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Sample records for californium 250

  1. Metabolism and toxicity of californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolism of californium can be compared with that of other transplutonium elements. The most important points are as follows: a fast blood clearance and fast bone uptake more important than liver uptake, a relatively high urinary excretion and kidney retention. Blood clearance of californium can be compared with that of americium. Distribution of californium 252 nitrate after intramuscular injection in rats was studied. There are very few experimental data on acute or long term toxicity of californium. (28 references)

  2. Magnetism in californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SQUID-based magnetic susceptometer has been constructed for studying small radioactive samples at temperatures below 350 K and in magnetic fields up to 50 kilogauss. The device has been used to study californium (element 98) in a number of solid-state forms: the dhcp metal, several oxides (Cf2O3 in both the bcc and monoclinic structures, Cf7O12, CfO2 and BaCfO3), several monopnictides (CfN, CfAs and CfSb) and the trichloride (in both the hexagonal and orthorhombic structures). All of these materials were studied in polycrystalline form, and hexagonal CfCl3 was studied in single-crystal form as well. The susceptometer has the sensitivity to measure samples containing less than 10 micrograms of californium. The magnetic susceptibilities of all of the californium materials at temperatures above about 100 K are described well by the Curie-Weiss relationship. This behavior is consistent with the assumption that the magnetic 5f electrons are localized and that the paramagnetic behavior can be interpreted in terms of the properties of the free ion. The measured values of the effective paramagnetic moment, μ/sub eff/, for all the californium materials that were studied are reasonably consistent with theoretical values based on intermediate coupling models. All of the californium materials showed some indications of cooperative magnetic effects. The dhcp metal was observed to order ferromagnetically at 52 K, and all of the californium compounds studied showed signs of antiferromagnetic ordering, mostly at temperatures below 25 K. 91 refs., 50 figs., 19 tabs

  3. Californium Multiplier (CFX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of 252Cf as an economical high-intensity neutron source has made it possible to construct compact neutron irradiation devices with widespread applications. The simplest such device consists of a single 252Cf source within a moderating and shielding medium. Higher neutron flux levels can be attained either through the use of more 252Cf or through source multiplication by means of a subcritical uranium assembly. Although the use of larger 252Cf sources to achieve higher neutron flux is technically straightforward, an economic penalty is paid as the source strength is increased. Larger californium sources imply larger initial investments to cover the cost of source material and larger operating costs resulting from the decay of the 252Cf source. A Californium Multiplier, the CFX, which produces a flux enhancement of 30 when compared to a conventional moderated 252Cf system has been designed, licensed, built, and tested by IRT Corporation. Such systems are now available on a commercial basis for both neutron radiography and neutron activation analysis. The first commercial CFX system was installed at the Research Laboratories of Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, NY, in March 1975. This device, using 1 mg of 252Cf, is very stable and the neutron flux generated by the CFX is very reproducible. The performance characteristics of this system are summarized

  4. Californium--palladium metal neutron source material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, B.L.; Mosly, W.C. Jr.; Smith, P.K.; Albenesius, E.L.

    1974-01-22

    Californium, as metal or oxide, is uniformly dispersed throughout a noble metal matrix, provided in compact, rod or wire form. A solution of californium values is added to palladium metal powder, dried, blended and pressed into a compact having a uni-form distribution of californium. The californium values are decomposed to californium oxide or metal by heating in an inert or reducing atmosphere. Sintering the compact to a high density closes the matrix around the dispersed californium. The sintered compact is then mechanically shaped into an elongated rod or wire form. (4 claims, no drawings) (Official Gazette)

  5. Californium-252 Neutron Sources for Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 neutron sources are being prepared to investigate the value of this radionuclide in diagnosing and treating diseases. A source resembling a cell-loaded radium needle was developed for neutron therapy. Since therapy needles are normally implanted in the body, very conservative design criteria were established to prevent leakage of radioactive. Methods are being developed to prepare very intense californium sources that could be used eventually for neutron radiography and for diagnosis by neutron activation analysis. This paper discusses these methods

  6. Californium Electrodepositions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, Rose Ann [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Electrodepositions of californium isotopes were successfully performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the past year involving two different types of deposition solutions, ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) and isobutanol ((CH3)2CHCH2OH). A californium product that was decay enriched in 251Cf was recovered for use in super-heavy element (SHE) research. This neutron-rich isotope, 251Cf, provides target material for SHE research for the potential discovery of heavier isotopes of Z=118. The californium material was recovered from aged 252Cf neutron sources in storage at ORNL. These sources have decayed for over 30 years, thus providing material with a very high 251Cf-to-252Cf ratio. After the source capsules were opened, the californium was purified and then electrodeposited using the isobutanol method onto thin titanium foils for use in an accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Another deposition method, ammonium acetate, was used to produce a deposition containing 1.7 0.1 Ci of 252Cf onto a stainless steel substrate. This was the largest single electrodeposition of 252Cf ever prepared. The 252Cf material was initially purified using traditional ion exchange media, such as AG50-AHIB and AG50-HCl, and further purified using a TEVA-NH4SCN system to remove any lanthanides, resulting in the recovery of 3.6 0.1 mg of purified 252Cf. The ammonium acetate deposition was run with a current of 1.0 amp, resulting in a 91.5% deposition yield. Purification and handling of the highly radioactive californium material created additional challenges in the production of these sources.

  7. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  8. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  9. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 (252Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, 252Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of 252Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the 252Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, 252Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of 252Cf from ORNL is summarized herein

  10. Californium-252 Neutron Therapy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 brachytherapy, believed to be the most successful source for neutron therapy, gives most of the cures as well as long-term and complication-free survivals. Chinese radiation oncologists were interested in californium neutron therapy (Cf-NT) in the early 1980s, but 252Cf sources for medical use were not available in China until 1992 when a californium joint venture was established by the China Institute of Atomic Energy (Beijing) and the Research Institute for Nuclear Reactors (Dimitrovgrad) of Russia. In 1995, 25 seeds of 252Cf with a strength of 3 μg each were sent to China for preclinical investigation. Three years later, a high dose rate (HDR) 252Cf source was imported and transferred into a home-made remote after-loader for intracavitary treatment in Chongqing, and a clinical trail was started in February 1999. This is the first time that Cf-NT was performed for cancer patients in China. Since then, Cf-NT in China has developed rapidly. It is estimated that one-tenth of those radiation oncology centers with brachytherapy practice will be equipped with californium units in 5 yr. That means more than 30 units will be in use in hospitals. That is significant compared with other countries, but it is just one, on average, for each province or one per 40 million people in China. Progress also has been achieved in the 252Cf treatment delivery equipment. Preliminary clinical trails showed complete response observed in all cases treated, with a rapid clearance of tumors and mild reactions in normal tissues. The short-term results are quite encouraging. To deal with problems due to the demand for Cf-NT in China, attention should be paid to the following particulars: (1) A high-strength miniature source is needed for HDR/MDR interstitial therapy to extend the Cf-NT coverage. (2) Basic work on radiophysics and radiobiology needs to be done, including source calibration, clinical dosimetry, clinical RBE determination, and Cf-NT quality assurance

  11. Californium-252 sales and loans at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and distribution in the United States of 252Cf has recently been consolidated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 252Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program and the 252Cf University Load Program, which were formerly located at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), have been combined with the californium production and distribution activities of the Transuranium Element Production Program at ORNL. Californium-252 is sold to commercial users in the form of bulk californium oxide, palladium-californium alloy pellets, or alloy wires. Neutron source capsules, which are fabricated for loans to DOE or other US government agencies, are still available in all forms previously available. The consolidation of all 252Cf distribution activities at the production site is expected to result in better service to users. In particular, customers for neutrons sources will be ale to select from a wider range of neutron source forms, including custom designs, through a single contact point

  12. Spontaneous Partitioning of Californium from Curium: Curious Cases from the Crystallization of Curium Coordination Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Samantha K.; Silver, Mark A.; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Jamie C.; Bogart, Justin A.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Arico, Alexandra A.; Hanson, Kenneth; Schelter, Eric J.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2015-12-07

    The reaction of 248CmCl3 with excess 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) under mild solvothermal conditions results in crystallization of the tris-chelate complex Cm(HDPA)3·H2O. Approximately half of the curium remains in solution at the end of this process, and evaporation of the mother liquor results in crystallization of the bis-chelate complex [Cm(HDPA)- (H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O. 248Cm is the daughter of the α decay of 252Cf and is extracted in high purity from this parent. However, trace amounts of 249,250,251Cf are still present in all samples of 248Cm. During the crystallization of Cm(HDPA)3·H2O and [Cm(HDPA)(H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O, californium(III) spontaneously separates itself from the curium complexes and is found doped within crystals of DPA in the form of Cf(HDPA)3. These results add to the growing body of evidence that the chemistry of californium is fundamentally different from that of earlier actinides.

  13. Californium-252 encapsulation at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1 g of the neutron-emitting isotope californium-252 has been encapsulated at SRL for worldwide medical, industrial, and research uses. Bulk sales packages have been prepared for the USDOE sales program since 1971. Doubly-encapsulated sources have been prepared for USDOE's market evaluation program since 1968. Californium-252 sources for loan and sales packages satisfy the criteria for Special Form Radioactive Material. Encapsulation is performed in special neutron-shielded containment facilities at SRL. Development of improved source and shipping package designs and processes is continuing. 17 figures

  14. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 1011 neutrons s-1. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  15. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R C; Knauer, J B; Balo, P A

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10(11) neutrons s(-1). Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordinance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations. PMID:11003521

  16. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial

  17. Production of extra pure curium and californium preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations of curium-244,245,248 and californium-249,252 are used for the production of ionizing radiation sources for different applications and fundamental nuclear-physical investigations, placing high requirements on the radiochemical and chemical purity of the preparations. Extraction chromatography using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as extractant was chosen to prepare extra pure curium and californium preparations. In order to identify the optimal conditions of Cm-Cf separation and to remove impurities from them (reagent and other impurities), investigations were performed into the effect of impurities (Na+, Ca2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+ taken as example), extractant and eluent concentration and solution flow rate on the efficiency of mutual purification of Cm and Cf. Both theoretical and experimental estimations were made of the maximum concentration at which the impurities do not affect the process. The conditions chosen allow mutual purification of milligram amounts of Cm and Cf from impurity elements at E(pur) =102 - 103 during a single chromatographic cycle (E(pur) =>103) using a column with 5 - 10 cm3 volume. In this case the production yield exceeds 98%. The purification of milligram amounts of curium and californium from fission products (lanthanides in general, cerium in particular) was performed in D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 and D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3-Cit extraction chromatography systems. In order to establish the optimal conditions, the effect of [D2EHPA] and eluent on the mutual purification of Cm and Cf and on their purification from cerium and impurity elements was studied in the D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 system. During a single chromatographic cycle the mutual purification factors of TPE and of their purification from impurity cations achieve 102-103, from cerium - E(pur) > 10. In the D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3Cit system, the effect of concentration of extractant and eluent pH on the efficiency of Cm and Cf purification from lanthanides was

  18. Prompt neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum was measured in the energy range of 0.01 to 10 MeV by the time-of-flight technique using various neutron detectors. The measurements of 252Cf neutron spectrum at energies of 0.01 to 5 MeV were performed as a function of fission fragment kinetic energy. The mean neutron spectrum energy in the range of 0.7 to 10 MeV was found from the results of measurements. The irregularity in the 252Cf neutron spectrum in the neutron energy range of less than 0.7 MeV compared to theoretical values is discussed. The mechanism of 252Cf neutron emission is also discussed on the basis of neutron yield angle measurements. 12 references

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  20. Separation of californium from actinides and lanthanides in aqueous solution by electrochemical formation of amalgams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical reduction of transneptunium elements (Pu to Cf) and rare earths (Eu, Tm) from aqueous complexing solutions to amalgams was studied over a wide range of cathodic potentials in order to achieve optimal separation of californium. The reduction in acetate media (pH 4.5-4.6) at potentials around -1.7 to -1.9 V1 leads to a quantitative extraction of californium into the mercury phase, while more negative potentials are required for the reduction of the lighter transuranium elements and of the lanthanides. Hence, the optimal conditions for the separation of californium from the investigated actinides and lanthanides were determined. Separation factors α between 25 and 90 were found except in the case of Cf/Eu, where poor values (α varying from 7 to 12) were observed. More negative cathodic potentials decrease the selectivity of the reduction process. A similar study with lithium citrate solutions (pH ∝6) shows that satisfactory separation of californium from lighter and heavier actinides is achievable. A separation factor of 88 is obtained for Cf/Am at -1.98 V. The anodic stripping of mixed amalgams (Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Tm and Cf) Hg in nitric and acetic acid soultions at potentials ranging from +0.1 to -0.7 V proceeds slowly and proved to be ineffective for the separation of californium from light actinides under conditions described. (orig.)

  1. On-line slurry analyses by californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In chemical processing technology on-line activation methods gain an increasing importance for process monitoring and control. A method is described according to which the different fluorspar contents at various strategic points of a flotation plant are determined through neutron activation by 100 μg californium-252. A continuous analytical system for onstream process control of slurries was designed and constructed. A compact facility, called SUSAC, allows continuous application of the method on an industrial scale. The main components of the SUSAC facility are the irradiation and measurement cells. The cells are equipped with multistage countercurrent stirrers ensuring a proper radial and vertical distribution of the sample. The hollow shaft of the stirrer of the irradiation cell houses the Cf-source. The NaI-detector has been installed in a recess in the bottom of the measuring cell. The volumes are 9 dm3 for the irradiation cell, 7.5 dm3 for the measuring cell, 1/2 dm3 for the vonnection line and 4 dm3 for feed and drainage lines including the pump. Investigations on the following topics are discussed: selection of stirrers, residence time, flow rate, pulp density, calibration measurements. (T.G.)

  2. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy

  3. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Byrne, T.E. [Roane State Community College, Harriman, TN (United States); Miller, L.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with {sup 252}Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of {sup 252}Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a {sup 252}Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded {sup 252}Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy.

  4. Proposed Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL has petitioned to establish a Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science for academic, industrial, and governmental researchers. The REDC Californium Facility (CF) stores the national inventory of sealed 252Cf neutron source for university and research loans. Within the CF, the 252Cf storage pool and two uncontaminated hot cells currently in service for the Californium Program will form the physical basis for the User Facility. Relevant applications include dosimetry and experiments for neutron tumor therapy; fast and thermal neutron activation analysis of materials; experimental configurations for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis; neutron shielding and material damage studies; and hardness testing of radiation detectors, cameras, and electronics. A formal User Facility simplifies working arrangements and agreements between US DOE facilities, academia, and commercial interests

  5. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Samantha K; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E; Stritzinger, Jared T; Green, Thomas D; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N; Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A; DePrince, A Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J; Van Cleve, Shelley M; House, Jane H; Kikugawa, Naoki; Gallagher, Andrew; Arico, Alexandra A; Dixon, David A; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resultant complex with respect to that predicted for the free ion. We expand on this by characterizing the americium and curium analogues for comparison, and show that these pronounced effects result from a second transition in periodicity in the actinide series that occurs, in part, because of the stabilization of the divalent oxidation state. The metastability of californium(II) is responsible for many of the unusual properties of californium including the green photoluminescence. PMID:25880116

  6. Fissile analysis of Hanford waste using Californium Multiplier/Delayed Neutron Counter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of low-level (10 ng/g or lower) fissile material (mainly plutonium) in Hanford waste and process samples is becoming increasingly important. A system has been designed consisting of a Californium Multiplier (CFX) and a Delayed Neutron Counter (DNC) to characterize these samples. This report describes hardware and analytical capability of the CFX/DNC system

  7. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

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  9. Californium (252Cf) and its use as neutron source in science medicine and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radionuclides in science and nuclear techniques basically is related to unstable isotopes, which are produced from stable elements in nuclear reactor. Their specifications are various from view point of application . Using of physical and chemical properties of radionuclides in chemistry, for with marking the organic compounds we can exactly explain the mechanism of chemical reactions in medical, biology and bio-chemistry. In these cases the behaviour of radionuclides is very important and the selection of the suitable radionuclides is determined between the elements for investigation aims. The special specification of radio-nuclides analysis such as, half-life, kind of ray and energy should be considered with an special accuracy as well as the laws security regulations from view point of ray-protection should be completely observed mean time working these radio-nuclides. It should be considered that application of radio-isotopes is very important from their special specifications point of view. Applying the radionuclides from technology point of view in sciences and nuclear techniques aren't only limited to three analyses of α, β, and γ, but we can use the share of neutron which are produced from spli ting of heavy nucleus such as Californium252 as a neutron source in the depths of the sea and also determining the concentration of low quantity elements on moon and other spheres. The radioisotope of Californium252 is a neutron useful radiator for investigation in nuclear medical and technology because of automatically rapid split to 3.2% Californium252 radiates 1.34 * 109N/m in each mil/GH which suitable replacement for neutron sources based on (a, n) reaction, for example, Radium-Brellium or Amersium-Brellium. The energy distribution of radiated neutrons from analyzing of Californium252 like the spectrum of neutron which is produced from splitting of U235, Pu239 nucleus has the maximum energy in quantity, En=1 MeV in the range of 1.5 MeV. The

  10. Contribution to clinical dosimetry of californium 252 sources used at Gustave Roussy institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of californium 252 sources are presented in the first part of the report. Dose measurements around Californium sources were performed with a pair of ionization multiplication chambers: the first one has an Aluminium wall and is filled with Argon, the second one a plastic tissue-equivalent gas. A set of experiments was performed in order to investigate the relative influence of beta rays on the response of both chambers. Besides the experimental work a computer program was written to calculate the dose distribution around the actual sources made of a series of small active sources placed in catheters. Theoretical data around small sources can be found in the litterature. The comparison between experimental results and theoretical ones has shown a good agreement. The computer program will be included as a sub-routine in the more general computer program used for patients treated with interstitial therapy

  11. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  12. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series

    OpenAIRE

    Cary, Samantha K.; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; GREEN, THOMAS D.; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A.; DePrince, A. Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J.; Van Cleve, Shelley M.; House, Jane H.; Kikugawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resu...

  13. Measurements of integral cross sections in the californium-252 fission neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a low-scattering arrangement cross sections averaged over the californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were measured. The reactions 27Al(n,α)46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti(n,p), 54Fe,56Fe(n,p), 58Ni(n,p), 64Zn(n,p), 115In(n,n') were studied in order to obtain a consistent set of threshold detectors used in fast neutron flux density measurements. Overall uncertainties between 2 and 2.5% could be achieved; corrections due to neutron scattering in source and samples are discussed

  14. Measurement of californium-252 gamma photons depth dose distribution in tissue equivalent material. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phantom of tissue equivalent material with and without bone was used measuring depth dose distribution of gamma-rays from californium-252 source. The source was positioned at center of perspex walled phantom. Depth dose measurements were recorded for X, Y and Z planes at different distances from source. TLD 700 was used for measuring the dose distribution. Results indicate that implantation of bone in tissue equivalent medium cause changes in the gamma depth dose distribution which varies according to variation in bone geometry. 9 figs

  15. BUS 250 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    SVD

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 1 Business & Society BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 2 Business & Accountability BUS 250 Week 1 Case Study A Brawl in Mickey's Backyard 1 BUS 250 Week 2 Assignment Case Study Alcoa's Core Values in Practice BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 1 Ethical Leadership BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 2 Globalization BUS 250 Week 3 Assignment Case Study Government Regulation of Tobacco Products BUS 250 Week 3 DQ 2 Economics...

  16. HTT 250 UOP Tutorial/ Uoptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Moon

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   HTT 250 Week 1 Assignment Organization Chart Hotel Front Office   HTT 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Total Quality Management   HTT 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Lodging Properties   HTT 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Hotel Price Comparison   HTT 250 Week 2 DQs   HTT 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Average Daily Rate   HTT 250 Week 3 Assignment Revenue Management HTT 250 Week ...

  17. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumov, P. N., E-mail: ostroumov@anl.gov; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz.

  18. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz

  19. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U233 when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO2(NO3)4 and 18% of thorium Th(NO3)4 as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 107 s-1. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out keff <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  20. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P N; Barcikowski, A; Dickerson, C A; Perry, A; Pikin, A I; Sharamentov, S I; Vondrasek, R C; Zinkann, G P

    2015-08-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz. PMID:26329185

  1. Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide 252Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world's largest inventory of compact 252Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of ≤ 1011 neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 108 cm-2 s-1 at the sample. Total flux of ≥109 cm-2 s-1 is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the 252Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis

  2. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252Cf and 7000 rad from 226Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252Cf and 5000 rad from 226Ra

  3. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction 55Mn (n.gamma)56 Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of 56Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions 56Fe(n,p)56Mn and 59 Co (n, α)56 were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  4. Five-year cure of cervical cancer treated using californium-252 neutron brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female pelvic carcinoma is one of the common malignancies seen at the University of Kentucky Medical Center and often presents in an advanced stage. In 1976, the authors began to test californium-252 neutron brachytherapy (NT) for its efficacy for control of primary and recurrent advanced uterine, cervix, and vaginal cancers. The first protocol used was 5000-5500 rad of whole pelvis irradiation followed by 1-2 Cf-252 insertions using a single tandem placed in the utero-cervico-vaginal region. Of 27 patients with primary carcinomas treated, 10 are alive and well 5 year later (37%). Two of two recurrent tumors were locally controlled but failed later. These patients had advanced cervical, vaginal, or endometrial carcinomas. In 1977, a transitional year, treatment of only unfavorable stages and presentations with NT was initiated. Similar results were obtained with NT as compared to conventional photon therapy (PT). Further improvement in treatment results can be anticipated as NT brachytherapy is used for advanced cancer therapy by more effective treatment schedules and radiation doses. Cf-252 can be used as a radium substitute and achieved similar rates of tumor control and 5-year survivals. 21 references, 2 tables

  5. Uptake and distribution of californium-252 chloride administered intraperitoneally, intravenously or intratracheally and the effect of in vivo DTPA chelation on intratracheal instillation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first phase of this investigation, comprising of three groups of animals, was designed to study the fate of californium-252 chloride administered intraperitoneally, intravenously or intratracheally. The second phase, which consisted of two groups of animals, was designed to examine the effectiveness of DTPA chelation therapy in accelerating the excretion and preventing the deposition of californium-252 chloride instilled into the lungs of rats. Immediately following the dose administration of 2 uCi of californium-252 chloride which was dissolved in 0.2 ml of 0.9% NaCl at pH 3.5, each rat was placed in a metabolism cage. Each rat in the first group of phase II was given intraperitoneal injection of CaNa3 DTPA (50 mg/kg) and each rat in the second group was given intraperitoneal injections of 0.9% NaCl. Injections of the DTPA or the NaCl sham were initiated immediately after the intratracheal administration of californium-252 chloride and were continued every three days until sacrifice. Following intraperitoneal, intravenous or intratracheal administration, the whole body retention of californium as a function of time was described by a three component exponential equation. For each mode of administration the short term component exhibited a biological half-life of between 5 and 10 hours; the intermediate component between 4 and 6 days; and the long term component between 200 and 300 days. The organ data obtained following intraperitoneal and intravenous administration were indistinguishable. On day one, the liver retained about 9% of the administered dose and the kidneys retained 2.4%. Retention for these organs decreased to about 1% by day 32. The femurs maintained an almost constant level of 4.5% of the injected dose over the 32 days. The lungs, spleen, heart, and testes showed significant retention of californium

  6. ACC 250 UOP Tutorial / Uoptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Ben K. Green

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Choosing Accounting Software ACC 250 Week 1 Assignment Accounting Software Memo ACC 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Back Up and Restore Data ACC 250 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Vendor Transactions ACC 250 Week 3 Assignment Bellwether Garden Supply Record a Transaction ACC 250 Week 4 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supp...

  7. ACC 250 UOP Courses / uoptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    hani

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com     ACC 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Choosing Accounting Software ACC 250 Week 1 Assignment Accounting Software Memo ACC 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Back Up and Restore Data ACC 250 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Vendor Transactions ACC 250 Week 3 Assignment Bellwether Garden Supply Record a Transaction ACC 250 Week 4 CheckPoint Bellwether...

  8. ACC 250 UOP TUTORIAL / Uoptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Choosing Accounting Software ACC 250 Week 1 Assignment Accounting Software Memo ACC 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Back Up and Restore Data ACC 250 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Vendor Transactions ACC 250 Week 3 Assignment Bellwether Garden Supply Record a Transaction ACC 250 Week 4 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Sup...

  9. ENEA results in the international comparison organized by BIPM for the measurament of neutron fluxes of a Californium source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period between May 1978 and August 1984 under the auspices of Section III of CCEMRI of CIPM it has been carried out the international intercomparison of Californium neutron source emission rate. The previous intercomparison was based on Ra-Be (α -n) source measuraments, which took place between 1959 and 1965, and the results showed a total spread of +- 3%. Owing to the better accuracy achived over the following decade the Ra-Be intercomparison was no longer representative of the state of the art, therefore it was decided to arrange the intercomparison based on Californium which in the meantime reached a wide use in the world. Contributions to the intercomparison were received from fourteen laboratories representative of twelve Nations plus the BIPM. The results put into evidence a considerable advance on accuracy in the neutron source emission rate measuraments. The standard deviation of the residuals obtained from least square fit of normalized data resulted +- 0,57%. In the present report it is widely described the Manganese bath method used at ENEA, CRE Casaccia in Roma, and the experimental procedure followed for its absolute calibration. All measuraments are reported and analysed, including those effectuated for corrective factors determination. The final results obtained at ENEA for the circulated Californium source is (3,457 +- 0,013) 10*H7 neutron/s. The analysis of data from all partecipantes has been effectuated and concluded by J. Axton in March 1986 and the conclusions which have been showed in the present report put in evidence the satisfactory results achived by the ENEA

  10. Feasibility and market potential of protein determination of wheat using californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the feasibility of protein determination by capture gamma-ray analysis using californium-252 neutrons, an in-situ protein analysis system for use by grain handlers has been examined. Three 227 kilogram (approximately) lots of wheat were used to determine the amount of nitrogen present. Protein analyses by the Kjeldahl method were obtained from samples taken before and after the capture gamma-ray analyses. The 5.267-MeV gamma-ray was selected for use in this study as a compromise between efficiency and interference from other elements. The associated counting equipment was a multichannel analyzer with pulse shaping electronic and analysis computing equipment. A linear regression program was used to compare the regions of interest to the Kjeldahl protein averages. The counts composing each peak were summed and normalized using the total count of the hydrogen peak. The normalized nitrogen percentages indicate a significant correlation between the spectral regions and the Kjeldahl analyses. To a first approximation, the value of wheat is the wheat protein. At the present time, protein testing of wheat is destructive, cumbersome, and time-consuming as compared to the potential for capture gamma-ray analysis testing. Assuming that such a protein analysis unit can analyze 42 tonne of wheat per hour, over 120 units would be needed to monitor one-half the U.S. annual wheat production. A 0.5% improvement in processor realizations and grain throughput value of $167.00 per tonne will result in a projected savings of $150,000 per year per unit

  11. Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and therapeutic gain factor (GF) for californium-252 at low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential benefit of the introduction of californium-252 in interstitial and intracavitary therapy is related to the greater efficiency of its neutron emission against anoxic cancer cells. In that respect, the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of the 252Cf emission has been determined for a continuous low dose rate irradiation. The biological system is growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. A new Vicia faba ''BelB'' strain has been used, which better tolerates long periods (up to about 10 hours) of anoxia. In a first series of experiments, for a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.11 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.4+-0.1 was observed (the γ contribution Dγ to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) was 0.35 at the position of the root tips). In a second series of experiments, in somewhat different geometrical conditions with a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.13 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.5+-0.1 was observed (Dγ/Dsub(n+γ)=0.42). The OER values observed for similar irradiation times, with iridium-192 γ-rays, were 2.3+-0.2 and 2.6+-0.1 respectively, which leads to therapeutic gain factors (GF) of 1.6 and 1.7 respectively. These GF values are slightly lower than those previously obtained (GF=1.8) on the same system, with d(50)-Be p(75)-Be and 15 MeV neutron beams

  12. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  13. Divalent and trivalent gas-phase coordination complexes of californium: evaluating the stability of Cf(ii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Phuong D; Shuh, David K; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Abergel, Rebecca J; Gibson, John K

    2016-08-01

    The divalent oxidation state is increasingly stable relative to the trivalent state for the later actinide elements, with californium the first actinide to exhibit divalent chemistry under moderate conditions. Although there is evidence for divalent Cf in solution and solid compounds, there are no reports of discrete complexes in which Cf(II) is coordinated by anionic ligands. Described here is the divalent Cf methanesulfinate coordination complex, Cf(II)(CH3SO2)3(-), prepared in the gas phase by reductive elimination of CH3SO2 from Cf(III)(CH3SO2)4(-). Comparison with synthesis of the corresponding Sm and Cm complexes reveals reduction of Cf(III) and Sm(III), and no evidence for reduction of Cm(III). This reflects the comparative 3+/2+ reduction potentials: Cf(3+) (-1.60 V) ≈ Sm(3+) (-1.55 V) ≫ Cm(3+) (-3.7 V). Association of O2 to the divalent complexes is attributed to formation of superoxides, with recovery of the trivalent oxidation state. The new gas-phase chemistry of californium, now the heaviest element to have been studied in this manner, provides evidence for Cf(II) coordination complexes and similar chemistry of Cf and Sm. PMID:27424652

  14. Hypoxic versus normoxic external-beam irradiation of cervical carcinoma combined with californium-252 neutron brachytherapy. Comparative treatment results of a 5-year randomized study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tačev, T.; Vacek, Antonín; Ptáčková, B.; Strnad, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 5 (2005), s. 273-284. ISSN 0179-7158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : cervical carcinoma * hypoxyradiotherapy * californium-252 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2005

  15. Solving the Hydration Structure of the Heaviest Actinide Aqua Ion Known: The Californium(III) Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Auwer, Ch.; Guillaumont, D. [CEA Marcoule, Nucl Energy Div, Radiochem Proc Dept, SCPS LILA, 30 (France); Galbis, E.; Pappalardo, Rafael R.; Marcos Sanchez, E. [Univ Seville, Dept Quim Fis, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Hernandez-Cobos, J. [Inst Ciencias Fis, Cuernavaca 62251, Morelos (Mexico); Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E. [Univ Paris Sud, Inst Phys Nucl Orsay, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    In summary, the first MC simulation of the trivalent cation of californium, based on an exchangeable hydrated ion-water intermolecular potential, has been shown to extend and improve the hydrated ion model. Likewise, the CfL{sub III}-edge EXAFS spectrum of an acidic 1 mm Cf(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3} aqueous solution recorded under optimized experimental conditions has greatly improved the signal/noise ratio of the only previously recorded spectrum. The comparison of the experimental EXAFS spectrum with the two computed ones, obtained from two different intermolecular potentials that predict eight (BP86) or nine (MP2) water molecules in the first coordination shell, leads to the conclusion that the lowest hydration number is preferred. Then, as Cf{sup III} is the heaviest actinide aqua ion for which there is experimental information, the actinide contraction is supported by the present study. (For U{sup III}, R{sub U-O}=2.56 Angstroms, and CN=9{+-}1; for Pu{sup III}, R{sub Pu-O}=2.51 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1; for Cm{sup III}, R{sub Cm-O}=2.47 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1). The role of the second hydration shell is important in defining the structure and dynamics of the Cf{sup III} aqua ion, but the contribution of second-shell water molecules to the EXAFS signal as back-scatters is marginal. Finally, this work gives an illustrative example of the benefits which can be achieved from the combination of experimental X-ray absorption spectroscopy and computer simulations. The usefulness of the simultaneous analysis of the results as well as the importance of the structural statistical average has been clearly demonstrated herein. Each technique independently was not adequate. We believe that this study traces out a still poorly explored combined methodology which may be extremely useful for many other complexes and chemical problems. A systematic theoretical and experimental examination of the other known actinide cations on the same basis should be undertaken to confirm the

  16. CANDU-BLW-250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant 'La Centrale nucleaire de Gentilly' is located between Montreal and Quebec City on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River and start-up is scheduled for 1971. A CANDU-BLW reactor is the nuclear steam generator. his reactor utilizes a heavy water moderator, natural uranium oxide fuel, and a boiling light water coolant. To be economic, this type of plant must have a minimum light water inventory in the reactor core. A minimum inventory is obtained (a) by reducing the cross-sectional area for coolant flow to a minimum, and (b) by operating at a low-coolant density. In CANDU-BLW-250, this is accomplished by operating a closed spaced fuel rod bundle at high steam quality. These features and others in the BLW concept lead to a number of areas of concern and they are summarized below: (1) Heat Transfer: It is intended that under normal operating conditions the fuel sheaths will always be wetted with coolant. (ii) Hydrodynamic Stability: Experiments and analysis indicate that the plant has a considerable over-power capacity before instability is predicted. (iii) Control: This plant does have a positive power coefficient and the transient performance with various disturbances are detailed. (iv) Safety: The positive power coefficient leads to concern over the loss of coolant accident. The results of some accident analysis are presented. (author)

  17. Design, construction, and characterization of a facility for neutron capture gamma ray analysis of sulfur in coal using californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of neutron capture gamma ray analysis of sulfur in coal using californium-252 as a neutron source is reported. Both internal and external target geometries are investigated. The facility designed for and used in this study is described. The external target geometry is found to be inappropriate because of the low thermal neutron flux at the sample location, which must be outside the biological shielding. The internal target geometry is found to have a sufficient thermal neutron flux, but an excessive gamma ray background. A water filled plastic facility, rather than the paraffin filled steel one used in this study, is suggested as a means of increasing flexibility and decreasing the beackground in the internal target geometry

  18. HTT 250 UOP Coureses/UOP Help

    OpenAIRE

    royal8

    2015-01-01

    HTT 250 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     HTT 250 Week 1 Assignment: Organization Chart Hotel Front Office HTT 250 Week 1 CheckPoint: Total Quality Management HTT 250 Week 1 CheckPoint: Lodging Properties HTT 250 Week 2 CheckPoint: Hotel Price Comparison HTT 250 Week 2 DQs HTT 250 Week 3 CheckPoint: Average Daily Rate HTT 250 Week 4 CheckPoint: Front Office FAQs HTT 250 Week 4 DQs HTT 250 Week 5 Assi...

  19. HTT 250 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    keerthi

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com     HTT 250 Week 1 Assignment Organization Chart Hotel Front Office   HTT 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Total Quality Management   HTT 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Lodging Properties   HTT 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Hotel Price Comparison   HTT 250 Week 2 DQs   HTT 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Average Daily Rate   HTT 250 Week 3 Assignment Revenue Management ...

  20. ACC 250 UOP Tutorial/Uoptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Isabel

    2015-01-01

    ACC 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Choosing Accounting Software ACC 250 Week 1 Assignment Accounting Software Memo ACC 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Back Up and Restore Data ACC 250 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Vendor Transactions ACC 250 Week 3 Assignment Bellwether Garden Supply Record a Transaction ACC 250 Week 4 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Payroll ACC 250 Week 4 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 5 CheckPoi...

  1. Operational experience with the Argonne National Laboratory Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade facility and electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R.; Clark, J.; Levand, A.; Palchan, T.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility provides low-energy and accelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics and astrophysics questions. A 350 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The ECR charge breeder has achieved stable beam charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+, 17.9% for 39K10+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 12.4% for 133Cs27+. For the radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The typical breeding times are 10 ms/charge state, but the source can be tuned such that this value increases to 100 ms/charge state with the best breeding efficiency corresponding to the longest breeding times—the variation of efficiencies with breeding time will be discussed. Efforts have been made to characterize and reduce the background contaminants present in the ion beam through judicious choice of q/m combinations. Methods of background reduction are being investigated based upon plasma chamber cleaning and vacuum practices.

  2. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  3. Results with the electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder for the 252Cf fission source project (Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade) at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is nearing completion. The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci 252Cf source; thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams, an existing ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source was redesigned to function as an ECR charge breeder. Thus far, the charge breeder has been tested with stable beams of rubidium and cesium achieving charge breeding efficiencies of 9.7% into 85Rb17+ and 2.9% into 133Cs20+.

  4. ACC 250 UOP COURSE TUTORIAL/ UOPHELP

    OpenAIRE

    veeru1

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   ACC 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Choosing Accounting Software ACC 250 Week 1 Assignment Accounting Software Memo ACC 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Back Up and Restore Data ACC 250 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Vendor Transactions ACC 250 Week 3 Assignment Bellwether Garden Supply Record a Transaction ACC 250 Week 4 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply P...

  5. BUS 250 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

                     For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 1 Business & Society ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 2 Business & Accountability ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 1 Case Study A Brawl in Mickey's Backyard 1 ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 2 Assignment Case Study Alcoa's Core Values in Practice ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 1 Ethical Leadersh...

  6. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Bouhafs, B.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young's modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  7. 48 CFR 1846.673 - Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Distribution of DD Forms... Reports 1846.673 Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c. (a) DD Forms 250 and 250c shall be distributed in accordance with installation procedures. (b) The contractor is responsible for distributing DD Forms 250...

  8. 7 CFR 250.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 250.2 Section 250.2 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General § 250.2 Administration. (a) Delegation to FNS. Within the Department, FNS shall act on behalf of the Department in the administration of...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1633 - Production measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production measurement. 250.1633 Section 250... SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1633 Production measurement. (a) General. Measurement equipment and security procedures shall be designed, installed, used, maintained,...

  10. 49 CFR 250.3 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fees. 250.3 Section 250.3 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION GUARANTEE OF CERTIFICATES OF TRUSTEES OF RAILROADS IN REORGANIZATION § 250.3 Fees. On date of... Administrator as a guarantee fee such amount as the Administrator hereafter may determine and prescribe...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1632 - Production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production rates. 250.1632 Section 250.1632 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1632 Production rates. Each...

  12. 32 CFR 250.6 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 250.6 Section 250.6 National... WITHHOLDING OF UNCLASSIFIED TECHNICAL DATA FROM PUBLIC DISCLOSURE § 250.6 Responsibilities. (a) The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (USDR&E) shall have overall responsibility for...

  13. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  14. 8 CFR 250.1 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application. 250.1 Section 250.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REMOVAL OF ALIENS WHO HAVE FALLEN INTO DISTRESS § 250.1 Application. Application for removal shall be made on Form I-243. No appeal shall lie...

  15. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food and..., Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in food..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  16. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to...

  17. 7 CFR 250.17 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 250.17 Section 250.17 Agriculture Regulations... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General Operating Provisions § 250.17 Reports. (a) Inventory reports and receipt of donated foods. Distributing agencies shall complete and submit to the...

  18. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 250.300 Section 250.300 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.300 Pollution prevention....

  19. 40 CFR 723.250 - Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identified will be treated in accordance with the procedures in 40 CFR part 2. Any information not claimed... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymers. 723.250 Section 723.250... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION EXEMPTIONS Specific Exemptions § 723.250 Polymers. (a) Purpose and scope. (1)...

  20. 7 CFR 250.21 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department's nondiscrimination regulations (7 CFR parts 15, 15a, and 15b) and the FNS civil rights... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 250.21 Section 250.21 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General Operating Provisions § 250.21...

  1. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of...

  2. 30 CFR 250.490 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.490 Section 250.490... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Hydrogen Sulfide § 250.490 Hydrogen... black lettering as follows: Letter height Wording 12 inches Danger. Poisonous Gas. Hydrogen Sulfide....

  3. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or...

  4. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or...

  5. Decay modes of 250No

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, D; Janssens, R V F; Khoo, T L; Lister, C J; Seweryniak, D; Ahmad, I; Carpenter, M P; Davids, C N; Hecht, A A; Jiang, C L; Lauritsen, T; Wang, X; Zhu, S; Kondev, F G; Heinz, A; Qian, J; Winkler, R; Chowdhury, P; Tandel, S K; Tandel, U S

    2006-01-01

    The Fragment Mass Analyzer at the ATLAS facility has been used to unambiguously identify the mass number associated with different decay modes of the nobelium isotopes produced via 204Pb(48Ca,xn)(252-x)No reactions. Isotopically pure (>99.7%) 204Pb targets were used to reduce background from more favored reactions on heavier lead isotopes. Two spontaneous fission half-lives (t_1/2 = 3.7+1.1-0.8 us and 43+22-15 us) were deduced from a total of 158 fission events. Both decays originate from 250No rather than from neighboring isotopes as previously suggested. The longer activity most likely corresponds to a K-isomer in this nucleus. No conclusive evidence for an alpha branch was observed, resulting in upper limits of 2.1% for the shorter lifetime and 3.4% for the longer activity.

  6. 48 CFR 1846.672 - Preparing DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Preparing DD Forms 250 and 250c. 1846.672 Section 1846.672 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... DD Forms 250 and 250c....

  7. Anatomy of a controversy: Application of the Langevin technique to the analysis of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis method for subcriticality determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expressions for the power spectral density of the noise equivalent sources have been calculated explicitly for the (a) stochastic transport equation, (b) the one-speed transport equaton, (c) the one-speed P1 equations, (d) the one-speed diffusion equation and (e) the point kinetic equation. The stochastic nature of Fick's law in (d) has been emphasized. The Langevin technique has been applied at various levels of approximation to the interpretation of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis (CSDNA) experiment for determining the reactivity in subcritical media. The origin of the controversy surrounding this method has been explained. The foundations of the CSDNA method as a viable experimental technique to infer subcriticality from a measured ratio of power spectral densities of the outputs of two neutron detectors and a third external source detector has been examined by solving the one-speed stochastic diffusion equation for a point external Californium-252 source and two detectors in an infinite medium. The expression relating reactivity to the measured ratio of PSDs was found to depend implicitly on k itself. Through a numerical analysis fo this expression, the authors have demonstrated that for a colinear detector-source-detector configuration for neutron detectors far from the source, the expression for the subcritical multiplication factor becomes essentially insensitive to k, hence, demonstrating some possibility for the viability of this technique. However, under more realistic experimental conditions, i.e., for finite systems in which diffusion theroy is not applicable, the measurement of the subcritical multiplication factor from a single measured ratio of PSDs, without extensive transport calculations, remains doubtful

  8. Application of SCGE assay, classical cytogenetics and FISH for studying in vitro californium-252 neutrons irradiations and BSH pretreatment on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there has been observed a tendency to apply various energy neutrons for tumor therapy and particularly low energy neutrons from various sources, including californium-252 source, for cancer radiotherapy based on the neutron capture. In this study peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells and three methods were applied to assess the effectiveness of californium-252 neutrons irradiations in vitro in normal cells or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with neutrons from isotopic 252Cf source at the Faculty of Nuclear Physics and Technics at University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with BSH (Na210B12H11SH) was done to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetics was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics and rings). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of whole genome) and pancentromeric probe was performed to evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations. Linear (or close to linear) increase of DNA damage and aberration frequency was observed with dose of radiation both for lymphocytes untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Very little differences (statistically insignificant) due to radiation dose and BSH pretreatment were observed in the frequencies of SCEs detected in the second mitosis. There is no significant difference between boron pre-treated and not treated cells, and even slightly higher effects were observed in case of the highest dose without BSH pretreatment. The level of translocations observed is comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. (author)

  9. 32 CFR 250.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...” or “restricted rights” data as defined in 32 CFR 9-201(c) and 9-601(j) of the DoD Acquisition... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 250.4 Section 250.4 National Defense... UNCLASSIFIED TECHNICAL DATA FROM PUBLIC DISCLOSURE § 250.4 Policy. (a) In accordance with 10 U.S.C. 140c,...

