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Sample records for californium 246

  1. Californium Electrodepositions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, Rose Ann [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Electrodepositions of californium isotopes were successfully performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the past year involving two different types of deposition solutions, ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) and isobutanol ((CH3)2CHCH2OH). A californium product that was decay enriched in 251Cf was recovered for use in super-heavy element (SHE) research. This neutron-rich isotope, 251Cf, provides target material for SHE research for the potential discovery of heavier isotopes of Z=118. The californium material was recovered from aged 252Cf neutron sources in storage at ORNL. These sources have decayed for over 30 years, thus providing material with a very high 251Cf-to-252Cf ratio. After the source capsules were opened, the californium was purified and then electrodeposited using the isobutanol method onto thin titanium foils for use in an accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Another deposition method, ammonium acetate, was used to produce a deposition containing 1.7 0.1 Ci of 252Cf onto a stainless steel substrate. This was the largest single electrodeposition of 252Cf ever prepared. The 252Cf material was initially purified using traditional ion exchange media, such as AG50-AHIB and AG50-HCl, and further purified using a TEVA-NH4SCN system to remove any lanthanides, resulting in the recovery of 3.6 0.1 mg of purified 252Cf. The ammonium acetate deposition was run with a current of 1.0 amp, resulting in a 91.5% deposition yield. Purification and handling of the highly radioactive californium material created additional challenges in the production of these sources.

  2. Historical Review of Californium-252 Discovery and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed. (PLG)

  3. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial

  4. Teratogenic effect of Californium-252 irradiation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satow, Yukio; Lee, Juing-Yi; Hori, Hiroshi; Okuda, Hiroe; Tsuchimoto, Shigeo; Sawada, Shozo; Yokoro, Kenjiro (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1989-06-01

    The teratogenicity of Californium-252 (Cf-252) irradiation which generates approximately 70% 2.3 MeV fast neutron and 30% gamma rays was evaluated. A single whole body exposure of Cf-252 at various doses was given to pregnant rats on day 8 or 9 of pregnancy, followed by microscopic autopsy of the fetuses at the terminal stage of pregnancy to search for external and internal malformations. For comparison, pregnant rats were irradiated with various doses of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) standard gamma rays at the same dose rate (1 rad/min.). The doses were 20-120 rad of Cf-252 and 80-220 rad of Co-60. Using frequency of radiation induced malformations observed on day 8 of pregnancy as an index, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 2.3-2.7 was obtained from the straight line obtained by modifying by the least squares method the frequency curves of malformed fetuses in total implants and in surviving fetuses. The types of malformations induced by Cf-252 and Co-60 irradiation were alike. Using fetal LD/sub 50/ as an index, 2.4 was obtained as RBE when irradiated on day 8 of pregnancy and 3.1 as that when irradiated on day 9. The results showed that Cf-252 had stronger a teratogenic effect than Co-60 gamma rays. (author).

  5. Apparatus for the measurement of total body nitrogen using prompt neutron activation analysis with californium-252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, A; Hannan, W J; Smith, M A; Tothill, P

    1988-01-01

    Details of clinical apparatus designed for the measurement of total body nitrogen (as an indicator of body protein), suitable for the critically ill, intensive-care patient are presented. Californium-252 radio-isotopic neutron sources are used, enabling a nitrogen measurement by prompt neutron activation analysis to be made in 40 min with a precision of +/- 3.2% for a whole body dose equivalent of 0.145 mSv. The advantages of Californium-252 over alternative neutron sources are discussed. A comparison between two irradiation/detection geometries is made, leading to an explanation of the geometry adopted for the apparatus. The choice of construction and shielding materials to reduce the count rate at the detectors and consequently to reduce the pile-up contribution to the nitrogen background is discussed. Salient features of the gamma ray spectroscopy system to reduce spectral distortion from pulse pile-up are presented.

  6. 48 CFR 246.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 246.710 Contract clauses. (1) Use a... Construction (Germany), instead of the clause at FAR 52.246-21, Warranty of Construction, in solicitations and... Germany....

  7. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture... Participant Benefits § 246.11 Nutrition education. (a) General. (1) Nutrition education shall be considered a benefit of the Program, and shall be made available at no cost to the participant. Nutrition...

  8. 48 CFR 2453.246 - Quality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Quality Assurance. 2453.246 Section 2453.246 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 2453.246 Quality Assurance....

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHR246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHR246 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16475-1 CHR246P (Link to Original site) CHR...246F 145 CHR246Z 524 CHR246P 649 - - Show CHR246 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHR... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHR2-B/CHR246Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHR...246P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHR246 (CHR246Q) /CSM/CH/CHR2-B/CHR2...equences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N AC116957 |AC116957.2 Dictyostelium discoideum chro

  10. Dicty_cDB: SHF246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHF246 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16313-1 SHF246P (Link to Original site) SHF...246F 127 SHF246Z 524 SHF246P 631 - - Show SHF246 Library SH (Link to library) Clone ID SHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SH/SHF2-B/SHF246Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SHF...246P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SHF246 (SHF246Q) /CSM/SH/SHF2-B/SHF2...itsfnwwnypsnhywcits*v*llsnw skmfisqws*nly*tsnhwwysrinywlcwynnwqgyrslhriryr*stfm**isl*krn gmscc*wcsrmftiklqmf

  11. Spontaneous Partitioning of Californium from Curium: Curious Cases from the Crystallization of Curium Coordination Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Samantha K.; Silver, Mark A.; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Jamie C.; Bogart, Justin A.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Arico, Alexandra A.; Hanson, Kenneth; Schelter, Eric J.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2015-12-07

    The reaction of 248CmCl3 with excess 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) under mild solvothermal conditions results in crystallization of the tris-chelate complex Cm(HDPA)3·H2O. Approximately half of the curium remains in solution at the end of this process, and evaporation of the mother liquor results in crystallization of the bis-chelate complex [Cm(HDPA)- (H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O. 248Cm is the daughter of the α decay of 252Cf and is extracted in high purity from this parent. However, trace amounts of 249,250,251Cf are still present in all samples of 248Cm. During the crystallization of Cm(HDPA)3·H2O and [Cm(HDPA)(H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O, californium(III) spontaneously separates itself from the curium complexes and is found doped within crystals of DPA in the form of Cf(HDPA)3. These results add to the growing body of evidence that the chemistry of californium is fundamentally different from that of earlier actinides.

  12. 7 CFR 246.27 - Program information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program information. 246.27 Section 246.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  13. 7 CFR 246.21 - Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investigations. 246.21 Section 246.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  14. Dicty_cDB: AFM246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFM246 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - - (Link to Original site) - - AFM...246Z 559 - - - - Show AFM246 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFM246 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID... - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFM2-B/AFM...246Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFM...246 (AFM246Q) /CSM/AF/AFM2-B/AFM246Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXAGATTAAACAATTCATTCTTGATGAATGTGATACC

  15. Dicty_cDB: SFC246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFC246 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16368-1 SFC246P (Link to Original site) SFC...246F 466 SFC246Z 773 SFC246P 1239 - - Show SFC246 Library SF (Link to library) Clone ID SFC...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SF/SFC2-B/SFC246Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SFC...246P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SFC246 (SFC246Q) /CSM/SF/SFC2-B/SFC...hqplhk*n Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SFC246 (SFC

  16. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  17. Dicty_cDB: AFI246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFI246 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16397-1 AFI246Z (Link... to Original site) - - AFI246Z 528 - - - - Show AFI246 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFI246 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFI2-B/AFI246Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID AFI24...6Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFI246 (AFI246Q) /CSM/AF/AFI2-B/AFI246Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX.../CSM/SF/SFE5-B/SFE526Q.Seq.d/ 1047 0.0 SFC863 (SFC863Q) /CSM/SF/SFC8-C/SFC863Q.Seq.d/ 1047 0.0 CFI296 (CFI296Q) /CSM/CF/CFI2-D/CFI2

  18. 32 CFR 246.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establish and maintain a S&S board of directors to address S&S business operations in their Unified Commands. ... STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS § 246.1 Purpose. This part: (a) Establishes policy... Commands consistent with 32 CFR part 372. (b) Supersedes policies and procedures in 32 CFR part 247...

  19. 40 CFR 246.200 - High-grade paper recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-grade paper recovery. 246.200 Section 246.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES SOURCE... paper recovery....

  20. 40 CFR 246.200-7 - Recommended procedures: Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Transportation. 246.200-7 Section 246.200-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 246.200-7 Recommended procedures: Transportation. Transportation to market may be supplied by...

  1. 48 CFR 52.246-14 - Inspection of Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation. 52.246-14 Section 52.246-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....246-14 Inspection of Transportation. As prescribed in 46.314, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts for freight transportation services (including local drayage) by rail,...

  2. 40 CFR 246.202-5 - Recommended procedures: Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Transportation. 246.202-5 Section 246.202-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 246.202-5 Recommended procedures: Transportation. Transportation to market may be supplied by...

  3. 7 CFR 246.13 - Financial management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management system. 246.13 Section 246.13... State Agency Provisions § 246.13 Financial management system. (a) Disclosure of expenditures. The State agency shall maintain a financial management system which provides accurate, current and...

  4. 42 CFR 24.6 - Pay and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pay and compensation. 24.6 Section 24.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.6 Pay and compensation. The SBRS is an ungraded system, with a single, flexible...

  5. 12 CFR 19.246 - Petition for reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petition for reinstatement. 19.246 Section 19.246 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services § 19.246...

  6. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86.246-94 Section 86.246-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section 1852.246-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause:...

  8. Clinical Report on Californium-252 Neutron Intraluminal Brachytherapy Combined with External Irradiation for Cervical Carcinoma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanyu Zhao; Keming Wang; Jian Sun; Xin Geng; Weiming Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the curative effects and complications of californium-252 (252Cf) neutron intraluminal brachytherapy (IBT) combined with external irradiation (El) for treatment of cervical carcinoma.METHODS From December 2000 to December 2004, 128 cases of cervical carcinoma staged into ⅡA~ⅢB according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) standards were treated with 252Cf neutron IBT using 8~10 Gy per fraction, once a week. The total dose at reference A point was 36~40 Gy in 4~5 fractions. From the second day after 252Cf neutron IBT treatment, the whole pelvic cavity was treated with 60Co γ-ray El, applying 2 Gy per fraction, 4 times per week. After 20~25 Gy of El, the center of the whole pelvic field was blocked with 4 cm of lead in width. The total dose of El was 45~50 Gy.RESULTS The short-term therapeutic effects were CR 95.3% and PR 4.7%. The 3 and 5-year local control rates were 93.5% and 87.9%. The overall 3-year survival rate was 87.5% and for Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ , 90.9%and 81.5% respectively; the overall 5-year survival rate was 70% and for Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ, 76.2% and 61% respectively. The rate of radiation complications was 4.7% for radiation cystitis, 7.8% for radiation proctitis, 6.3%for vagina contracture and adhesion and 5.5% for protracted radiation proctitis.CONCLUSION An combination of 252Cf neutron IBT with El for treatment of cervical carcinoma can be well-tolerated by cervical carcinoma patients. The rate of local tumor control is high and radiation complications are few.

  9. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Rekas, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  10. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252; Estudio de blindaje para fuentes de fision espontanea de Californio-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila R, I

    1991-06-15

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  11. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  12. 7 CFR 246.28 - OMB control numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OMB control numbers. 246.28 Section 246.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  13. Decay study of {sup 246}Fm at SHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhart, M. [Comenius University, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hessberger, F.P.; Ackermann, D.; Heinz, S.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Antalic, S.; Saro, S. [Comenius University, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Gray-Jones, C.; Herzberg, R.D.; Papadakis, P. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Greenlees, P.T.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rostron, D. [Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rudolph, D. [Lund University, Department of Physics, Lund (Sweden); Sulignano, B. [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA/SPhN, Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    The decay chain of {sup 246}Fm has been investigated employing the SHIP separator at GSI Darmstadt. The {sup 246}Fm nuclei were produced via the {sup 40}Ar({sup 208}Pb, 2n){sup 246}Fm fusion-evaporation reaction. Improved values of the half-life, T{sub 1/2} = 1.54(4) s, and of the spontaneous fission branching ratio, b{sub SF} = 0.068(6), of {sup 246}Fm were obtained. The {beta}{sup +} /electron capture branching ratio, b{sub EC} = 0.39(3), of {sup 242}Cf was deduced. Possible structures of high-K states in {sup 246}Fm are discussed within the framework of a model calculation based on the Woods-Saxon potential. (orig.)

  14. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  15. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  16. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev S.; Alessi J.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pardo, R.C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A.

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  17. 7 CFR 246.22 - Administrative appeal of FNS decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 246.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS... Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, 3101 Park Center Drive, Alexandria, Va. 22302, for a hearing or...

  18. 7 CFR 246.6 - Agreements with local agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... nutrition education services to participants, in compliance with § 246.11 and FNS guidelines...

  19. 7 CFR 246.7 - Certification of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 246.7(e)(4); or in Priority VII, if the State agency is using that priority level. (2) Nutritional... homelessness or migrancy. (3) Nutritional risk priorities. In determining nutritional risk, the State agency... those whose nutritional and health status would be least impaired by the action. When a State...

  20. 48 CFR 552.246-77 - Additional Contract Warranty Provisions for Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Warranty Provisions for Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. 552.246-77 Section 552.246-77 Federal Acquisition... a Noncomplex Nature. As prescribed in 546.710(a), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts that include FAR 52.246-17, Warranty of Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. Additional...

  1. 10 CFR 431.246 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.246 Section 431.246 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Unit Heaters Energy Conservation Standards § 431.246...

  2. 40 CFR 246.201-6 - Recommended procedures: Transportation to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Transportation to market. 246.201-6 Section 246.201-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Procedures § 246.201-6 Recommended procedures: Transportation to market. Transportation to market may...

  3. Biological Degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Caballero, Antonio (fl. 1793); Ramos, Juan L.

    2001-01-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are xenobiotics that have found multiple applications in the synthesis of foams, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives. These compounds are toxic and recalcitrant and are degraded relatively slowly in the environment by microorganisms. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the most widely used nitroaromatic compound. Certain strains of Pseudomonas and fungi can use TNT as a nitrogen source through the removal of nitrogen as nitrite from TNT under aerobic conditions and ...

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst was used in the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under the irradiation of the simulated sunlight. The results show that the destruction of TNT is faster and more complete with the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic degradation of TNT follows first order kinet-ics. The transformation of nitryl groups of TNT molecules into nitrite and nitrate ions may be acceler-ated in the presence of the Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst. Compared with that without the catalyst, the concentration of nitrate ions was improved 32.3 times within 2.5 h.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XiuHua; FU YiBei; WANG HeYi; ZHONG ZhiJing; XU YunShu

    2008-01-01

    A Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst was used in the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under the irradiation of the simulated sunlight. The results show that the destruction of TNT is faster and more complete with the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic degradation of TNT follows first order kinetics. The transformation of nitryl groups of TNT molecules into nitrite and nitrate ions may be accelerated in the presence of the Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst. Compared with that without the catalyst, the concentration of nitrate ions was improved 32.3 times within 2.5 h.

  6. 40 CFR 246.200-2 - Recommended procedures: High-grade paper recovery from smaller offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... offices. The recovery of high-grade paper generated by office facilities of less than 100 office workers... paper recovery from smaller offices. 246.200-2 Section 246.200-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES SOURCE SEPARATION FOR MATERIALS RECOVERY GUIDELINES...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... System Personnel Reliability Program. 1852.246-70 Section 1852.246-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Reliability Program. As prescribed in 1846.370(a), insert the following clause: Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program (MAR 1997) (a) In implementation of the Mission Critical Space...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exceed applicable Federal standards, then the Secretary must accept the Indian Tribe/Consortium's proposed standards. The Secretary may accept commonly accepted industry construction standards. ... activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians...

  9. 33 CFR 148.246 - When is a document considered filed and where should I file it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... filed and where should I file it? 148.246 Section 148.246 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Formal Hearings § 148.246 When is a document considered filed and where should I file it? (a) If a document to be filed is submitted by mail, it is considered filed on the date it is postmarked. If...

  10. Feasibility of fluoroelastomer-246B as the substitute of bile duct%氟橡胶246B作为胆管替代物的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 王广义; 刘松阳

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fluoroelastomer-246B has better histocompatibility than polyethylene and polypropylene, which is the same as expanded polytetrafiuoroethylene (ePTFE). Besides, fluoroelastomer-246B has better rigidity than ePTFE, so it is hard to deform.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of fluoroelastomer-246B as a human implant in vivo and a substitute of human bile duct by the test of bile soak, routine sterilized method, and implantation into rat abdominal cavity.DESIGN: A controlled observation.SETTING: First Hospital of Jilin University & Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Supramolecular Structure and Material of Jilin University.MATERIALS: This study was performed at the Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Supramolecular Structure and Material of Jilin University from June 2006 to March 2007. A total of 35 male Wistar rats of clean grade, aged 4-5 weeks,weighing 140-160 g, were provided by Laboratory Animal Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University [Permission No. SCXK (Ji) 2003-0001]. Prior to surgery, the Wistar rats were fasted for 5 hours, but they were allowed to access to water freely. The main materials used in the present study were as follows: fluoroelastomer-246B (Yangzhong Municipal Rubber & Plastics Plant, China), ePTFE(Shanghai Suo-Kang Medical Implants Co.,Ltd., China).METHODS: Rectangular fluoroelastomer-246B thin slices (50 mm×10 mm×0.5 mm) made were placed in a beaker filled with fresh bile, and preserved in a 37 ℃ thermostat container. The tensile strength, thermal decomposition temperature and glass transition temperature of fluoroelastomer-246B were tested after 30 days, and the results were compared to those before soaking to investigate whether the physical-chemical properties of fluoroelastomer-246B slices would change after soaking in the bile environment for a long time. The rectangular fluoroelastomer-246B thin slices made as above were sterilized by boiling method, formaldehyde vapors fumigating

  11. GT160-246, a toxin binding polymer for treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, C B; Cannon, E P; Brezzani, A; Pitruzzello, M; Dinardo, C; Rinard, E; Acheson, D W; Fitzpatrick, R; Kelly, P; Shackett, K; Papoulis, A T; Goddard, P J; Barker, R H; Palace, G P; Klinger, J D

    2001-08-01

    GT160-246, a high-molecular-weight soluble anionic polymer, was tested in vitro and in vivo for neutralization of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B activities. Five milligrams of GT160-246 per ml neutralized toxin-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis in Vero cells induced by 5 ng of toxin A per ml or 1.25 ng of toxin B per ml. In ligated rat ileal loops, 1 mg of GT160-246 neutralized fluid accumulation caused by 5 microg of toxin A. At doses as high as 80 mg/loop, cholestyramine provided incomplete neutralization of fluid accumulation caused by 5 microg of toxin A. GT160-246 protected 80% of the hamsters from mortality caused by infection with C. difficile, whereas cholestyramine protected only 10% of animals. Treatment of C. difficile-infected hamsters with metronidazole initially protected 100% of the hamsters from mortality, but upon removal of treatment, 80% of the hamsters had relapses and died. In contrast, removal of GT160-246 treatment did not result in disease relapse in the hamsters. GT160-246 showed no antimicrobial activity in tests with a panel of 16 aerobic bacteria and yeast and 22 anaerobic bacteria and did not interfere with the in vitro activities of most antibiotics. GT160-246 offers a novel, nonantimicrobial treatment of C. difficile disease in humans.

  12. Role of UV photolysis in accelerating the biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbing; Kirumba, George; Zhang, Yongming; Wu, Yanqing; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-09-18

    2,4,6-TCP, a kind of chlorinated aromatic and aliphatic compound, is difficult to be biodegraded by ordinary microorganisms. UV photolysis and biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens intimate coupling is a potential means to accelerate its biotransformation. The initial steps of 2,4,6-TCP biodegradation involve mono-oxygenation reactions that have molecular oxygen and an intracellular electron carrier as cosubstrates. It was demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens has the 2,4,6-TCP monooxygenase gene tcpA which could encode 2,4,6-TCP monooxygenase (TCP-MO). TCP-MO would catalytically decompose 2,4,6-TCP into 2,6-DCHQ. We employed an internal loop photolytic biofilm reactor for 2,4,6-TCP degradation. Sequentially coupled photolysis and biodegradation experimental results suggested that 2,4,6-TCP removal rate in P + B (TCP(UV) + phenol) protocol was higher by 77 and 103 % when compared to B (TCP + phenol) and B (TCP-only) protocols respectively. The corresponding loss rate coefficient (k) values were 0.069, 0.039, 0.034 mg/L·min(-1) respectively. This is because UV photolysis converted 2,4,6-TCP into its intermediates: 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 4-monochlorophenol (4-MCP), phenol, 2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone (2,6-DCHQ), with all displaying less inhibition to bacterial action. In addition, phenol was the crucial UV-photolysis product from 2,4,6-TCP, its catabolic oxidation generating internal electron carriers that may accelerate the initial steps of 2,4,6-TCP biodegradation. Intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation experimental results suggested that 2,4,6-TCP removal rate in P&B (TCP + phenol) protocol was higher by 166 and 681 % when compared to P&B (TCP-only) and P + B protocols respectively. The corresponding loss rate coefficient (k) values were 0.539, 0.203, 0.069 mg/L·min(-1) respectively. It provided sufficient evidence to demonstrate that intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation accelerated 2,4,6-TCP

  13. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol in human placental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, Christopher; Butt, Craig M; Hoffman, Kate; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-03-01

    Legacy environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely detected in human tissues. However, few studies have measured PBDEs in placental tissues, and there are no reported measurements of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) in placental tissues. Measurements of these contaminants are important for understanding potential fetal exposures, as these compounds have been shown to alter thyroid hormone regulation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we measured a suite of PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP in 102 human placental tissues collected between 2010 and 2011 in Durham County, North Carolina, USA. The most abundant PBDE congener detected was BDE-47, with a mean concentration of 5.09ng/g lipid (range: 0.12-141ng/g lipid; detection frequency 91%); however, 2,4,6-TBP was ubiquitously detected and present at higher concentrations with a mean concentration of 15.4ng/g lipid (range:1.31-316ng/g lipid; detection frequency 100%). BDE-209 was also detected in more than 50% of the samples, and was significantly associated with 2,4,6-TBP in placental tissues, suggesting they may have a similar source, or that 2,4,6-TBP may be a degradation product of BDE-209. Interestingly, BDE-209 and 2,4,6-TBP were negatively associated with age (rs=-0.16; p=0.10 and rs=-0.17; p=0.08, respectively). The results of this work indicate that PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP bioaccumulate in human placenta tissue and likely contribute to prenatal exposures to these environmental contaminants. Future studies are needed to determine if these joint exposures are associated with any adverse health measures in infants and children.

  14. Pathway of the ozonation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PI Yunzheng; WANG Jianlong

    2007-01-01

    The reaction mechanism and pathway of the ozonation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol(2,4,6-TCP)in aqueous solution were investigated.The removal efficiency and the variation of H2O2,Cl-,formic acid,and oxalic acid were studied during the semi-batch ozonation experiments(continuous for ozone gas supply,fixed volume of water sample).The results showed that when there was no scavenger,the removal efficiency of 0.1 mmol/L 2,4,6-TCP could reach 99% within 6 min by adding 24 mg/L ozone.The reaction of molecular ozone with 1 2,4,6-TCP resulted in the formation of H2O2.The maximal concentration of H2O2 detected during the ozonation could reach 22.5% of the original concentration of 2,4,6-TCP.The reaction of ozone with H2O2 resulted in the molecule firstly degraded 2,4,6-TCP to form chlorinated quinone,which was subsequently oxidized to formic acid and oxalic acid.Two reaction pathways of the degradation of 2,4,6-TCP by ozone and O2/OH·were proposed in this study.

  15. Biological degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Núñez, A; Caballero, A; Ramos, J L

    2001-09-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are xenobiotics that have found multiple applications in the synthesis of foams, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives. These compounds are toxic and recalcitrant and are degraded relatively slowly in the environment by microorganisms. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the most widely used nitroaromatic compound. Certain strains of Pseudomonas and fungi can use TNT as a nitrogen source through the removal of nitrogen as nitrite from TNT under aerobic conditions and the further reduction of the released nitrite to ammonium, which is incorporated into carbon skeletons. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other fungi mineralize TNT under ligninolytic conditions by converting it into reduced TNT intermediates, which are excreted to the external milieu, where they are substrates for ligninolytic enzymes. Most if not all aerobic microorganisms reduce TNT to the corresponding amino derivatives via the formation of nitroso and hydroxylamine intermediates. Condensation of the latter compounds yields highly recalcitrant azoxytetranitrotoluenes. Anaerobic microorganisms can also degrade TNT through different pathways. One pathway, found in Desulfovibrio and Clostridium, involves reduction of TNT to triaminotoluene; subsequent steps are still not known. Some Clostridium species may reduce TNT to hydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes, which are then further metabolized. Another pathway has been described in Pseudomonas sp. strain JLR11 and involves nitrite release and further reduction to ammonium, with almost 85% of the N-TNT incorporated as organic N in the cells. It was recently reported that in this strain TNT can serve as a final electron acceptor in respiratory chains and that the reduction of TNT is coupled to ATP synthesis. In this review we also discuss a number of biotechnological applications of bacteria and fungi, including slurry reactors, composting, and land farming, to remove TNT from polluted soils. These treatments have been designed to achieve

  16. Functions of Flavin Reductase and Quinone Reductase in 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Degradation by Cupriavidus necator JMP134▿

    OpenAIRE

    Belchik, Sara Mae; Xun, Luying

    2007-01-01

    The tcpRXABCYD operon of Cupriavidus necator JMP134 is involved in the degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a toxic pollutant. TcpA is a reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2)-dependent monooxygenase that converts 2,4,6-TCP to 6-chlorohydroxyquinone. It has been implied via genetic analysis that TcpX acts as an FAD reductase to supply TcpA with FADH2, whereas the function of TcpB in 2,4,6-TCP degradation is still unclear. In order to provide direct biochemical evidence for t...

  17. Limits to the Magnetic Field in the Planetary Nebula NGC 246 from Faraday Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L. F.; Carrasco-González, C.; Cantó, J.; Pasetto, A.; Raga, A. C.; Tafoya, D.

    2017-04-01

    We present radio continuum observations of the linearly polarized extragalactic source J0047-1150, whose line of sight traverses the galactic planetary nebula NGC 246. We determine the position angle of the electric vector at seven frequencies between 1.3 and 1.8 GHz, finding no evidence of Faraday rotation and setting a 4-σ upper limit to the rotation measure of 9.6 rad m-2, which implies an upper limit to the average line-of-sight component of the magnetic field in NGC 246 of 1.3 μG. However, we show that the rotation measure across a source with a dipolar magnetic field morphology practically cancels out. Therefore, if the magnetic field has this morphology, the local values of the magnetic field in NGC 246 could be much larger and will not be evident in a Faraday rotation experiment.

  18. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  19. 48 CFR 52.246-19 - Warranty of Systems and Equipment under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Equipment under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria. 52.246-19 Section 52.246-19 Federal... under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria. As prescribed in 46.710(c)(1), the contracting officer may insert a clause substantially as follows: Warranty of Systems and Equipment Under...

  20. 30 CFR 250.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information... Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.246 What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following mineral resource conservation information, as applicable, must accompany...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuity. They shall be the best qualified personnel available in business-related disciplines. Members... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App..., and recommend guidance to its Commander-in-Chief (CINC) on all business operations. Attendance is...

  2. Complete dissipation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by in-vessel composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumuscu, Burcu; Cekmecelioglu, Deniz; Tekinay, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate complete removal of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in 15 days using an in-vessel composting system, which is amended with TNT-degrading bacteria strains. A mixture of TNT, food waste, manure, wood chips, soil and TNT-degrading bacteria consortium are co-composted for 15 days in an aerobi

  3. 7 CFR 246.18 - Administrative review of State agency actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... competitive price (§ 246.12(g)(4)); (C) The application of the State agency's vendor peer group criteria and... not limited to, vendor peer group criteria and the criteria used to identify vendors that are above-50... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative review of State agency actions....

  4. 8 CFR 246.4 - Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS RESCISSION OF ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS § 246.4 Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution. In any proceeding conducted under this part, the immigration judge shall...

  5. SAGE ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTOME RESPONSES IN ARABIDOPSIS ROOTS EXPOSED TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was used to profile transcript levels in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and assess their responses to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposure. SAGE libraries representing control and TNT-exposed seedling root transcripts were constructed, and ea...

  6. 28 CFR 2.46 - Execution of warrant and service of summons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.46 Execution of warrant and service of summons. (a) Any officer of any Federal correctional... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Execution of warrant and service...

  7. Levan-type fructooligosaccharide production using Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 levansucrase Y246S immobilized on chitosan beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surawut Sangmanee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 levansucrase Y246S (LsRN-Y246S was immobilized by covalently linking onto chitosan, Sepabead EC-EP, and Sepabead EC-HFA, beads. The stability of immobilized LsRN-Y246S was found to be the highest with chitosan beads, retaining more than 70% activity after 13 weeks storage at 4 oC, and 68% activity after 12 hours incubation at 40°C. LsRN-Y246S immobilized on chitosan beads withstands sucrose concentrations up to 70% (w/v, retaining over 85% of its activity, significantly better than LsRN-Y246S immobilized on others supporting matrices. LsRN-Y246S immobilized on chitosan showed a 2.4 fold increase in activity in the presence of Mn2+, and gave slight protection against deactivation by of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, SDS and EDTA. A maximum of 8.36 g and an average of 7.35 g LFOS yield at least up to DP 11 can be produced from 25 g of sucrose, during five production cycles. We have demonstrated that LFOS can be effectively produced by chitosan immobilized LsRN-Y246S and purified.

  8. A facile synthesis of 2,4,6-trichloroborazine from boron trichloride-dimethylsulfide complex and ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2,4,6-Trichloroborazine has been recognized as a desirable monomer for the preparation of high-performance boron nitride fibers through polymer derived ceramics route.So a high yield and facile synthesis of 2,4,6-trichloroborazine is essential in practice. Using boron trichloride-dimethylsulfide complex((CH_3)_2S·BCl_3) and ammonium chloride(NH_4Cl) as starting materials and toluene(C_6H_5CH_3) as solvent,the synthesis of 2,4,6-trichloroborazine to give high yield is reported.

  9. Synthesis and structure of diorganotin dibromides, R2SnBr2 (R = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl or 2,4,6-trimethylbenzyl): Hydrolysis of (2,4,6-Me3C6H2)2SnBr2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vadapalli Chandrasekhar; Ramalingam Thirumoorthi

    2010-09-01

    The reaction of SnBr4 with in situ generated 2,4,6-trimethylphenylmagnesium bromide afforded a mixture of (2,4,6-Me3C6H2)2SnBr2 (1) and (2,4,6-Me3C6H2)3SnBr (2) which could be separated from each other by their solubility differences in diethyl ether. On the other hand, the reaction of tin metal with 2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2Br afforded (2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2)2SnBr2 (3). Hydrolysis of the latter using triethylamine as the base afforded [{(2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2)2Sn}2(-O)(Br)(-OH)]2.2CH2Cl2 (4) while the use of NaOH as the base afforded [{(2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2)2Sn}2(-O)(OH)(-OH)]2.2CH2Cl2 (5). Compounds 4 and 5 are dimeric tetraorganodistannoxanes consisting of a central distannoxane (Sn2O2) motif.

  10. catena-Poly[[dipyridinemercury(II]-μ-5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjing Jiang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of mercury(II chloride with 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid in pyridine solution leads to the formation of the title compound, [Hg(C8H2I3NO4(C5H5N2]n. The structure contains a four-coordinate Hg2+ ion in a distorted tetrahedral geometry, which lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. The Hg2+ ion is bonded to two N atoms from two pyridine ligands and two carboxylate O atoms from two 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalate anions. The two carboxylate groups of individual 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalate anions act as a bridge to the Hg centers. This anion also resides on a twofold axis, which passes through the amino N and the trans standing I atoms. The Hg—O distance is 2.337 (6 and the Hg—N distance is 2.244 (8 Å.

  11. Occurrence of earthy and musty odor compounds (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole) in biologically treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urase, T; Sasaki, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of earthy and musty odor compounds (2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), geosmin and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA)) in treated wastewater were measured. Concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA (4.3-37.7 ng/L) and geosmin (3.7-42.2 ng/L) higher than their odor thresholds were detected for effluents from large-scale treatment plants. The effluent from a small-scale wastewater plant treating toilet and kitchen wastewater contained the target earthy and musty odor compounds below the odor thresholds. The ozonation applied as an advanced wastewater treatment process was considerably more effective for the removal of 2,4,6-TCA than for the removal of 2-MIB and geosmin. The measured concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA in river environments without the influence of large-scale wastewater effluents were less than the odor threshold.

  12. Analysis of 2,4,6-nonatrienal geometrical isomers from male flea beetles, Epitrix hirtipennis and E. fuscula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkowski, Bruce W; Bartelt, Robert J; Vermillion, Karl

    2008-07-09

    Geometrical isomers of 2,4,6-nonatrienal have been reported from a variety of food- and insect-related sources. It was discovered recently that the eggplant flea beetle, Epitrix fuscula, uses the (2 E,4 E,6 Z) and (2 E,4 E,6 E) isomers as components of its male-produced aggregation pheromone. Here, we learned that the related species, E. hirtipennis, also emits a blend of 2,4,6-nonatrienals, including isomers not previously characterized. Patterns in emission and response suggest a pheromonal function. In an effort to acquire standards to aid in identification, we found that exposing (2 E,4 E,6 E)-2,4,6-nonatrienal (or other available 2,4,6-nonatrienals) to light readily generated a mixture of six geometrical isomers. Configurations of these were determined by NMR, and chromatographic properties (GC and HPLC) were documented. On the basis of chromatographic comparison to these standards, the most abundant, new compound from E. hirtipennis was concluded to be (2 E,4 Z,6 Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal. Minor components from both E. hirtipennis and E. fuscula were also characterized. The analytical approach given here would also be of use in the food industry, where 2,4,6-nonatrienals are important as aroma compounds.

  13. Clinical analysis of 246 patients with tuberculous meningitis%结核性脑膜炎246例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏; 尹良胜; 李锋; 刘健仁

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the clinical and laboratory features of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Methods The clinical and laboratory data from 246 cases of TBM in Tuberculosis Treatment Center of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital of Zhejiang Province from January 1,1999 to December 31,2005 were collected and analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software. Results In 246 TBM patients,203(82.5%)was of basilar meningitis, 170(69. 1%)complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Fever,nausea, vomiting and headache were common symptoms in TBM patients. PPD skin tests were positive in 155(63.0%)patients, but only 12(4.9%)were acid-fast bacillus smear-positive in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF test showed that the white blood cells[(320 - 880)× 106/L], protein(0. 95 - 13.8 g/L)were increased, while glucose(1.53 - 3.2 mmol/L)and chloride content(90 - 111 mmol/L)were decreased. Adenosine deaminase ≥8 U/L was observed in 230(93.5%)patients, and 185(75.2%)patients were tuberculosis antibody positive. Eighty-one(32. 9%)patients showed nodular or annular shadows in cranial CT. After comprehensive therapy, 242(98.4%)patients recovered or improved and no sequela was observed, while 4(1.6%)patients died. Conclusion Early diagnosis of TBM should be based on clinical manifestations, changes of cerebrospinal fluid, imaging examination and PPD test.%目的 分析结核性脑膜炎(tuberculous meningitis,TBM)患者的临床特征及实验室检查特点,提高TBM早期诊断和治疗水平.方法 回顾分析1999年1月1日-2005年12月31日浙江省中西医结合医院结核病治疗中心收治的246例TBM患者的临床及实验室资料,应用SPSS 15.0软件进行统计分析.结果 246例TBM患者中,203例(82.5%)为颅底脑膜炎型,170例(69.1%)患者合并肺结核,临床症状以发热、恶心呕吐、头痛为主.155例(63.0%)患者结核菌素(PPD)试验阳性,仅12例(4.9%)患者脑脊髓液涂片抗酸杆菌阳性.脑脊髓液检查白细胞升高[(320~880)×106/L],

  14. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  15. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  16. Isopropyl 2-(4,6-dimethyl-3-methylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecules of title compound, C16H20O4S, which was synthesized by the oxidation of isopropyl 2-(4,6-dimethyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate, interact through C—H...π interactions between a methylene H atom and the aromatic carbon ring of the benzofuran ring system, and by C—H...O hydrogen bonds. Adjacent stacked molecules exhibit a carbonyl–carbonyl interaction [3.295 (2 Å]. The O atom of the methylsulfinyl group is disordered over two positions with site-occupancy factors of 0.9 and 0.1.

  17. Toxicity and mutagenicity of 2,4,-6-trinitrotoluene and its microbial metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, W D; DiSalvo, L H; Ng, J

    1976-04-01

    TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) of explosive grade is highly toxic to marine forms that included fresh water unicellular green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), tidepool copepods (Tigriopus californicus), and oyster larvae (Crassostrea gigas), and mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium. On the basis of mutagenic assays carried out with a set of histidine-requiring strains of the bacterium, TNT was detected as a frameshift mutagen that significantly accelerates the reversion rate of a frameshift tester, TA-98. In contrast, the major microbial metabolites of TNT appeared to be nontoxic and nonmutagenic.

  18. Methyl 2-(4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylaminoacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M. F. Vilela

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H6Cl2N4O2, was prepared by the nucleophilic substitution of 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine by glycine methyl ester hydrochloride, and was isolated from the reaction by using flash chromatography. The crystal structure at 150 K reveals the presence two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit which differ in the orientation of the pendant methoxycarbonyl group. Each molecular unit is engaged in strong and highly directional N—H...N hydrogen-bonding interactions with a symmetry-related molecule, forming supramolecular dimers which act as the synthons in the crystal packing.

  19. 2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine-1,3-diium aquapentafluoridoaluminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maisonneuve

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C3H8N6[AlF5(H2O], was obtained by solvothermal synthesis from the reaction of aluminium hydroxide, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (melamine, aqueous HF and water at 323 K for 48 h. The structure consists of [AlF5(H2O]2− octahedra and diprotonated melaminium cations. Cohesion is ensured by a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds.

  20. Synthesis of 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5- trinitrobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TATB is perhaps the most thermostable and insensitive explosive known. Its low sensibility to shock makes it suitable for military and civil applications. TATB application is done either alone or in combination with another high energetic material. This study aimed at reporting the review about many processes to produce TATB and the problems associated with them, as well as suggest techniques like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, which can be useful in the characterization of this energetic compound.

  1. Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Lead 2,4,6-Trinitroresorcinate Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Rong-zu; YAO Pu; LI Jing; CHEN San-ping; GAO Sheng-li; ZHAO Feng-qi; SONG Ji-rong; SHI Qi-zhen; CHEN Pei; LUO Yang; ZHAO Hong-an

    2004-01-01

    The non-isothermal decomposition of lead 2,4,6-trinitroresorcinate monohydrate, Pb (TNR) · H2O. was investigated by means of TG-DTA, DSC and IR. The thermal decomposition mechanism and the dissociated kinetics were also investigated. The kinetic parameters were obtained from the analysis of the DSC curves by integral and differential methods. The most probable kinetic model function of the dehydration reaction of Pb(TNR) · H2O was suggested by the comparison of the kinetic parameters.

  2. Fermi LAT Detection of a Gamma-ray Flare from the BL Lac Object ON 246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Josefa

    2015-06-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object ON 246 (RA=187.55871 deg, Dec=25.30198 deg, J2000, Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13; with redshift z=0.135, Nass et al. 1996, A&A, 309, 419), also known as S3 1227+25 and 3FGL J1230.3+2519 (3FGL; Acero et al. 2015, arXiv:1501.02003).

  3. Synthesis, loading control and applications of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrilium as a solar photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercher Perez, Rosa

    2005-07-01

    The technologies or processes of oxidation outpost that uses like energy the solar radiation for the degradation of polluting agents, suppose a novel alternative with important economic and environmental advantages. A proof of it has been the spectacular development which they have been these applications at world-wide level in the last years old, as well as the interest that the subject in international the scientific community has provoked. 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio by its singularity in this field has been chosen for this thesis the cation. It has been left from a study about the fotocatalitica activity of this cation, from the salt of hidrogenosulfato 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio and of the salt of tetrafluorborato 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio, when they act in homogenous phase on polluting agents, derivatives of dissolved fenolicos compounds in residual coming from the industry. In the first stage of the study I confirm the degradativo power of this cation but nevertheless a series of disadvantages in homogena phase was detected, had to the chemical characteristics of this organic species: hidrolitica opening of the ring and impossibility of reusability. With the purpose of correcting these problems it has been investigated and developed different methods from synthesis, in which this cation is supported in inorganic materials, concretely: silica gel, zeolites and sepiolitas. It has been come to the study, of individual form, the parameters that influence of significant form in the yield of the different processes and also has been verified the fotocatalitica activity of the new synthesized materials. In the developed methods it has been managed to totally control the amount of cation supported in the chosen materials and of this form to be able to know the effectiveness his activity like fotocatalizador in heterogenous phase. It is possible to emphasize, that the proposed procedures of synthesis, are quite simple and fast in his execution. The made studies have been carried

  4. Treatment of Vaccinia and Cowpox Virus Infections in Mice with CMX001 and ST-246

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl R. Kern

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although a large number of compounds have been identified with antiviral activity against orthopoxviruses in tissue culture systems, it is highly preferred that these compounds have activity in vivo before they can be seriously considered for further development. One of the most commonly used animal models for the confirmation of this activity has been the use of mice infected with either vaccinia or cowpox viruses. These model systems have the advantage that they are relatively inexpensive, readily available and do not require any special containment facilities; therefore, relatively large numbers of compounds can be evaluated in vivo for their activity. The two antiviral agents that have progressed from preclinical studies to human safety trials for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections are the cidofovir analog, CMX001, and an inhibitor of extracellular virus formation, ST-246. These compounds are the ones most likely to be used in the event of a bioterror attack. The purpose of this communication is to review the advantages and disadvantages of using mice infected with vaccinia and cowpox virus as surrogate models for human orthopoxvirus infections and to summarize the activity of CMX001 and ST-246 in these model infections.

  5. Visual detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotolune by molecularly imprinted colloidal array photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Asher, Sanford A; Meng, Zihui; Yan, Zequn; Xue, Min; Qiu, Lili; Yi, Da

    2016-10-05

    We developed a photonic crystal (PhC) sensor for the quantification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in solution. Monodisperse (210nm in diameter) molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for TNT were prepared by the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide in the presence of TNT as a template. The MICs were then self-assembled into close-packed opal PhC films. The adsorption capacity of the MICs for TNT was 64mg TNT/g. The diffraction from the PhC depended on the TNT concentration in a methanol/water (3/2, v/v) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.0, 30mM). The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 1.03μg. The color of the molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) changed from green to red with an 84nm diffraction red shift when the TNT concentration increased to 20mM. The sensor response time was 3min. The PhC sensor was selective for TNT compared to similar compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitromesitylene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, methylbenzene, 4-nitrophenol, 2-nitroaniline, 3-aminophenol and 3-nitroaniline. The sensor showed high stability with little response change after three years storage. This sensor technology might be useful for the visual determination of TNT.

