig.)

  12. Downscaling 250-m MODIS growing season NDVI based on multiple-date landsat images and data mining approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    The satellite-derived growing season time-integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GSN) has been used as a proxy for vegetation biomass productivity. The 250-m GSN data estimated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have been used for terrestrial ecosystem modeling and monitoring. High temporal resolution with a wide range of wavelengths make the MODIS land surface products robust and reliable. The long-term 30-m Landsat data provide spatial detailed information for characterizing human-scale processes and have been used for land cover and land change studies. The main goal of this study is to combine 250-m MODIS GSN and 30-m Landsat observations to generate a quality-improved high spatial resolution (30-m) GSN database. A rule-based piecewise regression GSN model based on MODIS and Landsat data was developed. Results show a strong correlation between predicted GSN and actual GSN (r = 0.97, average error = 0.026). The most important Landsat variables in the GSN model are Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVIs) in May and August. The derived MODIS-Landsat-based 30-m GSN map provides biophysical information for moderate-scale ecological features. This multiple sensor study retains the detailed seasonal dynamic information captured by MODIS and leverages the high-resolution information from Landsat, which will be useful for regional ecosystem studies.

  13. Geologic Map of the Tucson and Nogales Quadrangles, Arizona (Scale 1:250,000): A Digital Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J.A.; Berquist, J.R.; Reynolds, S.J.; Page-Nedell, S. S.; Digital database by Oland, Gustav P.; Hirschberg, Douglas M.

    2001-01-01

    The geologic map of the Tucson-Nogales 1:250,000 scale quadrangle (Peterson and others, 1990) was digitized by U.S. Geological Survey staff and University of Arizona contractors at the Southwest Field Office, Tucson, Arizona, in 2000 for input into a geographic information system (GIS). The database was created for use as a basemap in a decision support system designed by the National Industrial Minerals and Surface Processes project. The resulting digital geologic map database can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps. Digital base map data files (topography, roads, towns, rivers and lakes, etc.) are not included; they may be obtained from a variety of commercial and government sources. Additionally, point features, such as strike and dip, were not captured from the original paper map and are not included in the database. This database is not meant to be used or displayed at any scale larger than 1:250,000 (for example, 1:100,000 or 1:24,000). The digital geologic map graphics and plot files that are provided in the digital package are representations of the digital database. They are not designed to be cartographic products.

  14. Correlation of in vivo and in vitro measures of carbonic anhydrase IX antigen expression in renal masses using antibody 124I-cG250

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pryma, Daniel A; O'Donoghue, Joseph A; Humm, John L; Jungbluth, Achim A; Old, Lloyd J; Larson, Steven M; Divgi, Chaitanya R

    2011-01-01

    ...)I-labeled antibody cG250. Tumor specimens obtained from resection were studied. Fifteen of these patients had clear cell cancer demonstrated by positive findings on PET/CT images and histopathology...

  15. ERP C250 shows the elderly (cognitively normal, Alzheimer's disease) store more stimuli in short-term memory than Young Adults do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert M; Gardner, Margaret N; Mapstone, Mark; Klorman, Rafael; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Dupree, Haley M; Antonsdottir, Inga M; Kamalyan, Lily

    2016-06-01

    To determine how aging and dementia affect the brain's initial storing of task-relevant and irrelevant information in short-term memory. We used brain Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to measure short-term memory storage (ERP component C250) in 36 Young Adults, 36 Normal Elderly, and 36 early-stage AD subjects. Participants performed the Number-Letter task, a cognitive paradigm requiring memory storage of a first relevant stimulus to compare it with a second stimulus. In Young Adults, C250 was more positive for the first task-relevant stimulus compared to all other stimuli. C250 in Normal Elderly and AD subjects was roughly the same to relevant and irrelevant stimuli in Intratrial Parts 1-3 but not 4. The AD group had lower C250 to relevant stimuli in part 1. Both normal aging and dementia cause less differentiation of relevant from irrelevant information in initial storage. There was a large aging effect involving differences in the pattern of C250 responses of the Young Adult versus the Normal Elderly/AD groups. Also, a potential dementia effect was obtained. C250 is a candidate tool for measuring short-term memory performance on a biological level, as well as a potential marker for memory changes due to normal aging and dementia. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Separation of Transplutonium Elements from Neutron Irradiated Americium-241

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    UENO, Kaoru; WATANABE, Kenju; SAGAWA, Chiaki; ISHIMORI, Tomitaro

    1974-01-01

    .... The ratios of the amounts present of these isotopes were determined by mass spectrometry. It was not possible to identify 249Bk in the berkelium fraction owing to the interference from other β-ray emitting nuclides. In the californium fraction, both spontaneous fission and a-activities due to 250, 252 were observed.

  17. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation between brucite and aqueous NaCl solutions from 250 to 450°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccocia, Peter J.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation factors between brucite and aqueous NaCl solutions (1000lnαbr-sw) have been calibrated by experiment from 250 to 450°C at 0.5 Kb. For D/H fractionation, 1000lnα br-sw values are as follows: −32 ± 6‰ (250°C, 3.2 wt% NaCl), −21 ± 2‰ (350°C, 10.0 wt% NaCl), and −22 ± 2‰ (450°C, 3.2 wt% NaCl), indicating that brucite is depleted in D relative to coexisting aqueous NaCl solutions. These results are in good agreement with previous D/H fractionation factors determined in the brucite-water system, indicating that any effects of dissolved salt on D/H fractionation are relatively small, particularly in solutions with near seawater salinity. The maximum salt effect (+4‰) was observed in 10.0 wt% NaCl solutions at 350°C, suggesting that the addition of dissolved NaCl increases the amount of deuterium fractionated into mineral structures. For 18O/16O fractionation, 1000lnαbr-sw values in 3.0 wt% NaCl solutions are −6.0 ± 1.3‰, −5.6 ± 0.7‰ and −4.1 ± 0.2‰, at 250, 350, and 450°C, respectively, and −5.8 ± 0.6‰ in 10.0 wt % NaCl at 350°C. These data indicate that brucite is depleted in 18O relative to coexisting aqueous NaCl solutions and that the degree of depletion decreases slightly with increasing temperature and is not strongly dependent on salinity. We calculated 18O/16O brucite-water fractionation factors from available calibrations of the salt-effect on 18O/16O fractionation between coexisting phases. The resulting values were fit to the following equation that is valid from 250 to 450°C 1000ln αbr-w = 9.54 × 106T−2 − 3.53 × 104T−1 + 26.58 where T is temperature in Kelvins. These new data have been used to improve the prediction of 18O/16O fractionation factors in the talc-water and serpentine-water systems by modifying existing empirical bond-water models. The results of this analysis indicate that the δ18O composition of talc-brucite and serpentine

  18. Construction and start-up of a 250 kW natural gas fueled MCFC demonstration power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, R.A.; Carter, J.; Rivera, R.; Otahal, J. [San Diego Gas & Electric, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) is participating with M-C Power in the development and commercialization program of their internally manifolded heat exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) carbonate fuel cell technology. Development of the IMHEX technology base on the UNOCAL test facility resulted in the demonstration of a 250 kW thermally integrated power plant located at the Naval Air Station at Miramar, California. The members of the commercialization team lead by M-C Power (MCP) include Bechtel Corporation, Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). MCP produced the fuel cell stack, Bechtel was responsible for the process engineering including the control system, Stewart & Stevenson was responsible for packaging the process equipment in a skid (pumps, desulfurizer, gas heater, turbo, heat exchanger and stem generator), IHI produced a compact flat plate catalytic reformer operating on natural gas, and SDG&E assumed responsibility for plant construction, start-up and operation of the plant.

  19. Personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients for neutron fluence over the energy range of 20-250 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsher, R H; McLean, T D; Justus, A L; Devine, R T; Gadd, M S

    2010-03-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to extend existing neutron personal dose equivalent fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients to an energy of 250 MeV. Presently, conversion coefficients, H(p,slab)(10,alpha)/Phi, are given by ICRP-74 and ICRU-57 for a range of angles of radiation incidence (alpha = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 degrees ) in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. Standard practice has been to base operational dose quantity calculations 20 MeV. Both light and heavy ions (HIs) (carbon, nitrogen and oxygen recoil nuclei) were transported down to a lower energy limit (1 keV for light ions and 5 MeV for HIs). Track energy below the limit was assumed to be locally deposited. For neutron tracks slab phantom.

  20. Assessment of nuclear-reaction codes for proton-induced reactions on light nuclei below 250 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunn, Benjamin; Boudard, Alain; David, Jean-Christophe; Koning, Arjan J.; Leprince, Anne; Leray, Sylvie; Mancusi, Davide

    2015-07-01

    We assess the suitability of nuclear-reaction codes for the generation of accurate cross-section libraries targeted at the simulation of the transport of high-energy protons (up to 250 MeV) in the human body, or in any material containing light nuclides. To this end we present an extensive study of elastic, reaction and fragmentation cross sections for proton-induced reactions on several nuclides. We compare TALYS evaluations against experimental data and, wherever applicable, against the predictions of the INCL/ABLA07 nuclear-reaction model. The TALYS evaluations have been cast in the form of a new cross-section library, which also includes evaluated proton-proton cross sections based on the NN-OnLine tool.

  1. Development of 1000 kW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) pilot plant and 250 kW stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Kenichi

    1999-07-01

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is expected to be ready for commercial use early in the next century. This new power generation system has a higher thermal efficiency and can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. IHI has participated in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry's New Sunshine Program since 1993. Since joining the program, IHI has undertaken the development of the MCFC stack and 1,000 kW class power generation system under the supervision of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization and the MCFC Research Association. The development outline of the 1,000 kW MCFC pilot plant constructed at the Kawagoe test site and the present development stage of the plant control system and the 250 kW stacks developed and manufactured by IHI are described here.

  2. A rapid PCR-SSP assay for the hemochromatosis-associated Tyr250Stop mutation in the TFR2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, C A; Barton, J C; Acton, R T

    2001-01-01

    Several genes associated with hemochromatosis and primary iron overload have been identified. Mutations in the HFE gene have been detected in 60-100% of hemochromatosis patients of northern, central, and western European descent, although the frequencies of these mutations vary among racial and ethnic groups. Recently, a mutation in the gene encoding transferrin receptor-2 (exon 6, nucleotide 750 C --> G; Y250X) was detected by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method in Sicilians with hemochromatosis. We describe a modification of the original assay in which the sequence-specific priming PCR assay does not require the use of restriction endonuclease. The modified assay is robust and cost-efficient, and may be more useful for large-scale population studies because it can be performed rapidly on DNA extracted from buccal swabs.

  3. Electrophysiological correlates of social information processing for detecting agents in social interaction scenes: P200 and N250 components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crivelli Davide

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available According to interaction theories, the detection of situated agents and the understanding of their intentions and mental states are mediated by smart perceptual and embodied mechanisms. While the network supporting agency-attribution, action understanding, and grasping of others’ mental state is quite known, the actual mental chronometry of such social perception processes is still not clear. We then designed an exploratory study to investigate electrophysiological correlates (ERPs and source localization of information-processing for the detection of potential agents in realistic interaction scenes. Morphological and statistical analyses of electrophysiological data highlighted that the manipulation the nature of a potential agent, the gesture it executed and the relative position of an interagent was differently associated to the modulation of specific relevant middle-latency ERP components, labelled as P200 and N250, and of their relative intra-cortical current density distribution within the first 300 ms from the appearance of the stimulus.

  4. On artefact-free reconstruction of low-energy (30-250eV) electron holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Longchamp, Jean-Nicolas; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2014-10-01

    Low-energy electrons (30-250eV) have been successfully employed for imaging individual biomolecules. The most simple and elegant design of a low-energy electron microscope for imaging biomolecules is a lensless setup that operates in the holographic mode. In this work we address the problem associated with the reconstruction from the recorded holograms. We discuss the twin image problem intrinsic to inline holography and the problem of the so-called biprism-like effect specific to low-energy electrons. We demonstrate how the presence of the biprism-like effect can be efficiently identified and circumvented. The presented sideband filtering reconstruction method eliminates the twin image and allows for reconstruction despite the biprism-like effect, which we demonstrate on both, simulated and experimental examples. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Mapping Irrigated Areas Using MODIS 250 Meter Time-Series Data: A Study on Krishna River Basin (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping irrigated areas of a river basin is important in terms of assessing water use and food security. This paper describes an innovative remote sensing based vegetation phenological approach to map irrigated areas and then the differentiates the ground water irrigated areas from the surface water irrigated areas in the Krishna river basin (26,575,200 hectares in India using MODIS 250 meter every 8-day near continuous time-series data for 2000–2001. Temporal variations in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI pattern obtained in irrigated classes enabled demarcation between: (a irrigated surface water double crop, (b irrigated surface water continuous crop, and (c irrigated ground water mixed crops. The NDVI patterns were found to be more consistent in areas irrigated with ground water due to the continuity of water supply. Surface water availability, on the other hand, was dependent on canal water release that affected time of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the NDVI pattern. Double cropped and light irrigation have relatively late onset of greenness, because they use canal water from reservoirs that drain large catchments and take weeks to fill. Minor irrigation and ground water irrigated areas have early onset of greenness because they drain smaller catchments where aquifers and reservoirs fill more quickly. Vegetation phonologies of 9 distinct classes consisting of Irrigated, rainfed, and other land use classes were also derived using MODIS 250 meter near continuous time-series data that were tested and verified using groundtruth data, Google Earth very high resolution (sub-meter to 4 meter imagery, and state-level census data. Fuzzy classification accuracies for most classes were around 80% with class mixing mainly between various irrigated classes. The areas estimated from MODIS were highly correlated with census data (R-squared value of 0.86.

  6. Desarrollo de la formulación de cefalexina 250 mg granulado para suspensión oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Martínez Fernández

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló la formulación de la cefalexina 250 mg como granulado para suspensión oral. Se utilizó la vía húmeda para la preparación del granulado, teniendo en cuenta los resultados de la caracterización físico-química realizada a las materias primas empleadas. Los resultados de los análisis físico-químicos y microbiológicos del producto terminado fueron satisfactorios. Se realizó un estudio de estabilidad en vida de estante durante 18 meses, con el que se pudo comprobar que la formulación obtenida es estable durante el tiempo estudiado a temperatura entre 15 y 25 °C y durante 7 d después de reconstituido y mantenido en refrigeración. El medicamento cumple con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la USP 24.The formulation of cephalexin 250 mg was developed as a granulate for oral suspension. The humid way was used for the preparation of the granulate, taking into account the results of the physicochemical characterization of the raw materials used. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological analyses of the finished product were satisfactory. A shelf life stability study was conducted for 18 months that made possible to prove that the formulation obtained was stable during the studied time at temperatures between 15 and 25 ºC and for 7 days after being reconstituted and kept in refrigeration. The drug meets the quality specifications described in the USP 24.

  7. 250 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    1Laboratory of Training and Research in Medical Biology, Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Antananarivo, Madagascar; 1Laboratoire de Formation et de Recherche en .... the update of the susceptibility of S. aureusto various drugs largely used in our community. Veterinarian students are ...

  8. Foundations and anchors for a 250 m span arch bridge in la Palma Island (Canaries); Cimentaciones y anclajes para la construccion del Arco de los tilos, de 250 m. de luz, en la isla de la Palma (Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simic Sureda, D.

    2008-07-01

    There are no simple procedures to estimate the bearing capacity of direct foundations on rock due to its anisotropy, as the criteria have to take into account different features concerning the rock discontinuities (spacing, orientation, opening, persistence,...) as well as other aspects concerning the rock matrix, particularly its strength when it is low. In this sense, the volcanic formations of the Canary Island pose important difficulties to the designer of foundations given their highly anisotropic fabric, which is the result of a complex origin where the basalt sheets alternate with fragmentary material of pyroclastic nature. This volcanic building is frequently intersected by old vents, in the guise of pipes plugged with broken fragments of low compacity. In a valley of highly dissected steep slopes of such geology an arch bridge has been designed and built with a span between supports of 250 m. This paper describes the analysis that was carried out to take into account the particularities of rock anisotropy and the foundations geometry in very steep slopes. The construction problems are also addressed in the paper, describing the grouting treatment that was needed in one of the supports due to the presence of an old vent. (Author) 7 refs.

  9. Effects of feeding regimen on weight gain, semen characteristics, libido, and lameness in 170- to 250-kilogram Duroc boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Li, J L; Wei, H K; Zhou, Y F; Tan, J J; Sun, H Q; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2016-11-01

    A 2-period field trial was conducted to determine the effects of feeding regimen on weight gain, semen characteristics, libido, and lameness in 170- to 200-kg (period 1) and 200- to 250-kg (period 2) boars. Sixty-one Duroc boars were allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments and 15 g/d fish oil was also provided for each experimental boar, to maintain the n-6:n-3 intake ratio at approximately 6.1:1. The energy intakes of the 3 treatment groups were controlled by basing the feed intake on a corn-soybean meal-based diet (3.11 Mcal/kg of ME) to create: 1) low energy intake group (L, = 20, 7.3 Mcal/d of ME), 2) medium energy intake group (M, = 20, 7.7 Mcal/d of ME), and 3) high energy intake group (H, = 21, 8.3 Mcal/d of ME) in period 1. Feed intake was then increased to 7.6, 8.2, and 8.6 Mcal/d of ME for the 3 groups, respectively, in period 2. During the 28-wk experimental period, boar weight gain, testis volume, semen characteristics, libido, toe measurements, claw lesions, and lameness were examined, and the number of boars culled in each group was recorded to calculate the culling rate. Although there were no differences in testis volume, sperm concentration, and motility, the percentage of abnormal sperm, the percentage of claw lesions, and claw lesion scores differed among treatments ( > 0.05), and ADG was significantly increased with the increase of energy intake between the 2 periods ( 0.05). Nonetheless, the H boars took more time to mount the collection dummy and produce an ejaculate and, in particular, showed a greater percentage of lameness than the L and M boars ( < 0.05). Therefore, the medium energy intake regimen (energy intakes of 7.7 and 8.2 Mcal/d of ME with ADG of 454.5 and 375.3 g/d in 2 periods, respectively) improved the total sperm number and functional sperm number, and meanwhile decreased the occurrence of lameness in 170- to 250-kg Duroc boars.

  10. Hydrological variability in the Northern Levant: a 250 ka multiproxy record from the Yammoûneh (Lebanon sedimentary sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gasse

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Levant is a key region in terms of both long-term hydroclimate dynamics and human cultural evolution. Our understanding of the regional response to glacial-interglacial boundary conditions is limited by uncertainties in proxy-data interpretation and the lack of long-term records from different geographical settings.

