WorldWideScience

Sample records for californium 250 target

  1. Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This meeting constituted the third phase of a project initiated by the Dosimetry Section of the IAEA in 1973. The first step, early in 1973, consisted of the development of a programme for the loan of Cf-252 sources to the Member States in support of education, training and some limited research. To date, 14 institutions in 13 Member States have participated in this loan programme. In August last year, the Agency published an instructional syllabus and laboratory manual authored by Professors Eric J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University (Californium-252 in Teaching and Research, Technical Reports Series No. 159). The appearance of this publication, including guidance on the design and construction of a storage and use facility, was the second phase of this programme aimed at providing some support to potential users in the fields of radiation biology and dosimetry. The objective of the programme's third phase - the convening of an Educational Seminar - was to provide a forum to bring together participants in the Agency's loan programme and experts in various scientific fields. Specifically, the Seminar consisted of a series of expert presentations in spectrometry, activation and prompt gamma analyses, on-stream analysis, dosimetry, health physics, radiology and radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Magnetism in californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.R.

    1988-03-01

    A SQUID-based magnetic susceptometer has been constructed for studying small radioactive samples at temperatures below 350 K and in magnetic fields up to 50 kilogauss. The device has been used to study californium (element 98) in a number of solid-state forms: the dhcp metal, several oxides (Cf 2 O 3 in both the bcc and monoclinic structures, Cf 7 O 12 , CfO 2 and BaCfO 3 ), several monopnictides (CfN, CfAs and CfSb) and the trichloride (in both the hexagonal and orthorhombic structures). All of these materials were studied in polycrystalline form, and hexagonal CfCl 3 was studied in single-crystal form as well. The susceptometer has the sensitivity to measure samples containing less than 10 micrograms of californium. The magnetic susceptibilities of all of the californium materials at temperatures above about 100 K are described well by the Curie-Weiss relationship. This behavior is consistent with the assumption that the magnetic 5f electrons are localized and that the paramagnetic behavior can be interpreted in terms of the properties of the free ion. The measured values of the effective paramagnetic moment, μ/sub eff/, for all the californium materials that were studied are reasonably consistent with theoretical values based on intermediate coupling models. All of the californium materials showed some indications of cooperative magnetic effects. The dhcp metal was observed to order ferromagnetically at 52 K, and all of the californium compounds studied showed signs of antiferromagnetic ordering, mostly at temperatures below 25 K. 91 refs., 50 figs., 19 tabs

  3. Medical applications of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, G.D. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Primarily, californium-252 sources have been utilized in medicine for the treatment of neoplastic lesions. For five years, a coordinated effort between several cancer research institutions and national laboratories has developed the necessary physics, radiobiology, and engineering skills to establish an evaluation program for californium. Several more years of combined effort are required before it is known whether californium therapy is as good as or better than conventional therapy with sources like radium. Recently, development of diagnostic applications of californium in medicine has received attention. Studies comparing neutron decay activation analysis versus prompt capture gamma ray analysis are in progress. A hopeful application of prompt analysis with reasonable quantities (200 μg) of californium is the elemental analysis of bone in the human body. (U.S.)

  4. Californium loan programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The offer of the United States to loan Californium-252 sources to the IAEA was made by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, then chairman of the USAEC, in his opening statement at the 15th. General Conference of the IAEA held in Vienna in 1971. The purpose of this loan was to make neutron emitting sources available to universities in the Member States for use in educational programmes. The sources, in the form of small needles designed for medical use in radiation therapy, were judged highly suitable for didactic applications due to their small size, limited activity and well documented radiological parameters. Subsequently, in May 1973, the Director General announced the availability of the Californium sources to the Member States. To date, numerous sources have been loaned to universities in Czechoslovakia, Costa Rica, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ghana, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Uruguay; additional applications for loans are being processed. It is anticipated that the loan programme will be terminated in 1975 once all the available sources have been distributed. n order to provide guidance for the Member States on the safe exploitation of these sources, a prototype use and storage facility was designed by IAEA staff of the Dosimetry Section of the Division of Life Sciences, and constructed at the IAEA laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Figures 2-5 illustrate some of the details of this container, which is being given to the Ghana Nuclear Centre in support of a training programme for students at the university in Accra. Further advice to users of these sources will be provided by the publication of an instructional syllabus, a laboratory manual for experiments and the safety precautions inherent in the proper handling of neutron emitting radionuclides, authored by Professors Erich J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University. The syllabus and manual will be published as part of the IAEA Technical Series in September

  5. Californium source transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1995, the receipt of four sealed californium-252 sources from Oak Ridge National Lab was successfully accomplished by a team comprised of Radiological Engineering, Radiological Operations and Health Physics Instrumentation personnel. A procedure was developed and walked-down by the participants during a Dry Run Evolution. Several special tools were developed during the pre-planning phases of the project which reduced individual and job dose to minimal levels. These included a mobile lifting device for attachment of a transfer ball valve assembly to the undercarriage of the Cannonball Carrier, a transfer tube elbow to ensure proper angle of the source transfer tube, and several tools used during emergency response for remote retrieval and handling of an unshielded source. Lessons were learned in the areas of contamination control, emergency preparedness, and benefits of thorough pre-planning, effectiveness of locally creating and designing special tools to reduce worker dose, and methods of successfully accomplishing source receipt evolutions during extreme or inclement weather

  6. Californium-252 progress, report No. 7, April 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-12-31

    This report contains discusses of the following topics on Californium-252: First sales of californium-252; encapsulation services discussed; three new participants in market evaluation program; summer training programs to use californium; Californium-252 shipping casks available; Californium-252 questions and answers, radiotherapy; neutron radiography; natural resources exploration; nuclear safeguards; process control; dosimetry; neutron radiography; neutron shielding; and nuclear safeguards.

  7. Targeted therapy of renal cell carcinoma: synergistic activity of cG250-TNF and IFNg.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, S.; Oosterwijk-Wakka, J.C.; Adrian, N.; Oosterwijk, E.; Fischer, E.; Wuest, T.; Stenner, F.; Perani, A.; Cohen, L.; Knuth, A.; Divgi, C.; Jager, D.; Scott, A.M.; Ritter, G.; Old, L.J.; Renner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic targeting of G250/Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) represents a promising strategy for treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The well characterized human-mouse chimeric G250 (cG250) antibody has been shown in human studies to specifically enrich in CA-IX positive tumors and was

  8. Uranium standards for Californium Shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, A.; Boynton, S.P.

    1978-10-01

    The Laboratories Department analyzed pieces of a U-Al log which were to be canned and used as a set of standards for the nondestructive Californium Shuffler instrument. Evaluation of this instrument is part of an on-going Safeguards Program and is a joint project between LASL and SRP. A U-Al casting of a nominal 30% to 70% composition was made with enriched uranium (56 wt % 235 U). The log was 6 in. in diameter and approximately 2 ft long. A 1/4-in. slice was made before and after each 1-in. slice taken for use as a standard. The 1-in. slices were scanned nondestructively by collimated gamma pulse height analysis. The 1/4-in. slices were divided into quadrants and one quadrant for each slice was destructively analyzed. Results from these tests showed an approximate 1.5% relative variation in uranium concentration from the high to the low point. Successive pieces showed less than 1% relative difference. The 1-in. pieces have been canned and shipped to LASL for testing and will be returned with the Californium Shuffler. The remaining 1/4-in. slices have been sent to NBL and LASL for destructive analysis

  9. Californium production at the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at ORNL, which is the production, storage, and distribution center for the ERDA heavy element research program, is described. About 0.5 percent of 252 Cf is currently being produced. TRU is a hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. New concepts have been incorporated into the facility for absolute containment, remote operation, remote equipment installation, and remote maintenance. The facilities include a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells served by master-slave manipulators and eight laboratories, four on each of two floors. Processing includes chemical dissolution of the targets followed by a series of solvent extraction, ion exchange, and precipitation steps to separate and purify the transuranium elements. The transcurium elements Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm are distributed to users. Remote techniques are used to fabricate the Am and Cm into target rods for reirradiation in the HFIR. Californium-252 that is in excess of the needs of the heavy element research program and the Cf sales program is stored at TRU and processed repeatedly to recover the daughter product 248 Cm, which is a highly desirable research material

  10. Radiography using californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The current status in the technology of neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is summarized. Major emphasis is on thermal neutron radiography since it has the widest potential applicability at the present time. Attention is given to four major factors which affect the quality and useability of thermal neutron radiography: source neutron thermalization, neutron beam extraction geometry, neutron collimator dimensions, and neutron imaging methods. Each of these factors has a major effect on the quality of the radiographs which are obtained from a californium source neutron radiography system and the exposure times required to obtain the radiographs; radiograph quality and exposure time in turn affect the practicality of neutron radiography for specific nondestructive inspection applications. A brief discussion of fast neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is also included. (U.S.)

  11. Californium-252 radiotherapy sources for interstitial afterloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; Walker, V.W.

    1976-01-01

    Californium-252 neutron sources for interstitial afterloading were developed to investigate the value of this radionuclide in cancer therapy. Californium-252 seed assemblies contain essentially point sources of 252 Cf permanently sealed on 1-cm centers within a flexible plastic tube. The seed assemblies are fabricated with remotely operated, specially designed machines. The fabrication process involves the production of a Pt-10 percent Ir-clad wire with a 252 Cf 2 O 3 -Pd cermet core. The wire is swaged and drawn to size, cut to length, and welded in a Pt-10 percent Ir capsule 0.8 mm in diameter and 6 mm long. Each seed capsule contains approximately 0.5 microgram of 252 Cf. Because the effective half-life of 252 Cf is 2.6 years, the seed assemblies are not disposable and must be reused until their activities have decreased to unsuitable levels. The flexible plastic components must therefore have sufficient resistance to radiation damage to survive the neutron-plus-gamma radiation from 252 Cf. On the basis of accelerated irradiation tests with a large 252 Cf source, a recently developed fluoropolymer, ''Tefzel'' (trademark of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company) has adequate radiation resistance for this application. Californium-252 seed assembly systems are loaned by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration for clinical investigations under a protocol of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, U.S. National Cancer Institute

  12. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252 Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  13. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ( 252 Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, 252 Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of 252 Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the 252 Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, 252 Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of 252 Cf from ORNL is summarized herein

  14. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  15. Residual Nuclides Induced in Cu Target by a 250 MeV Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Bin; Zhang Xue-Ying; Ma Fei; Ju Yong-Qin; Ge Hong-Lin; Chen Liang; Zhang Yan-Bin; Li Yan-Yan; Luo Peng; Wang Jian-Guo; Wan Bo; Xu Xiao-Wei; Wei Ji-Fang; Zhou Bin

    2015-01-01

    Residual nuclide production is studied experimentally by bombarding a Cu target with a 250 MeV proton beam. The data are measured by the off-line γ-spectroscopy method. Six nuclides are identified and their cross sections are determined. The corresponding calculated results by the MCNPX and GEANT4 codes are compared with the experimental data to check the validity of the codes. A comparison shows that the MCNPX simulation has a better agreement with the experiment. The energy dependence of residual nuclide production is studied with the aid of MCNPX simulation, and it is found that the mass yields for the nuclides in the light mass region increase significantly with the proton energy. (paper)

  16. Californium-252 sales and loans at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    The production and distribution in the United States of 252 Cf has recently been consolidated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 252 Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program and the 252 Cf University Load Program, which were formerly located at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), have been combined with the californium production and distribution activities of the Transuranium Element Production Program at ORNL. Californium-252 is sold to commercial users in the form of bulk californium oxide, palladium-californium alloy pellets, or alloy wires. Neutron source capsules, which are fabricated for loans to DOE or other US government agencies, are still available in all forms previously available. The consolidation of all 252 Cf distribution activities at the production site is expected to result in better service to users. In particular, customers for neutrons sources will be ale to select from a wider range of neutron source forms, including custom designs, through a single contact point

  17. Calibration of a Modified Californium Shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, E.T.; Armstrong, F.; Oldham, R.; Ceo, R.; Williams, N.

    1995-01-01

    A californium shuffler originally designed to assay hollow cylindrical pieces of UA1 has been modified to assay solid cylinders. Calibration standards were characterized via chemical analysis of the molten UA1 taken during casting of the standards. The melt samples yielded much more reliable characterization data than drill samples taken from standards after the standards had solidified. By normalizing one well-characterized calibration curve to several standards at different enrichments, a relatively small number of standards was required to develop an enrichment-dependent calibration. The precision of this shuffler is 0.65%, and the typical random and systematic uncertainties are 0.53% and 0.73%, respectively, for a six minute assay of an ingot containing approximately 700 grams of 235 U. This paper will discuss (1) the discrepancies encountered when UA1 standards were characterized via melt samples versus drill samples, (2) a calibration methodology employing a small number of standards, and (3) a comparison of results from a previously unused shuffler with an existing shuffler. A small number of UA1 standards have been characterized using samples from the homogeneous molten state and have yielded enrichment-dependent and enrichment-independent calibration curves on two different shufflers

  18. Fabrication of californium-252 sources in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, A.; Brady, M.W.; Thornett, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The advent of californium-252 in weighable quantities and at a reasonable price has caused some rethinking among neutron source suppliers. To explore this market the Radiochemical Center Ltd. has purchased 2 mg of californium-252, and subdivided this into a wide range of sources. To take advantage of its high specific neutron emission, a small double welded stainless steel capsule 7.8mm diameter x 10mm high was chosen for stock sources and this entailed the use of a microdispensing technique which had to be specially developed. The apparatus and procedure for subdividing milligram amounts of californium-252 are described. Some details of our experience in processing these one milligram shipments are given. 100 sources with activities from 200 microgram to 0.01 microgram have been produced. Losses have been small. Measurement of neutron spectra gamma spectra and dose rates from encapsulated sources has confirmed published data. Though it is early days, little industrial interest in californium-252 sources has been detected, most of the sources have so far been required for research into activation analysis and two examples of this are given. (U.S.)

  19. Pharmacokinetics and tumor targeting of 131I-labeled F(ab')2 fragments of the chimeric monoclonal antibody G250: preclinical and clinical pilot studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, A.H.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Oosterwijk, E.; Buijs, W.C.A.M.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Boerman, O.C.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clinical and animal studies of chimeric monoclonal antibody G250 (moAb cG250) for the targeting of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), to date, have been with the intact IgG form. To determine whether F(ab')2 fragments are more suited for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) than intact IgG,

  20. Californium Multiplier. Part I. Design for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, K.L.; Preskitt, C.A.; John, J.; Hastings, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of enriched uranium surrounding a californium-252 neutron source. The function of the CFX is to multiply the neutrons emitted by the source to a number sufficient for neutron radiography. The CFX is designed to provide a collimated beam of thermal neutrons from which the gamma radiation is filtered, and the scattered neutrons are reduced to make it suitable for high resolution radiography. The entire system has inherent safety features, which provide for system and personnel safety, and it operates at moderate cost. In Part I, the CFX and the theory of its operation are described in detail. Part II covers the performance of the Mound Facility CFX

  1. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The radioisotope 252 Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 11 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252 Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252 Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252 Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  2. Neutron activation analysis of the calcium content in vivo, using a 50μg source of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Zech, P.Y.; Meary, M.F.; Leitienne, P.

    1975-01-01

    Owing to the recent commercialisation of californium 252 it is now possible to obtain neutron fluxes strong enough for precise activation of the calcium content of biological targets. After the preliminary measurements necessary to establish the most suitable conditions for irradiating 3 to 5cm thick targets, two parallel sets of experiments were developed. In the first the medium-term total calcium variation was studied in 20 rats, 16 suffering from chronic kidney deficiency. In the second the precision expected as a function of the calcium content of the irradiated target was examined, using 3 sets of tissue equivalent standards of calcium contents 5, 20 and 50g respectively. The first results obtained on calcium 49 in vivo show that a calcium content variation can be followed with a sensitivity threshold below that obtained by conventional methods [fr

  3. Prompt neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatnin, Yu.S.; Kroshkin, N.I.; Korostylev, V.A.; Nefedov, V.N.; Ryazanov, D.K.; Starostov, B.I.; Semenov, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    The californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum was measured in the energy range of 0.01 to 10 MeV by the time-of-flight technique using various neutron detectors. The measurements of 252 Cf neutron spectrum at energies of 0.01 to 5 MeV were performed as a function of fission fragment kinetic energy. The mean neutron spectrum energy in the range of 0.7 to 10 MeV was found from the results of measurements. The irregularity in the 252 Cf neutron spectrum in the neutron energy range of less than 0.7 MeV compared to theoretical values is discussed. The mechanism of 252 Cf neutron emission is also discussed on the basis of neutron yield angle measurements. 12 references

  4. A californium-252 source for radiobiological studies at Hiroshima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Takeoka, Seiji; Kuroda, Tokue; Tsujimura, Tomotaka; Kawami, Masaharu; Hoshi, Masaharu; Sawada, Shozo

    1987-01-01

    A 1.93 Ci (3.6 mg) californium-252 source was installed in the radiation facility of the Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Hiroshima University. This source produces fission neutrons (8.7 x 10 9 n/s at the time of its installation), which are similar to neutron spectrum of the atomic bombs. It is useful for studying biological effects of fission neutrons and neutron dosimetry. An apparatus was dosigned to accomodate this source and to apply it to such studies. It has resulted in profitable fission neutron exposures, while suppressing scattered neutrons and secondary gamma rays. This apparatus incorporates many safety systems, including one which interlocks with all of doors and an elevator serving the exposure room, so as to prevent accidents involving users. (author)

  5. Extraction of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides from Californium Campaign Rework Solution Using TODGA-based Solvent Extraction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dryman, Joshua Cory [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report presents the studies carried out to demonstrate the possibility of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides and lanthanides from highly acidic solutions using a neutral ligand-based solvent extraction system. These studies stemmed from the perceived advantage of such systems over cationexchange- based solvent extraction systems that require an extensive feed adjustment to make a low-acid feed. The targeted feed solutions are highly acidic aqueous phases obtained after the dissolution of curium targets during a californium (Cf) campaign. Results obtained with actual Cf campaign solutions, but highly diluted to be manageable in a glove box, are presented, followed by results of tests run in the hot cells with Cf campaign rework solutions. It was demonstrated that a solvent extraction system based on the tetraoctyl diglycolamide molecule is capable of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides from highly acidic solutions. This system was validated using actual feeds from a Cf campaign.

  6. Application of californium-252 neutron sources for analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Daido

    1976-01-01

    The researches made for the application of Cf-252 neutron sources to analytical chemistry during the period from 1970 to 1974 including partly 1975 are reviewed. The first part is the introduction to the above. The second part deals with general review of symposia, publications and the like. Attention is directed to ERDA publishing the periodical ''Californium-252 Progress'' and to a study group of Cf-252 utilization held by Japanese Radioisotope Association in 1974. The third part deals with its application for radio activation analysis. The automated absolute activation analysis (AAAA) of Savannha River is briefly explained. The joint experiment of Savannha River operation office with New Brunswick laboratory is mentioned. Cf-252 radiation source was used for the non-destructive analysis of elements in river water. East neutrons of Cf-252 were used for the quantitative analysis of lead in paints. Many applications for industrial control processes have been reported. Attention is drawn to the application of Cf-252 neutron sources for the field search of neutral resources. For example, a logging sonde for searching uranium resources was developed. the fourth part deals with the application of the analysis with gamma ray by capturing neutrons. For example, a bore hole sonde and the process control analysis of sulfur in fuel utilized capture gamma ray. The prompt gamma ray by capturing neutrons may be used for the nondestructive analysis of enrivonment. (Iwakiri, K.)

  7. Teratogenic effect of Californium-252 irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Lee, Juing-Yi; Hori, Hiroshi; Okuda, Hiroe; Tsuchimoto, Shigeo; Sawada, Shozo; Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1989-01-01

    The teratogenicity of Californium-252 (Cf-252) irradiation which generates approximately 70% 2.3 MeV fast neutron and 30% gamma rays was evaluated. A single whole body exposure of Cf-252 at various doses was given to pregnant rats on day 8 or 9 of pregnancy, followed by microscopic autopsy of the fetuses at the terminal stage of pregnancy to search for external and internal malformations. For comparison, pregnant rats were irradiated with various doses of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) standard gamma rays at the same dose rate (1 rad/min.). The doses were 20-120 rad of Cf-252 and 80-220 rad of Co-60. Using frequency of radiation induced malformations observed on day 8 of pregnancy as an index, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 2.3-2.7 was obtained from the straight line obtained by modifying by the least squares method the frequency curves of malformed fetuses in total implants and in surviving fetuses. The types of malformations induced by Cf-252 and Co-60 irradiation were alike. Using fetal LD 50 as an index, 2.4 was obtained as RBE when irradiated on day 8 of pregnancy and 3.1 as that when irradiated on day 9. The results showed that Cf-252 had stronger a teratogenic effect than Co-60 gamma rays. (author)

  8. Experimental studies on californium bioavailability to marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Carvalho, F.P.; Aston, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    252 Cf is readily taken up by benthic invertebrates from sea water, reaching whole-body concentration factors of 763 in the polychaete Hermione hystrix, 220 in the shrimp Lysmata seticaudata, 665 in the crab Pilumnus hirtellus and 78 in the bivalve mollusc Venerupis decussata after 3 weeks exposure. Surface sorption plays a predominant role in the uptake process. Depuration in clean sea water was a relatively slow process. The shrimp Lysmata eliminated 252 Cf very rapidly due to moulting. Absorption coefficients for ingested 252 Cf were high, approx. 23% in crabs and approx. 97% in brittlestars. The absorbed fraction was excreted twice as fast from crabs as brittlestars. Exposure of organisms to labelled sediment resulted in low transfer factors that were species dependent. There is some evidence to suggest that uptake from sediments is primarily due to 252 Cf transfer from the pore water. Comparison of these results with published experimental data on other transuranic nuclides in the same or similar species suggests that californium bioavailability is roughly equivalent to that of plutonium and americium. (author)

  9. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Byrne, T.E.; Miller, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252 Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252 Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252 Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252 Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252 Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy. (author)

  10. Proposed Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Laxson, R.R.; Knauer, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL has petitioned to establish a Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science for academic, industrial, and governmental researchers. The REDC Californium Facility (CF) stores the national inventory of sealed 252 Cf neutron source for university and research loans. Within the CF, the 252 Cf storage pool and two uncontaminated hot cells currently in service for the Californium Program will form the physical basis for the User Facility. Relevant applications include dosimetry and experiments for neutron tumor therapy; fast and thermal neutron activation analysis of materials; experimental configurations for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis; neutron shielding and material damage studies; and hardness testing of radiation detectors, cameras, and electronics. A formal User Facility simplifies working arrangements and agreements between US DOE facilities, academia, and commercial interests

  11. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Byrne, T.E.; Miller, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252 Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252 Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252 Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252 Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252 Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy

  12. Beyond Californium-A Neutron Generator Alternative for Dosimetry and Instrument Calibration in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Roman K; Mozhayev, Andrey V; Murphy, Mark K; Thompson, Alan K

    2017-09-01

    Evaluations of neutron survey instruments, area monitors, and personal dosimeters rely on reference neutron radiations, which have evolved from the heavy reliance on (α,n) sources to a shared reliance on (α,n) and the spontaneous fission neutrons of californium-252 (Cf). Capable of producing high dose equivalent rates from an almost point source geometry, the characteristics of Cf are generally more favorable when compared to the use of (α,n) and (γ,n) sources or reactor-produced reference neutron radiations. Californium-252 is typically used in two standardized configurations: unmoderated, to yield a fission energy spectrum; or with the capsule placed within a heavy-water moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum that is generally considered more appropriate for evaluating devices used in nuclear power plant work environments. The U.S. Department of Energy Cf Loan/Lease Program, a longtime origin of affordable Cf sources for research, testing and calibration, was terminated in 2009. Since then, high-activity sources have become increasingly cost-prohibitive for laboratories that formerly benefited from that program. Neutron generators, based on the D-T and D-D fusion reactions, have become economically competitive with Cf and are recognized internationally as important calibration and test standards. Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are jointly considering the practicality and technical challenges of implementing neutron generators as calibration standards in the U.S. This article reviews the characteristics of isotope-based neutron sources, possible isotope alternatives to Cf, and the rationale behind the increasing favor of electronically generated neutron options. The evaluation of a D-T system at PNNL has revealed characteristics that must be considered in adapting generators to the task of calibration and testing where accurate determination of a dosimetric quantity is

  13. X-ray-diffraction study of californium metal to 16 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.; Benedict, U.; Dufour, C.; Birkel, I.; Haire, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The first series of measurements to determine the structural behavior of californium (Cf) metal under pressure has been carried out. The initial dhcp structure transformed sluggishly with increasing pressure to a fcc structure. A bulk modulus of 50(5) GPa was derived for dhcp Cf metal from the relative volume (V/V 0 ) data to 10 GPa

  14. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila R, I.

    1991-06-01

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  15. Assessment of the neutron component in a neutron-gamma field of a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetteh, G.K.

    1978-12-01

    Experiments have been performed to determine the percentages of the different components in the radiation field of californium-252 which has now some clinical applications. Using Rossi Chambers in conjunction with absorption investigations involving lead and aluminium thimbles, it is observed that the dose rates due to the different components are: neutrons 54%; gammas 30%; betas 16%

  16. Discovery of abundant cellulose microfibers encased in 250 Ma Permian halite: a macromolecular target in the search for life on other planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jack D; Willcox, Smaranda; Powers, Dennis W; Nelson, Roger; Baxter, Bonnie K

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we utilized transmission electron microscopy to examine the contents of fluid inclusions in halite (NaCl) and solid halite crystals collected 650 m below the surface from the Late Permian Salado Formation in southeastern New Mexico (USA). The halite has been isolated from contaminating groundwater since deposition approximately 250 Ma ago. We show that abundant cellulose microfibers are present in the halite and appear remarkably intact. The cellulose is in the form of 5 nm microfibers as well as composite ropes and mats, and was identified by resistance to 0.5 N NaOH treatment and susceptibility to cellulase enzyme treatment. These cellulose microfibers represent the oldest native biological macromolecules to have been directly isolated, examined biochemically, and visualized (without growth or replication) to date. This discovery points to cellulose as an ideal macromolecular target in the search for life on other planets in our Solar System.

  17. Local Structure in Americium and Californium Hexa-cyanoferrates - Comparison with Their Lanthanide Analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupouy, G.; Bonhoure, I.; Dumas, Th.; Moisy, Ph.; Petit, S.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Conradson, St.D.; Hennig, Ch.; Scheinost, A.C.; Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E.

    2011-01-01

    Metal hexa-cyanoferrates are well known molecular solids for a large variety of cations, although very little has been described for actinide adducts. Two new members of actinide(III) hexa-cyanoferrates were synthesized with the cations americium and californium. They were structurally characterized by infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Combined EXAFS data at the iron K edge and actinide L 3 edge provide evidence for a three-dimensional model for these two new compounds. Structural data in terms of bond lengths were compared to those reported for the parent lanthanide(III) compounds, neodymium and gadolinium hexa-cyanoferrates, respectively: the americium compound with (KNd(III)Fe(II)-Fe-III(CN) 6 .4H 2 O and the californium compound with (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) . 3.5H 2 O and (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 .3H 2 O. This comparison between actinide and lanthanide homologues has been carried out on the basis of ionic radii considerations. The americium and neodymium environments appear to be very similar and are arranged in a tri-capped trigonal prism polyhedron of coordination number 9 (CN: 9), in which the americium atom is bonded to six nitrogen atoms and to three water molecules. For the californium adduct, a similar comparison and bond length and angle values derived from EXAFS studies suggest that the californium cation sits in a bi-capped trigonal prism (CN: 8) as in (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 . 3H 2 O. This arrangement differs from that in the structure of (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 .3.5H 2 O, in which the gadolinium atom is surrounded by 9 atoms. This is one of the rare pieces of information revealed by EXAFS spectroscopy for americium and californium in comparison to lanthanide atoms in molecular solid compounds. A discussion on the decrease in bond length and coordination number from americium to californium is also provided, on the basis of crystallographic results reported in the literature for actinide(III) and lanthanide(III) hydrate series. (authors)

  18. Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company californium multiplier/delayed neutron counter safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1976-08-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of uranium surrounding 252 Cf spontaneously fissioning neutron sources; its function is to multiply the neutron flux to a level useful for activation analysis. This document summarizes the safety analysis aspects of the CFX, DNC, pneumatic transfer system, and instrumentation and to detail all the aspects of the total facility as a starting point for the ARHCO Safety Analysis Review. Recognized hazards and steps already taken to neutralize them are itemized

  19. Instrumental neutron activation determination of gold in mineral raw materials using a californium neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilo, N.A.; Ippolitov, E.G.; Ivanenko, V.V.; Kustov, B.N.; Zheleznov, V.V.; Aristov, G.N.; Kovalenko, V.V.; Kondrat'ev, N.B.

    1983-01-01

    A facility using a californium neutron source and a method for the neutron activation analysis of gold were developed. The sensitivity of the determination is 0.1 g/t. The causes of random and systematic errors have been studied. It is concluded that in prospection and evaluation of gold ore deposists, the traditional test tube analysis for gold may be replaced with the developed method. (author)

  20. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Shappert, L.B.; Seagren, R.D.; Klima, B.B.; Jurgensen, M.C.; Hammond, C.R.; Watson, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  1. Spectroscopic and redox properties of curium and californium ions in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.; Varlashkin, P.G.; Samhoun, K.; Haire, R.G.; Peterson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Multimilligram quantities of trivalent curium-248 and californium-249 were investigated by absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and bulk solution electrolysis in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate solution. Actinide concentrations between 10 -4 and 10 -2 M were studied in 2 M sodium carbonate and 5.5 M potassium carbonate solutions at pH values from 8 to 14. The solution absorption spectra of Cm(III) and Cf(III) in carbonate media are presented for the first time and compared to literature spectra of these species in noncomplexing aqueous solution. It was anticipated that carbonate complexation of the actinide ions could provide a sufficient negative shift in the formal potentials of the M(IV)/M(III) couples of Cm and Cf to permit the generation and stabilization of their tetravalent states in aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate medium. No conclusive evidence was found in the present work to indicate the existence of any higher oxidation states of curium or californium in carbonate solution. Some possible reasons for our inability to generate and detect oxidized species of curium and californium in this medium are discussed

  2. Use of californium-252 neutron irradiator for in-vivo analysis of the bone calcium content of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Leitienne, P.; Zech, P.Y.; Traeger, J.; Doyen, J.B.; Breton, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    With californium-252 it is easy to obtain a high neutron flux of the order of 10 9 n/s. The mean energy of this radiation, which is close on 2 MeV, activates calcium very well. The authors describe a storage and irradiator unit with a 100 μg californium source, with which it will henceforth be possible to develop this technique of measuring the calcium of the hand in a hospital. The test programme has three distinct phases: (1) irradiation of the biological target for 10 min; (2) after a transfer period of 30 s, detection of the radiation emitted by the 49 Ca for 600 s; (3) processing of the numerical data received, which are transmitted on line to a T 1600 calculator. The weight is found by comparing the activity induced in the unknown calcium mass with that induced in a phantom chosen as the activity standard. The reproducibility of the method is of the order of 3% (5% at the worst). The gross standardized result is edited automatically. For physical and clinical reasons, the hand is chosen as the reference part of the body in 70 control subjects. The local irradiation dose is less than 2 rem. The bone calcium content is 14.3+-1.9 g in men and 10.1+-1.3 g in women. In clinical application of the technique it is necessary to differentiate between the normal calcium content and the calcium content found with a pathological state. This makes it necessary to express the measurement in the form of a volume mass (rho). The volume of the hand skeleton (V in cm 3 ) is calculated from the corresponding bone surface (S in cm 2 ) measured by planimetry with the relationship V=8.925 exp 0.0205.S, found after studying 80 hand skeletons. In our control subjects the calcium bone volume mass was 0.288 g/cm 3 in men and 0.282 g/cm 3 in women. There is a very significant difference (p<0.001) in a population of 88 subjects with chronic renal insufficiencies at the terminal stage: rho=0.233 in men and 0.235 in women

  3. Convenient method of simultaneously analyzing aluminum and magnesium in pharmaceutical dosage forms using californium-252 thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landolt, R.R.; Hem, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    A commercial antacid suspension containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide products was used as a model sample to study the use of a californium-252 thermal neutron activation as a method for quantifying aluminum content as well as for the simultaneous assay of aluminum and magnesium. A 3.5-micrograms californium-252 source was used for the activation, and the induced aluminum-28 and magnesium-27 activity was simultaneously measured by sodium iodide crystal gamma-ray spectrometry using dual single-channel analyzers and scalers. The antacid suspension was contained in a chamber designed with the unique capability of serving as the container for counting the induced radioactivity in addition to being the irradiation chamber itself. This pilot study demonstrated that use of more intense californium-252 sources, which are commonly available, would provide a method that is competitive with the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid titration method in precision and in other aspects as well

  4. Measurement of californium-252 gamma photons depth dose distribution in tissue equivalent material. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadel, M A; El-Fiki, M A; Eissa, H M; Abdel-Hafez, A; Naguib, S H [National Institute of Standards, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Phantom of tissue equivalent material with and without bone was used measuring depth dose distribution of gamma-rays from californium-252 source. The source was positioned at center of perspex walled phantom. Depth dose measurements were recorded for X, Y and Z planes at different distances from source. TLD 700 was used for measuring the dose distribution. Results indicate that implantation of bone in tissue equivalent medium cause changes in the gamma depth dose distribution which varies according to variation in bone geometry. 9 figs.

  5. Measurements of integral cross sections in the californium-252 fission neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Guenther, E.; Matzke, M.; Rassl, G.