  6. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivella, M Àngels; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Oliveras, Anna; Jové, Patrícia

    2012-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants. During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods (9-12 years). Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal. In addition, the concentrations of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) were also analyzed. Our results show only very low concentrations of lindane, γ-HCH (cork sample from Extremadura (0.1 ng g(-1)) and p,p'-DDE was present at a maximum concentration of 2.9 ng g(-1) in a cork sample from Castile-La Mancha. However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 (10 ng g(-1) in foodstuffs). We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards.

  7. Meisenheimer complex between 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and its use for a paper-based sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle Hughes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT forms a red-colored Meisenheimer complex with 3-aminopropyltrienthoxysilane (APTES both in solution and on solid phase. The TNT–APTES complex is unique since it forms yellow-colored complexes with 2,4,6-trinitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol, and no complex with 2,4-dinitrotoluene. The absorption spectrum of TNT–APTES has two absorption bands at 530 and 650 nm, while APTES complexes with 2,4,6-trinitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol have absorption maxima at around 420 nm, and no absorption change for 2,4-dinitrotoluene. The TNT–APTES complex facilitates the exchange of the TNT-CH3 proton/deuteron with solvent molecules. The red color of TNT–APTES is immediately visible at 1 μM of TNT.

  8. 2-Carboxyquinolinium–2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonate–quinolinium-2-carboxylate (1/1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title adduct compound, C10H8NO2+·C6H2N3O9S−·C10H7NO2, from the reaction of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (picrylsulfonic acid with quinoline-2-carboxylic acid (quinaldic acid in 2-propanol–water, has been determined at 130 (2 K. The cation and the adduct species form a twisted cyclic hydrogen-bonded R22(10 pseudo-dimer which is extended into a one-dimensional chain structure through short head-to-tail carboxylic acid O—H...Ocarboxyl associations [O...O = 2.4711 (19 Å]. The picrylsulfonate anions are attached peripherally by single N—H...Osulfonate hydrogen bonds [N...O = 2.8643 (19 Å].

  9. A Versatile Synthesis of 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R; Pagoria, P F; Schmidt, R D; Coburn, M D; Lee, G S; Hsu, P C

    2006-04-06

    A safe and versatile synthesis of high-purity 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) based on vicarious nucleophilic substitution (VNS) chemistry has now been achieved. The starting material can be selected from a variety of inexpensive nitroarenes obtained from commercial suppliers (4-nitroaniline, picric acid) or U.S. stockpiles (ammonium picrate, TNT). The use of picric acid and ammonium picrate (Explosive D) is preferred as both compounds are directly converted to picramide in the presence of ammonium salts (diammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium carbamate) in sulfolane at elevated temperature. The picramide resulting from this process is directly converted to TATB using an optimized VNS reaction employing inexpensive hydroxylamine as the nucleophilic aminating reagent. A crucial element in our synthesis is a novel and efficient purification of TATB.

  10. Creativity and inductive reasoning: the relationship between divergent thinking and performance on Wasons 246 task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Martindale, Colin; Kwiatkowski, Jonna

    2003-05-01

    This study was an investigation of the relationship between potential creativityas measured by fluency scores on the Alternate Uses Testand performance on Wasons 246 task. As hypothesized, participants who were successful in discovering the rule had significantly higher fluency scores. Successful participants also generated higher frequencies of confirmatory and disconfirmatory hypotheses, but a multiple regression analysis using the stepwise method revealed that the frequency of generating disconfirmatory hypotheses and fluency scores were the only two significant factors in task outcome. The results also supported earlier studies where disconfirmation was shown to play a more important role in the later stages of hypothesis testing. This was especially true of successful participants, who employed a higher frequency of disconfirmatory hypotheses after receiving feedback on the first announcement. These results imply that successful participants benefited from the provision of feedback on the first announcement by switching to a more successful strategy in the hypothesis-testing sequence.

  11. Reliability of optical fibres and components final report of COST 246

    CERN Document Server

    Griffioen, Willem; Gadonna, Michel; Limberger, Hans; Heens, Bernard; Knuuttila, Hanna; Kurkjian, Charles; Mirza, Shehzad; Opacic, Aleksandar; Regio, Paola; Semjonov, Sergei

    1999-01-01

    Reliability of Optical Fibres and Components reports the findings of COST 246 (1993-1998) - European research initiative in the field of optical telecommunications. Experts in the materials and reliability field of optical fibres and components have contributed to this unique study programme. The results, conclusions and achievements of their work have been obtained through joint experimentation and discussion with representatives from manufacturing and research groups. Topics covered include: Lifetime estimation; Failure mechanisms; Ageing test methods; Field data and service environments for components. For the first time the reader can explore the reliability of products and examine the results and conclusions in published form. This comprehensive volume is intended to provide a deeper understanding of the reliability of optical fibres and components. The book will be extremely useful to all scientists and practitioners involved in the industry.

  12. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Shakya, Kabindra M; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-07-01

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mgg(-1)), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (pvetiver grass.

  13. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass--potential for phytoremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Shakya, Kabindra M; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-03-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNTL(-1) for 8d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit ( approximately 1 microg L(-1)) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils.

  14. Oral exposure of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 2,4,6-tribromophenol affects reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halden, Anna Norman; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Andersson, Patrik L;

    2010-01-01

    was not significantly affected, but yolk-sac oedema tended to increase in frequency in exposed groups with time. Our results show that dietary exposure to TBP, at concentrations found in marine organisms that are part of the natural diet of wild fish, can interfere with reproduction in zebrafish. We also observed low......The bromophenol 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) is widely used as an industrial chemical, formed by degradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A, and it occurs naturally in marine organisms. Concentrations of TBP in fish have been related to intake via feed, but little is known about effects on fish health...... after oral exposure. In this study, we exposed adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) to TBP via feed in nominal concentrations of 33, 330, and 3300 mu g/g feed (or control feed) for 6 weeks to assess the effects of TBP on reproductive output, gonad morphology, circulatory vitellogenin levels...

  15. Crystal structure of [2-(triethylammonioethyl][(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylsulfonyl]amide tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Golz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The zwitterionic title compound, C23H42N2O2S·4H2O, crystallized as a tetrahydrate from a solution of N-[(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylsulfonyl]aziridine in triethylamine, diethyl ether and pentane in the presence of moist air. It is formed by a nucleophillic ring-opening that is assumed to be reversible. The molecular structure shows a major disorder of the triisopropylphenyl group over two equally occupied locations. An interesting feature is the uncommon hydrate structure, exhibiting a tape-like motif which can be classified as a transition of the one-dimensional T4(26(2 motif into the two-dimensional L4(65(76(8 motif.

  16. 2,4,6-三氯酚分子印迹光子晶体水凝胶传感器的研究%Molecularly Imprinted Photonic Crystal Hydrogel Sensor for Detection of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛亚峰; 刘根起; 高敏君; 陈小娟; 范晓东

    2016-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted photonic crystal hydrogel sensor was developed with 2 ,4 ,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) as imprinting molecule, methanol as solvent, methacrylic acid as monomers and ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate as cross-linkers. The three-dimension silica colloidal crystal template was removed by 1% HF (V/V) and molecularly imprinted template was removed by 0. 015 mol/L NaOH. The results showed that the maximum absorption peak red-shifted 31 nm when the concentration of 2 , 4 , 6-TCP changed from 0 to 6í10-4 mol/L. Then, with further increasing 2,4,6-TCP concentration, the maximum absorption peak began to blue-shift. When the concentration of 2,4,6-TCP changed to 1í10-3 mol/L, the maximum absorption peak blue-shifted 56 nm and the response time was just 30 min. This molecularly imprinted photonic crystal hydrogel sensor showed high sensitivity, high selectivity and easy operation, and was applied for the naked-eye detection of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.%以SiO2三维光子晶体为模板,2,4,6-三氯酚为印迹分子,甲醇为溶剂,甲基丙烯酸为功能单体,乙二醇二甲基丙烯酸甲酯为交联剂,通过紫外光引发聚合,在2%氢氟酸溶液中去除光子晶体模板,0.015 mol/L NaOH溶液中洗脱印迹分子,制得2,4,6-三氯酚检测用分子印迹光子晶体水凝胶传感器。结果表明,传感器对2,4,6-三氯酚具有良好的响应与识别能力,在2,4,6-三氯酚浓度由0增加到6×10-4 mol/L过程中,吸收峰红移31 nm;浓度继续增加,吸收峰开始发生蓝移;当浓度增加到1×10-3 mol/L时,吸收峰蓝移56 nm,响应时间仅需要30 min。2,4,6-三氯酚分子印迹光子晶体水凝胶传感器具有高灵敏、高选择、易操作等优点,可实现对2,4,6-三氯酚的裸眼检测。

  17. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE IN A CONTINUOUS-FLOW ANABAENA SP. SYSTEM. (R825513C013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reductive transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was observed in a continuous-flow system of Anabaena sp. operated for 33 d with a 5.7 d hydraulic retention time and a range of influent TNT concentrations of 1–58 mg/l. The TNT removal effici...

  18. 78 FR 42451 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt From... color additive regulations in Sec. Sec. 73.3100 and 73.3106 (21 CFR 73.3100 and 73.3106), respectively... Blue 246), as color additives in contact lenses. We also corrected the nomenclature for Reactive...

  19. Cyclic voltammetry: a tool to quantify 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in aqueous samples from cork planks boiling industrial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, António M; Freitas, Patrícia; Dias, Luís G; Sousa, Mara E B C; Castro, Luís M; Veloso, Ana C A

    2013-12-15

    Chloroanisoles, namely 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, are pointed out as the primary responsible of the development of musty off-flavours in bottled wine, due to their migration from cork stoppers, which results in huge economical losses for wine industry. A prevention step is the detection of these compounds in cork planks before stoppers are produced. Mass spectrometry gas chromatography is the reference method used although it is far beyond economical possibilities of the majority of cork stoppers producers. In this work, a portable cyclic voltammetry approach was used to detect 2,4,6-trichloroanisole extracted from natural cork planks to the aqueous phase during the cork boiling industrial treatment process. Analyses were carried out under ambient conditions, in less than 15 min with a low use of solvent and without any sample pre-treatment. The proposed technique had detection (0.31±0.01 ng/L) and quantification (0.95±0.05 ng/L) limits lower than the human threshold detection level. For blank solutions, without 2,4,6-trichloroanisole addition, a concentration in the order of the quantification limit was estimated (1.0±0.2 ng/L), which confirms the satisfactory performance of the proposed methodology. For aqueous samples from the industrial cork planks boiling procedure, intra-day repeatabilities were lower than 3%, respectively. Also, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole contents in the aqueous samples determined by this novel approach were in good agreement with those obtained by GC-MS (correlation coefficient equal to 0.98), confirming the satisfactory accuracy of the proposed methodology. So, since this novel approach is a fast, low-cost, portable and user-friendly method, it can be an alternative and helpful tool for in-situ industrial applications, allowing accurate detection of releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in an earlier phase of cork stoppers production, which may allow implementing more effective cork treatments to reduce or avoid future 2,4,6-trichloroanisole

  20. Susceptibility of male and female Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol-induced micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nannan LIU; Mei MA; Yiping XU; Jinmiao ZHA; Kaifeng RAO; Zijian WANG

    2013-01-01

    2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) is a wide- spread probable human carcinogen and has been proven to have genotoxicity in in vitro assays. However, little genotoxicity information and no micronuclei induction data for 2,4,6-TCP is available from in vivo tests, especially for sex-specific differences. Following a preliminary test, a piscine peripheral erythrocyte micro- nucleus assay was conducted on medaka (Oryzias latipes) after a 28-day exposure to 2,4,6-TCE In the present study, the mean micronuclei (MNC) frequencies of all of the groups increased in a dose-dependent manner, which indicated the potential genotoxicity of 2,4,6-TCE More- over, males were found to be more susceptible compared with females after a 28-day exposure to 2,4,6-TCP in all of the dosed groups above 10 ~tg-L-1. This is the first report on the potential of micronuclei induction and a sex-susceptible effect in the peripheral erythrocytes of mature fish after 2,4,6-TCP in vivo exposure.

  1. HIP 3678: a hierarchical triple stellar system in the centre of the planetary nebula NGC 246

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of a new low-mass stellar companion to the white dwarf HIP 3678 A, the central star of the planetary nebula NGC 246. The newly found companion is located about 1 arcsec (at projected separation of about 500 au) north-east of HIP 3678 A, and shares a common proper motion with the white dwarf and its known comoving companion HIP 3678 B. The hypothesis that the newly detected companion is a non-moving background object can be rejected on a significance level of more than 8 $\\sigma$, by combining astrometric measurements from the literature with follow-up astrometry, obtained with Wild Field Planetary Camera 2/\\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} and NACO/Very Large Telescope. From our deep NACO imaging data, we can rule out additional stellar companions of the white dwarf with projected separations between 130 up to 5500 au. In the deepest high-contrast NACO observation, we achieve a detection limit in the \\textit{Ks} band of about 20 mag, which allows the detection of brown dwarf companions w...

  2. Degradation mechanism of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in supercritical water oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potential carcinogens and TNT contaminated wastewater, which could not be effectively disposed with conventional treatments. The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to treat TNT contaminated wastewater was studied in this article. The TNT concentration in wastewater was measured by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) and the degraded intermediates were analyzed using GC-MS. The results showed that SCWO could degrade TNT efficiently with O2. The reaction temperature, pressure, residence time and oxygen excess were the main contributing factors in the process. The decomposition of TNT was accelerated as the temperature or residence time increases. At 550℃, 24 MPa, 120 s and oxygen excess 300%, TNT removal rate could exceed 99.9%. Partial oxidation occurs in SCWO without oxygen. It was concluded that supercritical water was a good solvent and had excellent oxidation capability in the existence of oxygen. The main intermediates of TNT during SCWO include toluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, nitrophenol, naphthalene, fluorenone, dibutyl phthalate, alkanes and several dimers based on the intermediate analysis. Some side reactions, such as coupled reaction, hydrolysis reaction and isomerization reaction may take place simultaneously as TNT is oxidized by SCWO.

  3. Solution and Aging of MAR-M246 Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldan, Renato; da Silva, Antonio Augusto Araújo Pinto; Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Couto, Antonio Augusto; Gabriel, Sinara Borborema; Alkmin, Luciano Braga

    2017-02-01

    Solution and aging heat-treatments play a key role for the application of the superalloys. The aim of this work is to evaluate the microstructure of the MAR-M246 nickel-based superalloy solutioned at 1200 and 1250 °C for 330 min and aged at 780, 880 and 980 °C for 5, 20 and 80 h. The γ' solvus, solidus and liquidus temperatures were calculated with the aid of the JMatPro software (Ni database). The as-cast and heat-treated samples were characterized by SEM/EDS and SEM-FEG. The γ' size precipitated in the aged samples was measured and compared with JMatPro simulations. The results have shown that the sample solutioned at 1250 °C for 330 min showed a very homogeneous γ matrix with carbides and cubic γ' precipitates uniformly distributed. The mean γ' size of aged samples at 780 and 880 °C for 5, 20 and 80 h did not present significant differences when compared to the solutioned sample. However, a significant increasing in the γ' particles was observed at 980 °C, evidenced by the large mean size of these particles after 80 h of aging heat-treatment.

  4. Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Raoultella terrigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, H; Bausinger, T; Lehmler, I; Perret, N; Fels, G; Dehner, U; Preuss, J; König, H

    2007-02-01

    Manufacture of nitroorganic explosives generates toxic wastes leading to contamination of soils and waters, especially groundwater. For that reason bacteria living in environments highly contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other nitroorganic compounds were investigated for their capacity for TNT degradation. One isolate, Raoultella terrigena strain HB, removed TNT at concentrations between 10 and 100 mg l(-1) completely from culture supernatants under optimum aerobic conditions within several hours. Only low concentrations of nutrient supplements were needed for the cometabolic transformation process. Radioactivity measurements with ring-labelled (14)C-TNT detected about 10-20% of the initial radioactivity in the culture supernatant and the residual 80-90% as water-insoluble organic compounds in the cellular pellet. HPLC analysis identified aminodinitrotoluenes (2-ADNT, 4-ADNT) and diaminonitrotoluenes (2,4-DANT) as the metabolites which remained soluble in the culture medium and azoxy-dimers as the main products in the cell extracts. Hence, the new isolate could be useful for the removal of TNT from contaminated waters.

  5. Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang; Zhang, Mohe

    2010-08-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from Chinese explosive industry was treated by vacuum distillation. The water quality before and after distillation was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, UV-vis spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) and other physical and chemical analyses. The acute toxicity of TNT red water and its distillate was evaluated by determining the luminescence inhibition of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. The results showed that the parameters except pH of the distillate met the criterion specified by the Chinese discharge standard for water pollutants from ordnance industry. Distillation removed chemical oxygen demand almost completely and the chrominance was reduced from 100,000 degrees to 17 degrees . The concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate and 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate decreased from 20 x 10(3) and 31 x 10(3)mg L(-1) to 1.3 and 1.8 mg L(-1), respectively. GC/MS results showed that most of the organic components of TNT red water can be removed by distillation. The acute toxicity of water sample after distillation reduced 96%, compared with that of unprocessed TNT red water.

  6. Integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor for accelerated 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming; Sun, Xia; Chen, Lujun; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2012-02-01

    An integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor (IPBR) was used for accelerated degradation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) through simultaneous, intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation in one reactor. Intimate coupling was realized by circulating the IPBR's liquid contents between a TiO(2) film on mat glass illuminated by UV light and honeycomb ceramics as biofilm carriers. Three protocols-photocatalysis alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and integrated photocatalysis and biodegradation (photobiodegradation, P&B)-were used for degradation of different initial TCP concentrations. Intimately coupled P&B also was compared with sequential P and B. TCP removal by intimately coupled P&B was faster than that by P and B alone or sequentially coupled P and B. Because photocatalysis relieved TCP inhibition to biodegradation by decreasing its concentration, TCP biodegradation could become more important over the full batch P&B experiments. When phenol, an easy biodegradable compounds, was added to TCP in order to promote TCP mineralization by means of secondary utilization, P&B was superior to P and B in terms of mineralization of TCP, giving 95% removal of chemical oxygen demand. Cl(-) was only partially released during P experiments (24%), and this corresponded to its poor mineralization in P experiments (32%). Thus, intimately coupled P&B in the IPBR made it possible obtain the best features of each: rapid photocatalytic transformation in parallel with mineralization of photocatalytic products.

  7. Synthesis and pharmacological studies of aminoxy containing 2,4,6-trisubstituted-s-triazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Shilpi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Arylamines on diazotization and further treatment with dicyandiamide yielded aryldicyandiamide (1a-d, which on addition with aminoxy compound (2 gave corresponding biguanides (3a-d. Cycloaddition of biguanide with ethylchloroacetate furnished 2,4,6-trisubstituted-s-triazines (4a-d. Subsequent treatment of these compounds with N-hydroxyphthalimide or N-hydroxysuccinimide in presence of triethylamine gave final compounds (5a-h. IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectra were used to confirm their structure. Compounds (5a-h were screened for antibacterial ( Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aureus and Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal ( Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus activities. Antibacterial activity revealed that compounds 5a, 5b, 5c, 5g showed comparable activity against bacteria P. vulgaris, P. aureus, where rest of the compounds showed weak activity against all the pathogenic bacteria. The fungicidal data indicated that compound 5d possess high level activity and rest of the compounds showed comparable to the standard.

  8. Fenton-like oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene using different iron minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Roger; Hanna, Khalil; Chiron, Serge

    2007-10-15

    Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was investigated in presence of different oxidants (Fenton's reagent, sodium persulfate, peroxymonosulfate and potassium permanganate) and different iron minerals (ferrihydrite, hematite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite and pyrite) either in aqueous solution or in soil slurry systems. Fenton's reagent was the only oxidant able to degrade TNT in solution (k(app)=0.0348 min(-1)). When using iron oxide as heterogeneous catalyst at pH 3, specific reaction rate constants per surface area were k(surf)=1.47.10(-3) L min(-1) m(-2) and k(surf)=0.177 L min(-1) m(-2) for magnetite and pyrite, respectively while ferric iron minerals were inefficient for TNT degradation. The major asset of iron mineral catalyzed Fenton-like treatment has been the complete oxidation of the pollutant avoiding the accumulation of possible toxic by-products. In soil slurry systems, 38% abatement of the initial TNT concentration (2 g/kg) was reached after 24 h treatment time at neutral pH. Rate limiting steps were the availability of soluble iron at neutral pH together with desorption of the TNT fraction sorbed on the clay mineral surfaces.

  9. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass - Potential for phytoremediation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNT L{sup -1} for 8 d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit ({approx}1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils. - Vetiver grass demonstrates ability to absorb TNT in aqueous media.

  10. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mg g{sup -1}), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (p<0.001) increased the 2nd-order reaction rate constant over that of the untreated (no urea) control. Three major TNT metabolites were detected in the roots, but not in the shoot, namely 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 4-amino 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino 4,6-dinitrotoluene, indicating TNT degradation by vetiver grass. - A common agrochemical, urea catalyzes TNT removal by vetiver grass in aqueous media.

  11. 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) photobiodegradation and its effect on community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming; Pu, Xuejing; Fang, Miaomiao; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Lujun; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2012-07-01

    The mechanisms occurring in a photolytic circulating-bed biofilm reactor (PCBBR) treating 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) were investigated using batch experiments following three protocols: photodegradation alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and intimately coupled photodegradation and biodegradation (P&B). Initially, the ceramic particles used as biofilm carriers rapidly adsorbed TCP, particularly in the B experiments. During the first 10 min, the TCP removal rate for P&B was equal to the sum of the rates for P and B, and P&B continued to have the greatest TCP removal, with the TCP concentration approaching zero only in the P&B experiments. When phenol, an easily biodegradable compound, was added along with TCP in order to promote TCP mineralization by means of secondary utilization, P&B was superior to P and B in terms of mineralization of TCP, giving 95% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The microbial communities, examined by clone libraries, changed dramatically during the P&B experiments. Whereas Burkholderia xenovorans, a known degrader of chlorinated aromatics, was the dominant strain in the TCP-acclimated inoculum, it was replaced in the P&B biofilm by strains noted for biofilm formation and biodegrading non-chlorinated aromatics.

  12. Molecularly Imprinted Nanofiber Film for Sensitive Sensing 2,4,6-Tribromophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of brominated flame retardants is of great importance, but remains a challenge. Particularly, universal and facile approaches are limited. Here we report a new general approach, combining molecular imprinting and electrospinning, for the efficient and facile imprinting sensor of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP, which was used as a “novel” brominated flame retardant. With TBP as the template molecular, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD as the functional monomer, and poly-vinylbutyral (PVB as the electro-spinning matrix, the nanofiber film was deposited on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE via electrospinning technique directly. The β-CD-PVB/GCE sensor system exhibited excellent TBP sensing performances, such as a low detection limit (6.29 × 10−10 mol·L−1 at room temperature, selective recognition to TBP/phenol/4-methyl-phenol, and good regeneration performance. The approach of fabricating a molecular imprinting nanofiber sensor may shed new light in the detection of other phenolic pollutants.

  13. Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by P. aeruginosa and characterization of some metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Aysun Mercimek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT, a nitroaromatic explosive found in the soil and ground water, was investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa in in vitroexperiments. Biodegradable abilitiy of this bacteria was performed with 50 and 75 mg L−1 TNT concentrations in a defined liquid medium for 96 h time period. Treatment of TNT in supernatant samples taken at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h from agitated vessels was followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In cultures supplemented with 50 and 75 mgL−1 TNT, after 96 h of incubation 46% and 59% reduction were detected respectively. Two metabolites as degradation intermediates with nitrite release into the medium, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (4-ADNT, were elucidated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. These findings clearly indicate that Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be used in bioremediation of TNT contaminated sites.

  14. PBCDD/F formation from radical/radical cross-condensation of 2-Chlorophenoxy with 2-Bromophenoxy, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy with 2,4-Dibromophenoxy, and 2,4,6-Trichlorophenoxy with 2,4,6-Tribromophenoxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xiangli [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu, Wanni [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Linyi University, Linyi 276000 (China); Xu, Fei [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Qingzhu, E-mail: zqz@sdu.edu.cn [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hu, Jingtian; Wang, Wenxing [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We studied the formation of PBCDD/Fs from the reaction of three CPRs with BPRs. • The substitution pattern of halogenated phenols determines those of PBCDD/Fs. • The substitution of halogenated phenols influence the coupling of phenoxy radicals. • The rate constants of the crucial elementary steps were evaluated. - Abstract: Quantum chemical calculations were carried out to investigate the homogeneous gas-phase formation of mixed polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/benzofurans (PBCDD/Fs) from the cross-condensation of 2-chlorophenoxy radical (2-CPR) with 2-bromophenoxy radical (2-BPR), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy radical (2,4-DCPR) with 2,4-dibromophenoxy radical (2,4-DBPR), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxy radical (2,4,6-TCPR) with 2,4,6-tribromophenoxy radical (2,4,6-TBPR). The geometrical parameters and vibrational frequencies were calculated at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level, and single-point energy calculations were performed at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p) level of theory. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT) theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT) correction over a wide temperature range of 600–1200 K. Studies show that the substitution pattern of halogenated phenols not only determines the substitution pattern of the resulting PBCDD/Fs, but also has a significant influence on the formation mechanism of PBCDD/Fs, especially on the coupling of the halogenated phenoxy radicals.

  15. 2,4,6-三硝基间苯二酚钡一水化合物的热分解动力学%Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Barium 2,4,6-trinitroresorecinate Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡荣祖; 陈三平; 高胜利; 宋纪蓉; 史启祯; 赵宏安; 姚朴; 李静

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the non-isothermal decomposition of barium 2,4,6-trinitroresorecinate monohydrate, Ba(TNR)· H2O,were carried out by means of TG-DTA, DSC and IR. The thermal decomposition mechanism and associated kinetics were investigated. The kinetic parameters were obtained from an analysis of the DSC curves by integral was suggested by comparison of the kinetic parameters.

  16. The Oxidation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene with an Ozone-Oxygen Mixture: A Simple Method for Preparation of 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zarei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT to 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB in one step, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA, and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzaldehyde (TNBAl with an ozone-oxygen mixture in different solvents, catalysts, and temperatures has been investigated. Reducing the number of steps in the oxidation of TNT to TNB is the major advantage of this procedure with respect to conventional processes such as chromic acid and potassium permanganate. The oxidation of TNT to TNB was completed in one step as compared to two steps in the conventional approach. The products were obtained with relatively good yield.

  17. The statistical model calculation of prompt neutron spectra from spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimenko, B.F. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The calculations of integral spectra of prompt neutrons of spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm were carried out. The calculations were done by the Statistical Computer Code Complex SCOFIN applying the Hauser-Feschbach method as applied to the description of the de-excitation of excited fission fragments by means of neutron emission. The emission of dipole gamma-quanta from these fragments was considered as a competing process. The average excitation energy of a fragment was calculated by two-spheroidal model of tangent fragments. The density of levels in an excited fragment was calculated by the Fermi-gas model. The quite satisfactory agreement was reached between theoretical and experimental results obtained in frames of Project measurements. The calculated values of average multiplicities of neutron number were 2,746 for {sup 244}Cm and 2,927 for {sup 246}Cm that was in a good accordance with published experimental figures. (author)

  18. Synthesis, loading control and preliminary tests of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium supported onto Y-zeolite as solar photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amat, Ana M.; Arques, Antonio; Vercher, Rosa F. [Departamento de Ingeniera Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Paseo Viaducto 1, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Bossmann, Stefan H.; Braun, Andre M. [Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltmesstechnik, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Miranda, Miguel A. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Tecnologia Quiica UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    A heterogeneous photocatalyst has been obtained by hosting the 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium cation inside the supercages of Y-zeolite. Preparation of the new material has been achieved by means of a formal ion exchange in aqueous medium. Nevertheless, the mechanism is more complex, as bulky 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium cation is unable to diffuse through the channels of Y-zeolite. The following steps are involved: (a) hydrolytic opening of the pyrylium ion to give a linear diketone; (b) diffusion of the diketone through the channels to reach the supercages; and (c) thermal recyclization under dehydrating conditions. Elemental analysis of the new material was consistent with the pyrylium cation located inside the zeolite. No sulfur was found in the loaded zeolite, indicating that hydrogensulfate is no longer the counter-ion of pyrylium. Accordingly, the stoichiometric amount of Na{sup +} was found in the filtered waters recovered after the synthesis. Besides, the IR spectrum of the dry material was coincident with that of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium, while the spectrum of a less thoroughly dried sample showed, together with the absorption bands corresponding to pyrylium, other bands assignable to the diketone. Zeolite loading can be controlled in the range of 3-15% of organic carbon. The performance of the new material as a solar photocatalyst for oxidative pollutant degradation was checked using four cinnamic acid derivatives as target compounds. Aqueous solutions (250mL) of these model pollutants (0.001M) were irradiated by solar light in the presence of different amounts of solid photocatalyst. Oxidation was efficiently achieved as analysed by HPLC and followed in all cases a pseudo first order kinetics. The most satisfactory results were obtained using 1g/L of Y-zeolite containing 6% of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium cation.

  19. Functional specificity of amino acid at position 246 in the tRNA mimicry domain of bacterial release factor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, M; Ito, K; Nakamura, Y

    1996-01-01

    The termination of protein synthesis in bacteria requires codon-specific polypeptide release factors RF-1 (UAG/UAA specific) and RF-2 (UGA/UAA specific). We have proposed that release factors mimic tRNA and recognize the stop codon for polypeptide release (Nakamura et al (1996) Cell 87, 147-150). In contrast to the textbook view, genetic experiments have indicated that Escherichia coli RF-2 terminates translation very weakly at UAA while Salmonella RF-2 decodes this signal efficiently. Moreover, an excess of E coli RF-2 was toxic to cells while an excess of Salmonella RF-2 was not. These two RF-2 proteins are identical except for 16 out of 365 amino acids. Fragment swap experiments and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that a residue at position 246 is solely responsible for these two phenotypes. Upon substituting Ala (equivalent to Salmonella RF-2) for Thr-246 of E coli RF-2, the protein acquired increased release activity for UAA as well as for UGA. These results led us to conclude that E coli RF-2 activity is potentially weak and that the amino acid at position 246 plays a crucial role, not for codon discrimination, but for stop codon recognition or polypeptide release, presumably constituting an essential moiety of tRNA mimicry or interacting with peptidyltransferase centers of the ribosome.

  20. Dual Role of Endogenous Serotonin in 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalli, Alberto; Bertoni, Simona; Arcaro, Valentina; Saccani, Francesca; Grandi, Andrea; Vivo, Valentina; Cantoni, Anna M.; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Changes in gut serotonin (5-HT) content have been described in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and in different experimental models of colitis: the critical role of this monoamine in the pathogenesis of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation is gradually emerging. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of endogenous 5-HT through the activation of its specific receptor subtypes to the local and systemic inflammatory responses in an experimental model of IBD. Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced by intrarectal 2,4,6-TriNitroBenzene Sulfonic acid in mice subacutely treated with selective antagonists of 5-HT1A (WAY100135), 5-HT2A (Ketanserin), 5-HT3 (Ondansetron), 5-HT4 (GR125487), 5-HT7 (SB269970) receptors and with 5-HT1A agonist 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin. Results: Blockade of 5-HT1A receptors worsened TNBS-induced local and systemic neutrophil recruitment while 5-HT1A agonist delayed and mitigated the severity of colitis, counteracting the increase in colonic 5-HT content. On the contrary, blockade of 5-HT2A receptors improved global health conditions, reduced colonic morphological alterations, down-regulated neutrophil recruitment, inflammatory cytokines levels and colonic apoptosis. Antagonism of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptor sites did not remarkably affect the progression and outcome of the pathology or only slightly improved it. Conclusion: The prevailing deleterious contribution given by endogenous 5-HT to inflammation in TNBS-induced colitis is seemingly mediated by 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, by 5-HT4 receptors and coexists with the weak beneficial effect elicited by 5-HT1A stimulation. These findings suggest how only a selective interference with 5-HT pro-inflammatory actions may represent an additional potential therapeutic option for intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:27047383

  1. Dual role of endogenous serotonin in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eRapalli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Changes in gut serotonin content have been described in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and in different experimental models of colitis: the critical role of this monoamine in the pathogenesis of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation is gradually emerging. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of endogenous serotonin through the activation of its specific receptor subtypes to the local and systemic inflammatory responses in an experimental model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Methods: Colitis was induced by intrarectal 2,4,6-TriNitroBenzene Sulfonic acid in mice subacutely treated with selective antagonists of 5-HT1A (WAY100135, 5-HT2A (Ketanserin, 5-HT3 (Ondansetron, 5-HT4 (GR125487, 5-HT7 (SB269970 receptors and with 5-HT1A agonist 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylaminotetralin. Results: Blockade of 5-HT1A receptors worsened TNBS-induced local and systemic neutrophil recruitment while 5-HT1A agonist delayed and mitigated the severity of colitis, counteracting the increase in colonic 5-HT content. On the contrary, blockade of 5-HT2A receptors improved global health conditions, reduced colonic morphological alterations, down-regulated neutrophil recruitment, inflammatory cytokines levels and colonic apoptosis. Antagonism of 5-HT3, 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptor sites did not remarkably affect the progression and outcome of the pathology or only slightly improved it.Conclusions: The prevailing deleterious contribution given by endogenous serotonin to inflammation in TNBS-induced colitis is seemingly mediated by 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, by 5-HT4 receptors and coexists with the weak beneficial effect elicited by 5-HT1A stimulation. These findings suggest how only a selective interference with 5-HT pro-inflammatory actions may represent an additional potential therapeutic option for intestinal inflammatory disorders.

  2. Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in wine samples by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Patil, Sangram H; Banerjee, Kaushik; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2010-04-28

    A fast and effective microextraction technique is proposed for preconcentration of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) from wine samples prior gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (GC-MS/MS) analysis. The proposed technique is based on ultrasonication (US) for favoring the emulsification phenomenon during the extraction stage. Several variables influencing the relative response of the target analyte were studied and optimized. Under optimal experimental conditions, 2,4,6-TCA was quantitatively extracted achieving enhancement factors (EF) > or = 400 and limits of detection (LODs) 0.6-0.7 ng L(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) or = 0.9995. Validation of the methodology was carried out by standard addition method at two concentrations (10 and 50 ng L(-1)) achieving recoveries >80% indicating satisfactory robustness of the method. The methodology was successfully applied for determination of 2,4,6-TCA in different wine samples.

  3. Arvustus. Katri Lõhmus. Caring Autonomy. European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism. Cambridge University Press 2015, 246 lk / Lauri Mälksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälksoo, Lauri, 1975-

    2016-01-01

    Arvustus: Katri Lõhmus. Caring Autonomy. European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism. Cambridge University Press 2015, 246 lk. Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni artikli 8 sisustamisest

  4. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De Jesus, A.; Romano-Baez, F.J.; Leyva-Amezcua, L.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galindez-Mayer, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: cmayer@encb.ipn.mx

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A{sub D}/A{sub R} ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values {epsilon}{sub G}, and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ({approx}95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ({approx}80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions)

  5. Mutagenesis of residue betaArg-246 in the phosphate-binding subdomain of catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Senior, Alan E

    2004-07-23

    Residues responsible for phosphate binding in F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase catalytic sites are of significant interest because phosphate binding is believed linked to proton gradient-driven subunit rotation. From x-ray structures, a phosphate-binding subdomain is evident in catalytic sites, with conserved betaArg-246 in a suitable position to bind phosphate. Mutations betaR246Q, betaR246K, and betaR246A in Escherichia coli were found to impair oxidative phosphorylation and to reduce ATPase activity of purified F(1) by 100-fold. In contrast to wild type, ATPase of mutants was not inhibited by MgADP-fluoroaluminate or MgADP-fluoroscandium, showing the Arg side chain is required for wild-type transition state formation. Whereas 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl) inhibited wild-type ATPase essentially completely, ATPase in mutants was inhibited maximally by approximately 50%, although reaction still occurred at residue betaTyr-297, proximal to betaArg-246 in the phosphate-binding pocket. Inhibition characteristics supported the conclusion that NBD-Cl reacts in betaE (empty) catalytic sites, as shown previously by x-ray structure analysis. Phosphate protected against NBD-Cl inhibition in wild type but not in mutants. The results show that phosphate can bind in the betaE catalytic site of E. coli F(1) and that betaArg-246 is an important phosphate-binding residue.

  6. Efficacy of tecovirimat (ST-246) in nonhuman primates infected with variola virus (Smallpox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucker, Eric M; Goff, Arthur J; Shamblin, Joshua D; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Damon, Inger K; Mehal, Jason M; Holman, Robert C; Carroll, Darin; Gallardo, Nadia; Olson, Victoria A; Clemmons, Cody J; Hudson, Paul; Hruby, Dennis E

    2013-12-01

    Naturally occurring smallpox has been eradicated but remains a considerable threat as a biowarfare/bioterrorist weapon (F. Fleck, Bull. World Health Organ. 81:917-918, 2003). While effective, the smallpox vaccine is currently not recommended for routine use in the general public due to safety concerns (http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/vaccination). Safe and effective countermeasures, particularly those effective after exposure to smallpox, are needed. Currently, SIGA Technologies is developing the small-molecule oral drug, tecovirimat (previously known as ST-246), as a postexposure therapeutic treatment of orthopoxvirus disease, including smallpox. Tecovirimat has been shown to be efficacious in preventing lethal orthopoxviral disease in numerous animal models (G. Yang, D. C. Pevear, M. H. Davies, M. S. Collett, T. Bailey, et al., J. Virol. 79:13139-13149, 2005; D. C. Quenelle, R. M. Buller, S. Parker, K. A. Keith, D. E. Hruby, et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 51:689-695, 2007; E. Sbrana, R. Jordan, D. E. Hruby, R. I. Mateo, S. Y. Xiao, et al., Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 76:768-773, 2007). Furthermore, in clinical trials thus far, the drug appears to be safe, with a good pharmacokinetic profile. In this study, the efficacy of tecovirimat was evaluated in both a prelesional and postlesional setting in nonhuman primates challenged intravenously with 1 × 10(8) PFU of Variola virus (VARV; the causative agent of smallpox), a model for smallpox disease in humans. Following challenge, 50% of placebo-treated controls succumbed to infection, while all tecovirimat-treated animals survived regardless of whether treatment was started at 2 or 4 days postinfection. In addition, tecovirimat treatment resulted in dramatic reductions in dermal lesion counts, oropharyngeal virus shedding, and viral DNA circulating in the blood. Although clinical disease was evident in tecovirimat-treated animals, it was generally very mild and appeared to resolve earlier than in placebo

  7. 异位妊娠246例临床资料回顾与分析%Review and analysis of clinical data of 246 cases of ectopic pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正; 王鑫; 沈旭娜

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨异位妊娠的主要病因及各种治疗方法对异位妊娠治疗的临床价值,提高对异位妊娠的认识.方法 回顾分析2010年1-12月1年间所收治的246例异位妊娠病例的临床资料,其中药物保守治疗136例,转手术治疗33例.手术治疗共141例,55例腹腔镜下病灶切除或输卵管造口.结果 本研究246例异位妊娠患者,有人流或药流病史的190例,占77.24%,腹腔镜下病灶切除或输卵管造口术55例,占手术比例的41.78%.结论 人流或药流若并发感染可造成慢性输卵管炎、盆腔炎等增加异位妊娠的发病率.腹腔镜技术损伤小,恢复快,住院时间短,用药少,外观好,在治疗异位妊娠中已发挥越来越重要的作用.%Objective To find the main causes of ectopic pregnancy and the various methods of treatment of ectopic pregnancy treatment to better understand ectopic pregnancy. Methods Retrospective analysis of hospital treated 246 cases of ectopic pregnancy cases from January to December of 2010, including 136 cases of the conservative treatment ,33 cases turn to operation treatment. 141 cases of operation treatment, 55 cases of laparoscopic resection of lesions or tubal ostomy. Results In the 246 cases of patients with ectopic pregnancy 190 cases had abortion or medical abortion history, accounting for 77. 24% , laparoscopic resection of lesions or salpingostomy in 55 cases, accounting for the proportion of operation 41. 78%. Conclusions Abortion or medical abortion with concurrent infection can cause chronic tubal inflammation of pelvic inflammatory disease and increase the incidence of ectopic pregnancies. As laparoscopic technique has little injury, quick recovery, shorter hospitalization time, appearance in treatment of ectopic pregnancy has played an increasingly important role.

  8. A Nodule-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein AsE246 Participates in Transport of Plant-Synthesized Lipids to Symbiosome Membrane and Is Essential for Nodule Organogenesis in Chinese Milk Vetch1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Ling; Shi, Xiaofeng; Li, Yixing; Wang, Jianyun; Chen, Dasong; Xie, Fuli; Li, Youguo

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobia in legume root nodules fix nitrogen in symbiosomes, organelle-like structures in which a membrane from the host plant surrounds the symbiotic bacteria. However, the components that transport plant-synthesized lipids to the symbiosome membrane remain unknown. This study identified and functionally characterized the Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus) lipid transfer protein AsE246, which is specifically expressed in nodules. It was found that AsE246 can bind lipids in vitro. More importantly, AsE246 can bind the plant-synthesized membrane lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol in vivo. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that AsE246 and digalactosyldiacylglycerol localize in the symbiosome membrane and are present in infection threads. Overexpression of AsE246 resulted in increased nodule numbers; knockdown of AsE246 resulted in reduced nodule numbers, decreased lipids contents in nodules, diminished nitrogen fixation activity, and abnormal development of symbiosomes. AsE246 knockdown also resulted in fewer infection threads, nodule primordia, and nodules, while AsE246 overexpression resulted in more infection threads and nodule primordia, suggesting that AsE246 affects nodule organogenesis associated with infection thread formation. Taken together, these results indicate that AsE246 contributes to lipids transport to the symbiosome membrane, and this transport is required for effective legume-rhizobium symbiosis. PMID:24367021

  9. Structural studies of the polysaccharides from the lipopolysaccharides of Azospirillum brasilense Sp246 and SpBr14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Grinev, Vyacheslav S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2014-10-29

    Lipopolysaccharides from closely related Azospirillum brasilense strains, Sp246 and SpBr14, were obtained by phenol-water extraction. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in polysaccharide mixtures. On the basis of sugar and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy data, it was concluded that both bacteria possess the same two distinct polysaccharides having structures 1 and 2: [structure: see text]. Structure 1 has been reported earlier for a polysaccharide of A. brasilense 54 [Fedonenko et al., 2011] whereas to our knowledge structure 2 has not been hitherto found in bacterial polysaccharides.