    The present paper provides a 250 ka paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on a multi-proxy approach from northern Levant, derived from a 36 m lacustrine-palustrine sequence cored in the small intra-mountainous karstic Yammoûneh basin from northern Lebanon. We combined time series of sediment properties, paleovegetation, and carbonate oxygen isotopes (δc, to yield a comprehensive view of paleohydrologic-paleoclimatic fluctuations in the basin over the two last glacial-interglacial cycles. Integration of all available proxies shows that Interglacial maxima (early-mid MIS 7, MIS 5.5 and early MIS 1 experienced relatively high effective moisture, evidenced by the dominance of forested landscapes (although with different forest types associated with authigenic carbonate sedimentation in a productive waterbody. Synchronous and steep δc increases can be reconciled with enhanced mean annual moisture when changes in seasonality are taken into account. During Glacials periods (MIS 2 and MIS 6, open vegetation tends to replace the forests, favouring local erosion and detrital sedimentation. However, all proxy data reveal an overall wetting during MIS 6, while a drying trend took place during MIS4-2, leading to extremely harsh LGM conditions possibly linked to water storage as ice in the surrounding highlands. Over the past 250 ka, the Yammoûneh record shows an overall decrease in local effective water, coincident with a weakening of seasonal insolation contrasts linked to the decreasing amplitude of the eccentricity cycle.

    The Yammoûneh record is roughly consistent with long-term climatic

  11. Comparison of responses to a US 2 dollar bill versus a chance to win 250 US dollars in a mail survey of emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Sarver, Joshua H; Baker, David W

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate whether small monetary incentives improve physicians' responses to surveys. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no one has evaluated emergency physicians' response rate and cost per participant of a small monetary incentive relative to a chance to win a more substantial sum. The authors compared emergency physicians' responses and per-participant costs between a US 2 dollar bill and a 250 US dollars lottery. Two groups of 288 emergency physicians were randomly selected and mailed a survey. Within each group of 288, half received a US 2 dollar bill and the other half received an offer that respondents would be entered into a drawing to win 250 US dollars. Nonresponders received a reminder postcard one week later, and persistent nonresponders received a second mailing of the survey three weeks after the initial mailing. Of the 576 surveys that were mailed, nine (2%) subjects were ineligible or undeliverable, leaving 567 eligible subjects, of whom 301 (53%) participated in the survey. The US 2 dollar bill had a substantially higher response rate: 170 (56%) of those receiving a US 2 dollar bill participated versus 131 (44%) of those receiving a chance to win 250 US dollars (95% confidence interval = 5% to 22%; p dollar bill offer was less expensive per participant than the 250 US dollars offer. The cost of postage and incentives was 997.33 US dollars for 170 participants, or 5.87 US dollars per participant, for the US 2 dollar bill and 979.29 US dollars for 131 participants, or 7.48 US dollars per participant, for the chance to win 250 US dollars. Mailing a US 2 dollar bill incentive produces a better response rate with lower cost per participant than offering a chance to win 250 US dollars.

  12. High-repetition-rate regenerative thin-disk amplifier with 116 microJ pulse energy and 250 fs pulse duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Mikhail; Butze, Frank; Nickel, Detlef; Giesen, Adolf

    2007-03-01

    A thin-disk regenerative amplifier based on Yb-doped potassium yttrium tungstate is operated at 40 kHz with an output pulse energy of 116 microJ and a pulse duration of 250 fs. Dispersive stretching of the pulse during amplification instead of an external stretcher is used to avoid high peak intensities. The small amount of the laser active material in the amplifier inherent for the thin-disk laser design and a large beam radius in the Pockels cell reduce nonlinear effects further. Consequently the output pulses can be compressed to 250 fs using a pair of diffraction gratings.

  13. Personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients for neutron fluence over the energy range of 20 to 250 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, Thomas D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadd, S Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olsher, Richard H [RP-2; Devine, Robert T [RP-2

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to extend existing neutron personal dose equivalent fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients to an energy of 250 MeV. Presently, conversion coefficients, H(p,slab)(10,alpha)/Phi, are given by ICRP-74 and ICRU-57 for a range of angles of radiation incidence (alpha = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 degrees ) in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. Standard practice has been to base operational dose quantity calculations <20 MeV on the kerma approximation, which assumes that charged particle secondaries are locally deposited, or at least that charged particle equilibrium exists within the tally cell volume. However, with increasing neutron energy the kerma approximation may no longer be valid for some energetic secondaries such as protons. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX was used for all absorbed dose calculations. Transport models and collision-based energy deposition tallies were used for neutron energies >20 MeV. Both light and heavy ions (HIs) (carbon, nitrogen and oxygen recoil nuclei) were transported down to a lower energy limit (1 keV for light ions and 5 MeV for HIs). Track energy below the limit was assumed to be locally deposited. For neutron tracks <20 MeV, kerma factors were used to obtain absorbed dose. Results are presented for a discrete set of angles of incidence on an ICRU tissue slab phantom.

  14. A low power time-interleaved 10-bit 250-MSPS charge domain pipelined ADC for IF sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenhai, Chen; Hongwen, Qian; Songren, Huang; Hong, Zhang; Zongguang, Yu

    2013-06-01

    A 10-bit 250-MSPS two-channel time-interleaved charge-domain (CD) pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented. MOS bucket-brigade device (BBD) based CD pipelined architecture is used to achieve low power consumption. An all digital low power DLL is used to alleviate the timing mismatches and to reduce the aperture jitter. A new bootstrapped MOS switch is designed in the sample and hold circuit to enhance the IF sampling capability. The ADC achieves a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 67.1 dB, signal-to-noise ratio (SNDR) of 55.1 dB for a 10.1 MHz input, and SFDR of 61.6 dB, SNDR of 52.6 dB for a 355 MHz input at full sampling rate. Differential nonlinearity (DNL) is +0.5/-0.4 LSB and integral nonlinearity (INL) is +0.8/-0.75 LSB. Fabricated in a 0.18-μm 1P6M CMOS process, the prototype 10-bit pipelined ADC occupies 1.8 × 1.3 mm2 of active die area, and consumes only 68 mW at 1.8 V supply.

  15. On Improving the Quality of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded 18Ni 250 Maraging Steel Rocket Motor Casings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Renu N.; Raja, V. S.; Mukherjee, M. K.; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.

    2017-10-01

    In view of their excellent combination of strength and toughness, maraging steels (18Ni 250 grade) are widely used for the fabrication of large sized solid rocket motor casings. Gas tungsten arc welding is commonly employed to fabricate these thin walled metallic casings, as the technique is not only simple but also provides the desired mechanical properties. However, sometimes, radiographic examination of welds reveals typical unacceptable indications requiring weld repair. As a consequence, there is a significant drop in weld efficiency and productivity. In this work, the nature and the cause of the occurrence of these defects have been investigated and an attempt is made to overcome the problem. It has been found that weld has a tendency to form typical Ca and Al oxide inclusions leading to the observed defects. The use of calcium fluoride flux has been found to produce a defect free weld with visible effect on weld bead finish. The flux promotes the separation of inclusions, refines the grain size and leads to significant improvement in mechanical properties of the weldment.

  16. Sub-250nm room temperature optical gain from AlGaN materials with strong compositional fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Emanuele; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Haiding; Nikiforov, A.; Yin, Jian; Paiella, Roberto; Moustakas, Theodore; Dal Negro, Luca

    2013-03-01

    Compact and portable deep-UV LEDs and laser sources are needed for a number of engineering applications including optical communications, gas sensing, biochemical agent detection, disinfection, biotechnology and medical diagnostics. We investigate the deep-UV optical emission and gain properties of AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells structure. These structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on 6H-SiC substrates resulting in either homogeneous wells or various degrees of band-structure compositional fluctuations in the form of cluster-like features within the wells. We measured the TE-polarized amplified spontaneous emission in the sample with cluster-like features and quantified the optical absorption/gain coefficients and gain spectra by the Variable Stripe Length (VSL) technique under ultrafast optical pumping. We report blue-shift and narrowing of the emission, VSL traces, gain spectra, polarization studies, and the validity of the Schalow-Townes relation to demonstrate a maximum net modal gain of 120 cm-1 at 250 nm in the sample with strong compositional fluctuations. Moreover, we measure a very low gain threshold (15 μJ/cm2) . On the other hand, we found that samples with homogeneous quantum wells lead to absorption only. In addition, we report gain measurements in graded-index-separate-confined heterostructure (GRINSCH) designed to increase the device optical confinement factor.

  17. Mapping grassland productivity with 250-m eMODIS NDVI and SSURGO database over the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Bliss, Norman B.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed and described a relationship between satellite-derived growing season averaged Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and annual productivity for grasslands within the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) of the United States. We compared growing season averaged NDVI (GSN) with Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database rangeland productivity and flux tower Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) for grassland areas. The GSN was calculated for each of nine years (2000–2008) using the 7-day composite 250-m eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. Strong correlations exist between the nine-year mean GSN (MGSN) and SSURGO annual productivity for grasslands (R2 = 0.74 for approximately 8000 pixels randomly selected from eight homogeneous regions within the GPRB; R2 = 0.96 for the 14 cluster-averaged points). Results also reveal a strong correlation between GSN and flux tower growing season averaged GPP (R2 = 0.71). Finally, we developed an empirical equation to estimate grassland productivity based on the MGSN. Spatially explicit estimates of grassland productivity over the GPRB were generated, which improved the regional consistency of SSURGO grassland productivity data and can help scientists and land managers to better understand the actual biophysical and ecological characteristics of grassland systems in the GPRB. This final estimated grassland production map can also be used as an input for biogeochemical, ecological, and climate change models.

  18. VBFNLO. A patron level Monte Carlo for processes with electroweak bosons. Manual for Version 2.5.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, K.; Bellm, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Bozzi, G. [Milano-Bicocca Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca (IT)] (and others)

    2011-08-15

    VBFNLO is a flexible parton level Monte Carlo program for the simulation of vector boson fusion, double and triple vector boson production in hadronic collisions at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the strong coupling constant, as well as Higgs boson plus two jet production via gluon fusion at the one-loop level. In the new release - Version 2.5.0 - several new processes have been added at NLO QCD: vector boson fusion production of a Higgs boson plus a photon, vector boson fusion production of a photon, W{gamma} and WZ production plus a hadronic jet and the triboson production processes WW{gamma}, ZZ{gamma}, WZ{gamma}, W{gamma}{gamma}, Z{gamma}{gamma} and {gamma}{gamma}{gamma}. The code has been extended to run in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), and electroweak corrections to Higgs boson production via weak boson fusion have been included. Anomalous gauge boson couplings can be used in new processes and the Three-Site Higgsless model has been implemented for several processes. The simulation of Higgs boson production via gluon fusion has been improved. (orig.)

  19. Mechanism of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 binding to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: an interference with the Bradford assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminian, Mahdi; Nabatchian, Fariba; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Torabi, Mojgan

    2013-03-15

    The Bradford protein assay is a popular method because of its rapidity, sensitivity, and relative specificity. This method is subject to some interference by nonprotein compounds. In this study, we describe the interference of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with the Bradford assay. This interference is based on the interaction of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 (CBB) with this cationic detergent. This study suggests that both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions are involved in the interaction of CTAB and CBB. The anionic and neutral forms of CBB bind to CTAB by electrostatic attraction, which accelerates hydrophobic interactions of these CBB forms and the hydrophobic tail of CTAB. Consequently, the hydrophobic regions of the dominant free cationic form of CBB dye compete for the tail of CTAB with two other forms of the dye and gradually displace the primary hydrophobic interactions and rearrange the primary CBB-CTAB complex. This interaction of CTAB and CBB dye produces a primary 650-nm-absorbing complex that then gradually rearranges to a complex that shows an absorbance shoulder at 800-950 nm. This study conclusively shows a strong response of CBB to CTAB that causes a time-dependent and nearly additive interference with the Bradford assay. This study also may promote an application of CBB for CTAB quantification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Shielding data for 100-250 MeV proton accelerators double differential neutron distributions and attenuation in concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Mereghetti, A; Silari, M; Zajacova, Z

    2007-01-01

    Double differential distributions of neutrons produced by 100, 150, 200 and 250 MeV protons stopped in a thick iron target were simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code at four emission angles: forward, 45°, transverse and 135° backwards. The attenuation in ordinary concrete of the dose equivalent due to secondary neutrons, protons, photons and electrons was calculated. Some of the resulting attenuation curves are best fitted by a double-exponential function rather than a single-exponential. The effect of various approximations introduced in the simulations is thoroughly discussed. The contribution to the total ambient dose equivalent from photons and protons is usually limited to a few percent, except in the backward direction where photons contribute more than 10% and up to 35% to the total dose for a shield thickness of 1 – 2 m. Source terms and attenuation lengths are given as a function of energy and emission angle, along with fit to the Monte Carlo data. An extensive comparison is made of values ob...

  1. A gas/liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the rapid screening of 250 pesticides in aqueous matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramouli, B.; Harvan, D.; Brittain, S.; Hass, R. [Eno River Labs, LLC. Durham, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Pesticide residues in food present a potentially serious and significant cause for concern. Many pesticides have been associated with significant health effects to the nervous and endocrine systems and some have been deemed carcinogenic. There are many well-established techniques for pesticide analysis. However, commercial pesticide methods have traditionally only been available for specific pesticide families, such as chlorinated pesticides or herbicides, and at detection limits ranging from 0.05 ppb to 1 ppm in aqueous matrices. Techniques that can quickly screen for the presence/absence of pesticide residues in food matrices are critical in ensuring the safety of food and water. This paper outlines a combined Gas Chromatographic-High Resolution Mass Spectrometric (GC-HRMS) and Liquid Chromatographic Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) screening assay for 250 pesticides that was developed for use in water, and soda samples at screening levels ranging from 0.1-5 ppb. The pesticides selected have been identified by the European Union as being of concern and the target of possible legislation. The list encompasses a variety of pesticide classes and compound groupings.

  2. Resistance of Incoloy 800 steam generator tube to pitting corrosion in PWR secondary water at 250°C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvartzman, Mônica M.A.M. [Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Albuquerque, Adriana Silva de; Esteves, Luiza; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Fábio Abud, E-mail: monicacdtn@gmail.com, E-mail: asa@cdtn.br, E-mail: luiza.esteves@cdtn.br, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: fametalurgica@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The steam generator (SG) is one of the main components of a PWR, so the performance of this type of nuclear power plant depends to a large extent on the trouble-free operation of SGs. Its degradation significantly affects the overall plant performance. Alloy 800NG (Incoloy® 800) is a nickel-iron-chromium alloy used for steam generator tubes in PWRs due to their high strength, good workability and resistance to corrosion. This behavior is attributed to the protective oxide film formed on the metal surface by contact with the high temperature pressurized water. However, chloride is one of major SG impurities that cause the breakdown of the passive film and initiate localized corrosion in passive metals as Alloy 800NG. The aim of this study is to provide information about the pitting corrosion behavior of the Incoloy® 800 steam generator tube under normal secondary circuit parameters (250 deg C and 5 MPa) and abnormal conditions of operation (presence of chloride ions in the secondary water). For this, optical microscopy, XRD and EDS analysis and electrochemical tests have been carried out under simulated PWR secondary water operating conditions. The susceptibility to pitting corrosion was evaluated using electrochemical tests and the oxide layer formed on material was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analyses. (author)

  3. On artefact-free reconstruction of low-energy (30–250 eV) electron holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana@physik.uzh.ch; Longchamp, Jean-Nicolas; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2014-10-15

    Low-energy electrons (30–250 eV) have been successfully employed for imaging individual biomolecules. The most simple and elegant design of a low-energy electron microscope for imaging biomolecules is a lensless setup that operates in the holographic mode. In this work we address the problem associated with the reconstruction from the recorded holograms. We discuss the twin image problem intrinsic to inline holography and the problem of the so-called biprism-like effect specific to low-energy electrons. We demonstrate how the presence of the biprism-like effect can be efficiently identified and circumvented. The presented sideband filtering reconstruction method eliminates the twin image and allows for reconstruction despite the biprism-like effect, which we demonstrate on both, simulated and experimental examples. - Highlights: • Radiation damage-free imaging of individual biomolecules. • Elimination of the twin image in inline holograms. • Circumventing biprism-like effect in low-energy electron holograms. • Artefact-free reconstructions of low-energy electron holograms.

  4. T1-weighted in vivo human whole brain MRI dataset with an ultrahigh isotropic resolution of 250 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüsebrink, Falk; Sciarra, Alessandro; Mattern, Hendrik; Yakupov, Renat; Speck, Oliver

    2017-03-01

    We present an ultrahigh resolution in vivo human brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dataset. It consists of T1-weighted whole brain anatomical data acquired at 7 Tesla with a nominal isotropic resolution of 250 μm of a single young healthy Caucasian subject and was recorded using prospective motion correction. The raw data amounts to approximately 1.2 TB and was acquired in eight hours total scan time. The resolution of this dataset is far beyond any previously published in vivo structural whole brain dataset. Its potential use is to build an in vivo MR brain atlas. Methods for image reconstruction and image restoration can be improved as the raw data is made available. Pre-processing and segmentation procedures can possibly be enhanced for high magnetic field strength and ultrahigh resolution data. Furthermore, potential resolution induced changes in quantitative data analysis can be assessed, e.g., cortical thickness or volumetric measures, as high quality images with an isotropic resolution of 1 and 0.5 mm of the same subject are included in the repository as well.

  5. Characterization of thermochromic VO2 (prepared at 250 °C) in a wide temperature range by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houska, J.; Kolenaty, D.; Rezek, J.; Vlcek, J.

    2017-11-01

    The paper deals with thermochromic VO2 prepared by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering and characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. We focus on the dispersion of optical constants in a wide temperature range and on the transmittance predicted using the optical constants. While the thermochromic behavior of VO2 in itself has been reported previously (particularly above the room temperature, RT), in this paper we present (i) optical properties achieved at a low deposition temperature of 250 °C and without any substrate bias voltage (which dramatically increases the application potential of the coating) and (ii) changes of these properties not only above but also below RT (down to -30 °C). The properties include very low (for VO2) extinction coefficient at RT (0.10 at 550 nm), low transition temperature of around or even below 50 °C (compared to the frequently cited 68 °C) and high modulation of the predicted infrared transmittance (e.g. 39% at -30 °C, 30% at RT and 3.4% above the transition temperature at 2000 nm for a 100 nm thick coating on glass). The results are important for the design of thermochromic coatings, and pathways for their preparation under industry-friendly conditions, for various technological applications.

  6. Equilibrium constant for the reaction ClO + ClO ↔ ClOOCl between 250 and 206 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Kelly L; Bayes, Kyle D; Sander, Stanley P

    2015-05-14

    The chlorine peroxide molecule, ClOOCl, is an important participant in the chlorine-catalyzed destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. Very few laboratory measurements have been made for the partitioning between monomer ClO and dimer ClOOCl at temperatures lower than 250 K. This paper reports absorption spectra for both ClO and ClOOCl when they are in equilibrium at 1 atm and temperatures down to 206 K. The very low ClO concentrations involved requires measuring and calibrating a differential cross section, ΔσClO, for the 10-0 band of ClO. A third law fit of the new results gives Keq = [(2.01 ± 0.17) 10–27 cm3 molecule–1] e(8554∓21)K/T, where the error limits reflect the uncertainty in the entropy change. The resulting equilibrium constants are slightly lower than currently recommended. The slope of the van’t Hoff plot yields a value for the enthalpy of formation of ClOOCl at 298 K, ΔHfo, of 129.8 ± 0.6 kJ mol–1. Uncertainties in the absolute ultraviolet cross sections of ClOOCl and ClO appear to be the limiting factors in these measurements. The new Keq parameters are consistent with the measurements of Santee et al.42 in the stratosphere.