    1977-01-01

    In a low-scattering arrangement cross sections averaged over the californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were measured. The reactions 27 Al(n,α) 46 Ti, 47 Ti, 48 Ti(n,p), 54 Fe, 56 Fe(n,p), 58 Ni(n,p), 64 Zn(n,p), 115 In(n,n') were studied in order to obtain a consistent set of threshold detectors used in fast neutron flux density measurements. Overall uncertainties between 2 and 2.5% could be achieved; corrections due to neutron scattering in source and samples are discussed

  6. Neutron emission in fission of highly excited californium nuclei (E*=76 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Bordyug, V.M.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Levitovich, M.; Muzychka, Yu.A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Pustyl'nik, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    The differential cross sections for neutron production in the fission of highly excited californium nuclei formed in the 238 U+ 12 C (105 MeV) reaction have been measured. From the analysis of the experimental data is follows that the number of pre-fission neutrons substantially exceeds the value obtained in the framework of the standard statistical model. The saddle-to-scission time of the excited nucleus is estimated on the basis of the neutron multiplicity. The dependences of the neutron number and neutron average energies upon the fragment mass are determined

  7. Neutron emission in fission of highly excited californium nuclei (E* = 76 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Bordyug, V.M.; Kozulin, E.M.; Levitovich, M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Muzychka, Yu.A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Pustyl'nik, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    Differential cross sections for neutron production have been measured in fission of excited californium nuclei produced in the reaction 238 U + 12 C (105 MeV). It follows from analysis of the experimental results that the number of neutrons emitted before fission considerably exceeds the number obtained in the framework of the standard statistical model. On the basis of the multiplicity of neutrons they authors have estimated the time of fission of the excited nucleus. The dependence of the number of neutrons and their average energies on the mass of the fragments is determined

  8. Californium oxygen system for 1.50 < O/Cf < 1.72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Haire, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The californium-oxygen system was studied as a function of temperature, oxygen pressure, and stoichiometry by manometric and x-ray diffraction methods. The results establish rhombohedral Cf 7 O 12 as the stable compound obtained by heating Cf 2 O 3 in air. The isobaric oxidation-reduction cycles Cf 2 O 3 → Cf 7 O 12 → Cf 2 O 3 , observed in constant rate of heating (cooling) experiments, occur with large hysteresis. A close parallel to other fluorite related lanthanide and actinide oxide systems is established. (auth)

  9. Possible stabilization of the tetravalent oxidation state of berkelium and californium in acetonitrile with triphenylarsine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.F.; Peterson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that we may have prepared Bk(IV) nitrate.nTPAs0 and Bk(IV) perchlorate.nTPAs0 complexes which formed the corresponding Cf(IV) complexes through the beta decay of Bk-249. Definitive proof should come from similar experiments with quantities of Bk-249 large enough to allow spectrophotometric detection of the characteristic f→f transitions in these berkelium and californium species. It is clear, however, that TPAs0 and acetonitrile can play a pivotal role in the stabilization of lanact(IV) species

  10. Comparison of the Savannah River Site billet active well coincidence counter and two Californium Shufflers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, E.T.; Griffin, J.C.; Rinard, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    A Scrap Californium Shuffler at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was calibrated to assay the U-Al cores of billets (an intermediate step in the SRS reactor fuel fabrication cycle.) The precision of the Scrap Shuffler over several years has been approximately 0.50%. A typical total uncertainty for the assay of a core on the Scrap Shuffler is approximately 0.33% for a twelve minute assay. The precision over several months and a typical total uncertainty for the Billet Active Well (neutron) Coincidence Counter (BAWCC) are approximately 1.0% and 1.9%, respectively, for a fifteen minute assay. A new Billet Californium Shuffler specifically designed for assaying SRS billets has yielded precision (over one month) and total uncertainty results of 0.40% and 0.69%, respectively, for an eight minute assay. The introduction of a measurement point into the fuel fabrication cycle to replace estimates based upon material weight will greatly enhance material and process control in the Reactor Materials area of SRS. The use of all three instruments provides a comparison of the relative merits of Active Well (neutron) Coincidence Counters (AWCCs) and shufflers for assay of homogeneous and geometrically simple material containing 235 U. The measurement precisions, systematic and random uncertainties, as well as the procurement and operation of each instrument will be compared. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Spectral investigation of neutron radiation in three-sectional concrete labyrinth from a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogorlov, E.A.; Britvich, G.I.; Getmanov, V.B.

    1985-01-01

    Construction of labyrinths in points of communication output from the storage-ring under construction is accompanied by numerous difficulties due to a considerable number of gas and cryogenic pipelines, which require large cross sections at the minimal length of the pipelines proper for their location. It results in unfavourable for radiation attenuation ratios between cross section and length of the labyrinth separate sections. Neutron spectra in a model concrete labyrinth, at the entrance to which a neutron source with fission spectrum (californium-252) and the same source in a polyethylene moderator are located, are measured. On the basis of the spectra obtained the formation of fluence and equivalent dose along the labyrinth geometric axis is analyzed. Conditions permitting actually to reduce radiation dose in the labyrinth (dead end provision, the use of cover materials, construction of diaphragms and shielding plates) are simulated

  12. Transport calculations of. gamma. -ray flux density and dose rate about implantable californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A; Lin, B I [Cincinnati Univ., Ohio (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Windham, J P; Kereiakes, J G

    1976-07-01

    ..gamma.. flux density and dose rate distributions have been calculated about implantable californium-252 sources for an infinite tissue medium. Point source flux densities as a function of energy and position were obtained from a discrete-ordinates calculation, and the flux densities were multiplied by their corresponding kerma factors and added to obtain point source dose rates. The point dose rates were integrated over the line source to obtain line dose rates. Container attenuation was accounted for by evaluating the point dose rate as a function of platinum thickness. Both primary and secondary flux densities and dose rates are presented. The agreement with an independent Monte Carlo calculation was excellent. The data presented should be useful for the design of new source configurations.

  13. Charge state and incident energy dependence of K X-ray emission as a function of target thickness for 50-165 MeV Cu ions incident on 11-250 μg/cm2 Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoi, T.; Shima, K.; Umetani, K.; Moriyama, M.; Ishihara, T.; Mikumo, T.

    1986-01-01

    Thin self-supporting Cu targets in 11-250 μg/cm 2 thickness were bombarded with 50-165 MeV Cu sup(qi + ) ions (7 + )+Cu. From the observed K X-ray yields, K-shell vacancy production cross sections averaged over the target thickness t of projectile sigmasub(KV) and target sigmasup(*)sub(KV) were separately derived taking into account the fluorescence yield that can be estimated from the Ksub(α) X-ray energy shift. When the values of sigmasub(KV) and sigmasup(*)sub(KV) are extrapolated to zero foil thickness, the K shell vacancy formed in the collision has been found to be equally shared between projectile and target in a single collision. With the increase of penetration depth, however, the values of sigmasup(*)sub(KV) are greater than those of sigmasub(KV) presumably due to electron transfer of a target K electron to the projectile K vacancy. The evolution process of projectile excited states as a function of target thickness and the resulting variation of projectile and target K X-ray emissions are discussed. (orig.)

  14. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  15. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P.; Pikin, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz

  16. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction 55 Mn (n.gamma) 56 Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of 56 Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions 56 Fe(n,p) 56 Mn and 59 Co (n, α) 56 were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  17. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252 Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252 Cf and 7000 rad from 226 Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252 Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252 Cf and 5000 rad from 226 Ra

  18. Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Smith, E.H.; Glasgow, D.C.; Jerde, E.A.; Marsh, D.L.; Zhao, L.

    1997-12-01

    The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide 252 Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world's largest inventory of compact 252 Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of ≤ 10 11 neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 10 8 cm -2 s -1 at the sample. Total flux of ≥10 9 cm -2 s -1 is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the 252 Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis

  19. Feasibility and market potential of protein determination of wheat using californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.C. Jr.; Eckhoff, N.D.; Clack, R.W.; Roberts, T.C. Sr.

    1976-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of protein determination by capture gamma-ray analysis using californium-252 neutrons, an in-situ protein analysis system for use by grain handlers has been examined. Three 227 kilogram (approximately) lots of wheat were used to determine the amount of nitrogen present. Protein analyses by the Kjeldahl method were obtained from samples taken before and after the capture gamma-ray analyses. The 5.267-MeV gamma-ray was selected for use in this study as a compromise between efficiency and interference from other elements. The associated counting equipment was a multichannel analyzer with pulse shaping electronic and analysis computing equipment. A linear regression program was used to compare the regions of interest to the Kjeldahl protein averages. The counts composing each peak were summed and normalized using the total count of the hydrogen peak. The normalized nitrogen percentages indicate a significant correlation between the spectral regions and the Kjeldahl analyses. To a first approximation, the value of wheat is the wheat protein. At the present time, protein testing of wheat is destructive, cumbersome, and time-consuming as compared to the potential for capture gamma-ray analysis testing. Assuming that such a protein analysis unit can analyze 42 tonne of wheat per hour, over 120 units would be needed to monitor one-half the U.S. annual wheat production. A 0.5% improvement in processor realizations and grain throughput value of $167.00 per tonne will result in a projected savings of $150,000 per year per unit

  20. Neutron reflector design with Californium 252 neutron for Boron neutron chapter therapy facility using MCNP5 simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Fakhrurreza; Kusminanto; Y Sardjono

    2014-01-01

    In this research has made a reflector design to provide beams of Neutron for BNCT with Californium-252 radioactive source. This collimator is useful to obtain optimum epithermal neutron flux with the smallest impurity radiation (thermal neutron, fast neutron, and gamma). The design process is done using Monte Carlo N-Particle simulation version 5 (MCNP5) code to calculate the neutron flux tally form. The chosen reflector design is the reflectors which use material such as BeO ceramic with 13 cm thick. Moderator use sulfur material with the slope angle of the cone is 30°. From the calculation result, it is obtained that Reflector with 1 gram Californium-252 source can produce a neutron output thermal which has thermal neutron specification 2.23189 x 10 9 n/s.cm 2 , epithermal neutron 3.51548 x 10 9 n/s.cm 2 , and fast neutron 4.82241 x 10 9 n/s.cm 2 From the result, it needs additional collimator because the BNCT requirement. (author)

  1. Hypoxic versus normoxic external-beam irradiation of cervical carcinoma combined with californium-252 neutron brachytherapy. Comparative treatment results of a 5-year randomized study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tačev, T.; Vacek, Antonín; Ptáčková, B.; Strnad, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 5 (2005), s. 273-284 ISSN 0179-7158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : cervical carcinoma * hypoxyradiotherapy * californium-252 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2005

  2. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252; Estudio de blindaje para fuentes de fision espontanea de Californio-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila R, I

    1991-06-15

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  3. Simulation and design of an electron beam ion source charge breeder for the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Dickerson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An electron beam ion source (EBIS will be constructed and used to charge breed ions from the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade (CARIBU for postacceleration into the Argonne tandem linear accelerator system (ATLAS. Simulations of the EBIS charge breeder performance and the related ion transport systems are reported. Propagation of the electron beam through the EBIS was verified, and the anticipated incident power density within the electron collector was identified. The full normalized acceptance of the charge breeder with a 2 A electron beam, 0.024π  mm mrad for nominal operating parameters, was determined by simulating ion injection into the EBIS. The optics of the ion transport lines were carefully optimized to achieve well-matched ion injection, to minimize emittance growth of the injected and extracted ion beams, and to enable adequate testing of the charge bred ions prior to installation in ATLAS.

  4. Californium-252 Brachytherapy Combined With External-Beam Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Long-Term Treatment Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Xin; Qian Chengyuan; Qing Yi; Zhao Kewei; Yang Zhengzhou; Dai Nan; Zhong Zhaoyang; Tang Cheng; Li Zheng; Gu Xianqing; Zhou Qian; Feng Yan; Xiong Yanli; Shan Jinlu; Wang Dong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To observe, by retrospective analysis, the curative effects and complications due to californium-252 ( 252 Cf) neutron intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From February 1999 to December 2007, 696 patients with cervical cancer (Stages IB to IIIB) were treated with 252 Cf-ICBT in combination of EBRT. Of all, 31 patients were at Stage IB, 104 at IIA, 363 at IIB, 64 at IIIA, and 134 at IIIB. Californium-252 ICBT was delivered at 7–12 Gy per insertion per week, with a total dose of 29–45 Gy to reference point A in three to five insertions. The whole pelvic cavity was treated with 8-MV X-ray external irradiation at 2 Gy per fraction, four times per week. After 16–38 Gy of external irradiation, the center of the whole pelvic field was blocked with a 4-cm-wide lead shield, with a total external irradiation dose of 44–56 Gy. The total treatment course was 5 to 6 weeks. Results: Overall survival rate at 3 and 5 years for all patients was 76.0% and 64.9%, respectively. Disease-free 3- and 5-year survival rates of patients were 71.2% and 58.4%, respectively. Late complications included vaginal contracture and adhesion, radiation proctitis, radiation cystitis, and inflammatory bowel, which accounted for 5.8%, 7.1%, 6.2%, and 4.9%, respectively. Univariate analysis results showed significant correlation of stage, age, histopathologic grade, and lymph node status with overall survival. Cox multiple regression analysis showed that the independent variables were stage, histopathologic grade, tumor size, and lymphatic metastasis in all patients. Conclusion: Results of this series suggest that the combined use of 252 Cf-ICBT with EBRT is an effective method for treatment of cervical cancer.

  5. CANDU-BLW-250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, G. A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, Sheridan Park, ON (Canada)

    1968-04-15

    The plant ''La Centrale nucleaire de Gentiliy'' is located between Montreal and Quebec City on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River. Startup is scheduled for 1971. A CANDU-BLW reactor is the nuclear steam generator. This reactor utilizes a heavy-water moderator, natural uranium oxide fuel, and a boiling light-water coolant. To be economic, this type of plant must have a minimum light-water inventory in the reactor core. A minimum inventory is obtained (a) by reducing the cross-sectional area for coolant flow to a minimum, and (b) by operating at a low coolant density. In CANDU-BLW-250, this is accomplished by operating a closed spaced fuel rod bundle at high steam quality. These features and others in the BLW concept lead to a number of areas of concern and they are summarized below: (i) Heat transfer. It is intended that under normal operating conditions the fuel sheaths will always be wetted with coolant. Some experiments and backup calculations are presented to support this specification. (ii) Hydrodynamic stability. Experiments and analysis indicate that the plant has a considerable over-power capacity before instability is predicted. (iii) Control. This plant does have a positive power coefficient and the transient performance with various disturbances is detailed. (iv) Safety. The positive power coefficient leads to concern over the loss of coolant accident. The results of some accident analyses are presented. (author)

  6. CANDU-BLW-250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, G A

    1967-09-15

    The plant 'La Centrale nucleaire de Gentilly' is located between Montreal and Quebec City on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River and start-up is scheduled for 1971. A CANDU-BLW reactor is the nuclear steam generator. his reactor utilizes a heavy water moderator, natural uranium oxide fuel, and a boiling light water coolant. To be economic, this type of plant must have a minimum light water inventory in the reactor core. A minimum inventory is obtained (a) by reducing the cross-sectional area for coolant flow to a minimum, and (b) by operating at a low-coolant density. In CANDU-BLW-250, this is accomplished by operating a closed spaced fuel rod bundle at high steam quality. These features and others in the BLW concept lead to a number of areas of concern and they are summarized below: (1) Heat Transfer: It is intended that under normal operating conditions the fuel sheaths will always be wetted with coolant. (ii) Hydrodynamic Stability: Experiments and analysis indicate that the plant has a considerable over-power capacity before instability is predicted. (iii) Control: This plant does have a positive power coefficient and the transient performance with various disturbances are detailed. (iv) Safety: The positive power coefficient leads to concern over the loss of coolant accident. The results of some accident analysis are presented. (author)

  7. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  8. Neutron flux characterization of californium-252 Neutron Research Facility at the University of Texas - Pan American by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Kareem; Sanchez, Patrick; Hannan, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    In the field of nuclear science, neutron flux is an intrinsic property of nuclear reaction facilities that is the basis for experimental irradiation calculations and analysis. In the Rio Grande Valley (Texas), the UTPA Neutron Research Facility (NRF) is currently the only neutron facility available for experimental research purposes. The facility is comprised of a 20-microgram californium-252 neutron source surrounded by a shielding cascade containing different irradiation cavities. Thermal and fast neutron flux values for the UTPA NRF have yet to be fully investigated and may be of particular interest to biomedical studies in low neutron dose applications. Though a variety of techniques exist for the characterization of neutron flux, neutron activation analysis (NAA) of metal and nonmetal foils is a commonly utilized experimental method because of its detection sensitivity and availability. The aim of our current investigation is to employ foil activation in the determination of neutron flux values for the UTPA NSRF for further research purposes. Neutron spectrum unfolding of the acquired experimental data via specialized software and subsequent comparison for consistency with computational models lends confidence to the results.

  9. 30 CFR 250.1000 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements. 250.1000 Section 250.1000... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1000 General....1001, must meet the requirements in §§ 250.1000 through 250.1008. (2) A pipeline right-of-way grant...

  10. 21 CFR 250.250 - Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 250.250 Section 250.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements for Drugs and Cosmetics § 250.250 Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products... cosmetic products has expanded widely in recent years. It is used in such products because of its...

  11. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amari, S., E-mail: siham_amari@yahoo.fr [Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Hassiba Benbouali, Chlef, 02000 (Algeria); Bouhafs, B. [Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation en Sciences des Matériaux, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbés, Sidi Bel-Abbés, 22000 (Algeria)

    2016-09-15

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young’s modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  12. Use of polyethylene pellets in the design and construction of a storage safe, a transport vessel and a portable shield for californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.

    1986-01-01

    A storage and shielding facility for 300 μg of Californium-252 sources was designed and constructed. Though the safe was in a permanent location, the fact that it consisted of a lead bucket surrounded by polyethylene pellets made it simple, movable and inexpensive. If need be, more quantities of Cf-252 could be added without altering the basic design and sacrificing the radiation protection guidelines. The measured radiation levels from 300 μg of stored Cf-252 in and around the storage vault were lower than the expected dose rates by a factor of 5. The measured radiation levels around the occupied environs of the facility were below the maximum permissible yearly dose of 500mrem for non-occupational workers. A transport vessel was designed and constructed to carry up to 50 μg of Californium-252 sources. It consisted of a standard 55 gallon steel drum on casters containing cylindrical lead shield surrounded by polyethylene pellets. The measured maximum surface dose rates on the drum and at one meter away were within the radiation protection guidelines and were less than the expected dose rates. A portable shield was designed and constructed to protect the body in afterloading operations and handling of the sources. It consisted of polyethylene pellets in an aluminum box and an attached 10 cm thick plexiglass eye shield. The simple design, with the ease of using polyethylene pellets can be extended to construct bedside shields

  13. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Index table. 250.1401 Section 250.1401 Mineral... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of the sections in this subpart: § 250.1401Table Definitions...

  14. 48 CFR 1846.673 - Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Distribution of DD Forms... Reports 1846.673 Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c. (a) DD Forms 250 and 250c shall be distributed in accordance with installation procedures. (b) The contractor is responsible for distributing DD Forms 250 and...

  15. 7 CFR 250.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 250.2 Section 250.2 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General § 250.2 Administration. (a) Delegation to FNS. Within the Department, FNS shall act on behalf of the Department in the administration of the...

  16. 7 CFR 250.19 - Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or review to determine the extent to which sales are to be disallowed, establish a claim, and/or... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reviews. 250.19 Section 250.19 Agriculture Regulations... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General Operating Provisions § 250.19 Reviews. (a...

  17. 30 CFR 250.602 - Equipment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.602 Section 250.602... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.602 Equipment movement. The movement of well-workover rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well on...

  18. 30 CFR 250.502 - Equipment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.502 Section 250.502... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.502 Equipment movement. The movement of well-completion rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well...

  19. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  20. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  1. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S...

  2. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  3. 7 CFR 250.21 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 250.21 Section 250.21 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General Operating Provisions § 250.21 Civil... Department's nondiscrimination regulations (7 CFR parts 15, 15a, and 15b) and the FNS civil rights...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1614 - Mud program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud program. 250.1614 Section 250.1614 Mineral... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1614 Mud program. (a) The quantities, characteristics, use, and testing of drilling mud and the related drilling procedures shall be designed and...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1008 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports. 250.1008 Section 250.1008 Mineral... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1008 Reports. (a) The... lessee or right-of-way holder shall submit a report to the Regional Supervisor within 90 days after...

  6. 45 CFR 2541.250 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 2541.250 Section 2541.250 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.250 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the...

  7. 31 CFR 250.3 - Voucher applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voucher applications. 250.3 Section 250.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... in 250.4 and returned to the Credit Accounting Branch with the relevant information and the...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 250.1201 Section 250.1201 Mineral... Security § 250.1201 Definitions. Terms not defined in this section have the meanings given in the... hydrocarbons attributable to one or more platforms, leases, units, or wells, in relation to the total...

  9. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 250.300 Section 250.300... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.300 Pollution prevention. (a... pollution occurs as a result of operations conducted by or on behalf of the lessee and the pollution damages...

  10. 7 CFR 250.57 - Commodity schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity schools. 250.57 Section 250.57 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.57 Commodity schools. (a) Categorization of commodity schools. Commodity...

  11. Generation of chimeric bispecific G250/anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, a tool to combat renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, R. M.; Coney, L. R.; Fleuren, G. J.; Warnaar, S. O.; Litvinov, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody (MAb) G250 binds to a tumour-associated antigen, expressed in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which has been demonstrated to be a suitable target for antibody-mediated immunotherapy. A bispecific antibody having both G250 and anti-CD3 specificity can cross-link G250

  12. 48 CFR 1846.672 - Preparing DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Preparing DD Forms 250 and 250c. 1846.672 Section 1846.672 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... DD Forms 250 and 250c. ...

  13. The N250 brain potential to personally familiar and newly learned faces and objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Justine Pierce

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies employing event-related potentials (ERPs have shown that when participants are monitoring for a novel target face, the presentation of their own face elicits an enhanced negative brain potential in posterior channels approximately 250 ms after stimulus onset. Here, we investigate whether the own-face N250 effect generalizes to other highly familiar objects, specifically, images of the participant’s own dog and own car. In our experiments, participants were asked to monitor for a pre-experimentally unfamiliar target face (Joe, a target dog (Experiment 1: Joe’s Dog or a target car (Experiment 2: Joe’s Car. The target face and object stimuli were presented with non-target foils that included novel face and object stimuli, the participant’s own face, their own dog (Experiment 1 and their own car (Experiment 2. The consistent findings across the two experiments were the following: 1 the N250 potential differentiated the target faces and objects from the non-target face and object foils and 2 despite being non-targets, the own face and own objects produced an N250 response that was equal in magnitude to the target faces and objects by the end of the experiment. Thus, as indicated by its response to personally familiar and recently familiarized faces and objects, the N250 component is a sensitive index of individuated representations in visual memory.

  14. 7 CFR 250.15 - Financial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management. 250.15 Section 250.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Financial management. (a) Distribution charges. (1) Recipient agencies may be required to pay part or all of...

  15. TAF(II)250: a transcription toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassarman, D A; Sauer, F

    2001-08-01

    Activation of RNA-polymerase-II-dependent transcription involves conversion of signals provided by gene-specific activator proteins into the synthesis of messenger RNA. This conversion requires dynamic structural changes in chromatin and assembly of general transcription factors (GTFs) and RNA polymerase II at core promoter sequence elements surrounding the transcription start site of genes. One hallmark of transcriptional activation is the interaction of DNA-bound activators with coactivators such as the TATA-box binding protein (TBP)-associated factors (TAF(II)s) within the GTF TFIID. TAF(II)250 possesses a variety of activities that are likely to contribute to the initial steps of RNA polymerase II transcription. TAF(II)250 is a scaffold for assembly of other TAF(II)s and TBP into TFIID, TAF(II)250 binds activators to recruit TFIID to particular promoters, TAF(II)250 regulates binding of TBP to DNA, TAF(II)250 binds core promoter initiator elements, TAF(II)250 binds acetylated lysine residues in core histones, and TAF(II)250 possesses protein kinase, ubiquitin-activating/conjugating and acetylase activities that modify histones and GTFs. We speculate that these activities achieve two goals--(1) they aid in positioning and stabilizing TFIID at particular promoters, and (2) they alter chromatin structure at the promoter to allow assembly of GTFs--and we propose a model for how TAF(II)250 converts activation signals into active transcription.

  16. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a... available for distribution is accompanied by documentation of the donor eligibility determination as...

  17. Dicty_cDB: VFK250 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFK250 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13825-1 VFK250P (Link to Original site) VFK2...50F 647 VFK250Z 679 VFK250P 1306 - - Show VFK250 Library VF (Link to library) Clone ID VFK2...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VF/VFK2-C/VFK250Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VFK2...50P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VFK250 (VFK250Q) /CSM/VF/VFK2-C/VFK2...re E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VFK250 (VFK250Q) /CSM/VF/VFK2-C/VFK250Q.Seq.d/

  18. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel—Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, D., E-mail: henzlova@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Menlove, H.O.; Rael, C.D.; Trellue, H.R.; Tobin, S.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-11

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  19. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel—Design concept and experimental demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H.O.; Rael, C.D.; Trellue, H.R.; Tobin, S.J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  20. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... naphtha is used or intended for use as a solvent in protective coatings on fresh citrus fruit in... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings...-oxidation, the entire procedure is to be carried out under subdued light. apparatus Separatory funnels. 250...

  1. Johann Wilhelm Krause 250 / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti klassitsistliku arhitektuuri suurkuju ning Tartu Ülikooli arhitekti Johann Wilhelm Krause 250. sünniaastapäeva tähistati näitustega Tallinnas ja Tartus. Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogu kunstikogusse kuulub ligi 700 J. W. Krause loodud joonistust

  2. 40 CFR 265.250 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Piles § 265.250 Applicability. The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that treat or store hazardous waste in piles, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise. Alternatively, a pile of hazardous waste may be managed as a landfill under subpart N. ...

  3. 40 CFR 264.250 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.250... treat hazardous waste in piles, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise. (b) The regulations in this subpart do not apply to owners or operators of waste piles that are closed with wastes left in place. Such...

  4. 5 CFR 250.203 - Agency responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management on its overall mission performance. (2) Human capital accountability system. This system provides... MANAGEMENT IN AGENCIES Strategic Human Capital Management § 250.203 Agency responsibilities. (a) To assist in... and initiatives as appropriate, consistent with agency strategic plans and annual performance goals...

  5. 7 CFR 250.17 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Inventory reports and receipt of donated foods. Distributing agencies shall complete and submit to the FNSRO semiannual reports regarding excessive inventories (as defined in § 250.14(f)) of donated foods, utilizing form FNS-155, the Inventory Management Register, except that distributing agencies shall submit monthly...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1634 - Site security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1634 Site security. (a) All locations... Regional Supervisor as soon as possible but no later than the next business day after discovery of the...

  7. IceMap250—Automatic 250 m Sea Ice Extent Mapping Using MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gignac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea ice cover in the North evolves at a rapid rate. To adequately monitor this evolution, tools with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed. This paper presents IceMap250, an automatic sea ice extent mapping algorithm using MODIS reflective/emissive bands. Hybrid cloud-masking using both the MOD35 mask and a visibility mask, combined with downscaling of Bands 3–7 to 250 m, are utilized to delineate sea ice extent using a decision tree approach. IceMap250 was tested on scenes from the freeze-up, stable cover, and melt seasons in the Hudson Bay complex, in Northeastern Canada. IceMap250 first product is a daily composite sea ice presence map at 250 m. Validation based on comparisons with photo-interpreted ground-truth show the ability of the algorithm to achieve high classification accuracy, with kappa values systematically over 90%. IceMap250 second product is a weekly clear sky map that provides a synthesis of 7 days of daily composite maps. This map, produced using a majority filter, makes the sea ice presence map even more accurate by filtering out the effects of isolated classification errors. The synthesis maps show spatial consistency through time when compared to passive microwave and national ice services maps.

  8. Ford F250 Dedicated CNG Pickup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eudy, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is encouraging the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. In this study, we tested a pair of 1998 Ford F-250 pickups: one dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) model and a gasoline model as closely matched as possible. Each vehicle was run through a series of tests to evaluate acceleration, fuel economy, braking, and cold-start capabilities, as well as more subjective performance indicators such as handling, climate control, and noise

  9. Valurautaisten 160 - 250 kokoluokan jarrumoottorien suunnitteluohje

    OpenAIRE

    Järvi, Markus

    2016-01-01

    ABB Oy:n Motors and Generators – yksikön sovellussuunnitteluosasto tarvitsi suunnitteluohjetta valurautaisille 160 – 250 kokoluokan jarrumoottoreille. Jarrumoottoreiden suunnittelu ja tuotanto ohjattiin vuoden 2015 keväällä Vaasan moottoritehtaalle ja Ruotsista tulleet ohjeet sekä dokumentointi kaipasivat parannusta. Ohjeen tarkoituksena on olla suunnittelun ja myynnin tukena. Ohje on tehty englannin kielellä, jotta sitä pystytään käyttämään ABB:n organisaatiossa myös Suomen ulkopuolella. ...

  10. Levels of 250Cf populated in the decay of 250Bk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uecke, J.W.

    1975-06-01

    The nuclide 250 Bk undergoes β-decay with a half-life of 3.2 h to 13.1 y 250 Cf. A study is undertaken of the excited states in 250 Cf populated by 250 Bk decay which results from the α-decay of 276d 254 Es. The general features of published level schemes for these nuclei are consistent with predictions of the Nilsson and collective models; however, there remain many undiscovered transitions and ambiguous or uncertain level assignments. In an attempt to confirm predictions of current theoretical models which account for nuclear level assignments in this nucleus, these gamma transitions and their levels have been studied. Twenty-eight new γ-rays were determined. The decay of 250 Bk is investigated primarily by high resolution gamma-ray singles spectrometry and supported in part by two-parameter gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometry. The equipment, comprised of a Ge(HP) and a large volume Ge(Li) detector, a 4096-channel two-parameter analyzer, and a PDP-8/e computer system, permitted significant improvement in sensitivity and accuracy over previous investigations on this nucleus. (11 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  11. 14 CFR 250.3 - Boarding priority rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Boarding priority rules. 250.3 Section 250...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS OVERSALES § 250.3 Boarding priority rules. (a) Every carrier shall establish priority... boarding on an oversold flight in the event that an insufficient number of volunteers come forward. Such...

  12. 7 CFR 250.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 250.1 Section 250.1... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED STATES, ITS TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General § 250.1 General purpose and...

  13. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality standards...

  14. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for U.S...

  15. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a) A...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1200 - Question index table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Question index table. 250.1200 Section 250.1200 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR... Security § 250.1200 Question index table. The table in this section lists questions concerning Oil and Gas...

  17. 250 Years of the State Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Wechselberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first topographic survey of the Habsburg Monarchy was decreed by Maria Theresa 250 years ago, on May 13, 1764. A conference was held on the occasion of the anniversary by the Austrian State Geodetic Administration (BEV – Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen and the Institute for Military Geosciences (IMG – Institut für Militärisches Geowesen in Vienna on May 13 and 14, 2014. The conference was sort of a time travel through Austrian state surveys. Historical development and methods of the first three state surveys (18th and 19th century were presented on the first conference day. Lectures were held by representatives of Austrian scientific institutions and new countries of the Monarchy. The second conference day was dedicated to the 4th state survey (20th century and its impact on civilian and military application and economy.

  18. Californium-252 Program Equipment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattin, Fred Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Kenton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    To successfully continue the 252Cf production and meet the needs of the customers, a comprehensive evaluation of the Building 7920 processing equipment was requested to identify equipment critical to the operational continuity of the program.

  19. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  20. Extensive interactions between HIV TAT and TAF(II)250.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, J D; Hwang, J R; Singer, D S

    2001-03-09

    The HIV transactivator, Tat, has been shown to be capable of potent repression of transcription initiation. Repression is mediated by the C-terminal segment of Tat, which binds the TFIID component, TAF(II)250, although the site(s) of interaction were not defined previously. We now report that the interaction between Tat and TAF(II)250 is extensive and involves multiple contacts between the Tat protein and TAF(II)250. The C-terminal domain of Tat, which is necessary for repression of transcription initiation, binds to a segment of TAF(II)250 that encompasses its acetyl transferase (AT) domain (885-1034 amino acids (aa)). Surprisingly, the N-terminal segment of Tat, which contains its activation domains, also binds to TAF(II)250 and interacts with two discontinuous segments of TAF(II)250 located between 885 and 984 aa and 1120 and 1279 aa. Binding of Tat to the 885-984 aa segment of TAF(II)250 requires the cysteine-rich domain of Tat, but not the acidic or glutamine-rich domains. Binding by the N-terminal domain of Tat to the 1120-1279 aa TAF(II)250 segment does not involve the acidic, cysteine- or glutamine-rich domains. Repression of transcription initiation by Tat requires functional TAF(II)250. We now demonstrate that transcription of the HIV LTR does not depend on TAF(II)250 which may account for its resistance to Tat mediated repression.

  1. 21 CFR 173.250 - Methyl alcohol residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl alcohol residues. 173.250 Section 173.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD.... Methyl alcohol may be present in the following foods under the conditions specified: (a) In spice...

  2. 41 CFR 60-250.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-250... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by all...

  3. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.463 Who establishes field drilling rules? (a) The District Manager may...

  4. 14 CFR 250.8 - Denied boarding compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denied boarding compensation. 250.8 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS OVERSALES § 250.8 Denied boarding compensation. (a) Every carrier shall tender to a passenger eligible for denied boarding compensation, on the day and place the denied boarding...

  5. 14 CFR 250.2a - Policy regarding denied boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy regarding denied boarding. 250.2a... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS OVERSALES § 250.2a Policy regarding denied boarding. In the event of an... confirmed reserved space on that flight are denied boarding involuntarily. ...

  6. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped with...

  7. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are continuously...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1626 - Tubing and wellhead equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tubing and wellhead equipment. 250.1626 Section... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1626 Tubing and wellhead equipment. (a) No tubing string shall be placed into service or continue to be used unless such...