  10. Californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major production programs for the Savannah River reactors and the High Flux Isotopes Reactor at Oak Ridge have made 252Cf one of the most available and, at the USAEC's sales price of $10/μg, one of the least-expensive isotopic neutron sources. Reactor production has totaled approximately 2 g, and, based on expected demand, an additional 10 g will be produced in the next decade. The approximately 800 mg chemically separated to date has been used to prepare over 600 neutron sources. Most, about 500, have been medical sources containing 1 to 5 μg of 252Cf plated in needles for experimental cancer therapy studies. The remainder have generally been point sources containing 10 μg to 12 mg of oxide for activation, well logging, or radiography uses. Bulk sources have also been supplied to the commercial encapsulators. The latest development has been the production of 252Cf cermet wire which can be cut into almost contamination-free lengths of the desired 252Cf content. Casks are available for transport of sources up to 50 mg. Subcritical assemblies have been developed to multiply the source neutrons by a factor of 10 to 40, and collimators and thermalizers have also been extensively developed to shape the neutron flux and energy distributions for special applications. (U.S.)

  11. Calculations of Nuclear Astrophysics and Californium Fission Neutron Spectrum Averaged Cross Section Uncertainties Using ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and Low-fidelity Covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear astrophysics and californium fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections and their uncertainties for ENDF materials have been calculated. Absolute values were deduced with Maxwellian and Mannhart spectra, while uncertainties are based on ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and Low-Fidelity covariances. These quantities are compared with available data, independent benchmarks, EXFOR library, and analyzed for a wide range of cases. Recommendations for neutron cross section covariances are given and implications are discussed

  12. 30 CFR 250.1203 - Gas measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 250.198. (3) Ensure that the measurement components demonstrate consistent levels of accuracy... recorder is used, you must follow the recommendations in API MPMS as referenced in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) Take.... 1713 and 30 CFR part 212. (5) Upon the request of the Regional Supervisor, you must provide copies...

  13. 7 CFR 250.67 - Charitable institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... established in accordance with 7 CFR 251.4(h)(4); or (3) Other similar data. (d) Types and quantities of... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charitable institutions. 250.67 Section 250.67... Charitable institutions. (a) Distribution to charitable institutions. The Department provides donated...

  14. English 304 & Communications 250: Professional Rhetorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Justin

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a course overview of English 304 & Communications 250: Professional Rhetorics. This course was a pilot project instituted at Clemson University in spring of 2008. The project integrally linked English 304 (Business Writing) and Communications 250 (Public Speaking), requiring the same students to be enrolled in both 3…

  15. 40 CFR 170.250 - Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.250 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.250 Decontamination. (a) Requirement. During any..., decontamination supplies for washing off pesticides and pesticide residues. (b) General conditions. (1)...

  16. 32 CFR 250.5 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 379.3, EAR) (see § 250.7) or exemption (22 CFR 125.11, ITAR) (see § 250.8). 3 May require... judgment that the technical data under consideration disclose critical technology with military or space... in bad faith, or (4) made an omission or misstatement of material fact, the DoD Component...

  17. HTT 250 uop course tutorial/uop helP

    OpenAIRE

    baily

    2015-01-01

    HTT 250 Week 1 Assignment: Organization Chart Hotel Front Office HTT 250 Week 1 CheckPoint: Total Quality Management HTT 250 Week 1 CheckPoint: Lodging Properties HTT 250 Week 2 CheckPoint: Hotel Price Comparison HTT 250 Week 2 DQs HTT 250 Week 3 CheckPoint: Average Daily Rate HTT 250 Week 4 CheckPoint: Front Office FAQs HTT 250 Week 4 DQs HTT 250 Week 5 Assignment: Night Audit Application HTT 250 Week 5 CheckPoint: Night Audit HTT 250 Week 6 CheckPoint...

  18. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel-Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Trellue, H. R.; Tobin, S. J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be orientation in the instrument.

  19. Johann Wilhelm Krause 250 / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti klassitsistliku arhitektuuri suurkuju ning Tartu Ülikooli arhitekti Johann Wilhelm Krause 250. sünniaastapäeva tähistati näitustega Tallinnas ja Tartus. Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogu kunstikogusse kuulub ligi 700 J. W. Krause loodud joonistust

  20. 7 CFR 1726.250 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Modifications to RUS Standard Contract Forms § 1726.250 General. RUS provides standard forms of contract for the procurement of materials, equipment, and construction and for contract amendments and various related forms for use by RUS borrowers. See § 1726.304...

  1. 5 CFR 250.203 - Agency responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT IN AGENCIES Strategic Human Capital Management § 250.203 Agency responsibilities. (a) To assist in the assessment of the management of human capital in the Federal Government, and to help meet the... annual Human Capital Management Report, as outlined below, based on an approved human...

  2. 7 CFR 250.15 - Financial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Uniform Federal Assistance Regulations, 7 CFR part 3015, subpart T. In no case may distribution charges be... under the cost Principles in the Department's Uniform Federal Assistance Regulations, 7 CFR part 3015... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management. 250.15 Section...

  3. 40 CFR 264.250 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.250... treat hazardous waste in piles, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise. (b) The regulations in...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable chapter of the API MPMS, which is incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198. Terms used in...) from gas, including absorption, adsorption, or refrigeration. Processing does not include treatment... cycle. Pressure base—the pressure at which gas volumes and quality are reported. The standard...

  5. Biological Efficiency of Californium-252 Source Evaluated by Comet Assay, Classical Cytogenetics and FISH in Human Lymphocytes Irradiated without and with BSH Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological effectiveness of californium-252 source was evaluated after irradiations in vitro of normal or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells. DNA and chromosomal damage were studied to compare biological effectiveness of irradiation. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with the isotopic source of 252Cf, at the Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques at the University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in ''infinite'' polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with Na210B12H11SH (BSH) was performed to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Single cell gel electrophoresis also known as the Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetic analysis was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics, rings and a centric fragments). To evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of the whole genome) was performed. Linear (or close to linear) increase with radiation dose were observed for the DNA damage and aberration frequencies in lymphocytes both untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Levels of translocations evaluated for the whole genome were comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. No significant differences were detected due to radiation dose in the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) detected in the second mitosis. No statistically significant differences were observed in various biological end-points between normal or boron pre-treated cells. (author)

  6. From ANAIS-25 towards ANAIS-250

    CERN Document Server

    Amaré, J; Cuesta, C; García, E; Ginestra, C; Martínez, M; Oliván, M A; Ortigoza, Y; de Solórzano, A Ortiz; Pobes, C; Puimedón, J; Sarsa, M L; Villar, J A; Villar, P

    2014-01-01

    The ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI(Tl) Scintillators) experiment aims at the confirmation of the DAMA/LIBRA signal using the same target and technique at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC). 250 kg of ultra pure NaI(Tl) crystals will be used as target, divided into 20 modules, 12.5 kg mass each, and coupled to two high e?ciency photomultiplier tubes from Hamamatsu. The ANAIS-25 set-up at the LSC consists of two prototypes, amounting 25 kg NaI(Tl), grown from a powder having a potassium level under the limit of our analytical techniques, and installed in a convenient shielding at the LSC. The background has been carefully analyzed and main results will be summarized in this paper, focusing on the alpha contamination identified in the prototypes and the related background contributions. Status of fulfillment of ANAIS experimental goals and prospects for the building of ANAIS-250 experiment will be also revised.

  7. Hydrolysis and formation constants at 250C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A database consisting of hydrolysis and formation constants for about 20 metals associated with the disposal of nuclear waste is given. Complexing ligands for the various ionic species of these metals include OH, F, Cl, SO4, PO4 and CO3. Table 1 consists of tabulated calculated and experimental values of log K/sub xy/, mainly at 250C and various ionic strengths together with references to the origin of the data. Table 2 consists of a column of recommended stability constants at 250C and zero ionic strength tabulated in the column headed log K/sub xy/(0); other columns contain coefficients for an extended Debye-Huckel equation to permit calculations of stability constants up to 3 ionic strength, and up to 0.7 ionic strength using the Davies equation. Selected stability constants calculated with these coefficients for various ionic strengths agree to an average of +- 2% when compared with published experimental and calculated values

  8. ACCELERATING POLARIZED PROTONS TO 250 GEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAI,M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as the first high energy polarized proton collider was designed t o provide polarized proton collisions a t a maximum beam energy of 250 GeV. I t has been providing collisions a t a beam energy of 100 Gel' since 2001. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during the acceleration from injection to 100 GeV with careful control of the betatron tunes and the vertical orbit distortions. However, the intrinsic spin resonances beyond 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV? making it important t o examine the impact of these strong intrinsic spin resonances on polarization survival and the tolerance for vertical orbit distortions. Polarized protons were accelerated t o the record energy of 250 GeV in RHIC with a polarization of 46% measured a t top energy in 2006. The polarization measurement as a function of beam energy also shows some polarization loss around 136 GeV, the first strong intrinsic resonance above 100 GeV. This paper presents the results and discusses the sensitivity of the polarization survival t o orbit distortions.

  9. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  10. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250.1005 Section 250.1005 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall be inspected...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 CFR 250.198) where— P=Internal design pressure in pounds per square inch (psi). S=Specified..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange... Spec 17J, incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline...

  13. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality...

  14. 7 CFR 958.250 - Assessment Credit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment Credit Report. 958.250 Section 958.250... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Rules and Regulations § 958.250 Assessment Credit Report. Each handler may receive a credit for assessments on onions that have been levied in...

  15. 6 CFR 27.250 - Inspections and audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspections and audits. 27.250 Section 27.250 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.250 Inspections and audits. (a) Authority. In order...

  16. 21 CFR 173.250 - Methyl alcohol residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl alcohol residues. 173.250 Section 173.250... CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.250 Methyl alcohol residues... oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 50 parts per million. (b)...

  17. 250 Years of the State Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Wechselberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first topographic survey of the Habsburg Monarchy was decreed by Maria Theresa 250 years ago, on May 13, 1764. A conference was held on the occasion of the anniversary by the Austrian State Geodetic Administration (BEV – Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen and the Institute for Military Geosciences (IMG – Institut für Militärisches Geowesen in Vienna on May 13 and 14, 2014. The conference was sort of a time travel through Austrian state surveys. Historical development and methods of the first three state surveys (18th and 19th century were presented on the first conference day. Lectures were held by representatives of Austrian scientific institutions and new countries of the Monarchy. The second conference day was dedicated to the 4th state survey (20th century and its impact on civilian and military application and economy.

  18. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  19. Dicty_cDB: SFK250 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFK250 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16442-1 SFK250F (Link to Original ... *ahtnfkli*f*vsnsitlgrna*rsyrkrcnlwelqd*il*ygivffci*csr ... yv*hlptk*nkrynkgfcsncryrgilkigl*fnin*r*t*rksyir*** ...

  20. 5 CFR 250.202 - Office of Personnel Management responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Governmentwide leadership and direction in the strategic management of the Federal workforce. (b) To execute this... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Personnel Management responsibilities. 250.202 Section 250.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  1. 41 CFR 60-250.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-250... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...

  2. 47 CFR 90.250 - Meteor burst communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Meteor burst communications. 90.250 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.250 Meteor burst communications. Meteor burst communications may be authorized for the use of private radio stations subject...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1616 - Supervision, surveillance, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision, surveillance, and training. 250.1616 Section 250.1616 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Supervision, surveillance, and training. (a) The lessee shall provide onsite supervision of...

  4. 21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antifungal drug products. 333.250... Antifungal Drug Products § 333.250 Labeling of antifungal drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The... “antifungal.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under the heading “Indications,” the...

  5. 33 CFR 105.250 - Security systems and equipment maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintenance. 105.250 Section 105.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... systems and equipment maintenance. (a) Security systems and equipment must be in good working order and... include procedures for identifying and responding to security system and equipment failures...

  6. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  7. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  8. Alaska map quadrangles at 1:250,000 scale

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Outlines of 1:250,000 scale map quadrangles in Alaska for use as a geographic reference within Google Earth or other software capable of interpreting KML, with...

  9. Superfund GIS - 1:250,000 Geology of Tennessee.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a digital representation of the printed 1:250,000 geologic maps from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Geology....

  10. Aserisse kerkib 250 miljonit krooni maksev tellisetehas / Gerli Romanovitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Romanovitš, Gerli, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik 19. mai 2005, lk. 1, Severnoje Poberezhje 19. mai 2005, lk. 1,3. AS Wienerburger kavatseb rajada Aserisse 250 miljonit krooni maksva tellisetehase, vanas vabrikus hakatakse tootma keraamilisi plokke

  11. 40 CFR 421.250 - Applicability: Description of the primary precious metals and mercury subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary precious metals and mercury subcategory. 421.250 Section 421.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Precious Metals and Mercury Subcategory § 421.250...

  12. Requirement for TAFII250 Acetyltransferase Activity in Cell Cycle Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Dunphy, Elizabeth L.; Johnson, Theron; Auerbach, Scott s.; Wang, Edith H.

    2000-01-01

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP)-associated factor TAFII250 is the largest component of the basal transcription factor IID (TFIID). A missense mutation that maps to the acetyltransferase domain of TAFII250 induces the temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant hamster cell lines ts13 and tsBN462 to arrest in late G1. At the nonpermissive temperature (39.5°C), transcription from only a subset of protein encoding genes, including the G1 cyclins, is dramatically reduced in the mutant cells. Here we demonst...

  13. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  14. New model for the lunar interior to 250 km

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model for the structure of the lunar interior to about a 250-km depth is proposed. It is suggested that this region is composed of plagioclase-bearing rocks, and that the 65-km seismic discontinuity represents the appearance of garnet. A variety of rock types mainly composed of plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine and garnet is envisioned, with at least half of the outer 250 km of the moon made of plagioclase, which dominates the electrical conductivity. This model agrees with recent petrological and electrical conductivity results and does not violate velocity-depth profiles obtained from elastic-wave studies of lunar and terrestrial materials. (U.S.)

  15. 9 CFR 2.50 - Time and method of identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time and method of identification. 2... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.50 Time and method of identification. (a... by any dealer or exhibitor shall be identified by the dealer or exhibitor at the time of delivery...

  16. 41 CFR 60-250.23 - Medical examinations and inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Medical examinations and... PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.23 Medical examinations and inquiries. (a) Prohibited medical examinations or inquiries. Except as stated in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, it...

  17. 30 CFR 250.515 - Blowout prevention equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... power source, independent from the primary power source, with sufficient capacity to close all BOP... remote BOP-control station and one BOP-control station on the rig floor. (5) A choke line and a kill line... 250.515 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND...

  18. The Varian MAT-250 mass spectrometer. Steady isotopes laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work treats over the performance and applications of the Varian Mat-250 mass spectrometer which is in the environmental isotope laboratory. It can be applied over topics such as: ions formation, acceleration and collimation, ions separation, ions detection, data transformation, sampling, δ notation. (Author)

  19. 5 CFR 250.201 - Coverage and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN AGENCIES Strategic Human Capital Management § 250.201 Coverage and purpose. The Chief Human... effective and efficient operation of Government. As a part of OPM's overall leadership responsibilities...

  20. 30 CFR 250.611 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.611 Section... Traveling-block safety device. After May 31, 1989, all units being used for well-workover operations which have both a traveling block and a crown block shall be equipped with a safety device which is...

  1. 30 CFR 250.511 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.511 Section... Traveling-block safety device. All units being used for well-completion operations that have both a traveling block and a crown block must be equipped with a safety device that is designed to prevent...

  2. 38 CFR 3.250 - Dependency of parents; compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... remarried parent and spouse, living together: (iii) $185 for each additional “member of the family” as... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency of parents....250 Dependency of parents; compensation. (a) Income—(1) Conclusive dependency. Dependency of a...

  3. 41 CFR 60-250.60 - Compliance evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance review may proceed in three stages: (i) A desk audit of the written affirmative action program and... may verify whether the contractor has complied with its obligation, pursuant to 41 CFR part 61-250, to... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance...

  4. 41 CFR 60-250.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use as a... position held or desired without posing a direct threat to the health or safety of the individual or...

  5. 17 CFR 250.44 - Sales of securities and assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of securities and assets... Various Financial Transactions 2 § 250.44 Sales of securities and assets. (a) Sales of utility securities or assets. No registered holding company shall, directly or indirectly, sell to any person...

  6. Tourette syndrome: clinical and psychological aspects of 250 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Comings, D E; Comings, B G

    1985-01-01

    Tourette syndrome is a common hereditary neuropsychiatric disorder consisting of multiple tics and vocal noises. We summarize here clinical aspects of 250 consecutive cases seen over a period of 3 years. The sex ratio was four males to one female, and the mean age of onset was 6.9 years. Only 10% were Jewish, indicating that it is not more prevalent in Ashkenazi Jews. Only 33% had compulsive swearing (coprolalia), indicating that this is not necessary for the diagnosis. The most frequent init...

  7. Acquisition of a 250-word vocabulary through a tactile vocoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P L; Frost, B J; Mason, J L; Chung, K

    1985-04-01

    In a previous experiment [P. L. Scilley, "Evaluation of a vibrotactile auditory prosthetic device for the profoundly deaf," unpublished Masters thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada (1980)] two normal subjects learned to identify 70 and 150 words, respectively, using the Queen's Tactile Vocoder. In the present experiment, the most advanced subject continued word learning until a tactile vocabulary of 250 words was acquired. At this point randomized tests were given to obtain an indication of final performance level. From these data conditional probabilities of correct response for each stimulus word and significant confusions were obtained, which provides insight into the advantages and present limitations of the tactile vocoder. PMID:3157716

  8. Superfund GIS - 1:250,000 Geology of Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, D.C.; Wolfe, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    This data set is a digital representation of the printed 1:250,000 geologic maps from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Geology. The coverage was designed primarily to provide a more detailed geologic base than the 1:2,500,000 King and Beikman (1974). 1:24,000 scale coverage of the state is available for about 40 percent of the state. Formation names and geologic unit codes used in the coverage are from the Tennessee Division of Geology published maps and may not conform to USGS nomenclature. The Tennessee Division of Geology can be contacted at (615) 532-1500

  9. Validation analytique de l'ImmunoCap 250 (Sweden Diagnostics)

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalier, Etienne; Carlisi, Agnès; Chapelle, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    A new automate, ImmunoCap 250 has recently been released by Sweden Diagnostics for the determination of specific and total IgE. We have evaluated its analytical performances (intra- and inter-assay precision, linearity, recovery and sensibility) and compared the results obtained by Unicap 100 on 149 samples positive for 12 different allergens and 30 samples containing different concentrations of total IgE. Intra- and inter-assay precision are less than 10% excepted for the specific IgE of one...

  10. 75 FR 24710 - Determination That BREVIBLOC (Esmolol Hydrochloride) Injection, 250 Milligrams/Milliliter, 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... effectiveness (69 FR 47155, August 4, 2004). In 2007, Baxter discontinued BREVIBLOC (esmolol HCl) Injection, 250... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That BREVIBLOC (Esmolol Hydrochloride... Administration (FDA) has determined that BREVIBLOC (esmolol hydrochloride (HCl)) Injection, 250 milligrams...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. 250.1004 Section 250.1004 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The lessee shall ensure the...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1003 Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI...

  13. 21 CFR 250.201 - Preparations for the treatment of pernicious anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... anemia. 250.201 Section 250.201 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Drugs and Foods § 250.201 Preparations for the treatment of pernicious anemia. (a) The ninth announcement of the Anti-anemia Preparations Advisory Board of the United States Pharmacopeia is concerned...

  14. 17 CFR 250.60 - Meaning of word “authorization”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of word... Reorganizations § 250.60 Meaning of word “authorization”. The word “authorization”, as used in §§ 250.60 to 250.64, includes “any proxy, consent, authorization, power of attorney, deposit, or dissent”, as those words...

  15. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as prescription drugs. 250.101 Section 250.101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine... should not be freely available to the public through over-the-counter sale. From complaints by...

  16. 20 CFR 416.250 - Experimental, pilot, and demonstration projects in the SSI program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... projects in the SSI program. 416.250 Section 416.250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Because of Essential Persons § 416.250 Experimental, pilot, and demonstration projects in the SSI program... administration of the SSI program. These projects will test the advantages of altering certain...

  17. 30 CFR 250.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs. 250.196 Section 250.196 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reporting Requirements § 250.196 Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs. (a) MMS...

  18. 33 CFR 96.250 - What documents and reports must a safety management system have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety management system have? 96.250 Section 96.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... reports must a safety management system have? The documents and reports required for a safety management...: Table 96.250—Safety Management System Documents and Reports Type of documents and reports...

  19. 41 CFR 60-250.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-250.25 Section 60-250.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health...

  20. 30 CFR 250.516 - Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Well-Completion Operations § 250.516 Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and maintenance. (a... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and maintenance. 250.516 Section 250.516 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  1. 30 CFR 250.109 - What documents must I prepare and maintain related to welding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... related to welding? 250.109 Section 250.109 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Performance Standards § 250.109 What documents must I prepare and maintain related to welding? (a) You must submit a Welding Plan to the District Manager before you begin drilling or production activities on...

  2. Flood basalt volcanism during the past 250 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Stothers, Richard B.

    1988-01-01

    A chronology of the initiation dates of major continental flood basalt volcanism is established from published potassium-argon (K-Ar) and argon-argon (Ar-Ar) ages of basaltic rocks and related basic intrusions. The dating is therefore independent of the biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic time scales. Estimated errors of the initiation dates of the volcanic episodes determined from the distributions of the radiometric ages are, approximately, + or - 4 percent. There were 11 distinct episodes during the past 250 million years. Sometimes appearing in pairs, the episodes have occurred quasi-periodically with a mean cycle time of 32 + or - 1 (estimated error of the mean) million years. The initiation dates of the episodes are close to the estimated dates of mass extinctions of marine organisms. Showers of impacting comets may be the cause.

  3. Bayesian demography 250 years after Bayes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijak, Jakub; Bryant, John

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian statistics offers an alternative to classical (frequentist) statistics. It is distinguished by its use of probability distributions to describe uncertain quantities, which leads to elegant solutions to many difficult statistical problems. Although Bayesian demography, like Bayesian statistics more generally, is around 250 years old, only recently has it begun to flourish. The aim of this paper is to review the achievements of Bayesian demography, address some misconceptions, and make the case for wider use of Bayesian methods in population studies. We focus on three applications: demographic forecasts, limited data, and highly structured or complex models. The key advantages of Bayesian methods are the ability to integrate information from multiple sources and to describe uncertainty coherently. Bayesian methods also allow for including additional (prior) information next to the data sample. As such, Bayesian approaches are complementary to many traditional methods, which can be productively re-expressed in Bayesian terms. PMID:26902889

  4. Standard potential of sodium amalgam at 250C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a set of critically selected literary data on the emf's of concentration cells consisting of sodium metal and sodium amalgam in a sodium salt non-aqueous electrolyte a value of E0sub(Na(Hg)/Na+) = -1.95584 V was calculated for the standard equilibrium potential of diluted liquid sodium amalgam at 250C. The standard state of the amalgam was derived from an amalgam at infinite dilution where fsub(Na)→ 1.0 for xsub(Na)→ 0. The activity coefficient of sodium in the amalgam at an arbitrary composition, corresponding to this standard state, is obtained from the expression 1g fsub(Na(Hg)) = 16.393 xsub(Na). (author)

  5. Corrosion of titanium in phosphoric acid at 250

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-shu

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion studies of a commercially pure titanium in phosphoric acid solutions at 250 ℃ were carried out by immersion test in an autoclave. At lower phosphoric acid concentration (0.1 mol/L), the corrosion was mild. At higher phosphoric concentration (1.0 mol/L) corrosion, a 25 μm-thick white corrosion products layer was formed on the samples after 24 h immersion. XRD analysis shows that the white layer consists mainly of titanium oxide phosphate hydrate (π-Ti2O(PO4)2·2H2O). The corrosion product shows the morphology of fiber bundles. A thermodynamic analysis of the formation of the corrosion product is presented.

  6. Remote (250 km Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lopez-Amo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system.

  7. Provence 250 MWe unit: the largest CFB boiler in operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delot, P.; Roulet, V.; Lucat, P.; Levy, D. [Electricite de France, La Defense (France)

    1997-12-31

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, `Circulating Fluidized Bed, is one of the most promising. The interest of this technology has been confirmed by the success of the first large French CFB boiler (E. Huchet 125 MWe), which has already logged more than 30 000 hours of satisfactory operation. Today, the first 250 MWe CFB unit in the world is in operation at Provence Power Station in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit, with a `pant leg` design, is also a very important step towards larger sizes, i.e. 400 MWe and bigger. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverised coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence/Gardanne power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler was ordered from GEC ALSTHOM Stein Industrie by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. The 250 MWe Boiler is of the high pressure-reheat type firing local high-sulfur sub-bituminous coal with the possibility of cofiring high viscosity residual oil (with a high sulfur content) up to a 50%-50% energy ratio. This paper describes, besides the construction progress of the plant and technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries, the main observations made during commissioning. Also presented are some results of a 100% load test and the investigation program defined to give a thorough evaluation of this boiler with a view to the design of large CFB in the future.

  8. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  9. A family of doctors over 250 years: innovation and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Peter J

    2011-05-01

    A family of Watkins doctors originating in the Northamptonshire town of Towcester included 13 doctors in seven generations during 250 years. In each generation there were between one and four doctors. Three doctors involved themselves actively in innovative yet controversial practises, described in their own writings and publications. Timothy Watkins' (1755-1834) own handwritten lecture notes describe the problems affecting an 18th-century man-midwife, while his accounts book provides insights into his lifestyle. The concept of the waterborne spread of cholera during the 1854 epidemic in Towcester is described by Robert Webb Watkins (1822-1901) during the same year as the observations made by John Snow (1813-58). John Webb Watkins (1833-1903) in his MD thesis (1856) describes his use of chloroform in labour in Towcester during the early 1850s, followed by self-experimentation with chloroform administered to him between 40 and 50 times by Sir James Young Simpson (1811-70) in Edinburgh. Descriptions of the two 19th-century general practitioners offer insights into the exemplary extent of their civic involvement in all walks of local community life, and of their family ties. PMID:21558531

  10. Adjustable Shock Test Sled for Haversine Pulses at 250 fps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hartwig; Brent Hower; Aaron Seaholm

    2008-05-05

    New test requirements were developed by Sandia National Laboratory to simulate a regime of shock testing not previously performed at the Kansas City Plant operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies. These environments were unique in that they involved amplitude of shock >1000g with relatively long pulse durations (greater 5 ms but less than 10 ms) and involved velocity changes up to 235 ft/sec. Ten months were available to develop, design, manufacture and prove-in this new capability. We designed a new shock sled to deliver this new family of shock environments in a laboratory test. The performance range of the new sled includes five specific shocks (1000 g – 8 ms, 1300 - 6 ms, 1500 g – 5.4 ms, 1950 g – 6 ms, 2250 g – 5.4 ms; all haversine shaped), and it also incorporates adjustability to accommodate new shocks within this range. These shock environments result in velocity changes ranging from 160 fps to 250 fps. The test sled accommodates test articles weighing up to 20 lbs and measuring up to 10” along any axis.

  11. Bionics by examples 250 scenarios from classical to modern times

    CERN Document Server

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Bionics means learning from the nature for the development of technology. The science of "bionics" itself is classified into several sections, from materials and structures over procedures and processes until evolution and optimization. Not all these areas, or only a few, are really known in the public and also in scientific literature. This includes the Lotus-effect, converted to the contamination-reduction of fassades and the shark-shed-effect, converted to the  resistance-reduction of airplanes. However, there are hundreds of highly interesting examples that contain the transformation of principles of the nature into technology. From the large number of these examples, 250 were selected for the present book according to "prehistory", "early-history", "classic" and "modern time". Most examples are new. Every example includes a printed page in a homogeneous arrangement. The examples from the field "modern time" are joint in blocks corresponding to the sub-disciplines of bionics.

  12. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of T-250 laser welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, L. W.; Huang, W. B.; Chen, C.

    1997-04-01

    The tensile properties of laser-welded T-250 maraging steel are measured, with attention paid to the influence of strain rate and gaseous hydrogen on the fracture behavior of welded specimens. Post-weld heat treatments are performed on laser-welded specimens to obtain underaged (WU), peak-aged (WP), and overaged (WO) specimens. Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) affects the tensile fracture behavior of the welded specimens; HE changes not only the fracture mode but also the fracture location. Without the influence of hydrogen, the fracture location is at the softest region, the weld metal (WM), and the fracture appearance reveals a ductile dimple fracture. For welds sensitive to HE, the fracture is initiated at the heat-affected zone (HAZ) with coarse grain size, and the associated fracture surface exhibits intergranular and quasi-cleavage fractures that are brittle in nature. In addition, the HAZ with coarse grain size is more prone to HE, as compared to other regions in the welded specimens. The WU specimens are susceptible to HE in air under a low strain rate, while the WP specimens are only susceptible to gaseous hydrogen embrittlement (GHE). However, the WO specimens are immune to GHE and insensitive to strain rate.

  13. Structural testing of the North Wind 250 composite rotor joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, W.; Link, H.; Coleman, C.

    1994-05-01

    The North Wind 250 wind turbine is under development at Northern Power Systems (NPS) in Moretown, VT. The turbine uses a unique, flow-through, teetered-rotor design. This design eliminates structural discontinuities at the blade/hub interface by fabricating the rotor as one continuous structural element. To accomplish this, the two blade spars are joined at the center of the rotor using a proprietary bonding technique. Fatigue tests were conducted on the full-scale rotor joint at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Subsequent tests are now underway to test the full-scale rotor and hub assembly to verify the design assumptions. The test articles were mounted in dedicated test fixtures. For the joint test, a constant moment was generated across the joint and parent material. Hydraulic actuators applied sinusoidal loading to the test article at levels equivalent to 90% of the extreme wind load for over one million cycles. When the loading was increased to 112% of the extreme wind load, the joint failed by buckling. Strain levels were monitored at 14 locations inside and outside of the blade joint during the test. The tests were used to qualify this critical element of the rotor for field testing and to provide information needed to improve the structural design of the joint.

  14. Shock compression response of forsterite above 250 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Toshimori; Ozaki, Norimasa; Miyanishi, Kohei; Asaumi, Yuto; Kimura, Tomoaki; Albertazzi, Bruno; Sato, Yuya; Sakawa, Youichi; Sano, Takayoshi; Sugita, Seiji; Matsui, Takafumi; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is one of the major planetary materials, and its behavior under extreme conditions is important to understand the interior structure of large planets, such as super-Earths, and large-scale planetary impact events. Previous shock compression measurements of forsterite indicate that it may melt below 200 GPa, but these measurements did not go beyond 200 GPa. We report the shock response of forsterite above ~250 GPa, obtained using the laser shock wave technique. We simultaneously measured the Hugoniot and temperature of shocked forsterite and interpreted the results to suggest the following: (i) incongruent crystallization of MgO at 271 to 285 GPa, (ii) phase transition of MgO at 285 to 344 GPa, and (iii) remelting above ~470 to 500 GPa. These exothermic and endothermic reactions are seen to occur under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. They indicate complex structural and chemical changes in the system MgO-SiO2 at extreme pressures and temperatures and will affect the way we understand the interior processes of large rocky planets as well as material transformation by impacts in the formation of planetary systems. PMID:27493993

  15. Shock compression response of forsterite above 250 GPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Toshimori; Ozaki, Norimasa; Miyanishi, Kohei; Asaumi, Yuto; Kimura, Tomoaki; Albertazzi, Bruno; Sato, Yuya; Sakawa, Youichi; Sano, Takayoshi; Sugita, Seiji; Matsui, Takafumi; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2016-08-01

    Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is one of the major planetary materials, and its behavior under extreme conditions is important to understand the interior structure of large planets, such as super-Earths, and large-scale planetary impact events. Previous shock compression measurements of forsterite indicate that it may melt below 200 GPa, but these measurements did not go beyond 200 GPa. We report the shock response of forsterite above ~250 GPa, obtained using the laser shock wave technique. We simultaneously measured the Hugoniot and temperature of shocked forsterite and interpreted the results to suggest the following: (i) incongruent crystallization of MgO at 271 to 285 GPa, (ii) phase transition of MgO at 285 to 344 GPa, and (iii) remelting above ~470 to 500 GPa. These exothermic and endothermic reactions are seen to occur under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. They indicate complex structural and chemical changes in the system MgO-SiO2 at extreme pressures and temperatures and will affect the way we understand the interior processes of large rocky planets as well as material transformation by impacts in the formation of planetary systems. PMID:27493993

  16. Evaluation of some aspects of the VITROS 250 Bio-Chemistry analyzer%VITROS 250全自动干化学分析仪的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林有东; 蔡鹏威

    2006-01-01

    目的 评价美国强生VITROS 250全自动干化学分析仪器.方法 运用相关统计学方法对VITROS 250全自动干化学分析仪的精密度、相关性、抗胆红素干扰方面进行分析.结果 VITROS 250全自动干化学分析仪精密度高,回收率高,相关性好,抗干扰能力强.结论 VITROS 250全自动干化学分析仪适用于临床实验诊断中心(检验科)急诊化验室生化项目的检测.

  17. 24 CFR 92.250 - Maximum per-unit subsidy amount and subsidy layering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements § 92.250... project, the participating jurisdiction must evaluate the project in accordance with guidelines that...

  18. Study of solar features causing GMSs with 250 < < 400

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santosh Kumar; Mahendra Pratap Yadav

    2003-07-01

    The effect of solar features on geospheric conditions leading to geomagnetic storms (GMSs) with planetary index, p ≥ 20 and the range of horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field such that 250 < < 400 has been investigated using interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), solar wind plasma (SWP) and solar geophysical data (SGD) during the period 1978–99. Statistically, it is observed that maximum number of GMSs have occurred during the maximum solar activity years of 21st and 22nd solar cycles. A peculiar result has been observed during the years 1982, 1994 when sunspot numbers (SSNs) decrease very rapidly while numbers of GMSs increase. No distinct association between yearly occurrence of disturbed days and SSNs is observed. Maximum number of disturbed days have occurred during spring and rainy seasons showing a seasonal variation of disturbed days. No significant correlation between magnitude (intensity) of GMSs and importance of , X-ray solar flares has been observed. Maximum number of GMSs is associated with solar flares of lower importance, i.e., SF during the period 1978–93. , X-ray solar flares occurred within lower helio-latitudes, i.e., (0–30)°N to (0–30)°S are associated with GMSs. No , X-ray solar flares have occurred beyond 40°N or 40°S in association with GMSs. In helio-latitude range (10–40)°N to (10–40)°S, the 89.5% concentration of active prominences and disappearing filaments (APDFs) are associated with GMSs. Maximum number of GMSs are associated with solar flares. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are related with eruptive prominences, solar flares, type IV radio burst and they occur at low helio-latitude. It is observed that CMEs related GMS events are not always associated with high speed solar wind streams (HSSWSs). In many individual events, the travel time between the explosion on the Sun and maximum activity lies between 58 and 118 h causing GMSs at the Earth.

  19. Hydrological variability in northern Levant over the past 250 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gasse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Levant features sharp climatic gradients from North to South and from West to East resulting in a large environmental diversity. The lack of long-term record from the northern Levant limits our understanding of the regional response to glacial-interglacial boundary conditions in this key area. The 250 ka paleoenvironmental reconstruction presented here is a first step to fill this geographical gap.

    The record comes from a 36 m lacustrine-palustrine sequence cored in the small intra-mountainous karstic basin of Yammoûneh (northern Lebanon. The paper combines times series of sediment properties, paleovegetation, and carbonate oxygen isotopes, to yield a comprehensive view of paleohydrologic-paleoclimatic fluctuations in the basin over the two last glacial-interglacial cycles. Efficient moisture was higher than today during interglacial peaks around 240, 215–220, ~130–120 ka and 11–9 ka (although under different Precipitation minus Evaporation balance. Moderate wetting events took place around 170, 150, 105–100, 85–75, 60–55 and 35 ka. The penultimate glacial period was generally wetter than the last glacial stage. Local aridity culminated from the LGM to 15 ka, possibly linked to water storage as ice in the surrounding highlands. An overall decrease in local water availability is observed from the profile base to top. Fluctuations in available water seem to be primarily governed by changes in local summer insolation controlled by the orbital eccentricity modulated by the precession cycle, and by changes in precipitation and temperature seasonality.

    Our record is roughly consistent with long-term climatic fluctuations in northeastern Mediterranean lands, except during the penultimate glacial phase. It shares some features with speleothem records of western Israel. Conversely, after 130 ka, it is clearly out of phase with hydrological changes in the Dead Sea basin. Potential causes of these spatial heterogeneities

  20. Lutetium-177-G250 radioimmunotherapy in an intraperitoneal clear cell renal cell carcinoma xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: Despite the good results achieved with agents targeting the VEGF and mTOR pathways, the treatment of advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) still poses a great challenge. A new approach in the treatment of ccRCC is radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using anti-carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) antibody G250. To investigate the potential of RIT with Lutetium-177 (Lu177) labeled G250, we conducted protein dose escalation study and subsequently a RIT study with Lu177-G250 in an intraperitoneal ccRCC mouse model. Materials and methods: 25 athymic female BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with 3 x 106 SK-RC-52 cells. To determine the optimal G250 protein dose, 3 weeks after inoculation the mice were injected with either 1, 3, 10, 30 or 100 μg G250 radiolabeled with 15 MBq indium-111 (In111). SPECT/CT images were made with the micro SPECT USPECT II camera 48 hours p.i. After imaging, the mice are killed and the biodistribution of In111-G250 was determined. The optimal protein dose was used in a subsequent therapy experiment in 3 groups of mice with i.p. SK-RC-52 tumors. One group (n=10) was injected with 13 MBq Lu177-G250, a control group received nonspecific antibody MOPC21 labeled with 13 MBq Lu177 (n=10) and the second control group received 20 MBq In111-G250 (n=10). Tumor growth was monitored with SPECT/CT imaging before treatment and with 3 week intervals. Primary endpoints were overall survival and toxicity. Results: The optimal G250 protein dose to target ccRCC in this model was 10 μg G250, as determined with SPECT/CT imaging and biodistribution. Treatment with 13 MBq Lu177-G250 was well tolerated. Treatment with Lu177-G250 resulted in significantly prolonged median survival of 139 days, in comparison with 49 days (Lu177-MOPC21) and 53 days In111-G250 (p=0.015). Conclusion: this is the first RIT study with radiolabeled G250 protein in mice with i.p. growing ccRCC. Treatment with Lu177-G250 resulted in significantly

  1. 17 CFR 250.7 - Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies. 250.7 Section 250.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  2. 30 CFR 250.908 - What are the minimum structural fatigue design requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Platform Approval Program § 250.908 What are the minimum structural fatigue design requirements? (a) API RP 2A-WSD, Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198), requires that the design fatigue life of each...

  3. 30 CFR 250.901 - What industry standards must your platform meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Gulf of Mexico, (incorporated by reference as specified in § 250.198); (7) API Recommend Practice... Design (incorporated by reference as specified in § 250.198); (8) API RP 2FPS, Recommended Practice for...); (11) API RP 2SK, Recommended Practice for Design and Analysis of Station Keeping Systems for...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1629 - Additional production and fuel gas system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems must conform to subsection 5.2, Fire Water Systems, of API RP 14G, Recommended Practice for Fire... as specified in 30 CFR 250.198). Pressure and fired vessels must have maintenance inspection, rating.../ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198)....

  5. 45 CFR 286.250 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What definitions apply to this subpart? 286.250 Section 286.250 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Data Collection...

  6. 41 CFR Appendix A to Part 61 - 250-Federal Contractor Veterans' Employment Report VETS-100

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 250-Federal Contractor Veterans' Employment Report VETS-100 A Appendix A to Part 61 Public Contracts and Property Management Other... Appendix A to Part 61-250—Federal Contractor Veterans' Employment Report VETS-100 ER05NO08.000...

  7. 40 CFR 436.250 - Applicability; description of the jade subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the jade subcategory. 436.250 Section 436.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Jade...

  8. 48 CFR 250.104-3 - Special procedures for unusually hazardous or nuclear risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special procedures for unusually hazardous or nuclear risks. 250.104-3 Section 250.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... unusually hazardous or nuclear risks....

  9. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technical data under the authority of this part. Export Administration Regulations 15 CFR 379.3 General... accordance with the regulations of the Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR part 5. See § 370.10(j).) ... Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  10. 17 CFR 250.58 - Exemption of investments in certain nonutility companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production, conversion, sale and distribution of thermal energy products, such as process steam, heat, hot... component of such technology or process; Provided, That any company engaged in the activities specified in... certain nonutility companies. 250.58 Section 250.58 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  11. 30 CFR 250.468 - What well records am I required to submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What well records am I required to submit? 250.468 Section 250.468 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE...) You must submit copies of logs or charts of electrical, radioactive, sonic, and other...

  12. 17 CFR 250.8 - Exemption of subsidiaries subject to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission. 250.8 Section 250.8 Commodity and Securities... to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission. Any subsidiary company of a registered holding company, which subsidiary is subject to the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission but is...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1158 - How do I receive approval to downhole commingle hydrocarbons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons? 250.1158 Section 250.1158 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... hydrocarbons? (a) Before you perforate a well, you must request and receive approval from the Regional Supervisor to commingle hydrocarbons produced from multiple reservoirs within a common wellbore. The...