  7. Avaliação do perfil de dissolução de comprimidos de ciprofloxacino 250 mg comercializados como similares no Brasil Dissolution profile evaluation of ciprofloxacin 250 mg tablets marketed as similar drugs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Oliveira Gonçalves Pita

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou, in vitro, oito especialidades farmacêuticas contendo ciprofloxacino (250 mg, sendo o produto C, o medicamento referência (Cipro® fabricado pela Bayer® S.A. e A, B, D, E, F, G e H medicamentos considerados similares. Além do teste de dissolução preconizado pela Farmacopéia americana, foi traçado o perfil de dissolução de cada amostra a partir do qual foram calculados parâmetros de eficiência de dissolução (ED. O preço máximo ao consumidor também foi levantado, para que fosse possível compará-lo com o desempenho dos produtos. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que todas as amostras atendem aos critérios especificados pelo teste de dissolução descrito na USP 24 ed., mas somente os produtos B, C, E e H foram aprovados no primeiro estágio (S1. Após tratamento estatístico empregando-se ANOVA e teste de Tukey, para os valores de eficiência de dissolução, notou-se que os produtos A e D, B e C, B e E e C e H são semelhantes quanto à liberação do fármaco in vitro. Entretanto, os produtos que mostraram melhor desempenho quanto à liberação de ciprofloxacino in vitro não são os mesmos que se apresentam como melhor opção de custo ao consumidor.The present study has assessed, in vitro, eight pharmaceutical brands containing ciprofloxacin (250 mg. The product C is the reference drug (Cipro® - Bayer® S/A and A, B, D, E, F, G and H are similar drugs. The following physicochemical tests have been carried out: dissolution test and dissolution profile, from which dissolution efficiency (DE have been calculate. The maximum price for consumer has also been obtained, in order that it was possible to compare it with the performance of the products. The results show that all the produts comply with USP specifications, but only the products, B, C, E and H have been approved on the first stage (S1. After statistic treatment, by applying ANOVA and Tukey test for DE values, it has been noted that the

  8. Hemominas: aplicação e impacto do instrumento de auto-avaliação de 250 pontos do Gespública Hemominas Foundation: utilization and impact of the Gespublica (government administration 250-point self-evaluation questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela O. W. Rodrigues

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A experiência de um modelo de gestão, nas áreas de hematologia e hemoterapia, que transforme as práticas de gestão voltadas excessivamente para procedimentos, normas e relatórios, em estratégias focadas em resultados que determinam a satisfação do cidadão, é um desafio. A grande dificuldade da qualidade na gestão dos serviços públicos é atingir resultados efetivos capazes de reduzir ou eliminar problemas ou de acrescentar benefícios e valores desejados pela sociedade.1,3,15 A Hemominas, ciente da importância do seu papel como prestadora de serviços em área crítica e de vital importância, elaborou estratégias para uma administração gerencial fundamentada em valores constitucionais públicos, institucionais, princípios da qualidade e com metas definidas e acompanhadas através de um sistema de medição. A Fundação Hemominas opera em rede, com administração e coordenação técnica centralizadas em Belo Horizonte, e possui 23 unidades regionais localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais. Na busca de um modelo gerencial moderno e focado em resultados, o Programa da Qualidade Fundação Hemominas (PQFH implantou os critérios de excelência em gestão em sete unidades da Fundação. As unidades realizaram a auto-avaliação com o instrumento de 250 pontos do Gespública, com validação externa e posterior certificação e reconhecimento pelas boas práticas pelo Ministério do Planejamento e Gestão.The experience of an administration model in hematology and blood transfusion, which transforms administration practices excessively focused on procedures, norms and strategy into approaches based on results that determine the citizens' satisfaction, presents a challenge. The great difficulty in the quality of administration of a public service is to obtain effective results by decreasing or eliminating problems, or by adding benefits and values expected by society. Hemominas, aware of the importance of its role as a service

  9. Evaluation of mechanical properties of Z250 composite resin light-cured by different methods Avaliação de propriedades mecânicas da resina composta Z250 fotoativada com diferentes métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Carla Obici

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated some mechanical parameters of Z250 composite resin using different light-curing methods. Ten specimens were prepared for each mechanical test group with different dimensions according to the test. Light-curing was performed by: a. continuous light (800mW/cm²-40s; b. exponential light (0-800mW/cm²-40s; c. intermittent light (2s-600mW/cm²; 2s without light-80s; d. stepped light (10s-150mW/cm²; 30s-650mW/cm²; e. PAC (1320mW/cm²-3s; f. LED (350mW/cm²-40s. After 24 ± 1 h, the specimens were loaded at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The mechanical properties were calculated and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (5%. The results showed that the highest compressive strength values were found for the continuous, exponential, intermittent and stepped light methods, whereas PAC and LED obtained the lowest values. LED, stepped light, PAC, exponential and continuous light presented the highest values for diametral tensile strength. The intermittent light showed the lowest value, which was significantly lower than the value obtained for LED only. Flexural strength results were not significantly different between all light-curing methods. Finally, the highest modulus of elasticity values were obtained for LED, exponential, continuous and intermittent light, whereas PAC and stepped light showed the lowest values. The mechanical properties were affected by light-curing methods employed.Este estudo avaliou algumas propriedades mecânicas da resina composta Z250 usando diferentes métodos de fotoativação. Dez amostras foram preparadas para cada grupo, com diferentes dimensões de acordo com o ensaio. Os métodos de fotoativação foram: a luz contínua (800mW/cm²-40s; b luz exponencial (0-800mW/cm²-40s; c luz intermitente (2s-600mW/cm²; 2s sem luz-80s; d dupla intensidade (10s-150mW/cm²; 30s-650mW/cm²; e PAC (1320mW/cm²-3s; f LED (350mW/cm²-40s. Após 24 ± 1 h, as amostras foram carregadas até fraturar (v=0

  10. 30 CFR 250.521 - How do I manage the thermal effects caused by initial production on a newly completed or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.521 How.... Bleeding casing pressure during the startup process is considered a normal and necessary operation to...

  11. Primary Calibration of Hydrophones in the Frequency Range of 250 Hz to 500 kHz Using Three-Transducer Spherical Wave Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    LIST OF MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS AND UNITS ................................................. iii 1 INTRODUCTION ...HYDROPHONES IN THE FREQUENCY RANGE 250 HZ TO 500 KHZ USING THREE-TRANSDUCER SPHERICAL WAVE RECIPROCITY 1. INTRODUCTION This document describes the...for algae , there is little aquatic vegetation. Calibration measurements were performed on 22 June 2016. Environmental conditions during the

  12. Criteria and considerations for the choice of pilot areas: towards a 1:250,000 soil database of the EU; working paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finke, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The choice of pilot areas follows from an analysis of problems that must be solved before a georeferenced 1 : 250 000 database of the European Union can be built. These problems are: the harmonization of existing maps and data; the harmonization of additional soil survey and data collection methods;

  13. Lack of efficacy of two consecutive treatments of radioimmunotherapy with I-131-cG250 in patients with metastasized clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, AH; Mulders, PFA; de Mulder, PHM; van den Broek, WJM; Buijs, WCAM; Mala, C; Joosten, FBM; Oosterwijk, E; Boerman, OC; Corstens, FHM; Oyen, WJG

    2005-01-01

    Purpose A previous activity dose-escalation study using I-131-labeled chimeric monoclonal antibody cG250 in patients with progressive metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) resulted in occasional therapeutic responses. The present study was designed to determine the safety and therapeutic efficacy of

  14. Lack of efficacy of two consecutive treatments of radioimmunotherapy with 131I-cG250 in patients with metastasized clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, A.H.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Broek, W.J.M. van den; Buijs, W.C.A.M.; Mala, C.; Joosten, F.B.M.; Oosterwijk, E.; Boerman, O.C.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: A previous activity dose-escalation study using 131I-labeled chimeric monoclonal antibody cG250 in patients with progressive metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) resulted in occasional therapeutic responses. The present study was designed to determine the safety and therapeutic efficacy of

  15. [Determination of proteins with the Coomassie brilliant blue G 250 method. III. Behavior of various pure proteins and comparative analysis with the biuret and Lowry methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, S; Morgante, L

    1980-03-15

    Some proteins were tested by the Bradford's method with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G 250. The findings were compared to those obtained by the Lowry's and the biuret methods. Coomassie, as the other methods, has the inconvenient of giving different absorbaces according to the nature of single protein. The use of standards of analogous composition in assaying proteins by the Bradford's method is suggested.

  16. [Method of determination of proteins with Coomassie brilliant blue G 250. I. General characteristics and comparative analysis with the biuret method and Lowry's method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, S; Morgante, L

    1980-01-30

    Bradford (1977) described a new sensitive easy rapid method for protein assay, depending on colour change of the stain Coomassie Brilliant Blue G 250. In this study Bradford's method was compared with the Lowry et al. 91951) and biuret methods. Coomassie method appears to be as sensitive as Lowry, as simple as biuret. Another advantage is a very short time of performing.

  17. 17 CFR 259.313 - Form U-13-60, for annual reports pursuant to Rule 94 (§ 250.94 of this chapter) by mutual and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... service company and every subsidiary service company required thereunder to file annual reports under... reports pursuant to Rule 94 (§ 250.94 of this chapter) by mutual and subsidiary service companies... AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  18. Wind tunnel test results for the direction controlled antitank DCAT missile at Mach numbers from 0.64 to 2.50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T. A.; Spring, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results are presented to show aerodynamic characteristics over the Mach number range of 0.64 to 2.50 of the DCAT missile. Data are presented showing the interference created by the rear mounted reaction control system. Two candidate fins were installed on the model during tests: a flat folding fin and a curved wrap around fin.

  19. 21 CFR 177.1395 - Laminate structures for use at temperatures between 120 °F and 250 °F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Laminate structures for use at temperatures between... § 177.1395 Laminate structures for use at temperatures between 120 °F and 250 °F. (a) The laminates identified in this section may be safely used at the specified temperatures. These articles are layered...

  20. 42 CFR 137.250 - How are funds distributed when a Self-Governance Tribe fully or partially retrocedes from its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are funds distributed when a Self-Governance... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Retrocession § 137.250 How are funds...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix F to Part 122 - Incorporated Places With Populations Greater Than 250,000 According to the 1990 Decennial Census...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporated Places With Populations Greater Than 250,000 According to the 1990 Decennial Census by the Bureau of the Census F Appendix F to... ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Pt. 122, App. F Appendix F to...

  2. Comparison of CO2 and Nd:YAG laser welding of grade 250 maraging steel, IIW doc. II-A-173-06

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding trials were performed on thin walled cylindrical Grade 250 maraging steel tubes to determine its suitability as a joining process for rocket motor casings. Bead-on-plate (BOP) and butt welded samples were produced utilising a 5 k...

  3. Top-down modulation of visual processing and knowledge after 250 ms supports object constancy of category decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haline E. Schendan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available People categorize objects slowly when visual input is highly impoverished instead of optimal. While bottom-up models may explain a decision with optimal input, perceptual hypothesis testing (PHT theories implicate top-down processes with impoverished input. Brain mechanisms and the time course of PHT are largely unknown. This event-related potential study used a neuroimaging paradigm that implicated prefrontal cortex in top-down modulation of occipitotemporal cortex. Subjects categorized more impoverished and less impoverished real and pseudo objects. PHT theories predict larger impoverishment effects for real than pseudo objects because top-down processes modulate knowledge only for real objects, but different PHT variants predict different timing. Consistent with parietal-prefrontal PHT variants, around 250 ms, the earliest impoverished real object interaction started on an N3 complex, which reflects interactive cortical activity for object cognition. N3 impoverishment effects localized to both prefrontal and occipitotemporal cortex for real objects only. The N3 also showed knowledge effects by 230 ms that localized to occipitotemporal cortex. Later effects reflected (a word meaning in temporal cortex during the N400, (b internal evaluation of prior decision and memory processes and secondary higher-order memory involving anterotemporal parts of a default mode network during posterior positivity (P600, and (c response related activity in posterior cingulate during an anterior slow wave (SW after 700 ms. Finally, response activity in supplementary motor area during a posterior SW after 900 ms showed impoverishment effects that correlated with RTs. Convergent evidence from studies of vision, memory, and mental imagery which reflects purely top-down inputs, indicates that the N3 reflects the critical top-down processes of PHT. A hybrid multiple-state interactive, PHT and decision theory best explains the visual constancy of object cognition.

  4. Crown plasticity and competition for canopy space: a new spatially implicit model parameterized for 250 North American tree species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew W Purves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canopy structure, which can be defined as the sum of the sizes, shapes and relative placements of the tree crowns in a forest stand, is central to all aspects of forest ecology. But there is no accepted method for deriving canopy structure from the sizes, species and biomechanical properties of the individual trees in a stand. Any such method must capture the fact that trees are highly plastic in their growth, forming tessellating crown shapes that fill all or most of the canopy space. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce a new, simple and rapidly-implemented model--the Ideal Tree Distribution, ITD--with tree form (height allometry and crown shape, growth plasticity, and space-filling, at its core. The ITD predicts the canopy status (in or out of canopy, crown depth, and total and exposed crown area of the trees in a stand, given their species, sizes and potential crown shapes. We use maximum likelihood methods, in conjunction with data from over 100,000 trees taken from forests across the coterminous US, to estimate ITD model parameters for 250 North American tree species. With only two free parameters per species--one aggregate parameter to describe crown shape, and one parameter to set the so-called depth bias--the model captures between-species patterns in average canopy status, crown radius, and crown depth, and within-species means of these metrics vs stem diameter. The model also predicts much of the variation in these metrics for a tree of a given species and size, resulting solely from deterministic responses to variation in stand structure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This new model, with parameters for US tree species, opens up new possibilities for understanding and modeling forest dynamics at local and regional scales, and may provide a new way to interpret remote sensing data of forest canopies, including LIDAR and aerial photography.

  5. ICDP project DeepCHALLA: reconstructing East African climate change and environmental history over the past 250,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Dirk; Van Daele, Maarten; Wolff, Christian; Waldmann, Nicolas; Meyer, Inka; Ombori, Titus; Peterse, Francien; O'Grady, Ryan; Schnurrenberger, Doug; Olago, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-meter deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change. The near-equatorial location and exceptional quality of this natural archive provide great opportunities to study tropical climate variability at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and the influence of this climate variability on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the East African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) evolved and have lived ever since. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered the sediment record of Lake Challa down to 214.8 meter below the lake floor, with almost certain 100% cover of the uppermost 121.3 meter (ca.150,000 year BP to present) and estimated 85% cover over the lower part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector in the available seismic stratigraphy. This reflector represents a 2 meter thick layer of volcanic sand and silt deposited ca.250,000 years ago, and overlies still older silty lacustrine clays deposited during early lake development. Down-hole logging produced continuous profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth scale to both the recovered cores and their three-dimensional representation in seismic stratigraphy. As readily observed through the transparent core liners, Lake Challa sediments are finely laminated throughout most of the recovered sequence. Combined with the great time span, the exquisite temporal resolution of these sediments promises to greatly increase our understanding of tropical climate and ecosystem dynamics, and create a long-awaited equatorial counterpart to the high-latitude climate records extracted from the ice sheets of Greenland

  6. An automated tool for a daily harmful algal bloom monitoring using MODIS imagery downscaled to 250 meters spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alem, A.

    2016-12-01

    Harmful algal bloom (HAB) causes negative impacts to other organisms by producing natural toxins, mechanical damage to other micro-organisms, or simply by degrading waters quality. Contaminated waters could expose several billions of population to serious intoxications problems. Traditionally, HAB monitoring is made with standard methods limited to a restricted network of sampling points. However, rapid evolution of HABs makes it difficult to monitor their variation in time and space, threating then public safety. Daily monitoring is then the best way to control and to mitigate their harmful effect upon population, particularly for sources feeding cities. Recently, an approach for estimating chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, as a proxy of HAB presence, in inland waters based MODIS imagery downscaled to 250 meters spatial resolution was developed. Statistical evaluation of the developed approach highlighted the accuracy of Chl-a estimate with a R2 = 0.98, a relative RMSE of 15%, a relative BIAS of -2%, and a relative NASH of 0.95. Temporal resolution of MODIS sensor allows then a daily monitoring of HAB spatial distribution for inland waters of more than 2.25 Km2 of surface. Groupe-Hemisphere, a company specialized in environmental and sustainable planning in Quebec, has shown a great interest to the developed approach. Given the complexity of the preprocessing (geometric and atmospheric corrections as well as downscaling spatial resolution) and processing (Chl-a estimate) of images, a standalone application under the MATLAB's GUI environment was developed. The application allows an automated process for all preprocessing and processing steps. Outputs produced by the application for end users, many of whom may be decision makers or policy makers in the public and private sectors, allows a near-real time monitoring of water quality for a more efficient management.

  7. Carbonation of Clay Minerals Exposed to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees and 250 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.; Ecker, L.; Gill, S.; Butcher, T.(BNL); Bour, D. (AltaRock Energy, Inc.)

    2010-11-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of carbonation of clay minerals, such as bentonite, kaolinite, and soft clay, we exposed them to supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)/water at temperatures of 200 and 250 C and pressures of 1500 and 2000 psi for 72- and 107-hours. Bentonite, comprising three crystalline phases, montmorillonite (MMT), anorthoclase-type albite, and quartz was susceptible to reactions with ionic carbonic acid yielded by the interactions between scCO2 and water, particularly MMT and anorthoclase-type albite phases. For MMT, the cation-exchangeable ions, such as Na+ and Ca2+, present in its basal interplanar space, were replaced by proton, H+, from ionic carbonic acid; thereafter, the cations leaching from MMT directly reacted with CO32- as a counter ion of H+ to form carbonate compounds. Such in-situ carbonation process in basal space caused the shrinkage and breakage of the spacing structure within MMT. In contrast, the wet carbonation of anorthoclase-type albite, categorized as rock minerals, entailed the formation of three amorphous by-products, such as carbonates, kaolinite-like compounds, and silicon dioxide. Together, these two different carbonations caused the disintegration and corruption of bentonite. Kaolinite clay containing the amorphous carbonates and silicon dioxide was inert to wet carbonation. We noted only a gain in weight due to its water uptake, suggesting that kaolinite-like by-products generated by the wet carbonation of rock minerals might remain unchanged even during extended exposure. Soft clay consisting of two crystalline phases, dolomite and silicon dioxide, also was unaltered by wet carbonation, despite the uptake of water.