  9. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  10. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  11. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSD250 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSD250 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14716-1 SSD250E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SSD250E 491 Show SSD250 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSD250 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U14716-1 Original site URL http://dict...t alignments: (bits) Value N U20432 |U20432.1 Dictyostelium discoideum TagB (tagB) gene, complete cds. 151 1...cName: Full=Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 7; AltNam... 45 0.001 DQ399515_1( DQ399515 |pid:none) Ictalurus

  13. 30 CFR 250.242 - What information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 250.248; (g) Air emissions information required by § 250.249; (h) Oil and hazardous substance spills...? 250.242 Section 250.242 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....258; (q) Sulphur operations information required by § 250.259; (r) Coastal zone management information...

  14. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  15. New model for the lunar interior to 250 km

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwinskii, A.J.; Duba, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    A new model for the structure of the lunar interior to about a 250-km depth is proposed. It is suggested that this region is composed of plagioclase-bearing rocks, and that the 65-km seismic discontinuity represents the appearance of garnet. A variety of rock types mainly composed of plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine and garnet is envisioned, with at least half of the outer 250 km of the moon made of plagioclase, which dominates the electrical conductivity. This model agrees with recent petrological and electrical conductivity results and does not violate velocity-depth profiles obtained from elastic-wave studies of lunar and terrestrial materials. (U.S.)

  16. 17 CFR 250.44 - Sales of securities and assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not require prior Commission approval. (c) Sales pursuant to order or plan under section 11. No... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of securities and assets... Various Financial Transactions 2 § 250.44 Sales of securities and assets. (a) Sales of utility securities...

  17. 5 CFR 250.201 - Coverage and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN AGENCIES Strategic Human Capital Management § 250.201 Coverage and purpose. The Chief Human... effective and efficient operation of Government. As a part of OPM's overall leadership responsibilities in...

  18. 17 CFR 250.28 - Inconsistent financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Accounts § 250.28 Inconsistent financial statements. Except as otherwise authorized or required by the..., financial statements which are inconsistent with the book accounts of such company or financial statements... prevent the distribution or publication of reasonable condensations or of unaudited financial statements...

  19. 7 CFR 250.62 - Summer Food Service Program (SFSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.62 Summer Food Service Program (SFSP). (a... eligible for donated food support, in accordance with 7 CFR part 225. (c) Distribution of donated foods to...

  20. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other...) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the...

  1. The Varian MAT-250 mass spectrometer. Steady isotopes laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, V.; Tavera D, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This work treats over the performance and applications of the Varian Mat-250 mass spectrometer which is in the environmental isotope laboratory. It can be applied over topics such as: ions formation, acceleration and collimation, ions separation, ions detection, data transformation, sampling, δ notation. (Author)

  2. 30 CFR 250.617 - Tubing and wellhead equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tubing and wellhead equipment. 250.617 Section... Tubing and wellhead equipment. The lessee shall comply with the following requirements during well-workover operations with the tree removed: (a) No tubing string shall be placed in service or continue to...

  3. 30 CFR 250.517 - Tubing and wellhead equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tubing and wellhead equipment. 250.517 Section... Tubing and wellhead equipment. (a) No tubing string shall be placed in service or continue to be used unless such tubing string has the necessary strength and pressure integrity and is otherwise suitable for...

  4. 5 CFR 250.202 - Office of Personnel Management responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN AGENCIES Strategic Human Capital Management § 250.202 Office of Personnel... to which human capital management strategies are integrated into agency strategic plans and..., managers and human resources officers accountable for efficient and effective human capital management, in...

  5. 30 CFR 250.611 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.611 Section... Traveling-block safety device. After May 31, 1989, all units being used for well-workover operations which have both a traveling block and a crown block shall be equipped with a safety device which is designed...

  6. 30 CFR 250.511 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.511 Section... Traveling-block safety device. All units being used for well-completion operations that have both a traveling block and a crown block must be equipped with a safety device that is designed to prevent the...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1202 - Liquid hydrocarbon measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FMPs; Inclusion of production from additional structures; Meter updates which add buy-back gas meters... the API MPMS as incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198, when obtaining net standard volume and... manufacturer; (ii) Meters operate within the manufacturer's specifications for maximum and minimum flow rate...

  8. 30 CFR 250.286 - What is a DWOP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... development project, and any other project that uses non-conventional production or completion technology... Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Deepwater Operations Plans (dwop) § 250.286...

  9. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 Dye: An Application for Forensic Fingerprint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Erica; Le, Anh Minh; Huynh, Crystal; Wingfield, Kelly; Halámková, Lenka; Agudelo, Juliana; Halámek, Jan

    2017-04-04

    The Bradford reagent, comprised of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye, methanol, and phosphoric acid, has been traditionally used for quantifying proteins. Use of this reagent in the Bradford assay relies on the binding of the Coomassie Blue G-250 dye to proteins. However, the ability of the dye to react with a small group of amino acids (arginine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) makes it a viable chemical assay for fingerprint analysis in order to identify the biological sex of the fingerprint originator. It is recognized that the identification of biological sex has been readily accomplished using two other methods; however, both of those systems are reliant upon a large group of amino acids, 23 to be precise. The Bradford assay, described here, was developed specifically to aid in the transition from targeting large groups of amino acids, as demonstrated in the previous studies, to targeting only a single amino acid without compromising the intensity of the response and/or the ability to differentiate between two attributes. In this work, we aim to differentiate between female fingerprints and male fingerprints.

  10. The Varian MAT-250 mass spectrometer. Steady isotopes laboratory; Espectrometro de masas Varian MAT-250. Laboratorio de isotopos estables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, V.; Tavera D, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This work treats over the performance and applications of the Varian Mat-250 mass spectrometer which is in the environmental isotope laboratory. It can be applied over topics such as: ions formation, acceleration and collimation, ions separation, ions detection, data transformation, sampling, {delta} notation. (Author)

  11. 30 CFR 250.212 - What information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by § 250.218; (g) Oil and hazardous substance spills information required by § 250.219; (h) Alaska... Section 250.212 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... support facilities information required by § 250.225; (n) Coastal zone management information required by...

  12. 250 kV aim for hvdc valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-06-01

    Development now being carried out by ASEA is aimed at increasing the normal operating voltage for a mercury arc valve to 250 kV dc. The maximum direct voltage per valve group, with one valve in each arm of the bridge, is 125 kV for equipment already in operation in New Zealand, Japan, and Konti Scan. Valves for 130 kV and 133 kV operation are under construction for the Vancouver and the Pacific Intertie 1 links.

  13. Electron beam dynamics in the LIU-30/250 accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhrushin, Yu.P.; Kuznetsov, V.S.; Tikhomirov, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Results of numerical simulation of coherent oscillations of electron beam in the LIU-30/250 accelerating system are presented. Transport systems both with continuous field and the discrete ones are considered. The following conclusions are made: amplitude of coherent oscillations inevitably grows in the real transport channel; the presence of correctors can lead to sufficient losses of beam pulse duration; discrete system is the optimal system for beam transport without sufficient losses. 7 refs.; 3 figs

  14. Towards 250 m mapping of terrestrial primary productivity over Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, A.; Chen, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are an important part of the climate and global change systems. Their role in climate change and in the global carbon cycle is yet to be well understood. Dataset from satellite earth observation, coupled with numerical models provide the unique tools for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of territorial carbon cycle. The Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is a remote sensing based approach to quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle by that gross and net primary productivity (GPP and NPP) and terrestrial carbon sinks and sources expressed as net ecosystem productivity (NEP). We have currently implemented a scheme to map the GPP, NPP and NEP at 250 m for first time over Canada using BEPS model. This is supplemented by improved mapping of land cover and leaf area index (LAI) at 250 m over Canada from MODIS satellite dataset. The results from BEPS are compared with MODIS GPP product and further evaluated with estimated LAI from various sources to evaluate if the results capture the trend in amount of photosynthetic biomass distributions. Final evaluation will be to validate both BEPS and MODIS primary productivity estimates over the Fluxnet sites over Canada. The primary evaluation indicate that BEPS GPP estimates capture the over storey LAI variations over Canada very well compared to MODIS GPP estimates. There is a large offset of MODIS GPP, over-estimating the lower GPP value compared to BEPS GPP estimates. These variations will further be validated based on the measured values from the Fluxnet tower measurements over Canadian. The high resolution GPP (NPP) products at 250 m will further be used to scale the outputs between different ecosystem productivity models, in our case the Canadian carbon budget model of Canadian forest sector CBM-CFS) and the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon model (InTEC).

  15. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  16. PENGARUH KELOMPOK REFERENSI TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN KAWASAKI NINJA 250 CC

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika WB, Sylvia; Sidig, Rosyid

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the affect of reference groups  on purchasing decision of  Kawasaki Ninja 250 cc in the city of Jambi. Size of sample consist of 100 unit that chousen randomly. While data analysis used  multiple regression analysis. The results showed that simultaneouly   normative, value expression, and  informative have significant role. But, based on partiall test  normative has no significant affect. Hence,  reference group h...

  17. Mechanical design of a 250 kilogauss solenoidal magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, P.

    1975-12-01

    The mechanical design and construction of a 5 cm bore, 23 cm long solenoidal magnet operated at 250 kilogauss is described. The magnet provides confining field for a plasma heated by a CO 2 laser. Radial diagnostic ports with a clear aperture of 0.41 cm allow viewing access near the magnet midplane. The on-axis field homogeneity is within 5 percent over a central length of 12 cm. The magnet sustained 500 to 1000 pulses at the highest field levels before catastrophic failure

  18. Compact 250-kV injector system for PIGMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Mueller, D.W.; Lederer, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    A 250-kV proton injector to be used in the development of a linac suitable for medical applications has been constructed. This injector utilizes a spherical Pierce geometry to produce a converging beam. A gas insulated accelerating column is cantilevered on a grounded vacuum system, with a separate high voltage equipment dome connected to a 300-kV Cockcroft-Walton power supply. The injector can be operated locally or remotely, with the remote control accomplished by a microprocessor system linked to a central control minicomputer. This injector has been designed as a low-cost compact system. The design details and the data obtained during initial operation are presented

  19. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  20. Preparation and study of elemental californium-249

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, M.; Peterson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Bulk samples of 249 Cf metal were prepared on the 10 μg scale via the Li metal vapor reduction of 249 CfF 3 . Above about 725 0 C elemental Cf exhibits a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure with an average, room-temperature lattice parameter of 5.75(1)A. Between about 600 0 C and 725 0 C, the stable form of Cf metal is another fcc structure with an average, room-temperature lattice parameter of 4.94(1)A. Below 600 0 C metallic Cf exhibits a double hexagonal closest packed (dhcp) structure with average, room temperature lattice parameters of a 0 = 3.39(1)A and c 0 = 11.01(5)A. By comparison of the metallic radii calculated for these three forms with those of the receding transuranium elements, it is suggested that the two, lower temperature modifications represent Cf with a metallic valence of three, while the highest temperature form represents a metallic valence of two. Although the data reported here are from the most complete study to date of elemental Cf, the limitations accompanying such microscale research are duly noted. (U.S.)

  1. Californium Cf-252 for pelvic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Y; Feola, J M; Tai, D; Wilson, L C; Van Nagell, J R; Yoneda, J

    1978-01-01

    Clinical data about therapy concerning tumors of the female gynecological cancers of the cervix, vagina and uterus are reviewed. Dosimetric, laboratory and radiobiological research data form the basis for an approach to such tumors using Cf-252 as a form of boost brachytherapy. Extreme personnel hazards are a real and important consideration and indicate that maximal containment and isolation procedures should be exercised in its use.

  2. 76 FR 41041 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Interaction of Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Conditions No. 25-439-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Interaction... special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 airplane. This airplane...

  3. Target laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  4. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  5. 30 CFR 250.109 - What documents must I prepare and maintain related to welding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... related to welding? 250.109 Section 250.109 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Performance Standards § 250.109 What documents must I prepare and maintain related to welding? (a) You must submit a Welding Plan to the District Manager before you begin drilling or production activities on a...

  6. 30 CFR 250.204 - How must I protect the rights of the Federal government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I protect the rights of the Federal government? 250.204 Section 250.204 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Information § 250.204 How must I protect the rights of the Federal government? (a) To protect the rights of...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1628 - Design, installation, and operation of production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Operations § 250.1628 Design, installation, and operation of production systems. (a) General. All production... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design, installation, and operation of production systems. 250.1628 Section 250.1628 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 30 CFR 250.195 - What notification does MMS require on the production status of wells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the well in a production status. You must confirm oral notification by telefax or e-mail within those... production status of wells? 250.195 Section 250.195 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.195 What notification does MMS require on the production status...

  9. 13 CFR 107.250 - Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Sbic § 107.250 Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses. Stock options... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses. 107.250 Section 107.250 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  10. 30 CFR 250.518 - What are the requirements for casing pressure management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.518 What are the requirements for casing pressure management... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for casing pressure management? 250.518 Section 250.518 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  11. 33 CFR 96.250 - What documents and reports must a safety management system have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety management system have? 96.250 Section 96.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS RULES FOR THE SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.250 What documents and...

  12. 30 CFR 250.231 - After receiving the EP, what will MMS do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After receiving the EP, what will MMS do? 250.231 Section 250.231 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Decision Process for the Ep § 250.231 After receiving the EP, what will MMS do? (a) Determine whether...

  13. 30 CFR 250.266 - After receiving the DPP or DOCD, what will MMS do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After receiving the DPP or DOCD, what will MMS do? 250.266 Section 250.266 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Decision Process for the Dpp Or Docd § 250.266 After receiving the DPP or DOCD, what will MMS do? (a...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1711 - When will MMS order me to permanently plug a well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will MMS order me to permanently plug a well? 250.1711 Section 250.1711 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Activities Permanently Plugging Wells § 250.1711 When will MMS order me to permanently plug a well? MMS will...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1406 - When will MMS notify me and provide penalty information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will MMS notify me and provide penalty information? 250.1406 Section 250.1406 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... (OCS) Civil Penalties § 250.1406 When will MMS notify me and provide penalty information? If the...

  16. 30 CFR 250.131 - Will MMS notify me before conducting an inspection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS notify me before conducting an inspection? 250.131 Section 250.131 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... § 250.131 Will MMS notify me before conducting an inspection? MMS conducts both scheduled and...

  17. 30 CFR 250.123 - Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? 250.123 Section 250.123 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... § 250.123 Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? You may not store gas on unleased lands unless...

  18. 40 CFR 421.250 - Applicability: Description of the primary precious metals and mercury subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary precious metals and mercury subcategory. 421.250 Section 421.250 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Precious Metals and Mercury Subcategory § 421.250 Applicability: Description of the primary precious metals and mercury subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  19. 21 CFR 250.201 - Preparations for the treatment of pernicious anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... anemia. 250.201 Section 250.201 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Drugs and Foods § 250.201 Preparations for the treatment of pernicious anemia. (a) The ninth announcement of the Anti-anemia Preparations Advisory Board of the United States Pharmacopeia is concerned with...

  20. 12 CFR 250.260 - Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and bullion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements? No. Section 19(c) of the Federal Reserve Act requires that reserve balances be satisfied either... bullion. 250.260 Section 250.260 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MISCELLANEOUS INTERPRETATIONS Interpretations § 250.260 Miscellaneous...

  1. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA...

  2. Estimating Coastal Turbidity using MODIS 250 m Band Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, James E.; Moeller, Christopher C.; Gunshor, Mathew M.; Menzel, W. Paul; Walker, Nan D.

    2004-01-01

    Terra MODIS 250 m observations are being applied to a Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) algorithm that is under development for coastal case 2 waters where reflectance is dominated by sediment entrained in major fluvial outflows. An atmospheric correction based on MODIS observations in the 500 m resolution 1.6 and 2.1 micron bands is used to isolate the remote sensing reflectance in the MODIS 25Om resolution 650 and 865 nanometer bands. SSC estimates from remote sensing reflectance are based on accepted inherent optical properties of sediment types known to be prevalent in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal zone. We present our findings for the Atchafalaya Bay region of the Louisiana Coast, in the form of processed imagery over the annual cycle. We also apply our algorithm to selected sites worldwide with a goal of extending the utility of our approach to the global direct broadcast community.

  3. Remote (250 km Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lopez-Amo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system.

  4. Ductility in hot isostatically pressed 250-grade maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, R.M.; Smugeresky, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Prealloyed 250-grade maraging steel powder produced by the rotating electrode process was fully consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1100 and 1200 0 C. The strength following aging (3 h at 480 0 C) equalled that of wrought material; however, ductility was negligible. This lack of ductility in the powder metallurgy product was traced to titanium segregation which occurred at the powder surface during power production. The formation of a titanium intermetallic at the prior particle boundaries during aging caused failure at low plastic strains. Altered aging treatments successfully broke up the embrittling film and resulted in a significant ductility recovery for the HIP material. Analysis of the fracture process indicates that further ductility gains are possible by reducing the titanium content, refining the particle size, and optimizing the thermal cycles

  5. The Enduring Legacy of 250 Years of Pharmacology in Edinburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John S; Mackay, Angus V P

    2018-01-06

    In 1768, 250 years ago, the University of Edinburgh appointed Francis Home to the first chair of materia medica, the accumulated knowledge of materials used in healing. Francis Home and his colleagues were determined to improve the quality of medical training in Edinburgh by introducing a final examination and compiling a catalog of medicines validated by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. The catalog, known as the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, was a great success, partly due to the orderly nature of its contents, its routine editing to eliminate worthless entries, and the introduction of new treatments whose preparation was precisely documented. In a relatively short time, the worth of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia was recognized throughout Europe, America, and the British Empire. Today, the British and European Pharmacopoeias are catalogs of publicly available, legally enforceable standards for active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished dosage forms of pharmaceutical products and medical devices. Home and the many luminaries who succeeded him would surely take pleasure and pride in the fact that the mantra of today's medicines regulators worldwide is little different from that of these early visionaries: "To take better advantage of the best possible science in the service of the public health and our health-care systems" ( 1 , p. 492).

  6. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  7. Test results from the LLNL 250 GHz CARM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, B.; Caplan, M.; Bubp, D.; Houck, T.; Rogers, D.; Trimble, D.; VanMaren, R.; Westenskow, G.; McDermott, D.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Danly, B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have completed the initial phase of a 250 GHz CARM experiment, driven by the 2 MeV, 1 kA, 30 ns induction linac at the LLNL ARC facility. A non-Brillouin, solid, electron beam is generated from a flux-threaded, thermionic cathode. As the beam traverses a 10 kG plateau produced by a superconducting magnet, ten percent of the beam energy is converted into rotational energy in a bifilar helix wiggler that produces a spiraling, 50 G, transverse magnetic field. The beam is then compressed to a 5 mm diameter as it drifts into a 30 kG plateau. For the present experiment, the CARM interaction region consisted of a single Bragg section resonator, followed by a smooth-bore amplifier section. Using high-pass filters, they have observed broadband output signals estimated to be at the several megawatt level in the range 140 to over 230 GHz. This is consistent with operation as a superradiant amplifier. Simultaneously, they also observed K a band power levels near 3 MW

  8. Test results from the LLNL 250 GHz CARM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, B.; Caplan, M.; Bubp, D.; Houck, T.; Rogers, D.; Trimble, D.; VanMaren, R.; Westenskow, G.; McDermott, D.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Danly, B.

    1991-05-01

    We have completed the initial phase of a 250 GHz CARM experiment, driven by the 2 MeV, 1 kA, 30 ns induction linac at the LLNL ARC facility. A non-Brillouin, solid, electron beam is generated from a flux-threaded, thermionic cathode. As the beam traverses a 10 kG plateau produced by a superconducting magnet, ten percent of the beam energy is converted into rotational energy in a bifilar helix wiggler that produces a spiraling, 50 G, transverse magnetic field. The beam is then compressed to a 5 mm diameter as it drifts into a 30 kG plateau. For the present experiment, the CARM interaction region consisted of a single Bragg section resonator, followed by a smooth-bore amplifier section. Using high-pass filters, we have observed broadband output signals estimated to be at the several megawatt level in the range 140 to over 230 GHz. This is consistent with operation as a superradiant amplifier. Simultaneously, we also observed K a band power levels near 3 MW

  9. Bionics by examples 250 scenarios from classical to modern times

    CERN Document Server

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Bionics means learning from the nature for the development of technology. The science of "bionics" itself is classified into several sections, from materials and structures over procedures and processes until evolution and optimization. Not all these areas, or only a few, are really known in the public and also in scientific literature. This includes the Lotus-effect, converted to the contamination-reduction of fassades and the shark-shed-effect, converted to the  resistance-reduction of airplanes. However, there are hundreds of highly interesting examples that contain the transformation of principles of the nature into technology. From the large number of these examples, 250 were selected for the present book according to "prehistory", "early-history", "classic" and "modern time". Most examples are new. Every example includes a printed page in a homogeneous arrangement. The examples from the field "modern time" are joint in blocks corresponding to the sub-disciplines of bionics.

  10. Grammaire pour adolescents 250 exercices : niveau débutant

    CERN Document Server

    Bié, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Ce nouveau livre d'exercices de grammaire, de la collection Le Nouvel Entraînez-vous, s'adresse à un public d'adolescents débutants et faux débutants en français langue étrangère. L'ouvrage propose 250 exercices de compréhension et de mémorisation à travers des activités de déduction et de réemploi des notions grammaticales étudiées. Le contenu des exercices est organisé autour de contextes langagiers proches de la réalité des adolescents afin de placer la communication au cœur de l'apprentissage. L'introduction des contenus grammaticaux suit la même progression que les méthodes usuelles. Chaque chapitre débute par une séquence Rappel permettant à l'apprenant de revoir rapidement les règles grammaticales développées dans les exercices. Chaque exercice est introduit par une consigne brève et concise accompagnée d'un exemple. L'ouvrage a été conçu en tenant compte des centres d'intérêts des adolescents et propose de nombreuses illustrations intégrées aux exercices. A la fin d...

  11. [Determination of 250 pesticide residues in vegetables using QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aizhi; Wang, Quanlin; Cao, Lili; Li, Yu; Shen, Hao; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Shufen; Man, Zhengyin

    2016-02-01

    A multiresidue analytical method for the determination of 250 pesticide residues in vegetables was developed by using QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid, purified by a mixed sorbent of MgSO4, primary secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB) and C18, separated on a Waters ACQUITY™ UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2. 1 mm, 1.7 µm) and detected by UPLC-MS/MS. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was used as a dewatering agent. The effects of the amounts of MgSO4, PSA, GCB and C18 added on the recoveries of 250 pesticides were investigated. The results showed that the purification effect was best when 300 mg MgSO4, 200 mg PSA, 10 mg GCB and 100 mg C18 in 2 mL of the extract were added. For the 250 pesticide residues, the limits of detection (LODs) of the method were from 0. 01 to 50. 00 g/kg. The recoveries obtained ranged from 60. 1% to 120% at three spiked levels in Chinese chives with the relative standard deviations between 3. 5% and 19. 5% using matrix matched external standard method. The results showed that the method is able to meet requirements of the multiresidue detection of the 250 pesticides in vegetable. The method has the advantages of rapidity, simplicity, high sensitivity and better purification effect. It is suitable for the rapid determination of the common pesticides in vegetables, and it provides a strong guarantee for the risk assessments of the quality and safety of vegetables.

  12. Radiation shielding for 250 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awschalom, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is targetted at personnel who have the responsibility of designing the radiation shielding against neutron fluences created when protons interact with matter. Shielding of walls and roofs are discussed, as well as neutron dose leakage through labyrinths. Experimental data on neutron flux attenuation are considered, as well as some calculations using the intranuclear cascade calculations and parameterizations

  13. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  14. In situ stress measurements at 250m gallery off the ventilation shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takahiro; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Yutaka; Kato, Harumi

    2011-06-01

    boreholes. Shut-in pressure of inclined transverse cracks and the circumferential position of longitudinal cracks on the wellbore surface were used to determine the magnitude and orientation of principal stress around the 250m gallery on the assumption that all of the target zones of hydraulic fracturing were in a uniform stress state. The determined in situ stress state showed a little difference of magnitude between intermediate stress and minimum stress. The vertical component of the in situ stress was evaluated to be about a half of the overburden at the test site. The maximum principal stress was inclined to about 40 degrees from the level with azimuth of NE orientation. The reason why the evaluated state of stress at 140m niches and 250m gallery are different would be attributed to geological environment. (2) Stress relief method by conical-ended borehole overcoring. Stress relief method by conical-ended borehole overcoring was successfully conducted at the depths of 17.25m and 17.72m of the borehole 09-V250-M02. Orientation of the evaluated principal stresses at the two depths showed a good agreement. The maximum principal stress inclined about 60 degrees from the level with azimuth of NNE and the intermediate principal stress was almost horizontal with WNW orientation. The orientation of the maximum principal stress was almost perpendicular to the plane of sedimentation of Koetoi formation and Wakkanai formation. The magnitude of the maximum principal stress was comparable to the uniaxial compressive strength of Wakkanai formation. The estimated ratio of the principal stresses σ 1 /σ 3 was 11.6 and 6.0 at the depth of 17.25m and 17.72m, respectively. No spalling of the walls of the boreholes due to the stress concentration was detected while both the magnitude and the ratio of principal stress were large enough to cause borehole breakout. The inconsistency would be explained by microcracks in the boring core formed during the drilling process or/and by elastic

  15. Target tracking using a 2D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kriel, M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Kriel_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 29522 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Kriel_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 737 33 Target Tracking Using....410634] 0.000019 [ 0.000020]4000.0 0 0 250.0 3D AASC 3D AASC 3D AASC Er ro r (m ) Er ro r (m ) E rr o r (m ) Time (s) 0 0 250.0Time (s) 0 0 250.0Time (s) AACT : AASC : AACT : AASC : AACT : 4000.0 4000.0 FIGURE 33...

  16. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  17. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  18. Soil property maps of Africa at 250 m resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Bas; Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; MacMillan, Robert A.; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge S.; Shepherd, Keith; Sila, Andrew; Desta, Lulseged T.; Tondoh, Jérôme E.

    2015-04-01

    Vast areas of arable land in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from low soil fertility and physical soil constraints, and significant amounts of nutrients are lost yearly due to unsustainable soil management practices. At the same time it is expected that agriculture in Africa must intensify to meet the growing demand for food and fiber the next decades. Protection and sustainable management of Africa's soil resources is crucial to achieve this. In this context, comprehensive, accurate and up-to-date soil information is an essential input to any agricultural or environmental management or policy and decision-making model. In Africa, detailed soil information has been fragmented and limited to specific zones of interest for decades. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. AfSIS builds on recent advances in digital soil mapping, infrared spectroscopy, remote sensing, (geo)statistics, and integrated soil fertility management to improve the way soils are evaluated, mapped, and monitored. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project has compiled two soil profile data sets (about 28,000 unique locations): the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site (new soil samples) database -- the two data sets represent the most comprehensive soil sample database of the African continent to date. In addition a large set of high-resolution environmental data layers (covariates) was assembled. The point data were used in the AfSIS project to generate a set of maps of key soil properties for the African continent at 250 m spatial resolution: sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, cation-exchange capacity, exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na), exchangeable acidity, and Al content. These properties were mapped for six depth intervals up to 2 m: 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, and 100-200 cm. Random forests modelling was used to

  19. 30 CFR 250.1152 - How do I conduct well tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I conduct well tests? 250.1152 Section... Tests and Surveys § 250.1152 How do I conduct well tests? (a) When you conduct well tests you must: (1... during completion, recompletion, reworking, or treatment operations before you start a well test; (2...

  20. 7 CFR 250.60 - Use of donated foods in the school food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of donated foods in the school food service. 250.60 Section 250.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED STATES, ITS...

  1. 30 CFR 250.918 - What are the CVA's primary duties during the installation phase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the CVA's primary duties during the installation phase? 250.918 Section 250.918 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... appropriate (i) Loadout and initial flotation operations; (ii) Towing operations to the specified location...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250... Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may use alternative training methods. These methods may include computer-based learning, films, or their equivalents. This training...

  3. Galvanic interactions of HE15 /MDN138 & HE15 /MDN250 alloys in natural seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, G. T.; Subramanian, G.; Muthuraman, K.; Ramakrishna Rao, P.

    2017-06-01

    HE15 is a heat treatable high strength alloy with excellent machinability find wide applications in aerospace and defence industries. In view of their excellent mechanical properties, workability, machinability, heat treatment characteristics and good resistance to general and stress corrosion cracking, MDN138 & MDN250 have been widely used in petrochemical, nuclear and aerospace industries. The galvanic corrosion behaviour of the metal combinations HE15 /MDN138 and HE15 /MDN250, with 1:1 area ratio, has been studied in natural seawater using the open well facility of CECRI's Offshore Platform at Tuticorin for a year. The open circuit potentials of MDN138, MDN250 and HE15 of the individual metal, the galvanic potential and galvanic current of the couples HE15 /MDN138 and HE15 /MDN250 were periodically monitored throughout the study period. The calcareous deposits on MDN138 and MDN250 in galvanic contact with HE15 were analyzed using XRD. The electrochemical behaviors of MDN138, MDN250 and HE15 in seawater have been studied using an electrochemical work station. The surface characteristics of MDN138 and MDN250 in galvanic contact with HE15 have been examined with scanning electron microscope. The results of the study reveal that HE15 offered required amount of protection to MDN138 & MDN250.

  4. 7 CFR 250.13 - Distribution and control of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Minimum donations. Foods shall be donated only in such quantities as will protect the lower truck load... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution and control of donated foods. 250.13 Section 250.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION...

  5. 14 CFR 250.6 - Exceptions to eligibility for denied boarding compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... boarding compensation. 250.6 Section 250.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... boarding compensation. A passenger denied boarding involuntarily from an oversold flight shall not be eligible for denied boarding compensation if: (a) The passenger does not comply fully with the carrier's...

  6. 14 CFR 250.2b - Carriers to request volunteers for denied boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... boarding. 250.2b Section 250.2b Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... boarding. (a) In the event of an oversold flight, every carrier shall request volunteers for denied boarding before using any other boarding priority. A “volunteer” is a person who responds to the carrier's...

  7. 14 CFR 250.5 - Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily. 250.5 Section 250.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily. (a) Subject to the exceptions provided...

  8. 76 FR 25229 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Dynamic Test Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Memorandum ``Side-Facing Seats on Transport Category Airplanes'' and draft Issue Paper ``Dynamic Test...; Special Conditions No. 25-425-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane... are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) model G250 airplane. This airplane will have a novel...

  9. 30 CFR 250.401 - What must I do to keep wells under control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do to keep wells under control? 250... General Requirements § 250.401 What must I do to keep wells under control? You must take necessary precautions to keep wells under control at all times. You must: (a) Use the best available and safest drilling...

  10. 41 CFR 61-250.99 - What is the OMB control number for this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is the OMB control... TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 250-ANNUAL REPORT FROM FEDERAL CONTRACTORS § 61-250.99 What is the OMB control number for this part? Pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act, 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., and...

  11. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory management of donated foods. (a) General requirements. The food service management company must meet the...

  12. 30 CFR 250.207 - What ancillary activities may I conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surveys; or (c) Studies that model potential oil and hazardous substance spills, drilling muds and... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What ancillary activities may I conduct? 250.207 Section 250.207 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE...

  13. 30 CFR 250.221 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental monitoring information must accompany the EP? 250.221 Section 250.221 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... necessary under the MMPA. (c) Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). If you propose to...

  14. 30 CFR 250.252 - What environmental monitoring information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental monitoring information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.252 Section 250.252 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... incidental take of marine mammals as may be necessary under the MMPA. (c) Flower Garden Banks National Marine...

  15. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on your platform because of the results of...

  16. 30 CFR 250.104 - How may I appeal a decision made under MMS regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may I appeal a decision made under MMS... of Terms § 250.104 How may I appeal a decision made under MMS regulations? To appeal orders or decisions issued under MMS regulations in 30 CFR parts 250 to 282, follow the procedures in 30 CFR part 290. ...

  17. 47 CFR 10.250 - Notification to existing subscribers of non-participation in CMAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provider shall use any reasonable method at its disposal to alert the customer to a change in the terms and...-participation in CMAS. 10.250 Section 10.250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... Rule 47 CFR 10.240. (c) In the case of prepaid customers, if a mailing address is available, the CMS...

  18. 17 CFR 250.8 - Exemption of subsidiaries subject to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission. 250.8 Section 250.8 Commodity and Securities... to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission. Any subsidiary company of a registered holding company, which subsidiary is subject to the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission but is not...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 8-5/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths of less than 200... for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines...

  20. 48 CFR 52.250-1 - Indemnification Under Public Law 85-804.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... caused by willful misconduct or lack of good faith on the part of any of the Contractor's principal... Public Law 85-804. 52.250-1 Section 52.250-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and...

  1. 17 CFR 250.4 - Exemption of certain brokers, dealers and underwriters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain brokers... and General Exemptions § 250.4 Exemption of certain brokers, dealers and underwriters. (a) General exemption. Subject to the provision of § 250.6, any broker, dealer or underwriter, as defined in paragraph...