  14. 76 FR 41041 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Interaction of Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... interaction of control systems and structures. The usual deterministic approach to defining the loads envelope... Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Interaction... special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 airplane. This...

  15. 12 CFR 550.250 - Must I keep fiduciary assets separate from other assets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must I keep fiduciary assets separate from other assets? 550.250 Section 550.250 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Custody and Control of...

  16. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a recommendation for termination of the recall...

  17. 7 CFR 250.66 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children. 250.66 Section 250.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  18. 12 CFR 250.400 - Service of open-end investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of open-end investment company. 250.400 Section 250.400 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL....400 Service of open-end investment company. An open-end investment company is defined in section...

  19. Soil property maps of Africa at 250 m resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Bas; Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; MacMillan, Robert A.; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge S.; Shepherd, Keith; Sila, Andrew; Desta, Lulseged T.; Tondoh, Jérôme E.

    2015-04-01

    Vast areas of arable land in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from low soil fertility and physical soil constraints, and significant amounts of nutrients are lost yearly due to unsustainable soil management practices. At the same time it is expected that agriculture in Africa must intensify to meet the growing demand for food and fiber the next decades. Protection and sustainable management of Africa's soil resources is crucial to achieve this. In this context, comprehensive, accurate and up-to-date soil information is an essential input to any agricultural or environmental management or policy and decision-making model. In Africa, detailed soil information has been fragmented and limited to specific zones of interest for decades. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. AfSIS builds on recent advances in digital soil mapping, infrared spectroscopy, remote sensing, (geo)statistics, and integrated soil fertility management to improve the way soils are evaluated, mapped, and monitored. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project has compiled two soil profile data sets (about 28,000 unique locations): the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site (new soil samples) database -- the two data sets represent the most comprehensive soil sample database of the African continent to date. In addition a large set of high-resolution environmental data layers (covariates) was assembled. The point data were used in the AfSIS project to generate a set of maps of key soil properties for the African continent at 250 m spatial resolution: sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, cation-exchange capacity, exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na), exchangeable acidity, and Al content. These properties were mapped for six depth intervals up to 2 m: 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, and 100-200 cm. Random forests modelling was used to

  20. The multiplicity of 250-$\\mu$m Herschel sources in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Scudder, Jillian M; Hurley, Peter D; Griffin, Matt; Sargent, Mark T; Scott, Douglas; Wang, Lingyu; Wardlow, Julie L

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity of extragalactic sources detected by the Herschel Space Observatory in the COSMOS field. Using 3.6- and 24-$\\mu$m catalogues, in conjunction with 250-$\\mu$m data from Herschel, we seek to determine if a significant fraction of Herschel sources are composed of multiple components emitting at 250 $\\mu$m. We use the XID+ code, using Bayesian inference methods to produce probability distributions of the possible contributions to the observed 250-$\\mu$m flux for each potential component. The fraction of Herschel flux assigned to the brightest component is highest for sources with total 250-$\\mu$m fluxes < 45 mJy; however, the flux in the brightest component is still highest in the brightest Herschel sources. The faintest 250-$\\mu$m sources (30-45 mJy) have the majority of their flux assigned to a single bright component; the second brightest component is typically significantly weaker, and contains the remainder of the 250-$\\mu$m source flux. At the highest 250-$\\mu$m fluxes (45-...

  1. Pulverização em CDA 250 herbicida pendimethalin na cultura do arroz de sequeiro Application of pendimethalin with cda 250 spfayer for upland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matuo

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a viabilidade de utilização da pulverização CDA 25C, na aplicação do herbicida em pré-emergência na cultura do arroz de sequeiro. O herbicida empregado foi o pendimethalin nas doses de 0,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0 litro s/ha da formulação comercial a 50%. A pulverização convencional foi efetuada com bicos 11003 com consumo de 200 litros de calda per hectare. O processo CDA 250 foi aplicado por meio de bico rotativo (Micromax com dois níveis de consumo de calda : 50 1/ha e 27 1/ha. Os resultados mostraram que: a - o método CDA 250 proporciona controle dc mato e produtividade de arroz equivalentes ao método convencional; b para o bico Micromax, a aplicação da formulação comercial de pendimethalin a 50% com vazão de 0,48 1/min./bico, a distância entre bicos deve ser de 1,75 m e para a vazão de 0,96 1/min./bloco, essa distancia deve ser de 1,90 m; c- a aplicação do pendimethalin 50% C.E. pelo processo CDA 250, empregando 27 litros de calda por hectare foi o processo mais interessante por oferecer vantagens logísticas apreciáveis.The feasibility of pre-emergenge herbicide application for upland rice by CDA 250 spray method was studied. The herbicide used was pen dimethalin at 0,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 and 3,0 1/ha of comercial 50% E.C. formulation. Conventional spraying was carried out using 110C3 flat fan nozzles applying 200 1/ha of spray volume CDA250 was applied by rotary atomizers (Micromax spraying twc volume rates: 50 1/ha and 27 1/ha. The results pointed out that: a- CDA 250 spray method was equivalent to the conventional spray method in the control of weeds and crop yield; b - for Micromax nozzles applying commercial 50 E.C. formulation of pendimethalin at 0,48 /min of nozzle feed rate, the distance between nozzles should be 1,75 m and at 0,96 1/min feed rate this distance shoud be 1,90 m; c- CDA 250, applying 27 1/ha presents large logistic advantages.

  2. 41 CFR 61-250.2 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... terms set forth in this part have the same meaning as set forth in 41 CFR Part 60-250. (b) For purposes... industry other than construction, such as mariners, stevedores, waiters/waitresses, movie...

  3. 1:250,000-scale geology of the Dry Valley Hydrographic Area, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of digital geologic data for the Dry Valley Hydrographic area, Nevada and California. It was compiled from individual 1:250,000-scale geologic...

  4. Optimal parameters for laccase-mediated destaining of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250-stained polyacrylamide gels

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaodan; Ye, Xiuyun; Lin, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Destaining of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250-stained polyacrylamide gels with fungal laccase” [1]. Laccase is a class of multicopper oxidases that can catalyze oxidation of recalcitrant dyestuffs. This article describes optimal parameters for destaining of polyacrylamide gels, stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250, with laccase from basidiomycete Cerrena sp. strain HYB07. Effects of laccase activity, mediat...

  5. The p250GAP Gene Is Associated with Risk for Schizophrenia and Schizotypal Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kazutaka Ohi; Ryota Hashimoto; Takanobu Nakazawa; Takeya Okada; Yuka Yasuda; Hidenaga Yamamori; Motoyuki Fukumoto; Satomi Umeda-Yano; Masao Iwase; Hiroaki Kazui; Tadashi Yamamoto; Masanobu Kano; Masatoshi Takeda

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypofunction of the glutamate N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. p250GAP is a brain-enriched NMDA receptor-interacting RhoGAP. p250GAP is involved in spine morphology, and spine morphology has been shown to be altered in the post-mortem brains of patients with schizophrenia. Schizotypal personality disorder has a strong familial relationship with schizophrenia. Several susceptibility genes for schizophrenia have been r...

  6. Snow Cover Maps from MODIS Images at 250 m Resolution, Part 2: Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Zebisch; Christian Steurer; Armin Costa; Roberto Monsorno; Thomas Schellenberger; Anke Tetzlaff; Martial Duguay; Nico Moelg; Claudia Notarnicola

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a new algorithm for binary snow cover monitoring based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images at 250 m resolution is validated using snow cover maps (SCA) based on Landsat 7 ETM+ images and in situ snow depth measurements from ground stations in selected test sites in Central Europe. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are the improved ground resolution of 250 m and the near real-time availability with respect to the 500 m standard Na...

  7. Transmission of the P250R mutation of the FGFR3 gene in four generations with highly variable phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Hanne Buciek; Dunø, Morten; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette;

    Transmission of the P250R mutation of the FGFR3 gene in four generations with highly variable phenotype.......Transmission of the P250R mutation of the FGFR3 gene in four generations with highly variable phenotype....

  8. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline...) The table in this section lists the requirements if you take a DOI pipeline out of service: If...

  9. 30 CFR 250.116 - How do I determine producibility if my well is in the Gulf of Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine producibility if my well is in the Gulf of Mexico? 250.116 Section 250.116 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.116 How do...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1163 - How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? 250.1163 Section 250..., and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1163 How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? (a) If your facility processes more than...

  11. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Performance Standards § 250.107 What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1) Performing all operations in...

  12. 17 CFR 250.12 - Exemption of certain public utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of holding companies. 250.12 Section 250.12... REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Registration and General Exemptions § 250.12 Exemption of certain public utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of......

  13. Digitalna topografska karta 1:250 000 - prema NATO standardima / Digital 1:250 000 topographic map designed in accordance with NATO standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Borisov

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu se iznose iskustva pri izradi i oblikovanju vojne topografske karte razmera 1: 250 000. Karta se izrađuje u Vojnogeografskom institutu, po NATO standardima i u digitalnom obliku. Iskustva drugih država u kreiranju vojnih topografsko-kartografskih sistema i karata mogu se uporediti sa našim. Postupci izrade i ažuriranja vojnih topografskih karata su informatički podržani uz veliki stepen automatizacije pojedinih faza njihove izrade i osavremenjavanja. / The paper presents the design of the 1:250 000 military topographic map in the Military Geographical Institute (MGI in accordance with NATO standards and in a digital form. Other states' experiences in designing military topographic and cartographic systems and maps can be compared with those of the MGI's. The procedures of producing and updating military topographic maps are computer aided while particular phases are automated to a great extent.

  14. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that 10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time. - Highlights: • A radiation dose of 250 Gy is suggested as a generic phytosanitary treatment for Lepidoptera larvae. • The dose of 250 Gy is especially supported for the family Tortricidae. • The endpoint is prevention of normal-looking adults, assumed not able to fly or reproduce

  15. Maximum core loading of Kartini Reactor at 250 kW of power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximum core loading of Kartini Reactor at 250 kW of power level. Reevaluation of the safety aspect of Kartini Reactor is currently being performed, for the purpose of increasing the nominal power from 100 to 250 kW. The results of the evaluations will be used to verify the feasibility of the reactor to operate at the proposed power level. One of the important safety parameters which needs to be reevaluated is related to the shutdown capability of the available control rods, which is normally indicated through the parameter of available Shudown Margin (SDM), which is a function of both power level and Core Loading. This paper presents the methodology and the result of determining the Maximum Core Loading of Kartini Reactor at power level of 250 kW. The result indicates that the maximum core loading of Kartini reactor, for 250 kW of Nominal Power is 82 fuel elements, associated with 3.8 $ of available core excess. It is concluded that the negative reactivity of the available control rods is still sufficient to compensate the amount of reactivity produced by the addition of 11 new fuel elements over the minimum requirement for operation at 250 kW of power level

  16. The faint end of the 250 micron luminosity function at z < 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, L; Bethermin, M; Bourne, N; Cooray, A; Cowley, W; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Eales, S; Farrah, D; Lacey, C; Loveday, J; Maddox, S; Oliver, S; Viero, M

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We aim to study the 250 micron luminosity function (LF) down to much fainter luminosities than achieved by previous efforts. Methods. We developed a modified stacking method to reconstruct the 250 micron LF using optically selected galaxies from the SDSS survey and Herschel maps of the GAMA equatorial fields and Stripe 82. Our stacking method not only recovers the mean 250 micron luminosities of galaxies that are too faint to be individually detected, but also their underlying distribution functions. Results. We find very good agreement with previous measurements in the overlapping luminosity range. More importantly, we are able to derive the LF down to much fainter luminosities (around 25 times fainter) than achieved by previous studies. We find strong positive luminosity evolution \\propto (1 + z)^4.89\\pm1.07 and moderate negative density evolution \\propto (1 + z)^-1.02\\pm0.54 over the redshift range z=[0.02, 0.5].

  17. Influence of solution cooling rate on austenite content of C250 steel%固溶冷却速率对C250钢奥氏体含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟

    2011-01-01

    试验了固溶冷却速率对C250钢奥氏体含量影响。试验结果表明,C250钢没有热稳定化现象,固溶后甚至缓慢冷却,也不会产生残留奥氏体。但固溶后缓慢冷却,再经时效强化处理,C250钢中将产生逆转变奥氏体,固溶冷却越缓慢,时效后的逆转变奥氏体量越多。C250钢固溶后空冷+485℃时效处理状态的没有奥氏体。%Influence of solution cooling rate on austenite content of C250 steel was investigated.The results show that there is no retained austenite in C250 steel solution treated even with very slowly cooling rate,and no austenite thermal stabilization phenomenon exists in C250 steel.But there is some reverted austenite in C250 steel aged when the solution cooling rate is very slow.The slower the solution cooling rate,the higher the content of reverted austenite in C250 steel aged.There is no reverted austenite in C250 steel solution treated with air cooling and aged at 485 ℃.

  18. The p250GAP gene is associated with risk for schizophrenia and schizotypal personality traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Ohi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypofunction of the glutamate N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. p250GAP is a brain-enriched NMDA receptor-interacting RhoGAP. p250GAP is involved in spine morphology, and spine morphology has been shown to be altered in the post-mortem brains of patients with schizophrenia. Schizotypal personality disorder has a strong familial relationship with schizophrenia. Several susceptibility genes for schizophrenia have been related to schizotypal traits. METHODS: We first investigated the association of eight linkage disequilibrium-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that cover the p250GAP gene with schizophrenia in a Japanese sample of 431 schizophrenia patients and 572 controls. We then investigated the impact of the risk genetic variant in the p250GAP gene on schizotypal personality traits in 180 healthy subjects using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. RESULTS: We found a significant difference in genotype frequency between the patients and the controls in rs2298599 (χ(2 = 17.6, p = 0.00015. The minor A/A genotype frequency of rs2298599 was higher in the patients (18% than in the controls (9% (χ(2 = 15.5, p = 0.000083. Moreover, we found that subjects with the rs2298599 risk A/A genotype, compared with G allele carriers, had higher scores of schizotypal traits (F(1,178 = 4.08, p = 0.045, particularly the interpersonal factor (F(1,178 = 5.85, p = 0.017. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that a genetic variation in the p250GAP gene might increase susceptibility not only for schizophrenia but also for schizotypal personality traits. We concluded that the p250GAP gene might be a new candidate gene for susceptibility to schizophrenia.

  19. Making Planet Nine: Pebble Accretion at 250--750 AU in a Gravitationally Unstable Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Kenyon, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the formation of icy super-Earth mass planets within a gravitationally unstable ring of solids orbiting at 250-750 AU around a 1 solar mass star. Coagulation calculations demonstrate that a system of a few large oligarchs and a swarm of pebbles generates a super-Earth within 100-200 Myr at 250 AU and within 1-2 Gyr at 750 AU. Systems with more than ten oligarchs fail to yield super-Earths over the age of the solar system. As these systems evolve, destructive collisions produce detectable debris disks with luminosities of $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-3}$ relative to the central star.

  20. Digitalna topografska karta 1:250 000 - prema NATO standardima / Digital 1:250 000 topographic map designed in accordance with NATO standards

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Borisov

    2007-01-01

    U radu se iznose iskustva pri izradi i oblikovanju vojne topografske karte razmera 1: 250 000. Karta se izrađuje u Vojnogeografskom institutu, po NATO standardima i u digitalnom obliku. Iskustva drugih država u kreiranju vojnih topografsko-kartografskih sistema i karata mogu se uporediti sa našim. Postupci izrade i ažuriranja vojnih topografskih karata su informatički podržani uz veliki stepen automatizacije pojedinih faza njihove izrade i osavremenjavanja. / The paper presents the design of ...

  1. Tucumcari, NM TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  2. Santa Fe, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  3. Gallup, NM AZ 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  4. Albuquerque, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  5. Raton, NM CO 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  6. Hobbs, NM TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  7. 30 CFR 250.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... methodologies outlined in 40 CFR part 68. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the...

  8. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA...)(3)(B)) and 15 CFR 930.76(d) stating that the proposed exploration activities described in detail...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1630 - Safety-system testing and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-system testing and records. (a) Inspection and testing. You must inspect and successfully test safety.... Testing must be in accordance with API RP 14C, Appendix D (incorporated by reference as specified in § 250.198). For safety system devices other than those listed in API RP 14C, Appendix D, you must...

  10. 30 CFR 250.114 - How must I install and operate electrical equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) You must classify all areas according to API RP 500, Recommended Practice for Classification of... Division 2, or API RP 505, Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical... (incorporated by reference as specified in § 250.198), or API RP 14FZ, Recommended Practice for Design...

  11. 30 CFR 250.448 - What are the BOP pressure tests requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have approved those test pressures in your APD. (c) High pressure test for annular-type BOPs. The high... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the BOP pressure tests requirements... Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.448 What are the BOP pressure tests requirements?...

  12. Low cycle fatigue behaviour of neutron irradiated copper alloys at 250 and 350 deg. C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Stubbins, J.F.; Toft, P.

    2000-01-01

    speciments were fatigue tested in vacuum at the irradiation temperatures of 250 and 350 deg. C in a strain controlled mode with a loading frequency of 0.5Hz.Post-fatigue microstructures were examined using transmission electron microscopy and the fracture surfaces were investigated using scanning electron...

  13. Comparing the Effect of Different Bleaching Regims of Carbamide Peroxide on Microhardness of Z250 Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Esmaeili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bleaching products with oxidizing mechanism can exert side effects on the restorative materials existing in the oral cavity. Since bleaching agents are applied in different concentrations, the present study aimed to compare the effect of different bleaching regims of carbamide peroxide on microhardness of Z250 microhybride composite. Methods: In this in vitro study , 32 specimens of micro hybride composite (Z250 were made which were randomly divided into 4 subgroups (n=8: G1: bleached with10% carbamide peroxide 4 hours a day for 2 weeks G2: bleached with 16%carbamide peroxide 3 hours a day for 2 weeks G3: bleached with 22%carbamide peroxide 1hour a day for 2 weeks G4: the control subgroup stored in distilled water at 37◦c for 2 weeks. Microhardness of specimens was measured before and after bleaching using Vickers hardness testing machine. Moreover, the study data were analyzed statistically applying Anova and t-test (&alpha= 0.05. Results: This study findings revealed that using bleaching agent significantly decreased the  microhardness of composite resin in the bleaching groups compared to the control group, though the concentration of carbamide peroxide produced no significant effect on the microhardness value. (p>0.13 Conclusion: Bleaching therapy can cause a reduction in microhardness of Z250 composite and different concentrations of carbamide peroxide can reduce microhardness of Z250 to the same value.

  14. 30 CFR 250.154 - What identification signs must I display?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....154 Section 250.154 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... must identify all facilities, artificial islands, and mobile offshore drilling units with a sign...) When helicopter landing facilities are present, you must display an additional identification sign...

  15. Evaluation of GSt 250/350, Project-Oriented Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunneborg, Patricia W.; Mitchell, Sandra K.

    This report evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential field study course at the University of Washington. The course, titled GST 250/350, has different goals from a traditional volunteer program in that the student's education and experience are paramount; the services he provides are secondary. The student's motivation also differs somewhat…

  16. 77 FR 41412 - Determination That CHLOROMYCETIN (Chloramphenicol) Capsules, 250 Milligrams, Were Withdrawn From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ..., 250 Milligrams, Were Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug... determines that the listed drug was withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness (21 CFR 314..., whether a listed drug was withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This...

  17. Aztec, NM CO 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  18. 12 CFR 250.403 - Service of member bank and real estate investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of member bank and real estate... Glass-Steagall Act § 250.403 Service of member bank and real estate investment company. (a) The Board recently considered two inquiries regarding the question whether proposed real estate investment...

  19. Muusikamaailm. Maailmaesiettekanne Krimmis. Herderi preemiad 2002. Opera Metz 250. Günter Wand 90 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Krimmis leiab aset Alemdar Karamanovi sümfoonia "Täideläinu" maailma esiettekanne. Johann Gottfried Herderi muusikapreemia sai nimekas rumeenia helilooja Aurel Stroe. Opera Metz Prantsusmaal tähistab oma 250ndat aastapäeva mitmete uuslavastustega. Dirigent Günter Wand tähistab 90ndat juubelit

  20. 30 CFR 250.1408 - When will I be notified of the Reviewing Officer's decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will I be notified of the Reviewing... Continental Shelf (OCS) Civil Penalties § 250.1408 When will I be notified of the Reviewing Officer's decision... Reviewing Officer will review the case file, including all information you submitted, and send you...

  1. 30 CFR 250.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... harvest practices, recreation, recreational and commercial fishing (including typical fishing seasons... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental impact analysis (EIA... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.227 What environmental impact analysis...

  2. Socorro, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  3. Tularosa, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  4. Silver City, NM AZ 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  5. Douglas, AZ NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1717 - After I permanently plug a well, what information must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Decommissioning Activities Permanently Plugging Wells § 250.1717 After I permanently plug a well, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you permanently plug a well, you must submit form MMS-124... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After I permanently plug a well,...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1753 - After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1753 After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you decommission a pipeline, you must submit a written report to... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After I decommission a pipeline,...

  8. Potentiality evaluation of the MAT 250 UF mass spectrometer for general analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study on the potentiality of the MAT 250 UF mass spectrometer. It was formerly used only, for uranium isotopic analysis. It will be used, flow now on, also for the analysis of other gases such as deuterium, helium and hydrogen, as well. (A.C.A.S.)

  9. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for... Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. (a) Amyl nitrite inhalant has been available over-the-counter for emergency use by the patient in...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1620 - Well-completion and well-workover requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-completion and well-workover requirements... Well-completion and well-workover requirements. (a) Lessees shall conduct well-completion and well-workover operations in sulphur wells, bleedwells, and brine wells in accordance with §§ 250.1620...

  11. 30 CFR 250.111 - Who oversees operations under my welding plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who oversees operations under my welding plan... § 250.111 Who oversees operations under my welding plan? A welding supervisor or a designated person in charge must be thoroughly familiar with your welding plan. This person must ensure that each welder...

  12. 30 CFR 250.113 - What procedures must I follow when welding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What procedures must I follow when welding? 250....113 What procedures must I follow when welding? (a) Before you weld, you must move any equipment containing hydrocarbons or other flammable substances at least 35 feet horizontally from the welding...

  13. 30 CFR 250.110 - What must I include in my welding plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my welding plan? 250.110... must I include in my welding plan? You must include all of the following in the Welding Plan that you... qualified personnel weld; (c) Practices and procedures for safe welding that address: (1) Welding...

  14. El Paso, TX NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  15. 17 CFR 250.103A - Liability for certain statements by issuers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for certain... Miscellaneous Rules § 250.103A Liability for certain statements by issuers. (a) A statement within the coverage... oil and gas reserves as set forth in paragraphs 30-34 of Statement of Financial Accounting...

  16. HIVAP calculations for the synthesis of new isotopes of Z=116 and Z=118 through 250Cm(48Ca, xn) and 250-252Cf(48Ca, xn) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and study of superheavy elements is an important area of research in contemporary experimental nuclear physics. The heaviest element produced so far is Z=118 (one isotope with A=294) in the 48Ca + 249Cf reaction with a production cross-section of 0.5 pico barns. Here we propose 250Cm(48Ca, xn) and 250-252Cf(48Ca, xn) reactions for the synthesis of heavier isotopes of Z=116 and 118 with comparable theoretical production cross-sections. 250Cm, 250Cf, 251Cf and 252Cf are feasible targets with half lives of 8300, 13.1, 898 and 2.6 years respectively

  17. KP-250螺旋挤压式固液分离机的设计及试验%Design and Experiment of KP-250 Screw Separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申江涛; 吴德胜; 赵明杰; 蒋建群; 马学良; 郭楠

    2014-01-01

    Manure pollution problems of livestock and poultry farms has raised concern in the whole society , therefore , the government are paying more and more attention to environment protection of livestock and poultry farms .How to solve the manure pollution problem in condition of not affecting the production efficiency or even can improve the economic benefit of the farms has become a top priority .Screw separator is a new kind of separation device , has the function of gravity filtration、squeezing filtration and high pressure squeeze .It can successfully crack this problem .This article illus-trated the overall structure and working principle of KP-250 screw separator ,analyzed the key problems in the process of designing screw separator .It also studied and designed the general structure ,screw squeezing device ,screen mesh ,the gap between the screw and the screen ,discharging device and drive system .Test results indicated that :KP-250 screw separator was designed reasonable ,safe and reliable .It was suitable for solving the manure pollution problems of farms ( cattle and pig farms ) ,and so as to promote the development of environmental protection career of modern livestock and poultry farm .%养殖场畜禽粪便污染问题已经蔓延成为全社会关注的问题,国家对养殖场的环保越来越重视。如何在不影响养殖场生产效益抑或能提高养殖场经济效益的前提下解决粪污处理的难题,成为了当务之急。螺旋挤压式固液分离机是将重力过滤、挤压过滤以及高压压榨融为一体的新型分离装置,可成功破解这一难题。为此,阐述了KP-250螺旋挤压式固液分离的总体结构和工作原理,分析了固液分离机设计所要解决的关键问题。对总体结构、螺旋挤压结构、筛网、螺旋和筛网的间隙、出料装置及驱动系统进行了研究和设计。试验结果表明:KP-250固液分离机设计合理,安全可靠,适用于养殖场(养

  18. Optimal parameters for laccase-mediated destaining of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250-stained polyacrylamide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaodan; Ye, Xiuyun; Lin, Juan

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Destaining of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250-stained polyacrylamide gels with fungal laccase" [1]. Laccase is a class of multicopper oxidases that can catalyze oxidation of recalcitrant dyestuffs. This article describes optimal parameters for destaining of polyacrylamide gels, stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250, with laccase from basidiomycete Cerrena sp. strain HYB07. Effects of laccase activity, mediator type and concentration, temperature and time on destaining of polyacrylamide gels were evaluated with respect to gel background intensity and protein band signals, and the optimal destaining effects were obtained with 15 U mL(-1) laccase and 2 μM ABTS at 37 °C after 2 h. PMID:26955647

  19. Dispersive spherical optical model of neutron scattering from Al27 up to 250 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, A; Quesada, J M; Lozano, M

    2002-01-01

    A spherical optical model potential (OMP) containing a dispersive term is used to fit the available experimental database of angular distribution and total cross section data for n + Al27 covering the energy range 0.1- 250 MeV using relativistic kinematics and a relativistic extension of the Schroedinger equation. A dispersive OMP with parameters that show a smooth energy dependence and energy independent geometry are determined from fits to the entire data set. A very good overall agreement between experimental data and predictions is achieved up to 150 MeV. Inclusion of nonlocality effects in the absorptive volume potential allows to achieve an excellent agreement up to 250 MeV.

  20. Ion-nitriding of Maraging steel (250 Grade) for Aeronautical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion nitriding is one of the surface modification processes to obtain better wear resistance of the component. Maraging steel (250 Grade) is used to manufacture a critical component in the control surface of a combat aircraft. This part requires high strength and good wear resistance. Maraging steels belong to a new class of high strength steels with the combination of strength and toughness that are among the highest attainable in general engineering alloys. Good wear resistance is achieved by ion-nitriding (also called as plasma nitriding or glow discharge nitriding) process of case nitriding. Ion-nitriding is a method of surface hardening using glow discharge technology to introduce nascent (elemental) nitrogen to the surface of a metal part for subsequent diffusion into the material. In the present investigation, ion-nitriding of Maraging steel (250 grade) is carried out at 4500C and its effect on microstructure and various properties is discussed

  1. Debye relaxation and 250 K anomaly in glass forming monohydroxy alcohols

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, S; Gainaru, C; Lunkenheimer, P; Hiller, W; Loidl, A; Böhmer, R

    2013-01-01

    A previous dielectric, near-infrared (NIR), and nuclear magnetic resonance study on the hydrogen-bonded liquid 2-ethyl-1-hexanol [C. Gainaru et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 118304 (2011)] revealed anomalous behavior in various static quantities near 250 K. To check whether corresponding observations can be made for other monohydroxy alcohols as well, these experimental methods were applied to such substances with 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 carbon atoms in their molecular backbone. All studied liquids exhibit a change of behavior near 250 K which is tentatively ascribed to effects of hydrogen bond cooperativity. By analyzing the NIR band intensities, a linear cluster size is derived that agrees with estimates from dielectric spectroscopy. All studied alcohols, except 4-methyl-3-heptanol, display a dominant Debye-like peak. Furthermore, neat 2-ethyl-1-butanol exhibits a well resolved structural relaxation in its dielectric loss spectrum which so far has only been observed for diluted monohydroxy alcohols.

  2. A 14-bit 250-MS/s current-steering CMOS digital-to-analog converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xueqing; Fan Hua; Wei Qi; Xu Zhen; Liu Jianan; Yang Huazhong

    2013-01-01

    A 14-bit 250-MS/s current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC) was fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS process.In conventional high-speed current-steering DACs,the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is limited by nonlinear distortions in the code-dependent switching glitches.In this paper,the bottleneck is mitigated by the time-relaxed interleaving digital-random-return-to-zero (TRI-DRRZ).Under 250-MS/s sampling rate,the measured SFDR is 86.2 dB at 5.5-MHz signal frequency and 77.8 dB up to 122 MHz.The DAC occupies an active area of 1.58 mm2 and consumes 226 mW from a mixed power supply of 1.2/2.5 V.

  3. APPLYING TEP MEASUREMENTS TO ASSESS THE AGING STAGE OF MARAGING 250 STEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements had been proved as an effective method for evaluating the metallurgical state of various alloys. The current work was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of the aging state of Maraging 250 steel on TEP values. Commercial Maraging 250 steel was aged at 500 deg. C for 0.5-6 hours (hrs). TEP, hardness (Rc) and ultrasonic (US) measurements, were preformed on the as received and aged specimens. XRD measurements were used to identify the formation of precipitates (mainly Ni3(Ti,Mo)), reverted austenite and to evaluate changes in the microstrain caused by the precipitation process. A correlation was found between the TEP and the various measurements as a function of the aging time

  4. Snow Cover Maps from MODIS Images at 250 m Resolution, Part 1: Algorithm Description

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Notarnicola; Martial Duguay; Nico Moelg; Thomas Schellenberger; Anke Tetzlaff; Roberto Monsorno; Armin Costa; Christian Steurer; Marc Zebisch

    2013-01-01

    A new algorithm for snow cover monitoring at 250 m resolution based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images is presented. In contrast to the 500 m resolution MODIS snow products of NASA (MOD10 and MYD10), the main goal was to maintain the resolution as high as possible to allow for a more accurate detection of snow covered area (SCA). This is especially important in mountainous regions characterized by extreme landscape heterogeneity, where maps at a resolution of 500 ...

  5. A 250 GHz Gyrotron with a 3 GHz Tuning Bandwidth for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Alexander B.; Nanni, Emilio A.; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a novel tunable 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator with >10 W output power over most of a 3 GHz band and >35 W peak power. The tuning bandwidth and power are sufficient to generate a >1 MHz nutation frequency across the entire nitroxide EPR lineshape for cross effect DNP, as well as to excite solid effect transitions utilizing other radicals, without the need for sweeping the NMR magnetic field. Substantially improved tunability is achieved by implementin...

  6. Women in the Boardrooms of FTSE 250 Companies and Their Impact on Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kingham, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a relationship between the amount of female directors on the boards of FTSE 250 companies and the observed companies’ performance. Previous researchers have had mixed results and differing opinions on the effects of this relationship, with papers finding positive and negative relationships, there are also several notable papers finding no relationship at all between these two factors. This study was carried out using data from 201...

  7. Clinical analysis of 250 cases of ultrasound-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration of pancreatic mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仕迎

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy and safety of cytopathological diagnosis of ultrasound guided fine needle aspirated(US-FNA)pancreatic masses.Methods From January 2008 to February 2013,250 pancreatic mass cases underwent US-FNA and with cytopathological diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed.The sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value,negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated.The stratified analysis of

  8. Adsorption of Sulfamethazine from Environmentally Relevant Aqueous Matrices onto Hypercrosslinked Adsorbent MN250.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, Maria E

    2015-07-01

    Four hundred tons of sulfamethazine are fed to livestock annually in North America for disease prevention and growth promotion, but the majority is excreted unmetabolized into the environment. Due to its slow degradation and high mobility, sulfamethazine contaminates groundwater and causes aquatic ecosystem damage. Sulfamethazine remediation methods are not universally effective, necessitating newer techniques. Hypercrosslinked polystyrene adsorbents show promise because of high surface areas, durability, and regenerable properties. Using batch techniques, sulfamethazine adsorption onto Purolite MN250 was evaluated in the presence of dissolved humic acid and under variable pH and ionic strength. The adsorption capacity () of MN250 for sulfamethazine with humic acid was 109.3 mg g. In simulated groundwater, at pH 5 was 51 to 62% higher than at pH 9. The maximum at pH 7 (144.0 mg g) exceeded pH 5 performance (128.3 mg g). In 0.005 M KCl, was 181.0 mg g, which decreased by 34% in 0.05 M KCl. In 0.5 M, KCl, (153.4 mg g) increased 26% over 0.05 M KCl. For all matrices, equilibration was attained between 120 and 168 h, best fit by Ho's pseudo-second-order model. Overall, is pH dependent because the sulfamethazine speciation and the zeta potential of MN250 vary as a function of pH. Increasing ionic strength initially decreases by altering the activity coefficient of sulfamethazine and by altering the properties of the electrical double layer, while salting-out becomes prominent at seawater concentration. MN250's high sulfamethazine capacity in environmentally relevant aqueous matrices highlights its potential for groundwater remediation. PMID:26437099

  9. Basic research using the 250 kW research reactor of the Jozef Stefan Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor is a light water reactor with solid fuel elements in which the zirconium hydride moderator is homogeneously distributed between enriched uranium. The reactor therefore has a large prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity; the fuel also has a very high retention of radioactive fission products. The experimental facilities include a rotary specimen rack, a central in-core radiation thimble, a pneumatic transfer system and pulsing capability. Other experimental facilities include two radial and two tangential beam tubes, a graphite thermal column and a graphite thermalizing column. At the steady state power of 250 kW the peak flux is 1x1013n/cm2 in the central test position. In addition, pulsing to about 2000 MW is usually provided giving peak fluxes of about 2x1016n/cm2sec. All TRIGA reactors produce a core-average thermal neutron flux of about 107 n.v. per watt. Only with very large accelerators can such high fluxes be achieved. The types of research could be summarized as follows: thermal neutron scattering, neutron radiography, neutron and nuclear physics, activation analysis, radiochemistry, biology and medicine, and teaching and training. Typical applied research with a 250 kW reactor has been conducted in medicine, in biology, archaeology, metallurgy and materials science, engineering and criminology. It is well known that research reactors have been used routinely to produce isotopes for industry and medicine. We can conclude that the 250 kW TRIGA reactor is a useful and wide ranging source of radiation for basic and applied research. The operation cost for this instrument is relatively low. (author)

  10. Characteristics and uses of a 250 kW TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor is a light water reactor with solid fuel elements in which the zirconium hydride moderator is homogeneously distributed between enriched uranium. Therefore the reactor has the large prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, the fuel also has very high retention of radioactive fission products. The reactor core is a cylindrical configuration with an annular graphite reflector. The experimental facilities include a rotary specimen rack, a central incore radiation thimble, a pneumatic transfer system, and pulsing capability. Other experimental facilities include two radial and two tangential beam tubes, a graphite thermal column, and a graphite thermalizing column. At the steady state power of 250 kW the peak flux is 1x1013n/cm2s in the central test position. In addition, pulsing to about 2000 MW is usually provided giving peak fluxes of about 2x1016n/cm2sec. All TRIGA reactors produce a core-average thermal neutron flux of about 107n.v per watt. Only with very large accelerators could such a high neutron flux be achieved. In order to give an appreciation for the research conducted at research reactors, the types of research could be summarized as follows: thermal neutron scattering, neutron radiography, neutron and nuclear physics, activation analysis, radiochemistry, biology and medicine, and teaching and training. Typical applied research with a 250 kW reactor has been conducted in medicine in biology, archeology, metallurgy and materials science, engineering and criminology. It is well known that research reactors have been used routinely to produce isotopes for industry and medicine. In some instances, reactors are the preferred method of isotope production. We can conclude that the 250 kW TRIGA research reactor is a useful and wide ranging source of radiation for basic and applied research. The operation cost for this instrument is relatively low. (author)

  11. On the economic dimensions of CSR: Exploring Fortune Global 250 reports

    OpenAIRE

    Fortanier, F.N.; Kolk, A.

    2007-01-01

    The macro-level debate on the economic impact of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is still unsettled. This article explores micro-level evidence by examining what Fortune Global 250 firms themselves report about their economic impact. Such reporting embodies corporate attempts to account for their economic implications, in addition to the environmental and social aspects of their activities that have traditionally received more attention in the context of corporate responsibility. Firms' repo...

  12. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... at McIntire Road Project in Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City of Charlottesville, Virginia... approvals for the following project in the State of Virginia: Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire...

  13. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity in... connection with the treatment, control, or management of obesity in patients having normal thyroid function... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  14. 30 CFR 250.150 - How do I name facilities and wells in the Gulf of Mexico Region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I name facilities and wells in the Gulf of Mexico Region? 250.150 Section 250.150 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Naming and Identifying Facilities and Wells...

  15. 12 CFR 250.412 - Interlocking relationships between member bank and insurance company-mutual fund complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and insurance company-mutual fund complex. 250.412 Section 250.412 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... and insurance company-mutual fund complex. (a) The Board has been asked whether section 32 of the... advisory board of a newly organized open-end investment company (mutual fund), (2) the fund's...

  16. 12 CFR 250.401 - Director serving member bank and closed-end investment company being organized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that a closed-end company which was in process of organization and was actively engaged in issuing and... investment company being organized. 250.401 Section 250.401 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... company being organized. (a) The Board has previously expressed the opinion (§ 218.101) that section 32...

  17. 21 CFR 250.12 - Stramonium preparations labeled with directions for use in self-medication regarded as misbranded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for use in self-medication regarded as misbranded. 250.12 Section 250.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... for use in self-medication regarded as misbranded. (a) Stramonium products for inhalation have been... ingredients, will be regarded as misbranded if they are labeled with directions for use in self-medication....

  18. Silicon epitaxy on H-terminated Si (100) surfaces at 250 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao; Namboodiri, Pradeep; Li, Kai; Wang, Xiqiao; Stan, Gheorghe; Myers, Alline F.; Cheng, Xinbin; Li, Tongbao; Silver, Richard M.

    2016-08-01

    Low temperature Si epitaxy has become increasingly important due to its critical role in the encapsulation and performance of buried nanoscale dopant devices. We demonstrate epitaxial growth up to nominally 25 nm, at 250 °C, with analysis at successive growth steps using STM and cross section TEM to reveal the nature and quality of the epitaxial growth. STM images indicate that growth morphology of both Si on Si and Si on H-terminated Si (H: Si) is epitaxial in nature at temperatures as low as 250 °C. For Si on Si growth at 250 °C, we show that the Si epitaxial growth front maintains a constant morphology after reaching a specific thickness threshold. Although the in-plane mobility of silicon is affected on the H: Si surface due to the presence of H atoms during initial sub-monolayer growth, STM images reveal long range order and demonstrate that growth proceeds by epitaxial island growth albeit with noticeable surface roughening.

  19. An Analysis of 250 MDMA Addicts%250例苯丙胺类摇头丸(MDMA)滥用人群分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙毅; 徐本树; 王志强; 金俊; 吕秋霖; 张惠民

    2004-01-01

    目的:了解苯丙胺类物质摇头丸(MDMA)滥用人群人口学特征及其MDMA的精神活性作用.方法:制定统一问卷,对2001年1月-2002年11月在我院住院MDMA滥用者逐一进行登记.结果:总共调查250例摇头丸(MDMA)滥用者.250例MDMA滥用者平均年龄27.25±7.46 a.未婚青年女性141例,占总例数56.6%.文化程度较高,高中以上文化程度165例,占总例数66.04%.滥用方式大多数以啤酒送服,其次是矿泉水、饮料.滥用场所以歌厅和迪厅为主.每周使用2次以上者97例,占38.68%.MDMA的起效时间为25.61±11.06 min,作用持续时间为3.44±1.68 h.滥用后主观感受及行为表现依次为出汗、头晕、口干、心情愉快等.MDMA作用消失后部分滥用者表现为失眠、食欲下降、记忆力减退、厌食、疲乏、睡眠增多、食欲增大等.结论:近年来MDMA滥用者有增多趋势,部分滥用者有向强制性用药的模式趋势发展,应引起人们足够重视.

  20. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces reflect more effortful processing at the individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Grit

    2016-07-01

    The N250 and N250r (r for repetition, signaling a difference measure of priming) has been proposed to reflect the activation of perceptual memory representations for individual faces. Increased N250r and N250 amplitudes have been associated with higher levels of familiarity and expertise, respectively. In contrast to these observations, the N250 amplitude has been found to be larger for other-race than own-race faces in recognition memory tasks. This study investigated if these findings were due to increased identity-specific processing demands for other-race relative to own-race faces and whether or not similar results would be obtained for the N250 in a repetition priming paradigm. Only Caucasian participants were available for testing and completed two tasks with Caucasian, African-American, and Chinese faces. In a repetition priming task, participants decided whether or not sequentially presented faces were of the same identity (individuation task) or same race (categorization task). Increased N250 amplitudes were found for African-American and Chinese faces relative to Caucasian faces, replicating previous results in recognition memory tasks. Contrary to the expectation that increased N250 amplitudes for other-race face would be confined to the individuation task, both tasks showed similar results. This could be due to the fact that face identity information needed to be maintained across the sequential presentation of prime and target in both tasks. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces are taken to represent increased neural demands on the identity-specific processing of other-race faces, which are typically processed less holistically and less on the level of the individual. PMID:27184183

  1. DIGITALNA TOPOGRAFSKA KARTA 1:250 000 – PREMA NATO STANDARDIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Borisov

    2007-01-01

    U radu se iznose iskustva pri izradi i oblikovanju vojne topografske karte razmera 1: 250 000. Karta se izrađuje u Vojnogeografskom institutu, po NATO standardima i u digitalnom obliku. Iskustva drugih država u kreiranju vojnih topografsko-kartografskih sistema i karata mogu se uporediti sa našim. Postupci izrade i ažuriranja vojnih topografskih karata su informatički podržani uz veliki stepen automatizacije pojedinih faza njihove izrade i osavremenjavanja.