  8. A global census of continental rift activity since 250 Ma reveals a missing element of the deep carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon; Müller, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    The deep carbon cycle connects CO2 concentrations within the atmosphere to the vast carbon reservoir in Earth's mantle: subducted lithosphere carries carbon into the mantle, while extensional plate boundaries and arc volcanoes release it back to Earth's surface. The length of plate boundaries thereby exerts first-order control on global CO2 fluxes on geological time scales. Here we provide a global census of rift length from the Triassic to present day, combining a new plate reconstruction analysis technique with data from the geological rift record. We find that the most extensive rift phase during the fragmentation of Pangea occurred in the Jurassic/Early Cretaceous with extension along the South Atlantic (9700 km) and North Atlantic rifts (9100 km), within East Gondwana (8500 km), the failed African rift systems (4900 km), and between Australia and Antarctica (3700 km). The combined extent of these and other rift systems amounts to more than 50.000 km of simultaneously active continental rifts. During the Late Cretaceous, in the aftermath of this massive rift episode, the global rift length dropped by 60% to 20.000 km. We further show that a second pronounced rift episode starts in the Eocene with global rift lengths of up to 30.000 km. It is well-accepted that volcanoes at plate boundaries release large amounts of CO2 from the Earth's interior. Recent work, however, highlights the importance of deep-cutting faults and diffuse degassing on CO2 emissions in the East African Rift, which appear to be comparable to CO2 release rates at mid-ocean ridges worldwide. Upscaling measured CO2 fluxes from East Africa to all concurrently active global rift zones with due caution, we compute the first-order history of cumulative rift-related CO2 degassing rates for the last 250 Myr. We demonstrate that rift-related CO2 release in the Early Cretaceous may have reached 400% of present-day rates. In first-order agreement with paleo-atmospheric CO2 concentrations from proxy

  9. Towards a transcription map spanning a 250 kb area within the DiGeorge syndrome chromosome region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, W.; Emanuel, B.S.; Siegert, J. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) are congenital anomalies affecting predominantly the thymus, parathyroid glands, heart and craniofacial development. Detection of 22q11.2 deletions in the majority of DGS and VCFS patients implicate 22q11 haploinsufficiency in the etiology of these disorders. The VCFS/DGS critical region lies within the proximal portion of a commonly deleted 1.2 Mb region in 22q11. A 250 kb cosmid contig covering this critical region and containing D22S74 (N25) has been established. From this contig, eleven cosmids with minimal overlap were biotinylated by nick translation, and hybridized to PCR-amplified cDNAs prepared from different tissues. The use of cDNAs from a variety of tissues increases the likelihood of identifying low abundance transcripts and tissue-specific expressed sequences. A DGCR-specific cDNA sublibrary consisting of 670 cDNA clones has been constructed. To date, 49 cDNA clones from this sub-library have been identified with single copy probes and cosmids containing putative CpG islands. Based on sequence analysis, 25 of the clones contain regions of homology to several cDNAs which map within the proximal contig. LAN is a novel partial cDNA isolated from a fetal brain library probed with one of the cosmids in the proximal contig. Using LAN as a probe, we have found 19 positive clones in the DGCR-specific cDNA sub-library (4 clones from fetal brain, 14 from adult skeletal muscle and one from fetal liver). Some of the LAN-positive clones extend the partial cDNA in the 5{prime} direction and will be useful in assembling a full length transcript. This resource will be used to develop a complete transcriptional map of the critical region in order to identify candidate gene(s) involved in the etiology of DGS/VCFS and to determine the relationship between the transcriptional and physical maps of 22q11.

  10. Susceptibility of Granite Rock to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees C and 250 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.; Gill, S., Ecker, L., Butcher, T., Warren, J.

    2011-01-01

    Granite rock comprising anorthoclase-type albite and quartz as its major phases and biotite mica as the minor one was exposed to supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2})/water at 250 C and 13.78 MPa pressure for 104 hours. For comparison purpose, four other rocks, albite, hornblende, diorite, and quartz, also were exposed. During the exposure of granite, ionic carbonic acid, known as the wet carbonation reactant, preferentially reacted with anorthoclase-type albite and biotite, rather than with quartz. The susceptibility of biotite to wet carbonation was higher than that of anorthoclase-type albite. All the carbonation by-products of anorthoclase-type albite were amorphous phases including Na- and K-carbonates, a kaolinite clay-like compound, and silicon dioxide, while wet carbonation converted biotite into potassium aluminum silicate, siderite, and magnesite in crystalline phases and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Three of these reaction by-products, Na- and K-carbonates and HF, were highly soluble in water. Correspondingly, the carbonated top surface layer, about 1.27 mm thick as carbonation depth, developed porous microstructure with numerous large voids, some of which have a size of {>=} 10 {mu}m, reflecting the erosion of granite by the leaching of these water-soluble reaction by-products. Comparing with this carbonation depth, its depth of other minerals was considerable lower, particularly, for hornblende and diorite with 0.07 and 0.02 mm, while no carbonate compound was detected in quartz. The major factor governing these low carbonation depths in these rocks was the formation of water-insensitive scale-like carbonate by-products such as calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), and magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). Their formation within the superficial layer of these minerals served as protective barrier layer that inhibits and retards further carbonation of fresh underlying minerals, even if the exposure time was extended. Thus, the coverage by this barrier layer

  11. Accuracy of genomic predictions of residual feed intake and 250-day body weight in growing heifers using 625,000 single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Arias, J; Bowman, P J; Davis, S R; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C; Wales, W J; Williams, Y J; Spelman, R J; Hayes, B J

    2012-04-01

    Feed makes up a large proportion of variable costs in dairying. For this reason, selection for traits associated with feed conversion efficiency should lead to greater profitability of dairying. Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted feed intakes and is a useful selection criterion for greater feed efficiency. However, measuring individual feed intakes on a large scale is prohibitively expensive. A panel of DNA markers explaining genetic variation in this trait would enable cost-effective genomic selection for this trait. With the aim of enabling genomic selection for RFI, we used data from almost 2,000 heifers measured for growth rate and feed intake in Australia (AU) and New Zealand (NZ) genotyped for 625,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Substantial variation in RFI and 250-d body weight (BW250) was demonstrated. Heritabilities of RFI and BW250 estimated using genomic relationships among the heifers were 0.22 and 0.28 in AU heifers and 0.38 and 0.44 in NZ heifers, respectively. Genomic breeding values for RFI and BW250 were derived using genomic BLUP and 2 bayesian methods (BayesA, BayesMulti). The accuracies of genomic breeding values for RFI were evaluated using cross-validation. When 624,930 SNP were used to derive the prediction equation, the accuracies averaged 0.37 and 0.31 for RFI in AU and NZ validation data sets, respectively, and 0.40 and 0.25 for BW250 in AU and NZ, respectively. The greatest advantage of using the full 624,930 SNP over a reduced panel of 36,673 SNP (the widely used BovineSNP50 array) was when the reference population included only animals from either the AU or the NZ experiment. Finally, the bayesian methods were also used for quantitative trait loci detection. On chromosome 14 at around 25 Mb, several SNP closest to PLAG1 (a gene believed to affect stature in humans and cattle) had an effect on BW250 in both AU and NZ populations. In addition, 8 SNP with large effects on RFI were

  12. Apparent Affinity Estimates and Reversal of the Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids AM-2201, CP-47,497, JWH-122, and JWH-250 by Rimonabant in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids have been prohibited due to abuse liability and toxicity. Four such synthetic cannabinoids, AM-2201 ([1-(5-fluoropentyl)indol-3-yl]-naphthalen-1-ylmethanone), CP-47,497 (2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol), JWH-122 [(4-methylnaphthalen-1-yl)-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone], and JWH-250 [2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)ethanone], were tested for their capacity to produce CB 1 receptor-mediated discriminative stimulus effects in two groups of rhesus monkeys. One group ( n = 4) discriminated Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (∆ 9 -THC; 0.1 mg/kg i.v.), and a second group ( n = 4) discriminated the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg i.v.) while receiving 1 mg/kg/12 hours of ∆ 9 -THC. AM-2201, JWH-122, CP-47,497, JWH-250, and ∆ 9 -THC increased ∆ 9 -THC lever responding. Duration of action was 1-2 hours for AM-2201, JWH-122, and JWH-250 and 4-5 hours for CP-47,497 and ∆ 9 -THC. Rimonabant (1 mg/kg) surmountably antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of all cannabinoid agonists; the magnitude of rightward shift was 10.6-fold for AM-2201, 10.7-fold for JWH-122, 11.0-fold for CP-47,497, and 15.7-fold for JWH-250. The respective pK B values were not significantly different: 6.61, 6.65, 6.66, and 6.83. In ∆ 9 -THC-treated monkeys discriminating rimonabant, AM-2201 (0.1 and 0.32 mg/kg), JWH-122 (0.32 and 1 mg/kg), JWH-250 (1 and 3.2 mg/kg), and CP-47,497 (0.32, 1, and 3.2 mg/kg) produced not only rate-decreasing effects that were reversed by rimonabant, but also dose-dependent, rightward shifts in the rimonabant discrimination dose-effect function. These results show striking similarity in the CB 1 receptor mechanism mediating the subjective effects of AM-2201, JWH-122, JWH-250, and CP-47,497. For products containing AM-2201 and JWH-122, a short duration of action could lead to more frequent use; moreover, inattention to differences in potency among synthetic cannabinoids could underlie unexpected

  13. A low-power 10-bit 250 MS/s dual-channel pipeline ADC in 0.18 μm CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Q.; Chen, J.; Wen, X.; Feng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zuo, Z.; Gong, D.; Liu, T.; Ye, J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a 10-bit 250-MS/s time-interleaved pipelined analog-to-digital data converter (ADC). A distributed clocking scheme is developed to eliminate timing skew between channels without introducing load capacitance to the driving buffer of the ADC. The channel offset and gain mismatch errors are calibrated in digital domain. In addition, a switch-embedded opamp-sharing technique is developed to reduce the ADC power consumption and eliminate the memory effect. The simulated SNDR and SFDR are 61.84 dB and 78.2 dB, respectively. The ADC core consumes 28 mW under a 1.8 V supply at 250 MS/s sampling rate.

  14. Cobalt and molybdenum activated electrodes in foam based alkaline electrolysis cells at 150-250 °C and 40 bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    A new type of alkaline electrolysis cells with nickel foam based gas diffusion electrodes and KOH (aq) immobilized in mesoporous SrTiO3 has been developed and tested at temperatures of 150 C, 200 C and 250 C at a pressure of 40 bar. Two cells have been characterized during the 270 h long test......, using impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry at an applied cell voltage of 1.5 V, 1.625 V and 1.75 V. The performance of the electrolysis cells was improved by the addition of cobalt oxide and molybdenum oxide as nano sized electro-catalysts. At 250 C current densities of 1.......1 A cm-2 and 2.3 A cm-2 were obtained at cell voltages of 1.5 V and 1.75 V, respectively.© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. [Determination of proteins with the Coomassie brilliant blue G 250 method. IV. Use with cerebrospinal fluid proteins and comparative analysis with the biuret and Lowry methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, S; Morgante, L; Di Perri, R

    1980-03-15

    The method of Bradford with Coomassie Brillant Blue G 250 for protein assay has been applyed to CSF in comparison with biuret and Lowry's methods. The results of Coomassie method closely agree with Lowry, and are similar to those of biuret. It is suggested to replace the previously used methods for CSF protein assay by the Bradford's method, because it keeps the sensitivity of Lowry and the simplicity of biuret. It adds too the advantage of requiring less time.

  16. A homozygous nonsense CEP250 mutation combined with a heterozygous nonsense C2orf71 mutation is associated with atypical Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khateb, Samer; Zelinger, Lina; Mizrahi-Meissonnier, Liliana; Ayuso, Carmen; Koenekoop, Robert K; Laxer, Uri; Gross, Menachem; Banin, Eyal; Sharon, Dror

    2014-07-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) caused by mutations in at least 12 genes. Our aim is to identify additional USH-related genes. Clinical examination included visual acuity test, funduscopy and electroretinography. Genetic analysis included homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing (WES). A combination of homozygosity mapping and WES in a large consanguineous family of Iranian Jewish origin revealed nonsense mutations in two ciliary genes: c.3289C>T (p.Q1097*) in C2orf71 and c.3463C>T (p.R1155*) in centrosome-associated protein CEP250 (C-Nap1). The latter has not been associated with any inherited disease and the c.3463C>T mutation was absent in control chromosomes. Patients who were double homozygotes had SNHL accompanied by early-onset and severe RP, while patients who were homozygous for the CEP250 mutation and carried a single mutant C2orf71 allele had SNHL with mild retinal degeneration. No ciliary structural abnormalities in the respiratory system were evident by electron microscopy analysis. CEP250 expression analysis of the mutant allele revealed the generation of a truncated protein lacking the NEK2-phosphorylation region. A homozygous nonsense CEP250 mutation, in combination with a heterozygous C2orf71 nonsense mutation, causes an atypical form of USH, characterised by early-onset SNHL and a relatively mild RP. The severe retinal involvement in the double homozygotes indicates an additive effect caused by nonsense mutations in genes encoding ciliary proteins. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Transferrin receptor-2 (TFR2) mutation Y250X in Alabama Caucasian and African American subjects with and without primary iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E H; West, P A; Rivers, C A; Barton, J C; Acton, R T

    2001-01-01

    Most cases of hemochromatosis are associated with mutations of the HFE gene on Ch6p. In southern Italy and central Alabama, the percentages of patients with hemochromatosis who have "atypical" HFE genotypes (defined as lack of C282Y homozygosity, C282Y/H63D compound heterozygosity, or H63D homozygosity) are relatively great. A mutation of the transferrin receptor-2 gene (TFR2; exon 6, nt 750 C --> G, replaces TAC with stop signal TAG; Y250X) on Ch7q22 was recently identified in two Sicilian families with HFE mutation-negative hemochromatosis. We wanted to estimate the frequency of this mutation in persons from central Alabama. We evaluated Caucasian hemochromatosis probands with atypical HFE genotypes and African Americans with primary iron overload. We also studied control Caucasians, including persons of southern Italian/Sicilian heritage, and control African Americans. Analysis of genomic DNA was performed using a PCR-sequence-specific priming assay and positive control specimens from Sicilian hemochromatosis subjects heterozygous and homozygous for Y250X. Among Alabama subjects, this allele was not detected in 113 Caucasians, including 21 hemochromatosis probands with atypical HFE genotypes and 92 normal control subjects (including 27 of southern Italian/Sicilian descent). In African Americans, Y250X was not detected in 20 index cases with primary iron overload or in 274 unrelated control subjects. We conclude that Y250X is uncommon in Caucasians with hemochromatosis associated with atypical HFE genotypes, in African Americans with primary iron overload, and in the general Caucasian and African American population subgroups in central Alabama. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Neutron- and proton-induced nuclear data evaluation of thorium, uranium and curium isotopes for energies up to 250 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Ouk Lee; Jonghwa, Chang; Konobeyev, A Yu

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of neutron- and proton nuclear data for thorium-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243,244,245,246 isotopes have been performed at energies up to 250 MeV. Neutron data was evaluated at energies from 20 MeV to 250 MeV, and combined with the JENDL-3.3 data at 20 MeV while proton data was obtained for energies from 1 to 250 MeV. Nuclear model parameters are largely based on the IAEA-RIPL recommendation, and adjusted to better reproduce the available measurements. The coupled channel optical model was applied to calculate the total, reaction, elastic, and direct inelastic cross sections, and to obtain the transmission coefficients. Decay of excited nuclei was described with the Hauser-Feshbach and exciton models using the GNASH code to simultaneously handle neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3, alpha , gamma emissions and fissions. Special attention was paid on the fission cross sections for energies where experimental data are scant, using appropriate systematics and fittings. Particles and gamma e...

  19. [A clinical study on the comparison of the performance of stainless steel ring (SSR), uterine cavity-shaped device (UCD), MLCu250 and TCu220C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y

    1988-01-01

    In Dafeng County, Jiangsu Province, 710 healthy peasant women, ages 22- 32, were randomly allocated to the use of several different IUDs for periods of 3-9 months postpartum. Although this single-blind study continued for 2 years, only 1 year's worth of data is presented in this paper. The total termination rate was lowest with the MLCu 250, followed by the UCD, and then the TCu220c. The UCD is an inert, stainless steel device which assumes an isosceles shape to conform to the uterine cavity. The SSR had the highest termination rate (see table 1). There was a significant difference between the total termination rates of the SSR and each of the other 3 IUDs, while no significant difference was seen between those of the 3 themselves. The removals due to bleeding and pain were much higher in the TCu220c than in the MLCu250. The results of this study seem dissimilar to those obtained in IUD trials carried out among housewives and office workers. Clearly, in women performing strenuous physical tasks, the straight and rigid transverse arms of the TCu220c may impose more stimulation on the uterine wall than the soft and curved arms of the MLCu250. (author's modified)

  20. Fabrication of mAb G250-SPIO molecular magnetic resonance imaging nanoprobe for the specific detection of renal cell carcinoma in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailuan Lu

    Full Text Available Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI has been paid more and more attention for early diagnosis of cancer. A sensitive and specific mMRI probe plays the most important role in this technique. In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles and mAb G250 were conjugated as mMRI probe for the detection of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC using 3.0-Tesla MRI in vitro. mAb G250 could specifically recognize carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX antigen overexpressed in ccRCC and the SPIO nanoparticles as MRI contrast agent presented excellent MRI response and good biocompatibility. The successful assembly of this nanoprobe was confirmed by UV-vis spectrum, FT-IR spectroscopy and DLS analysis. In vitro MRI study on ccRCC cells and control cells indicated that our fabricated mAb G250-SPIO nanoprobe could be used in the specific labeling of clear cell renal carcinoma cells successfully.

  1. Neutron Protection Factor Determination and Validation for a Vehicle Surrogate Using a Californium Fission Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    a 4 mm x 4 mm (0.157" x 0.157") LiI(Eu) crystal with 96% enrichment of lithium -6. The crystal is connected to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which...32 Figure 17. Lithium -6 Iodide, Europium Doped Scintillation Detector. Source: [27...Alamos National Laboratory LiI(Eu) Lithium Iodide Europium Doped LLD Low Level Discriminator LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory MASH Monte

  2. Developing a 30-m grassland productivity estimation map for central Nebraska using 250-m MODIS and 30-m Landsat-8 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    Accurately estimating aboveground vegetation biomass productivity is essential for local ecosystem assessment and best land management practice. Satellite-derived growing season time-integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GSN) has been used as a proxy for vegetation biomass productivity. A 250-m grassland biomass productivity map for the Greater Platte River Basin had been developed based on the relationship between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) GSN and Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) annual grassland productivity. However, the 250-m MODIS grassland biomass productivity map does not capture detailed ecological features (or patterns) and may result in only generalized estimation of the regional total productivity. Developing a high or moderate spatial resolution (e.g., 30-m) productivity map to better understand the regional detailed vegetation condition and ecosystem services is preferred. The 30-m Landsat data provide spatial detail for characterizing human-scale processes and have been successfully used for land cover and land change studies. The main goal of this study is to develop a 30-m grassland biomass productivity estimation map for central Nebraska, leveraging 250-m MODIS GSN and 30-m Landsat data. A rule-based piecewise regression GSN model based on MODIS and Landsat (r = 0.91) was developed, and a 30-m MODIS equivalent GSN map was generated. Finally, a 30-m grassland biomass productivity estimation map, which provides spatially detailed ecological features and conditions for central Nebraska, was produced. The resulting 30-m grassland productivity map was generally supported by the SSURGO biomass production map and will be useful for regional ecosystem study and local land management practices.