  2. Proton targets for the PHOENICS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.

    1988-10-01

    In the first part of the thesis the construction and test operation of a hydrogen target for the PHOENICS experiment at the Bonn 3.5 GeV accelerator ELSA is described. First of all it shall serve as target for calibration measurements of the counter arrangement. The cooling time of the hydrogen liquefier until the complete filling of the target cell was determined to 4 h 30 m. Via a magnet valve the clearance of the cell into a storage container is possible. In the second part of the thesis measurements on the polarization properties of the target material ammonia are presented. The maximal nucleon polarization in the dilution operation of the cryostat at about 250 mK was determined to 77 -3 +2 % for positive and to 72 -3 +2 % for negative polarization direction and is by this comparable with the values reached for butanol. The required build-up time is with 2.1 h by a factor about two larger than for butanol targets. A determination of Landes g factor of the NH 3 radicals present in the target yielded the value of g = 2.0037. By variation of the magnet field a microwave absorption signal could be taken up which can be identified by the ESR line of the ammonia radical. The half width resulted to 60 ± 5 Gauss. Experiments on the magnet-field dependence of the relaxation time at 1 K and 250 mK showed that in the field-range from 0.4 to 2.5 Tesla the relaxation time varied at 1 K from 16 sec to 14 min and at 250 mK from 2.7 h to 40.3 h. A ratio-formation yielded a crude estimation of the relaxation time to be expected at 50 mK and 0.4 T in the order of magnitude of 2 months. (orig./HSI) [de

  3. Pulverização em CDA 250 herbicida pendimethalin na cultura do arroz de sequeiro Application of pendimethalin with cda 250 spfayer for upland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matuo

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a viabilidade de utilização da pulverização CDA 25C, na aplicação do herbicida em pré-emergência na cultura do arroz de sequeiro. O herbicida empregado foi o pendimethalin nas doses de 0,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0 litro s/ha da formulação comercial a 50%. A pulverização convencional foi efetuada com bicos 11003 com consumo de 200 litros de calda per hectare. O processo CDA 250 foi aplicado por meio de bico rotativo (Micromax com dois níveis de consumo de calda : 50 1/ha e 27 1/ha. Os resultados mostraram que: a - o método CDA 250 proporciona controle dc mato e produtividade de arroz equivalentes ao método convencional; b para o bico Micromax, a aplicação da formulação comercial de pendimethalin a 50% com vazão de 0,48 1/min./bico, a distância entre bicos deve ser de 1,75 m e para a vazão de 0,96 1/min./bloco, essa distancia deve ser de 1,90 m; c- a aplicação do pendimethalin 50% C.E. pelo processo CDA 250, empregando 27 litros de calda por hectare foi o processo mais interessante por oferecer vantagens logísticas apreciáveis.The feasibility of pre-emergenge herbicide application for upland rice by CDA 250 spray method was studied. The herbicide used was pen dimethalin at 0,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 and 3,0 1/ha of comercial 50% E.C. formulation. Conventional spraying was carried out using 110C3 flat fan nozzles applying 200 1/ha of spray volume CDA250 was applied by rotary atomizers (Micromax spraying twc volume rates: 50 1/ha and 27 1/ha. The results pointed out that: a- CDA 250 spray method was equivalent to the conventional spray method in the control of weeds and crop yield; b - for Micromax nozzles applying commercial 50 E.C. formulation of pendimethalin at 0,48 /min of nozzle feed rate, the distance between nozzles should be 1,75 m and at 0,96 1/min feed rate this distance shoud be 1,90 m; c- CDA 250, applying 27 1/ha presents large logistic advantages.

  4. 30 CFR 250.407 - What tests must I conduct to determine reservoir characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.407 What tests must I conduct to determine... of oil, gas, sulphur, and water in the formations penetrated by logging, formation sampling, or well...

  5. 30 CFR 250.213 - What general information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... description and discussion of any new or unusual technology (see definition under § 250.200) you will use to... hydrocarbons. Include the estimated flow rate, total volume, and maximum duration of the potential blowout...

  6. 34 CFR 75.250 - Project period can be up to 60 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project period can be up to 60 months. 75.250 Section... Are Made Approval of Multi-Year Projects § 75.250 Project period can be up to 60 months. The Secretary may approve a project period of up to 60 months. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474) [45 FR 22497...

  7. DCU 250 Arabic dependency bank: an LFG gold standard resource for the Arabic Penn treebank

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Raheb, Yafa; Akrout, Amine; van Genabith, Josef; Dichy, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of a dependency bank gold standard for Arabic, DCU 250 Arabic Dependency Bank (DCU 250), based on the Arabic Penn Treebank Corpus (ATB) (Bies and Maamouri, 2003; Maamouri and Bies, 2004) within the theoretical framework of Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG). For parsing and automatically extracting grammatical and lexical resources from treebanks, it is necessary to evaluate against established gold standard resources. Gold standards for various languages h...

  8. 17 CFR 250.12 - Exemption of certain public utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of holding companies. 250.12 Section 250.12... REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Registration and General Exemptions § 250.12 Exemption of certain public utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of holding companies...

  9. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Performance Standards § 250.107 What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1) Performing all operations in a...

  10. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road Project in Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway.... 139(l)(1). The actions relate to the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City... Virginia: Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road. The project would involve construction of a grade...

  11. 30 CFR 250.116 - How do I determine producibility if my well is in the Gulf of Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine producibility if my well is in the Gulf of Mexico? 250.116 Section 250.116 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Performance Standards § 250.116 How do I determine producibility if my well is in the Gulf of Mexico? If your...

  12. 30 CFR 250.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.260 Section 250.260 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.260 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must...

  13. Shared technologies in the development of the Titan 250 trademark gas turbine system; Anwendung bewaehrter Technologien bei der Entwicklung des Titan 250 trademark Gasturbinensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stang, Ulrich; Knodle, Mark; Novaresi, Mark [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ottoboni, Luigi [Turbomach SA, Riazzino (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The Titan 250 gas turbine and C85 centrifugal gas compressor are the latest additions to the Solar Turbines product family. These new products leverage core technologies that have been developed and proven in several other well-established products. The Titan 250 gas turbine is a conservative hybrid design grounded in advanced aerodynamic, thermal and mechanical design tools and methodologies. It is ISO rated at 22.4 MW (30,000 HP), with a best-in-class shaft efficiency of 40% reducing fuel costs and emissions. The engine is a two-shaft design that includes a 16-stage axial flow compressor (PR 24:1), a dry low emissions combustor (<15 ppmv NOx), a two-stage gas producer turbine operating at a firing temperature of 1200 C (2200 F), and a three-stage, maximum efficiency, fully shrouded power turbine. (orig.)

  14. Atomic Mass Dependence of $\\Xi^{-}$ Baryon and $\\bar \\Xi^+$ Baryon Production in Central 250-GeV/c $\\pi^-$ - Nucleon Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagenhart, William David [Tufts U.

    2000-02-01

    We present the first measurement of the atomic mass dependence of central $\\Xi^-$ and $\\overline{\\Xi}^+$ production. It is measured using a sample of 22,459 $\\Xi^-$'s and $\\overline{\\Xi}^+$'s produced in collisions between a 250 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam and targets of beryllium, aluminum, copper, and tungsten. The relative cross sections are fit to the two parameter function $\\sigma_0 A^{\\alpha}$, where A is the atomic mass. We measure $\\alpha$ = 0:924 $\\pm$ 0:020 $\\pm$ 0:025, for Feynman-x in the range $\\pm$ 0:09 < $x_F$ < 0:15.

  15. A cross section measurement of charm hyperons Ξc+ and Ξc0 in 250 GeV p/K/π-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.; Vergara, A.

    1995-01-01

    Fermilab Experiment 769 used a charge-selected, hadron beam of mean energy 250 GeV/c, composed of pions, kaons, and protons, impinging on beryllium, aluminum, copper and tungsten targets. Using a sample of approximately 4000 Ξ s - → Λ 0 π - decays, measurements of the charm baryon forward cross sections times branching ratio π ± N → Ξ c + X and π ± N → Ξ c 0 X are presented. Upper limits on α x BR are also determined for the states Ξ c + → Ξ s - π + π + and Ξ c 0 → Ξ s - π + produced in (p, π + , π - , K + , K - )-nucleon interactions

  16. A randomized trial of three copper IUDs (MLCu250, MLCu375 and Nova-T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, H; Skjeldestad, F E; Cullberg Valentin, K

    1988-01-01

    A randomized prospective trial of three copper IUDs, Nova-T, MLCu375 and MLCu250, including 200 of each, is presented. Insertion was done at the hospital outpatient clinic on normally menstruating women and on women in puerperio. Follow-up was scheduled after 12, 24 and 36 months. Pregnancy rates were low for all 3 models. Pearl indices after 3 years were 0.5, 0.9 and 0.8 for Nova-T, MLCu375 and MLCu250 respectively (NS). Abnormal bleeding and/or pain was the most frequent termination cause. Minor differences in the termination rates because of abnormal bleeding and/or pain were found and are discussed. The continuation rates based on all medically relevant IUD removals were 74%, 73% and 81% after 3 years for Nova-T, MLCu375 and MLCu250 respectively. No important difference in clinical performance between the three copper IUDs could be demonstrated.

  17. Efficient high-throughput biological process characterization: Definitive screening design with the ambr250 bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Mitchell; Ly, Amanda; Leung, Inne; Nayar, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The burgeoning pipeline for new biologic drugs has increased the need for high-throughput process characterization to efficiently use process development resources. Breakthroughs in highly automated and parallelized upstream process development have led to technologies such as the 250-mL automated mini bioreactor (ambr250™) system. Furthermore, developments in modern design of experiments (DoE) have promoted the use of definitive screening design (DSD) as an efficient method to combine factor screening and characterization. Here we utilize the 24-bioreactor ambr250™ system with 10-factor DSD to demonstrate a systematic experimental workflow to efficiently characterize an Escherichia coli (E. coli) fermentation process for recombinant protein production. The generated process model is further validated by laboratory-scale experiments and shows how the strategy is useful for quality by design (QbD) approaches to control strategies for late-stage characterization. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. On rolling of alloyed steels on the continuous light-section mill 250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.K.; Antipov, V.F.; Zamotin, V.M.; Kuznetsov, Yu.M.

    1976-01-01

    Using the method of computed ratios, the expected loads (torques) have been calculated in the rolling of alloyed steels on the light-section mill 250 of the Chelyabinsk metallurgical works. The deviation of the computed torques from those measured for steels 35GS and St5ps does not exceed -6%. Data are given on changes in torques during the rolling of alloyed steels in the different stands as compared with the actual data for the rolling of ordinary steel. Calculations show, and experimental data confirm, that, according to the torque value, it is possible to roll alloyed steels of sufficiently wide assortment on mill 250

  19. MHD repowering of a 250 MWe unit of the TVA Allen Steam Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.N.; Attig, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper coal fired MHD repowering is considered for the TVA Allen Steam Plant. The performance of the repowered plant is presented. Cost comparisons are made of the cost of repowering with MHD versus the cost of meeting similar standards by installing scrubbers and selective catalytic NO x reduction (SCNR). For repowering of a single 250 MW e unit, the costs favor scrubbing and SCNR. If one considers a single repowering of all three 250 MW e units by a single MHD topping cycle and boiler, MHD repowering is more economical. Environmental emissions from the repowered plant are estimated

  20. Conceptual design study of IFMIF target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Ida, M.; Maekawa, H.; Katsuta, H.; Hua, T.; Cevolani, S.

    1997-01-01

    IFMIF-CDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - Conceptual Design Activity) had been carried out during 1995 and 1996, under the auspices of the IEA. The mission of this facility is to provide an accelerator based deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to test the candidate materials of radiation - resistant and low - activation materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. The neutrons of about 14 MeV are obtained by the stripping reaction of the deuteron of Max. 40 MeV with target lithium. Total deuteron beam current is about 250 mA and beam footprint is 20 cm x 5 cm on the free surface of lithium jet. In this report general characteristics of the target lithium system and the results of thermal and flow analysis for the target lithium jet are described. (author)

  1. 30 CFR 250.1151 - How often must I conduct well production tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How often must I conduct well production tests... Requirements Well Tests and Surveys § 250.1151 How often must I conduct well production tests? (a) You must conduct well production tests as shown in the following table: You must conduct: And you must submit to...

  2. 30 CFR 250.460 - What are the requirements for conducting a well test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Other Drilling Requirements § 250.460 What are the requirements for conducting a well test? (a) If you intend to conduct a well test, you must include your projected plans for the test with your APD (form MMS...) You must give the District Manager at least 24-hours notice before starting a well test. [68 FR 8423...

  3. 30 CFR 250.110 - What must I include in my welding plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my welding plan? 250.110... must I include in my welding plan? You must include all of the following in the Welding Plan that you... qualified personnel weld; (c) Practices and procedures for safe welding that address: (1) Welding in...

  4. 30 CFR 250.113 - What procedures must I follow when welding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What procedures must I follow when welding? 250....113 What procedures must I follow when welding? (a) Before you weld, you must move any equipment containing hydrocarbons or other flammable substances at least 35 feet horizontally from the welding area...

  5. 30 CFR 250.111 - Who oversees operations under my welding plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who oversees operations under my welding plan... § 250.111 Who oversees operations under my welding plan? A welding supervisor or a designated person in charge must be thoroughly familiar with your welding plan. This person must ensure that each welder is...

  6. 7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (iv) All initial data regarding the cost of the current warehousing and distribution system and the... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods... General Operating Provisions § 250.14 Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods. (a...

  7. 20 CFR 404.250 - Special computation rules for people who had a period of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special computation rules for people who had... Computation Rules for People Who Had A Period of Disability § 404.250 Special computation rules for people who had a period of disability. If you were disabled at some time in your life, received disability...

  8. 30 CFR 250.414 - What must my drilling prognosis include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Projected plans for logging; (c) Planned safe drilling margin between proposed drilling fluid weights and... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must my drilling prognosis include? 250... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations...

  9. 30 CFR 250.182 - When may the Secretary cancel a lease at the exploration stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may the Secretary cancel a lease at the... Requirements, Lease Term Extensions, and Lease Cancellations § 250.182 When may the Secretary cancel a lease at... be modified to avoid the condition(s). The Secretary may cancel the lease if: (a) The primary lease...

  10. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88 micron region of the...

  11. 17 CFR 250.26 - Financial statement and recordkeeping requirements for registered holding companies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial statement and..., PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Forms, Procedure and Accounts § 250.26 Financial statement and... to form and content of financial statements; and (2) Shall make and keep current accounts, books and...

  12. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine (also...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B Near Real Time (NRT) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88...

  14. Santa Fe, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  15. 27 CFR 24.250 - Application for use of new treating material or process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of tests of the shelf life of the treated wine; (6) A tabulation of pertinent information derived... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.250 Application for use of new treating material or process. (a) General. If the proprietor...

  16. Muusikamaailm. Maailmaesiettekanne Krimmis. Herderi preemiad 2002. Opera Metz 250. Günter Wand 90 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Krimmis leiab aset Alemdar Karamanovi sümfoonia "Täideläinu" maailma esiettekanne. Johann Gottfried Herderi muusikapreemia sai nimekas rumeenia helilooja Aurel Stroe. Opera Metz Prantsusmaal tähistab oma 250ndat aastapäeva mitmete uuslavastustega. Dirigent Günter Wand tähistab 90ndat juubelit

  17. Production of $D^{\\pm}$ Mesons in $K^+$ Nucleon Collisions at 250 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Motta Filho, Helio [Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    1993-11-01

    The $X_f$, $P^2_t$ and $p_t$ distribution of $D^{\\pm}$ mesons produced by 250 GeV $K^+$-nucleon interactions are measured through the decay channel $D^{\\pm} \\to K^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{\\pm}$....

  18. 77 FR 25720 - Determination That GRIFULVIN V (Griseofulvin Microcrystalline) Tablets, 250 Milligrams, Was Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... been discontinued from marketing for reasons other than safety or effectiveness. ANDAs that refer to... Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... microcrystalline) tablets, 250 milligrams (mg), was not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness...

  19. New results on multi-muon production in 250 GeV μ+ Fe interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, C.H.

    1981-05-01

    Preliminary results on the contribution to the nucleon structure function F 2 from charm particle production are presented. The data consist of dimuon and trimuon events from a high statistics experiment for a beam energy of 250 GeV. Exotic trimuon events have been observed and are compared to predictions from BETABETA and tautau production and decay. (author)

  20. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for well-control... Other Drilling Requirements § 250.462 What are the requirements for well-control drills? You must conduct a weekly well-control drill with each drilling crew. Your drill must familiarize the crew with its...

  1. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... management of donated foods. (a) General requirements. Distributing agencies, subdistributing agencies, and... management system, as defined in this part, unless the distributing agency requires donated foods to be...

  2. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium permanganate preparations as... or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.108 Potassium permanganate preparations as... women resulting from the misuse of potassium permanganate in an effort to induce abortion. Reports from...

  3. 30 CFR 250.901 - What industry standards must your platform meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) American Petroleum Institute (API) Bulletin 2INT-DG, Interim Guidance for Design of Offshore Structures for... (RP) 2A-WSD, RP for Planning, Designing, and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms—Working Stress..., (incorporated by reference as specified in § 250.198); (15) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1507 - How will MMS measure training results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... program, using one or more of the methods in this section. (a) Training system audit. MMS or its... how effective the training was. (c) Employee or contract personnel testing. MMS or its authorized... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS measure training results? 250.1507...

  5. Gallup, NM AZ 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  6. El Paso, TX NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  7. Tularosa, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  8. Las Cruces, NM TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  9. Production of charmonium in 250 GeV μ+-iron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.J.; Dobinson, R.W.; Dosselli, U.; Edwards, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gregory, P.; Haas, J.; Leenen, M.; Montgomery, H.E.; Osborne, A.M.; Bassompierre, G.; Bouard, X. de; Broll, C.; Coignet, G.; Crespo, J.M.; Declais, Y.; Favier, J.; Maire, M.; Massonnet, L.; Minssieux, H.; Payre, P.; Pessard, H.; Schneegans, M.; Thenard, J.M.; Urban, L.; Becks, K.H.; Boehm, E.; Brown, S.; Cobb, J.H.; Combley, F.; D'Agostini, G.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Dalpiaz, P.; Dau, W.D.; Davies, J.K.; Drees, J.; Ferrero, M.I.; Gamet, R.; Gerhardt, V.; Hamacher, K.; Hayman, P.; Henckes, M.; Landgraf, U.; Mohr, W.; Moser, K.; Mount, R.P.; McNicholas, J.; Peroni, C.; Pietrzyk, U.; Rith, K.; Sloan, T.; Stier, H.E.; Stockhausen, W.; Villers, M.; Wahlen, H.; Whalley, M.; Williams, D.; Williams, W.S.C.; Williamson, J.; Wimpenny, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    The production of J/psi and psi' has been measured in 250 GeV muon iron interactions. The measured total cross sections are sigma(μN-> μJ/psiX) = 0.74 +- 0.14 nb and sigma (μN->μpsi'X) =0.16 +-. (orig.)

  10. 30 CFR 250.520 - When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic... Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.520 When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic test? (a) You must perform a casing diagnostic test within 30 days after first observing or imposing casing pressure...

  11. 30 CFR 250.522 - When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic... Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.522 When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic testing? Casing diagnostic testing must be repeated according to the following table: When * * * you must repeat diagnostic...

  12. 50 CFR 216.250 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.250 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a...

  13. Acoustic emission during tensile deformation of M250 grade maraging steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Chandan Kumar; Rajkumar, Kesavan Vadivelu; Chandra Rao, Bhaghi Purna; Jayakumar, Tamanna

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) generated during room temperature tensile deformation of varyingly heat treated (solution annealed and thermally aged) M250 grade maraging steel specimens have been studied. Deformation of microstructure corresponding to different heat treated conditions in this steel could be distinctly characterized using the AE parameters such as RMS voltage, counts and peak amplitude of AE hits (events).

  14. Characterization of Aging Behavior in M250 Grade Maraging Steel Using Ultrasonic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K. V.; Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev; Ray, K. K.

    2007-02-01

    Ultrasonic measurements have been carried out in M250 grade maraging steel specimens subjected to solution annealing at 1093 K for 1 hour followed by aging at 755 K for various durations in the range of 0.25 to 100 hours. The influence of aging on microstructure, room temperature hardness, and ultrasonic parameters (longitudinal and shear wave velocities and Poisson’s ratio) has been studied in order to derive correlations among these parameters in aged M250 maraging steel. Both hardness and ultrasonic velocities exhibit almost similar behaviors with aging time. They increase with the precipitation of intermetallic phases, Ni3Ti and Fe2Mo, and decrease with the reversion of martensite to austenite. Ultrasonic shear wave velocity is found to be more influenced by the precipitation of intermetallic phases, whereas longitudinal wave velocity is influenced more by the reversion of martensite to austenite. Unlike hardness and ultrasonic velocities, the Poisson’s ratio exhibits a monotonous decrease with aging time and, hence, can be used for unambiguous monitoring of the aging process in M250 maraging steel. Further, none of the parameters, i.e., hardness, ultrasonic velocity, or Poisson’s ratio, alone could identify the initiation of the reversion of austenite at early stage; however, the same could be identified from the correlation between ultrasonic velocity and Poisson’s ratio, indicating the advantage of using the multiparametric approach for comprehensive characterization of complex aging behavior in M250 grade maraging steel.

  15. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Analysis Checklists are included in API RP 14C you must utilize the analysis technique and documentation... device requirements for pipelines are under § 250.1004. (c) Specification for surface safety valves (SSV..., Recommended Practice for Installation, Maintenance, and Repair of Surface Safety Valves and Underwater Safety...

  16. On the economic dimensions of CSR: Exploring Fortune Global 250 reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortanier, F.N.; Kolk, A.

    2007-01-01

    The macro-level debate on the economic impact of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is still unsettled. This article explores micro-level evidence by examining what Fortune Global 250 firms themselves report about their economic impact. Such reporting embodies corporate attempts to account for their

  17. 30 CFR 250.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental impact analysis (EIA... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.227 What environmental impact analysis (EIA... requirements. Your EIA must: (1) Assess the potential environmental impacts of your proposed exploration...

  18. Study of solar features causing GMSs with 250γ H 400γ

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of solar features on geospheric conditions leading to geomagnetic storms (GMSs) with planetary index, p ≥ 20 and the range of horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field such that 250 < < 400 has been investigated using interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), solar wind plasma (SWP) and solar ...

  19. Search for charm in 250 GeV/c π-p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogert, D.; Hanft, R.; Albright, J.R.

    1975-10-01

    A study was made of the reaction π - + p at 250 GeV/c in order to search for charmed particles. Cross sections, effective mass distributions, and an upper limit for each decay mode were found. However, no evidence was found for charmed particles

  20. Search for charm in 250 GeV/c π-p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.; Bogert, D.; Hanft, R.

    1975-01-01

    Inclusive cross sections are found for strange particle production in π - p interactions at 250 GeV/c in a search for charmed particles using neutral particle decays in a bubble chamber. The results are preliminary, but at the present statistical level no evidence was found for charmed particle production

  1. 30 CFR 250.243 - What general information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... characteristics of the produced oil (see definition under 30 CFR 254.6) that you will handle or store at the... definition under § 250.200) you will use to carry out your proposed development and production activities. In... that you expect will have the highest volume of liquid hydrocarbons. Include the estimated flow rate...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 250.1016 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... process, for the assessment and management of OCS oil and gas transportation. (b) Should the proposed... comments. (d) If a proposed right-of-way crosses any lands not subject to disposition by mineral leasing or...

  3. 30 CFR 250.136 - How will MMS determine if my operating performance is unacceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS determine if my operating... Disqualification § 250.136 How will MMS determine if my operating performance is unacceptable? In determining if your operating performance is unacceptable, MMS will consider, individually or collectively: (a...

  4. 30 CFR 250.187 - What are MMS' incident reporting requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are MMS' incident reporting requirements... Reporting Requirements § 250.187 What are MMS' incident reporting requirements? (a) You must report all... other permit issued by MMS, and that are related to operations resulting from the exercise of your...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1400 - How does MMS begin the civil penalty process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS begin the civil penalty process...) Civil Penalties § 250.1400 How does MMS begin the civil penalty process? This subpart explains MMS's... other minerals operations in the OCS has a violation. Whenever MMS determines, on the basis of available...

  6. 30 CFR 250.119 - Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? 250....119 Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS, on and off-lease, for later commercial benefit. To receive MMS approval you must...

  7. 30 CFR 250.920 - What are the MMS requirements for assessment of fixed platforms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the MMS requirements for assessment of... Structures Inspection, Maintenance, and Assessment of Platforms § 250.920 What are the MMS requirements for... in API RP 2A-WSD, Section 17.3. If MMS objects to the assessment category you used for your...

  8. 30 CFR 250.133 - Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related... Inspection of Operations § 250.133 Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections? Upon request, MMS will reimburse you for food, quarters, and transportation that you provide for MMS representatives...

  9. 30 CFR 250.191 - How does MMS conduct incident investigations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS conduct incident investigations... Reporting Requirements § 250.191 How does MMS conduct incident investigations? Any investigation that MMS... meetings conducted by a chairperson appointed by MMS. The following requirements apply to any panel...

  10. 12 CFR 250.180 - Reports of changes in control of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of changes in control of management... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MISCELLANEOUS INTERPRETATIONS Interpretations § 250.180 Reports of changes in control of management. (a) Under a statute enacted September 12, 1964 (Pub. L. 88-593; 78 Stat. 940) all...

  11. 33 CFR 110.250 - St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie, V.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.250 St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie.... Thomas, V.I. of the United States and approaches thereto, including all waters under its jurisdiction, as...

  12. 30 CFR 250.404 - What are the requirements for the crown block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for the crown block... General Requirements § 250.404 What are the requirements for the crown block? You must have a crown block safety device that prevents the traveling block from striking the crown block. You must check the device...

  13. Low cycle fatigue behaviour of neutron irradiated copper alloys at 250 and 350 deg. C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Stubbins, J.F.; Toft, P.

    2000-01-01

    V) to influence levels of 1.0 - 1.5 x 1024 n/m2 (E> 1 MeV) at 250 and 350 deg. C. These irradiations were carried out in temperature controlled rigs where the irradiation temperature was monitored and controlledcontinuously throughout the whole irradiation experiment. Both unirradiated and irradiated speciments...

  14. Saint Johns, AZ NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  15. 30 CFR 250.806 - Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and pollution prevention equipment... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.806 Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance... install only certified safety and pollution prevention equipment (SPPE) in wells located on the OCS. SPPE...

  16. 41 CFR 60-250.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...

  17. Kr and Xe isotopes from spontaneous fission of 248Cm and 250Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, B.

    1980-01-01

    Relative yields of Kr and Xe isotopes from the spontaneous fission of 248 Cm and 250 Cf have been determined mass spectrometrically. The yields are as follows: 83 Kr/ 84 Kr/ 85 Kr/ 86 Kr = 0.223/0.458/0.596/ identical 1.00 and 0.306/0.582/0.793/ identical 1.00; 131 Xe/ 134 Xe/ 136 Xe = 0.486/0.819/1.075 identical 1.00 and 0.343/0.506/0.851/ identical 1.00 from 248 Cm and 250 Cf, respectively. The Xe yields from 248 Cm agree with an earlier determination by Leich et al. Neither of these yield patterns matches that of fissiogenic Kr and Xe in carbonaceous chondrites and hence 248 Cm and 250 Cf are ruled out as progenitors of the meteoritic Kr and Xe. In general, none of the spontaneously fissioning nuclides of actinide elements can be identified as a possible progenitor. Even the mixtures of actinides, including a combination of 248 Cm and 250 Cm, are unsuitable. The origin of anomalous Kr and Xe in carbonaceous chondrites must then be traced either to the spontaneous fission of a superheavy element or to peculiarities in specific nucleosynthetic reactions. (orig.)

  18. Silver City, NM AZ 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  19. 41 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - 250-Review of Personnel Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 250-Review of Personnel Processes C Appendix C to Part 60 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT...

  20. 30 CFR 250.290 - What operations require approval of the Conceptual Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Deepwater Operations Plans (dwop) § 250.290 What operations require approval of the Conceptual Plan? You may... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What operations require approval of the...

  1. LCD OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS PHASE 2: FORD F250 AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life cycle design methodology was applied to the design analysis of three alternatives for the lower plehum of the air intake manifold for us with a 5.4L F-250 truck engine: a sand cast aluminum, a lost core molded nylon composite, and a vibration welded nylon composite. The ...

  2. Transactivation mediated by B-Myb is dependent on TAF(II)250.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartusel, Thorsten; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2003-05-15

    B-Myb is a highly conserved member of the Myb family of transcription factors, which has been implicated in cell cycle regulation. B-Myb is expressed in most proliferating cells and its activity is highly regulated around the G1/S-phase border of the cell cycle. It is generally assumed that B-Myb regulates the expression of genes that are crucial for cell proliferation; however, the identity of these genes, the molecular mechanisms by which B-Myb stimulates their expression and the involvement of other proteins have not been sufficiently clarified. We have employed the hamster cell line ts13 as a tool to demonstrate a functional link between B-Myb and the coactivator TAF(II)250, a key component of the transcriptional machinery which itself is essential for cell proliferation. ts13 cells express a point-mutated version of TAF(II)250 whose intrinsic histone acetyl transferase activity is temperature sensitive. Transactivation of Myb-responsive reporter genes by B-Myb is temperature-dependent in ts13 cells but not in ts13 cells, which have been rescued by transfection with an expression vector for wild-type TAF(II)250. Furthermore, B-Myb and TAF(II)250 can be coprecipitated, suggesting that both proteins are present in a complex. The formation of this complex is dependent on the DNA-binding domain of B-Myb and not on its transactivation domain. Taken together, these observations provide the first evidence that the coactivator TAF(II)250 is involved in the activation of Myb responsive promoters by B-Myb. The finding that B-Myb transactivation is dependent on a key coactivator involved in cell cycle control is consistent with and strengthens the idea that B-Myb plays a crucial role as a transcription factor in proliferating cells.

  3. Behavior Characteristics of Type I (75/25) Octol during Melt Pouring HE Warhead M250 (Chaparral)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    COVERED BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPE 1 (75/25) "OCTOL DURING MELT POURING HE WARHEAD I M250 (CHAPARRAL) 6. PERFORMING ORG. APrPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR...Military Specification, HMX, MIL-H-45444B, Amendment 2, dated 12 July 1977. 4 6. Military Specification, Warhead, Guided Missile, HE, M250 , Loading...CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPE i (75/25) OCTOL DURING MELT POURING HE WARHEAD M250 (CHAPARRAL) HERMAN J. FRIGAND SEPTEMBER 1979 US ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND

  4. Heavy-ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  5. A single CD4 test with 250 cells/mm3 threshold predicts viral suppression in HIV-infected adults failing first-line therapy by clinical criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Gilks

    Full Text Available In low-income countries, viral load (VL monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART is rarely available in the public sector for HIV-infected adults or children. Using clinical failure alone to identify first-line ART failure and trigger regimen switch may result in unnecessary use of costly second-line therapy. Our objective was to identify CD4 threshold values to confirm clinically-determined ART failure when VL is unavailable.3316 HIV-infected Ugandan/Zimbabwean adults were randomised to first-line ART with Clinically-Driven (CDM, CD4s measured but blinded or routine Laboratory and Clinical Monitoring (LCM, 12-weekly CD4s in the DART trial. CD4 at switch and ART failure criteria (new/recurrent WHO 4, single/multiple WHO 3 event; LCM: CD4<100 cells/mm(3 were reviewed in 361 LCM, 314 CDM participants who switched over median 5 years follow-up. Retrospective VLs were available in 368 (55% participants.Overall, 265/361 (73% LCM participants failed with CD4<100 cells/mm(3; only 7 (2% switched with CD4≥250 cells/mm(3, four switches triggered by WHO events. Without CD4 monitoring, 207/314 (66% CDM participants failed with WHO 4 events, and 77(25%/30(10% with single/multiple WHO 3 events. Failure/switching with single WHO 3 events was more likely with CD4≥250 cells/mm(3 (28/77; 36% (p = 0.0002. CD4 monitoring reduced switching with viral suppression: 23/187 (12% LCM versus 49/181 (27% CDM had VL<400 copies/ml at failure/switch (p<0.0001. Amongst CDM participants with CD4<250 cells/mm(3 only 11/133 (8% had VL<400 copies/ml, compared with 38/48 (79% with CD4≥250 cells/mm(3 (p<0.0001.Multiple, but not single, WHO 3 events predicted first-line ART failure. A CD4 threshold 'tiebreaker' of ≥250 cells/mm(3 for clinically-monitored patients failing first-line could identify ∼80% with VL<400 copies/ml, who are unlikely to benefit from second-line. Targeting CD4s to single WHO stage 3 'clinical failures' would particularly avoid premature, costly

  6. A gas/liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the rapid screening of 250 pesticides in aqueous matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramouli, B.; Harvan, D.; Brittain, S.; Hass, R. [Eno River Labs, LLC. Durham, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Pesticide residues in food present a potentially serious and significant cause for concern. Many pesticides have been associated with significant health effects to the nervous and endocrine systems and some have been deemed carcinogenic. There are many well-established techniques for pesticide analysis. However, commercial pesticide methods have traditionally only been available for specific pesticide families, such as chlorinated pesticides or herbicides, and at detection limits ranging from 0.05 ppb to 1 ppm in aqueous matrices. Techniques that can quickly screen for the presence/absence of pesticide residues in food matrices are critical in ensuring the safety of food and water. This paper outlines a combined Gas Chromatographic-High Resolution Mass Spectrometric (GC-HRMS) and Liquid Chromatographic Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) screening assay for 250 pesticides that was developed for use in water, and soda samples at screening levels ranging from 0.1-5 ppb. The pesticides selected have been identified by the European Union as being of concern and the target of possible legislation. The list encompasses a variety of pesticide classes and compound groupings.

  7. N250r and N400 ERP correlates of immediate famous face repetition are independent of perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Markus F; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2008-11-06

    It is a matter of considerable debate whether attention to initial stimulus presentations is required for repetition-related neural modulations to occur. Recently, it has been assumed that faces are particularly hard to ignore, and can capture attention in a reflexive manner. In line with this idea, electrophysiological evidence for long-term repetition effects of unattended famous faces has been reported. The present study investigated influences of attention to prime faces on short-term repetition effects in event-related potentials (ERPs). We manipulated attention to short (200 ms) prime presentations (S1) of task-irrelevant famous faces according to Lavie's Perceptual Load Theory. Participants attended to letter strings superimposed on face images, and identified target letters "X" vs. "N" embedded in strings of either 6 different (high load) or 6 identical (low load) letters. Letter identification was followed by probe presentations (S2), which were either repetitions of S1 faces, new famous faces, or infrequent butterflies, to which participants responded. Our ERP data revealed repetition effects in terms of an N250r at occipito-temporal regions, suggesting priming of face identification processes, and in terms of an N400 at the vertex, suggesting semantic priming. Crucially, the magnitude of these effects was unaffected by perceptual load at S1 presentation. This indicates that task-irrelevant face processing is remarkably preserved even in a demanding letter detection task, supporting recent notions of face-specific attentional resources.