  10. Synthesis of bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine oxide – a tailor-made photoinitiator for dental adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Moszner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the poor solubility of the commercially available bisacylphosphine oxides in dental acidic aqueous primer formulations, bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine oxide (WBAPO was synthesized starting from 3-(chloromethyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid by the dichlorophosphine route. The substituent was introduced by etherification with 2-(allyloxyethanol. In the second step, 3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid was chlorinated. The formed acid chloride showed an unexpected low thermal stability. Its thermal rearrangement at 180 °C resulted in a fast formation of 3-(chloromethyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid 2-(allyloxyethyl ester. In the third step, the acid chloride was reacted with phenylphosphine dilithium with the formation of bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine, which was oxidized to WBAPO. The structure of WBAPO was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, and IR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. WBAPO, a yellow liquid, possesses improved solubility in polar solvents and shows UV–vis absorption, and a high photoreactivity comparable with the commercially available bisacylphosphine oxides. A sufficient storage stability was found in dental acidic aqueous primer formulations.

  11. Biosynthesis of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK cultured in cellulose pulp mill effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, Lorena M; Bunster, Marta; Pooley, Amalia; Becerra, José; Godoy, Felix; Martínez, Miguel A

    2005-09-01

    Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) polymer is synthesized by different bacterial species. There has been considerable interest in the development and production of biodegradable polymers; however, the high cost of PHA production has restricted its applications. Kraft cellulose industry effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (10 or 20 microg ml(-1)) were used by the bacteria Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK to synthesize PHA. In this condition, S. chilensis S37 was able to grow and degrade 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (ca. 60%) and 80% of these cells accumulated PHA. Wautersia PZK completely degraded 2,4,6-TCP and more than 90% of the cells accumulated PHA in 72 h. The PHA detection was performed by flow cytometry and polyester composition was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), indicating that these polymers are made by 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid for S37 and PZK strains, respectively. Results demonstrated that strains' growth and PHA production and composition are not modified in cellulose effluents with or without 2,4,6-TCP (10-20 microg ml(-1)). Therefore, our results indicate that S. chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK are able to degrade a toxic compound such as a 2,4,6-TCP and simultaneously produce a valuable biopolymer using low-value substrates.

  12. Preparation of oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: Optimization using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-05-30

    The effects of three preparation variables: CO{sub 2} activation temperature, CO{sub 2} activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO{sub 2} activation temperature of 814 deg. C, CO{sub 2} activation time of 1.9 h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m{sup 2}/g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm{sup 3}/g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.

  13. Preparation of oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, B H; Tan, I A W; Ahmad, A L

    2009-05-30

    The effects of three preparation variables: CO(2) activation temperature, CO(2) activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO(2) activation temperature of 814 degrees C, CO(2) activation time of 1.9h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m(2)/g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm(3)/g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.

  14. Theoretical studies on vibrational spectra, thermodynamic properties, detonation properties and pyrolysis mechanism for 1,2-bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Hong, Li; Rui-Zhou, Zhang; Xian-Zhou, Zhang

    2012-07-01

    The thermal stability and pyrolysis mechanism of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazine were investigated based on fully optimized molecular geometric structures. The results demonstrate the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bond interactions 1,2-bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazine. The assigned infrared spectrum was also obtained; the results reveal four main characteristic regions in the calculated IR spectra of the title compound. Detonation velocities (D) and pressures (P) were also evaluated by using Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the calculated density and heat of formation. Thermal stability and the pyrolysis mechanism of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazine were investigated by calculating the bond dissociation energies at the B3LYP/6-31 G* level.

  15. Sensitive determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in water samples by ultrasound assisted emulsification microextraction prior to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2010-06-15

    A novel application of an ultrasound assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) technique is proposed for the extraction and preconcentration of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) from water samples prior to its determination by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). USAEME employs a non-polar high-density solvent (extractant solvent), which forms an oil-in-water emulsion (O/W) in the aqueous sample bulk assisted by ultrasonic radiation. Several factors including, solvent type and volume, extraction time, extraction temperature, shaking mode and matrix modifiers were studied and optimized over the relative recovery of the target analyte. An aliquot of 5mL water sample was conditioned by adding 150microL 6.15molL(-1) sodium chloride and 300microL 0.05molL(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 6), and finally extracted with 40microL chloroform by using USAEME technique. Under the optimal experimental conditions 2,4,6-TCA was quantitatively extracted achieving an enrichment factor (EF) of 555. The detection limit (LOD), calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), was 0.2ngL(-1) and the RSD was 6.3% (n=5) when 1ngL(-1) 2,4,6-TCA standard mixture was analyzed. The coefficients of estimation of the calibration curves obtained following the proposed methodology was >or=0.997 and the linear working range was 1-5000ngL(-1). Finally, the proposed technique was successfully applied for extraction and determination of the 2,4,6-TCA in water samples. Recovery studies lead values >or=94%, which showed a successfully robustness of the analytical methodology for determination of nanogram per liter of 2,4,6-TCA in water samples.

  16. Bis (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde-2,4,6-trinitrophenol) organic cocrystal: Synthesis and physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsana, N.; Krishnakumar, V.; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2016-10-01

    A 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde-2,4,6-trinitrophenol (mhba-tnp) cocrystal was grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique using ethanol as a solvent. As-grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and crystallized with a centrosymmetric space group. Optical properties of the grown crystal have been studied by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra in the range from 200 to 800nm and the band gap energy of the crystal was obtained as 2.8eV. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and micro Raman spectral analyses have been carried out to confirm the functional groups present in the title compound. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized light thermomicroscopy (PLTM) analyses were carried out to find the melting point. In addition, the optimized geometric parameters and the molecular orbitals were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) with the help of the Gaussian 03W software.

  17. Application of a Homogenous Assay for the Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene to Environmental Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. Goldman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A homogeneous assay was used to detect 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT spiked into environmental water samples. This assay is based on changes in fluorescence emission intensity when TNT competitively displaces a fluorescently labeled, TNT analog bound to an anti-TNT antibody. The effectiveness of the assay was highly dependent on the source of the sample being tested. As no correlation between pH and assay performance was observed, ionic strength was assumed to be the reason for variation in assay results. Addition of 10x phosphate-buffered saline to samples to increase their ionic strength to that of our standard laboratory buffer (about 0.17 M significantly improved the range over which the assay functioned in several river water samples.

  18. N-(2-{[5-Bromo-2-(piperidin-1-ylpyrimidin-4-yl]sulfanyl}-4-methoxyphenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C25H29BrN4O3S2, the benzene rings bridged by the sulfonamide group are tilted relative to each other by 63.9 (1° and the dihedral angle between the sulfur-bridged pyrimidine and benzene rings is 64.9 (1°. The molecular conformation is stabilized by a weak intramolecular π–π stacking interaction between the pyrimidine and the 2,4,6-trimethylbenzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.766 (2 Å]. The piperidine ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked into inversion dimers by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds and these dimers are further linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains propagating along [010].

  19. PRIMA-1met (APR-246) inhibits growth of colorectal cancer cells with different p53 status through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Lan; Zhou, Jianbiao; Chan, Zit-Liang; Chooi, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Zhi-Rong; Chng, Wee-Joo

    2015-11-03

    PRIMA-1met (APR-246) is a methylated derivative and structural analog of PRIMA-1 (p53 re-activation and induction of massive apoptosis). PRIMA-1met has been reported to restore both the wild type (wt) structure and function of mutant p53. Here, we show that PRIMA-1met is highly effective at limiting the growth of CRC cells regardless of p53 status. However, PRIMA-1met induces robust apoptosis only in CRC cells with mutant p53. Upregulation of Noxa, a proapoptotic molecule, is crucial for PRIMA-1met mediated activity. In human xenograft model of disease, PRIMA-1met effectively suppresses CRC tumor growth. Our results uncover distinct mechanisms of PRIMA-1met in CRC with different p53 status, thus providing a mechanistic rationale to evaluate the clinical efficacy of PRIMA-1met in CRC patients with different p53 status.

  20. Bis(1H-pyrazole-κN2bis(2,4,6-triisopropylbenzoato-κOcobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian G. Hrib

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co(C16H23O22(C3H4N22] or (C3H4N22Co(O2CC6H2iPr3-2,4,6, is a rare example of a tetracoordinate cobalt(II carboxylate stabilized by ancillary N-heterocyclic ligands. The Co(II ion resides on a crystallographic twofold axis so that the asymmetric unit comprises one half-molecule. Due to the steric bulk of the 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl substituents, the carboxylate ligands are both coordinated in a monodentate fashion despite the low coordination number. The coordination geometry around the central Co(II ion is distorted tetrahedral with angles at Co ranging from 92.27 (18° to 121.08 (14°.

  1. Determinació analítica de 2,4,6-ticloroanisole i altres cloroanisoles en vins i suros

    OpenAIRE

    Riu Rusell, Marc

    2011-01-01

    La determinació de 2,4,6-tricloroanisole (TCA) i altres cloroanisoles en vins i taps de suro és de vital importància, tant en la industria enològica com en al surera, pel control d’un dels defectes organolèptics del vi que ha causat més prejudicis: l’olor a humitat, clàssicament conegut com a gust a suro. En aquesta tesi doctoral s’han desenvolupat i validat aquestes metodologies, tot aplicant la microextracció en fase sòlida i la cromatografia de gasos, ja sigui en detecció de captura electr...

  2. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Properties of a One-dimensional Chain Coordination Polymer [Mn(phen)(2,4,6-TMBA)2(H2O)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional chain-like coordination polymer [Mn(phen)(2,4,6-TMBA)2(H2O)]n has been synthesized from 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid, 1,10-phenanthioline and anhydrous manganese(Ⅱ) sulfate and then characterized. Crystal data for this complex: tetragonal, space group I41, a = 2.05643(16), b = 2.05643(16), c = 1.3939(2) nm, V= 5.8946(11) nm3, Mr = 579.54, Z = 8, Dc = 1.306 g/cm3, λ(MoKα) = 0.490 mm-1, F(000) = 2424, S = 0.985, the final R = 0.0411 and wR = 0.0950. The Flack factor is -0.01(2). The crystal structure shows that two neighboring man-ganese(Ⅱ) ions are linked together by one bridge-chelating 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic group, forming a one-dimensional chain structure. The manganese(Ⅱ) ion is coordinated with two nitrogen atoms of one 1,10-phenanthroline, three oxygen atoms from three 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acids and one water oxygen atom, giving a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The cyclic voltametric behavior of the complex was also investigated.

  3. Headspace-multicapillary column-ion mobility spectrometry for the direct analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in wine and cork samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Sillero, Isabel; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2012-11-23

    Headspace-multicapillary column-ion mobility spectrometry coupling has been evaluated for the direct analysis of wine and cork stopper samples for the determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA). The instrumental configuration permits the sample to be introduced in headspace vials which are placed into the autosampler oven in order to facilitate the transference of the volatile compounds from the sample to its headspace. Further, an aliquot of 200 μL of the homogenized gaseous phase is injected into the multicapillary column in order to separate the target compounds from potential interferents. The detection of 2,4,6-TCA was carried out in an ion mobility spectrometer with a radioactive source and working under negative mode. All the system was computer controlled, including data acquisition and treatment. The limits of detection achieved were 0.012 ng L(-1) for wine and 0.28 ng g(-1) for the cork stopper. The procedure was applied to the analysis of commercial wine samples in different packages and 2,4,6-TCA was found in all of those closed with a cork stopper. The excellent recovery values obtained testify for the goodness of the method as no interference from the sample matrix exits.

  4. Unprecedented trinuclear Ag(I) complex with 2,4,6-tris(2-pyrimidyl)-1,3,5-triazine as an efficient catalyst for the aziridination of olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safin, Damir A; Pialat, Amélie; Korobkov, Ilia; Murugesu, Muralee

    2015-04-13

    An unprecedented trinuclear heteroleptic Ag(I) complex was isolated using a stable multidentate 2,4,6-tris(2-pyrimidyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPymT) ligand. The obtained compound is an efficient catalyst for the direct aziridination of terminal olefins.

  5. 40 CFR 721.5356 - Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) phosphate. 721...]-omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... alpha- -omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) phosphate (PMN P-98-185) is subject to reporting...

  6. Design of a novel Cu₂O/TiO₂/carbon aerogel electrode and its efficient electrosorption-assisted visible light photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yabo; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhao, Guohua; Tian, Hongyi; Shi, Huijie; Zhou, Tianchen

    2012-08-01

    Cu(2)O/TiO(2) heterojunction photocatalyst is built on carbon aerogel (CA) substrate with good adsorption properties by sol impregnation and seed-mediated synthesis approach. The Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA electrode has excellent electrosorptive and high efficient photocatalytic properties. Its morphology and surface chemical composition are characterized with SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra show that the optical absorption edge for Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA appears at 636 nm. Under visible-light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation, the photocurrent density increment on Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA is 60 times of that on Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/FTO. The electrochemical characteristic is investigated with electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS). The Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA electrode is further applied in the electrosorptive photodegradation of the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) wastewater. The result shows that the removal ratio of 2,4,6-TCP in 5.5 h on Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA is 96.3% and the TOC removal is 91.3%. The intermediates generated in the degradation process are analyzed by GC-MS and HPLC. The possible mechanism of visible light photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-TCP on Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA is also studied.

  7. Anaerobic mineralization of 2,4,6-tribromophenol to CO2 by a synthetic microbial community comprising Clostridium, Dehalobacter, and Desulfatiglans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiling; Yoshida, Naoko; Wang, Aijie; Nan, Jun; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhang, Dongdong; Suzuki, Daisuke; Zhou, Xue; Xiao, Zhixing; Katayama, Arata

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic mineralization of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) was achieved by a synthetic anaerobe community comprising a highly enriched culture of Dehalobacter sp. phylotype FTH1 acting as a reductive debrominator; Clostridium sp. strain Ma13 acting as a hydrogen supplier via glucose fermentation; and a novel 4-chlorophenol-degrading anaerobe, Desulfatiglans parachlorophenolica strain DS. 2,4,6-TBP was debrominated to phenol by the combined action of Ma13 and FTH1, then mineralized into CO2 by sequential introduction of DS, confirmed using [ring-(14)C(U)] phenol. The optimum concentrations of glucose, SO4(2-), and inoculum densities were 0.5 or 2.5mM, 1.0 or 2.5mM, and the densities equivalent to 10(4)copiesmL(-1) of the 16S rRNA genes, respectively. This resulted in the complete mineralization of 23μM 2,4,6-TBP within 35days (0.58μmolL(-1)d(-1)). Thus, using a synthetic microbial community of isolates or highly enriched cultures would be an efficient, optimizable, low-cost strategy for anaerobic bioremediation of halogenated aromatics.

  8. Green and solvent-free procedure for microwave-assisted synthesis of 2,4,6-triarylpyridines catalysed using MgAl2O4 nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Javad Safari; Soheila Gandomi-Ravandi; Mahmoud Borjian Borujeni

    2013-09-01

    Design and development of a heterogeneous nanocatalyst for condensation reaction of acetophenone derivatives, aromatic aldehydes, and ammonium acetate to yield 2,4,6-triarylpyridines followed by microwave irradiation is described. Nanocrystalline MgAl2O4 as a novel heterogeneous recyclable catalyst shows high activity for the above reaction. In addition, the easily recoverable nanosized catalysts showed good reusability.

  9. A convenient route to symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted 3,5-diaryl-2,4,6-trimethylpyridines via Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawkało, Joanna; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Summary A series of differently substituted 3,5-diaryl-2,4,6-trimethylpyridines were prepared and characterized using the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction with accordingly selected bromo-derivatives and arylboronic acids. The reaction conditions were carefully optimized allowing high yield of isolated products and also the construction of unsymmetrically substituted diarylpyridines, difficult to access by other methods. PMID:27340474

  10. Thermal decomposition and kinetic evaluation of decanted 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) for reutilization as composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Hussain, A.; Malik, A. Q.

    2016-08-01

    Use of energetic materials has long been considered for only military purposes. However, it is very recent that their practical applications in wide range of commercial fields such as mining, road building, under water blasting and rocket propulsion system have been considered. About 5mg of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in serviceable (Svc) as well as unserviceable (Unsvc) form were used for their thermal decomposition and kinetic parameters investigation. Thermogravimetric/ differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize two types of TNT. Arrhenius kinetic parameters like activation energy (E) and enthalpy (AH) of both TNT samples were determined using TG curves with the help of Horowitz and Metzger method. Simultaneously, thermal decomposition range was evaluated from DTA curves. Distinct diffraction peaks showing crystalline nature were obtained from XRD analysis. SEM results indicated that Unsvc TNT contained a variety of defects like cracks and porosity. Similarly, it is observed that thermal as well as kinetic behavior of both TNT samples vary to a great extent. Likewise, a prominent change in the activation energies (E) of both samples is observed. This in-depth study provides a way forward in finding solutions for the safe reutilization of decanted TNT.

  11. 3D Visualization of Developmental Toxicity of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Zebrafish Embryogenesis Using Light-Sheet Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juneyong Eum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by trinitrotoluene is of global concern due to its widespread use in military ordnance and commercial explosives. Despite known long-term persistence in groundwater and soil, the toxicological profile of trinitrotoluene and other explosive wastes have not been systematically measured using in vivo biological assays. Zebrafish embryos are ideal model vertebrates for high-throughput toxicity screening and live in vivo imaging due to their small size and transparency during embryogenesis. Here, we used Single Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM/light sheet microscopy to assess the developmental toxicity of explosive-contaminated water in zebrafish embryos and report 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-associated developmental abnormalities, including defects in heart formation and circulation, in 3D. Levels of apoptotic cell death were higher in the actively developing tissues of trinitrotoluene-treated embryos than controls. Live 3D imaging of heart tube development at cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy revealed trinitrotoluene-associated cardiac toxicity, including hypoplastic heart chamber formation and cardiac looping defects, while the real time PCR (polymerase chain reaction quantitatively measured the molecular changes in the heart and blood development supporting the developmental defects at the molecular level. Identification of cellular toxicity in zebrafish using the state-of-the-art 3D imaging system could form the basis of a sensitive biosensor for environmental contaminants and be further valued by combining it with molecular analysis.

  12. Extraction-less, rapid assay for the direct detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) in cork samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Theofylaktos; Pascual, Nuria; Marco, M-Pilar; Moschos, Anastassios; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Kaltsas, Grigoris; Kintzios, Spyridon

    2014-07-01

    2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), the cork taint molecule, has been the target of several analytical approaches over the few past years. In spite of the development of highly efficient and sensitive tools for its detection, ranging from advanced chromatography to biosensor-based techniques, a practical breakthrough for routine cork screening purposes has not yet been realized, in part due to the requirement of a lengthy extraction of TCA in organic solvents, mostly 12% ethanol and the high detectability required. In the present report, we present a modification of a previously reported biosensor system based on the measurement of the electric response of cultured fibroblast cells membrane-engineered with the pAb78 TCA-specific antibody. Samples were prepared by macerating cork tissue and mixing it directly with the cellular biorecognition elements, without any intervening extraction process. By using this novel approach, we were able to detect TCA in just five minutes at extremely low concentrations (down to 0.2 ppt). The novel biosensor offers a number of practical benefits, including a very considerable reduction in the total assay time by one day, and a full portability, enabling its direct employment for on-site, high throughput screening of cork in the field and production facilities, without requiring any type of supporting infrastructure.

  13. The renaissance of 2,4,6-tris(2-pyrimidyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPymT) coordination chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safin, Damir A; Frost, Jamie M; Murugesu, Muralee

    2015-12-21

    In this perspective we report on recently accumulated data on the synthesis and coordination chemistry of 2,4,6-tris(2-pyrimidyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPymT). Although a highly attractive ligand, owing to the presence of three fused terpyridine-like coordination pockets, the coordination chemistry of TPymT has something of a chequered past. This can principally be attributed to the hydrolysis of the ligand, which readily occurs under mild conditions. Thus, after first being synthesised in 1959 it had only been used a handful of times to synthesise coordination compounds until we began reinvestigating its chemistry in early 2013. Despite the significant challenges associated with its use, our work over the past two years has demonstrated that coordination chemistry with TPymT is indeed possible. Herein, we describe an overview of this body of work as it stands, and discuss its potential impact in a variety of areas including porous materials, catalysis and crystal engineering.

  14. Microbial 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene degradation: could we learn from (bio)chemistry for bioremediation and vice versa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenuit, Ben A; Agathos, Spiros N

    2010-11-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is released in nature from manufacturing or demilitarization facilities but also after munitions firing/detonation or leakage from explosive remnants of war. Due to its toxicity and recalcitrance, life cycle of TNT-containing products and bioremediation are critical issues. As TNT is a strongly electron-deficient aromatic with a positive molecular quadrupole moment and three electrophilic nitro groups, its environmental fate is contingent upon specific sorptive electron donor-acceptor interactions and nucleophilic, reductive (bio)transformations. The microbial degradation of TNT is governed by cometabolism and therefore depends on the growth substrate(s) available in contaminated environments. Long considered an ecotoxicological safety endpoint, the immobilization of TNT metabolites derived from nitro moiety reduction in soil is controversial because they preferentially bind to the dissolved soil organic matter which can be released into surface and groundwaters. The ever-growing biochemical knowledge of TNT degradation has made bioaugmentation and phytoremediation attractive alternatives. While the discovery and engineering of microorganisms with novel/improved degradative abilities are very challenging, the deciphering of the physiological roles of promiscuous enzymes involved in TNT biodegradation, such as type II hydride transferases of the Old Yellow Enzyme family, opens new perspectives for bioremediation. Finally, transgenic plants have enabled effective phytoremediation at the field scale, which is emerging as the preferable in situ option to rehabilitate TNT-contaminated sites.

  15. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene mineralization and bacterial production rates of natural microbial assemblages from coastal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Michael T., E-mail: michael.montgomery@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Coffin, Richard B., E-mail: richard.coffin@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Boyd, Thomas J., E-mail: thomas.boyd@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Smith, Joseph P., E-mail: joseph.smith@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Walker, Shelby E., E-mail: Shelby.Walker@noaa.gov [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Osburn, Christopher L., E-mail: chris_osburn@ncsu.edu [Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The nitrogenous energetic constituent, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), is widely reported to be resistant to bacterial mineralization (conversion to CO{sub 2}); however, these studies primarily involve bacterial isolates from freshwater where bacterial production is typically limited by phosphorus. This study involved six surveys of coastal waters adjacent to three biome types: temperate broadleaf, northern coniferous, and tropical. Capacity to catabolize and mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} was a common feature of natural sediment assemblages from these coastal environments (ranging to 270+/-38 {mu}g C kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}). More importantly, these mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. The finding that most natural assemblages surveyed from these ecosystems can mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} is consistent with recent reports that assemblage components can incorporate TNT ring carbon into bacterial biomass. These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - Highlights: > TNT mineralization is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediments. > TNT mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. > These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - The capacity to mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediment.

  16. Astragaloside IV ameliorates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis implicating regulation of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu-Guang; Sun, Kai; Liu, Yu-Ying; Yan, Li; Wang, Ming-Xia; Fan, Jing-Yu; Mu, Hong-Na; Li, Chong; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-She; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-02-02

    Dysfunction of energy metabolism is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was designed to investigate the potential of astragaloside IV (ASIV), an active ingredient of Radix Astragalus, to ameliorate colonic mucosal injury, with focusing on the implication of energy restoration in the underlying mechanism. Experimental colitis model was established in rats by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) through anus. After 24 hours, ASIV was administrated once daily by gavage for 6 days. On day 1 and day 7, colon tissue was collected for macroscopic and histological examination, ELISA, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. TNBS impaired colonic mucosa with an injured epithelial architecture, increased inflammatory cell infiltration, and decreased colonic blood flow. Lgr5 positive cell number in crypt and β-catenin nuclear translocation were down-regulated by TNBS treatment. TNBS induced epithelial F-actin disruption and junctional protein degradation. Furthermore, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and ATP synthase subunit β expression in the colon tissue were significantly decreased after TNBS stimulation. All of the aforementioned alterations were relieved by ASIV post-treatment. The present study revealed that ASIV promoted mucosal healing process in TNBS-induced colitis, which was most likely attributed to regulating energy metabolism.

  17. Synthesis and Docking Studies of 2,4,6-Trihydroxy-3-Geranylacetophenone Analogs as Potential Lipoxygenase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chean Hui Ng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural product molecule 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl-acetophenone (tHGA isolated from the medicinal plant Melicope ptelefolia was shown to exhibit potent lipoxygenase (LOX inhibitory activity. It is known that LOX plays an important role in inflammatory response as it catalyzes the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid to form hydroperoxides. The search for selective LOX inhibitors may provide new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Herein, we report the synthesis of tHGA analogs using simple Friedel-Craft acylation and alkylation reactions with the aim of obtaining a better insight into the structure-activity relationships of the compounds. All the synthesized analogs showed potent soybean 15-LOX inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 10.31–27.61 μM where compound 3e was two-fold more active than tHGA. Molecular docking was then applied to reveal the important binding interactions of compound 3e in soybean 15-LOX binding site. The findings suggest that the presence of longer acyl bearing aliphatic chain (5Cs and aromatic groups could significantly affect the enzymatic activity.

  18. Fate and stability of 14C-labeled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in contaminated soil following microbial bioremediation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Geyer, Roland; Günther, Thomas; Kaestner, Matthias

    2004-09-01

    Biological treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil rarely results in complete mineralization of the parent compound. More often, the largest proportion of the TNT carbon is incorporated into the soil organic matrix. Therefore, we evaluated the stability of nonextractable residues from various bioremediation processes of 14C-TNT in soils. The extractable amounts of the residual radioactivity varied between 7 and 33% and thus the nonextractable amount between 93 and 67% (3-15% in fulvic acids, 26-46% in humic acids, and 27-44% in the humin fraction). The residue-containing soils were analyzed for the release of radioactivity after treatment by physical (freeze and thaw, grinding of soil, and steam extraction), chemical (acid rain and addition of metal complexing agent), and biological methods (addition of compost, white rot fungi, radical-generating enzymes, and germination of plants). Freeze and thaw treatment and grinding of the soil did not alter the partitioning of the label significantly. Steam extraction and acid rain extraction increased the water extractability to 11 to 29% and to 51.6% in the native TNT-contaminated soil. The addition of ethylenediamine-tetraacetate (EDTA) increased the extractability from 7 to 12%. After biological treatment, only slightly increased extractability (residues formed during microbial transformation of TNT may be biogenic residues with low mobilization potential and low hazardous impact.

  19. Phlebitis caused by intravenous administration of alprostadil: analysis of 246 reports%静脉给予前列地尔致静脉炎:246份报告分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高琲; 刘芳; 张俊

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析前列地尔致静脉炎的临床特点、相关因素、预防及治疗方法.方法:检索北京药品不良反应监测网络2003至2010年收到的前列地尔致静脉炎的报告,收集并分析患者的性别、年龄、静脉炎家族史和既往史、原患疾病、前列地尔剂型、给药途径、用药剂量、用药时间、用药至发生静脉炎的时间、临床表现、静脉炎程度、处置方法和预后.结果:共收集到前列地尔致静脉炎报告246份.246例患者中男性167例,平均年龄(66.7±16.1)岁,女性79例,平均年龄(68.1±12.3)岁.23例有静脉炎既往史,5例有静脉炎家族史.原患疾病主要为神经系统疾病(92例,37.4%)、外科疾病(26例,10.6%)和循环系统疾病(25例,10.2%).244例(99.2%)使用前列地尔注射液,2例(0.8%)使用前列地尔粉针.前列地尔注射液用药剂量分别为10μg/d(213例,87.3%)和20 μg/d(21例,8.6%).前列地尔粉针用药剂量为10 μg/d.前列地尔的给药方式:97.2%(239例)的患者采用静脉滴注,2.8%(7例)采用静脉注射.用药时间中位数为2 d(3.5±3.1)d.发生静脉炎的时间为给药后20 min.按照美国Intravenous Nurses Society制定的标准评判静脉炎严重程度,145例患者(66.5%)为1级静脉炎,57例(26.1%)为2级,15例(6.9%)为3级.主要临床表现为穿刺部位出现红斑、疼痛、形成静脉条纹和索状物.性别、年龄、给药途径、用药剂量及用药时间在1、2级与3级患者间的差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).治疗方法包括停药、外敷、减慢静脉滴注速度、更换穿刺部位和用0.9%氯化钠注射液稀释前列地尔注射剂等.203份报告有静脉炎预后结果,其中124例治愈,79例好转.结论:静脉给予前列地尔可引起静脉炎,其程度较轻,停药或对症治疗后预后良好.%Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics, related factors, as well as prevention and treatment of phlebitis associated

  20. Synthesis and Low Temperature Spectroscopic Observation of 1,3,5-Trioxane-2,4,6-Trione: The Cyclic Trimer of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Synthesis and Low Temperature Spectroscopic Observation of 1,3,5- Trioxane-2,4,6-Trione: The Cyclic Trimer of Carbon Dioxide Michael J. Rodig...concern, carbon dioxide has been the subject of much research directed at its reutilization. Various approaches toward this CO2 reutilization goal have...that increased with molecular size.10,11 Later experimental work found under extreme pressure/ temperature (40 GPa/1800 K), CO2 will transform to a

  1. 1,1´,1´´-(2,4,6-Trihydroxybenzene-1,3,5-triyl)triethanone tautomerism revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Zhiryakova, Diana;

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that 1,1′,1′′-(2,4,6-trihydroxybenzene-1,3,5-triyl)triethanone may be tautomeric. Using 13C NMR chemical shifts and deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts, it is demonstrated that this is not the case. This compound occurs as a strongly hydrogen bonded ben....... In addition, conventional UV–vis spectroscopy data suggest not tautomeric, but aggregation behaviour of the molecule in methanol and acetonitrile....

  2. Direct determination of 2,4,6-tricholoroanisole in wines by single-drop ionic liquid microextraction coupled with multicapillary column separation and ion mobility spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Sillero, Isabel; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2011-10-21

    This article evaluates the capability of single drop ionic liquid microextraction coupled with multicapillary column (MCC) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) for the determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in wines. The proposed methodology permits the direct analysis of the samples without any additional treatment other than dilution. This is achieved thanks to the selectivity provided by the ionic liquid selected as extractant, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide, as well as the response of the analyte in the IMS working in negative ionization mode. Moreover, the multicapillary column avoids the interference of ethanol in the ion mobility spectra. The analysis of the sample takes ca. 35 min to be completed. The limit of detection was low as 0.01 ng L(-1) using 2 mL of wine sample. Different calibration curves were constructed using aqueous standards, red and white wines, being the signals comparable, with an RSD similar to the method variability. Finally, a set of samples of different nature and packed in different containers were analysed. It was found than those with cork stoppers presented the highest concentration of 2,4,6-TCA.

  3. Structural properties, vibrational spectra and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of 2,4,6-trichloro- and tribromoanilines: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Kabiru; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Al Thagfi, Jameel; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-10-01

    A comparative electronic and spectroscopic analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroaniline (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoaniline (TBA) was carried out by theoretical and experimental techniques. The NH2 inversion barrier in TCA and TBA molecules was predicted to be three times less than that in aniline and 2,4,6-trifluoroaniline. The size of the halogen substituents in the ortho positions is shown by density functional theory to play an important role in determining the electronic and structural properties of the amino group in the investigated haloaniline derivatives. A thorough interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra has been performed on the basis of the observed and calculated infrared and Raman spectra as well as calculated potential energy distribution values. In addition, the SERS spectra for both trihaloanilines were successfully collected up to a concentration of 10-6 M using aged hydroxylamine-reduced silver colloid as an active substrate for TCA and TBA. SERS intensities of several peaks were found to linearly change with concentration allowing quantitative analyses of TCA and TBA. A relatively stronger interaction in the case of TBA-silver colloids is predicted compared to the TCA analogue.

  4. Comparative Investigation on the Photocatalytic Degradation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Using Pure and M-Doped (M = Ba, Ce, Mg) ZnO Spherical Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, N Clament Sagaya; Jesudoss, S K; Rajan, P Iyyappa; Kennedy, L John; Vijaya, J Judith

    2015-08-01

    Pure and M-doped (Ba, Ce, Mg) ZnO spherical nanoparticles are synthesized by a simple low temperature co-precipitation method, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The XRD results showed the formation of single phase ZnO with wurtzite crystal structure and the electron microscopic studies supported the validity for the formation of pure and M-doped (Ba, Ce, Mg) ZnO spherical nanoparticles. Photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, a potent endocrine disrupting chemical in aqueous medium was investigated by both pure and M-doped (Ba, Ce, Mg) ZnO spherical nanoparticles under UV-light irradiation. The influence of the metal dopants on the structure and photocatalytic (PC) activity of ZnO was investigated systematically. Furthermore, the effect of different parameters such as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol concentration, photocatalyst amount, pH and dopant wt% on the resulting PC activity was investigated. The kinetics of the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol was found to follow the pseudo-first order reaction, and it was established that Ba-doped ZnO is photocatalytically more active than the other photocatalysts.

  5. Two New Iron Coordination Polymers Based on Fe-pyta ChainsIncorporating Pyridine-2,4,6-tricarboxylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zi-yun; PENG Meng-xia

    2008-01-01

    Reaction of FeCl2·6H2O,pyridine-2,4,6-tricarboxylie acid(H3pyta) and NaOH in the hydrothermal system at 185℃ resulted in the formation of 1D coordination polymer[Fe(Hpyta)(H2O)2](1) based on Fe-Hpyta chains,When the abpt[abpt=4-amino-3,5-bis(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole]ligand was employed in the reaction system,a 3D supramolecular porous network (H2bpt)[Fe(pyta)(H2O)2]·4H2O(2) was obtained,The framework was constructed with negative (Fe-pyta) chains and the positive H2bpt+ in situ,formed from the abpt reagent,to form 1D channels filled with guest water molecules via hydrogen-bonds,X-Ray diffraction crystal structure analysis shows that complex 1 crystallized in the monoclinic system,space group C2/c,a=1.1490(5) nm,b=0.9008(4) nm,c=1.0058(5) nm,β=107.254(9)°,V=0.9942(8) nm3,Z=4; and complex 2 crystallizes in the triclinic system,space group P(1) with a=0.90392(11) nm,b=0.96027(11) nm,c=1.55540(18)nm,a=73.558(2)°,β=86.126(2)°,y=68.745(2)°,V=1.2059(2) nm3 and Z=2.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and interspecies allometric scaling of ST-246, an oral antiviral therapeutic for treatment of orthopoxvirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Amantana

    Full Text Available Plasma pharmacokinetics of ST-246, smallpox therapeutic, was evaluated in mice, rabbits, monkeys and dogs following repeat oral administrations by gavage. The dog showed the lowest Tmax of 0.83 h and the monkey, the highest value of 3.25 h. A 2- to 4-fold greater dose-normalized Cmax was observed for the dog compared to the other species. The mouse showed the highest dose-normalized AUC, which was 2-fold greater than that for the rabbit and monkey both of which by approximation, recorded the lowest value. The Cl/F increased across species from 0.05 L/h for mouse to 42.52 L/h for dog. The mouse showed the lowest VD/F of 0.41 L and the monkey, the highest VD/F of 392.95 L. The calculated extraction ratios were 0.104, 0.363, 0.231 and 0.591 for mouse, rabbit, monkey and dog, respectively. The dog showed the lowest terminal half-life of 3.10 h and the monkey, the highest value of 9.94 h. The simple allometric human VD/F and MLP-corrected Cl/F were 2311.51 L and 51.35 L/h, respectively, with calculated human extraction ratio of 0.153 and terminal half-life of 31.20 h. Overall, a species-specific difference was observed for Cl/F with this parameter increasing across species from mouse to dog. The human MLP-corrected Cl/F, terminal half-life, extraction ratios were in close proximity to the observed estimates. In addition, the first-in-humans (FIH dose of 485 mg, determined from the MLP-corrected allometry Cl/F, was well within the dose range of 400 mg and 600 mg administered in healthy adult human volunteers.

  7. Transplacental transport and fetal localization of bispehnol A, tetrabromobisphenol A and 2,4,6-tribromophenol in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, A.; Brunstroem, B.; Brandt, I. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology; Cantillana, T.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an intermediate in the production of epoxy resins, while its brominated derivative tetrabromobishenol A (TBBPA) and its photolysis degradation product 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) are widely used flame retardants. These brominated compounds have been identified in human blood. TBBPA, TBP and a number of 4-hydroxy-PCBs (e.g. 4-OH-CB107) are high affinity ligands for the thyroxin (T4) transporter transthyretin (TTR) in rodents and other species. Displacement of T4 from the TTR binding site has been proposed as an important mechanism of endocrine disruption by certain halogenated phenolic environmental pollutants. BPA is a fairly potent environmental estrogen receptor agonist that can induce an array of estrogenic effects in several species including mammals, birds and fish. Although the estrogenic activity of TBBPA is less obvious, this brominated BPA analog has been reported to interact with the estrogen receptor and induce estrogenic effects in some in vitro test systems. While the reproductive and developmental toxicity of BPA is well documented, there is evidence that also halogenated phenolic compounds can pass the placental barrier and induce such toxicity. Within the objectives of the COMPARE EU project we study the fetal and maternal kinetics and transplacental transport of phenolic environmental pollutants in pregnant mice. To explore the role of TTR in the placental and blood-brain barrier transport, we employ TTR-deficient mice. For comparative reasons, we also explore the transfer to bird embryos following injection into the yolk or administration to the egg-laying bird. In the present communication, we report on the disposition of BPA, TBBPA and TBP in the fetoplacental unit in pregnant wild-type mice.

  8. Alkaline Hydrolysis/Polymerization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene: Characterization of Products by 13C and 15N NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, K.A.; Thorne, P.G.; Cox, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis has been investigated as a nonbiological procedure for the destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in explosives contaminated soils and munitions scrap. Nucleophilic substitutions of the nitro and methyl groups of TNT by hydroxide ion are the initial steps in the alkaline degradation of TNT. Potential applications of the technique include both in situ surface liming and ex situ alkaline treatment of contaminated soils. A number of laboratory studies have reported the formation of an uncharacterized polymeric material upon prolonged treatment of TNT in base. As part of an overall assessment of alkaline hydrolysis as a remediation technique, and to gain a better understanding of the chemical reactions underlying the hydrolysis/polymerization process, the soluble and precipitate fractions of polymeric material produced from the calcium hydroxide hydrolysis of unlabeled and 15N-labeled TNT were analyzed by elemental analysis and 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectra indicated that reactions leading to polymerization included nucleophilic displacement of nitro groups by hydroxide ion, formation of ketone, carboxyl, alcohol, ether, and other aliphatic carbons, conversion of methyl groups to diphenyl methylene carbons, and recondensation of aromatic amines and reduced forms of nitrite, including ammonia and possibly hydroxylamine, into the polymer. Compared to the distribution of carbons in TNT as 14% sp 3- and 86% sp2-hybridized, the precipitate fraction from hydrolysis of unlabeled TNT contained 33% sp3- and 67% sp 2-hybridized carbons. The concentration of nitrogen in the precipitate was 64% of that in TNT. The 15N NMR spectra showed that, in addition to residual nitro groups, forms of nitrogen present in the filtrate and precipitate fractions include aminohydroquinone, primary amide, indole, imine, and azoxy, among others. Unreacted nitrite was recovered in the filtrate fraction. The toxicities and susceptibilities to

  9. Label-Free Electrochemiluminescence Aptasensor for 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Based on Bilayer Structure of Luminescence Functionalized Graphene Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Yu, Xiuxia; Liu, Danqing; Liu, Xiaoying; Li, Fang; Cui, Hua

    2015-11-03

    The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol)/hemin dual-functionalized graphene hybrids (A-H-GNs) and luminol-functionalized silver/graphene oxide composite (luminol-AgNPs-GO) was investigated under cyclic voltammetry and pulse potential. It was found that A-H-GNs and luminol-AgNPs-GO exhibited excellent ECL activity. On this basis, a label-free ECL aptasensor for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) detection was developed based on bilayer structure of luminescence functionalized graphene hybrids consisting of A-H-GNs and luminol-AgNPs-GO. First, positively charged chitosan-coated A-H-GNs were modified on the surface of indium-doped tin oxide electrode by simple dripping and drying in the air; after that, the modified electrode was immersed in negatively charged luminol-AgNPs-GO modified with aptamer (apta-biotin-SA-luminol-AgNPs-GO) to form apta-biotin-SA-luminol-AgNPs-GO/CS-A-H-GNs/ITO electrode (i.e., aptasensor) by electrostatic interaction. In the presence of TNT, a remarkable decrease in ECL signals was observed due to the formation of aptamer-TNT complex. TNT could be detected based on the inhibition effect. The aptasensor exhibits a wide dynamic range from 1.0 × 10(-12) to 1.0 × 10(-9) g/mL, with a low detection limit of 6.3 × 10(-13) g/mL for the determination of TNT, which is superior to most previously reported bioassays for TNT. Moreover, the proposed aptasensor has been successfully applied to the detection of TNT in environmental water. It is sensitive, selective, and simple, avoiding complicated labeling and purification procedures. Due to the wide target recognition range of aptamer, this strategy provides a promising way to develop new aptasensor for other analytes.

  10. Effects of mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Dong, Jiao; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Zhai, Jing; Ge, Bin

    2016-09-01

    The mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSODm) has been synthesized and reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether MnSODm has anti-inflammatory effects on colitis and any underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study was to investigate therapeutic effects and mechanism of MnSODm on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis model in rats. Rats were intragastrically administered MnSODm (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) per day for 7 days after colitis was induced by TNBS. After treated with MnSODm, the colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage scores and colonic weight/length ratios were significantly decreased compared with colitis model group. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malonyldialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in colon tissues were also significantly decreased in MnSODm treatment groups. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased and phosphorylated inhibitory kappa B-alpha (IκBα), inhibitor kappa B kinase (IKKα/β), and nuclear factor-kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65) as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation actor 88 (MyD88) in the colonic mucosa were significantly inhibited by MnSODm treatment. Thus, MnSODm was protective against colitis via antioxidant activity and by inhibiting inflammatory mediators by down-regulating TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways. These data suggest a potential therapeutic effect of MnSODm in colitis.

  11. Chemical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN246 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-15 to 2010-03-05 (NODC Accession 0117396)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0117396 includes chemical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN246 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific...

  12. Uptake of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Vetiver grass (Vetiviera ziznoides L.) -- Preliminary results from a hydroponic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, K. M.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Makris, K.; Pachanoor, D.