  3. Substantiation of the cogeneration turbine unit selection for reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Bilan, V. N.; Kadkina, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The selection of a cogeneration steam turbine unit (STU) for the reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine is substantiated by the example of power unit no. 9 at the cogeneration power station no. 22 (TETs-22) of Mosenergo Company. Series T-250 steam turbines have been developed for combined heat and power generation. A total of 31 turbines were manufactured. By the end of 2015, the total operation time of prototype power units with the T-250/300-23.5 turbine exceeded 290000 hours. Considering the expiry of the service life, the decision was made that the reconstruction of the power unit at st. no. 9 of TETs-22 should be the first priority. The main issues that arose in developing this project—the customer's requirements and the request for the reconstruction, the view on certain problems of Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) as the manufacturer of the main power unit equipment, and the opinions of other project parties—are examined. The decisions were made with account taken of the experience in operation of all Series T-250 turbines and the results of long-term discussions of pressing problems at scientific and technical councils, meetings, and negotiations. For the new power unit, the following parameters have been set: a live steam pressure of 23.5 MPa and live steam/reheat temperature of 565/565°C. Considering that the boiler equipment will be upgraded, the live steam flow is increased up to 1030 t/h. The reconstruction activities involving the replacement of the existing turbine with a new one will yield a service life of 250000 hours for turbine parts exposed to a temperature of 450°C or higher and 200000 hours for pipeline components. Hence, the decision has been made to reuse the arrangement of the existing turbine: a four-cylinder turbine unit comprising a high-pressure cylinder (HPC), two intermediate pressure cylinders (IPC-1 & 2), and a low-pressure cylinder (LPC). The flow path in the new turbine will have active blading in LPC and IPC-1

  4. Effect of magnetic field strength on NMR-based metabonomic human urine data. Comparative study of 250, 400, 500, and 800 MHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Malmendal, Anders; Petersen, Bent O.

    2007-01-01

    Metabonomic analysis of urine utilizing high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and chemometric techniques has proven valuable in characterizing the biochemical response to an intervention. To assess the effect of magnetic field strength on information contained in NMR-based metabonomic data sets, 1H NMR...... spectra were acquired on 250-, 400-, 500-, and 800-MHz instruments, respectively, on the same set of human urine samples collected before and after dietary interventions with milk and with meat proteins. Partial least-squares regression discriminant analyses (PLS-DA) were performed in order to elucidate...

  5. Can MODIS data calibrate and validate coastal sediment transport models? Rapid prototyping using 250 m data and the ECOMSED model for Lake Pontchartrain, LA USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.; Glorioso, M. V.; Georgiou, I.; McCorquodale, J. A.; Crower, K.

    2006-12-01

    Field measurements from small boats and sparse arrays of instrumented buoys often do not provide sufficient data to capture the dynamic nature of bio-geophysical parameters in many coastal aquatic environments. Several investigators have shown that MODIS 250 m images can provide daily synoptic views of suspended sediment concentration in coastal waters to determine sediment transport and fate. However, the use of MODIS for coastal environments can be limited due to a lack of cloud-free images. Sediment transport models are not constrained by sky conditions but often suffer from a lack of in situ observations for model calibration or validation. We will demonstrate the utility of MODIS 250 m to calibrate (set model parameters), validate output, and set or re-set initial conditions of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model (ECOMSED) developed for Lake Pontchartrain, LA USA. We will present our approach to quickly assess or `prototype' the application of NASA data to support environmental managers and decision makers. The combination of daily MODIS imagery and model simulations offer a more robust monitoring and prediction system of suspended sediments than available from either system alone. We will also present a brief introduction of how this approach will be implemented to assess the future use of NPOES-VIIRS images for monitoring coastal sediment processes.

  6. A comparative transcriptional map of a region of 250 kb on the human and mouse X chromosome between the G6PD and the FLN1 genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivella, S.; Tamanini, F.; Bione, S.; Mancini, M. [Istituto de Genetica Biochinica ed Evoluzionistica, Pavia (Italy)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    The transcriptional organization of the region of the mouse X chromosome between the G6pd and the Fln1 genes was studied in detail, and it was compared with the syntenic region of the human chromosome. A cosmid contig of 250 kb was constructed by screening mouse cosmid libraries with probes for human genes and with whole cosmids. Overlapping cosmids were aligned by comparing EcoRI and rare-cutter restriction enzyme digestions. The gene order and the orientation of transcription were determined by hybridization with fragments from the 5{prime} and 3{prime} moieties of each cDNA. Our work demonstrates that all of the new genes identified in human are present in the mouse. The size of the region, 250 kb, is also very similar, as are gene order and gene organizations: the transcriptional organization in {open_quotes}domains{close_quotes} described in human is found to be identical in the mouse. The major difference detected is the much lower content in rare-cutter restriction sites, which is related to the lower G+C and CpG content of mouse DNA. The very high conservation that we have described suggests that a potent selective pressure has contributed to such conservation of gene organization. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Solar-blind deep-UV band-pass filter (250 - 350 nm) consisting of a metal nano-grid fabricated by nanoimprint lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Di; Chou, Stephen Y

    2010-01-18

    We designed, fabricated and demonstrated a solar-blind deep-UV pass filter, that has a measured optical performance of a 27% transmission peak at 290 nm, a pass-band width of 100 nm (from 250 to 350 nm), and a 20dB rejection ratio between deep-UV wavelength and visible wavelength. The filter consists of an aluminum nano-grid, which was made by coating 20 nm Al on a SiO(2) square grid with 190 nm pitch, 30 nm linewidth and 250 nm depth. The performances agree with a rigorous coupled wave analysis. The wavelength for the peak transmission and the pass-bandwidth can be tuned through adjusting the metal nano-grid dimensions. The filter was fabricated by nanoimprint lithography, hence is large area and low cost. Combining with Si photodetectors, the filter offers simple yet effective and low cost solar-blind deep-UV detection at either a single device or large-area complex integrated imaging array level.

  8. MONTHLY VARIABILITY OF TOTAL SUSPENDED MATTER (TSM MAPPING USING MODIS 250M TO SUPPORT MARINE CULTURE AT MOROTAI ISLAND, NORTH MALUKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMANG IWAN SUNIADA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide an information of Total Suspended Matter concentration and its monthly variability using dialy data of Terra/ Aqua MOD IS level 1 b with spatial resolution 250m imagery at Morotai Island, Northern Maluku. TSM is one of the water quality key parameter to support finding suitable area which is an important step for marine culture activity. Dialy Aqua/Terra MODIS level lb, 250m dataset was downloaded freely from Goddard Space Flight Center, LAADS Web (http ://ladsweb.nascom.nasa.gov/ and its contains information of calibrated radiance dan reflectance. TSM concentration derived using algorithm proposed by Trisakti et al, TSM (mg/I = 72743 (bl+b22 ·3551, where bl is remote sensing reflectance band 1 and b2 is remote sensing reflectance band 2. Further process is daily TSM data composited to produce monthly data to define the variability. GIS application technique based on apropriate environment condition for fish comodity are used to mapping suitable area concerning of TSM parameter. Suspended sediment concentrations derived from satellite data showed that the average range of 40-90 mg/I, with the highest suspended sediment concentration occurred in January and lowest in June

  9. Buckling measurements up to 250 deg C on lattices of Agesta clusters and on D{sub 2}O alone in the pressurized exponential assembly TZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, R.; Andersson, A.J.W.; Wikdahl, C.E.

    1966-11-15

    Buckling determinations by means of flux mapping were performed in TZ up to 250 deg C on two lattices of Aagesta fuel assemblies in D{sub 2}O and on D{sub 2}O alone. Most of the flux measurements were made with fission counters in pressure thimbles. The perturbations caused by the thimbles were studied experimentally in various ways and compared with two group diffusion-theory calculations. In one of the lattices the effectiveness of a control rod (AglnCd) was also investigated. The results of the diffusion length experiments indicated some systematic error of the order of 0.15 - 0.10/m{sup 2} in the bucklings measured, though the temperature dependence should be well established. The bucklings of the two lattices studied (square pitches 24 and 27 cm) were found to be less sensitive to temperature than theoretical calculations predict, the temperature coefficient being more than 10 per cent smaller. The buckling changes from 20 to 250 deg C were about -2.4 and -1.8/m{sup 2}, respectively, for the two lattices. During part of the experimental period we had, for some unexplained reason, about 30 per cent excess absorption in the heavy water.

  10. Granulocyte-specific monoclonal antibody technetium-99m-BW 250/183 and indium-111 oxine-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, I; Roca, M; Baliellas, C; Vilar, L; Ricart, Y; Mora, J; Puchal, R; Martin-Comin, J

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-three patients suspected of suffering from inflammatory bowel disease were studied. Autologous leucocytes were labelled with indium 111 oxine and re-injected simultaneously with 0.3-0.5 mg of technetium 99m granulocyte-specific monoclonal antibody BW 250/183. Two scans were obtained, the early scan 3-4 h postinjection (p.i.) and the late scan 18-24 h p.i. Using the endoscopy study as standard, the diagnostic accuracy of both agents was determined. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 111In scans was 88.8%, 100.0% and 93.7% at 4 h and 94.7%, 100.0% and 96.9% at 24 h, respectively. Concerning the results using antibodies, the values were 61.1%, 100.0% and 78.1% at 4 h and 78.9%, 92.8% and 84.8% at 24 h, respectively. Segmental analysis showed concordance in 89.3% and 93.3% of the cases at 4 and 24 h, respectively. Though less sensitive and less accurate than scanning employing indium 111 leucocytes, BW 250/183 granulocyte-specific scintigraphy can be used for inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis and localization.

  11. Granulocyte-specific monoclonal antibody technetium-99m-BW 250/183 and indium-111 oxine-labelled leukocyte scintigraphy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segarra, I.; Roca, M.; Ricart, Y.; Mora, J.; Puchal, R.; Martin-Comin, J. (Hospital de Bella Vista, Barcelona (Spain). Servicio de Medicina Nuclear); Baliellas, C.; Vilar, L. (Hospital de Bella Vista, Barcelona (Spain). Servicio de Gastroenterologia)

    1991-09-01

    Thirty-three patients suspected of suffering from inflammatory bowel disease were studied. Autologous leukocytes were labelled with indium 111 oxine and re-injected simultaneously with 0.3-0.5 mg of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled granulocyte-specific monoclonal antibody BW 250/183. Two scans were obtained, the early scan 3-4 h post-injection (p.i.) and the late scan 18-24 h p.i. Using the endoscopy study as standard, the diagnostic accuracy of both agents was determined. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of {sup 111}In-scans was 88.8%, 100.0% and 93.7% at 4 h and 94.7%, 100.0% and 96.9% and 24 h, respectively. Concerning the results using antibodies, the values were 61.1%, 100.0% and 78.1% at 4 h and 78.9%, 92.8% and 84.8% at 24 h, respectively. Segmental analysis showed concordance in 89.3% and 93.3% of the cases at 4 and 24 h, respectively. Though less sensitive and less accurate than scanning employing indium 111 leukocytes, the BW 250/183 granulocyte-specific scintigraphy can be used for inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis and localization. (orig.).

  12. Biological, chemical and other data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN250 in the Bering Sea from 2010-06-16 to 2010-07-15 (NODC Accession 0117398)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0117398 includes biological, chemical, optical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN250 in the Bering Sea from...

  13. Secondary neutron spectrum from 250-MeV passively scattered proton therapy: Measurement with an extended-range Bonner sphere system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Rebecca M., E-mail: rhowell@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Burgett, E. A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho 83201 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Secondary neutrons are an unavoidable consequence of proton therapy. While the neutron dose is low compared to the primary proton dose, its presence and contribution to the patient dose is nonetheless important. The most detailed information on neutrons includes an evaluation of the neutron spectrum. However, the vast majority of the literature that has reported secondary neutron spectra in proton therapy is based on computational methods rather than measurements. This is largely due to the inherent limitations in the majority of neutron detectors, which are either not suitable for spectral measurements or have limited response at energies greater than 20 MeV. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to measure a secondary neutron spectrum from a proton therapy beam using a spectrometer that is sensitive to neutron energies over the entire neutron energy spectrum. Methods: The authors measured the secondary neutron spectrum from a 250-MeV passively scattered proton beam in air at a distance of 100 cm laterally from isocenter using an extended-range Bonner sphere (ERBS) measurement system. Ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was calculated using measured fluence and fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results: The neutron fluence spectrum had a high-energy direct neutron peak, an evaporation peak, a thermal peak, and an intermediate energy continuum between the thermal and evaporation peaks. The H*(10) was dominated by the neutrons in the evaporation peak because of both their high abundance and the large quality conversion coefficients in that energy interval. The H*(10) 100 cm laterally from isocenter was 1.6 mSv per proton Gy (to isocenter). Approximately 35% of the dose equivalent was from neutrons with energies ≥20 MeV. Conclusions: The authors measured a neutron spectrum for external neutrons generated by a 250-MeV proton beam using an ERBS measurement system that was sensitive to neutrons over the entire

  14. Secondary neutron spectrum from 250-MeV passively scattered proton therapy: measurement with an extended-range Bonner sphere system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca M; Burgett, E A

    2014-09-01

    Secondary neutrons are an unavoidable consequence of proton therapy. While the neutron dose is low compared to the primary proton dose, its presence and contribution to the patient dose is nonetheless important. The most detailed information on neutrons includes an evaluation of the neutron spectrum. However, the vast majority of the literature that has reported secondary neutron spectra in proton therapy is based on computational methods rather than measurements. This is largely due to the inherent limitations in the majority of neutron detectors, which are either not suitable for spectral measurements or have limited response at energies greater than 20 MeV. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to measure a secondary neutron spectrum from a proton therapy beam using a spectrometer that is sensitive to neutron energies over the entire neutron energy spectrum. The authors measured the secondary neutron spectrum from a 250-MeV passively scattered proton beam in air at a distance of 100 cm laterally from isocenter using an extended-range Bonner sphere (ERBS) measurement system. Ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was calculated using measured fluence and fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. The neutron fluence spectrum had a high-energy direct neutron peak, an evaporation peak, a thermal peak, and an intermediate energy continuum between the thermal and evaporation peaks. The H*(10) was dominated by the neutrons in the evaporation peak because of both their high abundance and the large quality conversion coefficients in that energy interval. The H*(10) 100 cm laterally from isocenter was 1.6 mSv per proton Gy (to isocenter). Approximately 35% of the dose equivalent was from neutrons with energies ≥20 MeV. The authors measured a neutron spectrum for external neutrons generated by a 250-MeV proton beam using an ERBS measurement system that was sensitive to neutrons over the entire energy range being measured, i.e., thermal to

  15. Zonificación funcional ecoturística de la zona costera de Michoacán, México a escala 1:250 000

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Domínguez, Ángel David

    2010-01-01

    Esta investigación se desarrolló en la zona costera del estado de Michoacán, el objetivo fundamental es obtener la zonificación funcional ecoturística de la zona costera de Michoacán, México a partir de la clasificación tipológica de los paisajes costeros. Sobre la base del mapa de paisajes físico-geográficos a escala 1:250 000, se calcularon indicadores de heterogeneidad geoecológica y se realizó una recopilación biblio-cartográfica sobre la biodiversidad del territorio. Se diseñaron modelos...

  16. A Dependence Study of $\\Xi^{*0}$ and $\\bar{\\Xi}^{*0}$ in 250 GeV/c $\\pi^-$. $K^-$ -nucleon Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seixas de Rezende, Fabio Antonio; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2005-04-01

    A direct measurement of the mass number (A) dependence of the production of the hyperon {Xi}*{sup 0} and its opposite {bar {Xi}}*{sup 0} in {pi}{sup -}, K{sup -} beam-nucleon interactions at 250 GeV/c is reported. The data derive from the experiment E769 at Fermilab. The results were obtained for different targets: Be, Al, Cu and W. It was observed the data are found to be well described by the parametrization {sigma}{sub A} = {sigma}{sub 0}A{sup {alpha}}, {alpha} being calculated for different beams. The results obtained are compared with those results of E769 experiment. The results shown here are preliminary.

  17. Semiclassical analysis of angular differential cross sections for single-electron capture in 250-eV H++H collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémont, F.

    2015-05-01

    A classical model based on the resolution of Hamilton equations of motion is used to determine the angular distribution of H projectiles following single-electron capture in H++H collisions at an incident projectile energy of 250 eV. At such low energies, the experimental charge-exchange probability and angular differential cross sections exhibit oscillatory structures that are classically related to the number of swaps the electron experiences between the target and the projectile during the collision. These oscillations are well reproduced by models based on quantum mechanics. In the present paper, the angular distribution of H projectiles is determined classically, at angles varying from 0.1° up to 7°. The variation in intensity due to interferences caused by the indiscernibility between different trajectories is calculated, and the role of these interferences is discussed.

  18. Radiation from an equilibrium CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasma in the [250-850 nm] spectral region: II. Spectral modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M Lino da [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Vacher, D; Andre, P; Faure, G [Laboratoire Arc Electrique et Plasmas Thermiques, CNRS, UMR 6069, 24 Avenue des Landais, F63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Dudeck, M [Laboratoire d' Aerothermique, CNRS, 1C Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: mlinodasilva@mail.ist.utl.pt

    2008-08-01

    In the first part of this work, described in a previous paper, the thermodynamic conditions in an atmospheric pressure inductively coupled CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasma have been determined, and the radiation emission spectrum has been measured and calibrated in the [250-850 nm] spectral region. In the second part of this work, a synthetic radiation spectrum is obtained taking into account (a) the geometry of the plasma torch and (b) the local thermodynamic conditions of the plasma. This synthetic spectrum has then been compared against the measured spectrum. The good agreement between the two spectra allows validating the spectral database of the line-by-line code SPARTAN for the simulation of the radiative emission of CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas from the near-UV to the near-IR spectral region.