  8. Radiation from a hot, thin plasma from 1 to 250 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T.

    1976-01-01

    A calculation of emission spectrum of a hot, low-density plasma in the region 1--250 A is presented. The mechanisms considered are electron collision-induced line emission, bremsstrahlung, and radiative recombination; and the temperature range studied is 10 5 --10 7 K. 795 lines are included. The elemental abundances of the ions of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Fe, and Ni were taken to be as in the solar corona. The line emission of Fe ions produces a maximum in the curve of an emission power between 1 and 250 A versus temperature around 10 6 K. The emission rate around 10 6 K is larger than the results calculated by Cox and Tucker and Tucker and Koren

  9. Evaluation of the Meditech M250 and a comparison with other CT scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greensmith, R.; Richardson, R.B.; Mackintosh, I.P.; Sargood, A.J.; Stevens, P.H.

    1985-11-01

    The Meditech M250 computerised tomography (CT) machine was evaluated during the first half of 1984. Measurements were made of noise, modulation transfer function, slice width, radiation dose profile, uniformity and linearity of CT number, effective photon energy and parameters relating to machine specification, such as pixel size and scan time. All breakdowns were logged to indicate machine reliability. A comparison with the established EMI CT1010 and CT5005 was made for noise, resolution and multislice radiation dose, as well as the dose efficiency or quality (Q) factor for both head and body modes of operation. The M250 was found to perform to its intended specification with an acceptable level of reliability.

  10. An evaluation of the Meditech M250 and a comparison with other CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensmith, R.; Richardson, R.B.; Mackintosh, I.P.; Sargood, A.J.; Stevens, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Meditech M250 computerised tomography (CT) machine was evaluated during the first half of 1984. Measurements were made of noise, modulation transfer function, slice width, radiation dose profile, uniformity and linearity of CT number, effective photon energy and parameters relating to machine specification, such as pixel size and scan time. All breakdowns were logged to indicate machine reliability. A comparison with the established EMI CT1010 and CT5005 was made for noise, resolution and multislice radiation dose, as well as the dose efficiency or quality (Q) factor for both head and body modes of operation. The M250 was found to perform to its intended specification with an acceptable level of reliability. (author)

  11. An evaluation of the Meditech M250 and a comparison with other CT scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensmith, R; Richardson, R B; Sargood, A J; Stevens, P H; Mackintosh, I P

    1985-11-01

    The Meditech M250 computerised tomography (CT) machine was evaluated during the first half of 1984. Measurements were made of noise, modulation transfer function, slice width, radiation dose profile, uniformity and linearity of CT number, effective photon energy and parameters relating to machine specification, such as pixel size and scan time. All breakdowns were logged to indicate machine reliability. A comparison with the established EMI CT1010 and CT5005 was made for noise, resolution and multislice radiation dose, as well as the dose efficiency or quality (Q) factor for both head and body modes of operation. The M250 was found to perform to its intended specification with an acceptable level of reliability.

  12. Experimental ethylene oxide neuropathy. Chronic exposure to 250 ppm in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Inoue, N.; Tanaka, I.; Koga, M.

    1985-12-01

    In Wistar rats subjected to a six-hour exposure to ethylene oxide (ETO) at the concentration of 250 parts per million once a day, five times a week for 9 months, histopathologic studies of myelinated fibers of the proximal sural, distal sural and peroneal nerves and of the fasciculus gracilis at the fifth thoracic and third cervical segments of the spinal cord were performed to reveal whether ETO of such concentration produces the degeneration of the primary sensory neuron. Throughout the study, no definite abnormality of the gait or posture was observed in both control and test rats. Qualitative histologic studies disclosed preferential distal axonal degeneration of myelinated fibers in both sural nerves and gracile fascicles in test rats, although the extent of the distribution and the severity of the degenerative findings were variable among test rats. Therefore, it was concluded that exposure to 250 ppm ethylene oxide produces central-peripheral distal axonal degeneration of the primary sensory neuron in rats.

  13. SPECT scintigraphy with HDP and Mab BW 250/183 of loosened hip endoprothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predic, P [Hospital Celje, Celje (Sierra Leone); Gregoric, E [Hospital Izola, Izola (Sierra Leone); Dodig, D [Clinical Hospital Centre, Zagreb (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Protection

    1994-10-01

    Main problem of the loosened hip endoprothesis is in distinguishing between the aseptic and septic loosening of endoprothesis. The study involved 27 pts with a loosened hip; 15 pts with aseptic and 12 pts with septic loosening. The patients were injected 550-770 MBq Tc-99m-HDP and underwent SPECT scintigraphy of the hips to repeat then the examination with only 370 MBq Tc-99m-Mab Bw 230/183. HDP application evidenced positive accumulation at the endoprothesis in all patients with a loosened hip while Mab Bw 250/183 only in the patients with septic loosening. Conclusion: SPECT scintigraphy of hip endoprothesis with HDP and Mab BW 250/183 allows differential diagnosing between septic and aseptic hip loosening and hereby a correct therapeutical approach. (author).

  14. Design of the proposed 250 MeV superconducting cyclotron magnet for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.; Ahmed, M.; Murali, S.; Duttagupta, A.; Chaudhuri, J.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Here we describe the design calculations for the superconducting magnet of a 250 MeV proton cyclotron to be used for therapeutic purpose. Hard-edge approximation method has been adopted for finding the poletip geometry to meet the basic focusing requirements of the beam. Then the uniform-magnetization method has been applied to calculate the 3D magnetic field distribution due to saturated iron poletips, to verify the beam dynamical issues. (author)

  15. Flat-topped emission centred at 1 250 nm from quantum dot superluminescent diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Hogg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for tailoring a broadband and flat-topped emission spectrum in quantum dot superluminescent diodes based upon modification of the dots-in-compositionally-modulated-well (DCMWELL technique. We demonstrate flat-topped emission with 95 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM, centred at 1 250 nm, and with output power in excess of 8 mW.

  16. Flexible low-voltage organic transistors with high thermal stability at 250 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Tokuhara, Takeyoshi; Zschieschang, Ute; Klauk, Hagen; Takimiya, Kazuo; Sadamitsu, Yuji; Hamada, Masahiro; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2013-07-19

    Low-operating-voltage flexible organic thin-film transistors with high thermal stability using DPh-DNTT and SAM gate dielectrics are reported. The mobility of the transistors are decreased by 23% after heating to 250 °C for 30 min. Furthermore, flexible organic pseudo-CMOS inverter circuits, which are functional after heating to 200 °C, are demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Basic research using the 250 kW research reactor of the Jozef Stefan Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimic, V.

    1984-01-01

    The 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor is a light water reactor with solid fuel elements in which the zirconium hydride moderator is homogeneously distributed between enriched uranium. The reactor therefore has a large prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity; the fuel also has a very high retention of radioactive fission products. The experimental facilities include a rotary specimen rack, a central in-core radiation thimble, a pneumatic transfer system and pulsing capability. Other experimental facilities include two radial and two tangential beam tubes, a graphite thermal column and a graphite thermalizing column. At the steady state power of 250 kW the peak flux is 1x10 13 n/cm 2 in the central test position. In addition, pulsing to about 2000 MW is usually provided giving peak fluxes of about 2x10 16 n/cm 2 sec. All TRIGA reactors produce a core-average thermal neutron flux of about 10 7 n.v. per watt. Only with very large accelerators can such high fluxes be achieved. The types of research could be summarized as follows: thermal neutron scattering, neutron radiography, neutron and nuclear physics, activation analysis, radiochemistry, biology and medicine, and teaching and training. Typical applied research with a 250 kW reactor has been conducted in medicine, in biology, archaeology, metallurgy and materials science, engineering and criminology. It is well known that research reactors have been used routinely to produce isotopes for industry and medicine. We can conclude that the 250 kW TRIGA reactor is a useful and wide ranging source of radiation for basic and applied research. The operation cost for this instrument is relatively low. (author)

  18. Characteristics and uses of a 250 kW TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimic, V.

    1985-01-01

    The 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor is a light water reactor with solid fuel elements in which the zirconium hydride moderator is homogeneously distributed between enriched uranium. Therefore the reactor has the large prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, the fuel also has very high retention of radioactive fission products. The reactor core is a cylindrical configuration with an annular graphite reflector. The experimental facilities include a rotary specimen rack, a central incore radiation thimble, a pneumatic transfer system, and pulsing capability. Other experimental facilities include two radial and two tangential beam tubes, a graphite thermal column, and a graphite thermalizing column. At the steady state power of 250 kW the peak flux is 1x10 13 n/cm 2 s in the central test position. In addition, pulsing to about 2000 MW is usually provided giving peak fluxes of about 2x10 16 n/cm 2 sec. All TRIGA reactors produce a core-average thermal neutron flux of about 10 7 n.v per watt. Only with very large accelerators could such a high neutron flux be achieved. In order to give an appreciation for the research conducted at research reactors, the types of research could be summarized as follows: thermal neutron scattering, neutron radiography, neutron and nuclear physics, activation analysis, radiochemistry, biology and medicine, and teaching and training. Typical applied research with a 250 kW reactor has been conducted in medicine in biology, archeology, metallurgy and materials science, engineering and criminology. It is well known that research reactors have been used routinely to produce isotopes for industry and medicine. In some instances, reactors are the preferred method of isotope production. We can conclude that the 250 kW TRIGA research reactor is a useful and wide ranging source of radiation for basic and applied research. The operation cost for this instrument is relatively low. (author)

  19. Characterization of aging-induced microstructural changes in M250 maraging steel using magnetic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, K.V. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Vaidyanathan, S. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kumar, Anish [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)]. E-mail: tjk@igcar.gov.in; Raj, Baldev [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Ray, K.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2007-05-15

    The best combinations of mechanical properties (yield stress and fracture toughness) of M250 maraging steel is obtained through short-term thermal aging (3-10 h) at 755 K. This is attributed to the microstructure containing precipitation of intermetallic phases in austenite-free low-carbon martensite matrix. Over-aged microstructure, containing reverted austenite degrades the mechanical properties drastically. Hence, it necessitates identification of a suitable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for detecting any reverted austenite unambiguously during aging. The influence of aging on microstructure, room temperature hardness and non-destructive magnetic parameters such as coercivity (H {sub c}), saturation magnetization (M {sub s}) and magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) RMS peak voltage is studied in order to derive correlations between these parameters in aged M250 maraging steel. Hardness was found to increase with precipitation of intermetallics during initial aging and decrease at longer durations due to austenite reversion. Among the different magnetic parameters studied, MBE RMS peak voltage was found to be very sensitive to austenite reversion (non-magnetic phase) as they decreased drastically up on initiation of austenite reversion. Hence, this parameter can be effectively utilized to detect and quantify the reverted austenite in maraging steel specimen. The present study clearly indicates that the combination of MBE RMS peak voltage and hardness can be used for unambiguous characterization of microstructural features of technological and practical importance (3-10 h of aging duration at 755 K) in M250 grade maraging steel.

  20. Characterization of aging-induced microstructural changes in M250 maraging steel using magnetic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkumar, K.V.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev; Ray, K.K.

    2007-01-01

    The best combinations of mechanical properties (yield stress and fracture toughness) of M250 maraging steel is obtained through short-term thermal aging (3-10 h) at 755 K. This is attributed to the microstructure containing precipitation of intermetallic phases in austenite-free low-carbon martensite matrix. Over-aged microstructure, containing reverted austenite degrades the mechanical properties drastically. Hence, it necessitates identification of a suitable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for detecting any reverted austenite unambiguously during aging. The influence of aging on microstructure, room temperature hardness and non-destructive magnetic parameters such as coercivity (H c ), saturation magnetization (M s ) and magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) RMS peak voltage is studied in order to derive correlations between these parameters in aged M250 maraging steel. Hardness was found to increase with precipitation of intermetallics during initial aging and decrease at longer durations due to austenite reversion. Among the different magnetic parameters studied, MBE RMS peak voltage was found to be very sensitive to austenite reversion (non-magnetic phase) as they decreased drastically up on initiation of austenite reversion. Hence, this parameter can be effectively utilized to detect and quantify the reverted austenite in maraging steel specimen. The present study clearly indicates that the combination of MBE RMS peak voltage and hardness can be used for unambiguous characterization of microstructural features of technological and practical importance (3-10 h of aging duration at 755 K) in M250 grade maraging steel

  1. Characterization of aging-induced microstructural changes in M250 maraging steel using magnetic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K. V.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev; Ray, K. K.

    2007-05-01

    The best combinations of mechanical properties (yield stress and fracture toughness) of M250 maraging steel is obtained through short-term thermal aging (3-10 h) at 755 K. This is attributed to the microstructure containing precipitation of intermetallic phases in austenite-free low-carbon martensite matrix. Over-aged microstructure, containing reverted austenite degrades the mechanical properties drastically. Hence, it necessitates identification of a suitable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for detecting any reverted austenite unambiguously during aging. The influence of aging on microstructure, room temperature hardness and non-destructive magnetic parameters such as coercivity ( Hc), saturation magnetization ( Ms) and magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) RMS peak voltage is studied in order to derive correlations between these parameters in aged M250 maraging steel. Hardness was found to increase with precipitation of intermetallics during initial aging and decrease at longer durations due to austenite reversion. Among the different magnetic parameters studied, MBE RMS peak voltage was found to be very sensitive to austenite reversion (non-magnetic phase) as they decreased drastically up on initiation of austenite reversion. Hence, this parameter can be effectively utilized to detect and quantify the reverted austenite in maraging steel specimen. The present study clearly indicates that the combination of MBE RMS peak voltage and hardness can be used for unambiguous characterization of microstructural features of technological and practical importance (3-10 h of aging duration at 755 K) in M250 grade maraging steel.

  2. Alveolar macrophage accumulation rates, for 28 nm and 250 nm PSL, are mediated by separate mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, O R; Wong, V A, E-mail: moss@thehamner.or [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27509-2137 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    When macrophages accumulate 28 nm and 250 nm diameter polystyrene latex (PSL) beads, the accumulation rates should reflect differences in molecular and cellular function. We used a confocal microscope to measure the accumulation rates of nanoparticles by F344-rat-alveolar macrophages (approx25,000 cells adhered to a 0.7 cm{sup 2} surface). Over the cells were layered 0.1 ml of media, and 0.1 ml of media-with-beads. Fresh cells were introduced for each exposure scenario. The maximum possible individual macrophage exposures were as follows: 8x10{sup 6}, 8x10{sup 5}, and 8x10{sup 4} 28 nm beads per macrophage; and 8x10{sup 4} and 1.12x10{sup 4} 250 nm beads per macrophage. Accumulation rates were estimated over 23 minutes. The increase in bead accumulation-rate matched changes in bead-availability: 7x increase for 250 nm beads; 100x increase for 28 nm beads; and 700x increase for all bead availabilities. The maximum sustained 28 nm bead accumulation rate was > 30,000 /min (for 5 min). Increases in bead accumulation could be explained by two mechanisms: bead-diffusion; and, for the macrophage, macropinocytosis. Also for the highest concentrations of 28 nm beads, we saw a colligative threshold - possibly due to beads masking the cell surface or obstructing cellular mechanisms.

  3. Memory timeline: Brain ERP C250 (not P300) is an early biomarker of short-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert M; Gardner, Margaret N; Mapstone, Mark; Dupree, Haley M; Antonsdottir, Inga M

    2015-04-16

    Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) offer a quantitative link between neurophysiological activity and cognitive performance. ERPs were measured while young adults performed a task that required storing a relevant stimulus in short-term memory. Using principal components analysis, ERP component C250 (maximum at 250 ms post-stimulus) was extracted from a set of ERPs that were separately averaged for various task conditions, including stimulus relevancy and stimulus sequence within a trial. C250 was more positive in response to task-specific stimuli that were successfully stored in short-term memory. This relationship between C250 and short-term memory storage of a stimulus was confirmed by a memory probe recall test where the behavioral recall of a stimulus was highly correlated with its C250 amplitude. ERP component P300 (and its subcomponents of P3a and P3b, which are commonly thought to represent memory operations) did not show a pattern of activation reflective of storing task-relevant stimuli. C250 precedes the P300, indicating that initial short-term memory storage may occur earlier than previously believed. Additionally, because C250 is so strongly predictive of a stimulus being stored in short-term memory, C250 may provide a strong index of early memory operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 30 CFR 250.192 - What reports and statistics must I submit relating to a hurricane, earthquake, or other natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relating to a hurricane, earthquake, or other natural occurrence? 250.192 Section 250.192 Mineral Resources... statistics must I submit relating to a hurricane, earthquake, or other natural occurrence? (a) You must... tropical storm, or an earthquake. Statistics include facilities and rigs evacuated and the amount of...

  5. 30 CFR 250.523 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and diagnostic tests? 250.523 Section 250.523 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... casing pressure and diagnostic tests? Records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests must be kept at the field office nearest the well for a minimum of 2 years. The last casing diagnostic test for each casing...

  6. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section 250.248...

  7. 12 CFR 250.402 - Service as officer, director, or employee of licensee corporation under the Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... licensee corporation under the Small Business Investment Act of 1958. 250.402 Section 250.402 Banks and... employee of licensee corporation under the Small Business Investment Act of 1958. (a) The Board of... corporation under the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 (15 U.S.C. 661 et seq.). It is understood that a...

  8. 30 CFR 250.261 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.261 Section 250.261 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of...

  9. 20 CFR 410.250 - Effect of conviction of felonious and intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits. 410.250 Section 410.250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... conviction of felonious and intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits. An individual who has been finally convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction of the felonious and intentional homicide of a...

  10. Binary energy source of the HH 250 outflow and its circumstellar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerón, Fernando; Reipurth, Bo; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Connelley, Michael S.

    2018-04-01

    Aims: Herbig-Haro flows are signposts of recent major accretion and outflow episodes. We aim to determine the nature and properties of the little-known outflow source HH 250-IRS, which is embedded in the Aquila clouds. Methods: We have obtained adaptive optics-assisted L-band images with the NACO instrument on the Very Large Telescope (VLT), together with N- and Q-band imaging with VISIR also on the VLT. Using the SINFONI instrument on the VLT we carried out H- and K-band integral field spectroscopy of HH 250-IRS, complemented with spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument at the InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) in the JHKL bands. Finally, the SubMillimeter Array (SMA) interferometer was used to study the circumstellar environment of HH 250-IRS at 225 and 351 GHz with CO (2-1) and CO (3-2) maps and 0.9 mm and 1.3 mm continuum images. Results: The HH 250-IRS source is resolved into a binary with 0.''53 separation, corresponding to 120 AU at the adopted distance of 225 pc. The individual components show heavily veiled spectra with weak CO absorption indicative of late-type stars. Both are Class I sources, but their spectral energy distributions between 1.5 μm and 19 μm differ markedly and suggest the existence of a large cavity around one of the components. The millimeter interferometric observations indicate that the gas mainly traces a circumbinary envelope or disk, while the dust emission is dominated by one of the circumstellar envelopes. Conclusions: HH 250-IRS is a new addition to the handful of multiple systems where the individual stellar components, the circumstellar disks and a circumbinary disk can be studied in detail, and a rare case among those systems in which a Herbig-Haro flow is present. Based on observations obtained with the VLT (Cerro Paranal, Chile) in programs 089.C-0196(A), 095.C-0488(A), and 095.C-0488(B), as well as with IRTF (Mauna Kea, Hawaii), SMA (Mauna Kea, Hawaii), and the Nordic Optical Telescope (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain

  11. Preparation of barium and uranium targets on thick backings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sletten, G.

    1982-01-01

    Targets of 135 Ba and 235 U have been prepared by the technique of heavy ion sputtering. Rolled foils of 208 Pb and 197 Au were used to support 250-500 μg/cm 2 layers of barium. Uranium films have been prepared by sputtering UO 2 onto 1 mg/cm 2 titanium foils. Uranium deposit thicknesses of 300 to 1800 μg/cm 2 have been prepared. (orig.)

  12. Design of ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, S.W.; Dittrich, T.R.; Marinak, M.M.; Hinkel, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    This is a brief update on the work being done to design ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility. Updates are presented on three areas of current activity : improvements in modeling, work on a variety of targets spanning the parameter space of possible ignition targets ; and the setting of specifications for target fabrication and diagnostics. Highlights of recent activity include : a simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth on an imploding capsule, done in 3D on a 72degree by 72degree wedge, with enough zones to resolve modes out to 100 ; and designs of targets at 250eV and 350eV, as well as the baseline 300 eV ; and variation of the central DT gas density, which influences both the Rayleigh-Taylor growth and the smoothness of the DT ice layer

  13. Organelle targeting: third level of drug targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhrani NM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Niraj M Sakhrani, Harish PadhDepartment of Cell and Molecular Biology, BV Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development (PERD Centre, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: Drug discovery and drug delivery are two main aspects for treatment of a variety of disorders. However, the real bottleneck associated with systemic drug administration is the lack of target-specific affinity toward a pathological site, resulting in systemic toxicity and innumerable other side effects as well as higher dosage requirement for efficacy. An attractive strategy to increase the therapeutic index of a drug is to specifically deliver the therapeutic molecule in its active form, not only into target tissue, nor even to target cells, but more importantly, into the targeted organelle, ie, to its intracellular therapeutic active site. This would ensure improved efficacy and minimize toxicity. Cancer chemotherapy today faces the major challenge of delivering chemotherapeutic drugs exclusively to tumor cells, while sparing normal proliferating cells. Nanoparticles play a crucial role by acting as a vehicle for delivery of drugs to target sites inside tumor cells. In this review, we spotlight active and passive targeting, followed by discussion of the importance of targeting to specific cell organelles and the potential role of cell-penetrating peptides. Finally, the discussion will address the strategies for drug/DNA targeting to lysosomes, mitochondria, nuclei and Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum.Keywords: intracellular drug delivery, cancer chemotherapy, therapeutic index, cell penetrating peptides

  14. Functional substitution for TAF(II)250 by a retroposed homolog that is expressed in human spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P Jeremy; Page, David C

    2002-09-15

    TAF(II)250, the largest subunit of the general transcription factor TFIID, is expressed from the human X chromosome, at least in somatic cells. In male meiosis, however, the sex chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced, while the autosomes remain active. How then are protein-encoding genes transcribed during human male meiosis? Here we present a novel autosomal human gene, TAF1L, which is homologous to TAF(II)250 and is expressed specifically in the testis, apparently in germ cells. We hypothesize that during male meiosis, transcription of protein-encoding genes relies upon TAF1L as a functional substitute for TAF(II)250. Like TAF(II)250, the human TAF1L protein can bind directly to TATA-binding protein, an essential component of TFIID. Most importantly, transfection with human TAF1L rescued the temperature-sensitive lethality of a hamster cell line mutant in TAF(II)250. TAF1L lacks introns and evidently arose by retroposition of a processed TAF(II)250 mRNA during primate evolution. The observation that TAF1L can functionally replace TAF(II)250 provides experimental support for the hypothesis that during male meiosis, autosomes provide cellular functions usually supplied by the X chromosome in somatic cells.

  15. Dense grid of narrow bandpass filters for the JST/T250 telescope: summary of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauneck, Ulf; Sprengard, Ruediger; Bourquin, Sebastien; Marín-Franch, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    On the Javalambre mountain in Spain, the Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon has setup two telescopes, the JST/T250 and the JAST/T80. The JAST/T80 telescope integrates T80Cam, a large format, single CCD camera while the JST/T250 will mount the JPCam instrument, a 1.2Gpix camera equipped with a 14-CCD mosaic using the new large format e2v 9.2k×9.2k 10-μm pixel detectors. Both T80Cam and JPCam integrate a large number of filters in dimensions of 106.8×106.8 mm2 and 101.7×95.5 mm2, respectively. For this instrument, SCHOTT manufactured 56 specially designed steep edged bandpass interference filters, which were recently completed. The filter set consists of bandpass filters in the range between 348.5 and 910 nm and a longpass filter at 915 nm. Most of the filters have full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 14.5 nm and a blocking between 250 and 1050 nm with optical density of OD5. Absorptive color glass substrates in combination with interference filters were used to minimize residual reflection in order to avoid ghost images. In spite of containing absorptive elements, the filters show the maximum possible transmission. This was achieved by using magnetron sputtering for the filter coating process. The most important requirement for the continuous photometric survey is the tight tolerancing of the central wavelengths and FWHM of the filters. This insures each bandpass has a defined overlap with its neighbors. A high image quality required a low transmitted wavefront error (<λ/4 locally and <λ/2 on the whole aperture), which was achieved even by combining two or three substrates. We report on the spectral and interferometric results measured on the whole set of filters.

  16. Savannah River Plant californium-252 Shuffler electronics manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, S.C.; Crane, T.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Gallegos, E.A.; Garcia, D.L.

    1980-03-01

    Detailed information is presented in this report, an electronics manual for the Savannah River Plant Shuffler, about the electronics associated with the various control and data acquisition functions of the Shuffler subsystems. Circuit diagrams, interconnection information, and details about computer control and programming are included

  17. Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    Potential applications for devices or systems containing 252 Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on 252 Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of 252 Cf devices should increase from 1.5 million dollars in 1975 to 10.8 million dollars in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of 252 Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US

  18. The protective cell petrus for the production of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontag, R.; Berger, R.

    1967-01-01

    The alpha, beta, gamma, neutron cell which is described in the present paper is devoted to the transplutonium element production and study. It is located at the CEN in Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). The 4 feet ordinary concrete shielding made of stacked blocs allows the manipulation of radioactive sources as high as 1000 curies of 1 MeV gamma rays and with a fast neutrons flux of 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -1 . The airtight alpha containment box is equipped with two transfer systems, one consists of a parallelepiped shaped airtight box located in a turntable, the other uses standard cylindrical containers made of polyethylene. The general equipment and the main setting up are also described. (authors) [fr

  19. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg 252 Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17 O. Detection sensitivities of 239 Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  20. Savannah River Plant Californium-252 Shuffler software manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.S.; Crane, T.W.; Eccleston, G.W.

    1979-03-01

    A software manual for operating the Savannah River Plant Shuffler nondestructive assay instrument is presented. The procedures for starting up the instrument, making assays, calibrating, and checking the performance of the hardware units are described. A list of the error messages with an explanation of the circumstances prompting the message and possible corrective measures is given. A summary of the software package is included showing the names and contents of the files and subroutines. The procedure for modifying the software package is outlined

  1. Californium-252 interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtyurin, B.M.; Ivanov, V.N.; Medvedev, V.S.; Galantseva, G.F.; Abdulkadyrov, S.A.; Ivanova, L.F.; Petrovskaya, G.A.; Plichko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A clinical study using 252 Cf sources in brachytherapy of tumors began in the Research Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1973. 252 Cf afterloading cells were utilized by the method of simple afterloading. Dosimetry and radiation protection of medical personnel were developed. To substantiate optimal therapeutic doses of 252 Cf neutrons, a correlation of dose, time, and treatment volume factors with clinical results of 252 Cf interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue for 47 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year was studied. Forty-nine interstitial implants have been performed. Seventeen patients received 252 Cf implants alone (Group I), 17 other patients received 252 Cf implants in combination with external radiation (Group II), and 15 patients were treated with interstitial implants for recurrent or residual tumors (Groups III). Complete regression of carcinoma of the tongue was obtained in 48 patients (98%). Thirteen patients (27%) developed radiation necrosis. The therapeutic dose of neutron radiation from 252 Cf sources in interstitial radiotherapy of primary tongue carcinomas (Group I) was found to be 7 to 9 Gy. Optimal therapeutic neutron dose in combined interstitial and external radiotherapy of primary tumors (Group II) was 5 to 6 Gy with an external radiation dose of 40 Gy. For recurrent and residual tumors (Group III), favorable results were obtained with tumor doses of 6.5 to 7 Gy

  2. Undergraduate experiments using the neutron radiation from californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossel, J.; Golecki, I.

    1976-01-01

    Three experiments designed to demonstrate and measure several properties of the neutron radiation emitted by a 3μg 252 Cf source are described. The experiments constitute a special project carried out by a third-year undergraduate student at the Institute of Physics of the University of Neuchatel. The 252 Cf source is enclosed in a shield which allows a pencil of fast neutrons to pass through a central tube, while reducing the ambient radiation below the tolerance level. The shield consists of layers of borated paraffin wax, iron and cadmium. The first experiment uses an air-alcohol diffusion cloud chamber for the demonstration of tracks of recoil protons produced by the neutrons. Semi-quantitative measurements of track lengths give the correct order of magnitude of the proton energies. In the second experiment a liquid scintillator detector is used to scan the beam profile across the radiation shield enclosing the source. A pulse-shape-discrimination system discriminates between neutrons and gamma photons. The third experiment makes use of the nuclear emulsion technique to study the neutron energy distribution of 252 Cf. Preliminary results are compared with published values. (author)

  3. Relationship between thermal embrittlement and hydrogen cracking in 18Ni(250) maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The role of grain boundary precipitate structure on the stress corrosion susceptibility of 18Ni(250) maraging steel was examined. Varying solution treatment procedures were used to achieve either a precipitate-free grain boundary or one containing a high density of Ti(C,N) particles. The introduction of these treatments, although drastically affecting the monotonic fracture toughness, did not significantly alter the stress corrosion threshold in 100 percent relative humidity. These results are shown to be consistent with the previous suggestion that, under open circuit conditions, hydrogen-assisted cracking controls the environmental crack growth behavior of 18Ni maraging steels. (U.S.)

  4. Alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperature and pressure of 250 °C and 42 bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    A new type of alkaline electrolysis cells with nickel foam based gas diffusion electrodes and KOH (aq) immobilized in mesoporous SrTiO3 has been developed and tested at temperatures and pressures up to 250 °C and 42 bar, respectively. Current densities of 1.0 A cm−2 have been measured at a cell v...... voltage of 1.5 V without the use of expensive noble metal catalysts. High electrical efficiency and current density combined with relatively small production costs may lead to both reduced investment and operating costs for hydrogen and oxygen production....

  5. Pulse radiolysis studies of liquid heavy water at temperatures up to 250 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.R.; Ouellette, D.C.; Elliot, A.J.

    2002-09-01

    This report documents the rate constants and associated activation energies for the reactions of the primary radical species, e aq - , ·OD and ·D, which are formed during the radiolysis of heavy water within the temperature range 20 to 250 o C. These heavy-water data have been compared with the corresponding information for light water. These kinetic data form part of the database that is required to model the aqueous radiation chemistry that occurs within the core of the heavy water cooled and moderated CANDU reactor. (author)

  6. Investigations in a drift chamber using 250 MHz analogue-digital-converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, F.A.

    1993-06-01

    The performance of a new 250 MHz FADC module was investigated in a small drift chamber system. Straight tracks were induced in the chamber volume by UV-LASER beams. The time resolution was determined from drift time measurements for four neighbouring signal wires. By use of a beam splitter a pair of parallel beams was produced. An appropriate rotation of this pair relative to the signal wire plane allowed the determination of the double hit resolution. A comparison of the obtained values with the results achieved with 100 MHz FADC modules showed that the new module is well suited for chamber read out. The attainable improvements however are small. (orig.) [de

  7. Analysis of RF section of 250 kW CW C-Band high power klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badola, Richa; Kaushik, Meenu; Baloda, Suman; Kirti; Vrati; Lamba, O.S.; Joshi, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Klystron is a microwave tube which is used as a power amplifier in various applications like radar, particle accelerators and thermonuclear reactors. The paper deals with the analysis of RF section of 250 kW CW C band high power klystron for 50 to 60 kV beam voltage The simulation is done using Poisson's superfish and AJ disk software's Design of cavity is done using superfish. The result of superfish is used to decide the dimensions of the geometry of the cavity and AJ disk is used to determined the centre to centre distances between the cavities in order to obtain the desired powers. (author)

  8. Three-electrode pulse electron gun with currents up to 250 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, Yu.V.; Shanturin, L.P.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operating conditions of a pulsed electron gun are described. The electron gun has three electrodes: a cathode, an anode and a control electrode in the form of a grid. The cathode is made from lanthanum hexaboride, which ensures its operation in a low vacuum at a temperature of 1,700 deg C. The control electrode and anode grid are fabricated from sheet tantalum. The anode-grid characteristics of the gun are given. It is shown that at an accelerating voltage of 100 kV, a temperature of 1,700 deg C and a zero control electrode potential the beam current is 250 A

  9. Hadron production in 250 GeV/c π+p and K+p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hal, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Results on hadron production in π + p and K + p interactions at 250 GeV/c are presented from the experiment NA22 at the CERN SPS. With the present statistics we find: scaling in the fragmentation regions for both charged and neutral pions; a reasonable description of the K + p→π 0 /π + p→π 0 ratio by both the LUND M.C. and a DTU M.C. (Ranft and Ritter), agreement with these Monte Carlo's for the K + /π + population percentages in the forward hemisphere; no agreement for the seagull with the LUND M.C. and strong disagreement with the DTU M.C

  10. Off-resonance transformer charging for 250-kV water Blumlein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E.; Reginato, L.