  2. An investigation into the influence of female directors on audit effort: Evidence from FTSE 250

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yue

    2013-01-01

    This study is conducted in order to detect if the female directors on board would have influence on the oversight function of the whole board and finally influence the audit fee. The motivation of this study is the increasing number of the female members in the workplace as well as the increasing number of female directors on board. This study focus on the UK market, so the data used in this paper is derived from FTSE 250 and the major methodology adopted in the empirical study is OLS regress...

  3. Phase equilibria in water-pyridine-butyric acid systems at 25.0°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasov, D. G.; Chepurina, Z. V.; Il'in, K. K.

    2014-04-01

    The solubility of the components of the ternary water-pyridine-butyric acid system is studied by means of isothermal titration at 25.0°C under normal pressure. Nine nodes are plotted over the area of delayering using the Mertslin section method, and the compositions of the equilibrium liquid phases are determined graphically. It was found that there is a closed binodal curve with two critical points on the solubility diagram of the system; the distribution curve of pyridine between the equilibrium liquid phases demonstrates its preferential distribution into the organic phase.

  4. A kinetic-phase transformation near 250 K in potassium tetrachlorozincate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman-scattering experiments have been performed to study the successive phase transitions of K2ZnCl4 over the temperature range (100/600) K. The spectra provide the temperature dependence of the mode frequencies and linewidths for two different spatial configurations: a(bb) c and c(aa) b. Special emphasis is put upon a new phenomenon observed in the spectra around 250 K in the c*/3 superstructure. Its kinetic character is revealed by complementary DSC measurements carried out over the range (120/300) K. This phenomenon is interpreted as a progressive structural transformation which corresponds to a slow modification of the tetrahedron distortions. (orig.)

  5. TRAP230/ARC240 and TRAP240/ARC250 Mediator subunits are functionally conserved through evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Camilla O; Baraznenok, Vera; Khorosjutina, Olga;

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator, a subgroup of proteins (Srb8, Srb9, Srb10, and Srb11) form a module, which is involved in negative regulation of transcription. Homologues of Srb10 and Srb11 are found in some mammalian Mediator preparations, whereas no clear homologues have been reported for...... Srb8 and Srb9. Here, we identify a TRAP240/ARC250 homologue in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and demonstrate that this protein, spTrap240, is stably associated with a larger form of Mediator, which also contains conserved homologues of Srb8, Srb10, and Srb11. We find that spTrap240 and Sch. pombe Srb8 (sp...

  6. pUR 250 allows rapid chemical sequencing of both DNA strands of its inserts.

    OpenAIRE

    Rüther, U

    1982-01-01

    A multipurpose plasmid, pUR 250, has been constructed. It contains seven unique cloning sites (Hind III, Xba I, Sal I, Acc I, Hinc II, BamH I and EcoR I) in a small region of its lac Z gene part. Insertion of foreign DNA into the plasmid can be easily detected. Plasmid DNA isolated from a clone by a rapid method can be used to determine the DNA sequence of the insert from both ends directly without isolation of labeled fragment.

  7. High speed (<= 250 ps) high gain X-ray shutter camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high speed X-ray shutter tube has been developed for laser induced plasma imaging. The limiting exposure time is in the 250 ps range and 5 images can be recorded on the same, laser shot, in order to provide a 5 spectral channel analysis of the plasma. A high light gain is obtained from a microchannel plate inserted in the 50Ω transmission line, which provide the adapted structure to reach such a time exposure. We present the main performances of this camera

  8. Alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperature and pressure of 250 °C and 42 bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    A new type of alkaline electrolysis cells with nickel foam based gas diffusion electrodes and KOH (aq) immobilized in mesoporous SrTiO3 has been developed and tested at temperatures and pressures up to 250 °C and 42 bar, respectively. Current densities of 1.0 A cm−2 have been measured at a cell...... voltage of 1.5 V without the use of expensive noble metal catalysts. High electrical efficiency and current density combined with relatively small production costs may lead to both reduced investment and operating costs for hydrogen and oxygen production....

  9. Analysis of RF section of 250 kW CW C-Band high power klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klystron is a microwave tube which is used as a power amplifier in various applications like radar, particle accelerators and thermonuclear reactors. The paper deals with the analysis of RF section of 250 kW CW C band high power klystron for 50 to 60 kV beam voltage The simulation is done using Poisson's superfish and AJ disk software's Design of cavity is done using superfish. The result of superfish is used to decide the dimensions of the geometry of the cavity and AJ disk is used to determined the centre to centre distances between the cavities in order to obtain the desired powers. (author)

  10. A 250-GHz CARM [Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser] oscillator experiment driven by an induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 250-GHz Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser (CARM) oscillator has been designed and constructed and will be tested using a 1-kA, 2-MeV electron beam produced by the induction linac at the Accelerator Research Center (ARC) facility of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The oscillator circuit was made to operate in the TE11 mode at ten times cutoff using waveguide Bragg reflectors to create an external cavity Q of 8000. Theory predicts cavity fill times of less than 30 ns (pulse length) and efficiencies approaching 20% is sufficiently low transverse electron velocity spreads are maintained (2%)

  11. Pulse radiolysis studies of liquid heavy water at temperatures up to 250 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the rate constants and associated activation energies for the reactions of the primary radical species, eaq-, ·OD and ·D, which are formed during the radiolysis of heavy water within the temperature range 20 to 250 oC. These heavy-water data have been compared with the corresponding information for light water. These kinetic data form part of the database that is required to model the aqueous radiation chemistry that occurs within the core of the heavy water cooled and moderated CANDU reactor. (author)

  12. Analysis of diffuse orientation transition parameters in C60 crystals at 250-260 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the orientation-structural transformation parameters in the C60 crystals within the temperature range of 250-260 K is carried out on the basis of the analysis of temperature dependences of thermal capacity and velocity of inelastic (ferroelectric) deformation, observed in the transition area experience. The value of the transformation elementary volume by the C60 (11-83 nm3) correlated molecular motion and the value of spontaneous shear deformation of the lattice 2.4 x 10-2 by its restructuring from a simple cubical one into a face-centered one are determined in the course of the analysis

  13. Particle production in hadron-proton interactions at 250 GeV/c incident beam momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis several characteristic properties are described of π+p, K+p and pp collisions at an incident beam momentum of 250 GeV/c, and compared to characteristics of other energy. The experiment has been performed in the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) exposed to a tagged meson enriched beam. The rapid cycling bubble-chamber and the other detector elements which comprise EHS are described in Ch. 2. Events used for the analysis have been scanned, measured and merged with the electronic counter information. After the merge steps the data have been processed through a chain of reconstruction programs (Ch. 3). In Ch. 4 the multiplicity distributions and topological cross sections are presented. An introduction to the models (Monte Carlo programs) is given in Ch. 5. In Ch. 6 the characteristics of charged particle production in π+p, K+p and pp collisions at 250 GeV/c are presented. In Ch. 7 the forward π0 production is presented, a study of rho and omega resonance production in the forward hemisphere in Ch. 8. In Ch. 6, 7 and 8, the data are compared to predictions from the Monte Carlo programs described in Ch. 5. 117 refs.; 70 figs.; 23 tabs

  14. First polarized proton collision at a beam energy of 250 GeV in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai,M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I. G.; Alessi, J.; et al.

    2009-05-04

    After providing collisions of polarized protons at a beam energy of 100 GeV since 2001, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL had its first opportunity to collide polarized protons at its maximum beam energy of 250 GeV in the 2009 polarized proton operations. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes [1] in each ring, RHIC preserves polarization during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV with precise control of the betatron tunes and vertical orbit distortions. However, the strong intrinsic spin resonances beyond 100 GeV are more than two times stronger than those below 100 GeV, requiring much tighter tolerances on vertical orbit distortions and betatron tunes. With the currently achieved orbit correction and tune control, average polarizations of {approx_equal} 42% at top energy and average polarizations of {approx_equal} 55% at injection energy were achieved. Polarization measurements as a function of beam energy also indicated aU polarization losses occurred around three strong intrinsic resonances at 136 GeV, 199.3 GeV and 220.8 GeV Peak luminosity of 122 x 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} was also demonstrated. This paper presents the performance of the first RHIC 250 GeV operation and discusses the depolarization issues encountered during the run.

  15. Properties of compact 250 \\mu m emission and HII regions in M33 (HERM33ES)

    CERN Document Server

    Verley, S; Kramer, C; Xilouris, E M; Boquien, M; Calzetti, D; Combes, F; Buchbender, C; Braine, J; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Tabatabaei, F S; Lord, S; Israel, F; Stacey, G; van der Werf, P

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the HERM33ES Key Project, using the high resolution and sensitivity of the Herschel photometric data, we study the compact emission in the Local Group spiral galaxy M33 to investigate the nature of the compact SPIRE emission sources. We extracted a catalogue of sources at 250um in order to investigate the nature of this compact emission. Taking advantage of the unprecedented Herschel resolution at these wavelengths, we also focus on a more precise study of some striking Halpha shells in the northern part of the galaxy. We present a catalogue of 159 compact emission sources in M33 identified by SExtractor in the 250um SPIRE band that is the one that provides the best spatial resolution. We also measured fluxes at 24um and Halpha for those 159 extracted sources. The morphological study of the shells also benefits from a multiwavelength approach including Halpha, far-UV from GALEX, and infrared from both Spitzer IRAC 8um and MIPS 24um in order to make comparisons. For the 159 compact sour...

  16. Theoretical fission times for U and Pb nuclei excited up to 250 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent experiments in GANIL (France) revealed that the average fission times ff> of uranium-like nuclei excited up to 250 MeV are much longer than the time scales usually inferred from either neutron or γ-ray pre-scission multiplicities (pre> and pre> respectively). In order to solve this puzzle, calculations have been done by means of the computer code CDSM2. The code simulates the fission process dynamically in the space of two collective degrees of freedom corresponding to the elongation- and mass-asymmetry modes. Light particle emission from the excited nuclei is considered statistically. Calculations performed with reduced value of the one-body dissipation are in agreement with measured f> of uranium isotopes, as well as with pre> and pre> from the 16O+208Pb fusion-fission reaction. This is encouraging us to make some predictions about the excitation energy dependence of f> and pre> for the isotopes of lead excited up to 250 MeV. In contrast to the uranium case, for these nuclei the calculated f> of the fission events accompanied by light charged particle emission are found to be shorter than the times of the events where only neutrons are emitted prior to scission

  17. Cooling system upgrading from 250 kW to 1 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oregon State TRIGA reactor (OSTR) power capability was upgraded from 250 KW to 1 MW in 1969; however, funds were not available for simultaneous upgrading of the cooling system. Since then, the OSTR has been selectively operating at full power with the original 250 KW cooling system. After funds were made available in 1971 the construction on the new heat exchanger building began. The new cooling system was installed, equipment was checked out, corrections were made, and acceptance tests were run. In addition, several days were required to clean up the primary system water, since increased water flow (350 gpm) swirled 4 year's collection of sediment off the reactor tank bottom and into the primary system. Three interesting items have been noticed, which are apparently a result of the cooling system upgrading: (1) the radiation levels above the reactor tank have been reduced by a factor of 2 to 3, (2) a low resonance vibration in the reactor core occurs at 1 MW. The vibration is attributed to a combination of increased water turbulence and subcooled (surface) nucleate boiling, and (3) direct radiation levels from the demineralizer tank have increased approximately 8-fold. This resulted in a relocation of the tank and the use of supplemental shielding. Increased operating time at higher average power levels, plus disturbance of; sediment on the bottom of the reactor tank are believed to be the main sources of the higher radiation levels

  18. Neutron production for 250 MeV protons bombarding on thick grain-made tungsten target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Yanbin; Ma, Fei; Ju, Yongqin; Chen, Liang; Wang, Jianguo; Ge, Honglin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Zhang, Hongbin; Li, Yanyan; Wan, Bo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2015-08-15

    Neutron yield for 250 MeV protons incident on a tungsten target has been measured using the water bath method. The target was made of many randomly placed tungsten grains. Through analyzing the activity of Au foils, the neutron flux distribution in water was obtained. The neutrons slowing down process shows that the neutrons from tungsten have an average energy lower than neutrons from the lead target. The neutron yield was experimentally determined to be 2.02 ± 0.15 neutron/proton. Detailed simulation was also performed with the Geant4 toolkit. Comparison has been made with the experimentally derived neutron yield. It was found that, around 250 MeV, experimental results were described satisfactorily with a combination of high-energy spallation, low-energy neutron reaction and scattering. It was shown that the grain-packed target does not affect much the main neutronic properties, which are of crucial importance for the design of the spallation target. (orig.)

  19. Radiation damage studies on STAR250 CMOS sensor at 300 keV for electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A. R.; Henderson, R.; Holmes, J.

    2006-09-01

    There is a pressing need for better electronic detectors to replace film for recording high-resolution images using electron cryomicroscopy. Our previous work has shown that direct electron detection in CMOS sensors is promising in terms of resolution and efficiency at 120 keV [A.R. Faruqi, R. Henderson, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, P. Allport, A. Evans, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 546 (2005) 170], but in addition, the detectors must not be damaged by the electron irradiation. We now present new measurements on the radiation tolerance of a 25 μm pitch CMOS active-pixel sensor, the STAR250, which was designed by FillFactory using radiation-hard technology for space applications. Our tests on the STAR250 aimed to establish the imaging performance at 300 keV following irradiation. The residual contrast, measured on shadow images of a 300 mesh grid, was >80% after corrections for increased dark current, following irradiation with up to 5×10 7 electrons/pixel (equivalent to 80,000 electron/μm 2). A CMOS sensor with this degree of radiation tolerance would survive a year of normal usage for low-dose electron cryomicroscopy, which is a very useful advance.

  20. 2x250 GeV gamma-gamma collider at TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the conceptual project of a 2x250 GeV photon collider at TESLA. The main idea of the proposal is to use the beam of the linear collider to generate FEL radiation. At an intermediate phase of acceleration (E=10 GeV) the electron beam passes the undulator of the FEL amplifier and amplifies the optical radiation of the master oscillator (λ=1.053 μm, peak power 100 MW). An output radiation of 350 GW peak power is produced at the amplifier exit. After that the electron and optical bunches are separated. The electron bunch is accelerated up to the final energy of 250 GeV and the optical bunch is transported to the conversion point via an open optical waveguide which has the form of a diaphragm focusing line and is placed in parallel with the main accelerator. At the conversion point the optical beam is focused on the electron beam and after the conversion point the gamma quanta follow the initial electron trajectory and meet at the interaction point with the other gamma-beam produced by another part of the collider. The integral luminosity of the colliding γ-beams is Lγγ∼ =1.5x1033 cm-2s-1. The feasibility of the proposal is confirmed by the results of numerical simulations. (orig.)

  1. Molecular gas kinematics within the central 250 pc of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Henshaw, J D; Kruijssen, J M D; Davies, B; Bally, J; Barnes, A; Battersby, C; Burton, M; Cunningham, M R; Dale, J E; Ginsburg, A; Immer, K; Jones, P A; Kendrew, S; Mills, E A C; Molinari, S; Moore, T J T; Ott, J; Pillai, T; Rathborne, J; Schilke, P; Schmiedeke, A; Testi, L; Walker, D; Walsh, A; Zhang, Q

    2016-01-01

    Using spectral-line observations of HNCO, N2H+, and HNC, we investigate the kinematics of dense gas in the central ~250 pc of the Galaxy. We present SCOUSE (Semi-automated multi-COmponent Universal Spectral-line fitting Engine), a line fitting algorithm designed to analyse large volumes of spectral-line data efficiently and systematically. Unlike techniques which do not account for complex line profiles, SCOUSE accurately describes the {l, b, v_LSR} distribution of CMZ gas, which is asymmetric about Sgr A* in both position and velocity. Velocity dispersions range from 2.6 km/s28. The gas is distributed throughout several "streams", with projected lengths ~100-250 pc. We link the streams to individual clouds and sub-regions, including Sgr C, the 20 and 50 km/s clouds, the dust ridge, and Sgr B2. Shell-like emission features can be explained by the projection of independent molecular clouds in Sgr C and the newly identified conical profile of Sgr B2 in {l ,b, v_LSR} space. These features have previously invoked...

  2. Temperature variation and its driving forces over the Antarctic coastal regions in the past 250 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By comparing the oxygen isotopic temperatures recorded by many shallow ice cores fromthe coastal regions of Antarctica, this paper presents the special characteristics of the temperaturevariations over the Antarctic coastal regions in the past 50 years, 150 years and 250 years. In thepast 50 years, the isotopic temperatures recorded in the ice cores over different sites on the Antarcticcoastal regions differ greatly. For instance, although increasing isotopic temperatures have beenreported for many sites studied, many sites show decreasing trends, the regional regularity intemperature variations is still insignificant. In the past 150 years, the isotopic temperature trends inthe coastal regions of Antarctica show an alternate-distributing pattern. In the past 250 years, all theice cores from the coastal regions of Antarctica have recorded the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA). Theabove-mentioned spatial characteristics of the temperature variations over the Antarctic coastalregions are likely to reflect the impacts of the unique Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation,the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (ACW) and the special terrain (such as the large drainage basins) onthe coastal regions of Antarctica. Furthermore, the impacting intensity of the unique SouthernHemisphere atmospheric circulation, the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave and the special terrain differs interms of the temporal scale of the temperature change.

  3. Simulation of thermal response of the 250 MWT modular HTGR during hypothetical uncontrolled heatup accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the central design features of the 250 MWT modular HTGR is the ability to withstand uncontrolled heatup accidents without severe consequences. This paper describes calculational studies, conducted to test this design feature. A multi-node thermal-hydraulic model of the 250 MWT modular HTGR reactor core was developed and implemented in the IBM CSMP (Continuous System Modeling Program) simulation language. Survey calculations show that the loss of forced circulation accident with loss of steam generator cooling water and with accidental depressurization is the most severe heatup accident. The peak hot-spot fuel temperature is in the neighborhood of 16000C. Fuel failure and fission product releases for such accidents would be minor. Sensitivity studies show that code input assumptions for thermal properties such as the side reflector conductivity have a significant effect on the peak temperature. A computer model of the reactor vessel cavity concrete wall and its surrounding earth was developed to simulate the extremely unlikely and very slowly-developing heatup accident that would take place if the worst-case loss of forced primary coolant circulation accident were further compounded by the loss of cooling water to the reactor vessel cavity liner cooling system. Results show that the ability of the earth surrounding the cavity to act as a satisfactory long-term heat sink is very sensitive to the assumed rate of decay heat generation and on the effective thermal conductivity of the earth

  4. Effect of dietary copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite on ureolytic bacteria found in the pig large intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Varel, V H; Robinson, I. M.; Pond, W G

    1987-01-01

    The predominant ureolytic bacteria in the pig large intestine were determined while growing pigs were fed a basal diet or basal diet plus copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite. Fecal samples were collected from four pigs fed each diet at 3, 9, and 14 weeks and analyzed for total colony counts and percent ureolytic bacteria. Fecal urease activity, ammonia nitrogen, and identity of the ureolytic bacteria were determined at 14 weeks. Copper sulfate and Aureo SP250 reduced the number of ...

  5. Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential applications for devices or systems containing 252Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on 252Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of 252Cf devices should increase from 1.5 million dollars in 1975 to 10.8 million dollars in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of 252Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US

  6. The protective cell petrus for the production of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha, beta, gamma, neutron cell which is described in the present paper is devoted to the transplutonium element production and study. It is located at the CEN in Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). The 4 feet ordinary concrete shielding made of stacked blocs allows the manipulation of radioactive sources as high as 1000 curies of 1 MeV gamma rays and with a fast neutrons flux of 109 n.cm-2.s-1. The airtight alpha containment box is equipped with two transfer systems, one consists of a parallelepiped shaped airtight box located in a turntable, the other uses standard cylindrical containers made of polyethylene. The general equipment and the main setting up are also described. (authors)

  7. Californium-252 neutron activation facility at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron irradiation facility has been established to develop new analytical methods and for the support of research programs. A major component of this facility is a 252Cf source which provides both fission spectrum and thermal neutrons. (U.S.)

  8. Californium-252 brachytherapy for anal and ano-rectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery has historically been the standard treatment for anal, ano-rectal and rectal carcinoma but is prone to local or regional failure. Over the past 15 years there has been increasing interest in and success with radiation therapy and combined chemoradiotherapy for treatment of anal and ano-rectal cancers. Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with external beam teletherapy has been investigated for anal and ano-rectal lesions at the Univ. of Kentucky with encouraging results

  9. Mobile equipment for neutron radiography using a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirements for successful neutron radiography are first summarised and the use of 252Cf is placed in perspective by comparing its properties with those of sources based on the Be (γ, n) and Be (α, n) reactions which have a broadly similar range of applications. The more essential design features of mobile neutron radiography equipment are next examined in some detail, to show how the often conflicting requirements of optimum beam production and adequate shielding may be reconciled. An assembly with a maximum dimension around 1 m with a source of 1 mg is used as an example. The design data used are reproduced in graphical form to permit designs to be scaled to suit the source available and the requirements. The selection of suitable image recorders for 252Cf radiography is discussed with the conclusion that the gadolinium foil-film combinations are likely to remain the normal choice. Demonstration radiographs are presented with particular reference to the location of residual casting sand in gas-cooled turbine blades. Finally, it is suggested that other applications for mobile 252Cf-based neutron radiography equipment will be found in the ordnance, aero-space, chemical and nuclear fuel manufacturing industries. (author)

  10. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  11. Californium-based neutron radiography for corrosion detection in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of an overall program aimed at minimizing disassembly and reducing inspection time during aircraft maintenance, a series of projects has been carried out to determine the feasibility of applying neutron radiographic techniques to the nondestructive (NDT) inspection of aircraft and aircraft components. These investigations have clearly demonstrated the superiority of neutron radiography over all other NDT techniques in its ability to detect surface and subsurface corrosion in aircraft structure. This capability is particularly significant where the corrosion is hidden behind thick metallic structural members. The neutron radiographic technique has been applied successfully to detect corrosion in the wing tank of E-2C, C-130, and DC-9 aircraft; rear stabilators of F-4 and F-111 aircraft; aft spar, starboard and port wing, and rudder of the F-8; fuselage skin of the 727; rotary blades of AH-1 and SH-3 helicopters; rotary tail flaps of the UH-2 helicopter; and nose landing gear of A-7 aircraft

  12. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 100-mg 252Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17O. Detection sensitivities of 239Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  13. Estimating wide range Total Suspended Solids concentrations from MODIS 250-m imageries: An improved method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuisen; Han, Liusheng; Chen, Xiuzhi; Li, Dan; Sun, Lin; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m based TSS (Total Suspended Solids) retrieval model for developing the model of wide-range TSS concentrations. Using field spectral and TSS data (5.8-577.2 mg/l) collected from estuary and coast of China, we calibrated (N = 40) and validated (N = 20) the 6 TSS retrieval models in forms of single band (B1 or B2), difference of the two bands, sediment index, band ratio and log-ratio by the least-squares technique. Results showed that the quadratic model of log-ratio is of the best accuracy (Calibration: R2 = 0.752, N = 40. Validation: TSS > 31 mg/l, RMSE = 37.9 mg/l, N = 12; TSS ⩽ 31mg /l, RMSE = 3.25 mg/l, N = 8). We also found that the spectral log-ratio values increased with the increasing of TSS when TSS 31 mg/l. The findings of quadratic curve vertex (log-ratio: ∼1.58) in the proposed TSS model indicated that the spectral log-ratio may be sensitive to TSS of both low and high concentrations. We further applied the preferred model to retrieve TSS concentration from the MODIS 250-m images in turbid estuarial and clear coastal waters, and obtained a good mapping accuracy from the result (TSS > 31 mg/l: RMSE = 38.6 mg/l, MRE = 24.7%, N = 17; TSS ⩽ 31mg /l : RMSE = 2.1 mg/l, MRE = 19.5%, N = 11). The vertex-based methodology of TSS model developed in the study is applicable in mapping TSS concentrations that are of a wide range variation in estuarine and coastal water bodies based on MODIS 250-m image, and as well to maximize its application potential due to high imaging frequency (two times during daytime) and appropriate space resolution of MODIS images. Therefore, the method can be used to detect the high temporal variability of TSS during tidal cycle. As such, the application of MODIS-water quality detection technology can be extended to coastal sediment movement.

  14. Activity balance of a nuclear medicine therapy ward at a 250 MBQ limit of dismissal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consistant utilisation of the raise of the limit of dismissal from 95 to 250 MBq 131I increases the number of radioiodine therapies by a factor of 2.5. The fraction of the activity administered to patients that is excreted until dismissal averages to 72%, including 0.4% in the waste, 0.2% in contaminations of laundry and dishes, and <0.1% airborne activity. 14% of the activity decay in the patient during this time. The remaining 14% leave the therapy facility with the patient and add to 99.9% to the activity polluting the environment. This part causes the highest risk and necessitates a detailled instruction procedure to the patient. (orig.)

  15. Laser system generating 250-mJ bunches of 5-GHz repetition rate, 12-ps pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Antonio; Braggio, Caterina; Carrà, Luca; Pirzio, Federico; Lodo, Stefano; Messineo, Giuseppe; Scarpa, Daniele; Tomaselli, Alessandra; Reali, Giancarlo; Vacchi, Carla

    2008-09-29

    We report on a high-energy solid-state laser based on a master-oscillator power-amplifier system seeded by a 5-GHz repetition-rate mode-locked oscillator, aimed at the excitation of the dynamic Casimir effect by optically modulating a microwave resonator. Solid-state amplifiers provide up to 250 mJ at 1064 nm in a 500-ns (macro-)pulse envelope containing 12-ps (micro-)pulses, with a macro/micropulse format and energy resembling that of near-infrared free-electron lasers. Efficient second-harmonic conversion allowed synchronous pumping of an optical parametric oscillator, obtaining up to 40 mJ in the range 750-850 nm. PMID:18825218

  16. GaN pnp bipolar junction transistors operated to 250 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, A.P.; Dang, G.; Ren, F.; Han, J.; Monier, C.; Baca, A.G.; Cao, X.A.; Cho, H.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.

    2000-01-03

    The authors report on the dc performance of the first GaN pnp bipolar junction transistor. The structure was grown by MOCVD on c-plane sapphire substrates and mesas formed by low damage Inductively Coupled Plasma etching with a Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry. The dc characteristics were measured up to V{sub BC} of 65 V in common base mode and at temperatures up to 250 C. Under all conditions, I{sub C} {approximately} I{sub E}, indicating higher emitter injection efficiency. The offset voltage was {le} 2 V and devices were operated up to power densities of 40kW{center{underscore}dot}cm{sup {minus}2}.

  17. Circulating fluidized bed combustion ash characterization. The case of the Provence 250 MW unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuyer, I.; Leduc, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Lefevre, R.; Ausset, P. [Paris-12 Univ., Creteil (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    1997-05-01

    The Provence 250 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Unit (Gardanne, France) is burning a high sulfur (2 to 4%), high ash content (30%) local lignite. This peculiar fuel already contains about 15% of CaO which allows it to capture the sulfur dioxide in situ without adding any complementary sorbent. The ash chemical composition (bed ash and ESP ash) that reflects the particularities of the coal is presented. SEM and DRX observations confirm the presence of anhydrite CaSO{sub 4}, lime, CaS, quartz and traces of hematite. Most of particles are roughly-shaped but microspheres can also be detected in fly ash. The very high sulfate content may be worrying for the environment in disposals. Hardened samples do not seem to retain compounds from leaching: high quantities of calcium and sulfates are still leached from these crushed samples. (author) 10 refs.

  18. A 250 GHz microwave interferometer for divertor experiments on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new 250 GHz, two-frequency microwave interferometer system has been developed to diagnose divertor plasmas on DIII-D. This diagnostic will measure the line-averaged density across both the inner and outer, lower divertor legs. With a cut-off density of over 7 x 1014 cm-3, temporal measurements of ELMs, MARFs and plasma detachment are expected. The outer leg system will use a double pass method while the inner leg system will be single pass. Two special 3D carbon composite tiles are used, one to protect the microwave antennas mounted directly under the strike point and the other as the outer leg reflecting surface. Performance, design constraints, and the thermalmechanical design of the 3D carbon composite tiles are discussed

  19. Three-dimensional magnetic cloak working from d.c. to 250 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianfei; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Yichao; Yin, Ge; Yuan, Jun; He, Sailing; Ma, Yungui

    2015-11-01

    Invisible cloaking is one of the major outcomes of the metamaterial research, but the practical potential, in particular for high frequencies (for example, microwave to visible light), is fatally challenged by the complex material properties they usually demand. On the other hand, it will be advantageous and also technologically instrumental to design cloaking devices for applications at low frequencies where electromagnetic components are favourably uncoupled. In this work, we vastly develop the bilayer approach to create a three-dimensional magnetic cloak able to work in both static and dynamic fields. Under the quasi-static approximation, we demonstrate a perfect magnetic cloaking device with a large frequency band from 0 to 250 kHz. The practical potential of our device is experimentally verified by using a commercial metal detector, which may lead us to having a real cloaking application where the dynamic magnetic field can be manipulated in desired ways.

  20. Tightening unit EZ 250 for VVER 1000 type reactor pressure vessel head flange joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of flange joints tightening by seals made of expanded graphite for VVER 440 and VVER 1000 reactor head flange joints is highlighted, and tightening units of row EZ 650 and EZ 650 TK and KNI for VVER 440 reactor head flange joints and EZ 250 tightening unit for VVER 1000 reactor head flange joints are described in detail. The main advantages of electronically controlled tightening units include: Precise and uniform compression of the gasket during the tightening procedure; Automated solution to the graphite relaxing problem during tightening; Possibility of diagnosis of the thread status of the joints being tightened; Alleviation of operator's tough work; Shorter time of tensioning associated with a lower collective doses; Quick preparation of tightening procedure report from the data measured; Calibration renewal is possible in advance at time of unit storage without the need to place it on a real joint. (P.A.)

  1. Design and development of collector for C-band 250 kW CW Klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the design and development of collector for C-band 250 kW high power klystron. The design criteria for the collector assembly is selection of material, vacuum and high temperature compatibility, proper electron beam dispersion, minimum back scattering of electrons and thermal design for proper cooling at high power dissipation. All these aspects have been discussed for collector development in details. The collector has been designed in TRAK and then beam propagation has been analyzed in MAGIC 2D software. The thermal simulation has been done using ANSYS 11.0 (multi-physics). The outer surface of the collector has been grooved to facilitate its proper cooling. Design results are presented for water cooling with different flow rates and channel dimensions. OFHC copper material is chosen for collector which is suitable for vacuum and hydrogen brazing operations and good thermal properties for efficient cooling.

  2. A 250 GHz gyrotron with a 3 GHz tuning bandwidth for dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Alexander B; Nanni, Emilio A; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G; Temkin, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a novel tunable 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator with >10 W output power over most of a 3 GHz band and >35 W peak power. The tuning bandwidth and power are sufficient to generate a >1 MHz nutation frequency across the entire nitroxide EPR lineshape for cross effect DNP, as well as to excite solid effect transitions utilizing other radicals, without the need for sweeping the NMR magnetic field. Substantially improved tunability is achieved by implementing a long (23 mm) interaction cavity that can excite higher order axial modes by changing either the magnetic field of the gyrotron or the cathode potential. This interaction cavity excites the rotating TE(₅,₂,q) mode, and an internal mode converter outputs a high-quality microwave beam with >94% Gaussian content. The gyrotron was integrated into a DNP spectrometer, resulting in a measured DNP enhancement of 54 on the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. PMID:22743211

  3. A 250 GHz gyrotron with a 3 GHz tuning bandwidth for dynamic nuclear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Alexander B.; Nanni, Emilio A.; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2012-08-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a novel tunable 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator with >10 W output power over most of a 3 GHz band and >35 W peak power. The tuning bandwidth and power are sufficient to generate a >1 MHz nutation frequency across the entire nitroxide EPR lineshape for cross effect DNP, as well as to excite solid effect transitions utilizing other radicals, without the need for sweeping the NMR magnetic field. Substantially improved tunability is achieved by implementing a long (23 mm) interaction cavity that can excite higher order axial modes by changing either the magnetic field of the gyrotron or the cathode potential. This interaction cavity excites the rotating TE5,2,q mode, and an internal mode converter outputs a high-quality microwave beam with >94% Gaussian content. The gyrotron was integrated into a DNP spectrometer, resulting in a measured DNP enhancement of 54 on the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin.

  4. Fabrication of 250-nm-hole arrays in glass and fused silica by UV laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, R.; Gödecke, A.; Prießner, A.; Ihlemann, J.

    2016-09-01

    Parallel nanohole drilling in glass using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm) is demonstrated. For the first time, hole arrays with 500 nm pitch and individual holes with 250 nm diameter and more than 100 nm depth are fabricated by phase mask imaging using a Schwarzschild objective. Holes in soda lime glass are drilled by direct ablation; fused silica is processed by depositing a SiOx-film on SiO2, patterning the SiOx by ablation, and finally oxidizing the remaining SiOx to SiO2. Thermally induced ordered dewetting of noble metal films deposited on such templates may be used for the fabrication of plasmonic devices.

  5. Pierce-Wiggler electron beam system for 250 GHz GYRO-BWO: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report summarizes the design and performance of the VUW-8028 Pierce-Wiggler electron beam systems, which can be used to power high frequency gyro-BWO's. The operator's manual for this gyro-BWO beamstick is included as appendix A. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing a gyro-BWO with a center frequency of 250 GHz, 6% bandwidth, and 10 kV peak output power. The gyro-BWO will be used to drive a free electron laser amplifier at LLNL. The electron beam requirements of the gyro-BWO application are: Small beam size, .100 inch at 2500 gauss axial magnetic field; a large fraction of the electron energy in rotational velocity; ability to vary the electrons' axial velocity easily, for electronic tuning; and low velocity spread i.e. little variation in the axial velocities of the electrons in the interaction region. 1 ref., 13 figs

  6. Thermal analysis of a conceptual design for a 250 We GPHS/FPSE space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccomas, Thomas J.; Dugan, Edward T.

    1991-01-01

    A thermal analysis has been performed for a 250-We space nuclear power system which combines the US Department of Energy's general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules with a state-of-the-art free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE). The focus of the analysis is on the temperature of the indium fuel clad within the GPHS modules. The thermal analysis results indicate fuel clad temperatures slightly higher than the design goal temperature of 1573 K. The results are considered favorable due to numerous conservative assumptions used. To demonstrate the effects of the conservatism, a brief sensitivity analysis is performed in which a few of the key system parameters are varied to determine their effect on the fuel clad temperatures. It is shown that thermal analysis of a more detailed thermal mode should yield fuel clad temperatures below 1573 K.

  7. BRIEF COMMUNICATION: Piezoelectric ultrasonic resonant motor with stator diameter less than 250 µm: the Proteus motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, B.; Friend, J.; Yeo, L.

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive and in vivo surgery is limited by the ability to provide controllable and powerful motion at scales appropriate for navigation within the human body. A motor for in vivo microbot propulsion is presented with a stator diameter of phi250 µm, demonstrating the potential to directly drive a flagellum for swimming at up to 1295 rpm with a torque of 13 nN m. The motor uses coupled axial-torsional vibration at 652-682 kHz in a helically cut structure excited by a thickness-polarized piezoelectric element. The output power is 4.25 µW, on the order of what is necessary to navigate small human arteries.

  8. Piezoelectric ultrasonic resonant motor with stator diameter less than 250 µm: the Proteus motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimally invasive and in vivo surgery is limited by the ability to provide controllable and powerful motion at scales appropriate for navigation within the human body. A motor for in vivo microbot propulsion is presented with a stator diameter of φ250 µm, demonstrating the potential to directly drive a flagellum for swimming at up to 1295 rpm with a torque of 13 nN m. The motor uses coupled axial-torsional vibration at 652–682 kHz in a helically cut structure excited by a thickness-polarized piezoelectric element. The output power is 4.25 µW, on the order of what is necessary to navigate small human arteries. (brief communication)

  9. Optimization of 200 MWth and 250 MWt Ship Based Small Long Life NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriyani, Dian; Su'ud, Zaki

    2010-06-01

    Design optimization of ship-based 200 MWth and 250 MWt nuclear power reactors have been performed. The neutronic and thermo-hydraulic programs of the three-dimensional X-Y-Z geometry have been developed for the analysis of ship-based nuclear power plant. Quasi-static approach is adopted to treat seawater effect. The reactor are loop type lead bismuth cooled fast reactor with nitride fuel and with relatively large coolant pipe above reactor core, the heat from primary coolant system is directly transferred to watersteam loop through steam generators. Square core type are selected and optimized. As the optimization result, the core outlet temperature distribution is changing with the elevation angle of the reactor system and the characteristics are discussed.

  10. Neutral strange particle production in π+/K+p interactions at 250 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis in which a detailed study of Kn inclusive production in K+p and π+p interactions at 250 GeV/c is presented, concentrates on neutral strange interaction products and draws some conclusions about the fate of the strange quark. In ch. 2 the experimental setup is described and in ch. 3 the series of computer programs that perform data reduction. Ch. 4 deals with the selectionn of events and neutral kaons. Also the calculations needed to correct for losses and background are described there. In ch. 5 inclusive and semi-inclusive distributions are presented and compared to data obtained in experiments at lower beam energy. In ch. 6 the data are compared with model predictions. In ch. 7 the main conclusions are summarized. (H.W.). 64 refs.; 39 refs.; 19 tabs

  11. Structure function scaling in a Reλ = 250 turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2011-12-22

    A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Reλ = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor\\'s frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.

  12. Contribution of the synchrotron diffraction study of the oxidation of uranium dioxide at 250 Celsius degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural evolution of UO2 during its oxidation into U3O8 at 250 degrees Celsius in air was studied by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction on the D2AM-CRG beamline at ESRF. The aim of this study is to determine the phases which are likely to appear during a long term storage of used nuclear fuel. Our results are in disagreement with the literature where the existence of the secondary cubic phase is not reported, and an α-U3O7 tetragonal phase (c/a 2 and U4O9 exist simultaneously, confirms the wrong phase attribution in the literature. (authors)

  13. Three-dimensional magnetic cloak working from DC to 250 kHz

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jianfei; Liu, Yichao; Yin, Ge; Yuan, Jun; He, Sailing; Ma, Yungui

    2015-01-01

    Invisible cloaking is one of major outcomes of the metamaterial research, but the practical potential, in particular for high frequencies (e.g., microwave to visible light), is fatally challenged by the complex material properties they usually demand. On the other hand, it will be advantageous and also technologically instrumental to design cloaking devices for applications at low frequencies where electromagnetic components are favorably uncoupled. In this work, we vastly develop the bilayer approach to create a three-dimensional magnetic cloak able to work in both static and dynamic fields. Under the quasi-static approximation, we demonstrate a perfect magnetic cloaking device with a large frequency band from zero to 250 kHz. The practical potential of our device is experimentally verified by using a commercial metal detector, which may lead us to having a real cloaking application where the dynamic magnetic field can be manipulated in desired ways.

  14. Near tubule and intertubular bovine detin mapped at the 250 nm level.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, S.R.; Veis, A.; Telser, A.; Cai, Z. (X-Ray Science Division); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2011-11-01

    In this study, simultaneous diffraction and fluorescence mapping with a (250 nm){sup 2}, 10.1 keV synchrotron X-ray beam investigated the spatial distribution of carbonated apatite (cAp) mineral and elemental Ca (and other cations including Zn) around dentin tubules. In 1 {mu}m thick sections of near-pulp root dentin, where peritubular dentin (PTD) is newly forming, high concentrations of Zn, relative to those in intertubular dentin (ITD), were observed adjacent to and surrounding the tubule lumens. Some but not all tubules exhibited hypercalcified collars (high Ca signal relative to the surrounding ITD), and, when present, the zone of high Ca did not extend around the tubule. Diffraction rings from cAp 00.2 and 11.2 + 21.1 + 30.0 reflections were observed, and cAp was the only crystal phase detected. Profiles of Ca, Zn and cAp diffracted intensities showed the same transitions from solid to tubule lumen, indicating the same cAp content and organization in ITD far from the tubules and adjacent to them. Further, the matching Ca and diffraction profiles demonstrated that all of the Ca is in cAp or that any noncrystalline Ca was uniformly distributed throughout the dentin. Variation of 00.2 and 11.2 + 21.1 + 30.0 diffracted intensity was consistent with the expected biaxial crystallographic texture. Extension of X-ray mapping from near 1 {mu}m resolution to the 250 nm level, performed here for dentin and its tubules, will provide new understanding of other mineralized tissues.

  15. Last 250 years climate reconstruction inferred from geothermal measurements in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodri, L.; Čermák, V.

    1998-06-01

    The subsurface of the Earth has a certain capability to remember what has happened on its surface tens to hundreds of years ago. Ground surface temperature (GST) history, reflecting past climate conditions, can be evaluated by analysing the excursions left on the present-day temperature-depth distribution measured by precise temperature loggings in the boreholes. Temperature logs from fifteen selected holes were inverted into GST histories to assess the corresponding climatic changes. These temperature records generally represent typical conditions existing on the territory of the Czech Republic. In combination with the GST reconstructions from our previous works, these data were used to assess the regional pattern of the last 250-year climatic change. The GSTs were obtained by applying the generalized least-squares inversion method [Jackson, D.D., 1972. Interpretation of inaccurate, insufficient and inconsistent data. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 28, 97-109], whereby the additional information on interdependence of both measured data and climate changes can be incorporated into the model in the form of covariance matrices. Three main episodes can be distinguished in the last 250 years: a warm period between 1790 and 1830, a slightly colder period in 1940-1960, and a general warming with the average rates of 0.01-0.03 K/year since then. The geographical distribution of the recent warming rate may indicate an impact of human activities. The verification of the GST assessment was accomplished by the independent past climate reconstructions gained by the use of historical sources and instrumental records.

  16. Snow Cover Maps from MODIS Images at 250 m Resolution, Part 2: Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Zebisch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new algorithm for binary snow cover monitoring based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite images at 250 m resolution is validated using snow cover maps (SCA based on Landsat 7 ETM+ images and in situ snow depth measurements from ground stations in selected test sites in Central Europe. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are the improved ground resolution of 250 m and the near real-time availability with respect to the 500 m standard National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA MODIS snow products (MOD10 and MYD10. It allows a more accurate snow cover monitoring at a local scale, especially in mountainous areas characterized by large landscape heterogeneity. The near real-time delivery makes the product valuable as input for hydrological models, e.g., for flood forecast. A comparison to sixteen snow cover maps derived from Landsat ETM/ETM+ showed an overall accuracy of 88.1%, which increases to 93.6% in areas outside of forests. A comparison of the SCA derived from the proposed algorithm with standard MODIS products, MYD10 and MOD10, indicates an agreement of around 85.4% with major discrepancies in forested areas. The validation of MODIS snow cover maps with 148 in situ snow depth measurements shows an accuracy ranging from 94% to around 82%, where the lowest accuracies is found in very rugged terrain restricted to in situ stations along north facing slopes, which lie in shadow in winter during the early morning acquisition.