    2006-05-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene(TNT) is a potent mutagen and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. As a result, vast areas that have been previously used as military ranges, munition burning and open detonation sites have been heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remedial activities in such contaminated sites commonly rely on methods such as incineration, land filling and soil composting. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective solution, utilizing plants to phytoextract TNT from the contaminated soil. We propose the use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) to remove TNT from such contaminated soils. Vetiver is a fast-growing and adaptive grass, enabling its use in TNT-contaminated sites in a wide variety of soil types and climate. We also hypothesized that TNT removal by vetiver grass will be enhanced by utilizing a chaotropic agent (urea) to alter rhizosphere/root hair chemical environment. The objectives of this preliminary hydroponic study were: i) to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver grass in removing TNT from solution, and ii) to evaluate the use of a common agrochemical (urea) in enhancing TNT removal by vetiver grass. Vetiver plants were grown in a hydroponic system with five different TNT concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg TNT L-1) and three urea concentrations (0, 0.01 and 0.1%). A plant density of 10 g L-1 and three replicate vessels per treatment were used. Aliquots were collected at several time intervals up to 192 hour, and were analyzed for TNT with HPLC. Results showed that vetiver was able to remove TNT from hydroponic solutions. The overall magnitude and kinetics of TNT removal by vetiver grass was enhanced in the presence of urea. TNT removal kinetics depended on TNT and urea initial concentrations, suggestive of second-order kinetic reactions. Preliminary results are encouraging, but in need for verification using more detailed studies involving TNT-contaminated soils. Ongoing

  13. SEMI SINTESIS SENYAWA 2,4,6-TRINITROFENILHIDRAZON KALANON DAN UJI AKTIVITAS TERHADAP SEL LEUKIMIA L1210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Chasani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kalanon adalah senyawa antikanker yang diisolasi dari Calophyllum biflorum Hends dan Ws. Aktivitas kalanon terhadap sel leukemia L1210 masih rendah yakni dengan niali IC50 = 59,4 ug/mL. Suatu senyawa dikatakan aktif sebagai antikanker jjika memiliki nilai IC50 di bawah 10 ug/mL. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mensintesis senyawa turunan kalanon dan diharapkan diperoleh senyawa baru yang mempunyai aktivitas lebih tinggi dibandingkan senyawa asal kalanon. Senyawa turunan kalanon diperoleh melalui reaksi antara kalanon dengan 2,4,6-trinitrofenilhidrazin. Reaksi dilakukan pada suhu 78 oC selama delapan jam. Analisis pendahuluan senyawa hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan metode kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT menggunakan eluen n-heksana dan etil asetat (2:1, v/v. Pemurnian senyawa hasil sintesis menggunakan teknik rekristalisasi dengan pelarut n-heksana dan diklorometan (3:1, v/v. Senyawa hasil sintesis diperoleh dengan Rf = 0,6609 dan rendemen 5,125 % ( b/b serta berupa kristal berwarna coklat. Identifikasi senyawa hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan spektrometer massa dan spektrofotometer IR. Hasil identifikasi menunjukkan bahwa senyawa hasil sintesis yang diharapkan telah terbentuk. Data spektrometer massa diperoleh ion molekul M+ = 647 dengan lepasnya molekul H2. Fragmen-fragmen yang terbentuk adalah pada m/e = 504, m/e = 479, m/e = 451, m/e = 429, m/e = 405, m/e = 377, m/e = 341, m/e = 316, m/e = 281, m/e = 253, m/e = 233, m/e = 207, m/e = 177, m/e = 156, m/e = 135, m/e = 96, m/e = 73, dan m/e = 41. Hasil spektrofotometer IR menunjukkan pita serapan pada 1654.8 cm-1 yang merupakan daerah regang ikatan rangkap C=N, pita serapan pada 3000 cm-1 – 3400 cm-1 adalah pita getaran OH fenol dan pita pada 1380 cm-1 menunjukkan rentangan simetri gugus nitro (NO2. Hasil uji sitotoksik terhadap sel leukemia L1210 menghasilkan nilai IC50 sebesr 47.69 μg/ml.

  14. Visceral hypersensitivity is provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Crohn’s Disease (CD, a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most frequently in the ileum. Visceral hypersensitivity contributes for development of chronic abdominal pain in this disease. Currently, the understanding of the mechanism underlying hypersensitivity of Crohn’s ileitis has been hindered by a lack of specific animal model. The present study is undertaken to investigate the visceral hypersensitivity provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS-induced ileitis rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and laparotomized for intraileal injection of TNBS (0.6 ml, 80 mg/kg body weight in 30% ethanol, n = 48, an equal volume of 30% Ethanol (n = 24 and Saline (n = 24, respectively. Visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by visceromotor responses (VMR to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmHg colorectal distension pressure (CRD at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Immediately after CRD test, the rats were euthanized for collecting the terminal ileal segment for histopathological examinations and ELISA of myleoperoxidase and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and dorsal root ganglia (T11 for determination of calcitonin gene-related peptide by immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Among all groups, TNBS-treatment showed transmural inflammation initially at 3 days, reached maximum at 7 days and persisted up to 21 days. The rats with ileitis exhibited (P < 0.05 VMR to CRD at day 7 to day 21. The calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive positive cells increased (P < 0.05 in dorsal root ganglia at day 7 to 21, which was persistently consistent with visceral hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats.Conclusions: TNBS injection into the ileum induced transmural ileitis including granuloma and visceral hypersensitivity. As this model mimics clinical manifestations of CD, it may provide a road map to probe the pathogenesis of gut inflammation and visceral

  15. Assembly of tetra, di and mononuclear molecular cadmium phosphonates using 2,4,6-triisopropylphenylphosponic acid and ancillary ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Sasikumar, Palani; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy

    2008-10-14

    The reaction of ArPO(3)H(2) (Ar = 2,4,6-iPr(3)-C(6)H(2)) with Cd(CH(3)COO)(2).2H(2)O using various co-ligands such as methanol, dimethylformamide (DMF) and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMPZH) resulted in the formation of tetranuclear assemblies [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(CH(3)OH)(4)].3(CH(3)OH) (1), [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(DMF)(4)].3(DMF) (2) and [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(DMF)(2)(DMPZH)(2)].2(DMF).2(H(2)O) (3). In all of these compounds the tetranuclear cadmium array, containing two five-coordinate and two six-coordinate cadmium atoms, is held together by two mu(4) capping [ArPO(3)](2-) and four anisobidentate mu(2) [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Each cadmium atom is bound to an additional ancillary ligand. The reaction of ArPO(3)H(2) with Cd(CH(3)COO)(2).2H(2)O in the presence of the chelating ligand 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) leads to the exclusive formation of the dinuclear assembly [Cd(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(bipy)(2)].(CH(3)OH)(H(2)O) (4). The latter contains an eight-membered Cd(2)P(2)O(4) inorganic ring formed as a result of the bridging coordination action of two anisobidentate mu(2) [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Each cadmium atom is bound by one chelating bipy and one monodentate [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Use of four equivalents of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole leads to the formation of the mononuclear derivative [Cd(ArPO(3)H)(2)(DMPZH)(4)] (5). The molecular structure of the latter comprises of a central cadmium atom surrounded by six monodentate ligands. Four of these are neutral pyrazole ligands that occupy the equatorial plane; the remaining two are anionic phosphinate ligands which are present trans to each other. The thermal analysis of 1 and 4 reveals that the char residue obtained at 600 degrees C consists predominantly of Cd(2)P(2)O(7).

  16. Reactivity of partially reduced arylhydroxylamine and nitrosoarene metabolites of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) toward biomass and humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farrukh; Hughes, Joseph B

    2002-10-15

    Sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) generally results in the incorporation of residues into biomass and natural organic matter fractions of a system. To better understand the potential contribution of hydroxylamine and nitroso moieties in these reactions, studies were conducted using model systems taking advantage of the biocatalytic-activity of Clostridium acetobutylicum that does not produce aminated TNT derivatives. To evaluate binding to biomass only, systems containing cell-free extracts of C. acetobutylicum and molecular hydrogen as a reductant were employed. At the end of treatment, mass balance studies showed that 10% of the total 14C was associated with an insoluble protein-containing precipitate that could not be extracted with organic solvents. Model reactions were conducted between a mixture of 2,4-dihydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene (DHA6NT) and 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4HADNT) and 1-thioglycerol to test the involvement of the nitroso-thiol reaction in binding to biomass. It was demonstrated that DHA6NT formed a new and relatively polar product with 1-thioglycerol only in the presence of oxygen. The oxygen requirement confirmed that the nitroso functionality was responsible for the binding reaction. The reactivity of arylhydroxylamino and nitrosoarene functionalities toward International Humic Substance Society (IHSS) peat humic acid was evaluated under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. 4HADNT showed no appreciable reactivity toward peat humic acid. Conversely, the nitrosoarene compound, nitrosobenzene, showed rapid reactivity with peat humic acid (50% removal in 48 h). When tested with two other humic acids (selected on the basis of their protein content), it became apparent that the proteinaceous fraction was responsible at least in part for the nitrosoarene's removal from solution. Furthermore, the pretreatment of the humic acids with a selective thiol derivatizing agent had a considerable effect

  17. Photophysical Diversity of Water-Soluble Fluorescent Conjugated Polymers Induced by Surfactant Stabilizers for Rapid and Highly Selective Determination of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Naader; Akbarinejad, Alireza; Ghoorchian, Arash

    2016-09-21

    The increasing application of fluorescence spectroscopy in development of reliable sensing platforms has triggered a lot of research interest for the synthesis of advanced fluorescent materials. Herein, we report a simple, low-cost strategy for the synthesis of a series of water-soluble conjugated polymer nanoparticles with diverse emission range using cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB), anionic (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, SDBS), and nonionic (TX114) surfactants as the stabilizing agents. The role of surfactant type on the photophisical and sensing properties of resultant polymers has been investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), FT-IR, UV-vis, fluorescence, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectroscopies. The results show that the surface polarity, size, and spectroscopic and sensing properties of conjugated polymers could be well controlled by the proper selection of the stabilizer type. The fluorescent conjugated polymers exhibited fluorescence quenching toward nitroaromatic compounds. Further studies on the fluorescence properties of conjugated polymers revealed that the emission of the SDBS stabilized polymer, N-methylpolypyrrole-SDBS (NMPPY-SDBS), is strongly quenched by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene molecule with a large Stern -Volmer constant of 59 526 M(-1) and an excellent detection limit of 100 nM. UV-vis and cyclic voltammetry measurements unveiled that fluorescence quenching occurs through a charge transfer mechanism between electron rich NMPPY-SDBS and electron deficient 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene molecules. Finally, the as-prepared conjugated polymer and approach were successfully applied to the determination of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in real water samples.

  18. PRIMA-1Met/APR-246 induces apoptosis and tumor growth delay in small cell lung cancer expressing mutant p53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandi, Roza; Selivanova, Galina; Christensen, Camilla Laulund;

    2011-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis, necessitating the need to develop new and efficient treatment modalities. PRIMA-1(Met) (p53-dependent reactivation of massive apoptosis), also known as APR-246, is a small molecule, which restores tumor suppressor...... function to mutant p53 and induces cancer cell death in various cancer types. Since p53 is mutated in more than 90% of SCLC, we investigated the ability of PRIMA-1(Met) to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in SCLC with different p53 mutations....

  19. Synthesis, structural and solvent influence studies on solvatochromic mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes with the rigid nitrogen ligand: bis[ N-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ayaan, Usama; Murata, Fumiko; El-Derby, Soheir; Fukuda, Yutaka

    2004-04-01

    Three mixed-ligand copper (II) complexes containing the rigid bidentate nitrogen ligand bis[ N-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene (abbr. 2,4,6-Me 3C 6H 2-BIAN) and β-diketonate (dike) ligands are reported and characterized. These complexes namely, [Cu(dike)(2,4,6-Me 3C 6H 2-BIAN)]ClO 4 {where dike=acac (acetylacetonate), bzac (benzoylacetonate) or (dibm) dibenzoylmethanate}have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic, magnetic and molar conductance measurements. In addition to their high solubility in various organic solvents, these three complexes show a color change on going from one solvent to another, that is, strong solvatochromism of their solutions. The observed solvatochromism is mainly due to the solute-solvent interaction between the chelate cation and the solvent molecules. Reported also are the X-ray crystal structures of the free 2,4,6-Me 3C 6H 2-BIAN ligand and the [Cu(acac)(2,4,6-Me 3C 6H 2-BIAN)]ClO 4 complex.

  20. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Ladder-like Organooxotin Cluster from 2,4,6-Trimethylbenzolic Acid and N-Benzylhydroxylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-Hua; CHEN Man-Sheng; LI Wei; YANG Ying-Qun; KUANG Dai-Zhi; DENG Yi-Fang

    2007-01-01

    The title complex {[(C6H5CH2)4Sn2(OOCC9H11)(ONHCH2C6H5)]O}2 (C9H11COO= 2,4,6- trimethylbenzolicate) has been synthesized by the reaction of bis-benzyltin oxide with 2,4,6-trimethylbenzolic acid and N-benzylhydroxylamine in 1:1:1 molar radio (C45H47NO4Sn2) and characterized by IR,1H NMR spectra and elemental analysis,and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction.It crystallizes in monoclinic,space group P21/c with a = 1.5654(5),b = 1.6467(6),c = 1.7433(6) nm,β = 111.729(5)°,Z= 2,V= 4.175(2) nm3,Mr = 903.22,Dc = 1.437g/cm3,μ = 1.238 mm-1,F(000) = 1824,R = 0.0440 and wR = 0.0906.The structure shows that the central tin atom is five-coordinated to assume a distorted trigonal bipyramidal configuration.The compound belongs to centrosymmetric dimer structure with four-membered central endo-cyclic Sn2O2 units in which the bridging oxygen atoms are tri-coordinated.

  1. Fungal strains isolated from cork stoppers and the formation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole involved in the cork taint of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prak, Sina; Gunata, Ziya; Guiraud, Joseph-Pierre; Schorr-Galindo, Sabine

    2007-05-01

    Cork taint is mainly due to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) produced through the activity of undesirable fungal strains. We observed that CFU mould number in TCA-containing stoppers was not quantitatively different to that of the stoppers not containing TCA (ca. 10(5)CFU/g). In contrast more fungi diversity was observed in TCA-containing stoppers. Penicillium spp (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium glabrum), Aspergillus spp (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae), Chrysonilia sitophila, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma viride were found in TCA-containing stoppers, while C. sitophila and Penicillium sp. were the main fungi in the stoppers devoid of TCA. Conidia were numerous close to the lenticels and present from the lateral surface through to the centre of the stoppers. Strains of Aspergillus, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma isolated from TCA-containing stoppers were able to convert 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) in TCA in resting cell or growing conditions. The best yields of conversion were obtained by green fungi Paecilomyces sp. and P. chrysogenum, 17% and 20%, respectively. Chysonilia sitophila and Penicillium sp. did not produce TCA from TCP in our conditions.

  2. Hexaaquabis[3,5-bis(hydroxyimino-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxocyclohexanido-κ2N3,O4]barium tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Do

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ba(C7H5N2O52(H2O6]·4H2O, the Ba2+ cation lies on a twofold rotation axis and is ten-coordinated by two 3,5-bis(hydroxyimino-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxocyclohexanide oxo O atoms [Ba—O = 2.8715 (17 Å], two hydroxyimino N atoms [Ba—N = 3.036 (2 Å], and six water molecules [Ba—O = 2.847 (2, 2.848 (2, and 2.880 (2 Å]. The 3,5-bis(hydroxyimino-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxocyclohexanide monoanions act in a bidentate chelating manner, coordinating through an N atom of the non-deprotonated hydroxyimino group and an O atom of the neighboring oxo group. Two lattice water molecules are located in the cavities of the framework and are involved in hydrogen bonding to O atoms of one of the coordinating water molecules and the O atom of a keto group of the ligand. As a result, a three-dimensional network is formed.

  3. Decomposition of dinitrotoluene isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in spent acid from toluene nitration process by ozonation and photo-ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shing; Juan, Chien-Neng; Wei, Kuo-Ming

    2007-08-17

    Ozone and UV/O3 were employed to mineralize dinitrotoluene (DNT) isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in spent acid from toluene nitration process. The oxidative degradation tests were carried out to elucidate the influence of various operating variables on the performance of mineralization of total organic compounds (TOC) in spent acid, including reaction temperature, intensity of UV (254 nm) irradiation, dosage of ozone and concentration of sulfuric acid. It is remarkable that the nearly complete mineralization of organic compounds can be achieved by ozonation combined with UV irradiation. Nevertheless, the hydroxyl radicals (*OH) would not be generated by either ozone decomposition or photolysis of ozone under the experimental condition of this study. According to the spectra identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and further confirmed by gas chromatograph/flame ionization detector (GC/FID), the multiple oxidation pathways of DNT isomers are given, which include o-, m-, p-mononitrotoluene (MNT) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In addition, oxidative degradation of 2,4,6-TNT leads to a 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene intermediate.

  4. Syntheses, Characterization and Antitumour Activities of Rare Earth Metal Complexes with 2-(((4,6-dimethyl)-2-Pyrimidinyl)thio)-Acetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Eight rare earth metal (Ⅲ) complexes with 2-(((4,6-dimethyl)-2-pyrimidinyl)thio)-acetic acid, LnL3*nH2O [HL=2-(((4,6-dimethyl)-2-pyrimidinyl)thio)-acetic acid; Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm Eu, Gd, Tb; n=4 or 5], were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, complexometric titration, thermal analysis, conductivity, IR and 1H-NMR. The results reveal that carboxyl group of the ligand coordinates with rare earth ions in bidentate mode after deprotonated. The water molecules exist as crystal water in the complexes. The anti-tumour activities of HL and some complexes were tested by both the MTT and SRB methods. The results show that the suppression ratios of some complexes against the tested tumour cells (HL-60 human leukemia cell lines, BGC-823 human gastric carcinoma cell lines, hela human cervix adenocarcinoma cell lines and Bel-7402 human hepatic carcinoma cell lines) are superior to HL.

  5. Unique structural properties of 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylanilide: isomerization and switching between separable amide rotamers through the reaction of anilide enolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukagoshi, Shiori; Ototake, Nobutaka; Ohnishi, Yusuke; Shimizu, Mayu; Kitagawa, Osamu

    2013-05-17

    Herein, we report a unique structural property of 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylanilide, which can be separated into its amide rotamers at room temperature. Interconversion between the rotamers of anilide enolates occurs readily at room temperature and their reaction with electrophiles gives mixtures of the rotamers in a ratio that depends on the reactivity of the corresponding electrophile. That is, the reaction of the 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylacetanilide enolate with reactive electrophiles, such as allyl bromide or protic acids, gives mixtures of the anilide rotamers in which the E rotamer is the major component, whereas less-reactive electrophiles, such as 1-bromopropane and 2-iodopropane, yield mixtures of the rotamers in which the Z rotamer is the major component. The rotameric ratio of the product is also strongly dependent on the reactivity of the anilide enolate. Switching between the anilide rotamers can be achieved through protonation of a less-reactive enolate by a less-reactive protic acid and thermal isomerization of the anilide.

  6. Paired observation of californium-252 neutron intraluminal brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy with and without lead shielding for cervical cancer%252 Cf中子腔内照射结合挡铅与不挡铅外照射治疗宫颈癌的配对观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴卓捷; 雷新; 陈永红; 刘佳

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较252 Cf中子腔内照射结合挡铅盆腔对穿野和不挡铅箱式四野外照射治疗宫颈癌的治疗结果。方法2004—2007年本院收治的Ⅱa—Ⅲb 期的宫颈鳞癌患者,按照临床分期、年龄、肿瘤大小、贫血程度为配对条件,共筛选出26对(52例)研究对象,分为挡铅盆腔对穿野组(挡铅组)和不挡铅箱式四野组(不挡铅组)。两组患者外照射期间穿插252 Cf中子后装治疗。 Kaplan?Meier法计算5年LC、OS、DFS 并 Logrank 检验差异,晚期并发症发生率差异行 McNemar 法检验。结果挡铅、不挡铅组5年LC 率分别为85%、81%(P=0??014),OS 率分别为89%、73%(P=0??013),DFS 率分别为89%、73%(P=0??013),晚期并发症发生率分别为12%、23%(P=0??008)。结论腔内照射结合外照射治疗宫颈癌时无论采取对穿野还是箱式四野,后程前后野中央均应挡铅。%Objective To compare the efficacy between californium?252 ( 252 Cf ) neutron intraluminal brachytherapy combined with external?beam radiotherapy with lead?shielding pelvic parallel opposing field technique and non?lead?shielding four?field box technique for cervical cancer. Methods A total of 52 patients with stage Ⅱa?Ⅲb cervical squamous cell carcinoma who were admitted to our hospital from 2004 to 2007 were enrolled as subjects and paired by clinical stage, age, tumor size, and degree of anemia. The 26 pairs of patients were divided into lead?shielding pelvic parallel opposing field group (lead?shielding group) and non?lead?shielding four?field box group (non?lead?shielding group). For all patients in both groups, 252 Cf neutron brachytherapy was added in external?beam radiotherapy. The local control (LC), overall survival (OS), and disease?free survival (DFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan?Meier method and analyzed using the log?rank test. The difference in the incidence of late complications was

  7. 1,3-Di(2-p-tolylvinyl)-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene: X-ray Crystallographic Analysis, Thermal Decomposition and DFT Calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG, Li-Qiong; LIU, Yan-Hong; ZHANG, Jian-Guo; ZHANG, Tong-Lai; YANG, Lia; QIAO, Xiao-Jing; HU, Xiao-Chun; GUO, Jin-Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the synthesis, crystal culturing and single-crystal X-ray crystallography of 1,3-di(2-p-tolylvingl)-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DTTB) were reported. FT-IR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopy techniques were employed to characterize this compound. The results show that this single crystal belongs to triclinic system with space group P-1. Density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP was employed to optimize structure and calculate frequencies of the title compound. The calculated geometrical parameters were close to the corresponding experiment ones. The thermal decomposition of DTTB was investigated by DSC and TG-DTG methods at the heating rate of 10 ℃/min. It was observed that the initial decomposing temperature of DTTB was higher than that of TNTM, although its melting point was lower than that of TNTM, indicating that DTTB has higher heat resistant ability.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazine: a key precursor for the synthesis of high performance energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, D M; Talawar, M B; Harlapur, Sujata F; Asthana, S N; Mahulikar, P P

    2009-12-15

    1,2-Bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazine (3) is one of the precursors in the synthesis of an important energetic material viz., hexanitrazobenzene. The simple and convenient lab scale synthesis of title compound (3) was carried out by the condensation of picryl chloride (2) with hydrazine hydrate at 30-50 degrees C in methanol based on the lines of scanty literature reports. Picryl chloride was synthesized by the reaction of picric acid (1) with phosphorous oxychloride based on the lines of reported method. The synthesized compound (3) was characterized by IR and 1H NMR spectral data. Some of the energetic properties of the synthesized compound have also been studied. The theoretically computed energetic properties of the title compound (3) indicated the superior performance in comparison to tetranitrodibenzo tetraazapentalene (TACOT) and hexanitrostilbene (HNS) in terms of velocity of detonation.

  9. Graphene-based electrochemical sensor for detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in seawater: the comparison of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Madeline Shuhua; Pumera, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The detection of explosives in seawater is of great interest. We compared response single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticle-based electrodes toward the electrochemical reduction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). We optimized parameters such as accumulation time, accumulation potential, and pH. We found that few-layer graphene exhibits about 20% enhanced signal for TNT after accumulation when compared to multilayer graphene nanoribbons. However, graphite microparticle-modified electrode provides higher sensitivity, and there was no significant difference in the performance of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles for the electrochemical detection of TNT. We established the limit of detection of TNT in untreated seawater at 1 μg/mL.

  10. Fabrication of surface plasmon resonance sensor surface with control of the nonspecific adsorption and affinity for the detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene using an antifouling copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eYatabe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor using a hydrophilic polymer for the highly sensitive detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT. The hydrophilic polymer was made from mono-2-(methacryloyloxyethylsuccinate (MES and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP. The detection of TNT was carried out by displacement assay with the SPR measurement. In displacement assay, the affinity between anti-TNT antibody and the sensor surface, affects to the sensitivity. In the SPR measurement, nonspecific adsorption should be controlled because SPR sensor cannot discriminate between specific and nonspecific adsorption. Therefore, the affinity and nonspecific adsorption were controlled by changing the ratio of HEMA to MES. A detection limit of 0.4 ng/ml (ppb for TNT was achieved using a sensor surface with the lowest affinity without nonspecific adsorption.

  11. Evaluation of the endocrine activity of 2,4,6-tribromophenol, benzanthrone and benzophenone-2 based on Appendix 7.8-5 of REACH guidance document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duis, Karen; Holbech, Henrik; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    was performed for benzanthrone, 2,4,6-tribromophenol and benzophenone-2, which differ in the amount of available data. Main focus was on effects on the estrogen/androgen axis. Potential endocrine activity was evaluated based on literature data and additional in vitro and in vivo testing. In the following......, the main findings and the conclusions with regard to Appendix 7.8-5 are highlighted. (1) For benzanthrone, no binding to the estrogen receptor (ER) is predicted using QSAR methods, but potential metabolites with strong affinity to the ER were identified. At present, the endocrine activity...... of such metabolites is not considered in Appendix 7.8-5. Since many in vitro assays have limited metabolic capacity, this is a shortcoming for substances, for which no in vivo data are available. (2) Reporter gene assays indicate weak ER agonism of benzanthrone; in vitro results on androgen receptor mediated effects...

  12. Intermolecular forces and molecular dynamics simulation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) using symmetry adapted perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, DeCarlos E

    2013-04-25

    The dimer potential energy surface (PES) of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been explored using symmetry adapted perturbation theory based on a Kohn-Sham density functional theory description of the monomers [SAPT(DFT)]. An intermolecular potential energy function was parametrized using a grid of 880 ab initio SAPT(DFT) dimer interaction energies, and the function was used to identify stationary points on the SAPT(DFT) dimer PES. It is shown that there exists a variety of minima with a range of bonding configurations and ab initio analyses of the interaction energy components, along with radial cross sections of the PES near each minimum, are presented. Results of isothermal-isostress molecular dynamics simulations are reported, and the simulated structure, thermal expansion, sublimation enthalpy, and bulk modulus of the TATB crystal, based on the SAPT(DFT) interaction potential, are in good agreement with experiment.

  13. (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E )-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] from acarid mite Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, H; Mori, N; Nishida, R; Kuwahara, Y

    2001-12-01

    A mixture of two monoterpenes was obtained as the opisthonotal gland secretion from unidentified Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae), and their structures were elucidated to be (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] by GC/MS, GC/FT-IR, UV and 1H-NMR spectra. Both isomers of (4E)-dehydrocitral prepared by syntheses in 4 steps from 3-methyl-2-butenal with 34.2% yields (based on the ylide) were separated by column chromatography into the (2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. Mass spectra together with GC retention times of the purified natural (4E)-dehydrocitrals were identical with those of synthetic (2E,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. The geometry at the 2-C position of both synthetic (4E)-dehydrocitrals was confirmed by NOESY analyses. This is the first identification of (4E)-dehydrocitrals from the animal kingdom.

  14. Synthesis,Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Properties of a One-dimensional Chain Coordination Polymer[Cu(phen)(2,4,6-TMBA)2(H2O)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; LI Chang-Hong; YANG Ying-Qun; KUANG Yun-Fei

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional chain coordination polymer[Cu(phen)(2,4,6-TMBA)2(H2O)]n has been synthesized by reacting 2,4,6-trimethyl-benzoic acid,1,10-phenanthroline and Cu(Ⅱ)per-chlorate and its structure Was characterized.Crystal data for this complex:tetragonal,space group I41,a=2.0293(3),b=2.0293(3),c=113758(2)nm,a=β=γ=90°,V=5.6657(13)nm3,Dc=1.379g/cm3,Z=8,μ(MoKa)=0.815mm-1,Mr=588.14,F(000)=2456,S=1.047,R=0.0459 and wR=O.1053.The crystal structure shows that two neighboring Cu(Ⅱ)ions are linked together by one bridging-chelating 2,4,6-trimethyl-benzoic group,forming a one-dimensional chain structure.Each Cu(Ⅱ)ion is coordinated with two nitrogen atoms from one 1,10-phenanthroline molecule,three oxygen atoms from three 2,4,6-trimethyl-benzoic acid molecules and one oxygen atom from one water molecule,giving a six-coordinate distorted octahedral coordination geometry.The cyclic voltamrnetry behavior of the complex was also investigated.

  15. 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA): A new organic solid acid for the nitrosation of secondary amines and oxidation of urazoles in the presence of NaNO2 under mild and heterogeneous conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gholamabbas Chehardoli; Mohammad Ali Zolfigol; Toktam Faal-Rastegar; Shadpour Mallakpour; Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani

    2009-07-01

    Melamine reacted with chlorosufonic acid (ClSO3H) to form a new sulfamic-type acid, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA). Both nitrosation of secondary amines and oxidation of urazoles were accomplished by using TTSA/NaNO2 system under mild and heterogeneous conditions with good to excellent yields.

  16. Corrigendum to "The 3-D strain patterns in Turkey using geodetic velocity fields from the RTK-CORS (TR) network" [J. African Earth Sci. 115 (2016) 246-270

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutoglu, Hakan Senol; Toker, Mustafa; Mekik, Cetin

    2016-12-01

    In the article titled "The 3-D Strain patterns in Turkey using Geodetic velocity fields from the RTK-CORS (TR) Network" published in Journal of African Earth Sciences Vol. 11, pp.246-270, the black arrows on the Figs. 10 and 12 are shifted due to printing error to undesired places. The correct form of Figs. 10 and 12 are given below:

  17. Asymmetric Synthesis of Optical Activity 2,4,6-Trimethyl Phenylalanine by Chiral Phase Transfer Catalyst%利用手性相转移催化剂不对称合成旋光性2,4,6-三甲基苯丙氨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鸿睿; 李靖柯; 彭俊; 冯悦; 胡湘南

    2012-01-01

    以甘氨酸(Ⅰ)为原料,在羧基保护下合成底物苯亚甲氨基乙酸乙酯(Ⅲ),然后经手性催化剂(-)-N-苄基氯化辛可尼定(BCDC)和(+)-N-苄基氯化辛可宁(BCNC)的催化,酸水解得到旋光性的2,4,6-三甲基苯丙氨酸(V-2,V-3),总收率分别为28%和31%,比旋光度分别为[α]20D=+16°和[α]20D=-9°.以氯化三乙基苄胺(TEBA)作非手性相转移催化剂得到了消旋2,4,6-三甲基苯丙氨酸(V-1),总收率为32%.并探讨了利用手性相转移催化剂不对称合成的反应机理.

  18. Safety and tolerability of sitagliptin in clinical studies: a pooled analysis of data from 10,246 patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hua

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous pooled analysis of 12 double-blind clinical studies that included data on 6,139 patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor, was shown to be generally well tolerated compared with treatment with control agents. As clinical development of sitagliptin continues, additional studies have been completed, and more patients have been exposed to sitagliptin. The purpose of the present analysis is to update the safety and tolerability assessment of sitagliptin by pooling data from 19 double-blind clinical studies. Methods The present analysis included data from 10,246 patients with type 2 diabetes who received either sitagliptin 100 mg/day (N = 5,429; sitagliptin group or a comparator agent (placebo or an active comparator (N = 4,817; non-exposed group. The 19 studies from which this pooled population was drawn represent the double-blind, randomized studies that included patients treated with the usual clinical dose of sitagliptin (100 mg/day for between 12 weeks and 2 years and for which results were available as of July 2009. These 19 studies assessed sitagliptin taken as monotherapy, initial combination therapy with metformin or pioglitazone, or as add-on combination therapy with other antihyperglycemic agents (metformin, pioglitazone, a sulfonylurea ± metformin, insulin ± metformin, or rosiglitazone + metformin. Patients in the non-exposed group were taking placebo, metformin, pioglitazone, a sulfonylurea ± metformin, insulin ± metformin, or rosiglitazone + metformin. The analysis used patient-level data from each study to evaluate between-group differences in the exposure-adjusted incidence rates of adverse events. Results Summary measures of overall adverse events were similar in the sitagliptin and non-exposed groups, except for an increased incidence of drug-related adverse events in the non-exposed group. Incidence rates of specific adverse events were

  19. The role of metabolism in the toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and its degradation products to the aquatic amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Jerre G; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2008-05-01

    Toxicological data on the effects of the explosive, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and its degradation products suggests an unpredictable toxicological response in aquatic organisms. Several studies suggest TNT becomes more toxic as it degrades while others suggest TNT becomes less toxic. This study focused on the toxicity of TNT and several degradation products as well as the role of oxidative metabolism in the toxicity of TNT. The aquatic invertebrate Hyalella azteca was used to evaluate the toxicity of TNT and four of its degradation products. The most reduced degradation product, 2,4-diamino, 6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) was the most toxic to H. azteca. However, 2,4-DANT was only a minor metabolite in H. azteca. The influence of metabolism on the toxicokinetics of TNT was assessed indirectly through the use of a CYP450 inducer and inhibitor. Treatment of organisms with beta-napthoflavone (BNF), a CYP450 inducer, increased the toxicity of TNT and increased the rate of elimination and metabolism of TNT. Similar to BNF, organisms treated with clotrimazole (CTZ), a CYP450 inhibitor, resulted in increased toxicity and TNT metabolism. It is likely the ability to metabolize or bioactivate TNT to a more reactive intermediate plays a significant role in the sensitivity of organisms to TNT.

  20. catena-Poly[[[aquatripyridinecobalt(II]-μ-5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalato-κ2O1:O3] pyridine solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of cobalt(II nitrate with 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (ATPA in pyridine solution leads to the formation of the title compound, {[Co(C8H2I3NO4(C5H5N3(H2O]·C5H5N}n. The Co2+ ion is six-coordinated by three N atoms, one water O atom and two O atoms from two ATPA ligands to form a distorted octahedral geometry. The two carboxylate groups of ATPA act as bridging ligands connecting the CoII metal centers to form one-dimensional zigzag chains along the c axis, with Co—O distances in the range 2.104 (4–2.135 (4 Å. The average Co—N distance is 2.171 Å. A classical O—H...N hydrogen bond is formed by the coordinating water molecule and the pyridine solvent molecule. The structure was refined from a racemically twinned crystal with a twin ratio of approximately 8:1.

  1. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-07-12

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems.

  2. Stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy for forensic analysis of post-blast scenes: trace detection of ammonium nitrate and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceco, Ema; Önnerud, Hans; Menning, Dennis; Gilljam, John L.; Bââth, Petra; Östmark, Henric

    2014-05-01

    The following paper presents a realistic forensic capability test of an imaging Raman spectroscopy based demonstrator system, developed at FOI, the Swedish Defence Research Agency. The system uses a 532 nm laser to irradiate a surface of 25×25mm. The backscattered radiation from the surface is collected by an 8" telescope with subsequent optical system, and is finally imaged onto an ICCD camera. We present here an explosives trace analysis study of samples collected from a realistic scenario after a detonation. A left-behind 5 kg IED, based on ammonium nitrate with a TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) booster, was detonated in a plastic garbage bin. Aluminum sample plates were mounted vertically on a holder approximately 6 m from the point of detonation. Minutes after the detonation, the samples were analyzed with stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy from a distance of 10 m. Trace amounts could be detected from the secondary explosive (ammonium nitrate with an analysis time of 1 min. Measurement results also indicated detection of residues from the booster (TNT). The sample plates were subsequently swabbed and analyzed with HPLC and GC-MS analyses to confirm the results from the stand-off imaging Raman system. The presented findings indicate that it is possible to determine the type of explosive used in an IED from a distance, within minutes after the attack, and without tampering with physical evidence at the crime scene.

  3. Ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry studies of ion processes in air at atmospheric pressure and their application to thermal desorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Martin; Malásková, Michaela; Matejčík, Štefan

    2014-02-01

    In this study we have investigated the negative reactant ion formation in a negative corona discharge (CD) using the corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (CD-IMS-oaTOF) technique. The reactant ions were formed in the CD operating in the reverse gas flow mode at an elevated temperature of 363.5 K in synthetic and ambient air. Under these conditions mainly O_{2}^{-} and their clusters were formed. We have also studied the influence of CCl4 admixture to air (dopant gas) on the composition of the reactant ions, which resulted in the formation of Cl- and its clusters with a reduced ion mobility of 3.05 cm2 V-1 s-1 as a major reactant ion peak. Additional IMS peaks with reduced ion mobilities of 2.49, 2.25 and 2.03 cm2 V-1 s-1 were detected, and Cl- · (NO2) and Cl- · (NO)n(n = 2, 3) anions were identified. The negative reactant ions were used to detect 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) using the thermal desorption (TD) technique using a CD-IMS instrument. Using TD sampling and a negative CD ion source doped by CCl4 we have achieved a limit of detection of 350 pg for direct surface analysis of TNT.

  4. Development of a microwave assisted extraction method for the analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork stoppers by SIDA-SBSE-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestner, Jochen; Fritsch, Stefanie; Rauhut, Doris

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this research work was focused on the replacement of the time-consuming soaking of cork stoppers which is mainly used as screening method for cork lots in connection with sensory analysis and/or analytical methods to detect releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) of natural cork stoppers. Releasable TCA from whole cork stoppers was analysed with the application of a microwave assisted extraction method (MAE) in combination with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The soaking of corks (SOAK) was used as a reference method to optimise MAE parameters. Cork lots of different quality and TCA contamination levels were used to adapt MAE. Pre-tests indicated that an MAE at 40 degrees C for 120 min with 90 min of cooling time are suitable conditions to avoid an over-extraction of TCA of low and medium tainted cork stoppers in comparison to SOAK. These MAE parameters allow the measuring of almost the same amounts of releasable TCA as with the application of the soaking procedure in the relevant range (SIDA) was applied to optimise quantification of the released TCA with deuterium-labelled TCA (TCA-d(5)) using a time-saving GC-MS technique in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The developed MAE method allows the measuring of releasable TCA from the whole cork stopper under improved conditions and in connection with a low use of solvent and a higher sample throughput.

  5. Quasi-monoenergetic neutron energy spectra for 246 and 389 MeV (7)Li(p,n) reactions at angles from 0 degrees to 300 degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamoto, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakashima, H; Mares, V; Itoga, T; Matsumoto, T; Nakane, Y; Feldbaumer, E; Jaegerhofer, L; Pioch, C; Tamii, A; Satoh, D; Masuda, A; Sato, T; Iwase, H; Yashima, H; Nishiyama, J; Hagiwara, M; Hatanaka, K; Sakamoto, Y

    2011-01-01

    The authors measured the neutron energy spectra of a quasi-monoenergetic (7)Li(p,n) neutron source with 246 and 389 MeV protons set at seven angles (0 degrees, 2.5 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees, 20 degrees and 30 degrees), using a time-of-flight (TOF) method employing organic scintillators NE213 at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) of Osaka University. The energy spectra of the source neutrons were precisely deduced down to 2 MeV at 0 degrees and 10 MeV at other angles. The cross-sections of the peak neutron production reaction at 0 degrees were on the 35-40 mb line of other experimental data, and the peak neutron angular distribution agreed well with the Taddeucci formula. Neutron energy spectra below 100 MeV at all angles were comparable, but the shapes of the continuum above 150 MeV changed considerably with the angle. In order to consider the correction required to derive the response in the peak region from the measured total response for high-energy neutron monitors such as DAR...

  6. A New Indirect Spectrofluorimetric Method for Determination of Ascorbic Acid with 2,4,6-Tripyridyl-S-Triazine in Pharmaceutical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Klepo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA is a water-soluble vitamin which shows no fluorescence. However, in reaction with iron(III, AA is oxidised to dehydroascorbic acid and iron(III is reduced to iron(II which forms a complex with 2,4,6-tripyridyl-S-triazine (TPTZ in buffered medium. The relative fluorescence intensity of the resulting Fe(TPTZ22+ complex can be measured at excitation and emission wavelengths of 393 and 790 nm, respectively. Based on this data, a new indirect spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of AA in pharmaceutical samples was proposed. Influence of the reaction conditions, such as acidity of acetic buffer, concentration of TPTZ and iron(III, reaction time and instrumental parameters were investigated in detail. The linear range was from 5.4 × 10−4 to 5.4 × 10−6 mol·L−1 (R = 0.9971. The LOD was 7.7 × 10−7 mol·L−1 and LOQ was 2.3 × 10−4 mol·L−1. Fourteen pharmaceutical samples containing various amounts of AA were analysed. Influences of potential interfering substances were also examined. Analysis of commercial pharmaceutical formulations showed good correlation with the nominal values given by the manufacturers and with the results obtained by a titration method. The proposed method can be applied in routine quality control in the pharmaceutical industry due to its sensitivity, simplicity, selectivity and low cost.

  7. Accurate determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in wines at low parts per trillion by solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-ECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaga, Roberto; Ortiz, Laura; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Marco, M-Pilar; Bayona, Josep Maria

    2003-06-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure at 30 degrees C with a 100 microm PDMS fiber of a saturated NaCl solution stirred at 1100 rpm combined to GC-ECD for the 2,4,6-trichloroanisol (TCA) determination in wines has been developed. Due to the matrix complexity and ethanol absorption into the fiber, the internal standard selection was crucial to obtain unbiased results. Thus, matrix effects were observed when analyzing different types of Spanish wines (white, early, and vintage red wines) spiked with TCA at low concentration levels (i.e., wine within 2.9-18 ng L(-)(1), with a relative standard deviation of 2.5-13.4%, depending on the TCA concentration level and wine characteristics. This analytical method is comparable to the existing methodologies based on HS-SPME followed by GC-MS in terms of accuracy, precision, length of determination, and length of quantification; however, analysis cost is reduced.

  8. Mechanisms and Kinetics of Alkaline Hydrolysis of the Energetic Nitroaromatic Compounds 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra J.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Ritchie, Julia J.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2013-07-02

    The environmental impacts of energetic compounds can be minimized through the design and selection of new energetic materials with favorable fate properties. Building predictive models to inform this process, however, is difficult because of uncertainties and complexities in some major fate-determining transformation reactions such as the alkaline hydrolysis of energetic nitroaromatic compounds (NACs). Prior work on the mechanisms of the reaction between NACs and OH– has yielded inconsistent results. In this study, the alkaline hydrolysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) was investigated with coordinated experimental kinetic measurements and molecular modeling calculations. For TNT, the results suggest reversible formation of an initial product, which is likely either a Meisenheimer complex or a TNT anion formed by abstraction of a methyl proton by OH–. For DNAN, the results suggest that a Meisenheimer complex is an intermediate in the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenolate. Despite these advances, the remaining uncertainties in the mechanisms of these reactions—and potential variability between the hydrolysis mechanisms for different NACs—mean that it is not yet possible to generalize the results into predictive models (e.g., quantitative structure–activity relationships, QSARs) for hydrolysis of other NACs.

  9. Synthesis, Structure and Quantum Chemical Study on the Organotin Complex [Di(2,4,6-trichlorobenzyl)]tin Bis(quinoline-2-formate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The title compound was prepared by the reaction of di(2,4,6-trichlorobenzyl) stannic chloride with quinoline-2-formate and characterized with elemental analysis, 1H NMR, IR and X-ray diffraction methods. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/n with a = 1.3138(3), b = 1.8756(4), c = 1.4599(3) nm, β = 92.731(3)°, V = 3.5933(12) nm3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.795 g/cm3, μ(MoKα) = 1.425 mm-1, F(000) = 1920, R = 0.0778, wR = 0.2286 (for I > 2σ(I)) and R = 0.0932, wR = 0.2415 (for all data). The independent reflections were 6359, among which 5030 were observed (I > 2σ(I)) and used in the succeeding refinement. Structural analysis indicates that Sn is in a distorted octahedral coordination environment, and a three-dimensional network could be observed via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Finally, the stability, frontier orbital composition and energy of the title compound were discussed with Lanl2dz basis set and G98W program.