    1978-01-01

    An off-resonance transformer for charging a 250-kV Blumlein system provides a viable alternative to other charging schemes by permitting the use of conventional thyratrons. Such a transformer must have reliability, a reasonable voltage step-up, and a non-reversing primary current. The analysis, design, and performance data for such a transformer are presented. The strong interrelationship between transformer design and Blumlein requirements necessitates that Blumlein description and design criterion be briefly presented prior to transformer design such that transformer load requirements be defined

  11. Pulse radiolysis studies of liquid heavy water at temperatures up to 250 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, C.R.; Ouellette, D.C.; Elliot, A.J

    2002-09-01

    This report documents the rate constants and associated activation energies for the reactions of the primary radical species, e{sub aq}{sup -}, {center_dot}OD and {center_dot}D, which are formed during the radiolysis of heavy water within the temperature range 20 to 250 {sup o}C. These heavy-water data have been compared with the corresponding information for light water. These kinetic data form part of the database that is required to model the aqueous radiation chemistry that occurs within the core of the heavy water cooled and moderated CANDU reactor. (author)

  12. Design of diode electron gun for 250 kW CW klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.; Pande, S.A.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    A 250 kW CW klystron at frequencies 350 MHz and 700 MHz is being developed at Centre for Advanced Technology. These klystrons are required for forthcoming project like 100 MeV proton Linac for Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) as a main rf sources. In order to develop klystrons, we have designed the diode electron gun, which delivers more than 10 A beam current at 50 kV. This paper describes the simulation results of electron gun with computer code EGUN. (author)

  13. Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-KYR ice-core record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    1993-01-01

    decades. Here we present a detailed stable-isotope record for the full length of the Greenland Ice-core Project Summit ice core, extending over the past 250 kyr according to a calculated timescale. We find that climate instability was not confined to the last glaciation, but appears also to have been...... results1,2 from two ice cores drilled in central Greenland have revealed large, abrupt climate changes of at least regional extent during the late stages of the last glaciation, suggesting that climate in the North Atlantic region is able to reorganize itself rapidly, perhaps even within a few...

  14. A 250-GHz CARM [Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser] oscillator experiment driven by an induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, M.; Kulke, B.; Bubp, D.G.; McDermott, D.; Luhmann, N.

    1990-01-01

    A 250-GHz Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser (CARM) oscillator has been designed and constructed and will be tested using a 1-kA, 2-MeV electron beam produced by the induction linac at the Accelerator Research Center (ARC) facility of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The oscillator circuit was made to operate in the TE 11 mode at ten times cutoff using waveguide Bragg reflectors to create an external cavity Q of 8000. Theory predicts cavity fill times of less than 30 ns (pulse length) and efficiencies approaching 20% is sufficiently low transverse electron velocity spreads are maintained (2%)

  15. Design of an induction linac driven CARM [Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser] oscillator at 250 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, M.; Kulke, B.

    1990-01-01

    We present the design of a 250 GHz, 400 MW Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser (CARM) oscillator driven by a 1 KA, 2 MeV electron beam produced by the induction linac at the ARC facility of LLNL. The oscillator circuit is designed as a feedback amplifier operating in the TE 11 mode at ten times cutoff terminated at each end with Bragg reflectors. Theory and cold test results are in good agreement for a manufactured Bragg reflector using 50 μm corrugations to ensure mode purity. The CARM is to be operational by February 1990. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex using 250 keV electron beam machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirinos, H.; Yoshii, F.; Makuuchi, K.; Lugao, A. E-mail: ablugao@net.ipen.br

    2003-08-01

    The sensitized radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex has been carried out with 250 keV electrons. Latex was irradiated over a range of the beam current from 5 to 20 mA in the presence of sensitizers like the n-butyl acrylate (n-BA). The vulcanization dose decreases with increasing beam current condition. The rate of vulcanization (R{sub vul}) depends on the beam current (I) as given by the equation R{sub vul}=kI{sup 0.6}.

  17. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aging Behavior in M250 Grade Maraging Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeheskel, Ori

    2009-03-01

    The increase in sound velocities during the aging of M250 maraging steel reported by Rajkumar et al. was analyzed. The present article provides a new perspective on why and to what extent the sound velocities change during aging. The main parameter that affects the elastic moduli and the sound velocities in the early and intermediate stages of aging in maraging steel is the depletion of Ni from the martensitic matrix due to Ni3Ti and Ni3Mo formation. The issue of sound velocity increase with aging time was addressed here in a few different ways to support the validity of Ni depletion.

  18. Temperature dependence of the surface energy of mercury from 0 to 250 deg. C

    CERN Document Server

    Halas, S

    2002-01-01

    The surface energy (SE) for mercury was calculated on the basis of the free electron model in which the electron density parameter, r sub s , for bulk electrons was calculated from the density of mercury while the electron density parameter for surface electrons, r sub s sub s , was assumed to be higher by a factor that is linearly dependent on temperature. Ideal agreement of calculated SE values with experimental data was attained for the temperatures 0-250 deg. C assuming that r sub s sub s = r sub s x 1.0021 sup T sup / sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 deg. C. (letter to the editor)

  19. A kinetic-phase transformation near 250 K in potassium tetrachlorozincate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noiret, I.; Hedoux, A.; Guinet, Y.; Foulon, M.

    1993-01-01

    Raman-scattering experiments have been performed to study the successive phase transitions of K 2 ZnCl 4 over the temperature range (100/600) K. The spectra provide the temperature dependence of the mode frequencies and linewidths for two different spatial configurations: a(bb) c and c(aa) b. Special emphasis is put upon a new phenomenon observed in the spectra around 250 K in the c * /3 superstructure. Its kinetic character is revealed by complementary DSC measurements carried out over the range (120/300) K. This phenomenon is interpreted as a progressive structural transformation which corresponds to a slow modification of the tetrahedron distortions. (orig.)

  20. Determination of the sensitivity of Tc-99-NMR-measurements with a 250 MHz-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, M.; Lorenz, B.; Wahren, M.

    1990-01-01

    By means of different concentrations the signal-to-noise ratios of Tc-99-NMR spectra were determined applying well measurable Tc-samples [tetrabutylammonium pertechnetate, TBA (TcO 4 )] and a 250 MHz-spectrometer. The signal-to-noise ratios of the spectra were determined by using the integrated routines of the firm's software and accumulating different number of scans. By fittings of data of the signal-to-noise ratio dependence and by extrapolation the minimum Tc-concentration could be empirically found out. Applying a duration of measurements of 12 hours about 10 -7 molar concentrations can be determined. (orig.) [de

  1. Nuclear target foil fabrication for the Romano Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, J.W.; Romo, J.G. Jr.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Vacuum Processes Lab, of LLNL's M.E. Dept. - Material Fabrication Division, was requested to provide 250 coated Parylene target foils for a nuclear physics experiment titled the ROMANO Event. Due to the developmental nature of some of the fabrication procedures, approximately 400 coated foils were produced to satisfy the event's needs. The foils were used in the experiment as subkilovolt x-ray, narrow band pass filters, and wide band ultraviolet filters. This paper is divided into three sections describing: (1) nuclear target foil fabrication, (2) Parylene substrate preparation and production, and (3) foil and substrate inspections

  2. Using a Regression Method for Estimating Performance in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Target-Detection Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Fig. 2 Simulation method; the process for one iteration of the simulation . It was repeated 250 times per combination of HR and FAR. Analysis was...distribution is unlimited. 8 Fig. 2 Simulation method; the process for one iteration of the simulation . It was repeated 250 times per combination of HR...stimuli. Simulations show that this regression method results in an unbiased and accurate estimate of target detection performance. The regression

  3. Deuterium pass through target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alger, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron emitting target is described for use in neutron generating apparatus including a deuteron source and an accelerator vacuum chamber. The target consists of a tritium-containing target layer, a deuteron accumulation layer, and a target support containing passages providing communication between the accumulation layer and portions of the surface of the support exposed to the accelerator vacuum chamber. With this arrangement, deuterons passing through the target layer and implanting in and diffusing through the accumulation layer, diffuse into the communicating passages and are returned to the accelerator vacuum chamber. The invention allows the continuous removal of deuterons from the target in conventional water cooled neutron generating apparatus. Preferably, the target is provided with thin barrier layers to prevent undesirable tritium diffusion out of the target layer, as well as deuteron diffusion into the target layer

  4. Radionuclide and Fluorescence Imaging of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Using Dual Labeled Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX Antibody G250.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muselaers, Constantijn H J; Rijpkema, Mark; Bos, Desirée L; Langenhuijsen, Johan F; Oyen, Wim J G; Mulders, Peter F A; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Boerman, Otto C

    2015-08-01

    Tumor targeted optical imaging using antibodies labeled with near infrared fluorophores is a sensitive imaging modality that might be used during surgery to assure complete removal of malignant tissue. We evaluated the feasibility of dual modality imaging and image guided surgery with the dual labeled anti-carbonic anhydrase IX antibody preparation (111)In-DTPA-G250-IRDye800CW in mice with intraperitoneal clear cell renal cell carcinoma. BALB/c nu/nu mice with intraperitoneal SK-RC-52 lesions received 10 μg DTPA-G250-IRDye800CW labeled with 15 MBq (111)In or 10 μg of the dual labeled irrelevant control antibody NUH-82 (20 mice each). To evaluate when tumors could be detected, 4 mice per group were imaged weekly during 5 weeks with single photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography and the fluorescence imaging followed by ex vivo biodistribution studies. As early as 1 week after tumor cell inoculation single photon emission computerized tomography and fluorescence images showed clear delineation of intraperitoneal clear cell renal cell carcinoma with good concordance between single photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography and fluorescence images. The high and specific accumulation of the dual labeled antibody conjugate in tumors was confirmed in the biodistribution studies. Maximum tumor uptake was observed 1 week after inoculation (mean ± SD 58.5% ± 18.7% vs 5.6% ± 2.3% injected dose per gm for DTPA-G250-IRDye800CW vs NUH-82, respectively). High tumor uptake was also observed at other time points. This study demonstrates the feasibility of dual modality imaging with dual labeled antibody (111)In-DTPA-G250-IRDye800CW in a clear cell renal cell carcinoma model. Results indicate that preoperative and intraoperative detection of carbonic anhydrase IX expressing tumors, positive resection margins and metastasis might be feasible with this approach. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  5. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  6. Measurement of the Production Cross Section for the Charmed Baryon $\\Lambda_c$ in 250 GeV/c Pion-Nucleon Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dos Reis, Alberto Correa [Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    1992-04-01

    This work a presents a measurement of the total cross section for the charmed baryon $\\Lambda_c$ times the branching fraction of the mode $\\Lambda_c \\to pK\\bar{\\mu}$, for the kinematical region $x_F$ > O in $\\pi$-nucleus interactions at 250 GeV/c. This measurement is made with data from the experiment E769, collected during 1987/1988 at the FERMILAB Tagged Photon Laboratory. A segmented target of berillium, aluminum, copper and tungsten was used. Based on the A dependence measurement, made by E769, and on the available branching fractions, the total cross section per nucleon is calculated. The result is compared with other experiments and with some theoretical predictions inspired on QCD.

  7. Simulation of thermal response of the 250 MWT modular HTGR during hypothetical uncontrolled heatup accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    One of the central design features of the 250 MWT modular HTGR is the ability to withstand uncontrolled heatup accidents without severe consequences. This paper describes calculational studies, conducted to test this design feature. A multi-node thermal-hydraulic model of the 250 MWT modular HTGR reactor core was developed and implemented in the IBM CSMP (Continuous System Modeling Program) simulation language. Survey calculations show that the loss of forced circulation accident with loss of steam generator cooling water and with accidental depressurization is the most severe heatup accident. The peak hot-spot fuel temperature is in the neighborhood of 1600 0 C. Fuel failure and fission product releases for such accidents would be minor. Sensitivity studies show that code input assumptions for thermal properties such as the side reflector conductivity have a significant effect on the peak temperature. A computer model of the reactor vessel cavity concrete wall and its surrounding earth was developed to simulate the extremely unlikely and very slowly-developing heatup accident that would take place if the worst-case loss of forced primary coolant circulation accident were further compounded by the loss of cooling water to the reactor vessel cavity liner cooling system. Results show that the ability of the earth surrounding the cavity to act as a satisfactory long-term heat sink is very sensitive to the assumed rate of decay heat generation and on the effective thermal conductivity of the earth

  8. Estabilidad acelerada de tabletas de levodopa-carbidopa (250-25 mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Fernández Cervera

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio de estabilidad acelerada de tabletas de levodopa-carbidopa (250-25 mg con el empleo de un método de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución y se comprobó su especificidad para estos fines. Se analizó la influencia de medios degradantes artificiales sobre los productos activos, además del efecto de la humedad sobre la estabilidad del producto, colocándolo en hidrostatos con humedades controladas. Este medicamento, producción nacional, cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la USP 23 y mostró una alta estabilidad térmica.An accelerated stability study of levodopa-carbidopa tablets (250-25 mg was made using high-performance liquid chromatography which specificity for these purposes was proved. The influence of the artificial degrading media on the active products was analyzed and also the effect of humidity on the product´s satbility was examined after placing the tablets into hydrostats under controlled humidity levels. This domestically-made drug met the quality standards described in USP 23 and showed high heat stability.

  9. Transfer free graphene growth on SiO2 substrate at 250 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Takahashi, Kazunari; Wakamatsu, Yuji; Yaakob, Yazid; Araby, Mona Ibrahim; Kalita, Golap; Kitazawa, Masashi; Tanemura, Masaki

    2017-03-01

    Low-temperature growth, as well as the transfer free growth on substrates, is the major concern of graphene research for its practical applications. Here we propose a simple method to achieve the transfer free graphene growth on SiO2 covered Si (SiO2/Si) substrate at 250 °C based on a solid-liquid-solid reaction. The key to this approach is the catalyst metal, which is not popular for graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition. A catalyst metal film of 500 nm thick was deposited onto an amorphous C (50 nm thick) coated SiO2/Si substrate. The sample was then annealed at 250 °C under vacuum condition. Raman spectra measured after the removal of the catalyst by chemical etching showed intense G and 2D peaks together with a small D and intense SiO2 related peaks, confirming the transfer free growth of multilayer graphene on SiO2/Si. The domain size of the graphene confirmed by optical microscope and atomic force microscope was about 5 μm in an average. Thus, this approach will open up a new route for transfer free graphene growth at low temperatures.

  10. HYSOGs250m, global gridded hydrologic soil groups for curve-number-based runoff modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C Wade; Prihodko, Lara; Anchang, Julius; Kumar, Sanath; Ji, Wenjie; Hanan, Niall P

    2018-05-15

    Hydrologic soil groups (HSGs) are a fundamental component of the USDA curve-number (CN) method for estimation of rainfall runoff; yet these data are not readily available in a format or spatial-resolution suitable for regional- and global-scale modeling applications. We developed a globally consistent, gridded dataset defining HSGs from soil texture, bedrock depth, and groundwater. The resulting data product-HYSOGs250m-represents runoff potential at 250 m spatial resolution. Our analysis indicates that the global distribution of soil is dominated by moderately high runoff potential, followed by moderately low, high, and low runoff potential. Low runoff potential, sandy soils are found primarily in parts of the Sahara and Arabian Deserts. High runoff potential soils occur predominantly within tropical and sub-tropical regions. No clear pattern could be discerned for moderately low runoff potential soils, as they occur in arid and humid environments and at both high and low elevations. Potential applications of this data include CN-based runoff modeling, flood risk assessment, and as a covariate for biogeographical analysis of vegetation distributions.

  11. Shared technologies in the development of the Titan 250 gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knodle, M.S.; Novaresi, M.A. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Titan Gas Turbine Systems Division

    2009-07-01

    Development of the Titan 250 industrial gas turbine system began in 2005 in response to demands from the petroleum industry and electricity producers for higher performance industrial gas turbine products in the 15-30 MW (25,000-45,000 hp) power range. The Titan 250 is Solar Turbine's most powerful package and its evolutionary hybrid-type design approach was based on shared aerodynamic, thermal, mechanical, and combustion technologies borrowed from the Taurus 65TM, Titan 130TM, and Mercury 50TM gas turbine systems. It produces 50 per cent more power than the Titan 130, while providing 40 per cent shaft efficiency with significantly fewer emissions. Thorough combustion system testing, use of proven materials, and hot section cooling provided a solid design basis. The engine is a two-shaft design that includes a 16-stage axial-flow compressor, a dry low emissions combustor for low NOx and CO output, a two-stage gas producer turbine operating at a turbine rotor inlet temperature of 1204 degrees C, and a three-stage, all-shrouded blade power turbine for maximum efficiency. The design also minimizes maintenance intervals to increase equipment availability. The gas turbine and gas compressor have been tested in component, subsystem, and full-scale development, and will be starting field operation in late 2009 to verify performance and mechanical integrity under all operating conditions. 3 refs., 1 tab., 26 figs.

  12. Cooling system upgrading from 250 kW to 1 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.V.; Johnson, A.G.; Ringle, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    The Oregon State TRIGA reactor (OSTR) power capability was upgraded from 250 KW to 1 MW in 1969; however, funds were not available for simultaneous upgrading of the cooling system. Since then, the OSTR has been selectively operating at full power with the original 250 KW cooling system. After funds were made available in 1971 the construction on the new heat exchanger building began. The new cooling system was installed, equipment was checked out, corrections were made, and acceptance tests were run. In addition, several days were required to clean up the primary system water, since increased water flow (350 gpm) swirled 4 year's collection of sediment off the reactor tank bottom and into the primary system. Three interesting items have been noticed, which are apparently a result of the cooling system upgrading: (1) the radiation levels above the reactor tank have been reduced by a factor of 2 to 3, (2) a low resonance vibration in the reactor core occurs at 1 MW. The vibration is attributed to a combination of increased water turbulence and subcooled (surface) nucleate boiling, and (3) direct radiation levels from the demineralizer tank have increased approximately 8-fold. This resulted in a relocation of the tank and the use of supplemental shielding. Increased operating time at higher average power levels, plus disturbance of; sediment on the bottom of the reactor tank are believed to be the main sources of the higher radiation levels

  13. Radiation damage studies on STAR250 CMOS sensor at 300 keV for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqi, A.R.; Henderson, R.; Holmes, J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a pressing need for better electronic detectors to replace film for recording high-resolution images using electron cryomicroscopy. Our previous work has shown that direct electron detection in CMOS sensors is promising in terms of resolution and efficiency at 120 keV [A.R. Faruqi, R. Henderson, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, P. Allport, A. Evans, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 546 (2005) 170], but in addition, the detectors must not be damaged by the electron irradiation. We now present new measurements on the radiation tolerance of a 25 μm pitch CMOS active-pixel sensor, the STAR250, which was designed by FillFactory using radiation-hard technology for space applications. Our tests on the STAR250 aimed to establish the imaging performance at 300 keV following irradiation. The residual contrast, measured on shadow images of a 300 mesh grid, was >80% after corrections for increased dark current, following irradiation with up to 5x10 7 electrons/pixel (equivalent to 80,000 electron/μm 2 ). A CMOS sensor with this degree of radiation tolerance would survive a year of normal usage for low-dose electron cryomicroscopy, which is a very useful advance

  14. Motor power calculation for driving conveyor chain in gamma irradiator BATAN 2x250 k curie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari Satmoko; Syamsurrijal Ramdja; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    Recently, an Irradiator BATAN 2X250 k Curie for agricultural product is under design. The installation is provided by the gamma source about 2x250 k Curie. Agricultural products are carried into carriers and these carriers are hanged on the conveyor chain. The chain moves into a radiation chamber following the trajectoire. The chain is drived by motor. For this reason, the calculation is performed to determine the motor power. After resolving the force equilibrium equation, the force and power of the motor needed to drive the chain are obtained. Numerical method by using V Basic language is used to resolve the equation. The calculation result shows the correlation between friction coefficient and motor power. From the evaluation, it is decided that the friction coefficient should be less than 0,015. By this friction, the motor power is about 3. 13 k Watt. From the evaluation, it is also obtained that the radius of the curve trajectory shall not be too small. Combination between high friction and small curve radius could lead to the locked condition in which high power motor are not be able to move the conveyor chain). (author)

  15. Square lattice honeycomb tri-carbide fuels for 50 to 250 KN variable thrust NTP design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, Samim; Knight, Travis; Gouw, Reza; Furman, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Ultrahigh temperature solid solution of tri-carbide fuels are used to design an ultracompact nuclear thermal rocket generating 950 seconds of specific impulse with scalable thrust level in range of 50 to 250 kilo Newtons. Solid solutions of tri-carbide nuclear fuels such as uranium-zirconium-niobium carbide. UZrNbC, are processed to contain certain mixing ratio between uranium carbide and two stabilizing carbides. Zirconium or niobium in the tri-carbide could be replaced by tantalum or hafnium to provide higher chemical stability in hot hydrogen environment or to provide different nuclear design characteristics. Recent studies have demonstrated the chemical compatibility of tri-carbide fuels with hydrogen propellant for a few to tens of hours of operation at temperatures ranging from 2800 K to 3300 K, respectively. Fuel elements are fabricated from thin tri-carbide wafers that are grooved and locked into a square-lattice honeycomb (SLHC) shape. The hockey puck shaped SLHC fuel elements are stacked up in a grooved graphite tube to form a SLHC fuel assembly. A total of 18 fuel assemblies are arranged circumferentially to form two concentric rings of fuel assemblies with zirconium hydride filling the space between assemblies. For 50 to 250 kilo Newtons thrust operations, the reactor diameter and length including reflectors are 57 cm and 60 cm, respectively. Results of the nuclear design and thermal fluid analyses of the SLHC nuclear thermal propulsion system are presented

  16. Optimized production and characterization of a detergent-stable protease from Lysinibacillus fusiformis C250R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, Sondes; Kriaa, Mouna; Ben Elhoul Berrouina, Mouna; Omrane Benmrad, Maroua; Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Rekik, Hatem; Bouacem, Khelifa; Bouanane-Darenfed, Amel; Chebbi, Alif; Sayadi, Sami; Chamkha, Mohamed; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to optimize the cultural and nutritional conditions for protease production by Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain C250R in submerged fermentation process using statistical methodology. The most significant factors (gruel, wheat bran, yeast extract, and FeSO 4 ) were identified by Plackett-Burman design. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum levels of the screened factors and their interaction. Under the optimized conditions, protease yield 3100U/mL was 4.5 folds higher than those obtained by the use of the initial conditions (680U/mL). Additionally, a new extracellular 51kDa-protease, designated SAPLF, was purified and biochemically characterized from strain C250R. It shows optimum activity at 70°C and pH 10. Its half-life times at 70 and 80°C were 10 and 6-h, respectively. Irreversible inhibition of enzyme activity of SAPLF with serine protease inhibitors demonstrated that it belongs to the serine protease family. Interestingly, its catalytic efficiency was higher than that of SPVP from Aeribacillus pallidus strain VP3 and Alcalase Ultra 2.5L from Bacillus licheniformis. This study demonstrated that SAPLF has a high detergent compatibility and an excellent stain removal compared to Alcalase Ultra 2.5L; which offers an interesting potential for its application in the laundry detergent industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. MODIS/Terra Land Water Mask Derived from MODIS and SRTM L3 Global 250m SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS 250 m land-water mask (Short Name: MOD44W) is an improvement over the existing MODIS Nadir Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)-Adjusted...

  18. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  19. Analysis of the in vitro cleavage products of the tomato black ring virus RNA-1-encoded 250K polyprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Demangeat, Gerard; Greif, Charles; Hemmer, O; Fritsch, C

    1990-01-01

    Tomato black ring virus RNA-1 was translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The primary translation product of Mr 250K, which corresponds to its whole coding capacity, was synthesized within 45 min and, during further incubation in the translation medium, was proteolytically processed. Essentially, four cleavage products (P190, P120, P60 and P50) were detected and located within P250 by pulse-chase and immunoprecipitation experiments. P190 is an intermediate cleavage product which is furthe...

  20. Charged particle fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Meeker, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The power, voltage, energy and other requirements of electron and ion beam fusion targets are reviewed. Single shell, multiple shell and magnetically insulated target designs are discussed. Questions of stability are also considered. In particular, it is shown that ion beam targets are stabilized by an energy spread in the ion beam

  1. Liquid helium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  2. Graphite targets at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Rotating polycrystalline and stationary pyrolytic graphite target designs for the LAMPF experimental area are described. Examples of finite element calculations of temperatures and stresses are presented. Some results of a metallographic investigation of irradiated pyrolytic graphite target plates are included, together with a brief description of high temperature bearings for the rotating targets

  3. Benchmark calculations on residue production within the EURISOL DS project; Part I: thin targets

    CERN Document Server

    David, J.C; Boudard, A; Doré, D; Leray, S; Rapp, B; Ridikas, D; Thiollière, N

    Report on benchmark calculations on residue production in thin targets. Calculations were performed using MCNPX 2.5.0 coupled to a selection of reaction models. The results were compared to nuclide production cross-sections measured in GSI in inverse kinematics

  4. Benchmark calculations on residue production within the EURISOL DS project; Part II: thick targets

    CERN Document Server

    David, J.-C; Boudard, A; Doré, D; Leray, S; Rapp, B; Ridikas, D; Thiollière, N

    Benchmark calculations on residue production using MCNPX 2.5.0. Calculations were compared to mass-distribution data for 5 different elements measured at ISOLDE, and to specific activities of 28 radionuclides in different places along the thick target measured in Dubna.

  5. COST OF ADDRESSING TARGETS OF UNEQUAL VALUE; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. CANAVAN

    2001-01-01

    The formalism for evaluating first strike costs and incentives for military targeting generalize to include higher value targets. That introduces two new allocations to the usual allocation between missiles and military targets, but they can be performed analytically. As the number of weapons on each side decreases, the optimal fraction of second strike weapons allocated to military values falls. The shift to high value targets is more pronounced below about 1,000 weapons for nominal parameters. Below 500 weapons the first striker's cost of action drops below its cost of inaction. A strike would induce a second strike of about 250 weapons on high value targets. An increase in the first striker's preference for damage to the other's high value targets increases or a decrease in its preference for preventing damage to its own high value targets decreases first strike costs and stability margins. Including defenses complicates allocations slightly. The main effect is increased attrition of second strikes, particularly at larger defenses, which makes it possible to significantly reduce damage to high value targets. At 1,000 weapons, by 300 to 400 interceptors the first striker's costs are reduced to 30% below that of inaction and the number of weapons delivered on the first striker's high value targets is reduced to about 100

  6. Wake Shield Target Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2003-01-01

    The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed

  7. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  8. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  9. The melting curve of iron to 250 gigapascals - A constraint on the temperature at earth's center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Quentin; Jeanloz, Raymond; Bass, Jay; Svendsen, Bob; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    The melting curve of iron, the primary constituent of earth's core, has been measured to pressures of 250 gigapascals with a combination of static and dynamic techniques. The melting temperature of iron at the pressure of the core-mantle boundary (136 GPa) is 4800 + or - 200 K, whereas at the inner core-outer core boundary (330 GPa), it is 7600 + or - 500 K. A melting temperature for iron-rich alloy of 6600 K at the inner core-outer core boundary and a maximum temperature of 6900 K at earth's center are inferred. This latter value is the first experimental upper bound on the temperature at earth's center, and these results imply that the temperature of the lower mantle is significantly less than that of the outer core.

  10. Tightening unit EZ 250 for VVER 1000 type reactor pressure vessel head flange joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchar, Miloslav; Nadenik, Tomas; Kroj, Ludek

    2010-01-01

    The programme of flange joints tightening by seals made of expanded graphite for VVER 440 and VVER 1000 reactor head flange joints is highlighted, and tightening units of row EZ 650 and EZ 650 TK and KNI for VVER 440 reactor head flange joints and EZ 250 tightening unit for VVER 1000 reactor head flange joints are described in detail. The main advantages of electronically controlled tightening units include: Precise and uniform compression of the gasket during the tightening procedure; Automated solution to the graphite relaxing problem during tightening; Possibility of diagnosis of the thread status of the joints being tightened; Alleviation of operator's tough work; Shorter time of tensioning associated with a lower collective doses; Quick preparation of tightening procedure report from the data measured; Calibration renewal is possible in advance at time of unit storage without the need to place it on a real joint. (P.A.)

  11. Structure function scaling in a Reλ = 250 turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Reλ = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.

  12. Neutral strange particle production in π+/K+p interactions at 250 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis in which a detailed study of K n inclusive production in K + p and π + p interactions at 250 GeV/c is presented, concentrates on neutral strange interaction products and draws some conclusions about the fate of the strange quark. In ch. 2 the experimental setup is described and in ch. 3 the series of computer programs that perform data reduction. Ch. 4 deals with the selectionn of events and neutral kaons. Also the calculations needed to correct for losses and background are described there. In ch. 5 inclusive and semi-inclusive distributions are presented and compared to data obtained in experiments at lower beam energy. In ch. 6 the data are compared with model predictions. In ch. 7 the main conclusions are summarized. (H.W.). 64 refs.; 39 refs.; 19 tabs

  13. Pierce-Wiggler electron beam system for 250 GHz GYRO-BWO: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirkle, D.R.; Alford, C.W.; Anderson, M.H.; Garcia, R.F.; Legarra, J.R.; Nordquist, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    This final report summarizes the design and performance of the VUW-8028 Pierce-Wiggler electron beam systems, which can be used to power high frequency gyro-BWO's. The operator's manual for this gyro-BWO beamstick is included as appendix A. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing a gyro-BWO with a center frequency of 250 GHz, 6% bandwidth, and 10 kV peak output power. The gyro-BWO will be used to drive a free electron laser amplifier at LLNL. The electron beam requirements of the gyro-BWO application are: Small beam size, .100 inch at 2500 gauss axial magnetic field; a large fraction of the electron energy in rotational velocity; ability to vary the electrons' axial velocity easily, for electronic tuning; and low velocity spread i.e. little variation in the axial velocities of the electrons in the interaction region. 1 ref., 13 figs

  14. Interaction of nucleic acids with Coomassie Blue G-250 in the Bradford assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, Broc R; Trumbo, Toni A

    2012-09-15

    The Bradford assay has been used reliably for decades to quantify protein in solution. The analyte is incubated in acidic solution of Coomassie Blue G-250 dye, during which reversible ionic and nonionic binding interactions form. Bradford assay color yields were determined for salmon, bovine, shrimp, and kiwi fruit genomic DNA; baker's yeast RNA; bovine serum albumin (BSA); and hen egg lysozyme. Pure DNA and RNA bound the dye, with color yields of 0.0017 mg⁻¹ cm⁻¹ and 0.0018 mg⁻¹ cm⁻¹, respectively. The nucleic acid-Coomassie Blue response was significant, at roughly 9% of that for BSA and 18% of that for lysozyme. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac ultrastructural changes in rats following 250 Gy whole body. gamma. -irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Guo; Mingyue, Zhu; Zhiqin, Zhao

    1985-10-01

    Sixteen rats were whole body irradiated with 250 Gy of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays, killed at different intervals after exposure, and then observed by electron microscope. We found lysis of part of myofilaments in specimen obtained at 10 minutes after exposure, and resolution of Z-band at 30 minutes after exposure. These changes were more significant in sections at 12 hours postirradiation, but there also appeared cell regeneration at the same time. The vascular changes were more obvious with the endothelial cytoplasma projected in capillary lumen, nearly obstructing it. All of above described changes may be found in hematologic or intestinal forms of radiation sickness, but they must take place more late after exposure. In cardiovascular form, however, these changes were found as early as 10-30 minutes after exposure; this is a special feature helpful to diagnosis.

  16. Structure function scaling in a Reλ = 250 turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2011-12-22

    A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Reλ = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor\\'s frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.

  17. Conceptual design of the superconducting magnet for the 250 MeV proton cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Liu, Xiaogang; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The superconducting cyclotron is of great importance to treat cancer parts of the body. To reduce the operation costs, a superconducting magnet system for the 250 MeV proton cyclotron was designed to confirm the feasibility of the superconducting cyclotron. The superconducting magnet system consists of a pair of split coils, the cryostat and a pair of binary high temperature superconductor current leads. The superconducting magnet can reach a central magnetic field of about 1.155 T at 160 A. The three GM cryocooler with cooling capacities of 1.5 W at 4.5 K and 35 W at 50 K and one GM cryocooler of 100 W at 50 K were adopted to cool the superconducting magnet system through the thermosiphon technology. The four GM cryocoolers were used to cool the superconducting magnet to realize zero evaporation of the liquid helium.

  18. Properties of PZT-Based Piezoelectric Ceramics Between -150 and 250 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Matthew W.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of three PZT-based piezoelectric ceramics and one PLZT electrostrictive ceramic were measured as a function of temperature. In this work, the dielectric, ferroelectric polarization versus electric field, and piezoelectric properties of PZT-4, PZT-5A, PZT-5H, and PLZT-9/65/35 were measured over a temperature range of -150 to 250 C. In addition to these measurements, the relative thermal expansion of each composition was measured from 25 to 600 C and the modulus of rupture of each material was measured at room temperature. This report describes the experimental results and compares and contrasts the properties of these materials with respect to their applicability to intelligent aerospace systems.

  19. Shotgun metagenomics of 250 adult twins reveals genetic and environmental impacts on the gut microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Hailiang; Guo, Ruijin; Zhong, Huanzi

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been typically viewed as an environmental factor for human health. Twins are well suited for investigating the concordance of their gut microbiomes and decomposing genetic and environmental influences. However, existing twin studies utilizing metagenomic shotgun sequencing...... have included only a few samples. Here, we sequenced fecal samples from 250 adult twins in the TwinsUK registry and constructed a comprehensive gut microbial reference gene catalog. We demonstrate heritability of many microbial taxa and functional modules in the gut microbiome, including those...... associated with diseases. Moreover, we identified 8 million SNPs in the gut microbiome and observe a high similarity in microbiome SNPs between twins that slowly decreases after decades of living apart. The results shed new light on the genetic and environmental influences on the composition and function...