  17. Density and visco-elasticity of Natrosol 250 HH solutions: Determining their suitability for experimental tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelier, D.; Cruden, A.; Saumur, B.

    2016-05-01

    Analogue models often require that materials with specific physical properties be engineered to satisfy scaling conditions. To achieve this goal we investigate the rheology of aqueous solutions of Natrosol 250 HH, a rheology modifier employed in various industries to thicken viscous solutions. We report the rheological properties as functions of the concentration and temperature and discuss the advantages and limitations of these materials in view of their use in analogue modelling experiments. The solutions are linear visco-elastic for low stresses (or strain-rates), becoming shear-thinning for larger stresses. For the typically slow analogue experiments of tectonics, the solutions can be considered linear visco-elastic with a Maxwell relaxation time much smaller than the characteristic observation time. This simplification is even more appropriate when the solutions are employed at temperatures higher than 20 °C, since the solutions then display a behaviour that is more viscous, less elastic at the same shear-rate, while the Newtonian viscosity reduces and the shear-rate limit between Newtonian and shear-thinning behaviours increases. The Newtonian viscosity is shown to increase non-linearly with concentration and decrease non-linearly with temperature. With concentrations between 0 and 3% and temperature between 20 and 40 °C, the viscosity varied between 10-1 and 4000 Pa s, while the density remained close to the density of water. Natrosol 250 HH thus offers the possibility to control the viscosity of a solution without significantly affecting the density, thereby facilitating the design and setup of analogue experiments.

  18. Design of a 250 kW mini-TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Atomic Company has designed an inexpensive, compact core for a below-ground research reactor capable of up to 250 kW steady-state operation. This mini-TRIGA reactor is a simplified version of the familiar TRIGA Mark I. Created as a tool for small laboratories, the mini-TRIGA is intended for applications such as neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography, isotope production, and training. Like the Mark I, the mini-TRIGA is a below ground, graphite reflected, natural convection cooled reactor utilizing uranium-zirconium-hydride fuel. The principal difference between the mini-TRIGA and the Mark I is the U-235 enrichment in the fuel. In order to reduce core size, uranium enriched to 93 percent has been used instead of the standard 20 percent enrichment. Aluminum cladding is used for mini-TRIGA elements instead of stainless steel in order to reduce parasitic neutron capture and thus further reduce core size. A standard seventeen-element core results from these features which provides a thermal neutron flux of approximately 8.7 x 1012 n/cm2-sec at 250 kW in the central thimble. The standard instrumentation and control system has been greatly simplified for the mini-TRIGA. Included in the mini-TRIGA instrumentation package are a wide range log power instrument with period and safety channel and a multi-range linear power channel. The rod control chassis includes one rod position indicator with a selector switch, magnet power supply, annunciators, and scram switches. Experimental facilities available include an in-core thimble and an optional pneumatic transfer system and rotary specimen rack. (U.S.)

  19. Molecular gas kinematics within the central 250 pc of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, J. D.; Longmore, S. N.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Davies, B.; Bally, J.; Barnes, A.; Battersby, C.; Burton, M.; Cunningham, M. R.; Dale, J. E.; Ginsburg, A.; Immer, K.; Jones, P. A.; Kendrew, S.; Mills, E. A. C.; Molinari, S.; Moore, T. J. T.; Ott, J.; Pillai, T.; Rathborne, J.; Schilke, P.; Schmiedeke, A.; Testi, L.; Walker, D.; Walsh, A.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-04-01

    Using spectral line observations of HNCO, N2H+, and HNC, we investigate the kinematics of dense gas in the central ˜250 pc of the Galaxy. We present SCOUSE (Semi-automated multi-COmponent Universal Spectral-line fitting Engine), a line-fitting algorithm designed to analyse large volumes of spectral line data efficiently and systematically. Unlike techniques which do not account for complex line profiles, SCOUSE accurately describes the {l, b, vLSR} distribution of Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) gas, which is asymmetric about Sgr A* in both position and velocity. Velocity dispersions range from 2.6 km s-1 < σ < 53.1 km s-1. A median dispersion of 9.8 km s-1, translates to a Mach number, M_3D≥28. The gas is distributed throughout several `streams', with projected lengths ˜100-250 pc. We link the streams to individual clouds and sub-regions, including Sgr C, the 20 and 50 km s-1 clouds, the dust ridge, and Sgr B2. Shell-like emission features can be explained by the projection of independent molecular clouds in Sgr C and the newly identified conical profile of Sgr B2 in {l, b, vLSR} space. These features have previously invoked supernova-driven shells and cloud-cloud collisions as explanations. We instead caution against structure identification in velocity-integrated emission maps. Three geometries describing the 3D structure of the CMZ are investigated: (i) two spiral arms; (ii) a closed elliptical orbit; (iii) an open stream. While two spiral arms and an open stream qualitatively reproduce the gas distribution, the most recent parametrization of the closed elliptical orbit does not. Finally, we discuss how proper motion measurements of masers can distinguish between these geometries, and suggest that this effort should be focused on the 20 km s-1 and 50 km s-1 clouds and Sgr C.

  20. VIABILITAS DAN STABILITAS Lactobacillus Plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 YANG DISUPLEMENTASIKAN DALAM SARI BUAH PEPAYA-NANAS SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Viability and Stability of Lactobacillus Plantarum Mut 7 FNCC 250 Suplemented in Papaya-Pineapple Juice During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati1

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 is an indigenous bacterium isolated from fermented food (“gatot” and a potential agent to reduce cholesterol. Study the on aplication of the bacterium as probiotic agent to food stuff is needed. The purpose of the study was to prepare formula of papaya-pineapple juice as probiotic carrier and to study the viability and capability of Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 to assimilate cholesterol during three months storage. Fruits juice was prepared with different formula and organoleptically tested. Selected juice formula was supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 and stored in cool room (4-5 oC. During three month storage, the value of pH the product, cell viability and ability to assimilate cholesterol were evaluated. The result indicated that acceptable formula was papaya juice added with 25 % pineapple. Viability of Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 supplemented in papaya- pineapple juice was stable (decrease of < 1 log cycle, while the pH of the juice decreased after 3 month storage. The ability of Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 to assimilate cholesterol was stable within 2 months storage, but decreased after 3 months.

  1. 250t/50t/10t精确吊装用桥式起重机的设计%Design of 250 t/50 t/10 t overhead travelling crane for accurate hoisting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛; 潘彦宏

    2012-01-01

    介绍了安装于印度尼西亚某水电站厂房内的精确吊装用250 t/50 t/10 t桥式起重机性能、控制系统特点及其设计思路,指出了变频器选配要点.%This paper describes the performance, control system characteristics and design ideas of accurate hoisting 250t/50t/10t overhead travelling crane installed in the plant of the hydropower station in Indonesia, The key points for selecting and matching of frequency converters are also put forward in the paper.

  2. Corrosion mechanisms of the AlFeNi aluminium alloy by water up to 250 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The AlFeNi aluminium alloy (1%Fe, 1%Ni, 1%Mg) will be used as nuclear fuel cladding in the Jules Horowitz research reactor. A better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms of this alloy in water is necessary to predict correctly the corrosion rate and the oxide thickness on the fuel plates. Corrosion tests in water at an average pH of 6.9 were hence performed on this alloy in static conditions at 70, 165 and 250 C, and in dynamic conditions at 70 C. The hydroxide film obtained on the samples corroded in autoclaves or at the slow flow rates is composed of two main layers: a dense and amorphous inner layer which grows by anionic diffusion and a porous crystalline outer layer which develops by cationic diffusion followed by a dissolution-precipitation process. The ratio of the amorphous oxide thickness to the corroded metal thickness decreases with corrosion time, thus indicating an increasing density of the amorphous oxide. Consequently, the diffusion through the inner oxide layer decreases drastically with corrosion time. The inner oxide thickness evolution is well described by a cationic diffusion model, with an apparent cationic diffusion coefficient decreasing exponentially with time. A comparison of the corrosion scales obtained in water and in vapour at 250 C showed that in the vapour, the outer precipitation oxide layer does not develop, and the inner oxide thickness is much lower. These results suggest that the anionic diffusion which controls the corrosion rate at the metal interface is coupled with the cationic diffusion and dissolution rate. The hydraulic conditions play therefore a dominant role in the corrosion rate. During dynamic experiments in once-through reactors at 70 C, the cationic release in the leaching water was measured at different times. Two leaching flow rates were used: 100 and 200 ml/h. After the first 3 hours, the aluminium and magnesium release follow a parabolic evolution, characteristic of a

  3. Snow Cover Maps from MODIS Images at 250 m Resolution, Part 1: Algorithm Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Notarnicola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for snow cover monitoring at 250 m resolution based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS images is presented. In contrast to the 500 m resolution MODIS snow products of NASA (MOD10 and MYD10, the main goal was to maintain the resolution as high as possible to allow for a more accurate detection of snow covered area (SCA. This is especially important in mountainous regions characterized by extreme landscape heterogeneity, where maps at a resolution of 500 m could not provide the desired amount of spatial details. Therefore, the algorithm exploits only the 250 m resolution bands of MODIS in the red (B1 and infrared (B2 spectrum, as well as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI for snow detection, while clouds are classified using also bands at 500 m and 1 km resolution. The algorithm is tailored to process MODIS data received in real-time through the EURAC receiving station close to Bolzano, Italy, but also standard MODIS products are supported. It is divided into three steps: first the data is preprocessed, including reprojection, calculation of physical reflectance values and masking of water bodies. In a second step, the actual classification of snow, snow in forested areas, and clouds takes place based on MODIS images both from Terra and Aqua satellites. In the third step, snow cover maps derived from images of both sensors of the same day are combined to reduce cloud coverage in the final SCA product. Four different quality indices are calculated to verify the reliability of input data, snow classification, cloud detection and viewing geometry. Using the data received through their own station, EURAC can provide SCA maps of central Europe to end users in near real-time. Validation of the algorithm is outlined in a companion paper and indicates good performance with accuracies ranging from 94% to around 82% compared to in situ snow depth measurements, and around 93% compared to SCA derived from

  4. Crop Dominance Mapping with IRS-P6 and MODIS 250-m Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna Gumma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to accurately separate out and quantify crop dominance areas in the major command area in the Krishna River Basin. Classification was performed using IRS-P6 (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, series P6 and MODIS eight-day time series remote sensing images with a spatial resolution of 23.6 m, 250 m for the year 2005. Temporal variations in the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index pattern obtained in crop dominance classes enables a demarcation between long duration crops and short duration crops. The NDVI pattern was found to be more consistent in long duration crops than in short duration crops due to the continuity of the water supply. Surface water availability, on the other hand, was dependent on canal water release, which affected the time of crop sowing and growth stages, which was, in turn, reflected in the NDVI pattern. The identified crop-wise classes were tested and verified using ground-truth data and state-level census data. The accuracy assessment was performed based on ground-truth data through the error matrix method, with accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual crop dominance classes, with an overall accuracy of 79% for all classes. The derived major crop land areas were highly correlated with the sub-national statistics with R2 values of 87% at the mandal (sub-district level for 2005–2006. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms and datasets used in this study are ideal for rapid, accurate and large-scale mapping of paddy rice, as well as for generating their statistics over large areas. This study demonstrates that IRS-P6 23.6-m one-time data fusion with MODIS 250-m time series data is very useful for identifying crop type, the source of irrigation water and, in the case of surface water irrigation, the way in which it is applied. The results from this study have assisted in improving surface water and groundwater irrigated areas of the command area and also

  5. Partial covering of emission regions of Q 0528-250 by intervening H$_2$ clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Klimenko, V V; Ivanchik, A V; Ledoux, C; Noterdaeme, P; Petitjean, P; Srianand, R; Varshalovich, D A

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the molecular hydrogen absorption system at z$_{\\rm abs}$ = 2.811 in the spectrum of the blazar Q0528-250. We demonstrate that the molecular cloud does not cover the background source completely. The partial coverage reveals itself as a residual flux in the bottom of saturated H_2 absorption lines. This amounts to about (2.22$\\pm$0.54)% of the continuum and does not depend on the wavelength. This value is small and it explains why this effect has not been detected in previous studies of this quasar spectrum. However, it is robustly detected and significantly higher than the zero flux level in the bottom of saturated lines of the Ly-alpha forest, (-0.21$\\pm$0.22)%. The presence of the residual flux could be caused by unresolved quasar multicomponents, by light scattered by dust, and/or by jet-cloud interaction. The H$_2$ absorption system is very well described by a two-component model without inclusion of additional components when we take partial coverage into account. The derived t...

  6. Analysis of Coastal Sediment Plume Dynamics in Puerto Rico using MODIS/Terra 250-m Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, D. B.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Mendez-Lazaro, P.; McCarthy, M.; Chen, F. R.

    2014-12-01

    Anomalous events of suspended sediments can degrade water quality in nearshore ecosystems by reducing light penetration, inhibiting primary production, and delivering pollutants associated with the sediment particles. Coral reefs, for example, are subject to stress by anomalous sediment loads. The island of Puerto Rico has a diverse topography, with steep mountain slopes, episodic high-intensity rainfall events, and weathered soils that lead to episodes of high sediment volumes being delivered to the coastal zone by rivers. We developed a time series of turbidity observations based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for use in the coastal areas of Puerto Rico. The product uses remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) of Band 1 (645 nm) at a spatial resolution of 250 m. These estimates were compared to in-situ turbidity measurements collected in San Juan Bay. Sediment plumes from the major rivers of Puerto Rico were assessed quantitatively and compared with time-series of meteorological and other parameters, including precipitation, river discharge, and wind velocity. The spatial extent of plumes, the timing and duration of plume events, and their potential impact on coral reefs are examined. Results show that plume events are episodic and short-lived, but that they may affect coral reefs located several kilometers offshore.

  7. Integrated tests of a high speed VXS switch card and 250 MSPS flash ADCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Dong, C. Cuevas, D. Curry, E. Jastrzembski, F. Barbosa, J. Wilson, M. Taylor, B. Raydo

    2008-01-01

    High trigger rate nuclear physics experiments proposed for the 12 GeV upgrade at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility create a need for new high speed digital systems for energy summing. Signals from electronic detectors will be captured with the Jefferson Lab FADC module, which collects and processes data from 16 charged particle sensors with 10 or 12 bit resolution at 250 MHz sample rate. Up to sixteen FADC modules transfer energy information to a central energy summing module for each readout crate. The sums from the crates are combined to form a global energy sum that is used to trigger data readout for all modules. The Energy Sum module and FADC modules have been designed using the VITA-41 VME64 switched serial (VXS) standard. The VITA- 41 standard defines payload and switch slot module functions, and offers an elegant engineered solution for Multi-Gigabit serial transmission on a standard VITA-41 backplane. The Jefferson Lab Energy Sum module receives data serially at a rate of up to 6 Giga-bits per second from the FADC modules. Both FADC and Energy Sum modules have been designed and assembled and this paper describes the integrated tests using both high speed modules in unison

  8. Paediatric Tuberculosis at a Referral Hospital in Istanbul: Analysis of 250 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ozden; Kazanci, Selcen; Gonen, Ismail; Aydogmus, Cigdem; Karaoglan, Emel; Siraneci, Rengin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) still remains a growing public health problem globally. TB in children is often diagnosed clinically. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with TB from November 2004 through December 2010 to determine the appropriateness of using contact history and diagnostic testing. Results. A total of 250 children with TB were identified. One hundred and sixty-two children had only pulmonary disease while 39 had features of both extrapulmonary and pulmonary TB. Mean age was 7.8 years. Thirty-six patients had known contacts. The index case/cases were first-degree relatives in 75%. Sixteen patients who were symptomless were yielded by contact investigation of newly identified TB cases. Tuberculin skin test positivity was 53.3%. Acid-fast bacilli smear positivity was 13.1%, and culture positivity was 18.7%. Twenty-six patients had histopathology of nonrespiratory specimens (lymph nodes and other tissues) showing granulomatous inflammation and caseous necrosis consistent with TB. Conclusions. Presence of contact history directed us to search for TB in children with nonspecific symptoms even if physical examinations were normal. Some children who were close contacts to TB cases were identified to have TB before development of symptoms. PMID:27298827

  9. A star forming ring around Kappa Ori 250 pc from the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Pillitteri, I; Megeath, S T

    2016-01-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here we report on XMM-Newton observations which detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641S and $\\kappa$ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the young stellar objects detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250-280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of $\\kappa$ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5-8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by $\\kappa$ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the $\\kappa$ ...

  10. A 250 MHz Level 1 Trigger and Distribution System for the GlueX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, David J. [JLAB; Cuevas, R. Christopher [JLAB; Doughty, David Charles [Christopher Newport U., JLAB; Jastrzembski, Edward A. [JLAB; Barbosa, Fernando J. [JLAB; Raydo, Benjamin J. [JLAB; Dong, Hai T. [JLAB; Wilson, Jeffrey S. [JLAB; Gupta, Abishek [JLAB; Taylor, Mark [JLAB; Somov, S. [JLAB

    2009-11-01

    The GlueX detector now under construction at Jefferson Lab will search for exotic mesons though photoproduction (10^8 tagged photons per second) on a liquid hydrogen target. A Level 1 hardware trigger design is being developed to reduce total electromagnetic (>200 MHz) and hadronic (>350 kHz) rates to less than 200 kHz. This trigger is dead timeless and operates on a global synchronized 250 MHz clock. The core of the trigger design is based on a custom pipelined flash ADC board that uses a VXS backplane to collect samples from all ADCs in a VME crate. A custom switch-slot board called a Crate Trigger Processor (CTP) processes this data and passes the crate level data via a multi-lane fiber optic link to the Global Trigger Processing Crate (also VXS). Within this crate detector sub-system processor (SSP) boards can accept all individual crate links. The subsystem data are processed and finally passed to global trigger boards (GTP) where the final L1 decision is made. We present details of the trigger design and report some performance results on current prototype systems.

  11. 三星SCH-S250拍照手机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    这款拍照手机采用了三星同宾得合作推出的500万像素CCD影像传感器,具有1Ocm微距拍摄能力.快门速度达到1/1000s。机身上采用了:320×240像素的160万色QVGA TFD-LCD显示屏。可以进行文本朗读、以QVGA标准进行视频拍摄,内置了92MB的闪存.32MB系统内存。此外,它还支持TTS以及MP3播放能力等。具有MP3播放、支持视频输出并且兼容MMC存储卡。SCH-S250的机身尺寸为115mm×50mm×19mm,重量为116g。

  12. Evaluation of neutron dose equivalent from the Mevion S250 proton accelerator: measurements and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron production is of concern for proton therapy, especially for passive scattering proton beam delivery methods. The levels of neutron dose equivalent vary significantly with system design and treatment parameters. The purpose of this study was to examine neutron dose equivalent per therapeutic dose (H/D) around the Mevion S250 proton therapy system, a novel design of proton therapy systems. The benchmark comparisons between measurement and simulation were found to be within a factor of 2 for most cases. The H/D values were evaluated as a function of various parameters. The results showed that, at a standard reference condition (10 × 10 cm2 field size, distance 1 m detector-to-isocenter lateral to the primary proton beam direction), the H/D values range from 0.72 to 3.37 mSv Gy−1 for all configurations studied. The H/D values generally (1) decreased as the neutron detectors moved away from the isocenter, (2) decreased with increasing aperture field sizes, (3) increased with increasing angle from the initial beam axis and (4) were independent of treatment nozzle position. The H/D trends were consistent with other existing passive scattering proton accelerators reported in the literature. (paper)

  13. Utilization and operating experience of the 250 kw TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its 35th year, the TRIGA Mark II 250 kW pulsing research reactor in Ljubljana is continuing its busy operation. With the maximum neutron flux in the central thimble of 10 13 n/cm 2 sec and many sample radiation positions the reactor has been used to perform many experiments in the following fields: solid state physics (elastic and inelastic neutron scattering), neutron dosimetry, neutron radiography, reactor physics including burn up measurements and calculations, boron neutron capture therapy and neutron activation analysis which represents one of the major usage of our reactor. Besides these, applied research around the reactor has been conducted, such as doping of silicon monocrystals, a routine production of various radioactive isotopes for industry ( 60Co, 64Zn, 24Na, 82Br) and medical use ( 18F, 99m Tc, etc.) and other activities. During the past decade the reactor was almost completely reconstructed (new grid plates, the control mechanisms and the control unit, modification of the spent fuel storage pool, etc). The main novelty in the reactor physics and operation features of the reactor was the installation of a pulse rod, therefore the reactor can be operated in a pulse mode. After reconstruction, the core was loaded with fresh 20% enriched fuel elements. In 1999 all spent fuel elements were shipped to the USA. (author)

  14. MUSE-ings on AM1354-250: Collisions, Shocks and Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Conn, Blair C; Smith, Rory; Candlish, Graeme N

    2015-01-01

    We present MUSE observations of AM1354-250, confirming its status as a collisional ring galaxy which has recently undergone an interaction, creating its distinctive shape. We analyse the stellar and gaseous emission throughout the galaxy finding direct evidence that the gaseous ring is expanding with a velocity of $\\sim$70km.s$^{-1}$ and that star formation is occurring primarily in HII regions associated with the ring. This star formation activity is likely triggered by the interaction. We find evidence for several excitation mechanisms in the gas, including emission consistent with shocked gas in the expanding ring and a region of LINER-like emission in the central core of the galaxy. Evidence of kinematic disturbance in both the stars and gas, possibly also triggered by the interaction, can be seen in all of the velocity maps. The ring galaxy retains weak spiral structure, strongly suggesting the progenitor galaxy was a massive spiral prior to the collision with its companion an estimated $140 \\pm 12$ Myr ...

  15. MUSE-ings on AM1354-250: Collisions, Shocks, and Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Blair C.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Smith, Rory; Candlish, Graeme N.

    2016-03-01

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of AM1354-250, confirming its status as a collisional ring galaxy that has recently undergone an interaction, creating its distinctive shape. We analyze the stellar and gaseous emission throughout the galaxy finding direct evidence that the gaseous ring is expanding with a velocity of ˜70 km s-1 and that star formation is occurring primarily in H ii regions associated with the ring. This star formation activity is likely triggered by this interaction. We find evidence for several excitation mechanisms in the gas, including emission consistent with shocked gas in the expanding ring and a region of LINER-like emission in the central core of the galaxy. Evidence of kinematic disturbance in both the stars and gas, possibly also triggered by the interaction, can be seen in all of the velocity maps. The ring galaxy retains a weak spiral structure, strongly suggesting the progenitor galaxy was a massive spiral prior to the collision with its companion an estimated 140 ± 12 Myr ago.

  16. Neanderthal use of fish, mammals, birds, starchy plants and wood 125-250,000 years ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L Hardy

    Full Text Available Neanderthals are most often portrayed as big game hunters who derived the vast majority of their diet from large terrestrial herbivores while birds, fish and plants are seen as relatively unimportant or beyond the capabilities of Neanderthals. Although evidence for exploitation of other resources (small mammals, birds, fish, shellfish, and plants has been found at certain Neanderthal sites, these are typically dismissed as unusual exceptions. The general view suggests that Neanderthal diet may broaden with time, but that this only occurs sometime after 50,000 years ago. We present evidence, in the form of lithic residue and use-wear analyses, for an example of a broad-based subsistence for Neanderthals at the site of Payre, Ardèche, France (beginning of MIS 5/end of MIS 6 to beginning of MIS 7/end of MIS 8; approximately 125-250,000 years ago. In addition to large terrestrial herbivores, Neanderthals at Payre also exploited starchy plants, birds, and fish. These results demonstrate a varied subsistence already in place with early Neanderthals and suggest that our ideas of Neanderthal subsistence are biased by our dependence on the zooarchaeological record and a deep-seated intellectual emphasis on big game hunting.

  17. A 250 year periodicity in Southern Hemisphere westerly winds over the last 2600 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Turney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow has a significant influence on the ocean–atmosphere system of the mid- to high-latitudes with potentially global climate implications. Unfortunately historic observations only extend back to the late nineteenth century, limiting our understanding of multi-decadal to centennial change. Here we present a highly resolved (30 yr record of past westerly air strength from a Falkland Islands peat sequence spanning the last 2600 years. Situated under the core latitude of Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow, we identify highly variable changes in exotic pollen derived from South America which can be used to inform on past westerly air strength and location. The results indicate enhanced airflow over the Falklands between 2000 and 1000 cal. yr BP, and associated with increased burning, most probably as a result of higher temperatures and/or reduced precipitation, comparable to records in South America. Spectral analysis of the charcoal record identifies a 250 year periodicity within the data, suggesting solar variability has a modulating influence on Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow with potentially important implications for understanding global climate change through the late Holocene.

  18. A 250-year periodicity in Southern Hemisphere westerly winds over the last 2600 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, C. S. M.; Jones, R. T.; Fogwill, C.; Hatton, J.; Williams, A. N.; Hogg, A.; Thomas, Z. A.; Palmer, J.; Mooney, S.; Reimer, R. W.

    2016-02-01

    Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow has a significant influence on the ocean-atmosphere system of the mid- to high latitudes with potentially global climate implications. Unfortunately, historic observations only extend back to the late 19th century, limiting our understanding of multi-decadal to centennial change. Here we present a highly resolved (30-year) record of past westerly wind strength from a Falkland Islands peat sequence spanning the last 2600 years. Situated within the core latitude of Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow (the so-called furious fifties), we identify highly variable changes in exotic pollen and charcoal derived from South America which can be used to inform on past westerly air strength. We find a period of high charcoal content between 2000 and 1000 cal. years BP, associated with increased burning in Patagonia, most probably as a result of higher temperatures and stronger westerly airflow. Spectral analysis of the charcoal record identifies a pervasive ca. 250-year periodicity that is coherent with radiocarbon production rates, suggesting that solar variability has a modulating influence on Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow. Our results have important implications for understanding global climate change through the late Holocene.

  19. Performance of a 512 x 512 Gated CMOS Imager with a 250 ps Exposure Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teruya, A T; Moody, J D; Hsing, W W; Brown, C G; Griffin, M; Mead, A S; Tran, V

    2012-10-01

    We describe the performance of a 512x512 gated CMOS read out integrated circuit (ROIC) with a 250 ps exposure time. A low-skew, H-tree trigger distribution system is used to locally generate individual pixel gates in each 8x8 neighborhood of the ROIC. The temporal width of the gate is voltage controlled and user selectable via a precision potentiometer. The gating implementation was first validated in optical tests of a 64x64 pixel prototype ROIC developed as a proof-of-concept during the early phases of the development program. The layout of the H-Tree addresses each quadrant of the ROIC independently and admits operation of the ROIC in two modes. If “common mode” triggering is used, the camera provides a single 512x512 image. If independent triggers are used, the camera can provide up to four 256x256 images with a frame separation set by the trigger intervals. The ROIC design includes small (sub-pixel) optical photodiode structures to allow test and characterization of the ROIC using optical sources prior to bump bonding. Reported test results were obtained using short pulse, second harmonic Ti:Sapphire laser systems operating at λ~ 400 nm at sub-ps pulse widths.

  20. FLUKA simulations and measurements for a dump for a 250 GeV/c hadron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Para, A; Silari, Marco; Ulrici, L

    2001-01-01

    FLUKA is a Monte Carlo code, transporting hadron and lepton cascades from several TeV down to a few keV (thermal energies for neutrons). The code is widely employed in various applications, such as particle detector design, shielding, radiation therapy, high energy physics experiments. The FLUKA results were compared with experimental data of dose equivalent and spectral fluence of neutrons produced by a 250 GeV/c proton/pion beam impinging on a beam dump installed in one of the secondary beam lines of the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The dump is a shielding structure made of iron/concrete, designed to absorb completely the high-energy beam. The actual geometry of the clump was modeled in the simulations and the scoring of neutron track length was performed at various locations around it. Importance sampling and Russian Roulette mere used as variance reduction techniques. The simulations results were compared with experimental measurements performed with a Bonner sphere system for neutron spectrometry...

  1. Shiprock, AZ NM CO UT 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  2. Dalhart, NM OK TX CO 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  3. 30 CFR 250.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.260 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must...)(3)(B)) and 15 CFR 930.76(c) stating that the proposed development and production...

  4. 30 CFR 250.108 - What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Petroleum Institute's Recommended Practice for Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Cranes (API RP 2D... for Offshore Pedestal Mounted Cranes (API Spec 2C), incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR... meet the requirements of API Spec 2C, incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198. (e)...

  5. 30 CFR 250.244 - What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geological and geophysical (G&G... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.244 What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following G&G information must accompany your DPP or DOCD: (a)...

  6. 30 CFR 250.214 - What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geological and geophysical (G&G... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.214 What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the EP? The following G&G information must accompany your EP: (a)...

  7. Radioimmunotheapy with [I-131]cG250 in patients with metastasized renal cell cancer : Dosimetric analysis and immunologic response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, AH; Buijs, WCAM; Mulders, PFA; de Mulder, PHM; van den Broek, WJM; Mala, C; Oosterwijk, E; Boerman, OC; Corstens, FHM; Oyen, WJG

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A study was designed to define the therapeutic efficacy, safety, and toxicity of two sequential high-dose treatments of radioimmunotherapy with [I-131]cG250 in patients with metastasized renal cell carcinoma. Here, we report the dosimetric analysis and the relationship between the developme

  8. 78 FR 20326 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 100.250 Food Facility Registration-Human and Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 100.250 Food Facility Registration--Human and Animal Food; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of draft Compliance...

  9. 30 CFR 250.245 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... analysis must be consistent with the EPA's risk management plan methodologies outlined in 40 CFR part 68. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must... Documents (docd) § 250.245 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?...

  10. 19 CFR 123.7 - Manifest used as an entry for unconditionally free merchandise value not over $250.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manifest used as an entry for unconditionally free merchandise value not over $250. 123.7 Section 123.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General Provisions § 123.7 Manifest used...

  11. 41 CFR 102-73.250 - Are agencies required to adhere to the policies for locating Federal facilities when purchasing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-73.250 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION Acquisition by Purchase or... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are agencies required...

  12. Operation, maintenance, and utilization of 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Institute Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Institute 'Jozef Stefan' in Ljubljana 250 kW TRIGA Mark II Reactor has been in operation since May 31, 1966. It is the steady state operated reactor without pulsing capabilities. In the paper the operational data, maintenance and utilization of the reactor are summarized for the first four years of reactor operation. (author)

  13. 30 CFR 250.1729 - After I remove a platform or other facility, what information must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Decommissioning Activities Removing Platforms and Other Facilities § 250.1729 After I remove a platform or other facility, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you remove a platform or other facility, you... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After I remove a platform or other...

  14. 41 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - 250-Guidelines on a Contractor's Duty To Provide Reasonable Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commission (EEOC) implementing the ADA (29 CFR part 1630). Although the following discussion is intended to... business. As stated in § 60-250.2(o), a special disabled veteran is qualified if he or she satisfies all the skill, experience, education and other job-related selection criteria, and can perform...

  15. 30 CFR 250.905 - How do I get approval for the installation, modification, or repair of my platform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copies specified in the table, you may submit your application electronically in accordance with 30 CFR 250.186(a)(3). Required submittal Required contents Other requirements (a) Application cover letter...., cathodic protection systems; jacket design; pile foundations; drilling, production, and pipeline risers...

  16. 250 saarlast ja hiidlast ohustab töötajäämine / Toivo Tänavsuu, Vallo Toomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2004-01-01

    Saaremaa Laevakompaniis töötavad 250 saarlast ja hiidlast võivad jääda töötuks, sest majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Meelis Atonen ei välista saarte liinidele praamide renti välismaalt koos meeskondadega

  17. A 250-Mbit/s ring local computer network using 1.3-microns single-mode optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, S. T.; Tell, R.; Andersson, T.; Eng, B.

    1985-01-01

    A 250-Mbit/s three-station fiber-optic ring local computer network was built and successfully demonstrated. A conventional token protocol was employed for bus arbitration to maximize the bus efficiency under high loading conditions, and a non-return-to-zero (NRS) data encoding format was selected for simplicity and maximum utilization of the ECL-circuit bandwidth.

  18. The structural-geological map of the Emilia-Romagna Apennines (1:250.000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrina Feroni, A.; Ottria, G.; Martinelli, P.; Martelli, L.; Catanzariti, R.

    2003-04-01

    The Structural-Geological Map of the Emilia-Romagna Apennines (1:250.000) faces problems regarding the polyphase structural evolution of the Emilia-Romagna sector of the Northern Apennines; in many cases the proposed solutions are unconventional and innovative. The Structural-Geological Map represents the result of a positive collaboration between the scientific community (Italian National Research Council and universities) and the Emilia-Romagna Region. The scientific results and the methodological planning have been presented on the Third Seminary on the Geological Cartography (Bologna, February 2002). In the Structural-Geological Map the deformative features (overthrusts, axial planes, fold axes, regional overturned limbs) belonging to the Alpine tectonic cycle (Mesoalpine Phase) have been separated from the deformations of the Apenninic tectonic cycle. The Mesoalpine tectonics has been split in two events (Late Paleocene-Early Eocene and Middle Eocene) and it has been connected to a geodynamic setting consistent with a eastward subduction and a westernward emplacement (i.e. toward the Europe continental margin) of the cover structural units (Ligurides) (Late Paleocene-Early Eocene early phase). At the end of the collisional process, the Middle Eocene phase (Ligurian Phase) controlled the development of an Adria-verging asymmetrical belt, antithetic to the Alpine belt of the Western Alps-Corsica sector. The exumation of the Mesoalpine stacking during the Early Oligocene, testified by the detritism in the episutural Oligocene basins (thrust top basins), marks the transition from the Alpine tectonic cycle to the Apenninic one. The polyphase evolution of the Northern Apennines is recorded in the siliciclastic successions of the Oligocene-Miocene foredeep (Macigno, Cervarola, Marnoso-Arenacea formations). The foredeep final structure represents a regional duplex structure (synorogenic duplex) outcropping in the tectonic halfwindow of the Romagna Apennines (Romagna

  19. Evidence of four prehistoric supernovae <250 pc from Earth during the past 50,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of the radiocarbon record for the past 50 ka indicates that four supernovae exploded near Earth 44 ka (~110 pc), 37 ka (~180 pc), 32 ka (~160 pc), and 22 ka (250 pc) ago. Each SN left a unique signature in the radiocarbon record consisting of a sudden increase in atmospheric radiocarbon at the time of the initial explosion due to the arrival of γ-rays and neutrinos, followed by a much larger increase in global radiocarbon spanning centuries due to cosmic rays produced by diffusive shock in the SN remnant, and concluding with the decay of the excess global 14C produced in these events. Temporal evolution of this signature is identical for each SN as if it were a “standard candle”. The ~22 ka SN is most likely the Vela SN that is known to have exploded 10-30 ka ago 250 pc from Earth. The distances of the other SNe are calculated from the relative amounts of radiocarbon produced on Earth with respect to the Vela SN assuming a 1/r2 relationship. The rate of these nearby prehistoric SNe is comparable to that expected from the more distant historical SNe observed during the past 1000 years and it is consistent with the galactic cosmic ray rate at Earth. Global radiocarbon doubled after the ~44 ka SN which exploded 110 pc from Earth, a distance consistent with the Upper Scorpius OB Association. It coincides with the advent of modern man, mutations leading to the development of type A and B blood, and major megafaunal extinctions in Southeast Asia. An exponential fit to the past 18 ka of INTCAL04 Δ14C data gives a half-life of 5700±700 yr, consistent with the half-life of 14C (5730 yr), and establishes an absolute scale of Δ14C=5±2% for T=0 in 1950. Small variations about the exponential decay curve correlate with observed changes in the strength of Earth’s virtual axial dipole moment (VADM). Analysis of the energy necessary to produce the excess global radiocarbon indicates that these SNe explosions released ~3x1050 ergs of energy into the production

  20. Surface circulation patterns in the Gulf of California derived from MODIS Aqua 250 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, G.; Salinas-González, F.; Gutiérrez de Velasco-Sanromán, G.; Godínez-Orta, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of California (GC) is a marginal elongated and semi-enclosed sea located at northwest of Mexico, between the Peninsula of Baja California and the mainland Mexico. The considered area average 150 km in width and 1500 km in length, from the mouth of the Colorado River to Cabo Corrientes, Jalisco. It has a maximum depth of 3600 m at the southern inlet and the northern region average 200 m in deep. The study of superficial circulation patterns in the GC is of interest because its relevance to the mechanisms of transport for distribution of a variety of materials -plankton, contaminants, microalgae, etc.- and its association with areas of sedimentary deposits, zones where there is a higher probability for fishing or related to the presence of certain species of marine life. Recent studies explain the circulation of the GC as a result of the Pacific Ocean's forcing, wind, heat fluxes on the sea surface and the interaction between the flow produced by these agents and bathymetry. The objective of this work was to obtain evidence of the patterns of surface circulation using a spatial resolution of 250 m over a period of two to seven days (depending on cloud cover), which offered images from the MODIS Level 1B. This essay is an attempt to contribute with more information to the understanding of the regional dynamics of the GC and its local influence on the zones bordering the coast. Thus, MODIS Aqua 250 m data was used, to which algorithms were applied in order to enhance the contrast of reflectance levels of these bands (0.620-0.670 and 0.841-0.876 µm) within the marine environment. The results are associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which we used as tracers of the surface circulation, using a sequence of images from January 2004 to December 2008. Algorithms for dust and cloud detection were used and incorporated with thermal band images, in which zones of terrigenous contribution by eolian transport were identified. Furthermore, pluvial

  1. Study for optimization of a 60 Co industrial irradiator of 250 k Ci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents results of a benchmark between calculated and experimental absorbed dose values for a typical product, in a 60 Co industrial irradiator, located at ININ, Mexico. The goal of this work is to reach a ± 10 % approximation between both values. ININ 60 Co industrial irradiator is a two level, two layer system with overlapping product configuration, 56 irradiation positions with an activity of around 250 k Ci. Calculated values were obtained by QAD-CGGP code. This code uses a point kernel technique, build-up factors fitting was done by geometrical progression and combinatorial geometry was used for 3 D system description. Main code modifications were related with source simulation by punctual sources and energy spectrum (16 energy groups) and anisotropic emission were also considered. Experimental data were obtained from routine dosimetry which was done with red acrylic pellets; they were irradiated together the product in predetermined positions, for 36 maximum and minimum absorbed dose values. Typical product was polypropylene Petri dish packages, apparent density 0.13 g/cm3. It was chosen because regular geometry (2 packages per full irradiator container) and enough amount for considering homogeneous loading inside irradiation chamber. Required minimum dose was 15 kGy. Results showed a 8% variation between calculated and experimental values for maximum absorbed dose (18.2 kGy vs 16.8 kGy) and 3 % variation for minimum absorbed dose (13.8 kGy vs 14.3 kGy); these results fixed with the original proposal. (Author)

  2. Absorption lines and ion abundances in the QSO PKS 0528-250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra of the QSO PKS 0528-250 (zsub(e) = 2.765) have been obtained with the AAT at 2 A resolution from 3100 to 7180 A. Absorption line systems have been identified at zsub(A1) = 2.81322, zsub(A2) = 2.81100, zsub(B) = 2.53758 and zsub(C) = 2.14077. The ionization ranges from H I, Al II and Fe II to N V or O VI in system A, from H I and possibly Si II to C IV in B and from H I, Al II and Si II to C IV in C. In system A the Si IV and higher stages are concentrated in A2. Broad Lα profiles in A and C correspond to 2 x 1021 and 5 x 1020 atom cm-2 respectively. Column densities also have been estimated for several heavier elements at each redshift. In system A depletions by factors of 8 to 160 relative to solar abundances appear to be present in S II, O I and N I as well as the typical factor 10 for Si II and Fe II similar to interstellar clouds in the plane of our galaxy. Longward of the Lα absorption in system A there are 44 lines of which only 27 have proposed identifications, whereas at the shorter wavelengths there are 112 lines of which 43 have plausible identifications due to one or more ions other than hydrogen. Thus caution is needed with the common assumption that most absorptions shortward of Lα emission in QSOs are due to Lα. (author)

  3. Statistics and scaling of turbulence in a spatially developing mixing layer at Reλ = 250

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2012-03-21

    The turbulent flow originating from the interaction between two parallel streams with different velocities is studied by means of direct numerical simulation. Rather than the more common temporal evolving layer, a spatially evolving configuration, with perturbed laminar inlet conditions is considered. The streamwise evolution and the self-similar state of turbulence statistics are reported and compared to results available in the literature. The characteristics of the transitional region agree with those observed in other simulations and experiments of mixing layers originating from laminar inlets. The present results indicate that the transitional region depends strongly on the inlet flow. Conversely, the self-similar state of turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation agrees quantitatively with those in a temporal mixing layer developing from turbulent initial conditions [M. M. Rogers and R. D. Moser, “Direct simulation of a self-similar turbulent mixing layer,” Phys. Fluids6, 903 (1994)]. The statistical features of turbulence in the self-similar region have been analysed in terms of longitudinal velocity structure functions, and scaling exponents are estimated by applying the extended self-similarity concept. In the small scale range (60 < r/η < 250), the scaling exponents display the universal anomalous scaling observed in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The hypothesis of isotropy recovery holds in the turbulent mixing layer despite the presence of strong shear and large-scale structures, independently of the means of turbulence generation. At larger scales (r/η > 400), the mean shear and large coherent structures result in a significant deviation from predictions based on homogeneous isotropic turbulence theory. In this second scaling range, the numerical values of the exponents agree quantitatively with those reported for a variety of other flows characterized by strong shear, such as boundary layers, as well as channel and wake flows.