  10. Retention of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and heavy metals from industrial waste water by using the low cost adsorbent pine bark in a batch experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrenheim, E; Odlare, M; Allard, B

    2011-01-01

    Pine bark is a low cost sorbent originating from the forest industry. In recent years, it has been found to show promise as an adsorbent for metals and organic substances in contaminated water, especially landfill leachates and storm water. This study aims to investigate if pine bark can replace commercial adsorbents such as active carbon. An industrial effluent, collected from a treatment plant of a demilitarization factory, was diluted to form concentration ranges of contaminants and shaken with pine bark for 24 hours. Metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Ni) and explosives, e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), were analysed before and after treatment. The aim of the experiment was twofold; firstly, it was to investigate whether metals are efficiently removed in the presence of explosives and secondly, if adsorption of explosive substances to pine bark was possible. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe the adsorption process where this was possible. It was found that metal uptake was possible in the presence of TNT and other explosive contaminants. The uptake of TNT was satisfactory with up to 80% of the TNT adsorbed by pine bark.

  11. A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based electrochemical sensor for monitoring 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in natural waters and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Zare, Mashaalah; Ganjali, Mohamad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Tavana, Babak

    2010-01-15

    A high selective voltammetric sensor for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was introduced. TNT selective MIP and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) were synthesized and then used for carbon paste (CP) electrode preparation. The MIP, incorporated in the carbon paste electrode, functioned as selectively recognition element and pre-concentrator agent for TNT determination. The prepared electrode was used for TNT measurement by the three steps procedure, including analyte extraction in the electrode, electrode washing and electrochemical measurement of TNT. The MIP-CP electrode showed very high recognition ability in comparison to NIP-CP. It was shown that electrode washing after TNT extraction led to enhanced selectivity. The response of square wave voltammetry for TNT determination by proposed electrode was higher than that of differential pulse voltammetry. Some parameters affecting sensor response were optimized and then a calibration curve plotted. A dynamic linear range of 5x10(-9) to 1x10(-6) mol l(-1) was obtained. The detection limit of the sensor was calculated equal to 1.5x10(-9) mol l(-1). This sensor was used successfully for TNT determination in different water and soil samples.

  12. Preconcentration of Co, Ni, Cd and Zn on naphthalene–2,4,6-trimorpholino-1,3,5-triazin adsorbent and flame atomic absorption determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAYYEBEH MADRAKIAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A preconcentration method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of Co, Ni, Cd and Zn by atomic absorption spectrometry. The method is based on the retention of the metal cations by naphthalene–2,4,6-trimorpholino-1,3,5-triazin adsorbent in a column. The adsorbed metals were then eluted from the column with hydrochloric acid and the Co, Ni, Cd and Zn were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimal extraction and elution conditions were studied. The effects of diverse ions on the preconcentration were also investigated. A preconcentration factor of 250 for Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II, and 400 for Cd(II can easily be achieved. Calibration graphs were obtained and the detection limits of the method for Co(II, Ni(II, Cd(II and Zn(II were 0.51, 0.49, 0.17 and 0.10 ng mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD of 0.37–2.31 % for Co, 0.37–3.73 % for Ni, 2.20–2.40 % for Cd and 1.50–2.56 % for Zn were obtained. The method was also used for the simultaneous preconcentration of these elements and the method was successfully applied to their preconcentration and determination. The method was applied to the determination of Co, Ni, Cd and Zn in several real samples.

  13. Assembly of lipophilic tetranuclear (Cu4 and Zn4) molecular metallophosphonates from 2,4,6-triisopropylphenylphosponic acid and pyrazole ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Sasikumar, Palani; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy; Anantharaman, Ganapathi

    2006-04-17

    A sterically hindered aryl phosphonic acid ArP(O)(OH)2 (2) (Ar = 2,4,6-isopropylphenyl) was synthesized and structurally characterized. ArP(O)(OH)2 forms an interesting hydrogen-bonded corrugated sheet-type supramolecular structure in the solid-state. A three-component reaction involving ArP(O)(OH)2, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole(DMPZH), and Cu(CH3COO)2.H2O produces the tetranuclear Cu(II) compound [Cu4(mu3-OH)2{ArPO2(OH)}2(CH3CO2)2(DMPZH)4][CH3COO]2.CH2Cl2 (3). A similar three-component reaction involving ArP(O)(OH)2, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole, and Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O yields the tetranuclear Zn(II) compound [Zn4{ArPO3}2{ArPO2(OH)}2{DMPZH}4(DMPZ)2].5MeOH (4). While 3 has been found to have an asymmetric cage structure where two dinuclear copper cores are bridged by bidentate [ArPO2(OH)]- ligands, 4 possesses an open-book tricyclic structure composed of three fused metallophosphonate rings. Magnetic studies on 3 revealed antiferromagnetic behavior.

  14. Crystal structure of diaquabis(N,N-diethylnicotinamide-κN1bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoato-κO1cobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Şefiye Aşkın

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The centrosymmetric molecule in the monomeric title cobalt complex, [Co(C10H11O22(C10H14N2O2(H2O2], contains two water molecules, two 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoate (TMB ligands and two diethylnicotinamide (DENA ligands. All ligands coordinate to the CoII atom in a monodentate fashion. The four O atoms around the CoII atom form a slightly distorted square-planar arrangement, with the distorted octahedral coordination sphere completed by two pyridine N atoms of the DENA ligands. The dihedral angle between the planar carboxylate group and the adjacent benzene ring is 84.2 (4°, while the benzene and pyridine rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 38.87 (10°. The water molecules exhibit both intramolecular (to the non-coordinating carboxylate O atom and intermolecular (to the amide carbonyl O atom O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The latter lead to the formation of layers parallel to (100, enclosing R44(32 ring motifs. These layers are further linked via weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional network. One of the two ethyl groups of the DENA ligand is disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.490 (13:0.510 (13.

  15. The anti-inflammatory potential of phenolic compounds in grape juice concentrate (G8000™) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Neto, Ricardo Artigiani; Marchi, Patrícia; Silva, Roseane Mendes; Pazine, Vanessa Lima; Noguti, Juliana; Pastrelo, Mauricio Mercaldi; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-09-28

    Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by an up-regulation of the synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators leading to excessive tissue injury. Flavonoids are able to inhibit enzymes and/or due to their antioxidant properties regulate the immune response. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds present in grape juice on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. A total of forty-one male Wistar rats were randomised into seven groups: negative control group; TNBS non-treated induced colitis; 2% grape juice control group; 1% grape juice 24 h after TNBS colitis induction; 1% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction; 2% grape juice 24 h after colitis induction; 2% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction. The 1% grape juice-treated induced colitis group showed marked clinical improvement when compared with the TNBS-induced colitis group. Rats that received 1% grape juice, on day 7 after colitis induction, presented reduced intensity of macroscopic and histological scores. Statistically significant differences (P,0·05) of TNF-a and inducible NO synthase mRNA expression were detected in the groups treated with grape juice at the 1% dose after inducing experimental colitis when compared with the TNBS group. Grape juice reduced the noxious effects induced by colitis caused by TNBS, especially at the 1% dose.

  16. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-05-30

    The adsorption characteristics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were evaluated. The effects of TCP initial concentration, agitation time, solution pH and temperature on TCP adsorption were investigated. TCP adsorption uptake was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, agitation time and solution temperature whereas adsorption of TCP was more favourable at acidic pH. The adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of TCP on the activated carbon was mainly governed by particle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), standard entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}), standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}) and activation energy were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the spent activated carbon was high, with TCP desorption of 99.6%.

  17. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, I A W; Ahmad, A L; Hameed, B H

    2009-05-30

    The adsorption characteristics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were evaluated. The effects of TCP initial concentration, agitation time, solution pH and temperature on TCP adsorption were investigated. TCP adsorption uptake was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, agitation time and solution temperature whereas adsorption of TCP was more favourable at acidic pH. The adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of TCP on the activated carbon was mainly governed by particle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ), standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ), standard free energy (DeltaG degrees ) and activation energy were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the spent activated carbon was high, with TCP desorption of 99.6%.

  18. Crystal Structure and Thermal Behavior of Rubidium 3,5-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate%3,5-二羟基-2,4,6-三硝基苯酚铷的晶体结构和热行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红艳; 张同来; 乔小晶; 杨利; 张建国; 郁开北

    2006-01-01

    A novel energetic coordination compound, rubidium 3,5-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate ([Rb(DHTNP)]n),has been synthesized by reaction of trinitrophloroglueinol with Rb2CO3 in aqueous solution. Its crystal structure has been determined. The crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group C2/c. In the crystal the Rb cation is coordinated to ten oxygen atoms from seven different DHTNP- anions to form an irregular polyhedron.Two independent molecule geometry structures are found for DHTNP- anion in the complex, which differ in benzene ring and their pattern of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The DHTNP- anion chains are interlaced with rubidium atoms as knots, and a three-dimensional infinite net structure is formed via coordination and hydrogen bonding. The hydrogen bond and cation-anion interactions are the predominant driving forces in the crystal packing. The thermal property of title complex was studied by using DSC and TG-DTG techniques. CCDC: 290623.

  19. 活血止痛汤加减治疗腰椎间盘突出症246例疗效观察%Clinical Observation on the Treatment of 246 Cases of Rupture Syndrome of the Fibrous Rings of the Lumbar Inter- vertebral Disc by Promoting Blood and Stopping Pain Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾伟明

    2005-01-01

    目的:评价活血止痛汤加减治疗腰椎间盘突出症的临床疗效.方法:运用活血止痛汤加减治疗腰间盘突出症246例,并观察其近远期疗效.结果:治愈率为81.7%,治疗后随访10~12个月,无1例复发.部分复查CT/MRI对照,病例均显示有影像学不同改善.结论:提示活血止痛汤加减作为专方治疗腰间盘突出症可取得满意的疗效.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of acrylate-bridged dinuclear copper complex and acetate and 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine copper complex%Cu(Ⅱ))的丙烯酸桥联双核配合物及醋酸、2,4,6-三甲基吡啶三元配合物的合成与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱永; 王建军

    2012-01-01

    在温和条件下合成了Cu(Ⅱ)的丙烯酸双核配合物[Cu2(C3H3O2)4].H2O和醋酸、2,4,6-三甲基吡啶三元配合物[Cu(C2H3O2)2(C8H11N)2]。通过元素分析、红外光谱、紫外光谱和核磁测试表征了该两种配合物的组成和结构,并用溶解度、电导率测试等物理化学手段对配合物的物理化学性质进行了初步研究。%The acrylate-bridged dinuclear copper complex [Cu2(C3H3O2)4]·H2O and acetate and 2,4,6-Trimethylpyridine copper complex [Cu(C2H3O2)2(C8H11N)2] were synthesized under tender conditions in this paper.The elemental components and structures of the two complexes were characterized and confirmed by elemental analyses,FT-IR,UV-Vis and 1H NMR.And the primary investigation on the physical and chemical characteristics of the two complexes has been carried out through some physical and chemical methods such as the solubility and molar conductivity in this work.

  1. 高含水层段堵水技术--以高升油田高246块底水油藏为例%WATER SHUT TECHNOLOGY OF HIGH WATER BEARING SECTION ILLUSTRATED BY NO.246 BOTTOM WATER RESERVOIR OF GAOSHENG OIL FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鼎一

    2015-01-01

    The paper confirm the stepping water shut technology of high water reservoir section according to the research on waterexit features of No.246 lateral well, accompany with the deposit section and oil property, waterexit quality and section as well as the production conditons. The shutting materials and afflux technics are the most important process for water shutting technology.The liquid bridge plug with chemical airproof materials and abio-agent are successfully used in the shutting examination. Water shutting manner and agent dosage are confirmed durling well logging explain and liquid profile test.%通过对高246块水平井出水特点的研究,结合水平井储层物性、原油性质、出水水质、出水井段及生产情况,确定了高含水层段分段堵水工艺。堵水的关键技术是封堵材料和注入工艺。根据现有的堵水材料,进行筛选、复配和改性,试验成功了液体桥塞、化学封隔材料和无机堵水剂。利用测井解释和产液剖面测试结果,制定了堵水方式和堵剂的用量。并成功应用于现场,取得了明显的增油效果。

  2. Self-assembly of novel supramolecular silver(I) compound based on mixed ligands bipy/TST3- H3TST=2,4,6-tris (4-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yunfang; Wei, Yongqin; Broer, Ria; Wu, Kechen

    2007-01-01

    The novel supramolecular silver(I) compound with formula [Ag-6(TST)(2)(bipy)(6)(H2O)(2)](n) center dot 3nH(2)O (1) based on assembly of Ag(I) and mixed ligand bipy/TST3-, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, H3TST = 2,4,6-tris(4-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine, has been prepared by hydrothermal method. In the s

  3. Simultaneous dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on a low-density solvent and derivatization followed by gas chromatography for the simultaneous determination of chloroanisoles and the precursor 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Ting; Li, Haipu; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2016-06-01

    Chloroanisoles, particularly 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, are commonly identified as major taste and odor compounds in water. In the present study, a simple and efficient method was established for the simultaneous determination of chloroanisoles and the precursor 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in water by using low-density-solvent-based simultaneous dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. 2,4-Dichloroanisole, 2,6-dichloroanisole, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, 2,3,4-trichloroanisole, and 2,3,6-trichloroanisole were the chloroanisoles evaluated. Several important parameters of the extraction-derivatization procedures, including the types and volumes of extraction solvent and disperser solvent, concentrations of derivatization agent and base, salt addition, extraction-derivatization time, and temperature were optimized. Under the optimized conditions (80 μL of isooctane as extraction solvent, 500 μL of methanol as disperser solvent, 60 μL of acetic anhydride as derivatization agent, 0.75% of Na2 CO3 addition w/v, extraction-derivatization temperature of 25°C, without salt addition), a good linearity of the calibration curve was observed by the square of correlation coefficients (R(2) ) ranging from 0.9936 to 0.9992. Repeatability and reproducibility of the method were < 4.5% and <7.3%, respectively. Recovery rates ranged from 85.2 to 101.4%, and limits of detection ranged from 3.0 to 8.7 ng/L. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of chloroanisoles and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in water samples.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of -phosphorylated thioureas RNHC(S)NHP(O)(OPr)2 (R = 2-MeC6H4, 2,6-Me2C6H3, 2,4,6-Me3C6H2)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Damir A Safin; Maria G Babashkina; Michael Bolte; Axel Klein

    2010-05-01

    Reaction of O,O'-diisopropylphosphoric acid isothiocyanate (PrO)2P(O)NCS with 2-methylaniline 2-MeC6H4NH2, 2,6-dimethylaniline 2,6-Me2C6H3NH2 or 2,4,6-trimethylaniline 2,4,6-Me3C6H2NH2 leads to the -phosphorylated thioureas RNHC(S)NHP(O)(OPr)2 (R = 2-MeC6H4-, HLI; 2,6-Me2C6H3-, HLII; 2,4,6-Me3C6H2-, HLIII). The new compounds were investigated by 1H and 31P{1H} NMR spectroscopy, and microanalysis. The molecular structure of the thiourea HLIII was elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed HLIII forms both intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, which in turn leads to the formation of polymeric chains. One of the intermolecular hydrogen bonds is of the type N-H$\\cdots$S. Moreover, the formation of intermolecular C-H$\\cdots$ 6 -phenyl interactions was established.

  5. 1,3,5-Triferrocenyl-2,4,6-tris(ethynylferrocenyl)-benzene--a new member of the family of multiferrocenyl-functionalized cyclic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Ulrike; Filipczyk, Grzegorz; Hildebrandt, Alexander; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2014-11-21

    The consecutive synthesis of 1,3,5-triferrocenyl-2,4,6-tris(ethynylferrocenyl)benzene (6c) is described using 1,3,5-Cl3-2,4,6-I3-C6 (2) as starting compound. Subsequent Sonogashira C,C cross-coupling of 2 with FcC≡CH (3) in the molar ratio of 1:4 afforded solely 1,3,5-Cl3-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (4c) (Fc = Fe(η(5)-C5H4)(η(5)-C5H5)). However, when 2 is reacted with 3 in a 1:3 ratio a mixture of 1,3,5-Cl3-2-(FcC≡C)-4,6-I2-C6 (4a) and 1,3,5-Cl3-2,4-(FcC≡C)2-6-I-C6 (4b) is obtained. Negishi C,C cross-coupling of 4c with FcZnCl (5) in the presence of catalytic amounts of [Pd(CH2C(CH3)2P(tC4H9)2)(μ-Cl)]2 gave 1,3-Cl2-5-Fc-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (6a), 1-Cl-3,5-Fc2-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (6b) and 1,3,5-Fc3-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (6c) of which 6b is the main product. Column chromatography allowed the separation of these organometallic species. The structures of 4a,b and 6a in the solid state were determined by single crystal X-ray diffractometry showing a π–π interacting dimer (4b) and a complex π–π pattern for 6a. The electrochemical properties of 4a–c and 6a–c were studied by cyclic voltammetry (=CV) and square wave voltammetry (=SWV). It was found that the FcC≡C-substituted benzenes 4a–c show only one reversible redox event, indicating a simultaneous oxidation of all ferrocenyl units, whereby 4c is most difficult to oxidise (4a, E°′1 = 190, ΔEp = 71; 4b, E°′1 = 195, ΔEp = 59; 4c, E°′1 = 390, ΔEp = 59 mV). In case of 4c, the oxidation states 4c(n+) (n = 2, 3) are destabilised by the partial negative charge of the electronegative chlorine atoms, which compensates the repulsive electrostatic Fc+–Fc+ interactions with attractive electrostatic Fc+–Cl(δ−) interactions. When ferrocenyl units are directly attached to the benzene C6 core, organometallic 6a shows three, 6b five and 6c six separated reversible waves highlighting that the Fc units can separately be oxidised. UV-Vis/NIR spectroscopy allowed to determine IVCT absorptions (=Inter Valence

  6. Influence of Halogen Substituents on the Catalytic Oxidation of 2,4,6-Halogenated Phenols by Fe(III-Tetrakis(p-hydroxyphenyl porphyrins and Potassium Monopersulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiya Nagao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of halogen substituents on the catalytic oxidation of 2,4,6-trihalogenated phenols (TrXPs by iron(III-porphyrin/KHSO5 catalytic systems was investigated. Iron(III-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-hydroxyphenylporphyrin (FeTHP and its supported variants were employed, where the supported catalysts were synthesized by introducing FeTHP into hydroquinone-derived humic acids via formaldehyde poly-condensation. F (TrFP, Cl (TrCP, Br (TrBP and I (TrIP were examined as halogen substituents for TrXPs. Although the supported catalysts significantly enhanced the degradation and dehalogenation of TrFP and TrCP, the oxidation of TrBP and TrIP was not enhanced, compared to the FeTHP catalytic system. These results indicate that the degree of oxidation of TrXPs is strongly dependent on the types of halogen substituent. The order of dehalogenation levels for halogen substituents in TrXPs was F > Cl > Br > I, consistent with their order of electronegativity. The electronegativity of a halogen substituent affects the nucleophilicity of the carbon to which it is attached. The levels of oxidation products in the reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC/MS after extraction with n-hexane. The most abundant dimer product from TrFP via 2,6-difluoroquinone is consistent with a scenario where TrXP, with a more electronegative halogen substituent, is readily oxidized, while less electronegative halogen substituents are oxidized less readily by iron(III-porphyrin/KHSO5 catalytic systems.

  7. Development of a microwave assisted extraction method for the analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork stoppers by SIDA-SBSE-GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestner, Jochen [Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim, Fachgebiet Mikrobiologie und Biochemie, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, D-65366 Geisenheim (Germany); Hochschule RheinMain, Fachbereich Geisenheim, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, D-65366 Geisenheim (Germany); Fritsch, Stefanie [Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim, Fachgebiet Mikrobiologie und Biochemie, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, D-65366 Geisenheim (Germany); Rauhut, Doris, E-mail: doris.rauhut@fa-gm.de [Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim, Fachgebiet Mikrobiologie und Biochemie, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, D-65366 Geisenheim (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this research work was focused on the replacement of the time-consuming soaking of cork stoppers which is mainly used as screening method for cork lots in connection with sensory analysis and/or analytical methods to detect releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) of natural cork stoppers. Releasable TCA from whole cork stoppers was analysed with the application of a microwave assisted extraction method (MAE) in combination with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The soaking of corks (SOAK) was used as a reference method to optimise MAE parameters. Cork lots of different quality and TCA contamination levels were used to adapt MAE. Pre-tests indicated that an MAE at 40 deg. C for 120 min with 90 min of cooling time are suitable conditions to avoid an over-extraction of TCA of low and medium tainted cork stoppers in comparison to SOAK. These MAE parameters allow the measuring of almost the same amounts of releasable TCA as with the application of the soaking procedure in the relevant range (<25 ng L{sup -1} releasable TCA from one cork) to evaluate the TCA level of cork stoppers. Stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) was applied to optimise quantification of the released TCA with deuterium-labelled TCA (TCA-d{sub 5}) using a time-saving GC-MS technique in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The developed MAE method allows the measuring of releasable TCA from the whole cork stopper under improved conditions and in connection with a low use of solvent and a higher sample throughput.

  8. Highly sensitive determination of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and related byproducts using a diol functionalized column for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Gumuscu

    Full Text Available In this work, a new detection method for complete separation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT; 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT; 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT; 2-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (4-ADNT molecules in high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC with UV sensor has been developed using diol column. This approach improves on cost, time, and sensitivity over the existing methods, providing a simple and effective alternative. Total analysis time was less than 13 minutes including column re-equilibration between runs, in which water and acetonitrile were used as gradient elution solvents. Under optimized conditions, the minimum resolution between 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT peaks was 2.06. The recovery rates for spiked environmental samples were between 95-98%. The detection limits for diol column ranged from 0.78 to 1.17 µg/L for TNT and its byproducts. While the solvent consumption was 26.4 mL/min for two-phase EPA and 30 mL/min for EPA 8330 methods, it was only 8.8 mL/min for diol column. The resolution was improved up to 49% respect to two-phase EPA and EPA 8330 methods. When compared to C-18 and phenyl-3 columns, solvent usage was reduced up to 64% using diol column and resolution was enhanced approximately two-fold. The sensitivity of diol column was afforded by the hydroxyl groups on polyol layer, joining the formation of charge-transfer complexes with nitroaromatic compounds according to acceptor-donor interactions. Having compliance with current requirements, the proposed method demonstrates sensitive and robust separation.

  9. St. John's wort may ameliorate 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid colitis off rats through the induction of pregnane X receptors and/or P-glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehirli, A O; Cetinel, S; Ozkan, N; Selman, S; Tetik, S; Yuksel, M; Dulger, F G A

    2015-04-01

    It is reported that deficiencies of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the latter of which is encoded by the MDR1 gene, are important factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is also known that the activation of PXR is protective of IBD due to the mutual repression between PXR and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression and because NF-κB was reported to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. The goal of this study was to investigate whether St. John's wort (SJW) and spironolactone (SPL), both known to have strong inducing effects on cytochrome P 450 (CYP) enzymes as well as PXR and P-gp, have ameliorating effects on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis of rats through induction of PXR and/or P-gp. Wistar albino rats (250 - 300 g) were divided into control and TNBS-colitis groups. Each group was then divided into a) control (saline), b) SJW (300 mg/kg p.o. bid), and c) SPL (80 mg/kg p.o.) groups. Drugs were given for 7 days. Both treatments ameliorated the clinical hallmarks of colitis, as determined by body weight loss and assessment of diarrhea, colon length, and bowel histology. Plasma levels of NF-κB, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the oxidative stress markers that increased during colitis, decreased significantly after both treatments. The PXR and P-gp expression in the intestinal tissues was diminished in the colitis group but increased after drug treatments. Both drugs appeared to have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated the TNBS colitis of the rats, most likely through their PXR- and P-gp-inducing properties.

  10. Computational Investigation and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange of the Fixed Charge Derivative Tris(2,4,6-Trimethoxyphenyl)Phosphonium: Implications for the Aspartic Acid Cleavage Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Kristin A.; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Vorpagel, Erich R.

    2005-05-25

    Aspartic acid (Asp)-containing peptides with the fixed charge derivative tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium (tTMP-P+) were explored computationally and experimentally by H/D exchange and fragmentation studies in order to probe the phenomenon of selective cleavage C-terminal to Asp in the absence of a ''mobile'' proton. Ab initio modeling of the tTMP-P+ electrostatic potential demonstrates the positive charge is distributed on the phosphonium group and therefore is not initiating or directing fragmentation as would a ''mobile'' proton. Geometry optimizations and vibrational analyses of different aspartic acid conformations show the aspartic acid structure with a hydrogen bond between the side chain hydroxy and backbone carbonyl lies 2.8 kcal/mol above the lowest energy conformer. In reactions with D2O, the phosphonium-derived doubly charged peptide (H+)P+LDIFSDF rapidly exchanges all 12 of its exchangeable hydrogens for deuterium and also displays a non-exchanging population. With no added proton, P+LDIFSDF exchanges a maximum of four of eleven exchangeable hydrogens for deuterium. No exchange is observed when all acidic groups are converted to the corresponding methyl esters. Together, these H/D exchange results indicate that the acidic hydrogens are ''mobile locally'' because they are able to participate in exchange even in the absence of an added proton. Fragmentation of two distinct (H+)P+LDIFSDF ion populations shows the non-exchanging population displays selective cleavage, while the exchanging population fragments more evenly across the peptide backbone. This result demonstrates that H/D exchange can sometimes distinguish between and provide a means of separation of different protonation motifs, and that these protonation motifs can have an effect on the fragmentation.

  11. Alkaline Hydrolysis/Polymerization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene:  Characterization of Products by 13C and 15N NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Thorne, Philip G.; Cox, Larry G.

    2004-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis has been investigated as a nonbiological procedure for the destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in explosives contaminated soils and munitions scrap. Nucleophilic substitutions of the nitro and methyl groups of TNT by hydroxide ion are the initial steps in the alkaline degradation of TNT. Potential applications of the technique include both in situ surface liming and ex situ alkaline treatment of contaminated soils. A number of laboratory studies have reported the formation of an uncharacterized polymeric material upon prolonged treatment of TNT in base. As part of an overall assessment of alkaline hydrolysis as a remediation technique, and to gain a better understanding of the chemical reactions underlying the hydrolysis/polymerization process, the soluble and precipitate fractions of polymeric material produced from the calcium hydroxide hydrolysis of unlabeled and 15N-labeled TNT were analyzed by elemental analysis and 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectra indicated that reactions leading to polymerization included nucleophilic displacement of nitro groups by hydroxide ion, formation of ketone, carboxyl, alcohol, ether, and other aliphatic carbons, conversion of methyl groups to diphenyl methylene carbons, and recondensation of aromatic amines and reduced forms of nitrite, including ammonia and possibly hydroxylamine, into the polymer. Compared to the distribution of carbons in TNT as 14% sp3- and 86% sp2-hybridized, the precipitate fraction from hydrolysis of unlabeled TNT contained 33% sp3- and 67% sp2-hybridized carbons. The concentration of nitrogen in the precipitate was 64% of that in TNT. The 15N NMR spectra showed that, in addition to residual nitro groups, forms of nitrogen present in the filtrate and precipitate fractions include aminohydroquinone, primary amide, indole, imine, and azoxy, among others. Unreacted nitrite was recovered in the filtrate fraction. The toxicities and susceptibilities to

  12. The problem of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork planks studied by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana R; Lopes, Luís F; Brito de Barros, Ricardo; Ilharco, Laura M

    2015-01-14

    Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) proved to be a promising detection technique for 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), which confers organoleptic defects to bottled alcoholic beverages, allowing the proposal of a criterion for cork plank acceptance when meant for stopper production. By analysis of a significant number of samples, it was proved that the presence of TCA, even in very low concentrations, imparts subtle changes to the cork spectra, namely, the growth of two new bands at ∼1417 (νC═C of TCA ring) and 1314 cm–1 (a shifted νCC of TCA) and an increase in the relative intensities of the bands at ∼1039 cm–1 (δCO of polysaccharides) and ∼813 cm–1 (τCH of suberin), the latter by overlapping with intense bands of TCA. These relative intensities were evaluated in comparison to a fingerprint of suberin (νasC–O–C), at 1161 cm–1. On the basis of those spectral variables, a multivariate statistics linear analysis (LDA) was performed to obtain a discriminant function that allows classifying the samples according to whether they contain or not TCA. The methodology proposed consists of a demanding acceptance criterion for cork planks destined for stopper production (with the guarantee of nonexistence of TCA) that results from combining the quantitative results with the absence of the two TCA correlated bands. ATR infrared spectroscopy is a nondestructive and easy to apply technique, both on cork planks and on stoppers, and has proven more restrictive than other techniques used in the cork industry that analyze the cleaning solutions. At the level of proof of concept, the method here proposed is appealing for high-value stopper applications.

  13. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-functionalized manganese doped ZnS quantum dots for room-temperature phosphorescence sensing ultratrace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qin; Zou, Wen-Sheng

    2011-07-15

    New strategies for silica coating of inorganic nanoparticles became a research hotspot for enhancing the mechanical stability of colloidal particles and protecting colloidal particles against oxidation and agglomeration, and so on. In this paper, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized Mn doped (AF MnD) ZnS QDs was prepared to be firsyly through the use of silane coupling agents to form an active layer of silica, then sol-gel reaction of TEOS co-deposited with APTES on the surface of resultant active layer of silica. The emitted long lifetime room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of the resultant nanomaterials allows an appropriate delay time so that any fluorescent emission and scattering light can be easily avoided. The APTES anchored on the layer of silica can bind 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) species to form TNT anion through acid-base pairing interaction, the TNT anion species may increase the charge-transfer pathways from the nanocrystals to nitroaromatic analytes, therefore further enhance the quenching efficiency of RTP. Moreover, APTES as capped reagents can enlarge the spectral sensitivity and enhance RTP response of nanocrystals to the electron-deficient nitroaromatic and nitrophenol species. Meanwhile, AF MnD ZnS QDs also exhibited a highly selective response toward TNT analyte through significant color change and quenching of (4)T(1) to (6)A(1) transition emission. This AF MnD ZnS QDs based sensor showed a very good linearity in the range of 0.05-1.8μM with detection limit down to 50 nM (quenching percentage of phosphorescence intensity of 8%) and RSD of 3.5% (n=5). The reported QDs-based chemosensors here open up a promising prospect for the sensitive and convenient sensing of TNT explosive.

  14. Effects of sinomenine on the expression of microRNA-155 in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sinomenine, a pure alkaloid isolated in Chinese medicine from the root of Sinomenium acutum, has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are gradually being recognized as critical mediators of disease pathogenesis via coordinated regulation of molecular effector pathways. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: After colitis was induced in mice by instillation of 5% (w/v 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS, sinomenine at a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg was orally administered once daily for 7 days. We evaluated body weight, survival rate, diarrhea score, histological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity. The mRNA and protein expression levels of miR-155, c-Maf, TNF-α and IFN-γ were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Sinomenine (100 or 200 mg/kg-treated mice with TNBS-induced colitis were significantly improved in terms of body weight, survival rate, diarrhea score, histological score and MPO activity compared with untreated mice. Both dosages of sinomenine significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of c-Maf, TNF-α and IFN-γ, which elevated in TNBS-induced colitis. Furthermore, sinomenine at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly decreased the level of miR-155 expression by 71% (p = 0.025 compared with untreated TNBS-induced colitis in mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study evaluated the effects and potential mechanisms of sinomenine in the anti-inflammatory response via miRNA-155 in mice with TNBS-induced colitis. Our findings suggest that sinomenine has anti-inflammatory effects on TNBS-induced colitis by down-regulating the levels of miR-155 and several related inflammatory cytokines.

  15. Arabidopsis Glutathione Transferases U24 and U25 Exhibit a Range of Detoxification Activities with the Environmental Pollutant and Explosive, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Vanda; Tzafestas, Kyriakos; Sparrow, Helen; Johnston, Emily J; Brentnall, Andrew S; Potts, Jennifer R; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Bruce, Neil C

    2014-06-01

    The explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a major worldwide military pollutant. The presence of this toxic and highly persistent pollutant, particularly at military sites and former manufacturing facilities, presents various health and environmental concerns. Due to the chemically resistant structure of TNT, it has proven to be highly recalcitrant to biodegradation in the environment. Here, we demonstrate the importance of two glutathione transferases (GSTs), GST-U24 and GST-U25, from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that are specifically up-regulated in response to TNT exposure. To assess the role of GST-U24 and GST-U25, we purified and characterized recombinant forms of both enzymes and demonstrated the formation of three TNT glutathionyl products. Importantly, GST-U25 catalyzed the denitration of TNT to form 2-glutathionyl-4,6-dinitrotoluene, a product that is likely to be more amenable to subsequent biodegradation in the environment. Despite the presence of this biochemical detoxification pathway in plants, physiological concentrations of GST-U24 and GST-U25 result in only a limited innate ability to cope with the levels of TNT found at contaminated sites. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GST-U24 and GST-U25 exhibit significantly enhanced ability to withstand and detoxify TNT, properties that could be applied for in planta detoxification of TNT in the field. The overexpressing lines removed significantly more TNT from soil and exhibited a corresponding reduction in glutathione levels when compared with wild-type plants. However, in the absence of TNT, overexpression of these GSTs reduces root and shoot biomass, and although glutathione levels are not affected, this effect has implications for xenobiotic detoxification.

  16. Crystal structure of tetrakis(μ-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoato-κ2O:O′bis[(nicotinamide-κN1copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Şefiye Aşkın

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title binuclear CuII complex, [Cu2(C10H11O24(C6H6N2O2], the two CuII cations [Cu...Cu = 2.5990 (5 Å] are bridged by four 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoate (TMB anions. The four nearest O atoms around each CuII cation form distorted square-planar arrangements and the distorted square-pyramidal coordinations are completed by the pyridine N atoms of nicotinamide molecules at distances of 2.164 (2 and 2.165 (2 Å, respectively. The CuII cations are displaced by −0.2045 (3 and 0.2029 (3 Å from the corresponding planes formed by the nearest four O atoms. In the molecule, the dihedral angles between the planes of the benzene rings and the adjacent carboxylate groups are 80.6 (2, 51.4 (2, 24.4 (2 and 32.5 (2°, while the planes of the pyridine rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 11.28 (10°. In the crystal, bifurcated N—H...O and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules, enclosing R22(8 and R44(8 ring motifs, into a three-dimensional network. The structure contains a solvent-accessible void of 72 Å3, but there is no solvent molecule located within this void. The crystal studied was an inversion twin refined with a minor component of 0.488 (8.

  17. Association between Exposure to Benzodiazepines and Related Drugs and Survivorship of Total Hip Replacement in Arthritis: A Population-Based Cohort Study of 246,940 Patients.

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    Dan Beziz

    Full Text Available Total hip replacement (THR is successful in treating hip arthritis. Prosthetic survivorship may depend on the medications taken by the patient; particularly, the role of benzodiazepines and related drugs (Z-drugs with THR revision has been poorly investigated. Our objective was to compare THR short-term survivorship according to level of exposure to benzodiazepine and Z-drugs.All French patients aged 40 years or older, having undergone primary THR from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012, for arthritis according to French national health insurance databases were included in the cohort. Outcome of interest was THR revision, including any surgical procedure in which the implant or any component was changed or removed. Follow-up started the day the primary THR was performed. Observations were right-censored on December 31, 2014, if neither revision nor death had yet occurred. Exposure of interest was the cumulative defined daily doses per day (cDDD/day of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs dispensed within 6 months before or after inclusion. We defined four exposure groups; cDDD/d = 0: unexposed; 0.38: high exposure. THR survivorship was assessed according to level of exposure to benzodiazepines and Z-drugs in univariate and multivariate Cox models adjusted for patient, THR and implanting center characteristics.The study cohort comprised 246,940 individuals: mean age at baseline, 69.9 years; women, 57.9%; unexposed: 51.7%; low exposure: 16.7%; medium exposure: 15.9%; and high exposure: 15.7%. During the median 45-month follow-up, 9043 individuals underwent prosthetic revision. Adjusted hazard ratios in low, medium and high exposed groups were 1.18 (95%CI, 1.12-1.26; P<0.001, 1.32 (95%CI, 1.24-1.40; P<0.001 and 1.37 (95%CI, 1.29-1.45; P<0.001, respectively, compared to unexposed.Exposure to benzodiazepines and Z-drugs is associated with an increased risk of THR revision, with a dose-response relationship. Cautious prescribing might be needed as well

  18. Luminescence properties and crystal structure of europium complexes with phenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ai-Ling; Zhou, Dan; Wei, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Zhong-Xia; Qu, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Chen, Ying-Nan; Li, Jing-Jing; Chu, Hai-Bin, E-mail: binghai99@gmail.com; Zhao, Yong-Liang, E-mail: hxzhaoyl@163.com

    2015-04-15

    Using anion ligand phenoxyacetic acid (HPOA) and neutral ligand 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine (TPTZ), two complexes Eu{sub 2}(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O and EuY(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O have been synthesized and one crystal EuY(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·2CH{sub 3}OH has been obtained. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, ICP-AES, IR and UV absorption spectroscopy. The luminescence spectra, luminescence lifetimes and emission quantum efficiencies of the complexes have been studied. The results show that the complex EuY(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O exhibits stronger luminescence intensity, longer luminescent lifetime and higher emission quantum efficiency than Eu{sub 2}(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction of EuY(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·2CH{sub 3}OH reveals that the crystal is heteronuclear and crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with following unit cell parameters a=12.2411(10) Å, b=13.2294(11) Å, c=13.5232(11) Å, α=74.8596(13)°, β=82.9593(16)°, γ=87.1641(14)°, and V=2097.7(3) Å{sup 3}. Each metal ion coordinates with three nitrogen atoms of one TPTZ and seven oxygen atoms of three POA{sup −} ions. And there exist two coordination forms between POA{sup −} and metal ions in the crystal. One is chelating bidentate, the other is the single-atom bridge. - Highlights: • One Eu/Y heteronuclear crystal and two complexes with HPOA and TPTZ were prepared. • Each metal ion in the crystal coordinates with three nitrogen and seven oxygen atoms. • The two complexes exhibit strong luminescence emissions. • The heteronuclear complex shows better luminescent properties than the homonuclear one. • The structure of the crystal and the sensitization mechanism are deeply discussed.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF 2,4,6-TRI(HYDROXYLPHENYLMETHYLAMINO)-s-TRIAZINE AND ITS CURING BEHAVIOR AND MECHANISM WITH DGEBA%2,4,6-三(羟基苯甲基氨基)-均三嗪的合成及其与双酚A型环氧树脂的固化行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵玉勤; 张兴宏; 赵晖; 戚国荣

    2006-01-01

    合成了一种含三嗪环结构的环氧树脂固化剂2,4,6-三(羟基苯甲基氨基)-均三嗪(MFP).用动态DSC和原位红外光谱对MFP/DGEBA(双酚A型环氧树脂)体系的固化行为进行了研究.动态DSC研究表明,由于MFP分子结构中存在两种活泼氢(酚羟基氢和仲胺氢),固化反应存在明显的两个峰,相对应的表观活化能分别为70.5 kJ·mol-1和86.5 kJ·mol-1(Kissinger法),通过与另一相似化合物固化DGEBA的比较可知,在MFP固化DGEBA的过程中,酚羟基与环氧基反应相对较难.原位红外动力学结果很好地支持了上述结论.

  20. Crystal structures of 2-[(4,6-di-amino-pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan-yl]-N-(3-nitro-phen-yl)acetamide monohydrate and N-(2-chloro-phen-yl)-2-[(4,6-di-amino-pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan-yl]acetamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasri, S; Timiri, Ajay Kumar; Barji, Nayan Sinha; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Vijayan, Viswanathan; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2016-08-01

    The title compounds, C12H12N6O3S·H2O, (I), and C12H12ClN5OS, (II), are 2-[(4,6-di-amino-pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan-yl]acetamides. Compound (I) crystallized as a monohydrate. In both compounds, the mol-ecules have a folded conformation, with the pyrimidine ring being inclined to the benzene ring by 56.18 (6)° in (I) and by 67.84 (6)° in (II). In both mol-ecules, there is an intra-molecular N-H⋯N hydrogen bond stabilizing the folded conformation. In (I), there is also a C-H⋯O intra-molecular short contact, and in (II) an intra-molecular N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bond is present. In the crystal of (I), mol-ecules are linked by a series of N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming undulating sheets parallel to the (100). The sheets are linked via an N-H⋯Owater hydrogen bond, forming a three-dimensional network. In the crystal of (II), mol-ecules are linked by a series of N-H⋯O, N-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to (001).

  1. Crystal structures of 2-[(4,6-di­amino­pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan­yl]-N-(3-nitro­phen­yl)acetamide monohydrate and N-(2-chloro­phen­yl)-2-[(4,6-di­amino­pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan­yl]acetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasri, S.; Timiri, Ajay Kumar; Barji, Nayan Sinha; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Vijayan, Viswanathan; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2016-01-01

    The title compounds, C12H12N6O3S·H2O, (I), and C12H12ClN5OS, (II), are 2-[(4,6-di­amino­pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan­yl]acetamides. Compound (I) crystallized as a monohydrate. In both compounds, the mol­ecules have a folded conformation, with the pyrimidine ring being inclined to the benzene ring by 56.18 (6)° in (I) and by 67.84 (6)° in (II). In both mol­ecules, there is an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond stabilizing the folded conformation. In (I), there is also a C—H⋯O intra­molecular short contact, and in (II) an intra­molecular N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bond is present. In the crystal of (I), mol­ecules are linked by a series of N—H⋯O, O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming undulating sheets parallel to the (100). The sheets are linked via an N—H⋯Owater hydrogen bond, forming a three-dimensional network. In the crystal of (II), mol­ecules are linked by a series of N—H⋯O, N—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to (001). PMID:27536406

  2. (E-N-[2-(9-Fluorenylidene-3a,5,7-trimethyl-3,3a-dihydro-2H-indol-3-ylidene]-2,4,6-trimethylaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Tokitoh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C33H30N2, has an E configuration at the imine double bond. The angle between the least-squares planes of the imine C=N—C group and the benzene ring of the 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl substituent is 85.38 (11°. The crystal structure is sustained mainly by intermolecular π–π interactions (3.510 Å between the two fluorene rings and some C—H...π interactions.