  19. Low-temperature (T = 250-400 K) oxygen adsorption on YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 6 sub . sub 9 ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, V N

    2001-01-01

    The oxygen adsorption on the YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 6 sub . sub 9 ceramics is studied within the temperature range of 250-400 K through the method of the thermodesorption (TD) mass-spectroscopy. It is established, that depending on the temperature (T subalpha) the O sub 2 adsorption leads to formation of two (gamma 1 and gamma 2 at the T subalpha = 350 K) adsorption forms. The associative desorption mechanism with the activation energy (0.63 +- 0.08) (gamma 1) and (1.13 +- 0.02) eV (gamma 2) is the most probable one for both forms. The model, qualitatively describing the oxygen sorption on the ceramics, the initial stage whereof is constituted by the gamma 2 adsorption form formation, is proposed

  20. European Collaboration for High-Resolution Measurements of Neutron Cross Sections between 1 MeV and 250 MeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Leal, L C; Kitis, G; Guber, K H; Yuasa nakagawa, K; Koehler, P E; Quaranta, A

    2002-01-01

    The experimental determination of neutron cross section data has always been of primary importance in Nuclear Physics. Many of the salient features of nuclear levels and densities can be determined from the resonant structure of such cross sections and of their decay scheme. An associated importance of precise neutron induced reaction cross sections has resulted from the worldwide interest in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) that has emerged at CERN and elsewhere. Many applications, such as accelerator-based transmutation of nuclear waste, energy amplification medical research, astrophysical applications and also fusion research require nuclear data that quantitatively and qualitatively go beyond the presently available traditional evaluation.\\\\ \\\\We consider a spallation driven TOF facility at the CERN-PS with an unprecedented neutron flux (1000 times the existing ones) in the broad energy range between 1 eV and 250 MeV and with very high energy resolution. The present concept for an intense neutron source m...

  1. Discovery of abundant cellulose microfibers encased in 250 Ma Permian halite: a macromolecular target in the search for life on other planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jack D; Willcox, Smaranda; Powers, Dennis W; Nelson, Roger; Baxter, Bonnie K

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we utilized transmission electron microscopy to examine the contents of fluid inclusions in halite (NaCl) and solid halite crystals collected 650 m below the surface from the Late Permian Salado Formation in southeastern New Mexico (USA). The halite has been isolated from contaminating groundwater since deposition approximately 250 Ma ago. We show that abundant cellulose microfibers are present in the halite and appear remarkably intact. The cellulose is in the form of 5 nm microfibers as well as composite ropes and mats, and was identified by resistance to 0.5 N NaOH treatment and susceptibility to cellulase enzyme treatment. These cellulose microfibers represent the oldest native biological macromolecules to have been directly isolated, examined biochemically, and visualized (without growth or replication) to date. This discovery points to cellulose as an ideal macromolecular target in the search for life on other planets in our Solar System.

  2. Desarrollo tecnológico de la formulación de cápsulas de ampicilina 250 y 500 mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Serrate

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describió el desarrollo tecnológico para la formulación de cápsulas de ampicilina trihidratada, reutilizando los finos que se obtienen de la tecnología por vía seca y que representan el 30 % de ésta. Se utilizó la vía húmeda por las características del fino obtenido y se logró un producto actualizado y con las características adecuadas para su uso. Las cápsulas de 250 y 500 mg fueron sometidas a estudio de estabilidad a temperaturas controladas y se determinaron las características físicoquímicas que debe cumplir el granulado. Esta reutilización de los finos, producto de la vía seca, logra un aprovechamiento óptimo de la materia prima que se dedica a esta producción.The technological development to produce the formulation of capsules of ampicillin trihydrate using again the products obtained through the dry procedure representing the 30 % of it, is described. A wet procedure was used because of the characteristics of the powder obtained and a current product was obtained having the proper characteristics for its use. Capsules of 250 and 500 mg were subjected to stability studies at controlled temperature and the physical and chemical characteristics that may comply with the granulate were also determined. This reutilization of fine products through the dry procedure makes it possible to attain an optimun use of the raw material employed for this production.

  3. The efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate (250 microg)/salmeterol (50 microg) combined in the Diskus inhaler for the treatment of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Nicola A; Darken, Patrick; Horstman, Donald; Reisner, Colin; Lee, Benjamin; Davis, Suzanne; Shah, Tushar

    2003-09-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of the inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone propionate (FP) and the inhaled long-acting beta(2)-agonist salmeterol (SM), when administered together in a single device (Diskus; GlaxoSmithKline, Inc; Research Triangle Park, NC), with that of placebo and the individual agents alone in patients with COPD. Randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study. Seventy-six investigative sites in the United States. Seven hundred twenty-three patients > or =40 years of age with COPD and a mean baseline FEV(1) of 42% predicted. FP (250 microg), SM (50 microg), FP plus SM combined in a single inhaler (FSC), or placebo administered twice daily through the Diskus device for 24 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were morning predose (ie, trough FEV(1)) for FSC compared with SM and 2-h postdose FEV(1) for FSC compared with FP. Other efficacy measures were as follows: morning peak expiratory flow rate (PEF); transition dyspnea index; chronic respiratory disease questionnaire; chronic bronchitis symptom questionnaire; exacerbations; and other symptomatic measures. At Endpoint (ie, the last on-treatment, post-baseline assessment), treatment with FSC significantly (p treatment, indicating an early onset of effect (p bronchitis. The incidence of adverse effects (except for an increase in oral candidiasis with FSC and FP) were similar among the treatment groups. Treatment with FSC (FP, 250 microg, and SM, 50 microg) twice daily substantially improved morning lung function and sustained these improvements for over a period of 24 weeks compared with FP or SM treatment alone in patients with COPD, with no additional safety concerns for the combination treatment vs that with the individual components.

  4. [250 years of English psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H

    1996-08-01

    The history of British psychiatry is considered from five main viewpoints: clinical practice, the institutional basis, the legislative basis, lay perspectives of-mental disorder, and European influences. Its philosophical basis can be traced back to the work of the seventeenth-century philosophers. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. In Scotland, both 'philosophy of mind' and new clinical methods flourished during its Enlightenment; the concept of 'neurosis' was developed by William Cullen. Around 1800, James Prichard's concept of 'moral insanity' became the foundation of modern work on personality disorder and psychopathy. The psychotic illness of King George III, beginning in 1788, led to greater public sympathy for the mentally ill. Attitudes since then have varied, with 'antipsychiatry' becoming very influential in the 1960s. By the mid-eighteenth century, specialised institutions for the mentally ill existed in a number of cities, there were also units attached to charitable general hospitals, but none of these continued after about 1830. The neglect of patients in private madhouses, prisons, and poorhouses led to increasing concern by Parliament, which resulted in the development of public asylums throughout the country. Severe legal restrictions on their activities were modified in 1930 and completely reformed in 1959. From the mid-nineteenth century, French and German influences became increasingly strong, but British universities played no active part in psychiatry until the 1950s. Psycho-analysis did not develop strongly in Britain, where the main contribution was through translation and biography, but some leading analysts came as refugees in the 1930s-as did other psychiatrists from central Europe. Another important influence was that of Adolf Meyer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, particularly through Sir Aubrey Lewis; physical treatment methods also came to Britain from Europe. In the second half of this century, the most important British developments have been in social psychiatry therapeutic communities, day hospitals, comprehensive district services, psychogeriatrics, etc. Academic psychiatry has also become strong since the 1960s.

  5. 247 - 250_Tijjani_saponins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    and ground into powder using a porcelain pestle. It was then sealed in a polyethene stored in a dessicator prior to evaluation. Extraction of saponins. The powdered stem-bark (1kg) of the plant exhaustively extracted using petroleum spirit in a Soxhlet extractor. This was to remove the l and other pigments available in the ...

  6. Oxygen isotope homogeneity and trace element variations in glass within 250-79 ka Central Plateau Member rhyolite lavas from the Yellowstone Volcanic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, M.; Bindeman, I. N.; Befus, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    The 250-79 ka Central Plateau Member CPM) rhyolites are represented mostly by large volume lava flows with less than 10% crystals and are the youngest eruptive products inside of the 620 ka Yellowstone Caldera, formed after eruption of Lava Creek Tuff (LCT). These flows are low-δ18O requiring tens of percent of shallowly remelted hydrothermally-altered material and provide evidence into how large silicic magma systems evolve before and after major caldera-forming cycles. We have developed a technique to directly analyze small micro-domains of rhyolite glass for precise (better than 0.1 ‰) δ18O determination coupled with D/H, [H2O], trace elements, and Pb isotopes. We present evidence for striking δ18O homogeneity (4.48 ± 0.12 ‰, 2 standard deviations of all analyses) both across small (1 km3) and large (up to 70 km3) flows and between flows erupted over almost 200 ka. D/H analyses in the glasses are highly degassed and are not affected by secondary hydration (H2O = 0.05 to 0.28 wt. %, δD = -99 to -171 ‰). Trace element analyses show broad temporal compositional evolution consistent with increasing feldspar fractionation over time: the oldest Scaup Lake flow contains 8 ppm Sr, 330 ppm Rb, and 270 ppm Ba to the youngest Pitchstone Plateau flow contains 0.7-1.9 ppm Sr, 180-250 ppm Rb, 18-25 ppm Ba. We also show small but recognizable trace element heterogeneity within lava flows unrelated to long-term geochemical trends. Homogeneity of oxygen in melt from individual lava flows across the LCT caldera is consistent with convective homogenization of a large magma body generated by remelting of post and pre LCT hydrothermally-altered and likely highly variable, low- δ18O rocks. In combination with trace element data we show that the CPM rhyolites have also undergone a broad, caldera-wide differentiation trend with no evidence for significant recharge. We are reconciling diverse geochemical data streams to develop a comprehensive petrologic model for the

  7. Spectral matching techniques (SMTs) and automated cropland classification algorithms (ACCAs) for mapping croplands of Australia using MODIS 250-m time-series (2000–2015) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Congalton, Russell G.; Oliphant, Adam; Poehnelt, Justin; Yadav, Kamini; Rao, Mahesh N.; Massey, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Mapping croplands, including fallow areas, are an important measure to determine the quantity of food that is produced, where they are produced, and when they are produced (e.g. seasonality). Furthermore, croplands are known as water guzzlers by consuming anywhere between 70% and 90% of all human water use globally. Given these facts and the increase in global population to nearly 10 billion by the year 2050, the need for routine, rapid, and automated cropland mapping year-after-year and/or season-after-season is of great importance. The overarching goal of this study was to generate standard and routine cropland products, year-after-year, over very large areas through the use of two novel methods: (a) quantitative spectral matching techniques (QSMTs) applied at continental level and (b) rule-based Automated Cropland Classification Algorithm (ACCA) with the ability to hind-cast, now-cast, and future-cast. Australia was chosen for the study given its extensive croplands, rich history of agriculture, and yet nonexistent routine yearly generated cropland products using multi-temporal remote sensing. This research produced three distinct cropland products using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-m normalized difference vegetation index 16-day composite time-series data for 16 years: 2000 through 2015. The products consisted of: (1) cropland extent/areas versus cropland fallow areas, (2) irrigated versus rainfed croplands, and (3) cropping intensities: single, double, and continuous cropping. An accurate reference cropland product (RCP) for the year 2014 (RCP2014) produced using QSMT was used as a knowledge base to train and develop the ACCA algorithm that was then applied to the MODIS time-series data for the years 2000–2015. A comparison between the ACCA-derived cropland products (ACPs) for the year 2014 (ACP2014) versus RCP2014 provided an overall agreement of 89.4% (kappa = 0.814) with six classes: (a) producer’s accuracies varying

  8. Reconsolidation of Crushed Salt to 250°C Under Hydrostatic and Shear Stress Conditions Scott Broome, Frank Hansen, and SJ Bauer Sandia National Laboratories, Geomechanics Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    Design, analysis and performance assessment of potential salt repositories for heat-generating nuclear waste require knowledge of thermal, mechanical, and fluid transport properties of reconsolidating granular salt. Mechanical properties, Bulk (K) and Elastic (E) Moduli and Poisson's ratio (ν) are functions of porosity which decreases as the surrounding salt creeps inward and compresses granular salt within the rooms, drifts or shafts. To inform salt repository evaluations, we have undertaken an experimental program to determine K, E, and ν of reconsolidated granular salt as a function of porosity and temperature and to establish the deformational processes by which the salt reconsolidates. The experiments will be used to populate the database used in the reconsolidation model developed by Callahan (1999) which accounts for the effects of moisture through pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent on effective stress to account for the effects of porosity. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) was first dried at 105 °C for a few days. Undeformed right-circular cylindrical sample assemblies of unconsolidated granular salt with an initial porosity of ~ 40%, nominally 10 cm in diameter and 17.5 cm in length, are jacketed in lead. Samples are placed in a pressure vessel and kept at test temperatures of 100, 175 or 250 °C; samples are vented to the atmosphere during the entire test procedure. At these test conditions the consolidating salt is always creeping, the creep rate increases with increasing temperature and stress and decreases as porosity decreases. In hydrostatic tests, confining pressure is increased to 20 MPa with periodic unload/reload loops to determine K. Volume strain increases with increasing temperature. In shear tests at 2.5 and 5 MPa confining pressure, after confining pressure is applied, the crushed salt is subjected to a differential stress, with periodic unload/reload loops to determine E and

  9. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation in serpentine-water and talc-water systems from 250 to 450 °C, 50 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccocia, Peter J.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation factors in the talc–water and serpentine–water systems have been determined by laboratory experiment from 250 to 450 °C at 50 MPa using the partial exchange technique. Talc was synthesized from brucite + quartz, resulting in nearly 100% exchange during reaction at 350 and 450 °C. For serpentine, D–H exchange was much more rapid than 18O–16O exchange when natural chrysotile fibers were employed in the initial charge. In experiments with lizardite as the starting charge, recrystallization to chrysotile enhanced the rate of 18O–16O exchange with the coexisting aqueous phase. Oxygen isotope fractionation factors in both the talc–water and serpentine–water systems decrease with increasing temperature and can be described from 250 to 450 °C by the relationships: 1000 ln  = 11.70 × 106/T2 − 25.49 × 103/T + 12.48 and 1000 ln  = 3.49 × 106/T2 − 9.48 where T is temperature in Kelvin. Over the same temperature interval at 50 MPa, talc–water D–H fractionation is only weakly dependent on temperature, similar to brucite and chlorite, and can be described by the equation: 1000 ln  = 10.88 × 106/T2 − 41.52 × 103/T + 5.61 where T is temperature in Kelvin. Our D–H serpentine–water fractionation factors calibrated by experiment decrease with temperature and form a consistent trend with fractionation factors derived from lower temperature field calibrations. By regression of these data, we have refined and extended the D–H fractionation curve from 25 to 450 °C, 50 MPa as follows: 1000 ln  = 3.436 × 106/T2 − 34.736 × 103/T + 21.67 where T is temperature in Kelvin. These new data should improve the application of D–H and 18O–16O isotopes to constrain the temperature and origin of hydrothermal fluids responsible for serpentine formation in a variety of geologic settings.

  10. Effect of short LED lamp exposure on wear resistance, residual monomer and degree of conversion for Filtek Z250 and Tetric EvoCeram composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopperud, Hilde M; Johnsen, Gaute F; Lamolle, Sébastien; Kleven, Inger S; Wellendorf, Hanne; Haugen, Håvard J

    2013-08-01

    The latest LED dental curing devices claim sufficient curing of restorative materials with short curing times. This study evaluates mechanical and chemical properties as a function of curing time of two commercial composite filling materials cured with three different LED lamps. The composites were Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent) and the LED curing devices were bluephase 16i (Ivoclar Vivadent), L.E.Demetron II (Kerr) and Mini L.E.D. (Satelec). Control samples were cured with a QTH-lamp (VCL 400, Kerr). The wear resistance after simulated tooth brushing, degree of conversion, curing depth, and amounts of residual monomers were measured after different curing times. The results of this study show that short curing time with high-intensity LEDs may influence the bulk properties of the materials, resulting in lower curing depth and increased residual monomer content. The measured surface properties of the materials, degree of conversion and wear resistance, were not affected by short curing times to the same extent. This study demonstrates that reduced exposure time with high intensity LEDs can result in composite restorations with inferior curing depth and increased leaching of monomers. Dentists are recommended to use sufficient curing times even with high intensity LEDs to ensure adequate curing and minimize the risk of monomer leaching. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The scientific measurement and evaluation programme (WMEP). Annual evaluation 1996; Wissenschaftliches Mess- und Evaluierungsprogramm (WMEP) zum Breitentest '250 MW Wind'. Jahresauswertung 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durstewitz, M.; Ensslin, C.; Hahn, B.; Hoppe-Klipper, M. (comps.)

    1997-07-01

    The Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technik (B.M.B.F.-Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology) funds the '250 MW Wind' test programme. This programme is designed to acquire statistically relevant data concerning the practical use of wind energy converters (WECs) in the Federal Republic of Germany. The technological and scientific areas of this supportive measure, the 'Wissenschaftliche Mess- und Evaluierungsprogramm' (WMEP - Scientific Measurement and Evaluation Programme), are implemented by the Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET - Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology) in Kassel. The WMEP acquires and evaluates performance data concerning all funded WECs for a 10 year period. The following areas are the main focal points of the programme: Wind Resources: Local and regional distribution of wind resources in Germany, wind conditions at specific sites. WEC Performance: Energy production and consumption of WECs, periods of grid interconnection, periods of full and partial load, performance characteristics. Reliability: Technical availability, causes of faults, malperformance, component failure. Economics: Income through the operation of the WEC, costs related to maintenance, repair and insurance. Intensive statistical evaluations concerning these focal points are implemented, based on the continuously acquired operational data of each WEC. The results are presented in this report, in a form compatible to the evaluations of recent years. (orig.)

  12. Radiation from an equilibrium CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasma in the [250-850 nm] spectral region: I. Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacher, D; Andre, P; Faure, G [Laboratoire Arc Electrique et Plasmas Thermiques, CNRS, UMR 6069, 24 Avenue des Landais, F63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Silva, M Lino da; Dudeck, M [Laboratoire d' Aerothermique, CNRS, 1C Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: mlinodasilva@mail.ist.utl.pt

    2008-08-01

    An inductively coupled plasma torch, working at atmospheric pressure, is used to create a CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2} Martian-like plasma (97% CO{sub 2}-3% N{sub 2}). The operating frequency and power are 64 MHz and 3 kW, respectively. Spectral measurements covering the [250-850] nm range have been carried inside the induction coil. Spectral profiles of emitting diatomic species have been measured, intensity calibrated, Abel inverted and fitted with a line-by-line code. This has allowed rebuilding the radial temperature profiles of the plasma. A simplified kinetic model has then been developed in order to confirm that chemical equilibrium is reached in this region of the plasma. Then, the plasma chemical composition has been determined utilizing a calculation code based on the Gibbs free energy minimization method. Overall, a complete characterization for the thermal, chemical and radiative properties of the plasma has been achieved in the induction coils region.