  4. Landslide susceptibility map of Slovenia at scale 1 : 250,000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Komac

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the extensive landslide database that was compiled and standardised at the national level, and analyses of landslide spatial occurrence, a Landslide susceptibility map of Slovenia at scale 1 : 250,000 was completed. Altogether more than 6,600 landslides were included in the national database, of which roughly half are on known locations. Of 3,257 landslides with known location, random but representative 65 % were selected and used for the univariate statistical analyses (χ2 to analyse the landslide occurrence in relation to the spatio-temporal precondition factors (lithology, slope inclination, slope curvature, slope aspect, distance to geological boundaries, distance to structural elements, distance to surface waters, flowlength,andlandcovertypeand inrelation to the triggering factors(maximum 24-h rainfall, average annual rainfall intensity, and peak ground acceleration. The analyses were conducted using GIS in raster format with the 25 × 25 m pixel size. Five groups of lithological units were defined,ranging from small to high landslide susceptibility.Also critical slopes for the landslide occurrence, other terrain properties and landcover typesthat are more susceptible to landsliding were defined. Among triggering factors critical rainfall and peak ground acceleration quantities were defined.These results were later used as a basis for the development of the weighted linear susceptibility model where several models with various factor weights variations based on previous research were developed. The rest of the landslide population (35 % was used for the model validation. The results showed that relevant precondition spatio-temporal factors for landslide occurrence are (with their weight in linear model: lithology (0.3, slope inclinaton (0.25, landcover type (0.25, slope curvature (0.1, distance to structural elements (0.05, and slope aspect (0.05.

  5. High Resolution PET with 250 micrometer LSO Detectors and Adaptive Zoom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been impressive improvements in the performance of small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems since their first development in the mid 1990s, both in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which have directly contributed to the increasing adoption of this technology for a wide range of biomedical applications. Nonetheless, current systems still are largely dominated by the size of the scintillator elements used in the detector. Our research predicts that developing scintillator arrays with an element size of 250 (micro)m or smaller will lead to an image resolution of 500 (micro)m when using 18F- or 64Cu-labeled radiotracers, giving a factor of 4-8 improvement in volumetric resolution over the highest resolution research systems currently in existence. This proposal had two main objectives: (i) To develop and evaluate much higher resolution and efficiency scintillator arrays that can be used in the future as the basis for detectors in a small-animal PET scanner where the spatial resolution is dominated by decay and interaction physics rather than detector size. (ii) To optimize one such high resolution, high sensitivity detector and adaptively integrate it into the existing microPET II small animal PET scanner as a 'zoom-in' detector that provides higher spatial resolution and sensitivity in a limited region close to the detector face. The knowledge gained from this project will provide valuable information for building future PET systems with a complete ring of very high-resolution detector arrays and also lay the foundations for utilizing high-resolution detectors in combination with existing PET systems for localized high-resolution imaging.

  6. High Resolution PET with 250 micrometer LSO Detectors and Adaptive Zoom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Qi, Jinyi

    2012-01-08

    There have been impressive improvements in the performance of small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems since their first development in the mid 1990s, both in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which have directly contributed to the increasing adoption of this technology for a wide range of biomedical applications. Nonetheless, current systems still are largely dominated by the size of the scintillator elements used in the detector. Our research predicts that developing scintillator arrays with an element size of 250 {micro}m or smaller will lead to an image resolution of 500 {micro}m when using 18F- or 64Cu-labeled radiotracers, giving a factor of 4-8 improvement in volumetric resolution over the highest resolution research systems currently in existence. This proposal had two main objectives: (i) To develop and evaluate much higher resolution and efficiency scintillator arrays that can be used in the future as the basis for detectors in a small-animal PET scanner where the spatial resolution is dominated by decay and interaction physics rather than detector size. (ii) To optimize one such high resolution, high sensitivity detector and adaptively integrate it into the existing microPET II small animal PET scanner as a 'zoom-in' detector that provides higher spatial resolution and sensitivity in a limited region close to the detector face. The knowledge gained from this project will provide valuable information for building future PET systems with a complete ring of very high-resolution detector arrays and also lay the foundations for utilizing high-resolution detectors in combination with existing PET systems for localized high-resolution imaging.

  7. Annual evapotranspiration retrieved from satellite vegetation indices for the eastern Mediterranean at 250 m spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, D.; Givati, A.; Lensky, I. M.

    2015-11-01

    We present a model to retrieve actual evapotranspiration (ET) from satellites' vegetation indices (Parameterization of Vegetation Indices for ET estimation model, or PaVI-E) for the eastern Mediterranean (EM) at a spatial resolution of 250 m. The model is based on the empirical relationship between satellites' vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from MODIS) and total annual ET (ETAnnual) estimated at 16 FLUXNET sites, representing a wide range of plant functional types and ETAnnual. Empirical relationships were first examined separately for (a) annual vegetation systems (i.e. croplands and grasslands) and (b) systems with combined annual and perennial vegetation (i.e. woodlands, forests, savannah and shrublands). Vegetation indices explained most of the variance in ETAnnual in those systems (71 % for annuals, and 88 % for combined annual and perennial systems), while adding land surface temperature data in a multiple-variable regression and a modified version of the Temperature and Greenness model did not result in better correlations (p > 0.1). After establishing empirical relationships, PaVI-E was used to retrieve ETAnnual for the EM from 2000 to 2014. Models' estimates were highly correlated (R = 0.92, p basins with R of 0.75 and 0.77 and relative biases of 5.2 and -5.2 %, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). In the absence of high-resolution (< 1 km) ET models for the EM the proposed model is expected to contribute to the hydrological study of this region, assisting in water resource management, which is one of the most valuable resources of this region.

  8. Study on discharge heat utilization of 250 MWe PCMSR turbine system for desalination using modified MED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor) is one type of Advanced Nuclear Reactors. The PCMSR has benefit characteristics of very efficient fuel use, high safety characteristic as well as high thermodynamics efficiency. This is due to its breeding capability, inherently safe characteristic and totally passive safety system. The PCMSR design consists of three module, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. Analysis in performed by parametric calculation of the turbine system to calculate the turbine system efficiency and the hat available for desalination. After that the mass and energy balance of desalination process are calculated to calculate the amount of distillate produced and the amount of feed sea water needed. The turbine module is designed to be operated at maximum temperature cycle of 1373 K (1200 °C) and minimum temperature cycle of 333 K (60 °K). The parametric calculation shows that the optimum turbine pressure ratio is 4.3 that gives the conversion efficiency of 56 % for 4 stages turbine and 4 stages compressor and equipped with recuperator. In this optimum condition, the 250 MWe PCMSR turbine system produces 196 MWth of waste heat with the temperature of cooling fluid in the range from 327 K (54°C) to 368 K (95 °C). This waste heat can be utilized for desalination. By using MMED desalination system, this waste heat can be used to produce fresh water (distillate) from sea water feed. The amount of the distillate produced is 48663 ton per day by using 15 distillation effects. The performance ratio value is 2.8727 with by using 15 distillation effects. (author)

  9. Martian Atmospheric Density Near 250km Altitude From MRO Radio Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, E.; Zuber, M. T.; Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    increase when we decrease the estimation periods. We calculate the density variability at different timescales from various time series (2, 3, 4 and 6 orbits). The current seasonal trend of increasing atmospheric density is clearly visible in our results, from 10- 13kg.m-3 in November 2006 to 8.10-12kg.m-3 in June 2007 (at 250km altitude above the South Pole). However, contrary to previous MGS and Odyssey results, we do not detect the solar rotation periodicity in the density time series, because of low solar activity and more efficient CO2 cooling processes at lower altitude.

  10. Interpreting 250m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Indices in the Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, M.; White, M.; Lauver, C.; Garman, S.

    2006-12-01

    Semi-arid ecosystems, which are inherently vulnerable to small changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation, are frequently co-located with extensive human habitations and vulnerable species distributions. Important societal considerations identified by GEOSS, such as human health and well-being, ecological services, environmental protection, genetic resources, and disaster risk reduction and mitigation, may be under particular strain from invasive species, demographic changes, and/or climate change in semi-arid ecosystems. Satellite-based remote sensing may therefore be an important tool for monitoring the status of semi-arid ecosystems and habitats. Yet to date, the ability of current generation sensors, such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to accurately represent within-season phenological variability in semi-arid ecosystems a crucial precursor for long-term monitoring is largely unknown. Several programs worldwide seek information on this relationship. As part of one such effort, the Vital Signs Monitoring program for the National Park Service (NPS), we evaluated the ability of the MODIS 250m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and red, near infra-red, and blue channels to represent relative changes in ground-measured vegetation structure. Using an AccuPAR LP-80 PAR/LAI Ceptometer, LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer, and First Growth digital camera, we sampled plant area index (PAI) and green fractional cover (GFC) at 4 sites along a bioclimatic gradient in the Colorado Plateau, USA, representing semi-arid woodland, mixed grassland/shrubland, and grassland plant functional types. In 14 visits from June 2005 to October 2005, we intensively sampled each site at a spatial resolution directly comparable to 4 MODIS pixels. At each site, PAI was always less than 1.0 and often less than 0.4 and GFC was rarely greater than 5%. Likely due to low plant cover and instrument noise, correlation

  11. Does the Loss of ARID1A (BAF-250a Expression in Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinomas Have Any Clinicopathologic Significance? A Pilot Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole Fadare, Idris L. Renshaw, Sharon X. Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SWI/SNF chromatin-modification complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomes and to affect transcription and several cellular processes. Accordingly, their loss of function has been associated with malignant transformation. ARID1A (the expression of whose product, BAF250a, a key complex component, is lost when mutated has recently been identified as a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in 46-57% of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC. The purposes of this study are to assess the frequency of loss of BAF250a expression in endometrial CCC and whether this loss has any discernable clinicopathologic implications. 34 endometrial carcinomas with a CCC component (including 22 pure CCC, 8 mixed carcinomas with a 10% CCC component, and 4 carcinosarcomas with a CCC epithelial component, were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody directed against the human BAF250a protein. 5 (22.7% of the 22 pure CCC were entirely BAF250a negative, whereas the remainder showed diffuse immunoreactivity. None of 4 carcinosarcomas and only 1 (12.5% of the 8 mixed carcinomas were BAF250a negative. There was no discernable relationship between BAF250a immunoreactivity status and tumor architectural patterns (solid, papillary or tubulocystic areas or cell type (flat, hobnail or polygonal. Of the 22 patients with pure CCC, 14, 2, 3, and 3 were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages 1, II, III and IV respectively. Interestingly, all 5 BAF250a negative cases were late stage [stages III or IV] as compared with 1 of 17 BAF250a positive cases (p=0.0002. Thus, 83% (5/6 of all late stage cases were BAF250a [-], as compared with 0 (0% of the 16 early stage (I or II cases (p=.0002. BAF250a negative and positive cases did not show any statistically significant difference regarding patient age and frequency of lymphovascular invasion or myometrial invasion. As may be anticipated from the concentration of late stage cases in

  12. Performance of 4 mm impact sprinklers at different spacing within acceptable pressure range (250-350 kPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOROPA GABRIEL,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Single leg tests were conducted to determine performance and cost effectiveness of different spacing combinations that can be used in 4 mm impact sprinkler irrigation systems design operating at 250-350kPa. Four sprinklers were tested for coefficient of uniformity (CU, distribution uniformity (DU and wetted diameter at three different pressure points. Results obtained for CU and DU showed that imported sprinklers had significantly higher water application uniformities than locally made sprinklers at 250-350 kPa pressure range. Sprinkler spacings of 12 m x 18 m and 15 m x 15 m passed the layout tests and can be used in Zimbabwe under moderate wind conditions at 300 kPa, using preferably imported sprinklers for best water application uniformity. Therefore 15 m x 15 m sprinkler spacing which covers alarger area can replace 12 m x 18 m layout in spraylines design without compromising water application uniformity.

  13. Effect of 250 keV electron irradiation on properties of CIGS thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons with energy of 250 keV introduce copper-related defects. The cells were irradiated with the electrons at below 150 K because the radiation defects could be recovered with a thermal annealing effect. The carrier density increased with increasing electron fluence. The electrons can generate Cu-related Frenkel-pairs. Copper vacancy could result in increased carrier density since the shallow acceptor level VCu is assumed to be the main defect in the CIGS absorbing layer. In contrast, a drop in the carrier density of CIGS solar cells irradiated with 1 MeV electrons has been reported. In addition, activation energies of defects induced by 250 keV electrons with thermal annealing differ from those by 1 MeV electrons. These results indicates that copper-related defects in CIGS induced by radiation do not degrade the CIGS solar cells. (author)

  14. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters from 10 nm to 250 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of planar Hall effect magnetoresistive sensors for AC susceptibility measurements of magnetic beads with frequencies ranging from DC to 1 MHz. This wide frequency range allows for measuring Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 250 nm. B...... sedimentation, magnetic trapping, and signal per bead. Among the investigated beads, we conclude that the beads with a nominal diameter of 80 nm are best suited for future on-chip volume-based biosensing experiments using planar Hall effect sensors.......We demonstrate the use of planar Hall effect magnetoresistive sensors for AC susceptibility measurements of magnetic beads with frequencies ranging from DC to 1 MHz. This wide frequency range allows for measuring Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 250 nm...

  15. Experimental '' of As at 170, 200, 250 and 300 K from the Bijvoet pairs of GaAs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Raja Sudha; K Vimala Devi; D Arthi; S Prasanna Subramanian; N Srinivasan; R Saravanan

    2002-08-01

    Anomalous dispersion effects lead to the modification of the measured X-ray structure factors. In this work, we have determined the imaginary part of the anomalous dispersion correction terms ('' ) of arsenide atom (As), through the X-ray data collected using spherical single crystal of GaAs, at various temperatures, i.e. 170, 200, 250 and 300 K. It is stressed that more measurements of '' of the elements are needed to confirm the theoretical calculations.

  16. Phenotypic expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutation P250R in a large craniosynostosis family.

    OpenAIRE

    Golla, A; Lichmer, P; von Gernet, S; Winterpacht, A; Fairley, J.; Murken, J.; Schuffenhauer, S.

    1997-01-01

    The craniosynostosis syndromes are a heterogeneous group of sporadic, autosomal dominant disorders with significant clinical overlap. Recently, we described a large family with autosomal dominant craniosynostosis suggestive of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, in which linkage to the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome loci on 7p had been excluded. We now report the presence of a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) in this family. The mutation, P250R, had been previously reported in 10 p...

  17. Power upgrading tests of the TRIGA IPR-R1 nuclear reactor to 250 kW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal power of the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor, at the Center of Development of Nuclear Technology - CDTN, was increased from 100 kW to 250 kW. To obtain this goal, four fresh fuel elements were inserted in the reactor core. The paper gives a brief overview of experiments that have been performed to test the safety conditions of the new core configuration in order to obtain the license to operate the reactor at the new power. (author)

  18. Hypothetical accident scenario analyses for a 250-MW(t) modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.

    1985-11-01

    This paper describes calculations performed to characterize the inherent safety of a 250-MW(t), 100-MW(e), pebble bed modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design with vertical in-line arrangement (i.e., upflow core with steam generators directly above the core). A variety of postulated accident sequences involving combinations of loss of forced primary coolant (helium) circulation, loss of primary coolant pressurization, and loss of heat sink were studied and were discussed.

  19. Hypothetical accident scenario analyses for a 250-MW(t) modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes calculations performed to characterize the inherent safety of a 250-MW(t), 100-MW(e), pebble bed modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design with vertical in-line arrangement (i.e., upflow core with steam generators directly above the core). A variety of postulated accident sequences involving combinations of loss of forced primary coolant (helium) circulation, loss of primary coolant pressurization, and loss of heat sink were studied and were discussed

  20. Complete Set of Deuteron Analyzing Powers for dp Elastic Scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon and Three Nucleon Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Y.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of a complete set of deuteron analyzing powers (iT11, T20, T21, T22 for elastic deuteron–proton scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon have been performed with polarized deuteron beams at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. The obtained data are compared with the Faddeev calculations based on the modern nucleon–nucleon forces together with the Tucson-Melbourne’99, and UrbanaIX three nucleon forces.

  1. Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degrees C using low-cost CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, Jens; Ackermann, Joerg; Uffmann, Dirk; Aderhold, Jochen

    1996-09-01

    There is an increasing demand from automotive, aircraft and space industry for reliable high temperature resistant electronics. Circuits with reliable functionality up to temperatures of 250 degree(s)C would be sufficient for most of these applications. Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers are the basic building blocks of these circuits. Commercially available digital standard cell libraries and operational amplifiers are normally specified for operation up to a maximum temperature of 125 degree(s)C. Hence, the purpose of this work was the design and characterization of digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degree(s)C using a low-cost 1.0 micrometers epi-CMOS process. Several design measures were applied to the cells in order to further improve latch-up resistivity and to limit leakage currents, respectively. The transfer curves of all digital cells for all input signal combinations have been recorded in the temperature range from 30 to 250 degree(s)C. Significant results are very low temperature shifts of the noise margins and of the switching point, respectively. Furthermore, the low (0 V) and high (5 V) levels are reached exactly over the entire temperature range. Outstanding characteristics of the operational amplifier comprise low open-loop gain temperature drift as well as low offset and offset temperature drift, respectively. The open-loop gain was greater than 83 dB at room temperature with a drift of less than 0.02 dB/ degree(s)C. The offset voltage amounted to -1 mV at room temperature and 1 mV at 250 degree(s)C, respectively. The long-term behavior of these cells is currently under investigation.

  2. Communities of the blessed : the origins and development of regional churches in Northern Italy, c.250 - 381 C.E.

    OpenAIRE

    Humphries, Mark,

    1997-01-01

    This thesis argues that the origins and evolution of Christian communities in Northern Italy between c. 250 and 381 are comprehensible only within the region's social environment. Whereas previous studies of early Christianity in Italy have sought to explain its origins in terms of modern diocesan structures, this thesis shows that the evidence for this view is untrustworthy and that a new methodology is needed to explain the rise of the church. To this end, the thesis describe...

  3. All that's mine I carry with me. Early life disease and adult health in Sweden during 250 years

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study early life risk exposures in relation to adult health and mortality in Sweden during 250 years. A number of causal mechanisms by which exposure to diseases and stressful economic and social conditions early in life may lead to increased morbidity and mortality later in life are discussed (paper I). The early life exposures investigated are the foetal origins (nutrition) and the inflammation hypotheses. Longitudinal demographic and socioeconomic data for indi...

  4. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN SERAT KACA (Type e-glass) TERHADAP KUAT TEKAN DAN KUAT LENTUR BETON MUTU K-250

    OpenAIRE

    Iif Ahmad Syarif; Masdar M. Kacil

    2012-01-01

    PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN SERAT KACA (TYPE E-GLASS) TERHADAP KUAT TEKAN DAN KUAT LENTUR BETON MUTU K-250 Nama Mahasiswa : 1. Iif Ahmad Syarif 06.301010.004 : 2. Masdar Moh. Kacil 06.301010.006 Dosen Pembimbing : Azis Susanto, ST.,MT Inti Sari Beton memiliki nilai kuat tekan dan kuat tarik yang berbanding terbalik, nilai kuat tarik beton hanya berkisar antara 9% - 15% dari nilai kuat tekannya. Saat ini salah satu alternatif untuk memaksimalkan nilai kuat tarik dari beton itu sen...

  5. Downscaling 250-m MODIS Growing Season NDVI Based on Multiple-Date Landsat Images and Data Mining Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Yingxin Gu; Bruce K. Wylie

    2015-01-01

    The satellite-derived growing season time-integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GSN) has been used as a proxy for vegetation biomass productivity. The 250-m GSN data estimated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have been used for terrestrial ecosystem modeling and monitoring. High temporal resolution with a wide range of wavelengths make the MODIS land surface products robust and reliable. The long-term 30-m Landsat data provide spatial detaile...

  6. 12 CFR 250.408 - Short-term negotiable notes of banks not securities under section 32, Banking Act of 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Short-term negotiable notes of banks not securities under section 32, Banking Act of 1933. 250.408 Section 250.408 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... securities under section 32, Banking Act of 1933. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether...

  7. 12 CFR 250.220 - Whether member bank acting as trustee is prohibited by section 20 of the Banking Act of 1933 from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whether member bank acting as trustee is prohibited by section 20 of the Banking Act of 1933 from acquiring majority of shares of mutual fund. 250.220 Section 250.220 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

  8. MODIS/TERRA MOD44W Land Water Mask Derived from MODIS and SRTM L3 Global 250m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Land Water Mask Derived from MODIS and SRTM L3 Global 250m SIN Grid MOD44W The new MODIS 250 m land-water mask (Short Name: MOD44W) is an improvement over the...

  9. The Javalambre Survey Telescope (JST/T250): a multi-filter surveying machine for the Northern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenarro, Javier; Marin-Franch, Antonio; Moles, Mariano; Cristobal-Hornillos, David; Dupke, Renato a.; Benitez, Txitxo; Taylor, Keith

    2015-08-01

    The Javalambre Survey Telescope (JST/T250) is a 2.55m Richey-Chretien, alt-azimuthal telescope with a field of view of diameter 3 deg and an effective etendue of 26.5 m2deg2 operated by the Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA) at the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ). JST/T250 is particularly conceived and defined for carrying out large sky multi-filter surveys, like J-PAS (http://j-pas.org), which will be the main survey to be conducted during the first years of operation. To guarantee a seeing limited image quality all over the ~0.5m diameter focal plane, JST/T250 hosts state-of-the-arte optics, including complex hyperbolic M1 and M2 mirrors and a challenging field corrector of three lenses with 4 aspherical surfaces and high slopes. The optical configuration ends up with the powered entrance window of JPCam, the panoramic camera for J-PAS, with ~1200Mpix in a mosaic of 14 large format CCDs of 9.2k x 9.2k, and a set of 56 narrow-band, contiguous, optical filters. In this poster we present a detailed view of the telescope configuration, its optical performance and the expected operation for the J-PAS survey execution.

  10. Late radiation fibrosis in rat lung following protons and 250 kV X-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the biological effectiveness of proton beams in the development of pulmonary fibrosis the lungs of male 7-week-old Wistar rats were locally irradiated with a single dose of 10-50 Gy of 250 kV X-rays and modulated, 250 MeV protons at Particle Radiation Medical Science Center (PARMS). Animals were sacrificed serially after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at which times the development of the fibrotic lesion in alveolar walls and peribonchial connective tissues was assessed quantitatively by analysis of microscopic image of Azan-Mallory stained sections. Fibrosis index (FI) values in alveolar walls and peribronchial tissues were defined as the fraction (in percent) of a specific image area, the gray level of which represents collagen deposits. Using this FI values, the increase of fibrotic lesion following 0-40 Gy of X-rays irradiation as a function of time were observed better in alveolar walls than in peribronchial tissues. Compared with 250 kV X-rays, 30 Gy of proton beams irradiation produced less increase in the time course of FI values of alveolar walls and dose-response curve at 12 months later suggested that the fibrotic lesion in alveolar walls after protons exposure to the doses above 30 Gy might develop more slowly. (author) 51 refs

  11. Effect of dietary copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite on ureolytic bacteria found in the pig large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Robinson, I M; Pond, W G

    1987-09-01

    The predominant ureolytic bacteria in the pig large intestine were determined while growing pigs were fed a basal diet or basal diet plus copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite. Fecal samples were collected from four pigs fed each diet at 3, 9, and 14 weeks and analyzed for total colony counts and percent ureolytic bacteria. Fecal urease activity, ammonia nitrogen, and identity of the ureolytic bacteria were determined at 14 weeks. Copper sulfate and Aureo SP250 reduced the number of ureolytic organisms, with a marked decrease occurring in the Streptococcus spp., which made up 74% of the ureolytic isolates from the pigs on the basal diet. Other ureolytic species detected at lower concentrations were Staphylococcus spp., Selenomonas ruminantium, Bacteroides multiacidus, and Eubacterium limosum. Copper sulfate also reduced fecal urease activity (P less than 0.10). Fecal ammonia concentrations were not different between pigs fed the various diets. These data suggest that the streptococci are the most numerous ureolytic species in the pig intestinal tract and are significantly reduced by copper sulfate and Aureo SP250; however, only copper sulfate reduced intestinal urease activity. PMID:2823707

  12. Should the dose of tenofovir be reduced to 200–250 mg/day, when combined with protease inhibitors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hill

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The approved dose of tenofovir disproxil fumarate, 300 mg once daily, was established in clinical trials in combination with efavirenz, which does not significantly affect tenofovir concentrations. Combining tenofovir with lopinavir/r, darunavir/r or atazanavir/r increases tenofovir concentrations, which could raise the risk of renal adverse events. Newly approved tenofovir tablets are available at lower strength (200 or 250 mg for use in paediatrics. Methods: A literature search was used to assess the effects of lopinavir/r, darunavir/r and atazanavir/r on tenofovir plasma Cmax, AUC and Cmin (Geometric Mean Ratio and 90% confidence intervals. Assuming linear dose-proportional pharmacokinetics (as observed in dose-ranging studies, the 250 mg tablet was predicted to achieve plasma concentrations 17% lower than the 300 mg dose, and the 200 mg tablet to achieve plasma levels 33% lower. Effects on tenofovir plasma Cmax, AUC and Cmin concentrations were assessed for combined dosing of each protease inhibitor with 250 or 200 mg daily doses of tenofovir, versus standard dose tenofovir (300 mg daily without protease inhibitors. Results: In drug-drug interaction studies, lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increased tenofovir Cmax, AUC and Cmin. Effects of each PI on tenofovir Cmin were greater than effects on Cmax or AUC. Using a 250 mg paediatric dose of tenofovir with lopinavir/ritonavir, tenofovir Cmin was predicted to remain higher than tenofovir 300 mg used with efavirenz (GMR=1.26, 95% CI 1.14–1.38. Similar results were observed for use of tenofovir 250 mg with atazanavir/ritonavir (GMR=1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.13 and with darunavir/ritonavir (GMR=1.14, 95% CI 0.99–1.31. Predicted tenofovir AUC levels for the 250 mg dose with protease inhibitors were all within the bioequivalence range, relative to use with efavirenz. Using a 200 mg paediatric dose of tenofovir with lopinavir/ritonavir, the tenofovir Cmin was predicted to be

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning of rooms 62-248 and 62-250 at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, G.

    1996-05-01

    This document details the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) process of Rooms 248 and 250 of Building 62 at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The document describes the D&D efforts for the rooms, their contents, and adjacent areas containing ancillary equipment. The rooms and equipment, before being released, were required to meet the unrestricted release criteria and requirements set forth in DOE orders 5400.5 and 5480.11, LBNL`s internal release-criteria procedure (EH&S Procedure 708), and the LBNL Radiological Control Manual. The radioactive material and items not meeting the release criteria were either sent to the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) for disposal or transferred to other locations approved for radioactive material. The D&D was undertaken by the Radiation Protection Group of LBNL`s Environment, Health and Safety (EH&S) Division at the request of the Materials Sciences Division. Current and past use of radioactive material in both Rooms 248 and 250 necessitated the D&D in order to release both rooms for nonradioactive work. (1) Room 248 was designated a {open_quotes}controlled area.{close_quotes} There was contained radioactive material in some of the equipment. The previous occupants of Room 248 had worked with radioactive materials. (2) Room 250 was designated a {open_quotes}Radioactive Materials Management Area{close_quotes} (RMMA) because the current occupants used potentially dispersible radioisotopes. Both laboratories, during the occupancy of U.C. Berkeley Professor Leo Brewer and Ms. Karen Krushwitz, were kept in excellent condition. There was a detailed inventory of all radioactive materials and chemicals. All work and self surveys were documented. The labs were kept extremely orderly, clean, and in compliance. In October 1993 Ms. Krushwitz received an award in recognition of her efforts in Environmental Protection, Health, and Safety at LBNL.

  14. Pre- and post-irradiation properties of copper alloys at 250 deg. C following bonding and bakeout thermal cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of bonding and bakeout thermal cycles on microstructure, mechanical properties and electrical resistivity of the oxide dispersion strengthened (GlidCop, CuAl-25) and the precipitation hardened (CuCrZr, CuNiBe) copper alloys. Tensile specimens of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys were given various heat treatments corresponding to solution anneal, prime-ageing, and bonding thermal treatment followed by re-ageing and the reactor bakeout treatment at 350 deg. C for 100 h. Tensile specimens of CuAl-25 were given the heat treatment corresponding to the bonding thermal cycle. A number of heat treated specimens were neuron irradiated at 250 deg. C to a dose level of ∼ 0.3 dpa in the DR-3 reactor at Risoe. Both unirradiated and irradiated specimens with various heat treatments were tensile tested at 250 deg. C. The microstructure and electrical resistivity of these specimens were determined in the unirradiated as well as irradiated conditions. The post-deformation microstructure of the irradiated specimens was also investigated. The fracture surfaces of both unirradiated and irradiated specimens were examined. Results of these investigations are reported in the present report. The main effect of the bonding thermal cycle heat treatment was a slight decrease in strength of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys. The strength of CuAl-25, on the other hand, remained almost unaltered. The post irradiation tests at 250 deg. C showed a severe loss of ductility in the case of CuNiBe alloy. The irradiated CuAl-25 and CuCrZr specimens, on the other hand, exhibited a reasonable amount of uniform elongation. The results are briefly discussed in terms of thermal and irradiation stability of precipitates and particles and irradiation-induced segregation, precipitation and recovery of dislocation microstructure. (au) 7 tabs., 28 ills., 15 refs

  15. Thermal analysis of conceptual designs for GPHS/FPSE power systems of 250 We and 500 We

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccomas, Thomas J.; Dugan, Edward T.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal analyses were performed for two distinct configurations of a proposed space nuclear power system which combines General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules with the state of the art Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSEs). The two configurations correspond to systems with power levels of 250 and 500 W(sub e). The 250 W(sub e) GPHS/FPSE power system utilizes four GPHS modules and one FPSE, and the 500 W(sub e) contains eight GPHS modules and two FPSEs. The configurations of the systems and the bases for selecting the configurations are described. Brief introductory sections are included to describe the GPHS modules and free piston Stirling engines. The primary focus of the thermal analyses is on the temperature of the iridium fuel clad within the GPHS modules. A design goal temperature of 1573 K was selected as the upper limit for the fuel clad during normal operating conditions. The basis for selecting this temperature limit is discussed in detail. Results obtained from thermal analysis of the 250 W(sub e) GPHS/FPSE power system indicate fuel clad temperatures which slightly exceed the design goal temperature of 1573 K. The results are considered favorable due to the numerous conservative assumptions used in developing the thermal model and performing the thermal analysis. To demonstrate the effects of the conservatism, a brief sensitivity analysis is performed in which a few of the key system parameters are varied to determine their effect on the fuel clad temperatures. It is concluded that thermal analysis of a more detailed thermal model would be expected to yield fuel clad temperatures below the design foal temperature limiy 1573 K.

  16. SU-E-T-557: Monte Carlo Modeling of Philips RT-250 Orthovoltage Unit for Beam Spectrum Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a Monte Carlo (MC) model of a Phillips RT-250 orthovoltage unit to test various beam spectrum modulation strategies for in vitro/vivo studies. A model of this type would enable the production of unconventional beams from a typical orthovoltage unit for novel therapeutic applications such as gold nanoparticle-aided radiotherapy. Methods: The MCNP5 code system was used to create a MC model of the head of RT-250 and a 30 × 30 × 30 cm3 water phantom. For the x-ray machine head, the current model includes the vacuum region, beryllium window, collimators, inherent filters and exterior steel housing. For increased computational efficiency, the primary x-ray spectrum from the target was calculated from a well-validated analytical software package. Calculated percentage-depth-dose (PDD) values and photon spectra were validated against experimental data from film and Compton-scatter spectrum measurements. Results: The model was validated for three common settings of the machine namely, 250 kVp (0.25 mm Cu), 125 kVp (2 mm Al), and 75 kVp (2 mm Al). The MC results for the PDD curves were compared with film measurements and showed good agreement for all depths with a maximum difference of 4 % around dmax and under 2.5 % for all other depths. The primary photon spectra were also measured and compared with the MC results showing reasonable agreement between the two, validating the input spectra and the final spectra as predicted by the current MC model. Conclusion: The current MC model accurately predicted the dosimetric and spectral characteristics of each beam from the RT-250 orthovoltage unit, demonstrating its applicability and reliability for beam spectrum modulation tasks. It accomplished this without the need to model the bremsstrahlung xray production from the target, while significantly improved on computational efficiency by at least two orders of magnitude. Supported by DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12-1-0198

  17. Effect of Diacetyl Monoxime Thiosemicarbazone on the Corrosion of Aged 18 Ni 250 Grade Maraging Steel in Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Poornima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition of the aged 18 Ni 250 grade maraging steel in 0.5 M sulphuric acid by diacetyl monoxime thiosemicarbazone (DAMTSC at 303–323 K has been investigated by potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, and SEM techniques. Good inhibition efficiency of DAMTSC was revealed even at low concentrations, which increased with the increase in DAMTSC concentration and decreased with the increase in temperature. The activation energies, , as well as other thermodynamic parameters (; ; , were evaluated and discussed. The adsorption of DAMTSC on the aged maraging steel surface was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and shows mixed type inhibition behavior.

  18. Modernization of exhaust hood of low-pressure cylinder of a cogeneration turbine T-250/300-23.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodov, V. G.; Khandrymailov, A. A.; Kultishev, A. Yu.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Yamaltdinov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    An option of modernization of an exhaust hood for a low-pressure cylinder of a T-250/300-23.5 series turbine is presented in order to increase its effectiveness in a wide regimes range. An influence of a number of design decisions on gas-dynamic and energy characteristics of an exhaust compartment is considered. The investigation is carried out by the numerical simulation of a viscous wet steam flow through the exhaust compartment consisting of a last stage and an exhaust hood. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data is presented.

  19. Transverse-momentum fluctuations in $\\pi^{+}p$ and $K^{+}p$ collisions at 250 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Ataian, M R; De Wolf, E A; Endler, A M F; Fu Jing Hua; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Kittel, E W; Lian Shou Liu; Metreveli, Z V; Smimova, L N; Tikhonova, L A; Tomaradze, A G; Verbeure, F; Wu Yuang Fang; Zotkin, S A

    2002-01-01

    We report results on event-by-event fluctuations of transverse momentum, Phi (p/sub t/), in pi /sup +/p and K/sup +/p collisions at 250 GeV/c. For the first time, their dependence on rapidity region, transverse momentum acceptance, multiplicity, mean transverse momentum per event, and on the correlation between transverse momentum and multiplicity are systematically presented. The results are compared with those from the PYTHIA Monte Carlo generator. The fluctuations under the same acceptance cuts as used in current heavy- ion experiments are also presented.

  20. Immunoscintigraphy of septic loosening of knee endoprosthesis: a retrospective evaluation of the antigranulocyte antibody BW 250/183

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, Rigobert; Khalisi, Alexander; Puille, Maximillian; Steiner, Dagmar; Bauer, Richard [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Giessen, Friedrichstrasse 25, 35385, Giessen (Germany); Kordelle, Jens [Orthopedic Clinic, University Hospital Giessen (Germany); Stahl, Ulrich [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Giessen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Immunoscintigraphy with the use of the antigranulocyte antibody BW 250/183 is a reliable method for detecting infection, especially in septic loosening of hip prostheses, for which purpose quantitative interpretation of the time-activity course is employed. Therefore, we retrospectively studied whether similar results could be achieved in knee prostheses. We verified 28 scintigraphic examinations in 26 patients by histology. Scintigraphy was performed during an early (4-6 h post injection) and a late phase (23-25 h post injection). Infection was diagnosed when activity around the knee prosthesis increased by more than 10% compared with bone marrow. We found a sensitivity and a negative predictive value of 100%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 81% and an accuracy of 89%. Specificity and accuracy are lower than in the evaluation of hip prostheses; however, in comparison to other scintigraphic modalities, scintigraphy with the antigranulocyte antibody BW 250/183 is superior in excluding infection and has better specificity and accuracy. Therefore, as in the case of hip prostheses, the described methodology appears to be the scintigraphic modality of choice for knee prostheses. (orig.)

  1. Serendipitous detection of an overdensity of Herschel-SPIRE 250 micron sources south of MRC1138-26

    CERN Document Server

    Valtchanov, Ivan; Berta, S; Chapin, E; Coia, D; Conversi, L; Dannerbauer, H; Domínguez-Sánchez, H; Rawle, T D; Sánchez-Portal, M; Santos, J S; Temporin, S

    2013-01-01

    We report the serendipitous detection of a significant overdensity of Herschel-SPIRE 250 micron sources in the vicinity of MRC1138-26. We use an adaptive kernel density estimate to quantify the significance, including a comparison with other fields. The overdensity has a size of ~3.5-4' and stands out at ~5sigma with respect to the background estimate. No features with similar significance were found in four extragalactic control fields: GOODS-North, Lockman, COSMOS and UDS. The chance of having a similar overdensity in a field with the same number but randomly distributed sources is less than 2%. The clump is also visible as a low surface brightness feature in the Planck 857 GHz map. We detect 76 sources at 250 micron (with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 3), in a region of 4' radius; 43 of those are above a flux density limit of 20 mJy. This is a factor of 3.6 in excess over the average in the four control fields, considering only the sources above 20 mJy. We also find an excess in the number counts of...

  2. Downscaling 250-m MODIS growing season NDVI based on multiple-date landsat images and data mining approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    The satellite-derived growing season time-integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GSN) has been used as a proxy for vegetation biomass productivity. The 250-m GSN data estimated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have been used for terrestrial ecosystem modeling and monitoring. High temporal resolution with a wide range of wavelengths make the MODIS land surface products robust and reliable. The long-term 30-m Landsat data provide spatial detailed information for characterizing human-scale processes and have been used for land cover and land change studies. The main goal of this study is to combine 250-m MODIS GSN and 30-m Landsat observations to generate a quality-improved high spatial resolution (30-m) GSN database. A rule-based piecewise regression GSN model based on MODIS and Landsat data was developed. Results show a strong correlation between predicted GSN and actual GSN (r = 0.97, average error = 0.026). The most important Landsat variables in the GSN model are Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVIs) in May and August. The derived MODIS-Landsat-based 30-m GSN map provides biophysical information for moderate-scale ecological features. This multiple sensor study retains the detailed seasonal dynamic information captured by MODIS and leverages the high-resolution information from Landsat, which will be useful for regional ecosystem studies.

  3. Determination of NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector efficiency above and below 250 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSTO is implementing a standardised real-time stack monitoring system for monitoring airborne emissions, using identical NaI(Tl) detectors, Multi-channel analyzers (MCA) and locally produced software. This work focuses on gamma energies below 250 keV, as the majority of noble gases discharged during 99Mo production, emit in this region. It was necessary to extend the calculations beyond this region, to ensure they could be used to quantify emissions from the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) and also used for quantifying 41Ar, produced and discharged by operations at the High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR). Determination of NaI(Tl) detector efficiency below 250 keV has always been considered a difficult task, one not made easier by the lack of variety in calibrated low-energy emitting gamma sources or by the lack of specific internal NaI(Tl) detector dimensions required for accurate computer modeling. This project seeks to overcome these obstacles by combining experimental data with computed tomography (CT) imaging, 2D/3D image analysis and reconstruction software,. Monte Carlo code (MCNP-4B) and comparison with high resolution HPGe detectors

  4. HIC1 interacts with a specific subunit of SWI/SNF complexes, ARID1A/BAF250A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIC1, a tumor suppressor gene epigenetically silenced in many human cancers encodes a transcriptional repressor involved in regulatory loops modulating p53-dependent and E2F1-dependent cell survival and stress responses. HIC1 is also implicated in growth control since it recruits BRG1, one of the two alternative ATPases (BRM or BRG1) of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to repress transcription of E2F1 in quiescent fibroblasts. Here, through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identify ARID1A/BAF250A, as a new HIC1 partner. ARID1A/BAF250A is one of the two mutually exclusive ARID1-containing subunits of SWI/SNF complexes which define subsets of complexes endowed with anti-proliferative properties. Co-immunoprecipitation assays in WI38 fibroblasts and in BRG1-/- SW13 cells showed that endogenous HIC1 and ARID1A proteins interact in a BRG1-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HIC1 does not interact with BRM. Finally, sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-reChIP) experiments demonstrated that HIC1 represses E2F1 through the recruitment of anti-proliferative SWI/SNF complexes containing ARID1A.

  5. Origin of TSL peaks located at 200-250 K in UV-irradiated PbWO4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) was studied for many PbWO4 crystals after their selective irradiation at 80-220 K in the 3.4-5.0 eV energy range to clarify the origin of the defects responsible for the TSL peaks located in the 200-250 K range. The conclusion is made that both in PbWO4 and PbWO4:Mo crystals the total TSL intensity and the intensity ratio of various TSL peaks are mainly determined by the concentration and type of oxygen and lead vacancies which depend on the crystal preparation and annealing conditions and on the concentration of trivalent rare-earth impurity ions. The TSL peak near 200 K is ascribed to {Pb+-WO3} centers and the peak in the 210-230 K range, to the electron centers, containing oxygen vacancies of the type of WO2 and WO. Only the 250 K peak arises from electron MoO43- centers. Thermally stimulated processes are accompanied with the green G(II) emission

  6. Topographic Digital Raster Graphics, DRG - 1:250,000 Topo - Quads (7.5 Minute), Published in 1996, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Topographic Digital Raster Graphics dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1996. It is described as 'DRG - 1:250,000 Topo -...

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate 50/250 mcg combination therapy in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhisa Asai,1 Akihiro Kobayashi,2 Yukio Makihara,3 Malcolm Johnson4 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan; 2Biomedical Data Sciences, 3Medical Affairs Respiratory Department, GlaxoSmithKline, Tokyo, Japan; 4Respiratory Global Franchise, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK Purpose: Using sputum neutrophils as the primary measure, and other inflammation biomarkers, this study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of the combination salmeterol 50 mcg and fluticasone propionate 250 mcg (SFC 250 in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Patients and methods: Patients were treated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled trial with SFC 250 twice daily (n=26 or placebo (n=26 for 12 weeks. At the start and end of treatment, inflammation biomarkers (sputum and serum, lung function, and health status (COPD Assessment Test [CAT] questionnaire were measured. Results: Although a numerical decrease in differential neutrophil count was observed from baseline, SFC 250 did not significantly reduce sputum neutrophils compared with placebo, nor were there significant changes from baseline in the other biomarkers (sputum or serum, lung function, or CAT, versus placebo. Squamous epithelial cell contamination in some sputum samples rendered them unacceptable for analysis, which reduced the sample size to n=19 (SFC 250 and n=10 (placebo. However, inclusion of contaminated samples did not affect the overall trend of the outcome. Ad hoc bootstrap statistical analysis showed a 27.9% (SFC 250 and 1.3% (placebo decrease in sputum neutrophils. Sputum IL-8 decreased by 43.2% after SFC 250 but increased by 48.3% with placebo. Responder analyses showed 42% of patients had ≥20% decrease in neutrophils from baseline; and 47% of patients had a ≥200 pg/mL change in sputum IL-8 following SFC 250 versus 20% after placebo; both changes are considered clinically

  8. MONTHLY VARIABILITY OF TOTAL SUSPENDED MATTER (TSM) MAPPING USING MODIS 250M TO SUPPORT MARINE CULTURE AT MOROTAI ISLAND, NORTH MALUKU

    OpenAIRE

    KOMANG IWAN SUNIADA

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide an information of Total Suspended Matter concentration and its monthly variability using dialy data of Terra/ Aqua MOD IS level 1 b with spatial resolution 250m imagery at Morotai Island, Northern Maluku. TSM is one of the water quality key parameter to support finding suitable area which is an important step for marine culture activity. Dialy Aqua/Terra MODIS level lb, 250m dataset was downloaded freely from Goddard Space Flight Center, LAADS Web (http ://...