  20. Curiously modern DNA for a "250 million-year-old" bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickle, David C; Learn, Gerald H; Rain, Matthew W; Mullins, James I; Mittler, John E

    2002-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA have attracted considerable attention in scientific journals and the popular press. Several of the more extreme claims for ancient DNA have been questioned on biochemical grounds (i.e., DNA surviving longer than expected) and evolutionary grounds (i.e., nucleotide substitution patterns not matching theoretical expectations for ancient DNA). A recent letter to Nature from Vreeland et al. (2000), however, tops all others with respect to age and condition of the specimen. These researchers extracted and cultured a bacterium from an inclusion body from what they claim is a 250 million-year (Myr)-old salt crystal. If substantiated, this observation could fundamentally alter views about bacterial physiology, ecology and evolution. Here we report on molecular evolutionary analyses of the 16S rDNA from this specimen. We find that 2-9-3 differs from a modern halophile, Salibacillus marismortui, by just 3 unambiguous bp in 16S rDNA, versus the approximately 59 bp that would be expected if these bacteria evolved at the same rate as other bacteria. We show, using a Poisson distribution, that unless it can be shown that S. marismortui evolves 5 to 10 times more slowly than other bacteria for which 16S rDNA substitution rates have been established, Vreeland et al.'s claim would be rejected at the 0.05 level. Also, a molecular clock test and a relative rates test fail to substantiate Vreeland et al.'s claim that strain 2-9-3 is a 250-Myr-old bacterium. The report of Vreeland et al. thus falls into a long series of suspect ancient DNA studies.

  1. Snow Cover Maps from MODIS Images at 250 m Resolution, Part 2: Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Zebisch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new algorithm for binary snow cover monitoring based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite images at 250 m resolution is validated using snow cover maps (SCA based on Landsat 7 ETM+ images and in situ snow depth measurements from ground stations in selected test sites in Central Europe. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are the improved ground resolution of 250 m and the near real-time availability with respect to the 500 m standard National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA MODIS snow products (MOD10 and MYD10. It allows a more accurate snow cover monitoring at a local scale, especially in mountainous areas characterized by large landscape heterogeneity. The near real-time delivery makes the product valuable as input for hydrological models, e.g., for flood forecast. A comparison to sixteen snow cover maps derived from Landsat ETM/ETM+ showed an overall accuracy of 88.1%, which increases to 93.6% in areas outside of forests. A comparison of the SCA derived from the proposed algorithm with standard MODIS products, MYD10 and MOD10, indicates an agreement of around 85.4% with major discrepancies in forested areas. The validation of MODIS snow cover maps with 148 in situ snow depth measurements shows an accuracy ranging from 94% to around 82%, where the lowest accuracies is found in very rugged terrain restricted to in situ stations along north facing slopes, which lie in shadow in winter during the early morning acquisition.

  2. Simulation of a 250 kW diesel fuel processor/PEM fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphlett, J. C.; Mann, R. F.; Peppley, B. A.; Roberge, P. R.; Rodrigues, A.; Salvador, J. P.

    Polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems offer a potential power source for utility and mobile applications. Practical fuel cell systems use fuel processors for the production of hydrogen-rich gas. Liquid fuels, such as diesel or other related fuels, are attractive options as feeds to a fuel processor. The generation of hydrogen gas for fuel cells, in most cases, becomes the crucial design issue with respect to weight and volume in these applications. Furthermore, these systems will require a gas clean-up system to insure that the fuel quality meets the demands of the cell anode. The endothermic nature of the reformer will have a significant affect on the overall system efficiency. The gas clean-up system may also significantly effect the overall heat balance. To optimize the performance of this integrated system, therefore, waste heat must be used effectively. Previously, we have concentrated on catalytic methanol-steam reforming. A model of a methanol steam reformer has been previously developed and has been used as the basis for a new, higher temperature model for liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Similarly, our fuel cell evaluation program previously led to the development of a steady-state electrochemical fuel cell model (SSEM). The hydrocarbon fuel processor model and the SSEM have now been incorporated in the development of a process simulation of a 250 kW diesel-fueled reformer/fuel cell system using a process simulator. The performance of this system has been investigated for a variety of operating conditions and a preliminary assessment of thermal integration issues has been carried out. This study demonstrates the application of a process simulation model as a design analysis tool for the development of a 250 kW fuel cell system.

  3. CEP250 mutations associated with mild cone-rod dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss in a Japanese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Daiki; Gocho, Kiyoko; Kikuchi, Sachiko; Akeo, Keiichiro; Miura, Masahiro; Yamaki, Kunihiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kameya, Shuhei

    2018-05-02

    CEP250 encodes the C-Nap1 protein which belongs to the CEP family of proteins. C-Nap1 has been reported to be expressed in the photoreceptor cilia and is known to interact with other ciliary proteins. Mutations of CEP250 cause atypical Usher syndrome which is characterized by early-onset sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and a relatively mild retinitis pigmentosa. This study tested the hypothesis that the mild cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) and SNHL in a non-consanguineous Japanese family was caused by CEP250 mutations. Detailed ophthalmic and auditory examinations were performed on the proband and her family members. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was used on the DNA obtained from the proband. Electrophysiological analysis revealed a mild CRD in two family members. Adaptive optics (AO) imaging showed reduced cone density around the fovea. Auditory examinations showed a slight SNHL in both patients. WES of the proband identified compound heterozygous variants c.361C>T, p.R121*, and c.562C>T, p.R188* in CEP250. The variants were found to co-segregate with the disease in five members of the family. The variants of CEP250 are both null variants and according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) standards and guideline, these variants are classified into the very strong category (PVS1). The criteria for both alleles will be pathogenic. Our data indicate that mutations of CEP250 can cause mild CRD and SNHL in Japanese patients. Because the ophthalmological phenotypes were very mild, high-resolution retinal imaging analysis, such as AO, will be helpful in diagnosing CEP250-associated disease.

  4. Nova target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1985-11-01

    The Nova laser, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, provides unique opportunities for target experiments. It has unprecedented energy on target and significant flexibility. The paper presented by John Hunt described the capabilities and the status of Nova. This paper discusses plans for future experiments using Nova, and the present status of target experiments. We plan to perform high-quality physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of Nova. Because this is our goal, we are fielding an extensive array of well-characterized target diagnostics to measure the emissions from the target. The first section of this paper discusses the basic target diagnostics. We are also taking care to quantify the performance of the laser

  5. Targeting and Persuasive Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Egli, Alain (Autor/in)

    2015-01-01

    Firms face a prisoner's dilemma when advertising in a competitive environment. In a Hotelling framework with persuasive advertisingfirms counteract this prisoner's dilemma with targeting. The firms even solve the prisoner's problem if targeted advertising is effective enough. Advertising turns from wasteful competition into profits. This is in contrast to wasteful competition as argument for regulations. A further result is maximum advertising differentiation: thefirms target their advertisin...

  6. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  7. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  8. Commissioning a Rotating Target Wheel Assembly for Heavy Element Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, L. D.; Bennett, M. E.; Mayorov, D. A.; Folden, C. M.

    2013-10-01

    The heaviest elements are produced artificially by fusing nuclei of light elements within an accelerator to form heavier nuclei. The most direct method to increase the production rate of nuclei is to increase the beam intensity, necessitating the use of a rotating target to minimize damage to the target by deposited heat. Such a target wheel was constructed for heavy element research at Texas A&M University, Cyclotron Institute, consisting of a wheel with three banana-shaped target cutouts. The target is designed to rotate at 1700 rpm, and a fiber optic cable provides a signal to trigger beam pulsing in order to avoid irradiating the spokes between target segments. Following minor mechanical modifications and construction of a dedicated electrical panel, the rotating target assembly was commissioned for a beam experiment. A 15 MeV/u beam of 20Ne was delivered from the K500 cyclotron and detected by a ruggedized silicon detector. The beam pulsing response time was characterized as a function of the rational frequency of the target wheel. Preliminary analysis suggests that the K500 is capable of pulsing at rates of up to 250 Hz, which is sufficient for planned future experiments. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program.

  9. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  10. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  11. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  12. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  13. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  14. Object-based target templates guide attention during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2018-05-03

    During visual search, attention is believed to be controlled in a strictly feature-based fashion, without any guidance by object-based target representations. To challenge this received view, we measured electrophysiological markers of attentional selection (N2pc component) and working memory (sustained posterior contralateral negativity; SPCN) in search tasks where two possible targets were defined by feature conjunctions (e.g., blue circles and green squares). Critically, some search displays also contained nontargets with two target features (incorrect conjunction objects, e.g., blue squares). Because feature-based guidance cannot distinguish these objects from targets, any selective bias for targets will reflect object-based attentional control. In Experiment 1, where search displays always contained only one object with target-matching features, targets and incorrect conjunction objects elicited identical N2pc and SPCN components, demonstrating that attentional guidance was entirely feature-based. In Experiment 2, where targets and incorrect conjunction objects could appear in the same display, clear evidence for object-based attentional control was found. The target N2pc became larger than the N2pc to incorrect conjunction objects from 250 ms poststimulus, and only targets elicited SPCN components. This demonstrates that after an initial feature-based guidance phase, object-based templates are activated when they are required to distinguish target and nontarget objects. These templates modulate visual processing and control access to working memory, and their activation may coincide with the start of feature integration processes. Results also suggest that while multiple feature templates can be activated concurrently, only a single object-based target template can guide attention at any given time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Crop Dominance Mapping with IRS-P6 and MODIS 250-m Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna Gumma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to accurately separate out and quantify crop dominance areas in the major command area in the Krishna River Basin. Classification was performed using IRS-P6 (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, series P6 and MODIS eight-day time series remote sensing images with a spatial resolution of 23.6 m, 250 m for the year 2005. Temporal variations in the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index pattern obtained in crop dominance classes enables a demarcation between long duration crops and short duration crops. The NDVI pattern was found to be more consistent in long duration crops than in short duration crops due to the continuity of the water supply. Surface water availability, on the other hand, was dependent on canal water release, which affected the time of crop sowing and growth stages, which was, in turn, reflected in the NDVI pattern. The identified crop-wise classes were tested and verified using ground-truth data and state-level census data. The accuracy assessment was performed based on ground-truth data through the error matrix method, with accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual crop dominance classes, with an overall accuracy of 79% for all classes. The derived major crop land areas were highly correlated with the sub-national statistics with R2 values of 87% at the mandal (sub-district level for 2005–2006. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms and datasets used in this study are ideal for rapid, accurate and large-scale mapping of paddy rice, as well as for generating their statistics over large areas. This study demonstrates that IRS-P6 23.6-m one-time data fusion with MODIS 250-m time series data is very useful for identifying crop type, the source of irrigation water and, in the case of surface water irrigation, the way in which it is applied. The results from this study have assisted in improving surface water and groundwater irrigated areas of the command area and also

  16. Changes of regional climate variability in central Europe during the past 250 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, R.

    2012-05-01

    The paper uses the data potential of very long and homogenized instrumental climate time series in the south central Europe for analyzing one feature which is very dominant in the climate change debate --whether anthropogenic climate warming causes or goes along with an increase of climate extremes. The monthly resolved data of the HISTALP data collection provide 58 single series for the three climate elements, air pressure, air temperature and precipitation, that start earlier than 1831 and extend back to 1760 in some cases. Trends and long-term low frequent climate evolution is only shortly touched in the paper. The main goal is the analysis of trends or changes of high frequent interannual and interseasonal variability. In other words, it is features like extremely hot summers, very cold winters, excessively dry or wet seasons which the study aims at. The methods used are based on detrended highpass series whose variance is analyzed in discrete 30-year windows moving over the entire instrumental period. The analysis of discrete subintervals relies on the unique number of 8 (for precipitation 7) such "normal periods". The second approach is based on the same subintervals though not in fixed but moving windows over the entire instrumental period. The first result of the study is the clear evidence that there has been no increase of variability during the past 250 years in the region. The second finding is similar but concentrates on the recent three decades which are of particular interest because they are the first 30 years with dominating anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. We can show that also this recent anthropogenic normal period shows no widening of the PDF (probability density function) compared to the preceding ones. The third finding is based on the moving window technique. It shows that interannual variability changes show a clear centennial oscillating structure for all three climate elements in the region. For the time being we have no explanation

  17. Concentration of ions Co(II), Ni(II) at the Tokem-250 carboxylic cation exchange for catalysts development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Bobkova, Ludmila; Brichkov, Anton; Kozik, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Sorption and catalytic properties of the cation exchanger are investigated. It was found that the Tokem-250 has a wide operating range of pH. The value of the effective ionization constant of the functional groups of the cation exchanger (pKa) is 6.59. The Tokem-250 cation exchanger exhibits selectivity to Ni2+ ions to Co2+ (D˜103). This is probably due to the stability of ion-exchange complexes detected by the method of diffuse reflectance electron spectroscopy (ESDD). According to these data, for Co2+ ions, in contrast to Ni2+, tetragonal distortion of octahedral coordination is characteristic, which has a positive effect on the stability of complexes with Co2+. To obtain spherical catalysts on the basis of Tokem-250, cobalt-containing samples of cation exchanger were used. The developed spherical materials have catalytic activity in the reactions of deep and partial oxidation of n-heptane.

  18. Target reactor development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.D.; Vigil, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Target-blanket design studies are discussed for an accelerator-breeder concept employing a linear accelerator in conjunction with a modified conventional power reactor to produce both fissile fuel and power. The following problems in target and blanket system design are discussed: radiation damage, heat removal, neutronic design, and economics

  19. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  20. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    target for which a speci c treatment/drug is intended (Fig. 1). eranostics .... Using an anti-CD20 antibody as a delivery device to target the follicular ... systems combine diagnostic imaging (Ga-68-DOTATATE PET/CT) .... Intra-articular injected ...

  1. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  2. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit

  3. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  4. Internal targets for LEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, K.; Gspann, J.; Mohl, D.; Poth, H.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of thin internal targets in conjunction with phase-space cooling at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Topics considered include the merits of internal target operation; the most efficient use of antiprotons and of proton synchrotron (PS) protons, highest center-of-mass (c.m.) energy resolution; highest angular resolution and access to extreme angles; the transparent environment for all reaction products; a windowless source and pure targets; highest luminosity and count rates; access to lowest energies with increasing resolution; internal target thickness and vacuum requirements; required cooling performance; and modes of operation. It is demonstrated that an internal target in conjunction with phase-space cooling has the potential of better performance in terms of the economic use of antiprotons and consequently of PS protons; energy resolution; angular resolution; maximum reaction rate capability (statistical precision); efficient parasitic operation; transparency of the target for reaction products; access to low energies; and the ease of polarized target experiments. It is concluded that all p - experiments which need high statistics and high p - flux, such as studies of rare channels or broad, weak resonance structures, would profit from internal targets

  5. Fusion target design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Most detailed fusion target design is done by numerical simulation using large computers. Although numerical simulation is briefly discussed, this lecture deals primarily with the way in which basic physical arguments, driver technology considerations and economical power production requirements are used to guide and augment the simulations. Physics topics discussed include target energetics, preheat, stability and symmetry. A specific design example is discussed

  6. Electron beam fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.; Sweeney, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    R The behavior of the DT filled gold shells when irradiated by a variety of pulse shapes was studied. In these pulses the power (and beam current) was varied, but the voltage was kept constant at 1 MeV. In general the performance of the target, for a given peak power, was not significantly affected by the pulse shape. Pulses with rise times of up to half the implosion time do not significantly degrade the target performance. The use of the ''optimal pulse'' of laser fusion with a fixed peak power does not appear to improve the performance of these targets. The main function of the ''optimal pulse'' is to produce a large rho r of the target during the thermonuclear burn. In e-beam targets a total rho r of 5--10 g/cm 2 can be obtained without pulse shaping; the problem here is one of achieving high enough temperatures to ignite the DT. (U.S.)

  7. Analysis of the in vitro cleavage products of the tomato black ring virus RNA-1-encoded 250K polyprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demangeat, G; Greif, C; Hemmer, O; Fritsch, C

    1990-08-01

    Tomato black ring virus RNA-1 was translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The primary translation product of Mr 250K, which corresponds to its whole coding capacity, was synthesized within 45 min and, during further incubation in the translation medium, was proteolytically processed. Essentially, four cleavage products (P190, P120, P60 and P50) were detected and located within P250 by pulse-chase and immunoprecipitation experiments. P190 is an intermediate cleavage product which is further cleaved to form P60 and P120. P120, which contains the region that has been assigned to the virus protease and the virus polymerase, was not further cleaved in vitro.

  8. A Versatile High Speed 250 MHz Pulse Imager for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Sundramoorthy, Subramanian V.; Mailer, Colin; Halpern, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    A versatile 250 MHz pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) instrument for imaging of small animals is presented. Flexible design of the imager hardware and software makes it possible to use virtually any pulse EPR imaging modality. A fast pulse generation and data acquisition system based on general purpose PCI boards performs measurements with minimal additional delays. Careful design of receiver protection circuitry allowed us to achieve very high sensitivity of the instrument. In this article we demonstrate the ability of the instrument to obtain three dimensional images using the electron spin echo (ESE) and single point imaging (SPI) methods. In a phantom that contains a 1 mM solution of narrow line (16 μT, peak-to-peak) paramagnetic spin probe we achieved an acquisition time of 32 seconds per image with a fast 3D ESE imaging protocol. Using an 18 minute 3D phase relaxation (T2e) ESE imaging protocol in a homogeneous sample a spatial resolution of 1.4 mm and a standard deviation of T2e of 8.5% were achieved. When applied to in vivo imaging this precision of T2e determination would be equivalent to 2 torr resolution of oxygen partial pressure in animal tissues. PMID:19924261

  9. Performances of 250 Amp-hr lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goualard, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    A 250 Ah lithium thionyl chloride battery is being developed for a booster rocket engine. Extensive cell testing is running to evaluate functional and safety performances. Some results are presented. The lithium/thionyl chloride batteries were selected for their high energy density (low weight) as compared to other sources. The temperature of a lower weight item will be more sensitive to variations of internal and external heat fluxes than a heavier one. The use of high energy density L/TC batteries is subjected to stringent thermal environments to have benefit of energy density and to stay safe in any conditions. The battery thermal environment and discharge rate have to be adjusted to obtain the right temperature range at cell level, to have the maximum performances. Voltage and capacity are very sensitive to temperature. This temperature is the cell internal actual temperature during discharge. This temperature is directed by external thermal environment and by cell internal heat dissipation, i.e., cell actual voltage.

  10. [Jonathan Swift's asylum in Dublin--Ireland's introduction to institutional psychiatry 250 years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuber, M

    1995-09-01

    250 years ago, the satirical writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift from Dublin (1667-1745) founded the first Irish lunatic asylum. Rejecting the theories put forward by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes and the doctor Thomas Willis, he was influenced by the ideas of the Scottish doctor and the "enlightened" thinker John Locke. Swift's St. Patrick's Hospital did not, however, realise a new philosophical concept: architecture and therapeutic approach of the new institution were clearly modelled on the much older Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem ( = Bedlam). Despite its conservative conceptual basis, the first institution dedicated to the mentally ill and intellectually subnormal in Ireland became a starting point for the apparantly unstoppable expansion of the, at one time, most comprehensive asylum system in the world. After Swift's Hospital had been enlarged twice at the tax-payers' expense (1778, 1793), the administration decided to relieve the institution by erecting the Richmond Asylum (1810), the first public asylum in Ireland. When this establishment also became overcrowded, in 1817, legislation was passed which led to the establishment of the oldest system of public asylums in Europe.

  11. Report on acoustic and vibration measurements on 250 MVA transformer at St. Vital Station, Winnipeg, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, K.; McLoughlin, M.; Schott, R.; Tennese, G.; Daneryd, A.

    1998-09-01

    Vibroacoustic behaviour of a power transformer was characterized prior to employing active noise control (ANC) to control transformer noise. The effect of changes in temperature and loading conditions on the vibration pattern of the transformer tank received particular attention. The transformer quieting technology has been developed and implemented by QuietPower Systems of New York and Noise Cancellation Technologies Inc., of Maryland. Results of the study will be used to ensure that actuator placement is appropriate for each of the seasons experienced throughout the year, as well as to build boundary element and finite element models of the tank vibration and the associated radiated noise. Boundary element results show that the first four harmonics are the primary contributors to radiated noise. The finite element model used to examine the modal response of the tank structure showed high modal densities, even around the lower order harmonics (120 Hz). This can be interpreted to mean that statistical techniques normally associated with high frequency noise problems may be applicable here because of the high modal density. Results of the completed summer and winter measurements permit an evaluation of the effects of loading conditions, temperature and other environmental factors on transformer noise. Appendix B contains the results of numerical simulations on a 250 MVA transformer. 3 refs., 72 figs., 2 appendices

  12. Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Russell H.; Rosenzweig, William D.; Powers, Dennis W.

    2000-10-01

    Bacteria have been found associated with a variety of ancient samples, however few studies are generally accepted due to questions about sample quality and contamination. When Cano and Borucki isolated a strain of Bacillus sphaericus from an extinct bee trapped in 25-30 million-year-old amber, careful sample selection and stringent sterilization techniques were the keys to acceptance. Here we report the isolation and growth of a previously unrecognized spore-forming bacterium (Bacillus species, designated 2-9-3) from a brine inclusion within a 250million-year-old salt crystal from the Permian Salado Formation. Complete gene sequences of the 16S ribosomal DNA show that the organism is part of the lineage of Bacillus marismortui and Virgibacillus pantothenticus. Delicate crystal structures and sedimentary features indicate the salt has not recrystallized since formation. Samples were rejected if brine inclusions showed physical signs of possible contamination. Surfaces of salt crystal samples were sterilized with strong alkali and acid before extracting brines from inclusions. Sterilization procedures reduce the probability of contamination to less than 1 in 10 9.

  13. The 250AH/90A active lithium-thionyl chloride cell for Centaur-G application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolla, A. E.; Tura, D. D.

    1987-09-01

    A high rate active Li/SOCl2 cell was designed for use in a 28 volt, 250 amp-hour space battery system. The lithium battery is being considered as a replacement of its heavier silver-zinc counterpart on board the Centaur-G booster rocket which is used to launch payloads from the Space Shuttle cargo bay into deep-space. Basically a feasibility study, this development effort is demonstrating the ability of the lithium cell to deliver up to 90 amps safely at power densities of approximately 25 watts per pound. Test data on 4 prototype units is showing an energy density of 85 watt-hours per pound and 9.0 watt-hours/cu in. The cells tested typically delivered 280 to 300 amp-hours under ambient temperature test conditions using alternating continuous loads of 90, 55, and 20 amperes throughout life. Data from four cells tested are presented to demonstrate the capability of Li/SOCl2 technology for a C/3 discharge rate in active and hermetic cell units.

  14. Performances of 250 Amp-hr lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goualard, Jacques

    1991-05-01

    A 250 Ah lithium thionyl chloride battery is being developed for a booster rocket engine. Extensive cell testing is running to evaluate functional and safety performances. Some results are presented. The lithium/thionyl chloride batteries were selected for their high energy density (low weight) as compared to other sources. The temperature of a lower weight item will be more sensitive to variations of internal and external heat fluxes than a heavier one. The use of high energy density L/TC batteries is subjected to stringent thermal environments to have benefit of energy density and to stay safe in any conditions. The battery thermal environment and discharge rate have to be adjusted to obtain the right temperature range at cell level, to have the maximum performances. Voltage and capacity are very sensitive to temperature. This temperature is the cell internal actual temperature during discharge. This temperature is directed by external thermal environment and by cell internal heat dissipation, i.e., cell actual voltage.

  15. Neanderthal use of fish, mammals, birds, starchy plants and wood 125-250,000 years ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L Hardy

    Full Text Available Neanderthals are most often portrayed as big game hunters who derived the vast majority of their diet from large terrestrial herbivores while birds, fish and plants are seen as relatively unimportant or beyond the capabilities of Neanderthals. Although evidence for exploitation of other resources (small mammals, birds, fish, shellfish, and plants has been found at certain Neanderthal sites, these are typically dismissed as unusual exceptions. The general view suggests that Neanderthal diet may broaden with time, but that this only occurs sometime after 50,000 years ago. We present evidence, in the form of lithic residue and use-wear analyses, for an example of a broad-based subsistence for Neanderthals at the site of Payre, Ardèche, France (beginning of MIS 5/end of MIS 6 to beginning of MIS 7/end of MIS 8; approximately 125-250,000 years ago. In addition to large terrestrial herbivores, Neanderthals at Payre also exploited starchy plants, birds, and fish. These results demonstrate a varied subsistence already in place with early Neanderthals and suggest that our ideas of Neanderthal subsistence are biased by our dependence on the zooarchaeological record and a deep-seated intellectual emphasis on big game hunting.

  16. TRAP230/ARC240 and TRAP240/ARC250 Mediator subunits are functionally conserved through evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Camilla O; Baraznenok, Vera; Khorosjutina, Olga

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator, a subgroup of proteins (Srb8, Srb9, Srb10, and Srb11) form a module, which is involved in negative regulation of transcription. Homologues of Srb10 and Srb11 are found in some mammalian Mediator preparations, whereas no clear homologues have been reported...... for Srb8 and Srb9. Here, we identify a TRAP240/ARC250 homologue in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and demonstrate that this protein, spTrap240, is stably associated with a larger form of Mediator, which also contains conserved homologues of Srb8, Srb10, and Srb11. We find that spTrap240 and Sch. pombe Srb8 (sp......Srb8) regulate the same distinct subset of genes and have indistinguishable phenotypic characteristics. Importantly, Mediator containing the spSrb8/spTrap240/spSrb10/spSrb11 subunits is isolated only in free form, devoid of RNA polymerase II. In contrast, Mediator lacking this module associates...

  17. The onset of star formation 250 million years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Laporte, Nicolas; Mawatari, Ken; Ellis, Richard S.; Inoue, Akio K.; Zackrisson, Erik; Roberts-Borsani, Guido; Zheng, Wei; Tamura, Yoichi; Bauer, Franz E.; Fletcher, Thomas; Harikane, Yuichi; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hayatsu, Natsuki H.; Matsuda, Yuichi; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Pelló, Roser; Rydberg, Claes-Erik; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Umehata, Hideki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2018-05-01

    A fundamental quest of modern astronomy is to locate the earliest galaxies and study how they influenced the intergalactic medium a few hundred million years after the Big Bang1-3. The abundance of star-forming galaxies is known to decline4,5 from redshifts of about 6 to 10, but a key question is the extent of star formation at even earlier times, corresponding to the period when the first galaxies might have emerged. Here we report spectroscopic observations of MACS1149-JD16, a gravitationally lensed galaxy observed when the Universe was less than four per cent of its present age. We detect an emission line of doubly ionized oxygen at a redshift of 9.1096 ± 0.0006, with an uncertainty of one standard deviation. This precisely determined redshift indicates that the red rest-frame optical colour arises from a dominant stellar component that formed about 250 million years after the Big Bang, corresponding to a redshift of about 15. Our results indicate that it may be possible to detect such early episodes of star formation in similar galaxies with future telescopes.

  18. Mapping irrigated lands at 250-m scale by merging MODIS data and National Agricultural Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate geospatial information on the extent of irrigated land improves our understanding of agricultural water use, local land surface processes, conservation or depletion of water resources, and components of the hydrologic budget. We have developed a method in a geospatial modeling framework that assimilates irrigation statistics with remotely sensed parameters describing vegetation growth conditions in areas with agricultural land cover to spatially identify irrigated lands at 250-m cell size across the conterminous United States for 2002. The geospatial model result, known as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Irrigated Agriculture Dataset (MIrAD-US), identified irrigated lands with reasonable accuracy in California and semiarid Great Plains states with overall accuracies of 92% and 75% and kappa statistics of 0.75 and 0.51, respectively. A quantitative accuracy assessment of MIrAD-US for the eastern region has not yet been conducted, and qualitative assessment shows that model improvements are needed for the humid eastern regions where the distinction in annual peak NDVI between irrigated and non-irrigated crops is minimal and county sizes are relatively small. This modeling approach enables consistent mapping of irrigated lands based upon USDA irrigation statistics and should lead to better understanding of spatial trends in irrigated lands across the conterminous United States. An improved version of the model with revised datasets is planned and will employ 2007 USDA irrigation statistics.

  19. Utilization of a typical 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor at a University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, M.; Boeck, H.; Musilek, A.

    2007-01-01

    The 250 kW TRIGA Mark-II reactor operates since March 1962 at the Atominstitut Vienna/Austria. Its main tasks are nuclear education and training in the fields of neutron- and solid state physics, nuclear technology, reactor safety, radiochemistry, radiation protection and dosimetry, and low temperature physics and fusion research. Academic research is carried out by students in the above mentioned fields coordinated and supervised by about 70 staff members with the aim of a masters- or PhD degree in one of the above mentioned areas. During the past 15 years about 580 students graduated through the Atominstitut. In addition, the Atominstitut co-operates closely with the nearby located IAEA in research projects, coordinated research programs (CRP) and supplying expert services. Regular training courses are carried out for the IAEA for Safeguard Trainees, fellowship places are offered for scientists from developing countries and staff members carry out expert missions to research centres in Africa, Asia and South America. Special Nuclear Material (SNM) is stored for calibration purposes at the Atominstitut belonging to the IAEA. (author)

  20. MUSE-INGS ON AM1354-250: COLLISIONS, SHOCKS, AND RINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, Blair C. [Gemini Observatory, Recinto AURA, Colina El Pino, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Fogarty, L. M. R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, A28, Sydney, 2006 (Australia); Smith, Rory [Yonsei University, Graduate School of Earth System Sciences-Astronomy-Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei-ro 50, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Candlish, Graeme N., E-mail: bconn@gemini.edu [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2016-03-10

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of AM1354-250, confirming its status as a collisional ring galaxy that has recently undergone an interaction, creating its distinctive shape. We analyze the stellar and gaseous emission throughout the galaxy finding direct evidence that the gaseous ring is expanding with a velocity of ∼70 km s{sup −1} and that star formation is occurring primarily in H ii regions associated with the ring. This star formation activity is likely triggered by this interaction. We find evidence for several excitation mechanisms in the gas, including emission consistent with shocked gas in the expanding ring and a region of LINER-like emission in the central core of the galaxy. Evidence of kinematic disturbance in both the stars and gas, possibly also triggered by the interaction, can be seen in all of the velocity maps. The ring galaxy retains a weak spiral structure, strongly suggesting the progenitor galaxy was a massive spiral prior to the collision with its companion an estimated 140 ± 12 Myr ago.

  1. 1:250,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Peter; Nebert, Douglas

    1994-01-01

    The Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) was developed in the mid 70s to put into digital form a numberof data layers which were of interest to the USGS. One of these data layers was the Hydrologic Units. The map is based on the Hydrologic Unit Maps published by the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Water Data Coordination, together with the list descriptions and name of region, subregion, accounting units, and cataloging unit. The hydrologic units are encoded with an eight-digit number that indicates the hydrologic region (first two digits), hydrologic subregion (second two digits), accounting unit (third two digits), and cataloging unit (fourth two digits). The data produced by GIRAS was originally collected at a scale of 1:250K. Some areas, notably major cities in the west, were recompiled at a scale of 1:100K. In order to join the data together and use the data in a geographic information system (GIS) the data were processed in the ARC/INFO GUS software package. Within the GIS, the data were edgematched and the neatline boundaries between maps were removed to create a single data set for the conterminous

  2. Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, A; Niskanen, J; Tikkala, H; Aksela, H

    2013-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

  3. Present status of the conceptual design of IFMIF target facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, H.; Kato, Y.; Konishi, S.; Miyauchi, Y.; Smith, D.; Hua, T.; Green, L.; Benamati, G.; Cevolani, S.; Roehrig, H.; Schutz, W.

    1998-01-01

    The conceptual design activity (CDA) for the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) has been conducted. For the IFMIF target facility, the conceptual designs of the following two main components have been performed. The design concept of IFMIF utilizes a high energy deuteron beam of 30-40 MeV and total current of 250 mA, impinging on a flowing lithium jet to produce high energy neutrons for irradiation of candidate fusion materials. (1) The target assembly: The kinetic energy of the deuteron beam is deposited on a Li-jet target and neutrons are produced through the d-Li stripping reaction in this target. The assembly is designed to get a stable lithium jet and to prevent the onset of lithium boiling. For 40-MeV deuteron beam (total current of 250 mA) and a beam footprint of 5 x 20 cm 2 lithium jet dimensions are designed to be 2.5 cm thick and 26 cm wide. The lithium jet parameters are given. (2) Lithium loop: The loop circulates the lithium to and from the target assembly and removes the heat deposited by the deuteron beam containing systems for maintaining the-high purity of the lithium required for radiological safety and to minimize corrosion. The maximum lithium flow rate is 130 l/s and the total lithium inventory is about 21 m 3 . The IFMIF policy requires that the lithium loop system be designed to guarantee no combustion of lithium in the event of a lithium leak. This can be achieved by use of multiple confinement of the lithium carrying components. The radioactive waste generated by the target facilities is estimated. (orig.)

  4. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  5. Shiva target irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manes, K.R.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Coleman, L.W.; Storm, E.K.; Glaze, J.A.; Hurley, C.A.; Rienecker, F.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    The first laser/plasma studies performed with the Shiva laser system will be two sided irradiations extending the data obtained by other LLL lasers to higher powers. The twenty approximately 1 TW laser pulses will reach the target simultaneously from above and below in nested pentagonal clusters. The upper and lower clusters of ten beams each are radially polarized so that they strike the target in p-polarization and maximize absorption. This geometry introduces laser system isolation problems which will be briefly discussed. The layout and types of target diagnostics will be described and a brief status report on the facility given

  6. STANFORD: Internal targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-05-15

    Of burgeoning interest to many nuclear and particle physicists is a storage ring technique for fixed target experiments. It hinges on the use of gas-jet targets, shooting a narrow stream of atoms through a circulating beam of electrons or protons. Pioneered at CERN and the Soviet Novosibirsk Laboratory, more such 'internal targets' are being built or contemplated for storage rings in Europe, the Soviet Union, and the United States. From 9-12 January, physicists from around the world met at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to discuss prospects and problems in this expanding field.

  7. TARGET Research Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    TARGET researchers use various sequencing and array-based methods to examine the genomes, transcriptomes, and for some diseases epigenomes of select childhood cancers. This “multi-omic” approach generates a comprehensive profile of molecular alterations for each cancer type. Alterations are changes in DNA or RNA, such as rearrangements in chromosome structure or variations in gene expression, respectively. Through computational analyses and assays to validate biological function, TARGET researchers predict which alterations disrupt the function of a gene or pathway and promote cancer growth, progression, and/or survival. Researchers identify candidate therapeutic targets and/or prognostic markers from the cancer-associated alterations.