  3. Effect of adsorption to elemental iron on the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seok-Young; Cha, Daniel K; Kim, Byung J; Chiu, Peic

    2002-07-01

    The effect of adsorption to elemental iron on the reductive transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (royal demolition explosive [RDX]) in aqueous solution was studied with scrap iron and high-purity iron. In batch experiments with the same total iron surface area and a mixing rate of 100 rpm, TNT and RDX were removed from the solution within 30 min. With high-purity iron, adsorbed TNT was reduced to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene (TAT) rapidly, with little accumulation of intermediates at the surface. With scrap iron, the extent of adsorption of TNT and its daughter products was more significant and reduction of these adsorbed molecules to TAT was slower. Distribution of the intermediates indicated that the reaction with scrap iron occurred primarily through reduction of the ortho nitro group. Kinetic analysis suggests that mass transfer or adsorption of TNT controlled the overall rate of TNT reduction to TAT with pure iron, whereas with scrap iron, the rate of TAT formation was probably limited by other processes. Compared to TNT, transformation of adsorbed RDX was more rapid and less affected by iron type. The RDX was reduced to an unidentified, water-soluble intermediate and NH4+, which accounted for approximately 50% of the RDX nitrogen. No total organic carbon reduction was observed before and after RDX transformation with scrap iron.

  4. Hexa-aqua-bis-[3,5-bis-(hy-droxy-imino)-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxo-cyclo-hexa-nido-κ(2) N (3),O (4)]barium tetrahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Do, Nguyen; Kovalchukova, Olga; Stash, Adam; Strashnova, Svetlana

    2013-10-16

    In the title compound, [Ba(C7H5N2O5)2(H2O)6]·4H2O, the Ba(2+) cation lies on a twofold rotation axis and is ten-coordinated by two 3,5-bis-(hy-droxy-imino)-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxo-cyclo-hexa-n-ide oxo O atoms [Ba-O = 2.8715 (17) Å], two hy-droxy-imino N atoms [Ba-N = 3.036 (2) Å], and six water mol-ecules [Ba-O = 2.847 (2), 2.848 (2), and 2.880 (2) Å]. The 3,5-bis-(hy-droxy-imino)-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxo-cyclo-hexa-nide monoanions act in a bidentate chelating manner, coordinating through an N atom of the non-deprotonated hy-droxy-imino group and an O atom of the neighboring oxo group. Two lattice water mol-ecules are located in the cavities of the framework and are involved in hydrogen bonding to O atoms of one of the coordinating water mol-ecules and the O atom of a keto group of the ligand. As a result, a three-dimensional network is formed.

  5. Synthesis,Crystal Structure,Quantum Chemistry and Thermal Stability of the Bis-Oxygen-Bridged Tetranuclear Dibutyltin (2,4,6-trimethyl) benzoate%双氧桥联四核二丁基锡(2,4,6-三甲基)苯甲酸酯配合物的合成、结构、量子化学及热稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伍玖; 邝代治; 庾江喜; 冯泳兰; 张复兴; 王剑秋

    2012-01-01

    2,4,6-三甲基苯甲酸(TMBA)与(n-Bu)2SnO反应,合成氧桥联的四核二丁基锡(2,4,6-三甲基)苯甲酸酯配合物{[n-Bu)2Sn (2,4,6-TMBA)]2Oh,经元素分析、1H NMR、13C NMR、IR和X-射线衍射表征分子结构,该配合物晶体属三斜晶系,空间群P(1),晶体学参数:a=1.272 56(2) nm,b=1.322 73(2) nm,c=1.437 25(3) nm,α=111.197 0(10)°,β=99.691 0(10)°,γ=11 1.790 0(10)°,Z=1,V=1.962 35(6) nm3,Dc=1.368 g·cm-3,μ(Mo Kα)=1.308 mm-1,F(000)=828,R=0.040 9,wR=0.109 1.配合物以Sn2O2平面四元环中心对称,每个桥联氧原子还连接一个环外锡,形成双氧桥联四核二丁基锡结构.环上与环外Sn原子均呈现五配位畸变三角双锥构型.利用量子化学G03W软件,在Lanl2dz基组对配合物的稳定性、分子轨道能量、原子净电荷布居及前沿分子轨道组成进行了研究.并通过热重分析对配合物进行了热稳定性研究.%An organooxotin complex of {[n-Bu2Sn(2,4,6-TMBA)]2O}2 has been synthesized by the reaction of n-Bu2Sn0 with 2,4,6-TMBA and characterized by IR,1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. The crystal structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the monoclinic, space group P1, with a= 1.272 56(2) nm, 6 = 1.322 73(2) nm, c = 1.437 25(3) nm, α=111.197 0(10)°, β=99.691 0(10)°,γ=111.790 0(10)°, Z=1, V=1.962 35(6)nm3, Dc=1.368 Mg·m-3(Mo Kα)=1.308 mm-1, F(000)=828, R=0.037 2, wR=0.096 1. This complex belongs to centrosymmetric structure mode with a four-membered central endocyclic Sn2O2 unit in which the bridging oxygen atoms are tri-coordinated. Each bridging oxygen atom also connects with an exocyclic tin atom. The endocyclic and exocyclic tin atoms all are five-coordinated in a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The stabilities, some frontier molecular orbital energies, the populations of the atomic net charges and composition characteristics of some frontier molecular orbital of the complex have been investigated. The complex was studies by

  6. Bis[1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene]dinitrosyl(tetrahydroborato-κ2H,H′tungsten(0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Berke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title paramagnetic 19-electron neutral complex, [W(BH4(C21H24N22(NO2], the W(0 atom is coordinated by two 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene (IMes carbene ligands, two NO groups and two H atoms of an η2-tetrahydroborate ligand. Depending on the number of coordination sites (n assigned to the BH4− ligand, the coordination geometry of the W atom may either be described as approximately trigonal–bipyramidal (n = 1 or as very distorted octahedral with the bridging H atoms filling two coordination positions (n = 2. In the latter case, the coplanar NO groups and bridging H atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.032 Å form one octahedral plane, with mutually trans-oriented carbene ligands. In the crystal, molecules are connected via C—H...O interactions.

  7. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesuifonic acid-induced colitis in rats%黄芪多糖对2,4,6-三硝基苯磺酸诱导的大鼠结肠炎的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永健; 朱峰; 钱家鸣

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Astragalus polysaccarides (APS) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Methods Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 ): control group, TNBS group, low-dose APS group, high-dose APS group, and prednisone group. Experimental colitis was induced in rats by enema administration of TNBS. Rats in APS and sions and histological damages were determined, and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured in the excised colonic tissues. Cytokine levels including interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Both macroscopic lesions and histological colonic damages induced by TNBS were reduced by low-dose APS treatment. These were accompanied by significantly attenuated colonic MPO activity (P = 0. 03) and the increase of IL-4 and IL-10 levels. The macroscopic lesions and MPO activities of high-dose APS group were higher than TNBS group, histological damage and level of IL-4 were lower, and level of IL-10 was higher, but all without statistical significance. Levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were lower than those of TNBS group, but there was no significant difference between prednisone group and TNBS group. Levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly lower in prednisone group than in control group ( P = 0. 049, P = 0. 001 ). Conclusions Different doses of APS have different effects on TNBS-induced colitis. Lower dose of APS has the therapeutic potential inexperimental colitis, while higher dose of APS may aggravate the disease.%目的 探讨黄芪多糖(APS)对2,4,6-三硝基苯磺酸(TNBS)诱导的大鼠结肠炎的作用.方法 40只雄性SD大鼠随机分为5组(n=8):对照组、TNBS组、小剂量APS组、大剂量APS组、激素组.对照组给予生理盐水灌肠,其余4组大鼠均以TNBS灌肠造模.灌肠24 h后,APS组开始每天给予90%APS(小剂量组0.5 g·kg-1·d-1;大剂量组1 mg·kg-1·d-1)

  8. Structural and Catalytic Differences between Two FADH2-Dependent Monooxygenases: 2,4,5-TCP 4-Monooxygenase (TftD from Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 and 2,4,6-TCP 4-Monooxygenase (TcpA from Cupriavidus necator JMP134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChulHee Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 2,4,5-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TftD and 2,4,6-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TcpA have been discovered in the biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP. TcpA and TftD belong to the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2-dependent monooxygenases and both use 2,4,6-TCP as a substrate; however, the two enzymes produce different end products. TftD catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction, while TcpA catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction followed by a hydrolytic dechlorination. We have previously reported the 3D structure of TftD and confirmed the catalytic residue, His289. Here we have determined the crystal structure of TcpA and investigated the apparent differences in specificity and catalysis between these two closely related monooxygenases through structural comparison. Our computational docking results suggest that Ala293 in TcpA (Ile292 in TftD is possibly responsible for the differences in substrate specificity between the two monooxygenases. We have also identified that Arg101 in TcpA could provide inductive effects/charge stabilization during hydrolytic dechlorination. The collective information provides a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanism and the parameters for substrate specificity. The information may provide guidance for designing bioremediation strategies for polychlorophenols, a major group of environmental pollutants.

  9. Structural and catalytic differences between two FADH(2)-dependent monooxygenases: 2,4,5-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TftD) from Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 and 2,4,6-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TcpA) from Cupriavidus necator JMP134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Robert P; Webb, Brian N; Subramanian, Arun Kumar; Nissen, Mark; Popchock, Andrew; Xun, Luying; Kang, Chulhee

    2012-01-01

    2,4,5-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TftD) and 2,4,6-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TcpA) have been discovered in the biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). TcpA and TftD belong to the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH(2))-dependent monooxygenases and both use 2,4,6-TCP as a substrate; however, the two enzymes produce different end products. TftD catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction, while TcpA catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction followed by a hydrolytic dechlorination. We have previously reported the 3D structure of TftD and confirmed the catalytic residue, His289. Here we have determined the crystal structure of TcpA and investigated the apparent differences in specificity and catalysis between these two closely related monooxygenases through structural comparison. Our computational docking results suggest that Ala293 in TcpA (Ile292 in TftD) is possibly responsible for the differences in substrate specificity between the two monooxygenases. We have also identified that Arg101 in TcpA could provide inductive effects/charge stabilization during hydrolytic dechlorination. The collective information provides a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanism and the parameters for substrate specificity. The information may provide guidance for designing bioremediation strategies for polychlorophenols, a major group of environmental pollutants.

  10. Retrospective analysis of positive LEEP surgical margin and residual lesion in 246 patients with cervical high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and micro invasive cancer after LEEP conization%宫颈高度鳞状上皮内病变和微小浸润癌环形电切术切缘阳性与病灶残余情况的246例回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高蜀君; 汪清; 郑瑞莲; 陈敏; 谢锋; 董晶; 刁雯静; 隋龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the residual lesion and suitable treatment in patients with cervical high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or micro invasive cancer underwent loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) conization with positive surgical margin. Methods: Two hundred and fortysix patients were included between January 2008 and December 2008 in this study for whom HSIL and micro invasive carcinoma were detected and then LEEP conizations were performed with positive surgical margin. The patients receiving conservative therapy were followed up with PAP-smear test, human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA test and cervical histological examination. The postoperative pathologic diagnosis and residual lesion were determined in patients receiving subsequent second operation.Results: Surgical margin was positive in 196 patients (16.87%, 196/1 162) of HSIL and 50 patients (43.48%, 50/115) of micro invasive cancer. The accuracy of colposcopic diagnosis and the rate of residual lesion were 90.82% (178/196) and 7.65% (15/196) for HSIL, and 8.00% (4/50) and 24.00% (12/50) for micro invasive cancer, respectively (P<0.05). The overall rate of residual lesion was 10.98% (27/246).Conclusion: Second LEEP or close monitoring are required for patients with positive surgical margin HSIL.Considered for high rates of positive surgical margin and residual disease in micro invasive cervical cancer, the active procedures should be performed on patients with positive LEEP surgical margin.%目的:探讨宫颈高度鳞状上皮内病变 (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion,HSIL)和微小浸润癌环形电切术(loop electrosurgical excision procedure,LEEP)切缘阳性患者的病灶残留情况及其处理.方法:回顾性分析2008年1月-2008年12月因HSIL和微小浸润癌在本中心行LEEP的标本切缘阳性的246例患者的临床资料.对接受保守治疗者密切随访其宫颈细胞学、人乳头瘤病毒(human papilloma virus,HPV)感染情况

  11. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  12. Hydroxonium hydrate tris(2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium bis[bis(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatocuprate(II] pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Hooshmand

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of copper(II nitrate hexahydrate with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (pydcH2 and 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine (melamine in aqueous solution in a 1:2:2 molar ratio gave the title compound, (H5O2(C3H7N63[Cu(C7H3NO42]2·C7H5NO4·6H2O. The hydroxonium hydrate (H5O2+, also known as the Zundel cation, resides on a twofold rotation axis. The O—H distance is 1.274 (14 Å, the O...O distance is 2.518 (5 Å, and the O—H—O angle is 162 (8°. One of the melamine H+ cations, the uncoordinated pydcH2, and two water molecules also reside on crystallographic twofold axes. The CuII atom has a tetragonally distorted octahedral coordination environment. The structure features extensive hydrogen bonding, with 21 distinct interactions. There is also a centrosymmetric C=O...π interaction with an O...centroid distance of 3.288 (3 Å. The structure is similar to a mixed-valence manganese(II/III structure but shows interesting differences in the metal-atom coordination. One of the water molecules is equally disordered with respect to a twofold axis.

  13. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Low Signature Propellant Containing 1,7-diazido-2,4,6-trinitrazaptane (DATH)%含叠氮硝胺的低特征信号推进剂的热分解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党智敏; 赵凤起; 李上文; 阴翠梅; 屠德民

    2000-01-01

    应用高压DSC(差示扫描量热法)、TG(热重法)和DTG(差示热重法)研究了DATH(1,7-二叠氮-2,4,6-三硝基氮杂庚烷)、RDX(黑索金)单组分以及RDX-CMDB(复合改性双基推进剂)和DATH-RDX-CMDB推进剂样品的热分解.温度达200 ℃时,首先是DATH中3个NO2从主链上断裂分解.接着是N3和其他残余分子在较短的时间剧烈地分解并释放出大量的热.在多组分体系中,DATH与(NC(硝化棉)+NG(硝化甘油))的相互作用比RDX与(NC+NG)的相互作用强烈.另外,DATH-RDX-CMDB(复合改性双基推进剂)分解反应的活化能比RDX-CMDB推进剂分解反应的活化能低,这一事实较好的解释了含DATH-RDX-CMDB推进剂燃速高的原因.

  14. Correlation of the solid-state reactivities of racemic 2,4(6)-di-O-benzoyl-myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoformate and its 4,4'-bipyridine cocrystal with their crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Majid I; Bahadur, Vir; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Shashidhar, Mysore S

    2014-11-01

    Racemic 2,4(6)-di-O-benzoyl-myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoformate, C21H18O8, (1), shows a very efficient intermolecular benzoyl-group migration reaction in its crystals. However, the presence of 4,4'-bipyridine molecules in its cocrystal, C21H18O8·C10H8N2, (1)·BP, inhibits the intermolecular benzoyl-group transfer reaction. In (1), molecules are assembled around the crystallographic twofold screw axis (b axis) to form a helical self-assembly through conventional O-H···O hydrogen-bonding interactions. This helical association places the reactive C6-O-benzoyl group (electrophile, El) and the C4-hydroxy group (nucleophile, Nu) in proximity, with a preorganized El···Nu geometry favourable for the acyl transfer reaction. In the cocrystal (1)·BP, the dibenzoate and bipyridine molecules are arranged alternately through O-H···N interactions. The presence of the bipyridine molecules perturbs the regular helical assembly of the dibenzoate molecules and thus restricts the solid-state reactivity. Hence, unlike the parent dibenzoate crystals, the cocrystals do not exhibit benzoyl-transfer reactions. This approach is useful for increasing the stability of small molecules in the crystalline state and could find application in the design of functional solids.

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB): Pressure and temperature effects for the solid phase and vapor-liquid phase equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Neeraj; Bhatt, Divesh; Siepmann, J Ilja; Fried, Laurence E

    2008-11-21

    The transferable potentials for phase equilibria (TraPPE) force field was extended to nitro and amino substituents for aromatic rings via parametrization to the vapor-liquid coexistence curves of nitrobenzene and aniline, respectively. These groups were then transferred to model 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Without any further parametrization to solid state data, the TraPPE force field is able to predict TATB's unit cell lengths and angles at 295 K with mean unsigned percentage errors of 0.3% and 1.8% and the specific density within 0.5%. These predictions are comparable in accuracy to the GRBF model [Gee et al., J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7059 (2004)] that was parametrized directly to TATB's solid state properties. Both force fields are able to reproduce the pressure dependence of TATB's unit cell volume, but they underestimate its thermal expansion. Due to its energetic nature and unusually large cohesive energy, TATB is not chemically stable at temperature in its liquid range. Gibbs ensemble simulations allow one to determine TATB's vapor-liquid coexistence curve at elevated temperatures and the predicted critical temperature and density for the TraPPE and GRBF model are 937+/-8 and 1034+/-8 K, and 0.52+/-0.02 and 0.50+/-0.02 gcm(3), respectively.

  16. Investigation of mitigating effect of colon-specific prodrugs of boswellic acid on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in Wistar rats: Design, kinetics and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkate, Ajinkya; Dhaneshwar, Suneela S

    2017-01-01

    AIM To develop a colon-targeting bioreversible delivery system for β-boswellic acid (BBA) and explore utility of its prodrugs in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. METHODS Synthesis of 4 co-drugs of BBA with essential amino acids was achieved by CDI coupling, followed by their spectral characterization. In vitro kinetics were studied by HPLC in aqueous buffers, homogenates of gastrointestinal tract and fecal matter. In vivo kinetic studies were performed in Wistar rat plasma, urine and feces. The prodrugs were screened in TNBS-induced colitis modeled Wistar rats. Statistical significance was assumed at P rat fecal matter and homogenates of colon. In vivo studies of BBA with L-tryptophan (BT) authenticated colon-specific release of BBA. But, surprisingly substantial concentration of BBA was seen to reach the systemic circulation due to probable absorption through colonic mucosa. Site-specifically enhanced bioavailability of BBA could be achieved in colon, which resulted in demonstration of significant mitigating effect on TNBS-induced colitis in rats without inducing any adverse effects on stomach, liver and pancreas. Prodrug of BT was found to be 1.7% (P < 0.001) superior than sulfasalazine in reducing the inflammation to colon among all prodrugs tested. CONCLUSION The outcome of this study strongly suggests that these prodrugs might have dual applicability to inflammatory bowel disease and chronotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:28275295

  17. Characteristics of energy exchange between inter- and intramolecular degrees of freedom in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) with implications for coarse-grained simulations of shock waves in polyatomic molecular crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P.; Sewell, Thomas D., E-mail: sewellt@missouri.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211-7600 (United States); Maillet, Jean-Bernard, E-mail: jean-bernard.maillet@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2016-02-14

    In this report, we characterize the kinetics and dynamics of energy exchange between intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom (DoF) in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to obtain predictions for relaxation from certain limiting initial distributions of energy between the intra- and intermolecular DoF. The results are used to parameterize a coarse-grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics at constant Energy (DPDE) model for TATB. Each TATB molecule in the DPDE model is represented as an all-atom, rigid-molecule mesoparticle, with explicit external (molecular translational and rotational) DoF and coarse-grained implicit internal (vibrational) DoF. In addition to conserving linear and angular momentum, the DPDE equations of motion conserve the total system energy provided that particles can exchange energy between their external and internal DoF. The internal temperature of a TATB molecule is calculated using an internal equation of state, which we develop here, and the temperatures of the external and internal DoF are coupled using a fluctuation-dissipation relation. The DPDE force expression requires specification of the input parameter σ that determines the rate at which energy is exchanged between external and internal DoF. We adjusted σ based on the predictions for relaxation processes obtained from MD simulations. The parameterized DPDE model was employed in large-scale simulations of shock compression of TATB. We show that the rate of energy exchange governed by σ can significantly influence the transient behavior of the system behind the shock.

  18. Species-specific differences in peroxisome proliferation, catalase, and SOD2 upregulation as well as toxicity in human, mouse, and rat hepatoma cells induced by the explosive and environmental pollutant 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Ekaterina Anatolevna; Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2017-03-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used as an explosive substance and its toxicity is still of interest as it persisted in polluted areas. TNT is metabolized in hepatocytes which are prone to its toxicity. Since analysis of the human liver or hepatocytes is restricted due to ethical reasons, we investigated the effects of TNT on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, peroxisome proliferation, and antioxidative enzymes in human (HepG2), mouse (Hepa 1-6), and rat (H4IIEC3) hepatoma cell lines. Under control conditions, hepatoma cells of all three species were highly comparable exhibiting identical proliferation rates and distribution of their cell cycle phases. However, we found strong differences in TNT toxicity with the lowest IC50 values (highest cell death rate) for rat cells, whereas human and mouse cells were three to sevenfold less sensitive. Moreover, a strong decrease in cellular dehydrogenase activity (MTT assay) and increased ROS levels were noted. TNT caused peroxisome proliferation with rat hepatoma cells being most responsive followed by those from mouse and human. Under control conditions, rat cells contained fivefold higher peroxisomal catalase and mitochondrial SOD2 activities and a twofold higher capacity to reduce MTT than human and mouse cells. TNT treatment caused an increase in catalase and SOD2 mRNA and protein levels in human and mouse, but not in rat cells. Similarly, human and mouse cells upregulated SOD2 activity, whereas rat cells failed therein. We conclude that TNT induced oxidative stress, peroxisome proliferation and mitochondrial damage which are highest in rat cells rendering them most susceptible toward TNT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 989-1006, 2017.

  19. Characteristics of energy exchange between inter- and intramolecular degrees of freedom in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) with implications for coarse-grained simulations of shock waves in polyatomic molecular crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P; Sewell, Thomas D; Maillet, Jean-Bernard

    2016-02-14

    In this report, we characterize the kinetics and dynamics of energy exchange between intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom (DoF) in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to obtain predictions for relaxation from certain limiting initial distributions of energy between the intra- and intermolecular DoF. The results are used to parameterize a coarse-grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics at constant Energy (DPDE) model for TATB. Each TATB molecule in the DPDE model is represented as an all-atom, rigid-molecule mesoparticle, with explicit external (molecular translational and rotational) DoF and coarse-grained implicit internal (vibrational) DoF. In addition to conserving linear and angular momentum, the DPDE equations of motion conserve the total system energy provided that particles can exchange energy between their external and internal DoF. The internal temperature of a TATB molecule is calculated using an internal equation of state, which we develop here, and the temperatures of the external and internal DoF are coupled using a fluctuation-dissipation relation. The DPDE force expression requires specification of the input parameter σ that determines the rate at which energy is exchanged between external and internal DoF. We adjusted σ based on the predictions for relaxation processes obtained from MD simulations. The parameterized DPDE model was employed in large-scale simulations of shock compression of TATB. We show that the rate of energy exchange governed by σ can significantly influence the transient behavior of the system behind the shock.

  20. THEORETICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE NEW OFFENSE COVERED BY ART. 246 OF THE CRIMINAL CODE MISSAPPROPRIATION OF PUBLIC AUCTIONS AND OFFENCES COVERED BY ART. 65 OF LAW NO. 21/1996 REPUBLISHED. COMPETITION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Aida POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to bring to the attention of the legal law specialists the theoretical aspects related to a new incrimination as the one covered by art. 246 of the Penal Code, the misappropriation of public auctions, as well as aspects of yet another incrimination, that is the one covered by art. 65 of Law no. 21/1996 republished-competition law, trying thus to prevent certain different interpretations about the typicality of the two incriminations and encourage the possibility of highlighting other arguments that will lead to an application as accurate as possible of the two incriminations. Presently there is no case law for the two incriminations therefore the theoretical analysis has to present interpretation arguments which will help the judicial bodies to easily classify the factual basis of the content of the two constitutive laws offering the possibility of a more detailed and contextual interpretation in relation to the reality. The way the public auctions take place is a constant preoccupation not only for the participants who are involved in the procedure and directly interested in abiding the under law and ensuring a fair competitive climate but also for the public opinion which is as equally interested in ensuring fair social-economical relationships based on the market principles. Simultaneously, the way the legal conditions of the second incriminations-that is the one from art.65 Law no.21/1996 republished - are interpreted in relation with the competition practices will lead to the clarification of the norm and its correct enforcement.

  1. 氯化四(4-磺酸钠苯基)卟啉铁(Ⅲ)催化过氧化氢氧化降解2,4,6-三氯苯酚的动力学研究%Kinetic study on the oxidative degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by tetrakis (4-sulfonate) porphyrinatoiron(Ⅲ) chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢燕; 谢斌; 黄春; 李玉龙; 曾倪; 邹立科; 何锡阳

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by water-soluble metalloporphyrins Fe (TPPS) Cl were studied by means of UV-vis spectrophotometer, where TPPS is tetrakis (4-sulfonate)porphyrin. The effect of reaction system acidity, hydrogen peroxide / catalyst molar ratio, and temperature on the catalytic oxidative reaction were investigated. The oxidative degradation mechanism of TCP catalyzed by Fe(TPPS)Cl was proposed, and a kinetic model was established. The results show that the degradation rate of 3. 8 × 10-4 mol·L-1 TCP can reach to 99% and the apparent activation energy Ea is 10.96 kJ·mol-1 with 4.0×10-5mol·L-1 of Fe(TPPS)Cl and 1.8 × 10-3mol·L-1 of H2O2 after 90 min at T = 25 ℃ and pH =6. 8. Therefore, Fe(TPPS)Cl as peroxidase in the simulation process of the oxidative degradation of TCP is an effective eatalyst.%用紫外-可见分光光度法研究了水溶性金属卟啉Fe (TPPS) Cl催化H2O2氧化降解2,4,6-三氯苯酚(TCP)的动力学(TPPS为四(4-磺酸钠苯基)卟啉),探讨了反应体系酸度、H2O2/Fe (TPPS)Cl物质的量之比、温度对氧化降解速率的影响,提出了反应机理,建立了反应动力学数学模型.研究结果表明,TCP初始浓度为3.8×10-4 mol·L-1、Fe(TPPS)Cl浓度为4.0 ×10-5 mol·L-1、H2O2浓度为1.8×10-3mol·L-1、温度为25℃、pH值为6.8、反应时间为90 min时,TCP的降解率可达到99%,其表观活化能为10.96 kJ· mol-1.因此,Fe(TPPS) Cl作为模拟过氧化物酶在催化降解TCP过程中是一种有效的催化剂.

  2. 7 CFR 246.14 - Program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... must ensure that food costs do not exceed the customary sales price charged by the vendor, home food... not exceed the price limitations applicable to the vendor. (c) Specified allowable nutrition services... following: (1) The cost of nutrition education and breastfeeding promotion and support which meets...

  3. Teaching Science as Inquiry. Fastback 246.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    The use of the inquiry approach in the teaching of elementary science is examined and advocated in this publication. The position that an inquiry approach is the best way to teach and learn science is upheld and its influence on the development of positive attitudes towards science is stressed. Section titles include: (1) "A Tale of Two Teachers"…

  4. Melaminium 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Prior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C3H7N6+·C7H5O5−·2H2O, the melaminium and benzoate ions are approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation of the non-hydrogen atoms is 0.093 Å and there is a strong C22(8 hydrogen-bonding embrace between them. The centre of symmetry generates a second acid–base pair which is bound to the first by a C22(8 (N—H...N embrace common between melamine molecules in similar compounds. Further extensive hydrogen bonding assembles the components into a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network.

  5. 40 CFR 246.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (or materials which have been separated for the purpose of recycling) from a central storage point. (f... papers, miscellaneous business forms, stationery, typing paper, tablet sheets, and computer printout... or virgin material in manufacturing a product. (x) Recycling means the process by which...

  6. 7 CFR 246.8 - Nondiscrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... Amendments of 1972, section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Age Discrimination Act of 1975... discrimination under the Program. Compliance with title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, title IX of...

  7. 7 CFR 246.4 - State plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... based on relative need, within the jurisdiction of the State agency, the State agency's plans to... jurisdiction; (ii) Vendor limiting and selection criteria. Vendor limiting criteria, if used by the State... agency's Universal Identifier number. (b) Public comment. The State agency shall establish a...

  8. 32 CFR 246.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... through newspaper sales, resale of commercial publications, authorized advertising, job printing, and... security constraints prescribed by E.O. 12356 (47 FR 14874 and 15557, 3 CFR, 1982 Comp., p. 166). (3... classified national security information. (ii) Would adversely affect national security. (iii)...

  9. 27 CFR 19.246 - Strengthening bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Strengthening bonds. In all cases when the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new... amount of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  10. 7 CFR 246.26 - Other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... of federal funds provided for nutrition services and administration to each participating...

  11. 7 CFR 246.20 - Audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN...'s review upon request. The cost of these audits shall be considered a part of nutrition services...

  12. 2,4,6-Trifluorobenzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Betz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C7H3F3O2, the C—C—C angles in the ring are greater than 120° for F-bonded C atoms [123.69 (13, 123.88 (12 and 123.66 (12°]. In the crystal, intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds between carboxyl groups give rise to the formation of a centrosymmetric dimer, while dispersive F...O contacts [2.8849 (16 Å] connect the dimers into infinite strands along the a axis.

  13. 32 CFR 246.5 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operations that involve more than one area of responsibility. (5) Chair, as required, at the Deputy Assistant... APF accounting and reporting procedures required by DoD Instruction 7000.12 5 , in coordination with... successor-in-interest to the S&S, as agreed upon by the applicable Unified Command and the Director of...

  14. 7 CFR 246.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nutritional services, or other Program duties as assigned by the State agency. (3) For nutrition-related... for Program administration. FNS shall provide assistance to State and local agencies and evaluate all... and efficient manner possible. (b) Delegation to the State agency. The State agency is responsible...

  15. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... methodology described in accordance with paragraph (h)(2) of this section. 9 Fresh banana may replace up to 16 ounces of infant food fruit at a rate of 1 pound of bananas per 8 ounces of infant food fruit. 10 In lieu... juice may be regular or lower in sodium. 3 Eggs Fresh shell domestic hens' eggs or dried eggs mix...

  16. 7 CFR 246.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... must ensure the reliability and integrity of the technology used and the security and confidentiality... the authorization of mobile stores is necessary to meet the special needs described in the...

  17. Time Series Analysis For The Californium Source In Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Labranche, H

    2004-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory uses a 252Cf source to measure the neutron detection efficiency of its detector. We propose a method, the Time Series Analysis, that uses pairs of time intervals between the detected events to find the neutron detection efficiency, the probability to detect from a fission the prompt γ-rays, the neutron mean life inside the detector, the source fission rate and the residual activity rate from non-fission events. We explain our theoretical model of the source and the procedure to fit the data. With a 2.5 MeV threshold cut on the data, the neutron mean life is 5.281 ± 0.004(stat) msec and the source fission rate at June 12, 2001 is 4.360 ± 0.004(stat) sec −1. At this moment, the Time Series can only be applied to data when the source is near the centre. The technique is also applied with an AmBe source. We also show the latest progress to improve the technique. Finally, we briefly show another method, the Multiplicity Analysis, which was ...

  18. Design and Potentials of the Californium-252 Radiation Facility at WES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    standards, using an Image Quality Indicator (IQI) and also a Beam Purity Indicator (BPI),** shows a relatively good thermal and epithermal neutron ...colli-nated beam of the desired neutron radiation. Consideration of the basic nuclear properties was therefore a necessity in achieving the desired...The upper 6 ft has been designed for use in radiography and neutron counting. The steel tank was prefabricated in two sections. The lower 6-ft

  19. Design of a californium-based epithermal neutron beam for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanch, J C; Kim, J K; Wilson, M J

    1993-08-01

    The potential of the spontaneously fissioning isotope, 252Cf, to provide epithermal neutrons for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to design an assembly composed of a 26 cm long, 11 cm radius cylindrical D2O moderator followed by a 64 cm long Al filter. Lithium filters are placed between the moderator and the filter and between the Al and the patient. A reflector surrounding the moderator/filter assembly is required in order to maintain adequate therapy flux at the patient position. An ellipsoidal phantom composed of skull- and brain-equivalent material was used to determine the dosimetric effect of this beam. It was found that both advantage depths and advantage ratios compare very favourably with reactor and accelerator epithermal neutron sources. The dose rate obtainable, on the other hand, is 4.1 RBE cGy min-1, based on a very large (1.0 g) source of 252Cf. This dose rate is two to five times lower than those provided by existing reactor beams and can be viewed as a drawback of using 252Cf as a neutron source. Radioisotope sources, however, do offer the advantage of in-hospital installation.

  20. Differential sensitivity of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) leads to dissimilar growth and TNT transformation: Results of soil and pure culture studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, M.E.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

    1996-07-30

    The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on indigenous soil populations and pure bacterial cultures were examined. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) appearing when TNT-contaminated soil was spread on 0.3% molasses plates decreased by 50% when the agar was amended with 67 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, whereas a 99% reduction was observed when uncontaminated soil was plated. Furthermore, TNT-contaminated soil harbored a greater number of organisms able to grow on plates amended with greater than 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. The percentage of gram-positive isolates was markedly less in TNT-contaminated soil (7%; 2 of 30) than in uncontaminated soil (61%; 20 of 33). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas corrugate, Pseudomonasfluorescens and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans made up the majority of the gram-negative isolates from TNT-contaminated soil. Gram-positive isolates from both soils demonstrated marked growth inhibition when greater than 8-16 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} was present in the culture media. Most pure cultures of known aerobic gram-negative organisms readily degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites. However, pure cultures of aerobic gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to relatively low concentrations of TNT as indicated by the 50% reduction in growth and TNT transformation which was observed at approximately 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. Most non-sporeforming gram-positive organisms incubated in molasses media amended with 80 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} or greater became unculturable, whereas all strains tested remained culturable when incubated in mineral media amended with 98 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, indicating that TNT sensitivity is likely linked to cell growth. These results indicate that gram-negative organisms are most likely responsible for any TNT transformation in contaminated soil, due to their relative insensitivity to high TNT concentrations and their ability to transform TNT.

  1. Actuación y Responsabilidad del Contador Público, en su Función como Auditor Externo, según la modificación introducida en la ley 25.246 ante la sanción de la ley 26.683

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A través de este trabajo, se investigará las nuevas obligaciones y responsabilidades que afectan a los Contadores públicos que actúen como Auditores Externos, ante la sanción de la ley 26.683 que modifica a la ley 25.246 sobre el lavado de dinero y financiación del terrorismo. A raíz de esta modificación en la ley, tanto la Unidad de Información Financiera como la Federación Argentina de Consejos Profesionales de Ciencias Económicas emitieron resoluciones (65/11 y la 420/11 ...

  2. Web Page Development and Management. SPEC Kit 246 and SPEC Flyer 246.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping Peter, Comp.

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit and Flyer reports results of two surveys conducted in 1996 and 1998 that examined ARL (Association of Research Libraries) member libraries' World Wide Web history, development, use, and activities. Fifty-six out of the then 119 ARL member institutions responded to the 1996 survey, and 68 out…

  3. Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum reduces TNBSinduced colitis in mice%植物乳杆菌对2,4,6-三硝基苯磺酸诱导的小鼠结肠炎的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶胜青; 赵志鸿; 夏阳; 陈红旗

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of administration of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) on established colitis in mice and to explore possible mechanisms involved.METHODS: A model of colitis was induced by intracolonic injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid sodium salt (TNBS) in adult Balb/c mice. The mice were then treated with LP (109 CFU) or vehicle for three weeks. After treatment, all mice were killed and colonic damage was evaluated both histologically and biochemically, including determination of the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the levels of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), tumor necrosis factor c (TNF-α) and interferon-γ(IFN-γ) in colon tissue.RESULTS: LP therapy resulted in amelioration of colitis induced with TNBS in mice when compared with control mice without undergoing LP treatment. This anti-inflammatory effect of LP was evidenced by a significant reduction of macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage scores (1.11 ± 0. 61 vs 4.62 ± 0. 40, P< 0.05; 1.48 ± 0.40 vs 5.39 ± 1.12, P < 0.05). Moreover, a reduction of neutrophil infiltrate in LP-treated mice was confirmed biochemically by a significant reduction of the activity of colonic MPO (25.14 U/g ± 5.22 U/g vs 90.3 U/g ± 7.70 U/g, P < 0.05), a marker of neutrophil infiltration, in comparison with non-treated colitic mice. In addition, treatment with LP resulted in a lower colonic content of LTB4 and in a significant reduction of proinflammatory factors, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ,when compared with control mice (3.13 ng/g ± 0.10 ng/g vs 8.43 ng/g ± 0. 49 ng/g, P <0.05; 205 ng/g ± 68 ng/g vs 375 ng/g ± 79 ng/g, P < 0.05;446 ng/g ± 116 ng/g vs 603 ng/g ± 109 ng/g, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Administration of LP is effective in accelerating the recovery of experimental colitis in mice possibly by reducing leukocyte accumulation and proinflammatory cytokine expression.%目的:评估益生菌植物乳杆菌(LP)对三硝基苯磺酸(TNBS)诱导小鼠肠道炎症损伤的

  4. Estudos biocatalíticos para a preparação de fragmentos do ácido (2S,4E,6R,8S)-8-hidróxi-2,4,6-trimetil-non-4-enóico, constituinte de depsipeptídeos marinhos

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Prof. Dr. Rodrigo Luiz Oliveira Rodrigues Cunha Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do ABC, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência & Tecnologia - Química, 2014. O presente trabalho consiste na síntese dos fragmentos C1-C4 e C5-C9 do ácido (2S,4E,6R,8S)-8-hidróxi-2,4,6-trimetil-non-4-enóico (1) que corresponde à porção policetídica da Jaspamida e de diversos Geodiamolídeos. A metodologia empregada para a obtenção de tais fragmentos é raramente vista, pois os dois enantiomêros do precur...

  5. Determination of the optimum-size californium-252 neutron source for borehole capture gamma-ray analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senftle, F.E.; Macy, R.J.; Mikesell, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The fast- and thermal-neutron fluence rates from a 3.7 ??g 252Cf neutron source in a simulated borehole have been measured as a function of the source-to-detector distance using air, water, coal, iron ore-concrete mix, and dry sand as borehole media. Gamma-ray intensity measurements were made for specific spectral lines at low and high energies for the same range of source-to-detector distances in the iron ore-concrete mix and in coal. Integral gamma-ray counts across the entire spectrum were also made at each source-to-detector distance. From these data, the specific neutron-damage rate, and the critical count-rate criteria, we show that in an iron ore-concrete mix (low hydrogen concentration), 252Cf neutron sources of 2-40 ??g are suitable. The source size required for optimum gamma-ray sensitivity depends on the energy of the gamma ray being measured. In a hydrogeneous medium such as coal, similar measurements were made. The results show that sources from 2 to 20 ??g are suitable to obtain the highest gamma-ray sensitivity, again depending on the energy of the gamma ray being measured. In a hydrogeneous medium, significant improvement in sensitivity can be achieved by using faster electronics; in iron ore, it cannot. ?? 1979 North-Holland Publishing Co.

  6. Optical transitions in highly charged californium ions with high sensitivity to variation of the fine-structure constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berengut, J C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V; Ong, A

    2012-08-17

    We study electronic transitions in highly charged Cf ions that are within the frequency range of optical lasers and have very high sensitivity to potential variations in the fine-structure constant, α. The transitions are in the optical range despite the large ionization energies because they lie on the level crossing of the 5f and 6p valence orbitals in the thallium isoelectronic sequence. Cf(16+) is a particularly rich ion, having several narrow lines with properties that minimize certain systematic effects. Cf(16+) has very large nuclear charge and large ionization energy, resulting in the largest α sensitivity seen in atomic systems. The lines include positive and negative shifters.

  7. Magnetic solid-phase extraction based on a polydopamine-coated Fe3 O4 nanoparticles absorbent for the determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, and (S)-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol in environmental waters by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Yuan; Long, Xing-Yu; Yin, He-Xing; Qiao, Jun-Qin; Lian, Hong-Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Polydopamine-coated Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles synthesized through a facile solvothermal reaction and the self-polymerization of dopamine have been employed as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent to enrich four phenolic compounds, bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, (S)-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, from environmental waters followed by high-performance liquid chromatographic detection. Various parameters of the extraction were optimized, including the pH of the sample matrix, the amount of polydopamine-coated Fe3 O4 sorbent, the adsorption time, the enrichment factor of analytes, the elution solvent, and the reusability of the nanoparticles sorbent. The recoveries of these phenols in spiked water samples were 62.0-112.0% with relative standard deviations of 0.8-7.7%, indicating the good reliability of the magnetic solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography method. In addition, the extraction characteristics of the magnetic polydopamine-coated Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were elucidated comprehensively. It is found that there are hydrophobic, π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions between phenols and more dispersible polydopamine-coated Fe3 O4 in water, among which hydrophobic interaction dominates the magnetic solid-phase extraction performance.

  8. Ab initio determination of the framework structure of the heavy-metal oxide Cs{sub x}Nb{sub 2.54}W{sub 2.46}O{sub 14} from 100kV precession electron diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, Thomas E. [Gemeinschaftslabor fuer Elektronenmikroskopie der Rheinisch-Westfaelischen Technischen Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen, Ahornstrasse 55, Aachen D-52074 (Germany)]. E-mail: weirich@gfe.rwth-aachen.de; Portillo, Joaquim [NanoMEGAS, Boulevard Edmond Machtens 79, Brussels B-1080 (Belgium); SERVEIS Cientificotecnics, Universitat de Barcelona/Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Cox, Gerhard [BASF-AG, Polymer Physics Department, Ludwigshafen D-67065 (Germany); Hibst, Hartmut [BASF-AG, Catalysis Research Department Ludwigshafen D-67065 (Germany); Nicolopoulos, Stavros [NanoMEGAS, Boulevard Edmond Machtens 79, Brussels B-1080 (Belgium); Universidad Politecnica de Valencia /ITQ Avda de los Naranjos s/n, Valencia 46071 (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    The present work deals with the ab initio determination of the heavy metal framework in Cs{sub x}(Nb, W){sub 5}O{sub 14} from precession electron diffraction intensities. The target structure was first discovered by Lundberg and Sundberg [Ultramicroscopy 52 (1993) 429-435], who succeeded in deriving a tentative structural model from high-resolution electron microsopy (HREM) images. The metal framework of the compound was solved in this investigation via direct methods from hk0 precession electron diffraction intensities recorded with a Philips EM400 at 100kV. A subsequent (kinematical) least-squares refinement with electron intensities yielded slightly improved co-ordinates for the 11 heavy atoms in the structure. Chemical analysis of several crystallites by EDX is in agreement with the formula Cs{sub 0.44}Nb{sub 2.54}W{sub 2.46}O{sub 14}. Moreover, the structure was independently determined by Rietveld refinement from X-ray powder data obtained from a multi-phasic sample. The compound crystallises in the orthorhombic space group Pbam with refined lattice parameters a=27.145(2), b=21.603(2), and c=3.9463(3)A. Comparison of the framework structure from electron diffraction with the result from Rietveld refinement shows an average agreement for the heavy atoms within 0.09A.