  13. Effect of post-weld heat treatments on strength and toughness behavior of T-250 maraging steel welded by laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [Laser Processing Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shan, Jiguo, E-mail: shanjg@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laser Processing Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Professing Technology, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Chunxu; Tian, Zhiling [Institute for Special Steel, Central Iron & Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-04-29

    This paper elucidates here the strength and toughness behavior of T-250 maraging steel welded by laser beam under different approaches of three post-weld heat treatments, i.e. aging (A), solutionizing+aging (SA) and homogenizing+solutionizing+aging (HSA). The microstructures of the weld metals with A and SA processes both comprised of finely dispersive Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Mo) precipitates, small martensite lath and reverted austenite along the grain boundary. However, in the weld metal with HSA process, it exhibited the same Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Mo) precipitate with the large martensite lath and the absence of reverted austenite. The ultimate tensile strength and static toughness of the welded joint with HSA process were 1350.6 MPa and 63.8 MJ m{sup −3}, respectively. The static toughness has been remarkably improved from 71% to 91% of the applied parent metal compared with that of the welded joint with A process. The present study underscores that the Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Mo) precipitate and martensite are significant to ensure the high strength of welded joints. Due to its inconsistent deformation with the matrix of martensite, the reverted austenite has a notable influence on the toughness of welded joints. It shows that the post-weld heat treatments of HSA process can influence the mechanical behavior of welded joints by eliminating the reverted austenite.

  14. A mechanistic study of hydrogen gas sensing by PdO nanoflake thin films at temperatures below 250 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Ju; Li, Kuang-Chung; Lin, Yi-Chieh; Pan, Fu-Ming

    2015-02-07

    We prepared PdO nanoflake thin films on the SiO2 substrate by reactive sputter deposition, and studied their sensing response to H2 at temperatures between 25 and 250 °C. In addition to the oxygen ionosorption model, which is used to describe the early H2 sensing response over the temperature range studied, the H2 sensing kinetics of the PdO thin films can be separated into three temperature regimes: temperatures below 100 °C, around 150 °C and above 200 °C. At temperatures below 100 °C, PdO reduction is the dominant reaction affecting the H2 sensing behavior. At temperatures around 150 °C, Pd reoxidation kinetically competes with PdO reduction leading to a complicated sensing characteristic. Active PdO reduction by H2 promotes the continuing growth of Pd nanoislands, facilitating dissociative oxygen adsorption and thus the subsequent Pd reoxidation in the H2-dry air gas mixture. The kinetic competition between the PdO reduction and reoxidation at 150 °C leads to the observation of an inverse of the increase in the sensor conductivity. At temperatures above 200 °C, the PdO sensor exhibits a sensor signal monotonically increasing with the H2 concentration, and the H2 sensing behavior is consistent with the Mars-van-Krevelen redox mechanism.

  15. Production asymmetry of $\\Lambda^0$ and ${\\overline{\\Lambda}}^0$ in $\\pi^{\\pm}$, $K^{\\pm}$, p - nucleon collisions at 250 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, Marcello Santo [Brazilian Center for Physics Research, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2001-02-01

    Using data from Fermilab xed-target experiment E769, we have measured particleantiparticle production asymmetries for Λ0 hyperons in π± - nucleon interactions, K ± - nucleon interactions and p - nucleon interactions at 250 GeV/c. The asymmetries are measured as functions of Feynman-x (xf ) and pT2 over the ranges 0 ≤ pT2 ≤ 4(GeV/c)2 and -0.12 ≤ xF ≤ 0.12 (for positive beam) and 0 ≤ pT2 ≤ 10(GeV/c)2 and -0.16 ≤ xF ≤ 0:.0 for the negative beam. We find substantial asymmetries, even at xF = 0. We also observe leading-particle-type asymmetries which qualitatively agree with theoretical predictions.

  16. Voltage balancing: Long-term experience with the 250 V supercapacitor module of the hybrid fuel cell vehicle HY-LIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötz, R.; Sauter, J.-C.; Ruch, P.; Dietrich, P.; Büchi, F. N.; Magne, P. A.; Varenne, P.

    On the occasion of the "Challenge Bibendum" 2004 in Shanghai, the hybrid fuel cell-supercapacitor vehicle HY-LIGHT, a joint project of Conception et Développement Michelin and the Paul Scherrer Institut, was presented to the public. The drive train of this vehicle comprises a 30 kW polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and a 250 V supercapacitor (SC) module for energy recuperation and boost power during short acceleration and start-up processes. The supercapacitor module was deliberately constructed without continuous voltage balancing units. The performance of the supercapacitor module was monitored over the 2 years of operation particularly with respect to voltage balancing of the large number of SC cells connected in series. During the investigated period of 19 months and about 7000 km driving, the voltage imbalance within the supercapacitor module proved negligible. The maximum deviation between best and worst SC was always below 120 mV and the capacitor with the highest voltage never exceeded the nominal voltage by more than 40 mV.

  17. Alzheimer's disease presenilin-1 exon 9 deletion and L250S mutations sensitize SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanii, H; Ankarcrona, M; Flood, F

    2000-01-01

    Mutations in the presenilin-1 (PS1) and presenilin-2 (PS2) genes account for the majority of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease cases. Recent studies suggest that presenilin gene mutations predispose cells to apoptosis by mechanisms involving altered calcium homeostasis and oxidative damage...... to an overnight (17 h) serum deprivation, followed by a 30 min treatment with either 20 mM glucose, 10 nM insulin-like growth factor-1 or 20 mM glucose + 10 nM insulin-like growth factor-1. Cells were then cultured for a further 3, 6 or 24 h and stained for apoptotic condensed nuclei using propidium iodide...... lines at 24 h, compared with the wild-type PS1 lines (P treatment were 16.1 +/- 3.5%, 26.7 +/- 5.5% and 31.0 +/- 5.7% for the wild-type PS1, PS1 deltaE9 and PS1 L250S...

  18. Strut-based accelerated partial breast irradiation: Report of treatment results for 250 consecutive patients at 5 years from a multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashar, Catheryn; Attai, Deanna; Butler, Ernest; Einck, John; Finkelstein, Steven; Han, Ben; Hong, Robert; Komarnicky, Lydia; Lyden, Maureen; Mantz, Constantine; Morcovescu, Serban; Nigh, Stephen; Perry, Kerri; Pollock, Jondavid; Reiff, Jay; Scanderbeg, Daniel; Snyder, Margaret; Kuske, Robert

    This registry trial studied the long-term outcomes of women receiving accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using strut-based applicators and reports on the local control, toxicity, and survival for the first 250 patients treated with this device. Patients were treated using the strut-based brachytherapy device with conventional dose and fractionation of 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions. Planning goals for the planning target volume were V90 > 90%, V150 skin bridge, the median skin max doses were 272 and 289 cGy, respectively. The 4-year actuarial recurrence rates for true recurrence/marginal miss and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence were 2.3% and 3.6%, respectively. The 4-year actuarial rates for overall survival, cause-specific survival, and disease-free survival were 97%, 98%, and 92%, respectively. The strut-based applicator was designed to simplify APBI compared to interstitial brachytherapy. This report confirms excellent tumor control and survival with low toxicity and supports the evidence that brachytherapy has less normal tissue toxicity than APBI with external beam irradiation. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Calendar aging of a 250 kW/500 kWh Li-ion battery deployed for the grid storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Pierre; Cen, Zhaohui; López, Carmen M.; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-12-01

    The introduction of Li-ion batteries for grid applications has become evidence as the cost per kWh is continuously decreasing. Although the Li-ion battery is a mature technology for automotive applications and portable electronics, its use for stationary applications needs more validation. The Li-ion technology is considered safe enough for grid storage application, but its lifetime is generally evaluated to be around 10 years. Higher market penetration will be achieved if a longer lifespan could be demonstrated. Therefore, aging evaluation of the batteries becomes crucial. In this paper we investigated the effects of aging after a three years' standby field deployment of a 250 kW/500 kWh Li-ion battery integrated with the grid and solar farm under the harsh climate conditions of Qatar. The development of tools for acquisition and analysis of data from the battery management system (BMS) allows the assessment of the battery performance at the battery stack, string and cell levels. The analysis of the residual capacity after aging showed that the stack suffered from a low decrease of capacity, whereas some inconsistencies have been found between the strings. These inconsistencies are caused by misalignment of a small number of cells that underwent self-discharge during standby at high state of charge.

  20. Current density and catalyst-coated membrane resistance distribution of hydro-formed metallic bipolar plate fuel cell short stack with 250 cm2 active area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.

    2016-01-01

    An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.

  1. Mapping rice-fallow cropland areas for short-season grain legumes intensification in South Asia using MODIS 250 m time-series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Rao, Mahesh N.; Mohammed, Irshad A.; Whitbread, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to map rainfed and irrigated rice-fallow cropland areas across South Asia, using MODIS 250 m time-series data and identify where the farming system may be intensified by the inclusion of a short-season crop during the fallow period. Rice-fallow cropland areas are those areas where rice is grown during the kharif growing season (June–October), followed by a fallow during the rabi season (November–February). These cropland areas are not suitable for growing rabi-season rice due to their high water needs, but are suitable for a short -season (≤3 months), low water-consuming grain legumes such as chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), black gram, green gram, and lentils. Intensification (double-cropping) in this manner can improve smallholder farmer’s incomes and soil health via rich nitrogen-fixation legume crops as well as address food security challenges of ballooning populations without having to expand croplands. Several grain legumes, primarily chickpea, are increasingly grown across Asia as a source of income for smallholder farmers and at the same time providing rich and cheap source of protein that can improve the nutritional quality of diets in the region. The suitability of rainfed and irrigated rice-fallow croplands for grain legume cultivation across South Asia were defined by these identifiers: (a) rice crop is grown during the primary (kharif) crop growing season or during the north-west monsoon season (June–October); (b) same croplands are left fallow during the second (rabi) season or during the south-east monsoon season (November–February); and (c) ability to support low water-consuming, short-growing season (≤3 months) grain legumes (chickpea, black gram, green gram, and lentils) during rabi season. Existing irrigated or rainfed crops such as rice or wheat that were grown during kharif were not considered suitable for growing during the rabi season, because the moisture/water demand of these crops is too high. The

  2. High time resolution observations of the polar stratosphere and mesosphere using a ground-based 230-250 GHz microwave radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, D. A.; Espy, P. J.; Clilverd, M. A.; Maxfield, D. J.; Hartogh, P.; Holmén, K.; Blindheim, S.; Horne, R. B.

    2012-04-01

    Microwave radiometry is used to measure thermal emission by the Doppler- and pressure-broadened molecular rotational lines of atmospheric gases, from which vertical abundance profiles can be determined. Since solar radiation is not required for the measurement, the technique has the advantage that continuous observations are possible including throughout the polar winter. We describe the development of a passive microwave radiometer [Espy, P. J., P. Hartogh, and K. Holmen (2006), Proc. SPIE, 6362, 63620P, doi:10.1117/12.688953] for ground-based remote sensing of the polar middle atmosphere. The instrument measures nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) vertical profiles over the altitude range 35-90 km with time resolution as high as 15 minutes, allowing the diurnal variability of trace chemical species to be investigated. Heterodyne detection of atmospheric emission at 230 GHz and 250 GHz (wavelength ~1.25 mm) with a receiver noise temperature of 300 K is achieved using a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer cooled to 4 K. The down-converted signals at 1.35 GHz and 2.10 GHz are analysed using both a moderate-resolution (28 kHz, 220 MHz bandwidth) and a high-resolution (14 kHz, 40 MHz bandwidth) chirp-transform spectrometer (CTS). The instrument was operated semi-autonomously at Troll station (72° 01'S 02° 32'E, 1270 m above sea level), Antarctica during 2008-10 and at the Arctic LIDAR Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR, 69° 16'N, 16° 00'E, 380 m above sea level), northern Norway during 2011-12. NO volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles have been inverted from calibrated brightness temperature spectra of the NO line centred at 250.796 GHz, observed above Troll station, using the Microwave Observation Line Estimation and Retrieval (MOLIERE) version 5 code. A priori pressure, temperature, ozone, water vapour, and NO profiles above 30 km were calculated using the Sodankylä Ion and Neutral Chemistry (SIC, version 6

  3. Saving Salmon Through Advances in Fluvial Remote Sensing: Applying the Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) for Bathymetric Mapping of Over 250 km of River Channel and Habitat Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R.; Legleiter, C. J.; Harrison, L.

    2015-12-01

    Salmonids are threatened with extinction across the world from the fragmentation of riverine ecosystems from dams and diversions. In California, efforts to expand the range of spawnable habitat for native salmon by transporting fish around reservoirs is a potentially species saving idea. But, strong scientific evidence of the amount of high quality habitat is required to make these difficult management decisions. Remote sensing has long been used in fluvial settings to identify physical parameters that drive the quality of aquatic habitat; however, the true strength of remote sensing to cover large spatial extents has not been applied with the resolution that is relevant to salmonids. This project utilizes hyperspectral data of over 250 km of the Tuolumne and Merced Rivers to extract depth and bed slope from the wetted channel and NIR LiDAR for the surrounding topography. The Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) has proven as an effective tool to create bathymetric maps of river channels in ideal settings with clear water, high amounts of bottom reflectance, and less than 3 meters deep over short distances. Results from this study show that OBRA can be applied over larger riverscapes at high resolutions (0.5 m). The depth and bed slope estimations are used to classify habitat units that are crucial to quantifying the quality and amount of habitat in these river that once produced large populations of native salmonids. As more managers look to expand habitat for these threatened species the tools developed here will be cost effective over the large extents that salmon migrate to spawn.

  4. New (p, {rho}, T) data for carbon dioxide - Nitrogen mixtures from (250 to 400) K at pressures up to 20 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondejar, M.E.; Martin, M.C. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Span, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau Gebaeude IB, Ebene 5, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Chamorro, C.R., E-mail: cescha@eis.uva.es [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Densities of two mixtures of nitrogen and carbon dioxide are reported. > Experimental data are compared with calculated densities from the equation of state. > Experimental data agree with the equation of state for low pressures above 300 K. > The equation of state shows higher deviations than expected at high pressures. - Abstract: Comprehensive (p, {rho}, T) measurements on two binary mixtures (0.10 CO{sub 2} + 0.90 N{sub 2} and 0.15 CO{sub 2} + 0.85 N{sub 2}) were carried out in the gas phase at seven isotherms between (250 and 400) K and pressures up to 20 MPa using a single sinker densimeter with magnetic suspension coupling. A total of 69 (p, {rho}, T) data for the first mixture and 69 (p, {rho}, T) data for the second are presented in this article. The uncertainty in density was estimated to be (0.02 to 0.15)%, while the uncertainty in temperature was 3.9 mK and the uncertainty in pressure was less than 0.015% (coverage factor k = 2). Experimental results were compared with densities calculated from the GERG equation of state and with data reported by other authors for similar mixtures. Results yielded that, while deviations between experimental data and values calculated from the GERG equation were lower than 0.05% in density for low pressures, the relative error at high pressures and low temperatures increased to about (0.2 to 0.3)%. The main aim of this work was to contribute to an accurate density data base for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures and to check or improve equations of state existing for these binary mixtures.

  5. Deepwater carbonate ion concentrations in the western tropical Pacific since 250 ka: Evidence for oceanic carbon storage and global climate influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bingbin; Li, Tiegang; Xiong, Zhifang; Algeo, Thomas J.; Chang, Fengming

    2017-04-01

    We present new "size-normalized weight" (SNW)-Δ[CO32-] core-top calibrations for three planktonic foraminiferal species and assess their reliability as a paleo-alkalinity proxy. SNWs of Globigerina sacculifer and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei can be used to reconstruct past deep Pacific [CO32-], whereas SNWs of Pulleniatina obliquiloculata are controlled by additional environmental factors. Based on this methodological advance, we reconstruct SNW-based deepwater [CO32-] for core WP7 from the western tropical Pacific since 250 ka. Secular variation in the SNW proxy documents little change in deep Pacific [CO32-] between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene. Further back in time, deepwater [CO32-] shows long-term increases from marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e to MIS 3 and from early MIS 7 to late MIS 6, consistent with the "coral reef hypothesis" that the deep Pacific Ocean carbonate system responded to declining shelf carbonate production during these two intervals. During deglaciations, we have evidence of [CO32-] peaks coincident with Terminations 2 and 3, which suggests that a breakdown of oceanic vertical stratification drove a net transfer of CO2 from the ocean to the atmosphere, causing spikes in carbonate preservation (i.e., the "deglacial ventilation hypothesis"). During MIS 4, a transient decline in SNW-based [CO32-], along with other reported [CO32-] and/or dissolution records, implies that increased deep-ocean carbon storage resulted in a global carbonate dissolution event. These findings provide new insights into the role of the deep Pacific in the global carbon cycle during the late Quaternary.

  6. Two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet with sub-20 fs pump pulses and 250-720 nm supercontinuum probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, N.; Pugliesi, I.; Hauer, J.; Riedle, E.

    2013-08-01

    Experimental realizations of two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the ultraviolet (UV) must so far contend with a limited bandwidth in both the excitation and particularly the probe frequency. The pump bandwidth is at best 1500 cm-1 (full width at half maximum) at a fixed wavelength of 267 nm or 400 cm-1 for tunable pulses. The use of a replica of the pump pulse as a probe limits the observation of photochemical processes to the excitation region and makes the disentanglement of overlapping signal contributions difficult. We show that 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy can be conducted in a shaper-assisted collinear setup comprising fully tunable UV pulse pairs and supercontinuum probe spanning 250-720 nm. The pump pulses are broadened up to a useable spectral coverage of 2000 cm-1 (25 nm at 316 nm) by self-phase modulation in bulk CaF2 and compressed to 18 fs. By referencing the white light probe and eliminating pump stray light contributions, high signal-to-noise ratios even for weak probe intensities are achieved. Data acquisition times as short as 4 min for a selected population time allow the rapid recording of 2D spectra for photolabile biological samples even with the employed 1 kHz laser system. The potential of the setup is demonstrated on two representative molecules: pyrene and 2,2-diphenyl-5,6-benzo(2H)chromene. Well-resolved cross-peaks are observed and the excitation energy dependence of the relaxation processes is revealed.

  7. Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream-water samples collected in June and July 2006-Taylor Mountains 1:250,00-scale quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Stetson, Sarah; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. Parameters for which data are reported include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations. Samples were collected as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project entitled ?Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development.? Data presented here are from samples collected in June and July 2006. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. This is the third release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; aqueous geochemical data from samples collected in 2004 and 2005 were published previously. The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data release. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountains quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), although in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry ranges from Ca2+/Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+/Mg2+/Na++K+. Generally, good agreement was found between the major cations and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements in these samples were at or near the analytical method detection limit, but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. All field blank major-ion and trace-element concentrations were below detection.