  9. Evaluation of mechanical properties of Z250 composite resin light-cured by different methods Avaliação de propriedades mecânicas da resina composta Z250 fotoativada com diferentes métodos

    OpenAIRE

    Andresa Carla Obici; Mário Alexandre Coelho Sinhoreti; Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho; Mário Fernando de Góes; Simonides Consani

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated some mechanical parameters of Z250 composite resin using different light-curing methods. Ten specimens were prepared for each mechanical test group with different dimensions according to the test. Light-curing was performed by: a). continuous light (800mW/cm²-40s); b). exponential light (0-800mW/cm²-40s); c). intermittent light (2s-600mW/cm²; 2s without light-80s); d). stepped light (10s-150mW/cm²; 30s-650mW/cm²); e). PAC (1320mW/cm²-3s); f). LED (350mW/cm²-40s). After 24...

  10. Investigation of Normal Value of Urine Mercury among 250 Cases of Healthy People in Shijiazhuang City%石家庄市250例健康人群尿汞正常值调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴命君; 董博芳; 刘宏鹏; 王树军; 赵斐; 任清亮

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解石家庄市健康人群尿汞正常值范围.方法 采集空腹晨尿,用WS/"T97中方法测定肌酐,采用原子荧光光谱法测定尿汞.结果 石家庄市,250例健康人群尿汞正常值95%上限为14.3 μg/g肌酐;男女差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);吸烟者与总体比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.10).结论 健康人群尿汞正常值调查为该地做好汞中毒预防和职业病诊断具有重要意义.%[Objective]To understand the normal value range of urine mercury of healthy people. [ Methods]The fasting urine sample was collected in morning, determination of creatinine and urine mercury was performed by WS/T97 and atomic fluorescence spec-trometry. [ Results]The upper limit of 95% urine mercury normal value of 250 cases healthy people in Shijiazhuang was 14.3 |xg/g creatinine; no significant difference between genders (P > 0.05) ; no significant difference existed between smokers and the overall (P >0.10). [ Conclusion]The investigation of the urine mercury normal value of healthy people has important significance in local mercury poisoning prevention and occupational disease diagnosis.

  11. Coulomb stress evolution in Northeastern Caribbean over the past 250 years due to coseismic, postseismic and interseismic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Freed, Andrew M.; Calais, Eric; Manaker, David M.; McCann, William R.

    2008-09-01

    The Northeastern Caribbean region accommodates ~20 mm yr-1 of oblique convergence between the North American and Caribbean plates, which is distributed between the subduction interface and major strike-slip faults within the overriding plate. As a result, this heavily populated region has experienced eleven large (M>=7.0) earthquakes over the past 250 yr. In an effort to improve our understanding of the location and timing of these earthquakes, with an eye to understand where current seismic hazards may be greatest, we calculate the evolution of Coulomb stress on the major faults since 1751 due to coseismic, postseismic, and interseismic deformation. Our results quantify how earthquakes serve to relieve stress accumulated due to interseismic loading and how fault systems communicate with each other, serving both to advance or retard subsequent events. We find that the observed progressive westwards propagation of earthquakes on the Septentrional and Enriquillo strike-slip faults and along the megathrust was encouraged by coseismic stress changes associated with prior earthquakes. For the strike-slip faults, the loading of adjacent segments was further amplified by postseismic relaxation of a viscoelastic mantle in the decades following each event. Furthermore, earthquakes on the Septentrional fault relieve a small level of Coulomb stress on the parallel Enriquillo fault to the south (and vice versa), perhaps explaining anticorrelated timing of events on these respective fault systems. The greatest net build-up of Coulomb stress changes over the past 250 yr occurs along the central and eastern segment of the Septentrional and the Bowin strike-slip faults (65°-71°W), as no recent earthquake has relieved stress in these regions. For oblique thrust faults, net stress build-up over the past 250 yr is the largest on the North American/Caribbean megathrust west of 70.5°W. High Coulomb stress has also developed east of 65.5°W, where no historic events have been

  12. CHESS Pdet-F1ow Plot诊断前列腺增生症250

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利国; 李雪原; 于满

    2004-01-01

    @@ 前列腺增生症是老年男性的常见病,随着中国社会人口老龄化进程的加快,前列腺增生症的发病率有增加的趋势.尿动力学之压力-流率检查是诊断前列腺增生所致膀胱流出道梗阻的金标准,对压力-流率检查的众多参数有多种分析方法,本文应用CHESS Pdet-Flow Plot诊断前列腺增生症250例,报告如下.

  13. Production of new superheavy Z=108-114 nuclei with $^{238}$U, $^{244}$Pu and $^{248,250}$Cm targets

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing; Li, Jun-Qing

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of the dinuclear system (DNS) model, production cross sections of new superheavy nuclei with charged numbers Z=108-114 are analyzed systematically. Possible combinations based on the actinide nuclides $^{238}$U, $^{244}$Pu and $^{248,250}$Cm with the optimal excitation energies and evaporation channels are pointed out to synthesize new isotopes which lie between the nuclides produced in the cold fusion and the $^{48}$Ca induced fusion reactions experimentally, which are feasible to be constructed experimentally. It is found that the production cross sections of superheavy nuclei decrease drastically with the charged numbers of compound nuclei. Larger mass asymmetries of the entrance channels enhance the cross sections in 2n-5n channels.

  14. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation between brucite and aqueous NaCl solutions from 250 to 450°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccocia, Peter J.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Shanks, Wayne C., III

    1998-01-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation factors between brucite and aqueous NaCl solutions (1000lnαbr-sw) have been calibrated by experiment from 250 to 450°C at 0.5 Kb. For D/H fractionation, 1000lnα br-sw values are as follows: −32 ± 6‰ (250°C, 3.2 wt% NaCl), −21 ± 2‰ (350°C, 10.0 wt% NaCl), and −22 ± 2‰ (450°C, 3.2 wt% NaCl), indicating that brucite is depleted in D relative to coexisting aqueous NaCl solutions. These results are in good agreement with previous D/H fractionation factors determined in the brucite-water system, indicating that any effects of dissolved salt on D/H fractionation are relatively small, particularly in solutions with near seawater salinity. The maximum salt effect (+4‰) was observed in 10.0 wt% NaCl solutions at 350°C, suggesting that the addition of dissolved NaCl increases the amount of deuterium fractionated into mineral structures. For 18O/16O fractionation, 1000lnαbr-sw values in 3.0 wt% NaCl solutions are −6.0 ± 1.3‰, −5.6 ± 0.7‰ and −4.1 ± 0.2‰, at 250, 350, and 450°C, respectively, and −5.8 ± 0.6‰ in 10.0 wt % NaCl at 350°C. These data indicate that brucite is depleted in 18O relative to coexisting aqueous NaCl solutions and that the degree of depletion decreases slightly with increasing temperature and is not strongly dependent on salinity. We calculated 18O/16O brucite-water fractionation factors from available calibrations of the salt-effect on 18O/16O fractionation between coexisting phases. The resulting values were fit to the following equation that is valid from 250 to 450°C 1000ln αbr-w = 9.54 × 106T−2 − 3.53 × 104T−1 + 26.58 where T is temperature in Kelvins. These new data have been used to improve the prediction of 18O/16O fractionation factors in the talc-water and serpentine-water systems by modifying existing empirical bond-water models. The results of this analysis indicate that the δ18O composition of talc-brucite and serpentine

  15. A reflectivity profilometer for the optical characterisation of graded reflectivity mirrors in the 250 nm - 1100 nm spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's developed the prototype of an instrument that can be used for the optical characterisation of graded reflectivity mirrors at any wavelength in the spectral region from 250 nm to 1100 nm. The instrument utilises a high-pressure Xe arc lamp as light source. Light is spectrally filtered by means of a grating monochromator. The sample is illuminated with an image of the monochromator exit slit. After reflection from the sample, this image is projected onto a 1024-elements charge-coupled device linear array driven by a digital frame board and interfaced with a personal computer. It's tested the instrument accuracy by comparing measurement results with the corresponding ones obtained by means of a laser scanning technique. Measurement Rms repeatability has been estimated to be approximately of 0.8%

  16. About 250 cases of skeletal scintiscanning using sup(99m)Tc-labelled stannous pyrophosphate. Analytical and critical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical and biological characteristics of 85Sr, 87Sr, 18F and sup(99m)Tc, four radionuclides suitable for skeletal imaging are reviewed. Their mechanism of localization, advantages and disadvantages are described. The physical characteristics and relative tissue concentration of sup(99m)Tc compare favorably to those of the other bone-seeking radionuclides. 250 cases of various skeletal diseases are presented, using sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate as a skeletal imaging agent. This radiopharmaceutical proves to be useful particularly in the detection of bone metastases. Bone scans, however, are not 100% positive with metastatic diseases and false negative do occasionally occur. The scan is also helpful in demonstrating the extent of metastatic bone disease

  17. Molecular hydrogen in the z = 2.811 absorbing material toward the quasar PKS 0528-250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the previously unidentified absorbtion features in the spectrum of the quasar PKS 0528-250 obtained by previous authors tentative evidence has been found for H2 lines at the same redshift (z = 2.811) as that of the well-known absorption-line system. The column density of molecules has been estimated from the curve of growth; the fraction of H2 appears to be about 2 x 10-5. The ortho- to para-H2 ratio corresponds to the excitation temperature of Tsub(ex)(H2) = 300 +- 150 K, though the upper rotational levels J >= 3 turn out be overpopulated. The results obtained seem to provide substantial evidence for the existence of molecular hydrogen at the early cosmological epoch with z approx. 3. (author)

  18. Measurement of the flux of charged hadrons at sea level between 250 and 10,000 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flux of charged hadrons has been measured at sea level with an iron calorimeter of depth 960 g cm-2; the geometric factor was about 0.7 m2 sr. The total running time was 1.6 x 106 s. The measured values of the differential vertical flux of charged hadrons unaccompanied over 3.3 m2 in the range 250 < E < 1200 GeV and of all hadrons for 300 < E < 1700 GeV are given. An upper limit to the flux of all hadrons has been obtained in the energy range 500 < E < 10,000 GeV. It does not support the observation of a 'step' in the spectrum at about 3000 GeV. (author)

  19. Utilization of the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana. Thirty years of experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its 30th year, the TRIGA Mark II 250 kW pulsing reactor is continuing its busy operation. With the maximum neutron flux in the central thimble of 1.1013 n/cm2 sec and many sample radiation positions the reactor has been used for a number of sophisticated experiments in the following fields: solid state physics (elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons), neutron dosimetry, neutron radiography, reactor physics including nuclear burn up measurements and calculations and neutron activation analysis which represents one of the major usage of our reactor. Besides these, applied research around the reactor has been conducted, such as dopping of silicon monocrystals, a routine production of various radioactive isotopes for industry and medical use (18F,99mTc). At the Nuclear Training Centre the TRIGA reactor is the main teaching equipment. This training centre can fulfil the training requirements of the first Slovenian Nuclear Power Plant Krsko. (orig.)

  20. Testing cosmological variability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio using the spectrum of PKS 0528-250

    CERN Document Server

    Potekhin, A Yu; Varshalovich, D A; Lanzetta, K M; Baldwin, J A; Williger, G M; Carswell, R F

    1998-01-01

    Multidimensional cosmologies allow for variations of fundamental physical constants over the course of cosmological evolution, and different versions of the theories predict different time dependences. In particular, such variations could manifest themselves as changes of the proton-to-electron mass ratio high-redshift QSO spectra. Here we analyze a new, high-resolution spectrum of the z=2.81080 molecular hydrogen absorption system toward the quasar PKS 0528-250 to derive a new observational constraint to the time-averaged variation rate of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. We find |\\dot{\\mu} / \\mu| < 1.5 \\times 10^{-14}/year, which is much tighter than previously measured limits.

  1. Evaluation of inelastic hadronic processes for 250 MeV proton interactions in tissue and iron using GEANT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When high-energy protons interact in beam delivery systems and are stopped in patients, a fraction of beam will undergo nuclear interactions that release secondary particles, in particular, neutrons of different energies. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo Code was used to simulate the interaction of 250 MeV proton beam in tissue and iron to calculate the energy and angular distributions of generated protons, neutrons and photons, and thus provide H * (10), the ambient dose equivalent. A modular physics list by utilising electromagnetic interactions and hadronic interactions was constructed. Three different GEANT4 models that include the low-energy parameterization, binary cascade and pre-compound model with Bertini cascade for proton inelastic interactions were compared. The findings suggest that the models play critical roles in terms of secondary particle generation. Further benchmarks are necessary to select the best model predicting a realistic scenario. (authors)

  2. Construction and start-up of a 250 kW natural gas fueled MCFC demonstration power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, R.A.; Carter, J.; Rivera, R.; Otahal, J. [San Diego Gas & Electric, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) is participating with M-C Power in the development and commercialization program of their internally manifolded heat exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) carbonate fuel cell technology. Development of the IMHEX technology base on the UNOCAL test facility resulted in the demonstration of a 250 kW thermally integrated power plant located at the Naval Air Station at Miramar, California. The members of the commercialization team lead by M-C Power (MCP) include Bechtel Corporation, Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). MCP produced the fuel cell stack, Bechtel was responsible for the process engineering including the control system, Stewart & Stevenson was responsible for packaging the process equipment in a skid (pumps, desulfurizer, gas heater, turbo, heat exchanger and stem generator), IHI produced a compact flat plate catalytic reformer operating on natural gas, and SDG&E assumed responsibility for plant construction, start-up and operation of the plant.

  3. Facebook公布四季度财报.目前拥有250万广告主

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    根据马克.扎克伯格的四季度财报电话会议,Facebook似乎在各个方面都取得了不错的增长。Facebook现在每天的视频观看时间长达1亿小时。Facebook目前拥有250万位广告主,它的主页也吸引了5000万个商家进驻,高于上季度的4500万。用户在这些主页上留下了数十亿计的评论。

  4. Two-color infrared FEL facility employing a 250-MeV Linac injector for SAGA synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-color infrared free electron laser (FEL) facility is proposed, for which a 250-MeV linac type injector for the Saga synchrotron light source (SLS) is employed in FEL mode. The linac has two operation modes; short macropulse mode of 1 μa at 250 MeV for injection to the 1.4 GeV storage ring and long macropulse mode of 13 μs at 40 MeV for two-color infrared FEL facility, where simultaneous infrared (IR) and far-infrared (FIR) FELs are supplied for application researches by using two undulators for IR and FIR ranges like the FEL two-color FEL facility. The macropulse beam consists of a train of several ps, 0.6 nC micropulses (peak current 100A) repeating at 22.3125 or 89.25 MHz. The two-color FEL facility can supply high-power density photon beams of 10-GW/cm2 level covering an attractive wavelength range from 3.1 μm(0.4 eV) to 248 μm(0.005 eV) for scientific researches, bio-medical and industrial applications. The construction of the Saga SLS has been conducted by the Saga Prefectural Government as a six-year project started in 1998. The project is promoted by the Science and Technology Agency and the Saga Prefectural Government. The Saga SLS will be operated in 2004 to promote material science, bio-medical and industrial applications in Kyushu area. (author)

  5. Mapping Irrigated Areas Using MODIS 250 Meter Time-Series Data: A Study on Krishna River Basin (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping irrigated areas of a river basin is important in terms of assessing water use and food security. This paper describes an innovative remote sensing based vegetation phenological approach to map irrigated areas and then the differentiates the ground water irrigated areas from the surface water irrigated areas in the Krishna river basin (26,575,200 hectares in India using MODIS 250 meter every 8-day near continuous time-series data for 2000–2001. Temporal variations in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI pattern obtained in irrigated classes enabled demarcation between: (a irrigated surface water double crop, (b irrigated surface water continuous crop, and (c irrigated ground water mixed crops. The NDVI patterns were found to be more consistent in areas irrigated with ground water due to the continuity of water supply. Surface water availability, on the other hand, was dependent on canal water release that affected time of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the NDVI pattern. Double cropped and light irrigation have relatively late onset of greenness, because they use canal water from reservoirs that drain large catchments and take weeks to fill. Minor irrigation and ground water irrigated areas have early onset of greenness because they drain smaller catchments where aquifers and reservoirs fill more quickly. Vegetation phonologies of 9 distinct classes consisting of Irrigated, rainfed, and other land use classes were also derived using MODIS 250 meter near continuous time-series data that were tested and verified using groundtruth data, Google Earth very high resolution (sub-meter to 4 meter imagery, and state-level census data. Fuzzy classification accuracies for most classes were around 80% with class mixing mainly between various irrigated classes. The areas estimated from MODIS were highly correlated with census data (R-squared value of 0.86.

  6. Effect of a 5000 ppm fluoride toothpaste and a 250 ppm fluoride mouth rinse on the demineralisation of dentin surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altenburger Markus J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the effect of (1 a 5000 ppm fluoride toothpaste, and (2 a 250 ppm fluoride mouth rinse on demineralized human dentin surfaces, against the alternative hypothesis of a difference. Findings Dentin specimens were obtained from the cervical regions of 45 extracted human third molars. Half the surface of each specimen was sealed with a self-etching adhesive system and served as the reference surface. The dentin specimens were randomly assigned to one of the three groups, 5000 ppm fluoride toothpaste (Duraphat, 250 ppm fluoride mouth rinse (Meridol and distilled water (negative control. An intraoral appliance was made for one volunteer. In each test cycle, 15 specimens were inserted in the appliance and worn for 24 hours a day, over a period of three weeks. Once daily, the appliance was immersed in the agent being tested; either toothpaste slurry, mouth rinse or distilled water for 60 seconds. Demineralization was assessed in terms of lesion depth (μm and mineral loss (vol. % × μm by transversal microradiography. Data analysis was accomplished using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and ANOVA (SPSS 12.0. Statistically significant differences for mineral loss and lesion depth were found between the toothpaste and the mouth rinse as well as between the toothpaste and the control group, but not between the mouth rinse and the control group. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that treatment of demineralised dentin with a toothpaste containing 5000 ppm fluoride may considerably reduce mineral loss and lesion depth on exposed dentin.

  7. Experimental study on dynamic behavior of 200 ~ 250km/h high-speed railway bridges%时速200~250km高速铁路桥梁动力性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏辉; 姚京川; 尹京; 董振升; 孟鑫; 杨宜谦

    2013-01-01

    基于近年来在我国开展的多条高速铁路桥梁动力性能试验研究,对设计速度200~250km/h的常用跨度简支梁桥以及连续梁桥的自振特性、刚度参数、梁体动力响应以及动车组通过桥梁时的安全性和平稳性试验结果进行系统总结和规律分析,研究结果表明:①高速铁路桥梁具有足够的竖、横向刚度,能够满足动车组200 ~ 250km/h高速运行要求;②现有高速铁路设计规范通过控制简支梁的竖向自振频率,避开了由移动荷载列对桥梁产生的竖向加载频率,有效控制了梁体竖向共振发生,但在特定车速下会产生超谐共振;③常用跨度混凝土简支梁横向自振频率与列车横向强振频率相差较远,不会产生横向共振现象;④在现有桥梁刚度条件下,连续等跨布置简支梁对高速动车组的运行安全性和平稳性没有影响.%Based on the recent experimental research results on dynamic behavior of many high-speed railway bridges in China, the results of common-span simply-supported beams and continuous beams are summarized and analyzed. The research indexes include natural characteristics, stiffness parameters, dynamic responses of beam, security and stationarity of multiple unit when passing the bridge. Following results can be shown; (1) the vertical and lateral rigidity of high-speed railway bridges is sufficient to meet the requirements of running speeds between 200km/h and 250km/h. (2 ) in the code for design of high speed railway bridges, vertical natural frequency is defined strictly to keep away from forced frequency of moving load, therefore beam resonance is restricted effectively. However, the superharmonic resonance will appear at particular velocity. (3 ) for concrete simply-supported beams with common spans, the lateral natural frequency is far from the forced frequency and the lateral resonance cannot appear. (4) the continuous equal span arrangement of simple supported beams

  8. Clinical application study of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using 99mTc-labelled anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody BW250/183

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study: (1) The labelling method of 99mTc-BW250/183 and its organ distribution pattern after injection. (2) The clinical value of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy of evaluation of patients with aplastic anemia. (3) The clinical value of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy of determination of bone metastasis. Methods: (1) Whole body imaging was performed to one volunteer after injection of 555 MBq 99mTc-BW250/183, meanwhile, 2 ml blood samples was taken from a cubital vein. The percentage of radioactivity of different organs and the kinetic data of in-vivo 99mTc-BW250/183 was then calculated. In all the blood samples the peripheral leukocytes were counted by a standard procedure. (2) Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy were performed to 8 patients with aplastic anemia 4 h after injection of 99mTc-BW250/183, 6 of them also underwent bone marrow imaging with 99mTc-SC. (3) Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy and conventional bone scan were performed to 14 patients with suspected bone metastases to detect bone metastases. The results was compared with X-ray, X-CT or MRI. Results: 99mTc-BW250/183 is a safe and ideal bone marrow imaging agent. Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy plays an important role in evaluating patients with aplastic anemia and determining bone metastases

  9. MicroRNA-132 Interact with p250GAP/Cdc42 Pathway in the Hippocampal Neuronal Culture Model of Acquired Epilepsy and Associated with Epileptogenesis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinxian; Huang, Hao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xi; Ou, Shu; Xu, Tao; Li, Ruohan; Ma, Limin; Chen, Yangmei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that epilepsy is the result of synaptic reorganization and pathological excitatory loop formation in the central nervous system; however, the mechanisms that regulate this process are not well understood. We proposed that microRNA-132 (miR-132) and p250GAP might play important roles in this process by activating the downstream Rho GTPase family. We tested this hypothesis using a magnesium-free medium-induced epileptic model of cultured hippocampal neurons. We investigated whether miR-132 regulates GTPase activity through p250GAP and found that Cdc42 was significantly activated in our experimental model. Silencing miR-132 inhibited the electrical excitability level of cultured epileptic neurons, whereas silencing p250GAP had an opposite effect. In addition, we verified the effect of miR-132 in vivo and found that silencing miR-132 inhibited the aberrant formation of dendritic spines and chronic spontaneous seizure in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Finally, we confirmed that silencing miR-132 has a neuroprotective effect on cultured epileptic neurons; however, this effect did not occur through the p250GAP pathway. Generally, silencing miR-132 may suppress spontaneous seizure activity through the miR-132/p250GAP/Cdc42 pathway by regulating the morphology and electrophysiology of dendritic spines; therefore, miR-132 may serve as a potential target for the development of antiepileptic drugs. PMID:27579184

  10. MicroRNA-132 Interact with p250GAP/Cdc42 Pathway in the Hippocampal Neuronal Culture Model of Acquired Epilepsy and Associated with Epileptogenesis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xi; Xu, Tao; Ma, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that epilepsy is the result of synaptic reorganization and pathological excitatory loop formation in the central nervous system; however, the mechanisms that regulate this process are not well understood. We proposed that microRNA-132 (miR-132) and p250GAP might play important roles in this process by activating the downstream Rho GTPase family. We tested this hypothesis using a magnesium-free medium-induced epileptic model of cultured hippocampal neurons. We investigated whether miR-132 regulates GTPase activity through p250GAP and found that Cdc42 was significantly activated in our experimental model. Silencing miR-132 inhibited the electrical excitability level of cultured epileptic neurons, whereas silencing p250GAP had an opposite effect. In addition, we verified the effect of miR-132 in vivo and found that silencing miR-132 inhibited the aberrant formation of dendritic spines and chronic spontaneous seizure in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Finally, we confirmed that silencing miR-132 has a neuroprotective effect on cultured epileptic neurons; however, this effect did not occur through the p250GAP pathway. Generally, silencing miR-132 may suppress spontaneous seizure activity through the miR-132/p250GAP/Cdc42 pathway by regulating the morphology and electrophysiology of dendritic spines; therefore, miR-132 may serve as a potential target for the development of antiepileptic drugs.

  11. Formation of the S = -1 resonance X(2265) in the reaction pp → X+K+ at 2.50 and 2.85 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyzing DISTO data of pp → pΛK + at T p = 2.50 and 2.85GeV to populate a previously reported X(2265) -resonance with M x = 2267 MeV/c 2 and Γx = 118 MeV at 2.85GeV, we found that the yield of X(2265) at 2.50GeV is much less than that at 2.85GeV (less than 10%), though it is expected from a kinematical consideration to be produced as much as 33% of that at 2.85GeV. The small population of X(2265) at 2.50GeV is consistent with the very weak production of Γ(1405) at the same incident energy toward its production threshold, thus indicating that Γ(1405) plays an important role as a doorway state for the formation of X(2265). (orig.)

  12. The clinical application study of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using 99Tcm-BW250/183 in evaluating patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical value of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy for evaluation of patients with aplastic anemia. Methods: Twelve patients with aplastic anemia underwent bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using 99Tcm labelled anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody BW250/183, 10 of them also underwent bone marrow imaging using 99Tcm-sulfur colloid (SC) 2 - 3 days later. The semiquantitative indexes of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy of the patients were compared with those of control patients. Results: Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy was superior to 99Tcm-SC bone marrow imaging. In patients with aplastic anemia, the accumulation of 99Tcm-BW250/183 in bone marrow and spleen was lower and in liver and kidney was higher than those of control patients. Nine patients were found with multiple focal accumulation in bone marrow. Conclusion: Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy with 99Tcm-BW250/183 plays an important role in evaluating patients with aplastic anemia

  13. Hydrological variability in the Northern Levant: a 250 ka multiproxy record from the Yammoûneh (Lebanon sedimentary sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gasse

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Levant is a key region in terms of both long-term hydroclimate dynamics and human cultural evolution. Our understanding of the regional response to glacial-interglacial boundary conditions is limited by uncertainties in proxy-data interpretation and the lack of long-term records from different geographical settings.

    The present paper provides a 250 ka paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on a multi-proxy approach from northern Levant, derived from a 36 m lacustrine-palustrine sequence cored in the small intra-mountainous karstic Yammoûneh basin from northern Lebanon. We combined time series of sediment properties, paleovegetation, and carbonate oxygen isotopes (δc, to yield a comprehensive view of paleohydrologic-paleoclimatic fluctuations in the basin over the two last glacial-interglacial cycles. Integration of all available proxies shows that Interglacial maxima (early-mid MIS 7, MIS 5.5 and early MIS 1 experienced relatively high effective moisture, evidenced by the dominance of forested landscapes (although with different forest types associated with authigenic carbonate sedimentation in a productive waterbody. Synchronous and steep δc increases can be reconciled with enhanced mean annual moisture when changes in seasonality are taken into account. During Glacials periods (MIS 2 and MIS 6, open vegetation tends to replace the forests, favouring local erosion and detrital sedimentation. However, all proxy data reveal an overall wetting during MIS 6, while a drying trend took place during MIS4-2, leading to extremely harsh LGM conditions possibly linked to water storage as ice in the surrounding highlands. Over the past 250 ka, the Yammoûneh record shows an overall decrease in local effective water, coincident with a weakening of seasonal insolation contrasts linked to the decreasing amplitude of the eccentricity cycle.

    The Yammoûneh record is roughly consistent with long-term climatic

  14. The (4)He(gamma,dd) reaction at E(gamma) = 150--250 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Bryan Joseph

    1998-09-01

    We have performed a measurement of the cross section for the 4He(/gamma,d)2H reaction with Eγ=150[-]250 MeV at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (SAL). The experiment was performed using bremsstrahlung γ rays produced by a 273 MeV electron beam. The target was liquid helium contained in a simple cryostat. Two detector arms consisting of plastic scintillator telescopes were utilized to detect both reaction particles in coincidence. We obtained relative and absolute cross sections at six angles in two energy bins (150-190 and 190-250 MeV). The angular distribution of the cross section shows peaking behavior at 90o in the center-of-mass frame. A Legendre polynomial fit to the data shows this distribution can be described by a sin2/theta angular distribution. This distribution suggests the presence of electric dipole or E1 radiation, but isospin selection rules and identical bosons in the exit channel forbid the dominant /Delta S=0 E1 transition. Performing a transition-matrix element (TME) analysis using only strictly allowed transitions, we found that the observed angular distribution could be described by the constructive interference of just two TME's: electric quadrupole (E2) s- and d-wave capture to the D-state of 4He. We performed a direct-capture calculation in order to determine if the D-state could contribute to such a high degree to the cross section. Our calculations, which used an optical model potential from elastic scattering data at lower energies, yielded the result that 90% of the cross section arises from capture to the D-state. The calculation, however, places all capture strength to the D-state into g-wave capture and, as a result, fails to reproduce the observed sin2/theta angular distribution. The lack of existing theoretical work for this system at these energies conspires to keep the mechanism for this angular distribution unclear, but we hope this result will motivate four-body theorists to extend their calculations to this energy

  15. Fission cross section measurements of Cm-247, Cf-250 and Es-254 from 0.1 eV to 80 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission cross section measurements were made with the RINS system over the neutron energy range from approximately 0.1 eV to 80 keV upon samples of Cm-247, Cf-250 and Es-254. The Cm-247 measurement was undertaken to complete the RINS fission cross section measurement sequence of the curium isotopes, Es-254 was measured because it is a very heavy odd-odd nucleus which might show interesting nuclear structure effects in its fission cross section, and Cf-250 was measured to account for its buildup as a daughter product from the 276-day halflife Es-254. 6 refs., 3 figs

  16. Analysis and Determination of Temperature in the B Ring of the KartiniReactor Core Primary Cooling Water for 250 kW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis and determination of temperature in the B ring of primarycooling water in the Kartini reactor core for 250 kW of power level has beendone. The Instrumented Fuel Element (IFE) is used for measurement oftemperature with varying of power from 10 kW to 100 kW. Heat transfer ishappened from the fuel to the core primary cooling water as a function ofpower level. The calculation for determining of temperature of primarycooling water indicate that for operation 250 kW power level the temperatureof the core primary cooling water is Tp = 117.478 oC. (author)

  17. Nevirapine versus efavirenz in 742 patients: no link of liver toxicity with female sex, and a baseline CD4 cell count greater than 250 cells/microl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Roberto; Calza, Leonardo

    2006-11-14

    Recent studies have reported increased nevirapine hepatotoxicity in female patients with CD4 lymphocyte counts greater than 250 cells/microl (especially pregnant women). However, our open-label comparison of 742 patients treated with either nevirapine or efavirenz-based HAART as naive patients, experienced subjects, or patients on salvage therapy, found no increased hepatotoxicity in nevirapine-treated subjects, in particular with regard to both sex (females versus males) and T-cell-mediated immunodeficiency (CD4 cell counts above versus below 250 cells/microl). PMID:17086066

  18. Molecular and functional properties of the granulocyte specific MAb BW 250/183 suited for the immunoscintigraphic localization of inflammatory processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular characteristics of MAb BW 250/183 like high affinity and specificity for granulocytes and high epitope density on the granulocyte membrane are optimal prerequisites for in vivo binding to human granulocytes. The lack of negative, i.e. stimulatory influences on granulocyte associated physiological functions should not result in any side effects during diagnostic application. Combined with the recently developed 99mTc labelling procedure the MAb BW 250/183-99mTc conjugate is a safe, reliable and easy to handle reagent for the successful localization of inflammatory processes. (orig.)

  19. Design, fabrication, commissioning, and testing of a 250 g/s, 2-K helium cold compressor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1999 the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) Cryogenic Systems Group had completed the design, fabrication, and commissioning of a cold compressor system capable of pumping 250 g/s of 2-K helium vapor to a pressure above 1 bar. The 2-K cold box consists of five stages of centrifugal variable speed compressors with LN2 cooled drive motors and magnetic bearings, a plate fin heat exchanger, and an LN2 shield system. The new 2-K cold box (referred to as the SCN) was built as a redundant system to an existing four stage cold compressor SCM cold box that was commissioned in May 1994. The SCN has been in continuous service supporting the facility experiments since commissioning. This system has achieved a significant improvement in the total 2-K refrigeration system capacity and stability and has substantially increased the operating envelope both in cold compressor flow and operating pressure range. This paper describes the cold box configuration and the experience s in the design, fabrication, commissioning and performance evaluation. The capacity of the system for various operating pressures (0.040 to 0.025 bar at the load corresponding to a total compressor pressure ratio of 28 to 54) is presented. An effort is made to characterize the components and their operating data over the tested range. This includes the return side pressure drop in the distribution system, the heat exchanger, and the cold compressor characteristics. The system design parameters and their effects on performance are outlined

  20. Personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients for neutron fluence over the energy range of 20 to 250 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, Thomas D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadd, S Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olsher, Richard H [RP-2; Devine, Robert T [RP-2

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to extend existing neutron personal dose equivalent fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients to an energy of 250 MeV. Presently, conversion coefficients, H(p,slab)(10,alpha)/Phi, are given by ICRP-74 and ICRU-57 for a range of angles of radiation incidence (alpha = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 degrees ) in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. Standard practice has been to base operational dose quantity calculations <20 MeV on the kerma approximation, which assumes that charged particle secondaries are locally deposited, or at least that charged particle equilibrium exists within the tally cell volume. However, with increasing neutron energy the kerma approximation may no longer be valid for some energetic secondaries such as protons. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX was used for all absorbed dose calculations. Transport models and collision-based energy deposition tallies were used for neutron energies >20 MeV. Both light and heavy ions (HIs) (carbon, nitrogen and oxygen recoil nuclei) were transported down to a lower energy limit (1 keV for light ions and 5 MeV for HIs). Track energy below the limit was assumed to be locally deposited. For neutron tracks <20 MeV, kerma factors were used to obtain absorbed dose. Results are presented for a discrete set of angles of incidence on an ICRU tissue slab phantom.

  1. Effect of Tube Spinning With Performance and Microstructure Subsequent Heat-Treatment on Evolution of T250 Maraging Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zheng-fei; WANG Chun-xu

    2012-01-01

    The effects of spinning deformation and subsequent heat treatments on the mechanical properties and microstructure of 18Ni Co-free Maraging steel (T250) tube were evaluated comparatively with the perform. An obvious radial shrinkage is detected in spun tubes after heat treatment and the magnitude of the shrinkage induced by solution treatment is almost the same as that by aging. Plastic deformation during spinning elongated the grains severely in the direction of metal flow. The solution treatment resulted in a drastically refined grain and recrystallised microstructure, removing the effect of plastic deformation, relieving the tangential residual stress and strain and improving hardness. Subsequent aging obtained a tempered microstructure, enhancing hardness values strikingly for precipitation strengthening. XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis indicated that the reversed austenite formed in a plate-like along the grain boundaries and the volume fraction of austenite in spun tube was more than double that in the preform. These results imply that the residual stress and stain induced by spinning process and reversed austenite forming during aging might have the similar contribution to the radical shrinkage.

  2. Phase Equilibria of the Ternary Sn-Zn-Co System at 250°C and 500°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-hong; Huang, Sheng-en; Huang, Po-yen

    2015-12-01

    The isothermal sections of the ternary Sn-Zn-Co system (IMCs) are very limited. For the phase equilibria at 250°C, two ternary IMCs, T1 and T2, were found, whose compositions were Sn-25 at.%Zn-25 at.%Co and Sn-15 at.%Zn-41 at.%Co, respectively. For the phase equilibria at 500°C, in addition to the T2 phase, another ternary IMC, namely T3 (Sn-18 at.%Zn-37 at.%Co), was also found. Moreover, the phase stability of the T1 and T3 phases was investigated at temperatures of 260°C to 400°C in detail. The equilibrium phase was the T1 phase below 300°C, and changed to the T3 phase at 400°C. The crystal structures of these three ternary IMCs were also studied. The T1 phase has a cubic structure ( Pm3m), and the T2 and T3 phases are orthorhombic in space group Cmcm and Pnma, respectively.

  3. Detection and calibration of anthropogenic lead emission in coastal sediments of China during the past 250 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Sun, Liguang; Liu, Yi; Jia, Nan; Cheng, Wenhan; Wang, Yuhong

    2015-10-01

    The historical fluctuation of lead (Pb) content in coastal sediments of China and its link with human activities have been extensively studied. However, the determined Pb profiles from even the same regions could contradict each other, likely due to the fact that different methods are used in detecting anthropogenic Pb emission. In the present study, we analyzed grain size distribution and Pb levels in three sediment cores from Chinese coastal areas, and observed a significant enrichment of Pb in the sediment fraction of fine grain size. Based upon this observation, we normalized the Pb concentrations during the past 250 years by fine grain size content. The normalized Pb profiles showed consistent, increasing trends in the three cores and a remarkable rise after the Industrial Revolution. The regional characteristics in the normalized Pb profiles of Chinese offshore sediments are consistent with those of terrestrial sediments. This new normalization method is robust and cost-effective for studying anthropogenic Pb emissions in coastal sediments. PMID:26070734

  4. A low power time-interleaved 10-bit 250-MSPS charge domain pipelined ADC for IF sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10-bit 250-MSPS two-channel time-interleaved charge-domain (CD) pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented. MOS bucket-brigade device (BBD) based CD pipelined architecture is used to achieve low power consumption. An all digital low power DLL is used to alleviate the timing mismatches and to reduce the aperture jitter. A new bootstrapped MOS switch is designed in the sample and hold circuit to enhance the IF sampling capability. The ADC achieves a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 67.1 dB, signal-to-noise ratio (SNDR) of 55.1 dB for a 10.1 MHz input, and SFDR of 61.6 dB, SNDR of 52.6 dB for a 355 MHz input at full sampling rate. Differential nonlinearity (DNL) is +0.5/−0.4 LSB and integral nonlinearity (INL) is +0.8/−0.75 LSB. Fabricated in a 0.18-μm 1P6M CMOS process, the prototype 10-bit pipelined ADC occupies 1.8 × 1.3 mm2 of active die area, and consumes only 68 mW at 1.8 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Growth characteristics of amorphous-layer-free nanocrystalline silicon films fabricated by very high frequency PECVD at 250

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan-Qing; Huang Rui; Song Jie; Wang Xiang; Song Chao; Zhang Yi-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous-layer-free nanocrystalline silicon films were prepared by a very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique using hydrogen-diluted SiH4 at 250 ℃.The dependence of the crystallinity of the film on the hydrogen dilution ratio and the film thickness was investigated.Raman spectra show that the thickness of the initial amorphous incubation layer on silicon oxide gradually decreases with increasing hydrogen dilution ratio.High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the initial amorphous incubation layer can be completely eliminated at a hydrogen dilution ratio of 98%,which is lower than that needed for the growth of amorphous-layer-free nanocrystalline silicon using an excitation frequency of 13.56 MHz.More studies on the microstructure evolution of the initial amorphous incubation layer with hydrogen dilution ratios were performed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.It is suggested that the high hydrogen dilution,as well as the higher plasma excitation frequency,plays an important role in the formation of amorphous-layer-free nanocrystalline silicon films.

  6. Funduscopic alterations in the rhesus monkey induced by exposure to heavy ions /0+8/ 250 MeV/nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, F. N.; Bonney, C. H.; Hunter, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    A heavy-ion, high-energy beam has been extracted from the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Bevatron, making controlled exposure of biological systems feasible, and a series of experiments have been undertaken to determine the possible deleterious effects of such irradiation upon the primate retina. The left eyes of 54 rhesus monkeys have been exposed to accelerated 0+8 (250 MeV/nucleon). Beam flux ranged from 1.3 x 10 to the 7th particles/ sq cm (171 rads) to 5.9 x 10 to the 8th particles/sq cm (7740 rads). Fundus photography was performed immediately prior to and immediately following exposure, at 24 to 48 hours postexposure and at 1, 2, and 5 weeks postexposure. Punctate hemorrhages of the retina were visible at 1.3 x 10 to the 7th particles/sq cm (171 rads), the lowest exposure level utilized in this study. Acute radiation retinopathy, consisting of geographic retinal hemorrhage and ischemic necrosis of the retina, was not seen until total flux reached 7.7 x 10 to the 7th particles/sq cm (1000 rads).

  7. N250r and N400 ERP correlates of immediate famous face repetition are independent of perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Markus F; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2008-11-01

    It is a matter of considerable debate whether attention to initial stimulus presentations is required for repetition-related neural modulations to occur. Recently, it has been assumed that faces are particularly hard to ignore, and can capture attention in a reflexive manner. In line with this idea, electrophysiological evidence for long-term repetition effects of unattended famous faces has been reported. The present study investigated influences of attention to prime faces on short-term repetition effects in event-related potentials (ERPs). We manipulated attention to short (200 ms) prime presentations (S1) of task-irrelevant famous faces according to Lavie's Perceptual Load Theory. Participants attended to letter strings superimposed on face images, and identified target letters "X" vs. "N" embedded in strings of either 6 different (high load) or 6 identical (low load) letters. Letter identification was followed by probe presentations (S2), which were either repetitions of S1 faces, new famous faces, or infrequent butterflies, to which participants responded. Our ERP data revealed repetition effects in terms of an N250r at occipito-temporal regions, suggesting priming of face identification processes, and in terms of an N400 at the vertex, suggesting semantic priming. Crucially, the magnitude of these effects was unaffected by perceptual load at S1 presentation. This indicates that task-irrelevant face processing is remarkably preserved even in a demanding letter detection task, supporting recent notions of face-specific attentional resources. PMID:18793621

  8. Generation of deep-UV sources (160-250 nm) by frequency mixing in lithium-triborate crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jui T.; Kato, Kiyoshi

    1990-05-01

    The newly discovered nonlinear crystal of lithium triborate, LiB3O5 (LBO), has several advantages over another borate family, 8-BaB2O4.13 These include nonhydroscopic, wide transparency (0.16-2.6 sm), high damage threshold and may be temperature-tuned for noncritical phase-matching (NPCM). NCPM using LBO (temperature-tuned) for the second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum frequency mixing (SFM) of N&YAG laser and YAG-laser-pumped Raman cell in H2 gas was reported.4 In this paper we present the phase-matching curves of LBO for the generation of UV-sources (160-250 nm), where 160 nm is the absorption edge of LBO crystal (see Fig. 1). In Section 2, we analyze the phasematching conditions for second harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG) and sum-frequency- mixing (SFM) and provide the general guidance for achieving phase-matchable shortest wavelengths. Section 3 shows the numerical results based on the Seilmeir equations of LBO, where UV and IR sources are mixed for deep-UV sources. Schematics of proposed experimental setups are also shown.