  9. Enzymic determination of saliva glucose with use of 2,4,6-tribromo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid on biochemical analyzer%以TBHBA为色原的唾液葡萄糖全自动分析法的建立及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳琳; 王华忠; 左世友; 蒲晓允

    2006-01-01

    目的 建立一种灵敏、可靠的唾液葡萄糖全自动分析方法,并评价其在监测血糖浓度中的价值.方法 用2,4,6-三溴-3-羟基苯甲酸(TBHBA)取代葡萄糖氧化酶测定法的苯酚,在HATACHI 7150上测定唾液葡萄糖,并观察糖尿病患者唾液葡萄糖的变化及与血糖浓度之间的相关性.结果 经方法学评价,葡萄糖浓度在60mg/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,精密度检测CV值批内3.3%,批间3.8%,平均回收率100.3%,受干扰物影响较小.糖尿病患者唾液葡萄糖含量高于正常对照组的含量(P<0.05),唾液葡萄糖与血浆葡萄糖相关系数r=0.87(P<0.01).结论 以TBHBA为色原的全自动分析方法可准确地测定唾液葡萄糖,并可对糖尿病患者血糖浓度进行无创性检测.

  10. 2,4,6-三硝基苯磺酸致肠炎大鼠背根神经节神经元电生理特性%The electrophysiology characteristics of dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats with TNBS-induced colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟双平; 卢占英; 李星宇; 刘彬; 马蓓

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究2,4,6-三硝基苯磺酸(TNBS)致肠炎大鼠的背根神经节(DRG)神经元电生理特性,为更全面地了解炎症性肠病(IBD)提供借鉴.方法 SD大鼠(雄性,体质量160~200 g)随机分为实验组和对照组,实验组(n=5)给予30%TNBS溶液(剂量40mg/kg)灌肠,对照组(n=5)给予等效体积的生理盐水灌肠.在灌肠的第8天(炎症急性期)处死大鼠,对其结肠进行H-E染色,以确定造模是否成功;取其DRG神经元用全细胞膜片钳技术分析其电生理特性.结果 实验组大鼠体质量降低(P<0.001),H-E染色示肠黏膜腺体结构严重破坏,炎性细胞浸润明显,表明造模成功.TNBS致肠炎后大鼠DRG神经元动作电位的阈电流降低(P<0.05).结论 TNBS致肠炎后大鼠DRG神经元兴奋性增高.

  11. 2,4,6-Tri-p-tolylpyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Ping Tang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C26H23N, the complete molecule is generated by crystallographic mirror symmetry, with the N atom and four C atoms lying on the reflection plane. The dihedral angles between the pyridine ring and pendant benzene rings are 2.9 (1, 14.1 (1 and 14.1 (1°. Neighbouring molecules are stabilized through intermolecular π–π interactions along the c axis [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.804 (2 Å], forming one-dimensional chains.

  12. 7 CFR 246.16 - Distribution of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... percent of poverty criterion. The Department will determine each State agency's population of persons categorically eligible for WIC which are at or below 185% of poverty, through the best available,...

  13. Dicty_cDB: SSJ246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ifihf*kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: kl*nviqiitinhkc*lnpkesnffnfsrkhtik**cstlrccstccnsrfid...nfsrkhtik**cstlrccstccnsrfidccrccsy lnlqriln*liihilipweifenlivylinn*LYLLIFKKKKKKK...AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA sequence update 1998.12.21 Translated Amino Acid sequence kl*nviqiitinhkc*lnpkesnff

  14. Dicty_cDB: SFJ246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cssiqfsfgyekaiasfypppgdlhptthnfwacnsvinqnggfgplecnnagi yaifstaneiidgneymlplfyigrstidvrdriadh...hnfwacnsvinqnggfgplecnnagi yaifstaneiidgneymlplfyigrstidvrdriadhsrrnhvdndfivcymrfpalddy gysnkvtpveqallhqfktq

  15. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 246 - Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... D. S&S Job Shop Printing. The S&S are authorized to operate job shop printing, to include book... daily basis for transportation to, and distribution in, the designated area of operations, as requested... on a timely basis and intratheater distribution of daily Stars and Stripes newspapers as part...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 246 - Recommended Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Belknap, M. Paper recycling: a business perspective. Subcommittee on Solid Waste, New York Chamber of... Publication SW-155. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. 26 p. Hansen, P. Solid waste recycling... Printing Office, 1973. 284 p. Lingle, S. A. Paper recycling in the United States. Washington,...

  17. The Reactivity of 2,4,6-Tirphenylpyridinium Ylids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Triphenylpyridinium ylid 2, generated by the decarboxylation of betaine 1, were noted to react with acetyl chloride, chloroform or acetone to form addition-elimination product and proton extraction - carbanion addition products, respectively. The reaction with chloroform was determined as pseudo first order from kinetic experiments. The values of kobsd and t1/2 for decarboxylation at 20, 40 and 50°C were calculated to be 4.6 x 10-4, 8.8 x 10-3, 2.8 x 10-2 min-1 and 1.5 x 103, 78, 24 minutes, respectively.

  18. 1935 15' Quad #246 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. Water Quality Criteria for 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    remove TNT from wastewater streams was evaluated by Kaplan and Kaplan (1982) using the Ames assay. The surfactants were Duoquad T-50 (N- tallow -N’N’N...8217-trimethvl-NN-dimethyl-l,3-diamino-propane). Duomeen T (N- tallow -l,3-diamino-propaoe, white waxy solid), and Arquad T-50 (N- tallow -trimethylammonium...chemical pol- lutant: a) Carcinogenicity, b) Toxicity, and c) Organoleptic (taste and odor ) effects. The meanings and practical uses of the criteria

  20. Dicty_cDB: SHB246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available JBW092C02 similar to undiscovered sequence, mRNA sequence. 30 0.004 3 AC141063 |AC141063.1 Homo sapiens chr...8982.1 JBW092C02.b_012.abi Pineapple week 5-10 nematode-infected gall cDNA library Ananas comosus cDNA clone

  1. 7 CFR 246.23 - Claims and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... otherwise, that any Program funds provided to a State agency for supplemental foods or nutrition...

  2. 7 CFR 246.25 - Records and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN..., equipment purchases and inventory, certification, nutrition education, civil rights and fair...

  3. 7 CFR 246.12 - Food delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... the delivery of health and nutrition education services to participants. (e) Retail food...

  4. 7 CFR 246.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... Agriculture shall carry out the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children...

  5. 48 CFR 52.246-21 - Warranty of Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... remedy at the Contractor's expense any damage to Government-owned or controlled real or personal property...) Alternate I (APR 1984). If the Government specifies in the contract the use of any equipment by brand name... Government on a brand name and model basis, shall not be included in this warranty. In this event,...

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHM246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ryidstcsccfngdgxsgdwkelaksrglanlpstpealt ninsekniqlfcesnilspvelesrqxilfexynksikieanslyd*VSTLVLPACXAHQ KNIAES...ciq*nq*ryidstcsccfngdgxsgdwkelaksrglanlpstpealt ninsekniqlfcesnilspvelesrqxilfexy

  7. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 246 - Editorial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard code of personal and professional ethics and general editorial principles similar to those... professional ethics. d. Emphasis on content accuracy, objectivity, and fair representation of all sides of an... news of independent investigations furnished by commercial media and, therefore, in the public...

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHD246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l*defpitlsidrnwssrs*ilfihveinsrik*tfs*nsstfttcrc*ly pssfk**eyl*nrxkxxxnsr Translated Amino Acid sequence (Al...gitksreill*defpitlsidrnwssrs*ilfihveinsrik*tfs*nsstfttcrc*ly pssfk**eyl*nrxkxxxnsr Frame B: isn*hahiikili*si

  9. Dicty_cDB: SHI246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 111 length of database: 80,480,566 effective HSP length: 17 effective length of query: 94 effective length o...f database: 78,821,179 effective search space: 7409190826 effective search space used: 7409190826 T: 0 A: 0 ...han 10.0: 0 length of query: 111 length of database: 61,358,773,460 effective HSP length: 22 effective length of query: 89 effective... length of database: 60,109,362,660 effective search space: 5349733276740 effective

  10. Dicty_cDB: VFN246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ELPDGQVITIGNERFRXPEALFQPSX LGMEXAGIHGTTYXSIMKCDVXIRKXLYGXVVXXGGTXMFPGXADRMNKELXALAPSXHE N*nhcstrt*xlcldwwixl...YELPDGQVITIGNERFRXPEALFQPSX LGMEXAGIHGTTYXSIMKCDVXIRKXLYGXVVXXGGTXMFPGXADRMNKELXALAPSXHE N*nhcstrt*xlcldwwix

  11. Bromido(2,4,6-trimethylphenylmercury(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Meyer-Wegner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecules of the title compound, [HgBr(C9H11], are located on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis. Due to the molecular symmetry, the HgII atom is linearly coordinated by the ipso-C of the mesityl group and the Br atom. In the crystal, molecules lie in planes parallel to (001.

  12. Analytical Chemistry of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    resonance absorption spectroscopy techniques involving NMR, electron spin resonance, and nuclear quadrupole resonance ( NQR ), were investigated for the...ref 135). The NQR was used for the determination of the chemical structure, crystalline states, and morphology of TNT (ref 136). The NMR was used...157). The detection of TNT vapors with an ion mobility spectrometer , a type of PCMS, is described, together with other methods of detection (ref 158

  13. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The State agency must conduct the procurement in a manner that maximizes full and open competition... manufacturer. The State agency must use the aggregate market share of the manufacturers submitting bids in... with developing and implementing—but not operating—each cost containment system. This includes...

  14. Dicty_cDB: SHH246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available influenzae Rd Genome,Fragments Thereof, and Uses Thereof. 44 1e-04 2 U32767 |U32767.1 Haemophilus influenza...e Nucleotide Sequence of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd Genome,Fragments Thereof, and Uses Thereof. 44 1e-04

  15. 48 CFR 252.246-7001 - Warranty of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Remedies. The following remedies shall apply to all breaches of the warranty, whether the Contractor... exceed ten percent of the total contract price. (ii) If the breach of the warranty is with respect to the..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions...

  16. Decree number 1.246 of September 16, 1994; Decreto no. 1.246 de 16 de setembro de 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-16

    Promulgates the Treaty for Proscription of Nuclear Weapon in Latin America and Caribbean - Tlatelolco Treaty, held in Mexico City in February 14, 1967 an the Resolutions numbers 267(E-V), of July 3, 1990, 268 (XII), of May 10, 1991 and 290 (VII), of August 26, 1992, all of them adopted by the General Conference of the Organism for the Proscription of Nuclear Weapon in Latin America and Caribbean (OPANAL) in Mexico City.

  17. Hypericin from St. John's Wort (hypericum perforatum) as a novel natural fluorophore for chemiluminescence reaction of bis (2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-imidazole and quenching effect of some natural lipophilic hydrogen peroxide scavengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Sayed Yahya [Department of Basic Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abedirad, Seyed Mohammad, E-mail: mabedirad@yahoo.com [Department of Basic Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zali, Seyed Hassan; Amiri, Mohadeseh [Department of Range and Watershed Management, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Hypericin (HYP) molecule is a natural photoactive pigment, which plays a role as an effective photoreceptor in some plants of the Hypericum species (the most common of which is Saint John's Wort) and some insect species. The present work deals with the first attempt to the study of peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (POCL) system in the presense of HYP as a natural fluorophore. Reaction of bis (2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate(TCPO)-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-imidazole can transfer energy to a HYP via formation of dioxetane through the chemically initiated electron exchange luminescence (CIEEL) mechanism and can emits a very intense red light. The effects of HYP, hydrogen peroxide, TCPO and imidazole concentrations on kinetic chemiluminescence parameters were also studied. These parameters including rise and fall rate constant for the chemiluminescence burst, theoretical and experimental maximum intensity, theoretical and experimental time to reach maximum intensity and total light yield emission were evaluated by using a pooled intermediate model for a non-linear least-squares curve fitting program, KINFIT. Moreover, quenching effect of two lipophilic natural antioxidant, Quercetin and {beta}-carotene on it system was also investigated. The measurable concentration range of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M to 7.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M of antioxidants were evaluated from the proper Stern-Volmer plots with satisfactory RSD% and corresponding detection limits of 2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} and 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} for {beta}-carotene and quercetin respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red fluorophores may therefore chemiluminescence more intensely than other commonly chemiluminophores and emits light in longer wavelengths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypericin from St. John's wort (hypericum perforatum) as natural red fluorophore for peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence was introduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quenching

  18. 超声波辅助-顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱法测定软木塞中痕量2,4,6-三氯苯甲醚%Determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole(TCA)in corks by ultrasonic oscillation assisted headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素娟

    2015-01-01

    Through the optimization of the extraction process of Wine corks, a method for determining 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) in wine corks has been estabilished by using Ultrasonic Oscillation assisted HS-SPME-GC .The correlation coefficient for linearity (R2), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of this method were 0.999 8, 0.2 ng/g, and 0.5 ng/g, respectively. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was between 1.35%~5.47%, and recoveries ranged from 81.5%to 97.8%. The method is simple, quick, easy op-erating, high accuracy, good reproducibility and suitable for general laboratory to detect trace TCA residues in wine corks.%通过对软木塞样品提取过程的优化,建立了超声波法辅助顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱仪检测软木塞中痕量2,4,6-三氯苯甲醚(TCA)的方法。试验结果表明,该方法的线性范围0.5 ng/L~80.0 ng/L,R2为0.9998,线性关系良好。方法检出限为0.2 ng/g,方法定量限为0.5 ng/g,精密度(RSD)在1.35%~5.47%之间,加标回收率为81.5%~97.8%。该方法操作简便、快速、易操作、准确度高、重现性好,适用于普通实验室对软木塞中痕量2,4,6-三氯苯甲醚残留的检测。

  19. 类石墨相氮化碳量子点(g-CNQDs)用于水质中三硝基苯酚的检测%Fluorescent Sensor Based on Graphite Carbon Nitride Quantum Dots for Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol in Water Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓学祖; 王方明; 王彩荷; 秦冬冬; 李毅然; 陕多亮; 卢小泉

    2016-01-01

    An extremely efficient, sensitive and facile fluorescent sensing approach for detection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol ( TNP ) based on the graphite carbon nitride quantum dots ( g-CNQDs ) was reported. The g-CNQDs material, a novel nanometer sized semiconductor with distinct characteristics of good water-solubility, biocompatibility, environmental-friendly nontoxicity property, was successfully prepared by solid-state reaction strategy at an extremely low temperature, and we revealed that the fluorescence quenching of g-CNQDs ascribe to the molecular interactions ( such as electrostatic,仔-仔, and hydrogen bonding interactions) between TNP and g-CNQDs. This fluorescence sensor presented high selectivity toward TNP with quick response. In the experiment, we found that g-CNQDs exhibited fine linear relationship in the concentration of 0. 1 -100 μmol/L and 0. 1-100 μmol/L of TNP with a low detection limit (0. 05 nmol/L, S/N=3). The proposed approach has a perfectly potential application prospect in fluorescence sensing field, and can be employed for determination of TNP in natural water samples and supervision of TNP in the natural water environment.%基于类石墨相氮化碳量子点( g-CNQDs)建立了一种高效、灵敏、简单的荧光化学传感器用于检测水相中的三硝基苯酚( TNP)。 g-CNQDs是一种新型纳米半导体材料,具有很好的水溶性、生物相容性、环境友好、良好荧光特性,无毒性,通过简单的固相反应法,制备了g-CNQDs材料,探讨了g-CNQDs与TNP之间的相互作用(如仔-仔共轭作用、氢键相互作用和静电作用)引起的g-CNQDs荧光猝灭过程。此荧光传感器响应速度快,对TNP具有良好的选择性。实验结果表明,本方法在0.1~100 nmol/L和0.1~100μmol/L的浓度范围内呈现良好的线性关系,检出限为0.05 nmol/L ( S/N=3)。 g-CNQDs材料在化学传感器方面有很好的应用前景,利用此荧光传感器对实际水样中的TNP进行了

  20. Keno-Nr a Monte Carlo Code Simulating the Californium -252-SOURCE-DRIVEN Noise Analysis Experimental Method for Determining Subcriticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficaro, Edward Patrick

    The ^{252}Cf -source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) requires the measurement of the cross power spectral density (CPSD) G_ {23}(omega), between a pair of neutron detectors (subscripts 2 and 3) located in or near the fissile assembly, and the CPSDs, G_{12}( omega) and G_{13}( omega), between the neutron detectors and an ionization chamber 1 containing ^{252}Cf also located in or near the fissile assembly. The key advantage of this method is that the subcriticality of the assembly can be obtained from the ratio of spectral densities,{G _sp{12}{*}(omega)G_ {13}(omega)over G_{11 }(omega)G_{23}(omega) },using a point kinetic model formulation which is independent of the detector's properties and a reference measurement. The multigroup, Monte Carlo code, KENO-NR, was developed to eliminate the dependence of the measurement on the point kinetic formulation. This code utilizes time dependent, analog neutron tracking to simulate the experimental method, in addition to the underlying nuclear physics, as closely as possible. From a direct comparison of simulated and measured data, the calculational model and cross sections are validated for the calculation, and KENO-NR can then be rerun to provide a distributed source k_ {eff} calculation. Depending on the fissile assembly, a few hours to a couple of days of computation time are needed for a typical simulation executed on a desktop workstation. In this work, KENO-NR demonstrated the ability to accurately estimate the measured ratio of spectral densities from experiments using capture detectors performed on uranium metal cylinders, a cylindrical tank filled with aqueous uranyl nitrate, and arrays of safe storage bottles filled with uranyl nitrate. Good agreement was also seen between simulated and measured values of the prompt neutron decay constant from the fitted CPSDs. Poor agreement was seen between simulated and measured results using composite ^6Li-glass-plastic scintillators at large subcriticalities for the tank of uranyl nitrate. It is believed that the response of these detectors is not well known and is incorrectly modeled in KENO-NR. In addition to these tests, several benchmark calculations were also performed to provide insight into the properties of the point kinetic formulation.

  1. Accurate determination of Curium and Californium isotopic ratios by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 248Cm samples for transmutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourgiotis, A.; Isnard, H.; Aubert, M.; Dupont, E.; AlMahamid, I.; Cassette, P.; Panebianco, S.; Letourneau, A.; Chartier, F.; Tian, G.; Rao, L.; Lukens, W.

    2011-02-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments including the mini-INCA (INcineration of Actinides) project for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron fluxes, in view of proposing solutions to reduce the radiotoxicity of long-lived nuclear wastes. In this context, a Cm sample enriched in {sup 248}Cm ({approx}97 %) was irradiated in thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). This work describes a quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QMS) analytical procedure for precise and accurate isotopic composition determination of Cm before sample irradiation and of Cm and Cf after sample irradiation. The factors that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of isotopic ratio measurements by ICP-QMS, such as peak centre correction, detector dead time, mass bias, abundance sensitivity and hydrides formation, instrumental background, and memory blank were carefully evaluated and corrected. Uncertainties of the isotopic ratios, taking into account internal precision of isotope ratio measurements, peak tailing, and hydrides formations ranged from 0.3% to 1.3%. This uncertainties range is quite acceptable for the nuclear data to be used in transmutation studies.

  2. Radiological Characterization Technical Report on Californium-252 Sealed Source Transuranic Debris Waste for the Off-Site Source Recovery Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-24

    This document describes the development and approach for the radiological characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The report combines information on the nuclear material content of each individual source (mass or activity and date of manufacture) with information and data on the radionuclide distributions within the originating nuclear material. This approach allows for complete and accurate characterization of the waste container without the need to take additional measurements. The radionuclide uncertainties, developed from acceptable knowledge (AK) information regarding the source material, are applied to the summed activities in the drum. The AK information used in the characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources has been qualified by the peer review process, which has been reviewed and accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  3. Thermophilic Transformation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Composting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION O𔄁rHIS PAGES(WhO DOa Eaif.MQ 20. original 14C-label became bound into humus -like components, becoming un- ’extractable with...generally followed the procedure of Kononova and Bel’Chicova 15 and Stevenson . 16 Extracts were analyzed by IR and mass spectroscopy on a Finnegan...lOOmL IN NaOH, a drying tube, and an activated carbon 15 Kononova, M. M. and N. P. Bel’chikova. 1961. Quick methods of determining the humus

  4. Fate of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in a Simulated Compost System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    of agricultural and other wastes. J. K. R. Gasser, ed., Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, 42-55. Stevenson , F. J. (1989). Humus chemistry...vii 1 Introduction Background and Rationale Composting is generally defined as a microbial process for conversion of organic wastes into humus under...acetonitrile. Organic matter fractionation: Experiment IV. The organic matter frac- tionation procedure was adapted from Stevenson (1989) (Figure 3

  5. Crystal structure of 5-chloro-3-cyclohexylsulfinyl-2,4,6-trimethyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H21ClO2S, the cyclohexyl ring adopts a chair conformation with the C—S bond in an equatorial orientation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O and C—H...π hydrogen bonds and a Cl...π [3.594 (2 Å] contact into chains along the a-axis direction.

  6. 3-(4-Fluorophenylsulfinyl-2,4,6-trimethyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk Lee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H15FO2S, the O atom and the 4-fluorophenyl group of the 4-fluorophenylsulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the plane of the benzofuran; the 4-fluorophenyl ring is almost perpendicular to this plane, making a dihedral angle of 88.99 (4°. The crystal structure exhibits intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions between the methyl H atom and the 4-fluorophenyl ring.

  7. 3-(3-Fluorophenylsulfinyl-2,4,6-trimethyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Ja Seo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H15FO2S, the 3-fluorophenyl ring makes a dihedral angle of 78.38 (4° with the mean plane of the benzofuran fragment. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O and C—H...π interactions. The crystal structure also exhibits a slipped π–π interaction between the furan and benzene rings of neighbouring molecules [centroid–centroid distances = 3.628 (2 Å, interplanar distance = 3.417 (2 Å and slippage = 1.219 (2 Å].

  8. 3-(2-Fluorophenylsulfinyl-2,4,6-trimethyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H15FO2S, the 2-fluorophenyl ring makes a dihedral angle of 87.53 (5° with the mean plane [r.m.s. deviation = 0.013 (1 Å] of the benzofuran fragment. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...F, C—H...O and C—H...π interactions, forming a three-dimensional network.

  9. 48 CFR 252.246-7003 - Notification of Potential Safety Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administrative Contracting Officer (ACO) and the Procuring Contracting Officer (PCO) as soon as practicable, but... notification to the ACO and the PCO within 5 working days that includes— (i) A summary of the defect or... ACO and the PCO, if the subcontractor is aware of the ACO and the PCO for the contract. (End of clause)...

  10. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Paul S; Chasman, Daniel I; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chen, Ming-Huei; Huffman, Jennifer E; Steri, Maristella; Tang, Weihong; Teumer, Alexander; Marioni, Riccardo E; Grossmann, Vera; Hottenga, Jouke J; Trompet, Stella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brody, Jennifer A; Kleber, Marcus E; Guo, Xiuqing; Wang, Jie Jin; Auer, Paul L; Attia, John R; Yanek, Lisa R; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Lahti, Jari; Venturini, Cristina; Tanaka, Toshiko; Bielak, Lawrence F; Joshi, Peter K; Rocanin-Arjo, Ares; Kolcic, Ivana; Navarro, Pau; Rose, Lynda M; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Riess, Helene; Mazur, Johanna; Basu, Saonli; Goel, Anuj; Yang, Qiong; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Rumley, Ann; Fiorillo, Edoardo; de Craen, Anton J M; Grotevendt, Anne; Scott, Robert; Taylor, Kent D; Delgado, Graciela E; Yao, Jie; Kifley, Annette; Kooperberg, Charles; Qayyum, Rehan; Lopez, Lorna M; Berentzen, Tina L; Räikkönen, Katri; Mangino, Massimo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Peyser, Patricia A; Wild, Sarah; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Wright, Alan F; Marten, Jonathan; Zemunik, Tatijana; Morrison, Alanna C; Sennblad, Bengt; Tofler, Geoffrey; de Maat, Moniek P M; de Geus, Eco J C; Lowe, Gordon D; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sattar, Naveed; Binder, Harald; Völker, Uwe; Waldenberger, Melanie; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Mcknight, Barbara; Huang, Jie; Jenny, Nancy S; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Qi, Lihong; Mcevoy, Mark G; Becker, Diane M; Starr, John M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Hysi, Pirro G; Hernandez, Dena G; Jhun, Min A; Campbell, Harry; Hamsten, Anders; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Mcardle, Wendy L; Slagboom, P Eline; Zeller, Tanja; Koenig, Wolfgang; Psaty, Bruce M; Haritunians, Talin; Liu, Jingmin; Palotie, Aarno; Uitterlinden, André G; Stott, David J; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Polasek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Wilson, James F; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Spector, Tim D; Eriksson, Johan G; Hansen, Torben; Deary, Ian J; Becker, Lewis C; Scott, Rodney J; Mitchell, Paul; März, Winfried; Wareham, Nick J; Peters, Annette; Greinacher, Andreas; Wild, Philipp S; Jukema, J Wouter; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hayward, Caroline; Cucca, Francesco; Tracy, Russell; Watkins, Hugh; Reiner, Alex P; Folsom, Aaron R; Ridker, Paul M; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Smith, Nicholas L; Strachan, David P; Dehghan, Abbas

    2016-01-15

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes indels. We conducted a genome-wide association analysis of 34 studies imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel and including ∼120 000 participants of European ancestry (95 806 participants with data on the X-chromosome). Approximately 10.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 1.2 million indels were examined. We identified 41 genome-wide significant fibrinogen loci; of which, 18 were newly identified. There were no genome-wide significant signals on the X-chromosome. The lead variants of five significant loci were indels. We further identified six additional independent signals, including three rare variants, at two previously characterized loci: FGB and IRF1. Together the 41 loci explain 3% of the variance in plasma fibrinogen concentration.

  11. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Paul S; Chasman, Daniel I; Sabater-Lleal, Maria;

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes indels. We...... examined. We identified 41 genome-wide significant fibrinogen loci; of which, 18 were newly identified. There were no genome-wide significant signals on the X-chromosome. The lead variants of five significant loci were indels. We further identified six additional independent signals, including three rare...... variants, at two previously characterized loci: FGB and IRF1. Together the 41 loci explain 3% of the variance in plasma fibrinogen concentration....

  12. 48 CFR 552.246-70 - Source Inspection by Quality Approved Manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Standard 368 or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 9001:2000... required inspections and tests. (2) In addition to the requirements in Federal Standard 368, ISO...

  13. 3-Nitrophenol–1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sangeetha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C3H6N6·2C6H5NO3, contains one melamine and two 3-nitrophenol molecules. The mean planes of the 3-nitrophenol molecules are almost orthogonal to the plane of melamine, making dihedral angles of 82.77 (4 and 88.36 (5°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via O—H...N, N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The crystal also features weak C—H...π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.9823 (9 Å].

  14. Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Measurement and Policy Issues. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Working Paper is to broaden the debate on "pro-poor growth". An exclusive focus on the income dimension of poverty has neglected the non-income dimensions. After an examination of prominent views on the linkages between economic growth, inequality, and poverty reduction this paper discusses the proper definition and…

  15. Coupled anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6 trichlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Degradation of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol(TCP) with co-immobilizing anaerobic granular sludge and isolated aerobic bacterial specieswas studied in coupled anaerobic/aerobic integrated reactors. The synergism of aerobes and anaerobes within co-immobilized granule mightfacilitate degrading the TCP and exchange of anaerobic metabolites 4-CP, which promoted system organic removal efficiency and recovered fromorganic shock-loads more quickly. The biomass specific activities experiment further confirmed that strict anaerobes be not affected over thecourse of this experiment by the presence of an oxic environment, aerobic activity predominated in the outer co-immobilized granule layers,while the interior was characterized by anaerobic activity. The co-immobilized granule could thus enable both aerobic and anaerobic microbesfunction in the same reactor and thereby integrate the oxidative and reductive catabolism.

  16. Molecular screening of 246 Portuguese Aspergillus isolates among different clinical and environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Raquel; Veríssimo, Cristina; Parada, Helena; Brandão, João; Viegas, Carla; Carolino, Elisabete; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2014-07-01

    Clinical and environmental samples from Portugal were screened for the presence of Aspergillus and the distributions of the species complexes were determined in order to understand how their distributions differ based on their source. Fifty-seven Aspergillus isolates from clinical samples were collected from 10 health institutions. Six species complexes were detected by internal transcribed spacer sequencing; Fumigati, Flavi, and Nigri were found most frequently (50.9%, 21.0%, and 15.8%, respectively). β-tubulin and calmodulin sequencing resulted in seven cryptic species (A. awamorii, A. brasiliensis, A. fructus, A. lentulus, A. sydowii, A. tubingensis, Emericella echinulata) being identified among the 57 isolates. Thirty-nine isolates of Aspergillus were recovered from beach sand and poultry farms, 31 from swine farms, and 80 from hospital environments, for a total 189 isolates. Eleven species complexes were found in these 189 isolates, and those belonging to the Versicolores species complex were found most frequently (23.8%). There was a significant association between the different environmental sources and distribution of the species complexes; the hospital environment had greater variability of species complexes than other environmental locations. A high prevalence of cryptic species within the Circumdati complex was detected in several environments; from the isolates analyzed, at least four cryptic species were identified, most of them growing at 37ºC. Because Aspergillus species complexes have different susceptibilities to antifungals, knowing the species-complex epidemiology for each setting, as well as the identification of cryptic species among the collected clinical isolates, is important. This may allow preventive and corrective measures to be taken, which may result in decreased exposure to those organisms and a better prognosis.

  17. Symposium on Energy Storage Materials Energy and Fuel Division, 246th ACS National Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-17

    SooYeon Lim, Ramazan Kahraman, Yousung Jung, Jangwook Choi.   2:05 pm 449 Development of high energy density Li­organic redox flow battery Wei  Wang , Wu...entrapped catalysts Qiang Gu, Bruce Tatarchuk.   9:00 am 507 Natural cellulose fiber as substrate for supercapacitor with extra ion diffusion pathway Zhe ...Yun Hu  Wednesday, September 11, 2013  449 ­ Development of high energy density Li­organic redox flow battery Wei  Wang , wei.wang@pnnl.gov, Wu Xu

  18. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  19. Numerical Solutions of the Coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrand#246;dinger Equations by Differential Quadrature Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoudam Roshan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solutions of the coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger equations is obtained by using differential quadrature methods based on polynomials and quintic B-spline functions for space discretization and Runge-Kutta fourth order for time discretization. Stability of the schemes are studied using matrix stability analysis. The accuracy and efficiency of the methods are shown by conducting some numerical experiments on test problems. The motion of single soliton and interaction of two solitons are simulated by the proposed methods.

  20. Rapid restoration of methanogenesis in an acidified UASB reactor treating 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Báez, María Consuelo; Valderrama-Rincon, Juan Daniel

    2017-02-15

    Anaerobic bioreactors are often used for removal of xenobiotic and highly toxic pollutants from wastewater. Most of the time, the pollutant is so toxic that the stability of the reactor becomes compromised. It is well known that methanogens are one of the most sensitive organisms in the anaerobic consortia and hence the stability of the reactors is highly dependant on methanogenesis. Unfortunately few studies have focused on recovering the methanogenic activity once it has been inhibited by highly toxic pollutants. Here we establish a quick recovery strategy for neutralization of an acidified UASB reactor after failure by intoxication with an excess of TCP in the influent. Once the reactor returned to pH values compatible with methanogenesis, biogas production was re-started after one day and the system was re-acclimated to TCP. Successful removal of TCP from synthetic wastewater was shown for concentrations up to 70mg/L after restoration.

  1. 12 CFR 24.6 - Examples of qualifying public welfare investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... individuals or areas or targeted redevelopment areas, or small businesses, including minority- and women-owned... primarily low- and moderate-income individuals or low- and moderate-income areas or targeted redevelopment..., rehabilitates, manages, sells, or rents housing primarily for low- and moderate-income individuals;...

  2. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YBR246W, YDR520C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a screen for mutants with increased levels of rDNA transcription; null mutants display a weak carboxypeptid...h increased levels of rDNA transcription; null mutants display a weak carboxypeptidase Y missorting/secretio

  3. 19 CFR 10.246 - Maintenance of records and submission of Certificate by importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... having knowledge of the relevant facts; (3) Must be completed either in the English language or in the language of the country from which the article is exported. If the Certificate is completed in a language... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A...

  4. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) IN ANABAENA SP. CULTURES. (R825513C013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Mineralization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoleune (TNT) in Coastal Waters and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-21

    degradation as well. Lignin is degraded by fungi using several key enzyme systems: manganese peroxidase ( MnP ), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and...et al. 2006). TNT transformation occurs primarily as two types of enzymes systems are used, oxidative and nitroreductive, with the oxidative enzymes ...those found in microbial degradation (Bhadra et al. 1999). The oxidative enzyme system (peroxidase, phenoloxidase) is generally constitutively

  6. 2,4,6-Trimethyl-3,5-bis[(phenylcarbonothioylsulfanylmethyl]benzyl benzenecarbodithioate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kannan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound C33H30S6, the three pendant methylene benzodithioate groups lie to one side of the central benzene ring in a cis-cis-cis `tripod' arrangement. The dihedral angles between the central benzene ring and the three pendant rings are 72.54 (4, 89.68 (4 and 86.74 (4°. In the crystal structure, one of the benzene rings is disordered over two orientations in a 0.559 (13:0.441 (13 ratio.

  7. (E-2,4,6-Trimethyl-N-[(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene]aniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Imhof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H16N2, is a pyrrole-2-carbaldimine ligand that shows an E conformation at the imine double bond. The dihedral angle between the rings is 78.3 (1°. In the crystal, pairs of molecules form centrosymmetric dimers [graph-set descriptor is presumably R22(10] via N—H...N hydrogen bonds between the pyrrole N—H group and the imine N atom of a neighbouring molecule.

  8. Soil Sorption and Plant Uptake of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    More severe symptoms are methemoglobinemia, severe Jaundice due to liver damage and aplastic anemia caused by disfunction of the bone marrow (Urbanski...possible that simple partitioning with lipid -rich tubers occurs in the soil. The environmental implications of bioaccumulation in seeds or tubers is

  9. 26 CFR 1.246-5 - Reduction of holding periods in certain situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a strategy to substantially offset changes in the fair market value of the stock. (ii) Conversion.... Because Corporation A and Corporation B common stock are affected not only by the general level of growth... substantially similar or related property involving the following types of transactions— (i) The short sale...

  10. The clinical and pathological features of idiopathic membranous nephropathy in 246 Chinese adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAN Hong-di; ZHANG Jing-hong; LIU Zhi-hong; LI Lei-shi; CHEN Hui-ping; ZHENG Feng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and pathological features of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) in Chinese adults. Methods: From 1986 to 1997, 264 patients with biopsy proven membranous nephropathy were selected in this study. Clinical and pathological features were compared between patients at different ages by t test. Results: (1) Patients from 21- 40 years old were inclined to membranous nephropathy. (2) One hundred and six of the patients had heavy proteinuria at presentation. Hypertension was found in 35 patients. Renal insuffeiency occurred in 7.7% of the patients in renal biopsy. Microscopic hematuria was found in 40.2% of the patients. Seventy-four patients presented nephrotic syndrome. (3) Eight of the 57 patients had deterioration of renal function during an average 49-month follow-up. (4) Patients of stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ accounted for 42.3%, 48.7%, 6.0% and 3.0% respectively. Glomeruli IgG, C3 and C1qdeposition was found in 93.2%, 98.8% and 58.3% of the patients. Conclusion: Younger patients are inclined to membranous nephropathy. The incidence of hypertension, microscopic hematuria and renal insuffcieney is similar to that of other countries, while nephrotic syndrome is uncommon.

  11. 27 CFR 24.246 - Materials authorized for the treatment of wine and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derived from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, or barley malt per FDA advisory... shall be derived from Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus oryzae per FDA advisory opinion dated 8/18/83 or... clarify and to stabilize wine The enzyme activity used shall be derived from Aspergillus niger or...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 246 - Business and Financial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “customer-complaint” feedback system to monitor its service and provide the best possible service to its customers. The results of those surveys shall be provided to the Unified Command with recommendations to the...-effective levels that still consider the servicing needs of overseas customers. b. The S&S shall...

  13. Soft rotator model and {sup 246}Cm low-lying level scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    Non-axial soft rotator nuclear model is suggested as self-consistent approach for interpretation of level schemes, {gamma}-transition probabilities and neutron interaction with even-even nuclei. (author)

  14. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. de Vries (Paul); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M. Sabater-Lleal (Maria); M.-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer E.); M. Steri (Maristella); W. Tang (Weihong); A. Teumer (Alexander); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); V. Grossmann (Vera); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); S. Trompet (Stella); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); J. Brody (Jennifer); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); X. Guo (Xiuqing); J.J. Wang (Jie Jin); P. Auer (Paul); J. Attia (John); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); J. Lahti (Jari); C. Venturini (Cristina); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); L.F. Bielak (Lawrence F.); P.K. Joshi (Peter); A. Rocanin-Arjo (Ares); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Navarro (Pau); L.M. Rose (Lynda); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); H. Riess (Helene); J. Mazur (Johanna); S. Basu (Saonli); A. Goel (Anuj); Q. Yang (Qiong); M. Ghanbari (Mohsen); Gonnekewillemsen; A. Rumley (Ann); E. Fiorillo (Edoardo); A.J. de Craen (Anton); A. Grotevendt (Anne); R.A. Scott (Robert); K.D. Taylor (Kent D.); G.E. Delgado (Graciela E.); J. Yao (Jie); A. Kifley (Annette); C. Kooperberg (Charles); Q. Qayyum (Rehan); L. Lopez (Lornam); T.L. Berentzen (Tina L.); K. Räikkönen (Katri); Massimomangino; S. Bandinelli (Stefania); P.A. Peyser (Patricia A.); S. Wild (Sarah); D.-A. Tregouet (David-Alexandre); A.F. Wright (Alan); J. Marten (Jonathan); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); B. Sennblad (Bengt); G.H. Tofler (Geoffrey); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); G.D. Lowe (Gordon D.); M. Zoledziewska (Magdalena); N. Sattar (Naveed); H. Binder (Harald); U. Völker (Uwe); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); B. McKnight (Barbara); J. Huang (Jian); N.S. Jenny (Nancy); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); L. Qi (Lihong); M.G. Mcevoy (Mark G.); D.M. Becker (Diane); J.M. Starr (John); A.-P. Sarin; P.G. Hysi (Pirro); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); M.A. Jhun (Min A.); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Hamsten (Anders); F. Sarin (Fernando); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); P. Eline Slagboom; T. Zeller (Tanja); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); B. Psaty (Brucem); T. Haritunians (Talin); J. Liu (Jingmin); A. Palotie (Aarno); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D.J. Stott (David J.); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); O. Polasek (Ozren); I. Rudan (Igor); P.-E. Morange (P.); J.F. Wilson (James F.); S.L. Kardia (Sharon L.r); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T.D. Spector (Timothy); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); T. Hansen (Torben); I.J. Deary (Ian); L.C. Becker (Lewis); R.J. Scott (Rodney); P. Mitchell (Paul); W. März (Winfried); N.J. Wareham (Nick J.); A. Peters (Annette); A. Greinacher (Andreas); P.S. Wild (Philipp S.); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret I.); C. Hayward (Caroline); F. Cucca (Francesco); R.P. Tracy (Russell); H. Watkins (Hugh); A.P. Reiner (Alex P.); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); P.M. Ridker (Paul); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher J.); N.L. Smith (Nicholas L.); D.P. Strachan (David P.); A. Dehghan (Abbas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes

  15. 48 CFR 52.246-18 - Warranty of Supplies of a Complex Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in this contract. (c) Remedies available to the Government. (1) In the event of a breach of the... contract price. (3) The Contracting Officer shall notify the Contractor in writing of any breach of the... written recommendation within __ as to the corrective action required to remedy the breach. After...

  16. 48 CFR 52.246-17 - Warranty of Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... obligation contained in this contract. (c) Remedies available to the Government. (1) The Contracting Officer... notice of any breach of the warranties specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this clause, the Contracting... REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions...

  17. 有13-(4,m)型的二元自对偶码(m=2,4,6)%Binary Self-dual Codes with Type of 13-(4,m) (m=2,4,6)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣

    2014-01-01

    论述纠错码中的二元自对偶码,把码字看成二元域GF(2n)上的多项式,并分解因式。根据码长较短的二元自对偶码,构造出长度较长的二元自对偶码,并给出生成矩阵。运用2个码等价的类型,得到在等价下可能的码的分类情况,运行Matlab程序,证明具有13-(4,2)型自同构的二元自对偶码[54,27,10]只有8个等价的自对偶码。应用该方法,得到二元自对偶码[56,28,10]的生成矩阵。运行程序证明在等价情况下,存在16个有13-(4,4)型的自对偶码,而有13-(4,6)型的二元自对偶码[58,29,10]在等价下只有10种码。%The paper discusses the binary self-dual code of error correcting code,looking the code as a polynomial on the field GF(2) n and factorizing it. It constructs the longer length code by the shorter length code and gives the code’ s generator matrix. Owning to code’ s equivalence,the possible classification of length 54 binary self-dual codes with an automorphism of order 13 is given. By implementing Matlab procedures,there are eight self-dual codes up to equivalence. By similar method,there are 16 self-dual codes with type of 13-(4,4) and there are 10 self-dual codes with type of 13-(4,6) up to equinalence. Therefore,the generator matrices and classifications of the binary self-dual code with type of 13-(4,2),13-(4,4) and 13-(4,6) are solved completely.

  18. A DUF-246 family glycosyltransferase-like gene affects male fertility and the biosynthesis of pectic arabinogalactans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stonebloom, Solomon; Ebert, Berit; Xiong, Guangyan

    2016-01-01

    enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pectin have been described. Here we report the identification of a highly conserved putative glycosyltransferase encoding gene, Pectic ArabinoGalactan synthesis-Related (PAGR), affecting the biosynthesis of RG-I arabinogalactans and critical for pollen tube growth...... rates of pollen tube formation in pollen from pagr heterozygotes. To characterize a loss-of-function phenotype for PAGR, the Nicotiana benthamiana orthologs, NbPAGR-A and B, were transiently silenced using Virus Induced Gene Silencing. NbPAGR-silenced plants exhibited reduced internode and petiole......BACKGROUND: Pectins are a group of structurally complex plant cell wall polysaccharides whose biosynthesis and function remain poorly understood. The pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) has two types of arabinogalactan side chains, type-I and type-II arabinogalactans. To date few...

  19. Recent Advances in Nanoparticle-Based F&#246;rster Resonance Energy Transfer for Biosensing, Molecular Imaging and Drug Release Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Nai-Tzu Chen; Shih-Hsun Cheng; Ching-Ping Liu; Jeffrey S. Souris; Chen-Tu Chen; Chung-Yuan Mou; Leu-Wei Lo

    2012-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) may be regarded as a “smart” technology in the design of fluorescence probes for biological sensing and imaging. Recently, a variety of nanoparticles that include quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, polymer, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and upconversion nanoparticles have been employed to modulate FRET. Researchers have developed a number of “visible” and “activatable” FRET probes se...