  8. Genome wide linkage study, using a 250K SNP map, of Plasmodium falciparum infection and mild malaria attack in a Senegalese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Milet

    Full Text Available Multiple factors are involved in the variability of host's response to P. falciparum infection, like the intensity and seasonality of malaria transmission, the virulence of parasite and host characteristics like age or genetic make-up. Although admitted nowadays, the involvement of host genetic factors remains unclear. Discordant results exist, even concerning the best-known malaria resistance genes that determine the structure or function of red blood cells. Here we report on a genome-wide linkage and association study for P. falciparum infection intensity and mild malaria attack among a Senegalese population of children and young adults from 2 to 18 years old. A high density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP genome scan (Affimetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 250K-nsp was performed for 626 individuals: i.e. 249 parents and 377 children out of the 504 ones included in the follow-up. The population belongs to a unique ethnic group and was closely followed-up during 3 years. Genome-wide linkage analyses were performed on four clinical and parasitological phenotypes and association analyses using the family based association tests (FBAT method were carried out in regions previously linked to malaria phenotypes in literature and in the regions for which we identified a linkage peak. Analyses revealed three strongly suggestive evidences for linkage: between mild malaria attack and both the 6p25.1 and the 12q22 regions (empirical p-value=5x10(-5 and 9x10(-5 respectively, and between the 20p11q11 region and the prevalence of parasite density in asymptomatic children (empirical p-value=1.5x10(-4. Family based association analysis pointed out one significant association between the intensity of plasmodial infection and a polymorphism located in ARHGAP26 gene in the 5q31-q33 region (p-value=3.7x10(-5. This study identified three candidate regions, two of them containing genes that could point out new pathways implicated in the response to malaria infection

  9. Clinical and economic outcomes for patients initiating fluticasone propionate/salmeterol combination therapy (250/50 mcg versus anticholinergics in a comorbid COPD/depression population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal AA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anand A Dalal1, Manan Shah2, Anna O D'Souza2, Sham Chaudhari2, Glenn Crater11GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Xcenda LLC, Palm Harbor, FL, USABackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is frequently associated with comorbid depression and anxiety. Managing COPD symptoms and exacerbations through use of appropriate and adequate pharmacotherapy in this population may result in better COPD-related outcomes.Methods: This retrospective, observational study used administrative claims of patients aged 40 years and older with COPD and comorbid depression/anxiety identified from January 1, 2004 through June 30, 2008. Patients were assigned to fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 250/50 mcg combination (FSC or anticholinergics (AC based on their first (index prescription. The risks of COPD exacerbations and healthcare utilization and costs were compared between cohorts during 1 year of follow-up.Results: The adjusted risk of a COPD-related exacerbation during the 1-year follow-up period was 30% higher in the AC cohort (n = 2923 relative to the FSC cohort (n = 1078 (odds ratio [OR]: 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–1.56 after controlling for baseline differences in covariates. The risks of COPD-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits were 56% and 65% higher, respectively, in the AC cohort compared with the FSC cohort. The average number of COPD-related hospitalizations during the follow-up period was 46% higher for the AC cohort compared with the FSC cohort (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01–2.09, P = 0.041. The savings from lower COPD-related medical costs ($692 vs $1042, P < 0.050 kept the COPD-related total costs during the follow-up period comparable to those in the AC cohort ($1659 vs $1677, P > 0.050 although the pharmacy costs were higher in the FSC cohort.Conclusions: FSC compared with AC was associated with more favorable COPD-related outcomes and lower COPD-related utilization

  10. Cost-effectiveness of combination fluticasone propionate–salmeterol 250/50 μg versus salmeterol in severe COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Anand A Dalal1, Meaghan St Charles2, Hans V Petersen2, Melissa H Roberts2, Christopher M Blanchette2, Kathy Manavi-Zieverink31US Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2Division of Clinical and Outcomes Research, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Kannapolis USA; 3INC Research, Raleigh; NC, USAObjective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fluticasone propionate–salmeterol combination (FSC compared to salmeterol for maintenance therapy in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Study design: Pooled economic analysis.Methods: We performed an economic analysis of pooled data from two randomized clinical trials (combined N = 1554 that evaluated the effect of maintenance therapy with FSC (250/50 μg twice daily or salmeterol (50 μg twice daily on exacerbation rates in patients with severe COPD. We calculated exacerbation rates and applied standardized costs to exacerbation-related health care utilization reported in the trials (office, urgent care, and emergency department visits; hospitalizations; and oral corticosteroids and antibiotics to determine cost differences between FSC and salmeterol treatment outcomes.Results: Annual rates of any exacerbation and moderate/severe exacerbation were lower in the FSC group than the salmeterol group (4.91 vs 5.78 and 1.32 vs 2.00 respectively, both P < 0.05. Total adjusted annual COPD related exacerbation and therapeutic costs were $4,842 (95% CI; $4,731–$4,952 in the FSC group and $5,066 (95% CI; $4,937–$5,195 in the salmeterol group.Conclusions: FSC combination therapy is associated with reduced risk of any exacerbation and moderate/severe exacerbation, and incurs lower annual COPD-related health care costs compared to treatment with salmeterol. This analysis demonstrates that FSC therapy may be advantageous from both a clinical and cost-benefit standpoint for patients with severe COPD.Keywords: COPD, cost-effectiveness analysis, economic, maintenance therapy

  11. Hypothesis of homeothermy evolution on isolated South China Craton that moved from equator to cold north latitudes 250-200Myr ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-01-07

    Based on avian and mammalian fossils found in the northeastern Chinese province of Liaoning and physiological traits linked to homeothermy, a hypothesis of evolution of homeothermic animals is proposed. It is based on the importance of muscle function in cold environment, as a strong selection pressure that favors endothermic metabolism during periods of cold climates. The presented hypothesis postulates that in progressively cooling environment, animals will develop thermal insulation, increased basal metabolism if food is available, and torpor when food is scarce. Since late Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous global temperatures were high, an exceptional place that gradually became cold was needed for the homeothermy evolution. South China Craton is here proposed as a plausible candidate for that role since it drifted across the Paleo-Tethys ocean, from equator to high northern latitudes in a journey that lasted from 250 to 200Myr ago. After this small continent collided with North China Craton some 200Myr ago, the already cold-adapted animals had spread to large, mostly empty spaces on the North China Craton, due to their evolutionary advantage of making active living in the cold environment. The most advantageous early homeothermic animals went further north to the cold Liaoning to start an oasis that delivered modern birds during next 50Myr. Modern mammals possibly evolved somewhere in the cold vicinity. This made Liaoning and similarly cold places the cradles of early birds and early mammals since for the following millions of years these places remained too cold for poikilotherms to enter and warm enough for homeotherms to dwell, until the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event and subsequent global cooling that diminished poikilotherms. Homeothermy was probably even more important as a survival advantage in cooler climates of Paleogene, when mammals and birds became dominant animals. This interpretation is probably supported by a recent report that a small

  12. A Novel approach for monitoring cyanobacterial blooms using an ensemble based system from MODIS imagery downscaled to 250 metres spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alem, A.; Chokmani, K.; Laurion, I.; El-Adlouni, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    In reason of inland freshwaters sensitivity to Harmful algae blooms (HAB) development and the limits coverage of standards monitoring programs, remote sensing data have become increasingly used for monitoring HAB extension. Usually, HAB monitoring using remote sensing data is based on empirical and semi-empirical models. Development of such models requires a great number of continuous in situ measurements to reach an acceptable accuracy. However, Ministries and water management organizations often use two thresholds, established by the World Health Organization, to determine water quality. Consequently, the available data are ordinal «semi-qualitative» and they are mostly unexploited. Use of such databases with remote sensing data and statistical classification algorithms can produce hazard management maps linked to the presence of cyanobacteria. Unlike standard classification algorithms, which are generally unstable, classifiers based on ensemble systems are more general and stable. In the present study, an ensemble based classifier was developed and compared to a standard classification method called CART (Classification and Regression Tree) in a context of HAB monitoring in freshwaters using MODIS images downscaled to 250 spatial resolution and ordinal in situ data. Calibration and validation data on cyanobacteria densities were collected by the Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et de la Lutte contre les changements climatiques on 22 waters bodies between 2000 and 2010. These data comprise three density classes: waters poorly ( 100,000 cells mL-1) loaded in cyanobacteria. Results were very interesting and highlighted that inland waters exhibit different spectral response allowing them to be classified into the three above classes for water quality monitoring. On the other, even if the accuracy (Kappa-index = 0.86) of the proposed approach is relatively lower than that of the CART algorithm (Kappa-index = 0.87), but its robustness is

  13. Using MODIS True-Color 250 m Remote Sensing Data to Assess Interannual Variability of Suspended Matter over Southeastern Brazilian Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belem, A. L.; Silva, T. M. L.; Albuquerque, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Continental shelf is the final destination of terrigenous sediments drained by rivers and estuaries, forming a mass of water drifting over the shelf due to its differential density from underlaying salty oceanic waters, forming a coastal plume. On the Southeastern Brazilian Continental Shelf, Cabo Frio region represents the limit between Santos and Campos basin oil reserves. The continental drainage in this area is not expressive, nevertheless presents a complex interaction between the western boundary Brazil Current (BC) and shelf border mechanisms providing amid-shelf intrusion and a coastal upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) over the shelf. Satellite images of the region shows expressive shelf plumes with sedimentary contributions from Paraiba do Sul river located approximately 180 km northward of Cabo Frio, as well as from Guanabara bay, located 150 km westward of Cabo Frio. In order to understand the role of plumes in sedimentary processes over the continental shelf, this study analyzed 10 years of MODIS true-color 250 m remote sensing data in order to understand the temporal variability of the shelf front and the area of plumes. The remote data were obtained from the Aerosol Robotic Network and USDA Foreign Agricultural Service subsets. Selected 17% of daily images were cloud-free to allow shelf plumes to be delimited and processed to enhancement of features as well as land masking, geo-referencing, and daily area calculation on pixel basis. During austral winter (dry season) the plumes get its maximum extension in area over the shelf, suggesting that the mechanism of sediment transport is connected with high energetic wave-wind interactions on the coast followed by wind-driven dispersion less than continental drainage. The interannual pattern shows a general decreasing trend, mainly in the last 4 years, associated with sediment availability on the inner shelf, which is driven by river discharge during the austral summer (rain season). We also

  14. A Novel approach to monitor chlorophyll-a concentration using an adaptive model from MODIS data at 250 metres spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alem, A.; Chokmani, K.; Laurion, I.; El Adlouni, S.

    2013-12-01

    Occurrence and extent of Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) has increased in inland water bodies around the world. The appearance of these blooms reflects the advanced state of eutrophication of several aquatic systems caused by urban, agricultural, and industrial development. Algal blooms, especially those cyanobacterial origins, are capable to produce and release toxins, threatening human and animal health, quality of drinking water, and recreational water bodies. Conventional monitoring networks, based on infrequent sampling in a few fixed monitoring stations, cannot provide the information needed as HABs are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Remote sensing represents an interesting alternative to provide the required spatial and temporal coverage. The usefulness of air-borne and satellite remote sensing data to detect HABs was demonstrated since three decades ago, and since several empirical and semi-empirical models, using satellite imagery, were developed to estimate chlorophyll-a concentration [Chl-a] as a proxy to detect bloom proliferations. However, most of those models presented several weaknesses that are generally linked to the range of [Chl-a] to be estimated. Indeed, models originally calibrated for high [Chl-a] fail to estimate low concentrations and vice versa. In this study, an adaptive model to estimate [Chl-a], spread over a wide range of concentrations, is developed for optically complex inland water bodies based on combination of water spectral response classification and three developed semi-empirical algorithms using a multivariate regression. Three distinct water types (low, medium, and high [Chl-a]) are first identified using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) method performed on remote sensing reflectance over a dataset of 44 [Chl-a] samples collected from Lakes over Quebec province. Based on the water classification, a specific multivariate model to each water type is developed using the same dataset and the MODIS data at 250-m

  15. Application of the Cavity theory in the calibration of the powder TLD-100 for energies of {sup 60} Co, {sup 137} Cs, {sup 192} Ir and RX 50, 250 k Vp; Aplicacion de la Teoria de la Cavidad en la calibracion de polvo TLD-100 para energias de {sup 60} Co, {sup 137} Cs, {sup 192} Ir y RX 50, 250 kVp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaiza C, S.P. [UAEM, Programa de Maestria en Fisica Medica, 50180, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52750, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: sandraplc_04@yahoo.com.mx

    2006-07-01

    A powder lot TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) in absorbed dose terms in water D{sub w} for the following radiation sources: {sup 60} Co, {sup 137} Cs and RX 50 and 250 k Vp is calibrated; to continuation is made a lineal interpolation of the TLD response in function of the effective energy of the sources to calibrate a source of {sup 192} Ir. The calibration of those fields in D{sub w} are carried out with aid of the Bragg-Gray cavity theory, the one which finds implicit in the following protocols: IAEA-TRS 398 for the {sup 60} Co and the AAPM TG61 for X Rays of 50 and 250 k Vp. Additionally the AAPM protocol TG43 to determine the D{sub w} in function of the kerma intensity S{sub k} in the case of the {sup 137} Cs is used. The calibration curves for the response of the TLD-100 R{sub TLD} vs D{sub w}, corresponding to each one of the sources already mentioned are constructed. The R{sub TLD} vs D{sub w} by least heavy square by means of a second order polynomial that corrects the supralineality of the response is adjusted. The curves are validated by lack of LOF adjustment and by the Anderson Darling normality test. Later the factors of sensitivity (F{sub s}) for the sources of {sup 192} Ir: Micro Selectron and Vari Source are interpolated, used respectively in the A and B hospitals for treatments of brachytherapy of high dose rate (HDR), the expanded uncertainties associated to the D{sub w} and F{sub s} are also determined. Finally, an acrylic phantom and a couple of capsules are already sent to the hospitals mentioned, to verify a nominal D{sub w} of 2 Gy, in a case an underestimate in 5.5% in the imparted D{sub w} and in other an overestimation in a range of -1.5 to -8.0% was obtained. The obtained results in this work establish the bases for the development of a national dosimetric quality control program for brachytherapy of HDR with sources of {sup 192} Ir. (Author)

  16. Neutron and proton nuclear data evaluation for sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U at energies up to 250 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Konobeyev, A Y; Iwamoto, O

    2002-01-01

    Basic features of nuclear data evaluation for uranium isotopes sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U at intermediate energies are described. The coupled channel optical model was used to obtain total cross section, reaction cross section, angular distributions and transmission coefficients. The direct, pre-compound and evaporation models were used to describe neutron and charged particles emission from excited nuclei. The neutron data evaluated were combined with JENDL-3.3 data below 20 MeV to obtain a full data set in the whole energy range between 10 sup - sup 5 eV an 250 MeV. Evaluation of the proton data has been done at energies from 1 to 250 MeV.

  17. Generation of high-energy sub-20 fs pulses tunable in the 250-310 nm region by frequency doubling of a high-power noncollinear optical parametric amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Marcus; Ghotbi, Masood; Noack, Frank; Brida, Daniele; Manzoni, Cristian; Cerullo, Giulio

    2009-03-15

    We report on the generation of powerful sub-20 fs deep UV pulses with 10 microJ level energy and broadly tunable in the 250-310 nm range. These pulses are produced by frequency doubling a high-power noncollinear optical parametric amplifier and compressed by a pair of MgF2 prisms to an almost transform-limited duration. Our results provide a power scaling by an order of magnitude with respect to previous works.

  18. A new tool in the field of in-vitro diagnosis of allergy: preliminary results in the comparison of ImmunoCAP© 250 with the ImmunoCAP© ISAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadisseur, Romy; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Cavalier, Etienne

    2011-02-01

    The ImmunoCAP© ISAC allows for the determination of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against 103 recombinant or purified allergen components in a single analytical step. The aim of our study was to perform a comparison of the specific IgE results measured with the microarray method to those obtained using the traditional method of ImmunoCAP©. We selected 86 clinically relevant patients on the basis of their specific IgE for recombinant allergens (ImmunoCAP© 250, Phadia). Also, we selected two patients with a high total IgE to evaluate the non-specific binding of IgE. All samples were screened with the ImmunoCAP© ISAC. Then, we compared the 555 specific IgE antibodies results provided by ImmunoCAP© ISAC with the specific IgE levels obtained with ImmunoCAP© 250. We observed that 82 of the 384 results found to be positive with ImmunoCAP© were negative with ISAC© (concordance 78.65%). Of 171 negative results obtained with ImmunoCAP©, 11 were positive with ISAC© (concordance 93.57%). No non-specific binding was observed. Our results show that the ImmunoCAP© ISAC has good analytical performance when compared with the ImmunoCAP© 250 method. We did not observe any non-specific binding. However, better sensitivity for some clinically relevant allergen components, such as rPru p 3 is needed.

  19. Incidência e principais fatores associados à falha de extubação em recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento < 1.250 gramas Incidence and main risk factors associated with extubation failure in newborns with birth weight < 1,250 grams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Hermeto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência de falha de extubação em recém-nascidos prematuros com peso de nascimento OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of extubation failure in preterm newborns with birth weight < 1,250 g extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure and to identify the main risk factors associated with the need for reintubation in this population. METHODS: A retrospective review of eligible infants admitted and mechanically ventilated between July 2002 and June 2004 was performed. Extubation failure was defined as the need for reintubation within 7 days after the first extubation attempt. RESULTS: Of the 52 patients included in the study, 13 died before the first extubation attempt. Of the remaining 39 patients, only nine failed extubation (23.1% Comparing the two groups (failure vs. successful, there was a statistically significant difference regarding birth weight, gestational age and 5-minute Apgar score. After logistic regression, only gestational age was significant. Other secondary outcomes showed significant difference between the groups: intracranial hemorrhage grade III and/or IV, patent ductus arteriosus and death. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of extubation failure in our population was similar to the rate reported in the literature. The main risk factor for extubation failure was prematurity (≤ 28 weeks. In this population of extreme preterm infants, implementation of strategies for early extubation, use of methylxanthines, prevention of patent ductus arteriosus, and use of different modes of assisted ventilation after extubation may improve the outcomes.

  20. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation discusses a study on the use of MODIS NDVI data for viewing regional patterns of forest disturbance across the conterminous United States. This capability is a part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS) being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The viewing capability of the EWS was recently demonstrated for 2009, using near-real time (NRT) MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS Web site and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. For this study, a historical maximum NDVI baseline for CONUS was computed from fused Aqua and Terra MOD13 data for June 10-July 27 of each year during 2000-2006. Comparable 2009 MODIS NDVI imagery was computed from fusion and re-compositing of eMODIS NRT Aqua and Terra 7-day products. For the historical data, time series data processing software was used to remove poor quality data and to mitigate data gaps mainly due to clouds. Although the NRT component was not as rigorously processed to mitigate noise, the processing still yielded largely cloud-free clean, coherent CONUS NDVI imagery initially with only 21-days of compositing. The principal end product of the study was a forest disturbance visualization product based on an NDVI RGB image that combines data from 2 dates (i.e. time frames). For this RGB, the historical maximum NDVI for the observed temporal window was assigned to the red color gun and the 2009 NRT product for the same time frame was assigned to the blue and green guns. The resulting image was masked with a USFS FIA 250-m type map to include only forested areas. The forest disturbance areas on the forest-masked 2-date NDVI RGB are shown in red tones with non-disturbed closed canopy forest generally shown in medium to bright gray tones. This product highlighted several broad-scaled forest canopy disturbances for the observed time in 2009, including