  9. On artefact-free reconstruction of low-energy (30–250 eV) electron holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana@physik.uzh.ch; Longchamp, Jean-Nicolas; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2014-10-15

    Low-energy electrons (30–250 eV) have been successfully employed for imaging individual biomolecules. The most simple and elegant design of a low-energy electron microscope for imaging biomolecules is a lensless setup that operates in the holographic mode. In this work we address the problem associated with the reconstruction from the recorded holograms. We discuss the twin image problem intrinsic to inline holography and the problem of the so-called biprism-like effect specific to low-energy electrons. We demonstrate how the presence of the biprism-like effect can be efficiently identified and circumvented. The presented sideband filtering reconstruction method eliminates the twin image and allows for reconstruction despite the biprism-like effect, which we demonstrate on both, simulated and experimental examples. - Highlights: • Radiation damage-free imaging of individual biomolecules. • Elimination of the twin image in inline holograms. • Circumventing biprism-like effect in low-energy electron holograms. • Artefact-free reconstructions of low-energy electron holograms.

  10. VBFNLO. A patron level Monte Carlo for processes with electroweak bosons. Manual for Version 2.5.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, K.; Bellm, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Bozzi, G. [Milano-Bicocca Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca (IT)] (and others)

    2011-08-15

    VBFNLO is a flexible parton level Monte Carlo program for the simulation of vector boson fusion, double and triple vector boson production in hadronic collisions at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the strong coupling constant, as well as Higgs boson plus two jet production via gluon fusion at the one-loop level. In the new release - Version 2.5.0 - several new processes have been added at NLO QCD: vector boson fusion production of a Higgs boson plus a photon, vector boson fusion production of a photon, W{gamma} and WZ production plus a hadronic jet and the triboson production processes WW{gamma}, ZZ{gamma}, WZ{gamma}, W{gamma}{gamma}, Z{gamma}{gamma} and {gamma}{gamma}{gamma}. The code has been extended to run in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), and electroweak corrections to Higgs boson production via weak boson fusion have been included. Anomalous gauge boson couplings can be used in new processes and the Three-Site Higgsless model has been implemented for several processes. The simulation of Higgs boson production via gluon fusion has been improved. (orig.)

  11. Formation of Super-Earth Mass Planets at 125-250 AU from a Solar-type Star

    CERN Document Server

    Kenyon, S J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate pathways for the formation of icy super-Earth mass planets orbiting at 125-250 AU around a 1 solar mass star. An extensive suite of coagulation calculations demonstrates that swarms of 1 cm to 10 m planetesimals can form super-Earth mass planets on time scales of 1-3 Gyr. Collisional damping of 0.01-100 cm particles during oligarchic growth is a highlight of these simulations. In some situations, damping initiates a second runaway growth phase where 100-3000 km protoplanets grow to super-Earth sizes. Our results establish the initial conditions and physical processes required for in situ formation of super-Earth planets at large distances from the host star. For nearby dusty disks in HD 107146, HD 202628, and HD 207129, ongoing super-Earth formation at 80-150 AU could produce gaps and other structures in the debris. In the solar system, forming a putative planet X at a 1000 AU) requires a modest (very massive) protosolar nebula.

  12. A 10-bit 250 MSPS charge-domain pipelined ADC with replica controlled PVT insensitive BCT circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songren, Huang; Hong, Zhang; Zhenhai, Chen; Shuang, Zhu; Zongguang, Yu; Hongwen, Qian; Yue, Hao

    2015-05-01

    A low power 10-bit 250 MSPS charge-domain (CD) pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is introduced. The ADC is implemented in MOS bucket-brigade devices (BBDs) based CD pipelined architecture. A replica controlled boosted charge transfer (BCT) circuit is introduced to reject the influence of PVT variations on the charge transfer process. Based on replica controlled BCT, the CD pipelined ADC is designed and realized in a 1P6M 0.18 μm CMOS process. The ADC achieves an SFDR of 64.4 dB, an SNDR of 56.9 dB and an ENOB of 9.2 for a 9.9 MHz input; and an SFDR of 63.1 dB, an SNR of 55.2 dB, an SNDR of 54.5 dB and an ENOB of 8.7 for a 220.5 MHz input at full sampling rate. The DNL is +0.5/ -0.55 LSB and INL is +0.8/ -0.85 LSB. The power consumption of the prototype ADC is only 45 mW at 1.8 V supply and it occupies an active die area of 1.56 mm2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61106027).

  13. A low power time-interleaved 10-bit 250-MSPS charge domain pipelined ADC for IF sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhenhai; Qian Hongwen; Huang Songren; Zhang Hong; Yu Zongguang

    2013-01-01

    A 10-bit 250-MSPS two-channel time-interleaved charge-domain (CD) pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented.MOS bucket-brigade device (BBD) based CD pipelined architecture is used to achieve low power consumption.An all digital low power DLL is used to alleviate the timing mismatches and to reduce the aperture jitter.A new bootstrapped MOS switch is designed in the sample and hold circuit to enhance the IF sampling capability.The ADC achieves a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 67.1 dB,signal-to-noise ratio (SNDR) of 55.1 dB for a 10.1 MHz input,and SFDR of 61.6 dB,SNDR of 52.6 dB for a 355 MHz input at full sampling rate.Differential nonlinearity (DNL) is +0.5/-0.4 LSB and integral nonlinearity (INL) is +0.8/-0.75LSB.Fabricated in a 0.18-μm 1P6M CMOS process,the prototype 10-bit pipelined ADC occupies 1.8 × 1.3 mm2of active die area,and consumes only 68 mW at 1.8 V supply.

  14. 时速250km以上高速列车制动模式曲线算法%Braking mode curve arithmetic of high-speed train above 250 km · h-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官伟; 蔡伯根; 王晶晶; 王剑; 王利

    2011-01-01

    The braking system of high-speed train above 250 km ? H-1 was studied, and the running resistance, braking force and braking distance of high-speed train were analyzed. Based on curve theory of target distance mode, the piecewise iteration model of braking mode curve for high-speed train was proposed. With MATLAB/Simulink software, the changes of running resistances on flat-straight line, direct ramp with grade 15%o and direct ramp with grade 25‰ for CRH2-300 type high-speed train were analyzed, and the normal braking curves and emergency braking curves of CRH2-300 type and CRH3 type high-speed trains at initial braking speed 300 km ? H-1 were compared. Calculation result indicates that the emergency braking distance of CRH2-300 type high-speed train is 2 786. 68 m on direct ramp, the emergency braking distance of CRH3 type high-speed train is 3 319. 37 m on direct ramp, and both of them are less than 3 700 m, which is the maximum braking distance of braking requirement. Simulation braking curves almost consistent with actual braking curves, which verifies the validity of piecewise iteration algorithm. 1 tab, 12 figs, 10 refs.%研究了时速250 km以上高速列车制动系统,分析了高速列车的运行阻力、制动力与制动距离.根据目标距离模式曲线理论,建立了高速列车的制动模式曲线分段迭代模型.应用MAT-LAB/Simulink软件,分析了CRH2-300型高速列车在平直道上、15‰与25‰直坡道上的运行阻力的变化,对比了CRH2-300型和CRH3型高速列车在制动初速为300 km·h-1时的常用和紧急制动曲线.计算结果表明:在平直道上,CRH2-300型高速列车紧急制动距离为2 786.68 m,CRH3型高速列车紧急制动距离为3 319.37 m,均满足紧急制动距离小于3 700 m的制动要求;仿真制动曲线和实际制动曲线基本一致,验证了分段迭代算法的有效性.

  15. 冷焊工艺参数对HT250表面修复层性能的影响%Effect of Cold-welding Parameters on Properties of HT250 Surface Repaired Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆钟; 李方义; 秦顺顺; 马石磊

    2013-01-01

    冷焊技术是一种新型金属零件表面修复技术,具有精密、经济、便捷等优点,已应用在发动机再制造等领域.利用冷焊技术对发动机缸体材料HT250表面缺陷进行修复,采用金相显微镜、扫描电镜、显微硬度计和拉伸试验机等设备对修复区域的微观组织、硬度和结合强度进行测试分析,同时揭示不同冷焊工艺参数对修复层性能的影响.研究结果表明:基体与修复层结合良好,无孔隙和裂纹,熔合区存在元素扩散,说明修复层与基体间是微区冶金结合;修复层硬度低于基体硬度,便于后续加工处理,热影响区较小;冷焊修复技术能提高修复对象的抗拉强度.同时,热影响区宽度和硬度随冷焊时间和能量工艺参数的增大而增大;抗拉强度的变化随冷焊时间和能量工艺参数的增大先有减小趋势,后逐渐增大.%Cold-welding technology is a new type of metal surface repair technique with advantages of precision, economy and convenience, and has been widely used in engine remanufacturing and other fields. The surface defects of HT250 material used in engine cylinder are repaired by cold-welding technology, then the metallographic microscope, scanning electron microscope, microscopic hardness meter and tensile testing machine are used to analyze microstructure, hardness and bonding strength of repaired region. Meanwhile, the impacts on repaired layer of different process parameters are revealed. Analysis results show that base and repaired layer combine well without pores and cracks, and element diffusion exists in the fusion interface, which illustrates that the relationship between repaired layer and base is metallurgical bonding. The hardness of repaired layer is lower than that of base, which is beneficial to subsequent processing. The width of heat affected zone (HAZ) is relatively narrow. Cold-welding repair technique can improve tensile strength of repaired object. After analyses

  16. Avaliação do perfil de dissolução de comprimidos de ciprofloxacino 250 mg comercializados como similares no Brasil Dissolution profile evaluation of ciprofloxacin 250 mg tablets marketed as similar drugs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Oliveira Gonçalves Pita

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou, in vitro, oito especialidades farmacêuticas contendo ciprofloxacino (250 mg, sendo o produto C, o medicamento referência (Cipro® fabricado pela Bayer® S.A. e A, B, D, E, F, G e H medicamentos considerados similares. Além do teste de dissolução preconizado pela Farmacopéia americana, foi traçado o perfil de dissolução de cada amostra a partir do qual foram calculados parâmetros de eficiência de dissolução (ED. O preço máximo ao consumidor também foi levantado, para que fosse possível compará-lo com o desempenho dos produtos. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que todas as amostras atendem aos critérios especificados pelo teste de dissolução descrito na USP 24 ed., mas somente os produtos B, C, E e H foram aprovados no primeiro estágio (S1. Após tratamento estatístico empregando-se ANOVA e teste de Tukey, para os valores de eficiência de dissolução, notou-se que os produtos A e D, B e C, B e E e C e H são semelhantes quanto à liberação do fármaco in vitro. Entretanto, os produtos que mostraram melhor desempenho quanto à liberação de ciprofloxacino in vitro não são os mesmos que se apresentam como melhor opção de custo ao consumidor.The present study has assessed, in vitro, eight pharmaceutical brands containing ciprofloxacin (250 mg. The product C is the reference drug (Cipro® - Bayer® S/A and A, B, D, E, F, G and H are similar drugs. The following physicochemical tests have been carried out: dissolution test and dissolution profile, from which dissolution efficiency (DE have been calculate. The maximum price for consumer has also been obtained, in order that it was possible to compare it with the performance of the products. The results show that all the produts comply with USP specifications, but only the products, B, C, E and H have been approved on the first stage (S1. After statistic treatment, by applying ANOVA and Tukey test for DE values, it has been noted that the

  17. Evaluation of mechanical properties of Z250 composite resin light-cured by different methods Avaliação de propriedades mecânicas da resina composta Z250 fotoativada com diferentes métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Carla Obici

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated some mechanical parameters of Z250 composite resin using different light-curing methods. Ten specimens were prepared for each mechanical test group with different dimensions according to the test. Light-curing was performed by: a. continuous light (800mW/cm²-40s; b. exponential light (0-800mW/cm²-40s; c. intermittent light (2s-600mW/cm²; 2s without light-80s; d. stepped light (10s-150mW/cm²; 30s-650mW/cm²; e. PAC (1320mW/cm²-3s; f. LED (350mW/cm²-40s. After 24 ± 1 h, the specimens were loaded at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The mechanical properties were calculated and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (5%. The results showed that the highest compressive strength values were found for the continuous, exponential, intermittent and stepped light methods, whereas PAC and LED obtained the lowest values. LED, stepped light, PAC, exponential and continuous light presented the highest values for diametral tensile strength. The intermittent light showed the lowest value, which was significantly lower than the value obtained for LED only. Flexural strength results were not significantly different between all light-curing methods. Finally, the highest modulus of elasticity values were obtained for LED, exponential, continuous and intermittent light, whereas PAC and stepped light showed the lowest values. The mechanical properties were affected by light-curing methods employed.Este estudo avaliou algumas propriedades mecânicas da resina composta Z250 usando diferentes métodos de fotoativação. Dez amostras foram preparadas para cada grupo, com diferentes dimensões de acordo com o ensaio. Os métodos de fotoativação foram: a luz contínua (800mW/cm²-40s; b luz exponencial (0-800mW/cm²-40s; c luz intermitente (2s-600mW/cm²; 2s sem luz-80s; d dupla intensidade (10s-150mW/cm²; 30s-650mW/cm²; e PAC (1320mW/cm²-3s; f LED (350mW/cm²-40s. Após 24 ± 1 h, as amostras foram carregadas até fraturar (v=0

  18. Cobalt and molybdenum activated electrodes in foam based alkaline electrolysis cells at 150-250 °C and 40 bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    A new type of alkaline electrolysis cells with nickel foam based gas diffusion electrodes and KOH (aq) immobilized in mesoporous SrTiO3 has been developed and tested at temperatures of 150 C, 200 C and 250 C at a pressure of 40 bar. Two cells have been characterized during the 270 h long test...

  19. Effect of Elevated Methane Pressure on Methane Hydrate Dissociation Behavior at Temperatures Between 250 and 278 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circone, S.; Kirby, S. H.; Pinkston, J. C.; Stern, L. A.

    2002-12-01

    A comprehensive set of experiments performed at 0.1 MPa pressure between 204 and 289 K (Stern et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2001, 105, 1756; Circone et al., In Gas Hydrates: Challenges for the Future; Holder, G.D., Bishnoi, P.R., Eds., New York Academy of Sciences, New York; 2000; pp. 544-555) showed that methane hydrate dissociation rates were significantly depressed between 242 and 271 K. Above 271 K, the rate increased with increasing temperature. The dissociation rates at 1.0 and 2.0 MPa and at temperatures spanning the H2O melting point have now been measured to determine if elevated pressures further depress these dissociation rates. Results will be used to optimize sI hydrate preservation during drill core retrieval in permafrost regions. Expected core retrieval conditions are at temperatures of 273 +/- 5 K and at pressures that decrease from near 2.6 MPa (equilibrium pressure at 273 K) to 0.1 MPa. Pure, synthetic, porous methane hydrate samples were equilibrated at a temperature between 250 and 278 K and a methane pressure nominally 2 MPa above the hydrate equilibrium curve at that temperature. To begin an experiment, the pressure was rapidly decreased to 1.0 or 2.0 MPa (to P, T conditions outside of the methane hydrate stability field), then opened to a back pressure regulator, which can maintain a constant pressure to within 0.02 MPa of the setpoint. As the hydrate sample dissociated, the back pressure regulator released the methane to our custom-built flowmeter, which measured the amount of released gas over time. Preliminary results at 2.0 MPa indicate that dissociation rates are wholly consistent with and slightly depressed below those at 0.1 MPa. At 0.1 MPa, the slowest dissociation rate occurs at 268 K, and at 2.0 MPa the average rate was slower (only 30% vs. 34% of the total methane released after 160 h at 2.0 vs. 0.1 MPa). Decreasing the pressure from 2.0 MPa to 1.0 MPa slightly increased the dissociation rate; returning to 2.0 MPa decreased the rate to

  20. Government can't do it all. Over 250 million people in the developing world benefit from NGO support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Throughout the world, citizens are attempting to improve living conditions using direct participatory measures. Trade unions provide some of the clearest examples of citizens' groups which are challenging the power structure and encouraging democratization. In Chile, Korea, Zambia, Mali, and Poland, unions have been responsible for impressive governmental changes. People have also been working to improve living conditions through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which have expanded their beneficial influence from 100 million people in the early 1980s to 250 million today. Donors unhappy with official channels for aid have funneled funds between the North and the South in amounts which have increased from US $1 billion in 1970 to $5 billion 1990. NGOs help the poorest of the poor to achieve a measure of self-sufficiency (for example, an NGO provides small loans to landless people in Bangladesh). They also have the flexibility to respond to emergencies with an immediacy denied official channels (for example Oxfam chartered a boatload of food and supplies for Cambodia in 1979), and they remain to provide aid when officialdom has deserted the field (for example, the Red Cross, Save the Children, CARE, Concern, and Medicins Sans Frontieres have been a constant presence in Somalia). By helping marginalized groups claim their rights (for example, land rights for Indians in Ecuador), NGOs empower citizens to improve their lives in countless arenas. NGOs also provide advocacy for the powerless; Amnesty International contributed to the release of 1,296 political prisoners in 1990. Despite the important role of these groups, NGOs operate on a very small scale and can never assume the role of governments. In fact, one of the most important tasks ahead for NGOs may be to act as an intermediary between governments and their citizens. With more aid and partnership support, NGOs will be able to continue to expand their positive influence in the world. PMID:12345099

  1. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Gas-Phase Reaction of Selected Carbonyls with Cl Atoms between 250 and 340 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, A. S.; Algrim, L.; Abdelhamid, A.; Tyndall, G. S.; Orlando, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonyls are important products from the gas phase degradation of most volatile organic compounds. Their atmospheric reactions therefore have a significant impact on atmospheric composition, particularly in aged air masses. While the reactions of short-chain linear carbonyls are well understood, the chemistry of larger (> C6) and branched carbonyl is more uncertain. To provide insight into these reactions, the reactions of three carbonyls (methyl isopropyl ketone, MIK; di-isopropyl ketone, DIK; and diethyl ketone, DEK) with chlorine atoms were investigated between 250 and 340 K and 1 atm in the presence and absence of NOx and an HO2 source (methanol). Experiments were performed in a photochemical reactor using a combination of long-path Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The kinetics were studied using the relative rate technique with butanone and isopropanol as the reference compounds. The Arrhenius expression for the three rate coefficients was determined to be k(DEK+Cl) = 3.87 x 10-11e(2 × 7 kJ/mol)/RT cm3 molecules-1 s-1 , k(MIPK+Cl) = 7.20 x 10-11e(0.2× 8 kJ/mol)/RT cm3 molecules-1 s-1 , and k(DIPK+Cl) = 3.33 x 10-10e(-3× 8 kJ/mol)/RT cm3 molecules-1 s-1 . Measured reaction products accounted for 38-72 % of the reacted carbon and were consistent with strong deactivation of the carbon atom adjacent to the carbonyl group with respect to H-atom abstraction by Cl atoms. The product distributions also provide insight into radical recycling from the organic peroxy + HO2 reaction, and the relative rates of isomerization, fragmentation and reaction with O2 for carbonyl-containing alkoxy radicals. Implications of these results will be discussed.

  2. Geologic map of the east half of the Lime Hills 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce M.; Reed, Bruce L.; Richter, Donald H.; Lanphere, Marvin A.

    2013-01-01

    This map is compiled from geologic mapping conducted between 1985 and 1992 by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program. That mapping built upon previous USGS work (1963–1988) unraveling the magmatic history of the Alaska–Aleutian Range batholith. Quaternary unit contacts depicted on this map are derived largely from aerial-photograph interpretation. K-Ar ages made prior to this study have been recalculated using 1977 decay constants. The east half of the Lime Hills 1:250,000-scale quadrangle includes part of the Alaska–Aleutian Range batholith and several sequences of sedimentary rocks or mixed sedimentary and volcanic rocks. The Alaska–Aleutian Range batholith contains rocks that represent three major igneous episodes, (1) Early and Middle Jurassic, (2) Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, and (3) middle Tertiary; only rocks from the latter two episodes are found in this map area. The map area is one of very steep and rugged terrain; elevations range from a little under 1,000 ft (305 m) to 9,828 ft (2,996 m). Foot traverses are generally restricted to lowermost elevations. Areas suitable for helicopter landings can be scarce at higher elevations. Most of the area was mapped from the air, supplemented by direct examination of rocks where possible. This restricted access greatly complicates understanding some of the more complex geologic units. For example, we know there are plutons whose compositions vary from gabbro to granodiorite, but we have little insight as to how these phases are distributed and what their relations might be to each other. It is also possible that some of what we have described as compositionally complex plutons might actually be several distinct intrusions.

  3. Monte Carlo calculated stopping-power ratios, water/air, for clinical proton dosimetry (50-250 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of stopping power ratios, water to air, for the determination of absorbed dose to water in clinical proton beams using ionization chamber measurements have been undertaken using the Monte Carlo method. A computer code to simulate the transport of protons in water (PETRA) has been used to calculate Sw,air-data under different degrees of complexity, ranging from values based on primary protons only to data including secondary electrons and high-energy secondary protons produced in nonelastic nuclear collisions. All numerical data are based on ICRU 49 proton stopping powers. Calculations using primary protons have been compared to the simple continuous slowing-down approximation (c.s.d.a.) analytical technique used in proton dosimetry protocols, not finding significant differences that justify elaborate Monte Carlo simulations except beyond the mean range of the protons (the far side of the Bragg peak). The influence of nuclear nonelastic processes, through the detailed generation and transport of secondary protons, on the calculated stopping-power ratios has been found to be negligible. The effect of alpha particles has also been analysed, finding differences smaller than 0.1% from the results excluding them. Discrepancies of up to 0.6% in the plateau region have been found, however, when the production and transport of secondary electrons are taken into account. The large influence of nonelastic nuclear interactions on proton depth-dose distributions shows that the removal of primary protons from the incident beam decreases the peak-to-plateau ratio by a large factor, up to 40% at 250 MeV. It is therefore emphasized that nonelastic nuclear reactions should be included in Monte Carlo simulations of proton beam depth-dose distributions. (author)

  4. Multiplicities in phase space intervals and Bose-Einstein correlations in hadronic interactions at 250 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes a number of aspects of multiparticle production in π+p, K+p and pp collisions at an incident beam momentum of 250 GeV/c. The corresponding centre of mass energy is 21.7 GeV. The experimental data have been collected with the European Hybrid Spectrometer at CERN. The experimental set-up and data processing chain are described in chapter 2. Chapter 3 concerns the methods used for the charged particle identification in the experiment. The analysis of the properties of the particle collisions starts in chapter 4. Here, a study of the multiplicity distribution in phase space intervals is presented. This analysis is done for the non-single-diffractive π+p and pp collisions. In general the data can be well described by negative binomial distributions. This holds in particular for central regions of rapidity. However, also indication is seen for the existence of correlations in the data beyond those already absorbed into negative binomials. It is shown that the interpretation of the negative binominal distribution in terms of a cascading rather than the stimulated emission mechanism is favoured. The data are, furthermore, compared with results at other energies and another type of collision. As a consequence of the requirement of a symmetric wave function for identical pions, the probability for two identical pions to be close in phase space is enhanced compared to what is expected for non-identical particles under the same conditions. These Bose-Einstein correlations are studied in chapter 5 for the combined π+p and K+p sample. In particular, the interference effect has been studied with different reference samples and with different parametrisations of the effect. 108 refs.; 57 figs.; 23 tabs

  5. Ultraviolet relaxation dynamics of aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline at 250 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, James O. F.; Saalbach, Lisa; Crane, Stuart W. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Paterson, Martin J. [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Townsend, Dave, E-mail: D.Townsend@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Institute of Chemical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-21

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the electronic relaxation dynamics of gas-phase aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline, and 3,5-dimethylaniline following ultraviolet excitation at 250 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio coupled-cluster calculations evaluating excited state energies and (in aniline) the evolution of a range of excited state physical properties as a function of N–H bond extension. Due to a lack of consistency between several earlier studies undertaken in aniline, the specific aim of this present work was to gain new insight into the previously proposed non-adiabatic coupling interaction between the two lowest lying singlet excited states S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) and S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}). The methyl-substituted systems N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline were included in order to obtain more detailed dynamical information about the key internal molecular coordinates that drive the S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗})/S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) coupling mechanism. Our findings suggest that in all three systems, both electronic states are directly populated during the initial excitation, with the S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) state then potentially decaying via either direct dissociation along the N–X stretching coordinate (X = H or CH{sub 3}) or internal conversion to the S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) state. In aniline and N, N-dimethylaniline, both pathways most likely compete in the depletion of S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) state population. However, in 3,5-dimethylaniline, only the direct dissociation mechanism appears to be active. This is rationalized in terms of changes in the relative rates of the two decay pathways upon methylation of the aromatic ring system.

  6. A pharmacokinetic comparison of cefadroxil and cephalexin after administration of 250, 500 and 1000 mg solution doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbhaiya, R H

    1996-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil and cephalexin were examined following single oral doses of either 250, 500 or 1000 mg to a total of 36 healthy volunteers. The volunteers were divided into groups of 12 per dose-group and solution doses of cefadroxil or cephalexin were administered after an overnight fast according to a crossover design for the cephalosporins but not for doses. Serial blood and urine samples were collected from each individual and were analyzed for cefadroxil or cephalexin using validated HPLC assays with UV detection. The individual subject plasma concentration-time data for each cephalosporin were analyzed using noncompartmental methods. Profiles for cephalexin in plasma showed sharper and higher peaks than those for cefadroxil. Although values for the peak concentrations (Cmax) for cefadroxil were lower than that of cephalexin, the levels of cefadroxil in plasma and urine remained above the reported minimum inhibitory concentrations of susceptible organisms for longer period of time than those of cefalexin. The elimination half-life (t1/2) of cefadroxil (about 2 h) was significantly longer than that of cephalexin (about 1 h). The values for Cmax and AUC0-infinity values for both these cephalosporins showed dose-proportional increase, whereas t1/2, renal clearance (CLR) remained independent of dose. These observations confirm that cefadroxil and cephalexin obey linear pharmacokinetics. The CLr of both the cephalosporins were significantly higher than the average glomerular filtration rate at each dose level. The urinary recovery (% Xu) of each cephalosporin, accounted for over 80 per cent of the administered dose, and no significant differences in % Xu were observed between the two cephalosporins. These data suggest that the systemic availability of cefadroxil and cephalexin is similar at each dose level. PMID:8743403

  7. 一种致遗传性凝血因子Ⅶ缺陷症的新突变(Ser250Phe)的鉴定与功能分析%Identification and functional analysis of a novel missense mutation Ser250Phe underlying congenital coagulation factor Ⅶ deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江明华; 王兆钺; 余自强; 苏健; 曹丽娟; 张威

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨Ser250Phe突变致遗传性凝血因子Ⅶ(coagulation factorⅦ,FⅦ)缺陷的分子机制.方法 用STA-R全自动血凝分析仪检测先证者及家系成员的凝血酶原时间(prothrombin time,PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(activated partial thrombinoplastin time,APTT)、纤维蛋白原(fibrinogen,FIB)及凝血酶时间(thrombin time,TT);一步法及ELISA分别检测先证者及家系成员凝血因子Ⅶ活性及抗原;PCR扩增先证者及其家系成员因子7基因(factor 7 gene,F7)所有外显子及侧翼序列,直接测序分析;PCR介导质粒DNA定点诱变法构建F7 Ser250Phe突变表达质粒,将表达质粒瞬时转染HEK293细胞,一步法测定培养上清FⅦ活性及ELISA及Western印迹测定培养上清及细胞裂解液FⅦ抗原;同时将F7表达质粒与高尔基体或内质网定位的荧光质粒共转染CHO细胞进行亚细胞定位分析.结果 先证者及家系成员APTT、TT及FIB均正常,而先证者PT、FⅦ活性及抗原分别为36.5 s、4.0%及130.2 ng/mL;测序发现先证者F7基因存在g.15975G>A(IVS6-1 G>A)与g.16750 C> T(Ser250Phe)双杂合突变,其父亲为g.16750 C>T杂合子,母亲为g.15975G>A杂合子,妹妹不携带这两种突变;HEK293细胞上清中FⅦ250Phe活性为(4.12±0.61)%(以FⅦ250Ser载体转染细胞培养上清FⅦ活性作为100%),培养上清中FⅦ250Ser与FⅦ250Phe抗原水平分别为(37.77±2.30)ng/mL和(4.02±0.52) ng/mL;而细胞裂解液中FⅦ250Ser与FⅦ250Phe抗原水平分别为(172.45±2.25) ng/mL和(130.51±2.32) ng/mL;Western印迹分析示转染了FⅦ250Phe载体的HEK293细胞培养上清无可检测FⅦ抗原,而在细胞裂解液中检测到FⅦ抗原,与ELISA检测结果一致;在CHO细胞表达的重组FⅦ250Phe绿色荧光信号能与核周内质网红色荧光信号重合,而且也与高尔基体红色信号重合,与重组FⅦ250Ser一致.结论 复合IVS6-1G>A与Ser250Phe突变是导致患者遗传性凝血因

  8. Sources of high frequency seismic noise: insights from a dense network of ~250 stations in northern Alsace (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Jerome; Blachet, Antoine; Lehujeur, Maximilien

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring local or regional seismic activity requires stations having a low level of background seismic noise at frequencies higher than few tenths of Hertz. Network operators are well aware that the seismic quality of a site depends on several aspects, among them its geological setting and the proximity of roads, railways, industries or trees. Often, the impact of each noise source is only qualitatively known which precludes estimating the quality of potential future sites before they are tested or installed. Here, we want to take advantage of a very dense temporary network deployed in Northern Alsace (France) to assess the effect of various kinds of potential sources on the level of seismic noise observed in the frequency range 0.2-50 Hz. In September 2014, more than 250 seismic stations (FairfieldNodal@ Zland nodes with 10Hz vertical geophone) have been installed every 1.5 km over a ~25km diameter disc centred on the deep geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. This region exhibits variable degrees of human imprints from quite remote areas to sectors with high traffic roads and big villages. It also encompasses both the deep sedimentary basin of the Rhine graben and the piedmont of the Vosges massif with exposed bedrock. For each site we processed the continuous data to estimate probability density functions of the power spectral densities. At frequencies higher than 1 Hz most sites show a clear temporal modulation of seismic noise related to human activity with the well-known variations between day and night and between weekdays and weekends. Moreover we observe a clear evolution of the spatial distribution of seismic noise levels with frequency. Basically, between 0.5 and 4 Hz the geological setting modulates the level of seismic noise. At higher frequencies, the amplitude of seismic noise appears mostly related to the distance to nearby roads. Based on road maps and traffic estimation, a forward approach is performed to model the induced

  9. Susceptibility of Granite Rock to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees C and 250 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.; Gill, S., Ecker, L., Butcher, T., Warren, J.

    2011-01-01

    Granite rock comprising anorthoclase-type albite and quartz as its major phases and biotite mica as the minor one was exposed to supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2})/water at 250 C and 13.78 MPa pressure for 104 hours. For comparison purpose, four other rocks, albite, hornblende, diorite, and quartz, also were exposed. During the exposure of granite, ionic carbonic acid, known as the wet carbonation reactant, preferentially reacted with anorthoclase-type albite and biotite, rather than with quartz. The susceptibility of biotite to wet carbonation was higher than that of anorthoclase-type albite. All the carbonation by-products of anorthoclase-type albite were amorphous phases including Na- and K-carbonates, a kaolinite clay-like compound, and silicon dioxide, while wet carbonation converted biotite into potassium aluminum silicate, siderite, and magnesite in crystalline phases and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Three of these reaction by-products, Na- and K-carbonates and HF, were highly soluble in water. Correspondingly, the carbonated top surface layer, about 1.27 mm thick as carbonation depth, developed porous microstructure with numerous large voids, some of which have a size of {>=} 10 {mu}m, reflecting the erosion of granite by the leaching of these water-soluble reaction by-products. Comparing with this carbonation depth, its depth of other minerals was considerable lower, particularly, for hornblende and diorite with 0.07 and 0.02 mm, while no carbonate compound was detected in quartz. The major factor governing these low carbonation depths in these rocks was the formation of water-insensitive scale-like carbonate by-products such as calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), and magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). Their formation within the superficial layer of these minerals served as protective barrier layer that inhibits and retards further carbonation of fresh underlying minerals, even if the exposure time was extended. Thus, the coverage by this barrier layer

  10. Wide Area Wetland Mapping in Semi-Arid Africa Using 250-Meter MODIS Metrics and Topographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Dietz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in West Africa are among the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change. West African wetlands are often freshwater transfer mechanisms from wetter climate regions to dryer areas, providing an array of ecosystem services and functions. Often wetland-specific data in Africa is only available on a per country basis or as point data. Since wetlands are challenging to map, their accuracies are not well considered in global land cover products. In this paper we describe a methodology to map wetlands using well-corrected 250-meter MODIS time-series data for the year 2002 and over a 360,000 km2 large study area in western Burkina Faso and southern Mali (West Africa. A MODIS-based spectral index table is used to map basic wetland morphology classes. The index uses the wet season near infrared (NIR metrics as a surrogate for flooding, as a function of the dry season chlorophyll activity metrics (as NDVI. Topographic features such as sinks and streamline areas were used to mask areas where wetlands can potentially occur, and minimize spectral confusion. 30-m Landsat trajectories from the same year, over two reference sites, were used for accuracy assessment, which considered the area-proportion of each class mapped in Landsat for every MODIS cell. We were able to map a total of five wetland categories. Aerial extend of all mapped wetlands (class “Wetland” is 9,350 km2, corresponding to 4.3% of the total study area size. The classes “No wetland”/“Wetland” could be separated with very high certainty; the overall agreement (KHAT was 84.2% (0.67 and 97.9% (0.59 for the two reference sites, respectively. The methodology described herein can be employed to render wide area base line information on wetland distributions in semi-arid West Africa, as a data-scarce region. The results can provide (spatially interoperable information feeds for inter-zonal as well as local scale water assessments.

  11. Accuracy of genomic predictions of residual feed intake and 250-day body weight in growing heifers using 625,000 single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Arias, J; Bowman, P J; Davis, S R; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C; Wales, W J; Williams, Y J; Spelman, R J; Hayes, B J

    2012-04-01

    Feed makes up a large proportion of variable costs in dairying. For this reason, selection for traits associated with feed conversion efficiency should lead to greater profitability of dairying. Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted feed intakes and is a useful selection criterion for greater feed efficiency. However, measuring individual feed intakes on a large scale is prohibitively expensive. A panel of DNA markers explaining genetic variation in this trait would enable cost-effective genomic selection for this trait. With the aim of enabling genomic selection for RFI, we used data from almost 2,000 heifers measured for growth rate and feed intake in Australia (AU) and New Zealand (NZ) genotyped for 625,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Substantial variation in RFI and 250-d body weight (BW250) was demonstrated. Heritabilities of RFI and BW250 estimated using genomic relationships among the heifers were 0.22 and 0.28 in AU heifers and 0.38 and 0.44 in NZ heifers, respectively. Genomic breeding values for RFI and BW250 were derived using genomic BLUP and 2 bayesian methods (BayesA, BayesMulti). The accuracies of genomic breeding values for RFI were evaluated using cross-validation. When 624,930 SNP were used to derive the prediction equation, the accuracies averaged 0.37 and 0.31 for RFI in AU and NZ validation data sets, respectively, and 0.40 and 0.25 for BW250 in AU and NZ, respectively. The greatest advantage of using the full 624,930 SNP over a reduced panel of 36,673 SNP (the widely used BovineSNP50 array) was when the reference population included only animals from either the AU or the NZ experiment. Finally, the bayesian methods were also used for quantitative trait loci detection. On chromosome 14 at around 25 Mb, several SNP closest to PLAG1 (a gene believed to affect stature in humans and cattle) had an effect on BW250 in both AU and NZ populations. In addition, 8 SNP with large effects on RFI were

  12. Rice Crop Monitoring and Yield Assessment with MODIS 250m Gridded Vegetation Products: A Case Study of Sa Kaeo Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesingha, J. S. J.; N. L. Deshapriya; Samarakoon, L.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of people in the world depend on rice as a staple food and as an income-generating crop. Asia is the leader in rice cultivation and it is necessary to maintain an up-to-date rice-related database to ensure food security as well as economic development. This study investigates general applicability of high temporal resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250m gridded vegetation product for monitoring rice crop growth, mapping rice crop acreage and ana...

  13. Role of combined hystero-laparoscopy in the evaluation of female infertility as one step procedure: a retrospective analytical study of 250 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, B; Shraddha Neminath Kurkuri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility is defined as a failure of a couple to conceive after having regular, unprotected sexual intercourse for one year. To determine the role of combined hystero-laparoscopy in the evaluation of female infertility patients with no significant clinical/ ultrasonography findings and to calculate the incidence of various pathological conditions in the female reproductive tract leading to infertility. Methods: This retrospective analytical study was done in 250 patients with...

  14. Genomewide Linkage Analyses of Bipolar Disorder: A New Sample of 250 Pedigrees from the National Institute of Mental Health Genetics Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Danielle M; Foroud, Tatiana; Flury, Leah; Bowman, Elizabeth S.; Miller, Marvin J.; Rau, N. Leela; Moe, P. Ryan; Samavedy, Nalini; El-Mallakh, Rif; Manji, Husseini; Glitz, Debra A.; Meyer, Eric T.; Smiley, Carrie; Hahn, Rhoda; Widmark, Clifford

    2003-01-01

    We conducted genomewide linkage analyses on 1,152 individuals from 250 families segregating for bipolar disorder and related affective illnesses. These pedigrees were ascertained at 10 sites in the United States, through a proband with bipolar I affective disorder and a sibling with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. Uniform methods of ascertainment and assessment were used at all sites. A 9-cM screen was performed by use of 391 markers, with an average heterozygosity of 0.7...

  15. Decreasing Incidence of Trichophyton mentagrophytes in Korea: Analysis of 6,250 Cases during the Last 21-Year-Period (1992-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Weon Ju; Park, Kyung Hea; Kim, Mi So; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Bang, Yong Jun; Jun, Jae Bok

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes is the second common dermatophyte in Korea. However, few reports have been issued on the epidemiological and mycological characteristics of T. mentagrophytes in Korea based on long-term, large-scale study. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the epidemiological and mycological characteristics of T. mentagrophytes in Korea. During the 21-yr-period from 1992 to 2012, 6,250 patients with T. mentagrophytes were surveyed to determine annual incidence and the dist...

  16. Crystal structures of iron bearing tetrahedrite and tennantite at 25 and 250 degrees C by means of Rietveld refinement of synchrotron data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friese, K.; Grzechnik, A.; Makovicky, E.;

    2008-01-01

    Rietveld refinement of X-ray synchrotron data was performed for two synthetic tetrahedrite samples, with 0.61 and 1.83 Fe atoms, and two synthetic tennantite samples with 0.10 and 1.23 Fe atoms p.f.u. M-12(Sb,As)(4)S-13. Measurements were performed at 25 and 250 degrees C. For both the phases, in...

  17. Relation between vibrotactile perception thresholds and reductions in finger blood flow induced by vibration of the hand at frequencies in the range 8–250 Hz

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Ying; Griffin, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: this study investigated how the vasoconstriction induced by vibration depends on the frequency of vibration when the vibration magnitude is defined by individual thresholds for perceiving vibration [i.e. sensation levels (SL)]. Methods: fourteen healthy subjects attended the laboratory on seven occasions: for six vibration frequencies (8, 16, 31.5, 63, 125, or 250 Hz) and a static control condition. Finger blood flow (FBF) was measured in the middle fingers of both hands at 30-se...

  18. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and fluroxypyr (starane 250 EC herbicide on the Share of grass and common dandelion in meadow sward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jankowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the three-year experiment was to evaluate the action of Starane 250 EC herbicide and different levels of nitrogen fertilization on the share of grass and amount in the meadow sward of common dandelion. The field experiment was established on a permanent meadow in April 2007 in Żelków in the system of randomized subblocks with three replications. In the experiment two research factors were used. The first factor was varied fertilization (34% ammonium nitrate applied in an amount of: A1 – 0 kg·ha-1, A2 – 90 kg·ha-1, A3 – 180 kg·ha-1 and A4 – 270 kg·ha-1. Another research factor was Starane 250 EC herbicide, applied at four doses: B1 – control, B2 – 0.6 l·ha-1, B3 – 1.2 l·ha-1, B4 – 1.8 l·ha-1. The results were evaluated statistically by using analysis of variance for two-factor experiments. Mean differentiation was verified by Tukey’s test at significance level of p ≤ 0.05. In this study the impact of increasing doses of nitrogen and herbicide Starane 250 EC concentration on participation of grasses in the sward was established, while a greater impact of the used herbicide was observed. The favourable floristic composition of sward was observed after application of 1.8 l·ha-1 herbicide Starane 250 EC and 180 kg·ha-1 nitrogen.

  19. Thermally Induced Isomerization of Trilinolein and Trilinoelaidin at 250 A degrees C: Analysis of Products by Gas Chromatography and Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Christy, Alfred A.

    2009-01-01

    The products formed by thermally induced isomerization of trilinolein and trilinoelaidin at 250 A degrees C were studied by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The triglycerides of the 9c12c and 9t12t fatty acids, linoleic and linoelaidic acid respectively, were subjected to thermal treatment under nitrogen in glass. The products were removed at regular intervals and analysed by infrared spectroscopy using a single reflectance attenuated total internal reflectance crystal accessory....

  20. 250  W average power, 100  kHz repetition rate cryogenic Yb:YAG amplifier for OPCPA pumping

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Luis E.; Reichert, Fabian; Hemmer, M.; Kärtner, F. X.

    2016-01-01

    A cryogenically cooled, bulk Yb:YAG, four-pass amplifier delivering up to 250Waverage power at 100 kHz repetition rate is reported. The 2.5 mJ amplified optical pulses show a sub-20 ps duration before temporal compression and a spectrum supporting a transform-limited duration of 3.6 ps. The power instabilities were measured to be