  8. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogeneous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous 1-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  9. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Lackner-Russo, D.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Hoffmann, I.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogenous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous l-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  10. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  11. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  12. Targeted Cancer Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are sometimes referred to as the product of "rational" drug design.) One approach to identify potential targets ... molecules that stimulate new blood vessel growth. Immunotherapies trigger the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Some ...

  13. Targeting radiation to tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Greater Glasgow Health Board, Glasgow

    1994-01-01

    Biologically targeted radiotherapy entails the preferential delivery of radiation to solid tumours or individual tumour cells by means of tumour-seeking delivery vehicles to which radionuclides can be conjugated. Monoclonal antibodies have attracted attention for some years as potentially selective targeting agents, but advances in tumour and molecular biology are now providing a much wider choice of molecular species. General radiobiological principles may be derived which are applicable to most forms of targeted radiotherapy. These principles provide guidelines for the appropriate choice of radionuclide in specific treatment situations and its optimal combination with other treatment modalities. In future, the availability of gene targeting agents will focus attention on the use of Auger electron emitters whose high potency and short range selectivity makes them attractive choices for specific killing of cancer cells whose genetic peculiarities are known. (author)

  14. 30 CFR 250.108 - What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements must I follow for cranes and... Performance Standards § 250.108 What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment? (a) All cranes installed on fixed platforms must be operated in accordance with American...

  15. 76 FR 41045 - Special Conditions; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Design Roll-Maneuver...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... issue a finding of regulatory adequacy under Sec. 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of... with electronic flight controls as they relate to design roll-maneuver requirements. The applicable... G250 airplane is equipped with an electronic flight control system that provides control through the...

  16. 30 CFR 250.524 - When am I required to take action from my casing diagnostic test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pressure (MAWOP); (b) Any fixed platform well with a casing pressure that is greater than 100 psig and that... bled down to prevent it from exceeding its MAWOP, except during initial startup operations described in § 250.521; (e) Any hybrid well with casing or riser pressure exceeding 100 psig; or (f) Any subsea well...

  17. 30 CFR 250.181 - When may the Secretary cancel my lease and when am I compensated for cancellation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may the Secretary cancel my lease and when... may the Secretary cancel my lease and when am I compensated for cancellation? If the Secretary cancels.... Section 250.185 states conditions under which you will receive no compensation. The Secretary may cancel a...

  18. Homocysteine-lowering effect of 500 ug folic acid every other day versus 250 ug/day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Rooij, van I.A.L.M.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Blom, H.J.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Eskes, T.K.A.B.

    2000-01-01

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are a risk factor for neural tube defects and vascular diseases. Supplementation with folic acid decreases tHcy. We investigated whether supplementation with 500 ?g folic acid every other day is as effective in lowering tHcy as 250 ?g folic

  19. 17 CFR 250.53 - Certain registered holding company financings in connection with the acquisition of one or more...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Financial Transactions 2 § 250.53 Certain registered holding company financings in connection with the acquisition of one or more exempt wholesale generators. (a) In determining whether to approve the issue or... shall be kept in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). (B...

  20. Shiprock, AZ NM CO UT 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  1. Predicted Performance of a Dc Beam Driven Fem Oscillator Designed for Fusion Applications at 200-250 Ghz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caplan, M.; Best, R. W. B.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Urbanus, W. H.; Bratman, V. L.; Denisov, G. G.

    1993-01-01

    At the FOM Institute (The Netherlands) a free electron laser using a dc beam with depressed collector is being developed for plasma heating, which will be capable of producing 1 MW cw output over an adjustable tuning range of 200-250 GHz. The basic design parameters for the electron beam, undulator

  2. A 250-Mbit/s ring local computer network using 1.3-microns single-mode optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, S. T.; Tell, R.; Andersson, T.; Eng, B.

    1985-01-01

    A 250-Mbit/s three-station fiber-optic ring local computer network was built and successfully demonstrated. A conventional token protocol was employed for bus arbitration to maximize the bus efficiency under high loading conditions, and a non-return-to-zero (NRS) data encoding format was selected for simplicity and maximum utilization of the ECL-circuit bandwidth.

  3. 30 CFR 250.214 - What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geological and geophysical (G&G... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.214 What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the EP? The following G&G information must accompany your EP: (a) Geological...

  4. 30 CFR 250.244 - What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geological and geophysical (G&G... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.244 What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following G&G information must accompany your DPP or DOCD: (a) Geological...

  5. INACTIVATION OF MS2 VIRUS IN DRINKING WATER: ATLANTIC ULTRAVIOLET CORPORATION MEGATRON UNIT, MODEL M250 AT CHULA VISTA, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Atlantic Ultraviolet Megatron M250 system was conducted over a 48-day period from 11/01/01 to 12/18/01. The feedwater to the ultraviolet (UV) unit during the testing was effluent from the Otay Water Treatment Plant (OWTP), a conventional plant with fl...

  6. Covalently linked multimers of gold nanoclusters Au102(p-MBA)44 and Au∼250(p-MBA)n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Tanja; Hulkko, Eero; Sokołowska, Karolina; Tero, Tiia-Riikka; Saarnio, Ville; Lindgren, Johan; Pettersson, Mika; Häkkinen, Hannu; Lehtovaara, Lauri

    2016-11-10

    We present the synthesis, separation, and characterization of covalently-bound multimers of para-mercaptobenzoic acid (p-MBA) protected gold nanoclusters. The multimers were synthesized by performing a ligand-exchange reaction of a pre-characterized Au 102 (p-MBA) 44 nanocluster with biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol (BPDT). The reaction products were separated using gel electrophoresis yielding several distinct bands. The bands were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealing monomer, dimer, and trimer fractions of the nanocluster. TEM analysis of dimers in combination with molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the nanoclusters are covalently bound via a disulfide bridge between BPDT molecules. The linking chemistry is not specific to Au 102 (p-MBA) 44 . The same approach yields multimers also for a larger monodisperse p-MBA-protected cluster of approximately 250 gold atoms, Au ∼250 (p-MBA) n . While the Au 102 (p-MBA) 44 is not plasmonic, the Au ∼250 (p-MBA) n nanocluster supports localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at 530 nm. Multimers of the Au ∼250 (p-MBA) n exhibit additional transitions in their UV-vis spectrum at 630 nm and 810 nm, indicating the presence of hybridized LSPR modes. Well-defined structures and relatively small sizes make these systems excellent candidates for connecting ab initio theoretical studies and experimental quantum plasmonics. Moreover, our work opens new possibilities in the controlled synthesis of advanced monodisperse nanocluster superstructures.

  7. Evaluation of the Performance of Vortex Generators on the DU 91-W2-250 Profile using Stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    Stereoscopic PIV measurements investigating the effect of Vortex Generators on the lift force near stall and on glide ratio at best aerodynamic performance have been carried out in the LM Glasfiber wind tunnel on a DU 91-W2-250 profile. Measurements at two Reynolds numbers were analyzed; Re=0...

  8. Evaluation of the Performance of Vortex Generators on the DU 91-W2-250 Profile using Stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2008-01-01

    Stereoscopic PIV measurements investigating the effect of Vortex Generators on the lift force near stall and on glide ratio at best aerodynamic performance have been carried out in the LM Glasfiber wind tunnel on a DU 91-W2-250 profile. Measurements at two Reynolds numbers were analyzed; Re=0...

  9. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Galeotti; Jose Luis Moraga

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit random advertising --to induce an unequal distribution of information in the market-- and random pricing --to obtain profits from badly informed buyers--. We characterize a positive profits equilibrium...

  10. Targets and teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy C.; Lange, Karin S.; Hoey, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    differences in mean HbA1c between centers ranging from 7.3±0.8% (53mmol/mol±8.7) to 8.9±1.1% (74mmol/mol±12.0). Centers with lower mean HbA1c had (1) parents who reported lower targets for their children, (2) health-care professionals that reported lower targets and more frequent testing, and (3) teams...

  11. Targets and special materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Bouriant, M.; Richaud, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The target preparation group supplied a large number of samples to nuclear physicists for experiments using SARA and also other accelerators throughout the world. Particular preparation and projects include: 208 Pb, 116 Cd, 6 LiF, 123 Sb, In and Ta targets, strippers for SARA and GANIL, optical silicone disks for POLDER and GRAAL experiments, active participations for the AMS project and finally filament preparation for the GENEPI project. (authors)

  12. The ISIS target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carne, A.; Broome, T.A.; Hogston, J.R.; Holding, M.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation discusses the two target failures that have occurred, gives the understanding of the causes and indicates the steps being taken to alleviate the problems. At the outset of the design it was understood that the target would have a finite lifetime, due to radiation damage effects, exacerbated by mechanical damage due to thermal cycling and fatigue. Estimates of target lifetime at full intensity are about 2 years for radiation damage swelling and about 10E4 gross thermal excursions. The latter number is the one which gives uncertainty in defining the life of the target, since it is dependent on the reliability of the accelerator and quality of the proton beam. The commissioning of an accelerator system and bringing it up to high beam intensities have their own special problems. There must be protection of components against uncontrolled beam loss, which produces thermal damage, prompt radiation and induced activity. Fast beam trips for beam loss protection, or equipment failures, result in quenches from high temperature in the target which get bigger with increasing beam intensity. But the target itself is a difficult device to make, taking about 12 months to manufacture. Further, changing one is a complex and time consuming task, not without its hazards. There is thus something of a balancing act to bring the accelerator towards specification before the target fails due to thermal cycling fatigue. In the early days of ISIS beam loss protection was the dominant consideration and the target was regarded somewhat as a sacrificial lamb to the goddess of machine reliability. 2 refs., 6 figs

  13. STUDY ON DISCHARGE HEAT UTILIZATION OF 250 MWe PCMSR TURBINE SYSTEM FOR DESALINATION USING MODIFIED MED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andang Widiharto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor is one type of Advanced Nuclear Reactors. The PCMSR has benefit charasteristics of very efficient fuel use, high safety charecteristic as well as high thermodinamics efficiency. This is due to its breeding capability, inherently safe characteristic and totally passive safety system. The PCMSR design consists of three module, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. Analysis in performed by parametric calculation of the turbine system to calculate the turbine system efficiency and the hat available for desalination. After that the mass and energi balance of desalination process are calculated to calculate the amount of distillate produced and the amount of feed sea water needed. The turbine module is designed to be operated at maximum temperature cycle of 1373 K (1200 0C and minimum temperature cycle of 333 K (60 0K. The parametric calculation shows that the optimum turbine pressure ratio is 4.3 that gives the conversion efficiency of 56 % for 4 stages turbine and 4 stages compressor and equiped with recuperator. In this optimum condition, the 250 MWe PCMSR turbine system produces 196 MWth of waste heat with the temperature of cooling fluid in the range from 327 K (54 0C to 368 K (92 0C. This waste heat can be utilized for desalination. By using MMED desalination system, this waste heat can be used to produce fresh water (distillate from sea water feed. The amount of the destillate produced is 48663 ton per day by using 15 distillation effects. The performance ratio value is 2.8727 kg/MJ by using 15 distillation effects. Keywords: PCMSR, discharged heat, MMED desalination   PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor merupakan salah satu tipe dari Reaktor Nuklir Maju. PCMSR memiliki keuntungan berupa penggunaan bahan bakar yang sangat efisisien, sifat keselamatan tinggi dan sekaligus efisiensi termodinamika yang tinggi. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kemampuan pembiakan bahan bakar, sifat

  14. Surface circulation patterns in the Gulf of California derived from MODIS Aqua 250 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, G.; Salinas-González, F.; Gutiérrez de Velasco-Sanromán, G.; Godínez-Orta, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of California (GC) is a marginal elongated and semi-enclosed sea located at northwest of Mexico, between the Peninsula of Baja California and the mainland Mexico. The considered area average 150 km in width and 1500 km in length, from the mouth of the Colorado River to Cabo Corrientes, Jalisco. It has a maximum depth of 3600 m at the southern inlet and the northern region average 200 m in deep. The study of superficial circulation patterns in the GC is of interest because its relevance to the mechanisms of transport for distribution of a variety of materials -plankton, contaminants, microalgae, etc.- and its association with areas of sedimentary deposits, zones where there is a higher probability for fishing or related to the presence of certain species of marine life. Recent studies explain the circulation of the GC as a result of the Pacific Ocean's forcing, wind, heat fluxes on the sea surface and the interaction between the flow produced by these agents and bathymetry. The objective of this work was to obtain evidence of the patterns of surface circulation using a spatial resolution of 250 m over a period of two to seven days (depending on cloud cover), which offered images from the MODIS Level 1B. This essay is an attempt to contribute with more information to the understanding of the regional dynamics of the GC and its local influence on the zones bordering the coast. Thus, MODIS Aqua 250 m data was used, to which algorithms were applied in order to enhance the contrast of reflectance levels of these bands (0.620-0.670 and 0.841-0.876 µm) within the marine environment. The results are associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which we used as tracers of the surface circulation, using a sequence of images from January 2004 to December 2008. Algorithms for dust and cloud detection were used and incorporated with thermal band images, in which zones of terrigenous contribution by eolian transport were identified. Furthermore, pluvial

  15. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  16. Laser targets: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The laser target design group was engaged in three main tasks in 1984: (1) analyzing Novette implosion and hohlraum-scaling data, (2) planning for the first experiments on Nova, and (3) designing laboratory x-ray laser targets and experiments. The Novette implosion and hohlraum scaling data are mostly classified and are therefore not discussed in detail here. The authors achieved average final/initial pusher pr ratios of about 50, some 3 times higher than the value achieved in the best Shiva shots. These pr values imply a fuel compression to 100 times liquid density, although this figure and other aspects of the experiments are subject to further interpretation because of detailed questions of target symmetry and stability. Their main long-term goal for Nova is to produce a so-called hydrodynamically equivalent target (HET) - that is, a target whose hydrodynamic behavior (implosion velocity, convergence ratio, symmetry and stability requirements, etc.) is very much like that of a high-gain target, but one that is scaled down in size to match the energy available from Nova and is too small to achieve enough hot-spot pr to ignite the cold, near-Fermi-degenerate fuel around it. Their goal for Nova's first year is to do experiments that will teach them how to achieve the symmetry and stability conditions required by an HET

  17. Argus target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F. Jr.; Glaros, S.S.; Kobierecki, M.

    1975-01-01

    A target chamber for application in the laser fusion program must satisfy some very basic requirements. (1) Provide a vacuum on the order of 10 -6 torr. (2) Support a microscopically small target in a fixed point in space and verify its location within 5 micrometers. (3) Contain an adjustable beam focusing system capable of delivering a number of laser beams onto the target simultaneously, both in time and space. (4) Provide access for diagnostics to evaluate the results of target irradiation. (5) Have flexibility to allow changes in targets, focusing optics and number of beams. The ARGUS laser which is now under construction at LLL will have a target chamber which meets these requirements in a simple economic manner. The chamber and auxiliary equipment are described, with reference to two double beam focusing systems; namely, lenses and ellipsoidal mirrors. Provision is made for future operation with four beams, using ellipsoidal mirrors for two-sided illumination and lens systems for tetragonal and tetrahedral irradiation

  18. Staining of proteins in gels with Coomassie G-250 without organic solvent and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ann-Marie; Besir, H Uuml Seyin

    2009-08-14

    In classical protein staining protocols using Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB), solutions with high contents of toxic and flammable organic solvents (Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol) and acetic acid are used for fixation, staining and destaining of proteins in a gel after SDS-PAGE. To speed up the procedure, heating the staining solution in the microwave oven for a short time is frequently used. This usually results in evaporation of toxic or hazardous Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol and a strong smell of acetic acid in the lab which should be avoided due to safety considerations. In a protocol originally published in two patent applications by E.M. Wondrak (US2001046709 (A1), US6319720 (B1)), an alternative composition of the staining solution is described in which no organic solvent or acid is used. The CBB is dissolved in bidistilled water (60-80 mg of CBB G-250 per liter) and 35 mM HCl is added as the only other compound in the staining solution. The CBB staining of the gel is done after SDS-PAGE and thorough washing of the gel in bidistilled water. By heating the gel during the washing and staining steps, the process can be finished faster and no toxic or hazardous compounds are evaporating. The staining of proteins occurs already within 1 minute after heating the gel in staining solution and is fully developed after 15-30 min with a slightly blue background that is destained completely by prolonged washing of the stained gel in bidistilled water, without affecting the stained protein bands.

  19. A 250 plastome phylogeny of the grass family (Poaceae): topological support under different data partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sean V.; Wysocki, William P.; Clark, Lynn G.

    2018-01-01

    The systematics of grasses has advanced through applications of plastome phylogenomics, although studies have been largely limited to subfamilies or other subgroups of Poaceae. Here we present a plastome phylogenomic analysis of 250 complete plastomes (179 genera) sampled from 44 of the 52 tribes of Poaceae. Plastome sequences were determined from high throughput sequencing libraries and the assemblies represent over 28.7 Mbases of sequence data. Phylogenetic signal was characterized in 14 partitions, including (1) complete plastomes; (2) protein coding regions; (3) noncoding regions; and (4) three loci commonly used in single and multi-gene studies of grasses. Each of the four main partitions was further refined, alternatively including or excluding positively selected codons and also the gaps introduced by the alignment. All 76 protein coding plastome loci were found to be predominantly under purifying selection, but specific codons were found to be under positive selection in 65 loci. The loci that have been widely used in multi-gene phylogenetic studies had among the highest proportions of positively selected codons, suggesting caution in the interpretation of these earlier results. Plastome phylogenomic analyses confirmed the backbone topology for Poaceae with maximum bootstrap support (BP). Among the 14 analyses, 82 clades out of 309 resolved were maximally supported in all trees. Analyses of newly sequenced plastomes were in agreement with current classifications. Five of seven partitions in which alignment gaps were removed retrieved Panicoideae as sister to the remaining PACMAD subfamilies. Alternative topologies were recovered in trees from partitions that included alignment gaps. This suggests that ambiguities in aligning these uncertain regions might introduce a false signal. Resolution of these and other critical branch points in the phylogeny of Poaceae will help to better understand the selective forces that drove the radiation of the BOP and PACMAD

  20. Statistics and scaling of turbulence in a spatially developing mixing layer at Reλ = 250

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2012-03-21

    The turbulent flow originating from the interaction between two parallel streams with different velocities is studied by means of direct numerical simulation. Rather than the more common temporal evolving layer, a spatially evolving configuration, with perturbed laminar inlet conditions is considered. The streamwise evolution and the self-similar state of turbulence statistics are reported and compared to results available in the literature. The characteristics of the transitional region agree with those observed in other simulations and experiments of mixing layers originating from laminar inlets. The present results indicate that the transitional region depends strongly on the inlet flow. Conversely, the self-similar state of turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation agrees quantitatively with those in a temporal mixing layer developing from turbulent initial conditions [M. M. Rogers and R. D. Moser, “Direct simulation of a self-similar turbulent mixing layer,” Phys. Fluids6, 903 (1994)]. The statistical features of turbulence in the self-similar region have been analysed in terms of longitudinal velocity structure functions, and scaling exponents are estimated by applying the extended self-similarity concept. In the small scale range (60 < r/η < 250), the scaling exponents display the universal anomalous scaling observed in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The hypothesis of isotropy recovery holds in the turbulent mixing layer despite the presence of strong shear and large-scale structures, independently of the means of turbulence generation. At larger scales (r/η > 400), the mean shear and large coherent structures result in a significant deviation from predictions based on homogeneous isotropic turbulence theory. In this second scaling range, the numerical values of the exponents agree quantitatively with those reported for a variety of other flows characterized by strong shear, such as boundary layers, as well as channel and wake flows.

  1. High Resolution PET with 250 micrometer LSO Detectors and Adaptive Zoom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Qi, Jinyi

    2012-01-01

    There have been impressive improvements in the performance of small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems since their first development in the mid 1990s, both in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which have directly contributed to the increasing adoption of this technology for a wide range of biomedical applications. Nonetheless, current systems still are largely dominated by the size of the scintillator elements used in the detector. Our research predicts that developing scintillator arrays with an element size of 250 (micro)m or smaller will lead to an image resolution of 500 (micro)m when using 18F- or 64Cu-labeled radiotracers, giving a factor of 4-8 improvement in volumetric resolution over the highest resolution research systems currently in existence. This proposal had two main objectives: (i) To develop and evaluate much higher resolution and efficiency scintillator arrays that can be used in the future as the basis for detectors in a small-animal PET scanner where the spatial resolution is dominated by decay and interaction physics rather than detector size. (ii) To optimize one such high resolution, high sensitivity detector and adaptively integrate it into the existing microPET II small animal PET scanner as a 'zoom-in' detector that provides higher spatial resolution and sensitivity in a limited region close to the detector face. The knowledge gained from this project will provide valuable information for building future PET systems with a complete ring of very high-resolution detector arrays and also lay the foundations for utilizing high-resolution detectors in combination with existing PET systems for localized high-resolution imaging.

  2. Statistics and scaling of turbulence in a spatially developing mixing layer at Reλ = 250

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The turbulent flow originating from the interaction between two parallel streams with different velocities is studied by means of direct numerical simulation. Rather than the more common temporal evolving layer, a spatially evolving configuration, with perturbed laminar inlet conditions is considered. The streamwise evolution and the self-similar state of turbulence statistics are reported and compared to results available in the literature. The characteristics of the transitional region agree with those observed in other simulations and experiments of mixing layers originating from laminar inlets. The present results indicate that the transitional region depends strongly on the inlet flow. Conversely, the self-similar state of turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation agrees quantitatively with those in a temporal mixing layer developing from turbulent initial conditions [M. M. Rogers and R. D. Moser, “Direct simulation of a self-similar turbulent mixing layer,” Phys. Fluids6, 903 (1994)]. The statistical features of turbulence in the self-similar region have been analysed in terms of longitudinal velocity structure functions, and scaling exponents are estimated by applying the extended self-similarity concept. In the small scale range (60 < r/η < 250), the scaling exponents display the universal anomalous scaling observed in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The hypothesis of isotropy recovery holds in the turbulent mixing layer despite the presence of strong shear and large-scale structures, independently of the means of turbulence generation. At larger scales (r/η > 400), the mean shear and large coherent structures result in a significant deviation from predictions based on homogeneous isotropic turbulence theory. In this second scaling range, the numerical values of the exponents agree quantitatively with those reported for a variety of other flows characterized by strong shear, such as boundary layers, as well as channel and wake flows.

  3. Study for optimization of a 60 Co industrial irradiator of 250 k Ci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina V, G.

    1995-01-01

    This work presents results of a benchmark between calculated and experimental absorbed dose values for a typical product, in a 60 Co industrial irradiator, located at ININ, Mexico. The goal of this work is to reach a ± 10 % approximation between both values. ININ 60 Co industrial irradiator is a two level, two layer system with overlapping product configuration, 56 irradiation positions with an activity of around 250 k Ci. Calculated values were obtained by QAD-CGGP code. This code uses a point kernel technique, build-up factors fitting was done by geometrical progression and combinatorial geometry was used for 3 D system description. Main code modifications were related with source simulation by punctual sources and energy spectrum (16 energy groups) and anisotropic emission were also considered. Experimental data were obtained from routine dosimetry which was done with red acrylic pellets; they were irradiated together the product in predetermined positions, for 36 maximum and minimum absorbed dose values. Typical product was polypropylene Petri dish packages, apparent density 0.13 g/cm 3 . It was chosen because regular geometry (2 packages per full irradiator container) and enough amount for considering homogeneous loading inside irradiation chamber. Required minimum dose was 15 kGy. Results showed a 8% variation between calculated and experimental values for maximum absorbed dose (18.2 kGy vs 16.8 kGy) and 3 % variation for minimum absorbed dose (13.8 kGy vs 14.3 kGy); these results fixed with the original proposal. (Author)

  4. A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Post-Compression Water Injection in a Rolls-Royce M250 Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    ROLLS-ROYCE M250 GAS TURBINE ENGINE by Midshipman 1/C Brian R. He United States Naval Academy Annapolis, Maryland...Injection in a Rolls- Royce M250 Gas Turbine Engine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) He...output, efficiency, operating conditions, and emissions of injecting water at the compressor discharge of a Rolls-Royce M250 . The results

  5. Burglar Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  6. LANSCE target system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Robinson, H.; Legate, G.L.; Bridge, A.; Sanchez, R.J.; Brewton, R.J.; Woods, R.; Hughes, H.G. III

    1989-01-01

    We measured neutron beam fluxes at LANSCE using gold foil activation techniques. We did an extensive computer simulation of the as-built LANSCE Target/Moderator/Reflector/Shield geometry. We used this mockup in a Monte Carlo calculation to predict LANSCE neutronic performance for comparison with measured results. For neutron beam fluxes at 1 eV, the ratio of measured data to calculated varies from ∼0.6-0.9. The computed 1 eV neutron leakage at the moderator surface is 3.9 x 10 10 n/eV-sr-s-μA for LANSCE high-intensity water moderators. The corresponding values for the LANSCE high-resolution water moderator and the liquid hydrogen moderator are 3.3 and 2.9 x 10 10 , respectively. LANSCE predicted moderator intensities (per proton) for a tungsten target are essentially the same as ISIS predicted moderator intensities for a depleted uranium target. The calculated LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal (E 13 n/cm 2 -s. The unique LANSCE split-target/flux-trap-moderator system is performing exceedingly well. The system has operated without a target or moderator change for over three years at nominal proton currents of ∼25 μA of 800-MeV protons. (author)

  7. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  8. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  9. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  10. Hybrid superconducting a.c. current limiter extrapolation 63 kV-1 250 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, P.; Levêque, J.; Brunet, Y.; Pham, V. D.

    1994-04-01

    (150 V/50 A) a permis de valider expérimentalement cette conception. Nous aborderons l'extrapolation d'un limiteur de taille industrielle (63 kV/1 250 A). Les résultats seront comparés à des limiteurs supraconducteurs résistifs et de type DASC.

  11. Current status and technical description of Chinese 2 x 250 MWth HTR-PM demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zuoyi; Wu Zongxin; Wang Dazhong; Xu Yuanhui; Sun Yuliang; Li Fu; Dong Yujie

    2009-01-01

    After the nuclear accidents of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl the world nuclear community made great efforts to increase research on nuclear reactors and to develop advanced nuclear power plants with much improved safety features. Following the successful construction and a most gratifying operation of the 10 MW th high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor (HTR-10), the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University has developed and designed an HTR demonstration plant, called the HTR-PM (high-temperature-reactor pebble-bed module). The design, having jointly been carried out with industry partners from China and in collaboration of experts worldwide, closely follows the design principles of the HTR-10. Due to intensive engineering and R and D efforts since 2001, the basic design of the HTR-PM has been finished while all main technical features have been fixed. A Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) has been compiled. The HTR-PM plant will consist of two nuclear steam supply system (NSSS), so called modules, each one comprising of a single zone 250 MW th pebble-bed modular reactor and a steam generator. The two NSSS modules feed one steam turbine and generate an electric power of 210 MW. A pilot fuel production line will be built to fabricate 300,000 pebble fuel elements per year. This line is closely based on the technology of the HTR-10 fuel production line. The main goals of the project are two-fold. Firstly, the economic competitiveness of commercial HTR-PM plants shall be demonstrated. Secondly, it shall be shown that HTR-PM plants do not need accident management procedures and will not require any need for offsite emergency measures. According to the current schedule of the project the completion date of the demonstration plant will be around 2013. The reactor site has been evaluated and approved; the procurement of long-lead components has already been started. After the successful operation of the demonstration plant

  12. Fine target of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Diaz, J.; Granados Gonzalez, C. E.; Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1959-01-01

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm 2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  13. Targeting the right journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piterman, L; McCall, L

    1999-07-01

    While research is scientific, publication is a mixture of science and political pragmatism. Targeting the right journal is influenced by the following factors: the discipline that best represents the subject; the purpose of the message; the audience who are to be recipients of the message; the realities of geographic parochialism; the desire of authors to maximise personal and professional opportunities. If the originally targeted journal rejects the article, authors should have alternative publication strategies that give them professional recognition without requiring them to compromise the message or their ethics.

  14. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  15. Targets and tactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woo, V; Shestakova, M V; Ørskov, C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes is reaching pandemic proportions, impacting patients and healthcare systems across the globe. Evidence suggests that a majority of patients are not achieving recommended blood glucose targets resulting in an increased risk of micro- and macro-vascular ......BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes is reaching pandemic proportions, impacting patients and healthcare systems across the globe. Evidence suggests that a majority of patients are not achieving recommended blood glucose targets resulting in an increased risk of micro- and macro...... diabetes has never been more compelling; with a clear focus on strategies for glycaemic control, the impact of the diabetes pandemic can be limited....

  16. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available -of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study... for the following equation: n∑ i=r ( n i ) pi(1− p)n−i = 0.95 . (1) Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results METHODS (cont. . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION...

  17. Geochemical provenance of anomalous metal concentrations in stream sediments in the Ashton 1:250,000 quadrangle, Idaho/Montana/Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Stream-sediment samples from 1500 sites in the Ashton, Idaho/Montana/Wyoming 1:250,000 quadrangle were analyzed for 45 elements. Almost all samples containing anomalous concentrations (exceeding one standard deviation above the mean value of any element) were derived from drainage basins underlain by Quaternary rhyolite, Tertiary andesite or Precambrian gneiss and schist. Aluminum, barium, calcium, cobalt, iron, nickel, magnesium, scandium, sodium, strontium, and vanadium have no andesite provenance. Most anomalous manganese, europium, hafnium, and zirconium values were derived from Precambrian rocks. All other anomalous elemental concentrations are related to Quaternary rhyolite. This study demonstrates that multielemental stream-sediment analyses can be used to infer the provenance of stream sediments. Such data are available for many parts of the country as a result of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. This study suggests that stream-sediment samples collected in the Rocky Mountains can be used either as pathfinders or as direct indicators to select targets for mineral exploration for a host of metals

  18. Production asymmetry of $\\Lambda^0$ and ${\\overline{\\Lambda}}^0$ in $\\pi^{\\pm}$, $K^{\\pm}$, p - nucleon collisions at 250 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, Marcello Santo [Brazilian Center for Physics Research, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2001-02-01

    Using data from Fermilab xed-target experiment E769, we have measured particleantiparticle production asymmetries for Λ0 hyperons in π± - nucleon interactions, K ± - nucleon interactions and p - nucleon interactions at 250 GeV/c. The asymmetries are measured as functions of Feynman-x (xf ) and pT2 over the ranges 0 ≤ pT2 ≤ 4(GeV/c)2 and -0.12 ≤ xF ≤ 0.12 (for positive beam) and 0 ≤ pT2 ≤ 10(GeV/c)2 and -0.16 ≤ xF ≤ 0:.0 for the negative beam. We find substantial asymmetries, even at xF = 0. We also observe leading-particle-type asymmetries which qualitatively agree with theoretical predictions.

  19. A single CD4 test with 250 cells/mm3 threshold predicts viral suppression in HIV-infected adults failing first-line therapy by clinical criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilks, Charles F; Walker, A Sarah; Munderi, Paula; Kityo, Cissy; Reid, Andrew; Katabira, Elly; Goodall, Ruth L; Grosskurth, Heiner; Mugyenyi, Peter; Hakim, James; Gibb, Diana M

    2013-01-01

    In low-income countries, viral load (VL) monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is rarely available in the public sector for HIV-infected adults or children. Using clinical failure alone to identify first-line ART failure and trigger regimen switch may result in unnecessary use of costly second-line therapy. Our objective was to identify CD4 threshold values to confirm clinically-determined ART failure when VL is unavailable. 3316 HIV-infected Ugandan/Zimbabwean adults were randomised to first-line ART with Clinically-Driven (CDM, CD4s measured but blinded) or routine Laboratory and Clinical Monitoring (LCM, 12-weekly CD4s) in the DART trial. CD4 at switch and ART failure criteria (new/recurrent WHO 4, single/multiple WHO 3 event; LCM: CD4tiebreaker' of ≥250 cells/mm(3) for clinically-monitored patients failing first-line could identify ∼80% with VL<400 copies/ml, who are unlikely to benefit from second-line. Targeting CD4s to single WHO stage 3 'clinical failures' would particularly avoid premature, costly switch to second-line ART.

  20. Does the Loss of ARID1A (BAF-250a Expression in Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinomas Have Any Clinicopathologic Significance? A Pilot Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole Fadare, Idris L. Renshaw, Sharon X. Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SWI/SNF chromatin-modification complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomes and to affect transcription and several cellular processes. Accordingly, their loss of function has been associated with malignant transformation. ARID1A (the expression of whose product, BAF250a, a key complex component, is lost when mutated has recently been identified as a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in 46-57% of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC. The purposes of this study are to assess the frequency of loss of BAF250a expression in endometrial CCC and whether this loss has any discernable clinicopathologic implications. 34 endometrial carcinomas with a CCC component (including 22 pure CCC, 8 mixed carcinomas with a 10% CCC component, and 4 carcinosarcomas with a CCC epithelial component, were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody directed against the human BAF250a protein. 5 (22.7% of the 22 pure CCC were entirely BAF250a negative, whereas the remainder showed diffuse immunoreactivity. None of 4 carcinosarcomas and only 1 (12.5% of the 8 mixed carcinomas were BAF250a negative. There was no discernable relationship between BAF250a immunoreactivity status and tumor architectural patterns (solid, papillary or tubulocystic areas or cell type (flat, hobnail or polygonal. Of the 22 patients with pure CCC, 14, 2, 3, and 3 were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages 1, II, III and IV respectively. Interestingly, all 5 BAF250a negative cases were late stage [stages III or IV] as compared with 1 of 17 BAF250a positive cases (p=0.0002. Thus, 83% (5/6 of all late stage cases were BAF250a [-], as compared with 0 (0% of the 16 early stage (I or II cases (p=.0002. BAF250a negative and positive cases did not show any statistically significant difference regarding patient age and frequency of lymphovascular invasion or myometrial invasion. As may be anticipated from the concentration of late stage cases in