  20. Di-μ-bromido-bis[(diethyl ether-κO(2,4,6-trimethylphenylmagnesium]: the mesityl Grignard reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Seven

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, [Mg2Br2(C9H112(C4H10O2], features a centrosymmetric two-centre magnesium complex with half a molecule in the asymmetric unit. The Mg atom is in a considerably distorted Br2CO coordination. Bond lengths and angles are comparable with already published values. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...π interactions linking the complexes into sheets parallel to (0-11.

  1. Clean Manufacture of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) via Improved Regioselectivity in the Nitration of Toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ross W.; Arber, Anthony W.; Endsor, Robert M.; Hamid, Javid; Eamon Colclough, M.

    2011-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense requires an environmentally benign synthesis route to manufacture military grade trinitrotoluene (TNT), which eliminates the production of red water arising from the sulfiting process for removing unsymmetrical trinitrotoluene isomers. We have found that by using a novel nitrating system, N2O5 in dichloromethane, the proportion of metasubstituted nitrotoluenes can be suppressed, and improvements have also been made to the di- and trinitration steps. As a result, TNT with a set point near that of the Mil. Spec. can be made by our process, without the need for sulfite washing; after recrystallization it exceeds the specification.

  2. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 3. Chronic Toxicity of LAP Wastewater and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    3 Manganese ɘ.02 - 7 (0.02 - 4 ɘ.01 - 3 * Selenium ɘ.01 - 6 ɘ.01 - 4 (0.01 - 3 Silver ɘ.03 - 7 ɘ.06 - 4 ɘ.005 - 3 Zinc 0.04 ɘ.01-0.06 3...S. .. . . S S S . -. . . . . . .’k".." -N . In addition to hatchability and mortality, records of deformities and total lengths and weights...None- theless, data on egg hatchability and fry survival from tests performed on TNT and LAP water are shown in Tables 4 and 5, respectively. Table 4

  3. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 1. Acute Toxicity of LAP Wastewater and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    34Task 3-The purpose of Task 3 was to determine the effect of contin- uous exposure to the test materials on egg hatchability and on fry growth and...0.02 - 7 (0.02 - 4 (0.01 - Selenium ɘ.01 - 7 10.02- 4 20.05-.silver ɘ.03 7 (0.06 4 ɘ.005 Zinc 0 0.001-0.008 7 0.01.6 0.00"-0.03 1 0.012...variance revealed that nonphotolyzed LAP water had a sig- nificant (p j 0.001), concentration-related effect on egg hatchability . William’s test

  4. The Synthesis of 2,4,6-Triisopropyl-1,3,5-trioxane Catalyzed by Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Guo YANG; Xin Yu YU; Hai Hong WU; Zhi Lin CHENG; Yue Ming LIU; Ming Yuan HE

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of 2, 4, 6-triisopropyl- 1, 3, 5-trioxane with high yield and desirable selectivity from solvent-free cyclotrimerization of isobutyraldehyde catalyzed by ionic liquids was reported in this work.

  5. Theoretical determination of anisotropic thermal conductivity for crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew; Sewell, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Bond stretching and three-center angle bending potentials have been developed to extend an existing rigid-bond TATB molecular dynamics (MD) force field (FF) for simulations requiring fully flexible molecules. The FF potentials were fit to experimental vibrational spectra and electronic structure predictions of vibrational normal modes and frequencies using a combination of zero Kelvin eigenmode analysis for the isolated molecule and finite-temperature power spectra for the isolated molecule and bulk crystal. Crystal structures computed using the revised FF are in good agreement with results from other computational models and experimental data. A non-equilibrium MD method was used to obtain the room temperature, atmospheric pressure thermal conductivity along three directions in a well-defined, non-orthogonal basis. The thermal conductivity was found to be significantly anisotropic with values of 1.13 +/- 0.07, 1.07 +/- 0.07 and 0.65 +/- 0.03 W m-1 K-1 for directions nominally parallel to the a, b, and c crystal directions, respectively. The U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research supported this research.

  6. Self-deflagration rates of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). [burning tate, thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, T. L.; Price, C. F.; Zurn, D. E.; Atwood, A. I.; Eisel, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal stability and resistance to impact was investigated for the ingredient TABA. Particular attention was given to determining the use of TABA as a possible alternative ingredient or substitute for HMX in explosives and high energy propellants. The burn rate of TABA was investigated as a function of pressure. It was concluded that the self deflagration rate of TABA is an order of magnitude lower than HMX over the range 2000-15000 psi; TABA will not sustain self deflagration at low pressures (less than or equal to 1500 psi) in the sample configuration and apparatus used.

  7. 78 FR 19413 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Applied Chemistry, 81(6), pp. 1131-1186, 2009. 2. Memorandum from H. Lee, Division of Petition Review, Chemistry Review Team, to J. Kidwell, Division of Petition Review, Regulatory Group I, FDA, July 26, 2011. 3... Petition Review, Chemistry Review Team, to T.Croce, Division of Petition Review, Regulatory Group II,...

  8. Detoxification of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in Arabidopsis: discovery of bifunctional O- and C-glucosyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    the roots has been observed (Pavlostathis et al., 1998), although little TNT is transported to the aerial parts of the plant (Sens et al., 1998). ª...of retention times and MSn fragmentation with standards, confirming in planta the activities previously character- ized in vitro: 4-HADNT-C-glucoside...Thulke, O. and Schaffner, A.R. (2003) Arabidopsis glucosyltransferases with activities toward both endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Planta , 217

  9. The Role of Oxophytodienoate Reductases in the Detoxification of the Explosive 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene by Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    hydrophilic molecules such as Glc are conjugated to the activated TNT molecule (Gandia-Herrero et al., 2008), facilitating transport and subsequent compart...truncation predic- ted to reduce activity, we concluded that OPR4/5 and OPR6 were unlikely to play a significant role in TNT detoxification in planta ...localization is likely to reduce accessibility toward TNT in planta . The in vitro activity data clearly show that OPR1, OPR2, and OPR3 all have

  10. 78 FR 37962 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...): Judith Kidwell, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug Administration... Blue 247): Teresa Croce, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug... Cosmetic Act and under authority delegated to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, and redelegated to...

  11. Species Differences in the Disposition and Metabolism of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene as a Function of Route of Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    nephropathies .] Gig. Tr. Prof. Zabol., 13, 31-35 (1969). 16. Kennedy, A. M., and J. Ingham. Prophyrinuria in trinitrotoluene poison- ing. Br. Med. J., 1, 490...Skripnichenko, and E. T. Tkachenko. [Trinitrotoluene (TNT) cataract in miners, its diagnosis and prevention.] Oftalmol. Zh., 25, 579-584 (1970). 22...nature, diagnosis and prevention. J. Ind. Hyg., 3, 239-254 (1921). 48. Von Oettingen, W. F., D. D. Donahue, R. K. Snyder, T. R. Sweeney, and A. R. Monaco

  12. (E)-2,4,6-Trimethyl-N-[(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methyl-idene]aniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C14H16N2, is a pyrrole-2-carbaldimine ligand that shows an E conformation at the imine double bond. The dihedral angle between the rings is 78.3 (1)°. In the crystal, pairs of mol-ecules form centrosymmetric dimers [graph-set descriptor is presumably R(2)2(10)] via N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between the pyrrole N-H group and the imine N atom of a neighbouring mol-ecule.

  13. Toxicological responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to subchronic soil exposures of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazar, Mathew A; Quinn, Michael J; Mozzachio, Kristie; Johnson, Mark S

    2008-06-01

    Since World War I, trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been the most commonly used explosive. Environmental contamination associated with synthesis, manufacture of weapons, and use during training exercises has been extensive, with soil concentrations reaching 145,000 mg/kg. Some of these areas include habitats for amphibian species. Earlier studies have shown that salamanders dermally absorb TNT from soil. To ascertain what soil concentrations of TNT are toxic to amphibians, red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) were exposed to one of five concentrations of TNT in soil for 28 d and evaluated for indicators of toxicity. A total of 100 salamanders were randomly sorted by weight and assigned to target TNT concentrations in soil of either 3,000, 1,500, 750, 325, or 0 mg/kg dry weight. Food consisted of uncontaminated flightless Drosophila melanogaster. Survival was reduced in salamanders exposed to 1,500 and 3,000 mg/kg by 10 and 55%, respectively. Most mortality/morbidity occurred within the first week of exposure. Salamanders had a reduction in hemoglobin at 750 mg/kg or greater and a reduction in red blood cell concentration at 1,500 mg/kg or greater. Food consumption was affected in salamanders at 750 mg/kg or greater; a reduction in body mass and liver glycogen content also occurred at and above this concentration. Splenic congestion also was observed in salamanders from these groups. These data suggest that soil TNT concentrations of 373 +/- 41.0 mg/kg or greater result in reduced body mass, reduced feed intake, and hematological effects.

  14. Bis(2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium 2-[bis(carboxylatomethylazaniumyl]acetate trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshnik Hoxha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, 2C3H7N6+·C6H7NO62−·3H2O, was obtained by mixing melamine and nitrilotriacetic acid in aqueous solution. There is proton transfer from the nitrilotriacteic acid to melamine to produce two melaminium cations and an internal proton transfer to generate the [HN(CH2COO]2− zwitterion. The melaminium cations are arranged in hydrogen-bonded tapes formed by N—H...N interactions. These tapes extend parallel to the [010] direction and are stacked parallel to the a axis at a mean separation of 3.3559 (11 Å. Between these tapes lie the anions and lattice water molecules. Further O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds exist between the water molecules, the anions, and the melaminium cations, generating a three-dimensional array. The crystal examined was found to be twinned by a twofold rotation about the direct lattice direction [100]. The two twin components were present in the ratio 0.5918:0.4082 (14.

  15. Use of Propolis Hydroalcoholic Extract to Treat Colitis Experimentally Induced in Rats by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cely Cristina Martins Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the therapeutic effect of a propolis SLNC 106PI extract on experimental colitis. Wistar adult rats received 0.8 mL rectal dose of one of the following solutions: saline (group S, 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol (group TNBS, 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol and propolis extract in saline (group TNBS-P, propolis extract in saline (group SP, and 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol and 50 mg/kg mesalazine (group TNBS-M. The animals were euthanized 7 or 14 days after the colitis induction. Samples of the distal colon were harvested for the analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO enzyme activity and for morphometric analysis in paraffin-embedded histological sections with hematoxylin-eosin or histochemical staining. The animals treated with TNBS exhibited the typical clinical signs of colitis. Increased MPO activity confirmed the presence of inflammation. TNBS induced the development of megacolon, ulceration, transmural inflammatory infiltrate, and thickened bowel walls. Treatment with propolis moderately reduced the inflammatory response, decreased the number of cysts and abscesses, inhibited epithelial proliferation, and increased the number of goblet cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the propolis SLNC 106 extract was confirmed by the reductions in both the inflammatory infiltrate and the number of cysts and abscesses in the colon mucosa.

  16. The Structure and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Octupolar Compound: 2,4,6-Tristyryl-s-triazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Zhi CUI; Qi FANG; Hong LEI; Gang XUE; Wen Tao YU

    2003-01-01

    The crystal of 2, 4, 6-tristyryl-s-triazine (TSTA) has been prepared and its crystal structure been determined to be in the polar non-centrosymmetric space group Cmc21. The molecular structure of TSTA is characterized by the slightly curved planar configuration and the octupolar C3v molecular symmetry. As expected, TSTA crystal shows a quite novel nonlinear optical (NLO) property with its powder second harmonic generating (SHG) intensity of 1.8 times as that of urea. It also shows excellent transparency (with the peak position of 322 nm in absorption spectrum) and good thermal stability (with the melting point of 225-229℃).

  17. 78 FR 21567 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... californium-252 (Cf-252). A licensee's decision to use a specific type of source may depend upon cost, availability, and the dependence upon historical data with which to compare current measurement results. The...

  18. Corrigendum to "Development of ANFIS model for air quality forecasting and input optimization for reducing the computational cost and time" [Atmos. Environ. 128 (2016) 246-262

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kanchan; Gorai, Amit Kumar; Goyal, Pramila

    2016-10-01

    In the paper entitled "Development of ANFIS model for air quality forecasting and input optimization for reducing the computational cost and time" the correlation coefficient values of O3 with the other parameters (shown in Table 4) were mistakenly written from some other results. But, the analyses were done based on the actual results. The actual values are listed in the revised Table 4.

  19. The unusual stability of TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene): A review of the scientific literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, S.F.; Simpson, R.L.

    1990-07-04

    This review is intended as an up-to-date review of the scientific literature on TATB since its discovery as a high explosive. In particular, it focuses on clarifying our current understanding of the relationship between the structure of TATB and its unique thermal stability. We review a large number of different publications by many authors. A small portion of the work on TATB'' presented actually consists of experimental studies on TATB formulated as PBX-9502 or as LX-17. Where relevant, this distinction is indicated. However, inasmuch as this review focuses on thermal response and the relationship of chemical reactivity to the molecular and lattice structure of TATB as a pure material, results from these other formulations may not be directly applicable, and in general we have omitted them. 4 refs.

  20. Corrigendum to "Early dispersals of maize and other food plants into the Southern Caribbean and Northeastern South America" [Quat. Sci. Rev. 123 (2015) 231-246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán-Jiménez, Jaime R.; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reniel; Reid, Basil A.; van den Bel, Martijn; Hofman, Corinne L.

    2016-09-01

    When this paper was first published online, the authors mistyped the species name Capsicum chinense (a chili pepper species) in two of the four instances where it was mentioned in the above article. This typographic error does not change the results of the reported study. However, due to the potential implications of the findings on Capsicum spp., the correct paragraphs are printed below:

  1. Assessing the acid properties of desilicated ZSM-5 by FTIR using CO and 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine (collidine) as molecular probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Svelle, S.; Joensen, F.;

    2009-01-01

    A series of desilicated ZSM-5 catalysts previously shown to have improved catalytic performance in the MTG (methanol-to-gasoline) reaction [M. Bjorgen, F. Joensen, M.S. Holm, U. Olsbye, K.-P. Lillerud, S. Svelle, Appl. Catal. A 345 (2008) 43] was subjected to thorough examination using FTIR. Clea...

  2. A Literature Review - Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals. Volume 3. Occupational Health and Safety Aspects of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    observed (79). CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF’TNT TOXICITY The main pathological manifestations of TNT toxicity are acute yellow atrophy of the liver, aplasia ...epithelium of the convuluted tubules. Straight tubules in the medullary zone contained brownish material. No fat globules were observed in the glomerult...heavily loaded with fat globules; the medullary portion, on the other hand, contained some brownish material which did not stain as hemosiderin. No

  3. Treatment with the smallpox antiviral tecovirimat (ST-246) alone or in combination with ACAM2000 vaccination is effective as a postsymptomatic therapy for monkeypox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, Aklile; Prigge, Jonathan T; Silvera, Peter M; Honeychurch, Kady M; Hruby, Dennis E; Grosenbach, Douglas W

    2015-07-01

    The therapeutic efficacies of smallpox vaccine ACAM2000 and antiviral tecovirimat given alone or in combination starting on day 3 postinfection were compared in a cynomolgus macaque model of lethal monkeypox virus infection. Postexposure administration of ACAM2000 alone did not provide any protection against severe monkeypox disease or mortality. In contrast, postexposure treatment with tecovirimat alone or in combination with ACAM2000 provided full protection. Additionally, tecovirimat treatment delayed until day 4, 5, or 6 postinfection was 83% (days 4 and 5) or 50% (day 6) effective.

  4. Inhibitory effect of a formulated extract from multiple citrus peels on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 246.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Etoh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Formulated Citrus Peel Extract (GL made from the peels of six citrus fruits available in Japan, namely navel oranges, citrus hassaku, citrus limon, citrus natsudaidai, citrus miyauchi and satsuma, was initially developed as a cosmetic product to protect skin from UV irradiation. Anecdotal evidences of anti-cancer property of GL have been reported by consumers based on the cases such as topical application for melanoma, and oral ingestion for prostate, lung and liver cancers.Those anecdotal reports stimulated us to investigate anti-tumorigenesis activity of GL. In the previous study, we reported that the topical application of GL inhibited DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor formation by decreasing inflammatory gene parameters.Objective: In this study, we mainly investigated the effect of GL on translocation of NF-kB together with production of nitric-oxide and TNF-α induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells.Results: This investigation showed that GL decreased the release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from macrophage RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GL suppressed the expression of iNOS and nuclear translocation of NF-kB in RAW264.7 cells, inhibited the degradation of IκB-α, and scavenged hydroxyl radicals (DMPO/OH adduct in vitro.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that GL suppresses the inflammation in vitro, and exerts chemopreventive activity through the inhibition of production of TNF-α and iNOS proteins due to the inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kB and oxidative stress. GL appears to be a novel functional natural product capable of preventing inflammation and inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.Keywords: GL, Citrus peel extract, anti-inflammation, Nitric oxide, iNOS, NF-kB, TNF-α

  5. Comments on Li et al. Effects of in Utero Exposure to Dicyclohexyl Phthalate on Rat Fetal Leydig Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 246

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    Profiling the expression levels of genes or proteins in tissues comprising two or more cell types is commonplace in biological sciences. Such analyses present particular challenges, however, for example a potential shift in cellular composition, or ‘cellularity’, between specimens. That is, does ...... the mammalian testis and a recent study on the effects of phthalate exposure on testis function as an example....

  6. Crystal structure of the heptamolybdate(VI) (paramolybdate) ion, [Mo7O24]6-, in the ammonium and potassium tetrahydrate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H.T.; Gatehouse, B.M.; Leverett, P.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal structures of the isomorphous salts MI6 [Mo7O24],4H2O (M = NH4 or K) have been refined by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction methods. Unit cell dimensions of these monoclinic compounds, space group P21/C with Z = 4, are, ammonium salt: a = 8.3934 ?? 0.0008, b = 36.1703 ?? 0.0045, c = 10.4715 ?? 0.0011 A??, ?? = 115.958?? ?? 0.008??; and potassium salt: a = 8.15 ?? 0.02, b = 35.68 ?? 0.1, c = 10.30 ?? 0.02 A??, ?? = 115.2?? ?? 02??. By use of multiple Weissenberg patterns, 8197 intensity data (Mo-K?? radiation) for the ammonium compound and 2178 (Cu-K?? radiation) for the potassium compound were estimated visually and used to test and refine Lindqvist's proposed structure in the space group P21/c. Lindqvist's structure was confirmed and the full matrix least-squares isotropic refinement led to R 0.076 (ammonium) 0.120 (potassium), with direct unambiguous location of the cations and water molecules in the potassium compound.

  7. Guillen Fabienne P. et Trabelsi Salah (dir., Les esclavages en Méditerranée. Espaces et dynamiques économiques, Madrid, Casa de Velazquez, 2012, 246 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Stella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Les études réunies par Fabienne Plazolles Guillen et Salah Trabelsi trouvent leur place dans le courant historiographique qui depuis trente ans tente de contrebalancer la prépondérance des études sur l’esclavage aux Amériques, au point d’assimiler l’esclavage aux Noirs dans les plantations du Nouveau Monde. Le succès de cette entreprise intellectuelle est loin d’être assuré, du fait que la littérature anglophone dominante refuse obstinément d’intégrer dans sa bibliographie les ouvrages publié...

  8. Crystal structures of 2-[(4,6-di­amino­pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan­yl]-N-(naphthalen-1-yl)acetamide and 2-[(4,6-di­amino­pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan­yl]-N-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)acetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasri, S.; Kumar, Timiri Ajay; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Viswanathan, Vijayan; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2017-01-01

    The title compounds, C16H15N5OS, (I), and C12H12FN5OS, (II), are [(di­amino­pyrimidine)­sulfan­yl]acetamide derivatives. In (I), the pyrimidine ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 55.5 (1)°, while in (II), the pyrimidine ring is inclined to the benzene ring by 58.93 (8)°. In (II), there is an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond and a short C—H⋯O contact. In the crystals of (I) and (II), mol­ecules are linked by pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with R 2 2(8) ring motifs. In the crystal of (I), the dimers are linked by bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (100). In the crystal of (II), the dimers are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, also forming layers parallel to (100). The layers are linked by C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional architecture.

  9. A new shipping container for an intense neutron emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Alexander, C.W.; Pace, J.V. III; Simmons, C.M.

    1994-06-01

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter (2.34 {times} 10{sup 12} n/s{center_dot}g) used in medicine, research, and industry. The western world`s sole source of this rare radioisotope is the Californium Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). A project has been initiated at the REDC to design a new Type B Californium Shipping Container. This effort is essential for future transportation of californium to meet the needs of users all over the world. The shipping container must meet all requirements for transport by motor freight, air, vessel, and rail, both domestic and foreign. There are unique problems in the design, fabrication, and licensing of a new Type B shipping container that will accommodate up to 60 milligrams of californium-252. One of the first challenges in the design phase of the project is the selection of a material to shield the high neutron flux. The more stringent safety precautions of today`s world impel us to consider more exotic materials for such a purpose. The candidate materials must be examined not just for their neutron shielding properties, but also in conjunction with other properties such as thermal and structural requirements to withstand the hypothetical accident conditions. The design and building of such a container is a formidable task requiring much planning. The licensing process, with the complex, interactive federal codes, is a special challenge and may be the biggest on the project in terms of time and money.

  10. Synthesis, structures and DFT calculations of 2-(4,6-dimethyl pyrimidyl)selenolate complexes of Cu(I), Ag(I) and Au(I) and their conversion into metal selenide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh K; Wadawale, Amey; Kedarnath, G; Manna, Debashree; Ghanty, Tapan K; Vishwanadh, B; Jain, Vimal K

    2014-05-07

    The complexes [M{SeC4H(Me-4,6)2N2}]6 (M = Cu (1), Ag (2)) and [Au{SeC4H(Me-4,6)2N2}(PEt3)] (3) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, UV-vis, NMR ((1)H, (13)C, (77)Se) spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures of [Cu{SeC4H(Me-4,6)2N2}]6·H2O (1·H2O), [Ag{SeC4H(Me-4,6)2N2}]6·6MeOH·H2O (2·6MeOH·H2O) and [Au{SeC4H(Me-4,6)2N2}(PEt3)] (3) revealed that their metal centers acquire distorted square-pyramidal, trigonal and linear geometries, respectively. DFT calculations have been carried out to rationalize nuclearity in copper(i) chalcogenolate complexes. The calculations suggest that there is hardly any energy difference between the tetrameric and hexameric forms. Thermal behavior of [Cu{SeC4H(Me-4,6)2N2}]6 was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Thermolysis of [M{SeC4H(Me-4,6)2N2}]6 (M = Cu, Ag) in 1-dodecanethiol (DDT) at 150 °C gave a cubic phase of Cu7Se4 and an orthorhombic phase of Ag2Se, respectively. Copper selenide (Cu7Se4) thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates by using [Cu{SeC4H(Me-4,6)2N2}]6 at 400 °C by AACVD.

  11. Bis[N-(2-hydroxyethyl-N-methyldithiocarbamato-κS][2,4,6-tris(pyridin-2-yl-1,3,5-triazine-κ3N1,N2,N6]zinc dioxane sesquisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. T. Tiekink

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Zn(C4H8NOS22(C18H12N6]·1.5C4H8O2, comprises a Zn-containing molecule and one and a half dioxane molecules as one of the solvent molecules is located about a crystallographic inversion centre. The approximately square-pyramidal N3S2 donor set is defined by two monodentate dithiocarbamate ligands and two pyridine and one triazine N atom from the tridentate triazine ligand. Molecules are connected into a supramolecular array via O—H...S and O—H...N hydrogen bonds. These stack along the b axis and the solvent molecules reside in the channels thus formed.

  12. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix C. Gasification/combined-cycle power generation: comparison of alternative systems. 1977 technology status report. [246 references w. abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental aspects of low-Btu gasification/combined-cycle power-generation (LBG/CCPG) plants are assessed, using available published data. Six base-case plants, based on three different gasifiers and two different coals, are investigated. A representative combined power cycle is selected for analysis, and material and energy balances for the six systems are developed. Emissions of various air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, and discharge rates of aqueous effluents are also calculated. The costs of electricity produced are derived for the six systems, using estimated plant-investment and operating costs. These costs and the emissions of various pollutants are compared with those for a conventional 500-MWe coal-based power plant using flue-gas cleaning and in compliance with the federal New Source Performance Standards. Finally, the commercialization potential of coal-based combined-cycle plants, based on the technical feasibility of building a first plant in the 1985 period and on economic viability, is evaluated. This evaluation is based on the current status of research and development programs for various components of the combined-cycle plant, such as gas turbines and fuel-gas-cleaning systems, and on the status of the demonstration plant.

  13. Zn(NO_3)_2·6H_2O/2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine(TCT) a mild and selective system for nitration of phenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Firouzeh; Nemati; Hossein; Kiani

    2010-01-01

    Certain phenols and naphthols were nitrated regioselectively with Zn(NO_3)_2·6H_2O/TCT in acetonitrile as solvent at room temperature and short reaction time in good yields.The reaction condition was mild.TCT is a cheap and commercially available reagent.It performed as an acid catalyst in this transformation.

  14. (E-5-(2-Chlorophenyl-7-ethyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-thieno[2,3-e][1,4]diazepin-4-ium 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Betz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C15H14ClN2OS+·C6H2N3O7−, protonation occurred on the double-bonded N atom. One of the nitro groups shows slight disorder over two orientations, with an occupancy ratio of 0.91:0.09. In the crystal, classical N—H...O hydrogen bonds, as well as C—H...O contacts connect the components into a three-dimensional network. The seven-membered ring adopts a boat-like conformation. The least-squares plane defined by its non-H atoms encloses an angle of 38.99 (6° with the benzene ring bonded to it.

  15. Some comments on narrow resonances D_{s_1}^* (2.46GeV/c^2) and D_{s0} (2.317GeV/c^2)

    CERN Document Server

    Fayyazuddin, A

    2003-01-01

    The newly observed resonances D_{s_1}^* and D_{s_0} are discussed in a potential model. The relationship between the mass difference between p-states D_{s_1}^*(1^+), D_{s_0}(0^+) and s-states D_s^*(1^-), D_s(0^-) is also examined.

  16. Crystal structure of (1S,3R,8R,9R,10S-2,4,6-tris(2,2-dichloro-3,7,7,10-tetramethyltricyclo[6.4.0.01,3]dodec-9-ylcyclotriboroxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Benharref

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C48H75B3Cl6O3, was synthesized in two steps from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-benzocycloheptene, which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica. The molecule consists of an almost planar cyclotriboroxane ring [maximum deviation = 0.036 (2 Å] linked to three identical fused ring systems with different conformations. Each of the three attached ring systems is built up from a seven-membered ring to which a six- and a three-membered ring are fused. The three six-membered rings have a twist-boat conformation, whereas the seven-membered rings display boat, chair and twist-boat conformations. The dihedral angles between the central boroxane ring and the mean planes of the attached six-membered rings are 63.67 (18, 54.89 (2 and 56.57 (19°. The crystal packing is governed only by van der Waals interactions.

  17. Aigle Denise, Le Fârs sous la domination mongole. Politique et fiscalité (xiiie-xive s., Cahiers de Studia iranica, 31, Paris, 2005, 246 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Favereau-Doumenjou

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage aborde le thème de la domination mongole en Iran, en mêlant deux approches : l’une, « locale », est centrée sur le Fârs et l’autre, « globale », intègre cette province dans l’ensemble du système administratif et financier mis en place par les ilkhans. Cette double lecture permet à l’auteur d’analyser les processus politique et économique qui touchent une région assujettie aux Mongols sans la déconnecter pour autant de la réalité étatique. Ainsi, tout en suivant, en filigrane, ce q...

  18. Synthesis and Structure of a 3D Manganese Coordination Polymer with 1,3-Bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene and 1,5-Naphthalenedisulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hui; DU Shao-Wu; LI Zhi-Hua

    2007-01-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrid polymer [Mn(mbbimb)2(1,5-nds)]n 1 has been synthesized using 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonate (1,5-nds) and 1,3-bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)- 2,4,structure analysis indicates that 1 crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/c with a=21.3546(17), b=11.8841(7), c=22.1588(16) (A), β=108.058(3)°, C60H54MnN8O6S2, Mr=1102.17, Z=4, V=5346.5(7)(A)3, Dc=1.369 g/cm3, μ=0.386 mm-1, F(000)=2300, S=1.091, R=0.0634 and wR=0.1559 for 4641 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). The Mn center is six-coordinated to furnish a distorted octahedral geometry, and the overall framework is a 6-connected 3D net.

  19. Effects of Phosvitin on the Growth and Pinocytosis of RAW246.7 Cell%卵黄高磷蛋白对RAW264.7生长及其吞饮作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 吴子健; 刘爱国; 李建颖

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of phosvitin(PVS) on the growth and pinocytosis of RAW264.7 cell by MTT assay and neutral red. Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells to 0-100μg/mL of PVS significantly promoted their proliferation in the presence or absence of LPS. When cultured with PVS in the absence of LPS, RAW264.7 cells pinocytosis of neutral red was significantly improved;but in the presence of LPS this ability was inhibited and produced antagonism. PVS significantly inhibited LPS-induced macrophage activation according to the analysis of microscope. It is suggested that the impacts of PVS on the pinocytosis capacity of RAW264.7 cell shows a two-way adjustment.%  经MTT法和中性红吞饮法研究了卵黄高磷蛋白(PVS)对RAW264.7细胞生长及其吞饮作用的影响.研究结果表明,在0~100μg/mL浓度范围内,PVS(或与LPS共培养)可促进RAW264.7细胞增殖,PVS可提高RAW264.7细胞吞饮中性红的能力,但与LPS共作用时,却几乎未能使细胞的吞饮能力发生改变;细胞形态显微观察结果表明PVS明显抑制LPS诱导的巨噬细胞的活化.以上两方面结果表明PVS对RAW264.7巨噬细胞吞饮能力的影响呈双向调节作用.

  20. Multibeam collection for TN246: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas G. Thompson from 2010-01-15 to 2010-03-04, departing from Punta Arenas, Chile and returning to Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  1. 5-[1-(1,3-Dimethyl-2,4,6-trioxohexahydropyrimidin-5-yl-2-oxopropyl]-1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H-trione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Steimann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H18N4O7, is a product of the substitution reaction of 5,5-dibromo-1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid with sodium sulfide in aqueous acetone. In the crystal, molecules display neither intermolecular nor intramolecular hydrogen bonding and the two barbiturate rings adopt the keto form.

  2. Formation and structure of the oxygen-centered lead thiolate cluster Pb5O(SRF)(8)center dot 2C(7)H(8) [R-F=2,4,6-tris(trifluoromethyl)phenyl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelmann, FT; Buijink, JKF; Brooker, SA; Herbst-Irmer, R; Kilimann, U; Bohnen, FM

    2000-01-01

    The unusual pentanuclear lead thiolate cluster PbsO(SRF)(8).C2H8 (3) (C7H8 = toluene) has been obtained by oxidation of Pb(SRF)(2) (2) with dry air and structurally characterized. The central oxygen atom is coordinated to three lead atoms in a trigonal planar fashion. The coordination sphere of the

  3. 4,4′,4′′-Tris(2-pyridyl-2,2′,2′′-[(2,4,6-trimethylbenzene-1,3,5-triyltris(methylenetris(sulfanediyl]tripyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Wen Zhang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C39H33N9S3, features a mesitylene unit substituted with three thioether arms. The distances from the center of mesitylene unit to the N atoms of the three pyridine rings in the arms are 10.05 (1, 9.94 (3 and 8.79 (3 Å. The crystal structure shows weak intramolecular C—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  4. Discovery of Isotopes of the Transuranium Elements with 93 <= Z <= 98

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and five isotopes of the transuranium elements neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium and californium have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  5. 2,3,5-Triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium Chloride and 2,4,6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl%氯化2,3,5.三苯基-2氢-四唑及2,4,6-三(2-吡啶基)-s-三嗪在HC1中对碳钢的缓蚀作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞雪辉; 侯保荣; 李伟华; 刘法谦; 于志刚

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical measurement, quantum chemical method, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)were performed to investigate the inhibitive effect of 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and spectroscopy measurement showed that the polarization resistance increased and that double layer capacitance decreased with the increase in the inhibitive concentration, and the results of potentiodynamic polarization showed that the inhibitors suppressed both cathodic and anodic processes of steel corrosion without change in the mechanism. Higher the orbital density distribution strength of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, higher is the molecule dipole, and lower energy gap between the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital and the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital resulted in higher inhibitory efficiency. The results of SEM analysis showed that the metal was protected from aggressive corrosion by the addition of TTC and TPT.

  6. Measurement of the energy spectra of fission fragments using nuclear track detectors and digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, Guillermo; Golzarri, Jose I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, Mexico D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Castano, Victor M., E-mail: castano@fata.unam.m [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2010-08-15

    Energy spectra of fission fragments were determined using a Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM) supported by digital image analysis and numerical data processing using a standard personal computer. The analysis of a californium ({sup 252}Cf) spectrum with this approach shows improvement compared with the values reported previously using the standard procedure, in terms of resolution and accuracy. This new method adds full automation to the technical advantages and cost effectiveness of an NTM.

  7. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281806 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MIEESKSIKEKFGVLDSVPVGACLLQDDFVVLFWNTCLEE...YP_007117793.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  8. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281805 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MYLILPDLYANMTYQIDERLNTSPCGFLSFADDGTIVMVN...YP_007118829.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  9. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281754 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MLYNNEILPTLTVESSPRSMNILLYKLLSLRRIEYIAVDR...YP_007115817.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  10. Synthesis of {sup 14}C-labelled hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitrocellulose (NC) and glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) for use in assessing the biodegradation potential of these energetic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampleman, G.; Thiboutot, S.; Lavigne, J.; Marois, A. [Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, Courcelette, PQ (Canada); Hawari, J.; Jones, A.M.; Rho, D. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    Within the framework of an R and D project on bioremediation of soils contaminated with energetic compounds, the biodegradation of energetic products such as hexogen (RDX), trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitrocellulose (NC) and glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) is under study. Microcosm assays must be performed with radioactive carbon-14 labelled products in order to follow the biodegradation process. {sup 14}C-RDX was prepared by nitration of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) according to the Hale process. {sup 14}C-ring and methyl labelled TNTs synthesized according to the Dorey and Carper procedure. {sup 14}C-cellulose was synthesized from {sup 14}C-glucose by Acetobacter xylinum. Nitration of the {sup 14}C-cellulose yielded {sup 14}C-nitrocellulose. {sup 14}C-glycidyl azide polymer was obtained by polymerization and azidation of {sup 14}C-epichlorohydrin (ECH) which was synthesized from {sup 14}C-glycerol. Hydrochlorination of {sup 14}C-glycerol and epoxidation of the resulting {sup 14}C-1,3-dichloro 2-propanol yielded {sup 14}C-ECH. The syntheses of these {sup 14}C-labelled explosives are described in this paper. (Author).

  11. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of N- [ 2- (4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin -2-yloxy) benzylidene ] substituted amine derivatives%N-[2-(4,6-二甲氧基嘧啶-2-氧基)苯亚甲基]取代胺类衍生物的合成及除草活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元祥

    2011-01-01

    Six title compounds (3a - 3f) were synthesized using 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde as starting material by substitute reaction,addition reaction and elimination reaction. Thereinto,3a -3d were new compounds. All of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The preliminary bioassay results showed that the inhibition rate of synthesized compounds to the Echinochloa crus-galli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Bluegrass ,Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album reached 80% , except 3f to the E. Crus-galli was 55% at the application rate of 150 g a. I. /hm2. The inhibition rate of some of the compounds to E. Crus-galli,Poa annua,A. Retroflexus or C. Album reached 100% at the application rate of 150 g/hm2.%以水杨醛为原料,经取代、加成和消除反应合成了6个标题化合物(3a~3f),其中4个(3a~3d)为新化合物,其结构经核磁共振氢谱、质谱和元素分析确认.初步的除草活性测试结果表明,在有效成分150 g/hm2的剂量下,除化合物3f对稗草Echinochloa crus-galli的抑制率为55%外,其余5个化合物对供试杂草的抑制率均在80%以上,部分化合物对稗草、早熟禾Poa annua、反枝苋Amaranthus retroflexus或小藜Chenopodium album的抑制率达100%.

  12. Crystal structures and conformations of two Diels–Alder adduct derivatives: 1,8-bis(thiophen-2-yl-14-oxatetracyclo[6.5.1.02,7.09,13]tetradeca-2(7,3,5-trien-10-one and 1,8-diphenyl-14-oxatetracyclo[6.5.1.02,7.09,13] tetradeca-2,4,6-trien-10-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopinath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compounds, C21H16O2S2 (I and C25H20O2 (II, are products of a tandem `pincer' Diels–Alder reaction consisting of [2 + 2] cycloadditions between benzo[c]furan and cyclopentanone. Each comprises a fused tetracyclic ring system containing two five-membered rings (in envelope conformations with the O atom as the flap and six-membered rings (in boat conformations. In addition, two thiophene rings in (I and two phenyl rings in (II are attached to the tetracyclic ring system. The cyclopentanone ring adopts a twisted conformation in (I and an envelope conformation in (II. In (I, the thiophene rings are positionally disordered over two sets of sites, with occupancy ratios of 0.901 (2:0.099 (2 and 0.666 (2:0.334 (2. In (II, the oxygen atom of the cyclopentanone ring is rotationally disordered over two sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.579 (4:0.421 (4. The molecular structure of (I is stabilized by an intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond, which generates an S(7 ring motif. In the crystal, the molecules are linked via weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, which generate R22(16 ring motifs in (I and C(8 chains in (II. In both structures, the crystal packing also features C—H...π interactions. The crystal studied of compound (I was twinned by non-merohedry. The twin component is related by the twin law [−1 0 0 −0.101 1 −0.484 0 0 −1] operated by a twofold rotation axis parallel to the b axis. The structure of (I was refined with a twin scale factor of 0.275 (2.

  13. Crystal structure of (1S,3R,8R,9R,10S)-2,4,6-tris­(2,2-di­chloro-3,7,7,10-tetra­methyl­tri­cyclo­[6.4.0.01,3]dodec-9-yl)cyclo­triboroxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharref, Ahmed; El Ammari, Lahcen; Saadi, Mohamed; Mazoir, Noureddine; Berraho, Moha

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C48H75B3Cl6O3, was synthesized in two steps from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetra­methyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexa­hydro-1H-benzo­cyclo­hept­ene), which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica). The mol­ecule consists of an almost planar cyclo­triboroxane ring [maximum deviation = 0.036 (2) Å] linked to three identical fused ring systems with different conformations. Each of the three attached ring systems is built up from a seven-membered ring to which a six- and a three-membered ring are fused. The three six-membered rings have a twist-boat conformation, whereas the seven-membered rings display boat, chair and twist-boat conformations. The dihedral angles between the central boroxane ring and the mean planes of the attached six-membered rings are 63.67 (18), 54.89 (2) and 56.57 (19)°. The crystal packing is governed only by van der Waals inter­actions. PMID:26396761

  14. Crystal structure of (1S,3R,8R,9R,10S)-2,4,6-tris-(2,2-di-chloro-3,7,7,10-tetra-methyl-tri-cyclo-[6.4.0.0(1,3)]dodec-9-yl)cyclo-triboroxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharref, Ahmed; El Ammari, Lahcen; Saadi, Mohamed; Mazoir, Noureddine; Berraho, Moha

    2015-08-01

    The title compound, C48H75B3Cl6O3, was synthesized in two steps from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetra-methyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexa-hydro-1H-benzo-cyclo-hept-ene), which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica). The mol-ecule consists of an almost planar cyclo-triboroxane ring [maximum deviation = 0.036 (2) Å] linked to three identical fused ring systems with different conformations. Each of the three attached ring systems is built up from a seven-membered ring to which a six- and a three-membered ring are fused. The three six-membered rings have a twist-boat conformation, whereas the seven-membered rings display boat, chair and twist-boat conformations. The dihedral angles between the central boroxane ring and the mean planes of the attached six-membered rings are 63.67 (18), 54.89 (2) and 56.57 (19)°. The crystal packing is governed only by van der Waals inter-actions.

  15. DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.8011 Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences Maringá, v. 33, n. 3, p. 239-246, 2011 Acute inflammatory response in Nile tilapia fed probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in the diet = Resposta inflamatória aguda em tilápia do Nilo alimentada com probiótico, Lactobacillus plantarum na dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Dotta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced bycarrageenin (500 £gg injected in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia, after fed or not probiotic supplemented diet. Fifty four fish were distributed in six treatments and three replicates: Group A: Fish fed unsupplemented diet: 0.5 mL saline-injected fish; fish injected with 500 £gg carrageenin diluted in 0.5 mL saline; Non-injected. Group B: Fish fed probiotic supplemented diet: saline-injected fish; carrageenin-injected fish; Non-injected. Fifteen days after feeding the fish were injected with carrageenin or saline. After six hours, inflammatory exudate was collected, as well as the blood for hematocrit, red blood cell (RBC and white blood cell (WBC counts, differential count of leucocytes and phagocytic activity in the blood. Supplementation with probiotic did not influence the RBC, hematocrit and the numbers of lymphocytes and basophils in the blood. The number of neutrophils was significantly higher in supplemented fish injected with carrageenin. Glucose concentration in supplemented and non-injected fish was higher than that observed in the saline injected ones. Probiotic potentialized the migration of cells to the inflammatory focus in the animals injected with the carrageenin irritant. In fish injected with saline and carrageenin occurred the greatest phagocytic activity in the blood in relation to those treatments.Este trabalho avaliou a resposta inflamatoria aguda induzida por injecao de carragenina (500 ƒÝg na bexiga natatoria de tilapia do Nilo suplementada ou nao com probiotico na racao. Cinquenta e quatro animais foram distribuidos em seis tratamentos com tres repeticoes: Grupo A: peixes alimentados com racao naosuplementada: Controle (injecao de 0,5 mL de solucao salina esteril; Carragenina (injecao de500 £gg de carragenina; Nao-injetada. Grupo B: peixes alimentados com racao suplementada com probiotico: Controle; Carragenina; Nao-injetada. Apos 15 dias de alimentacao foi injetado carragenina ou salina. Apos 6h, realizou-se a coleta de exsudato e sangue para determinacao do hematocrito, contagens totais de eritrocitos, leucocitos, contagem diferencial de leucocitos e atividade fagocitaria no sangue. A suplementacao com probiotico na racao nao influenciou o numero total de eritrocitos, o hematocrito e os numeros de linfocitos e basofilos no sangue dos animais. O numero de neutrofilos foi maior nos peixes suplementados com probiotico einjetados com carragenina. A glicose nos peixes suplementados com probiotico nao-injetados foi maior do que nos injetados com salina. A suplementacao com probiotico potencializou a migracao de celulas para o foco inflamatorio nos injetados com o flogogeno carragenina. Empeixes injetados com salina e carragenina, ocorreu maior atividade fagocitaria no sangue em relacao aos demais tratamentos.

  16. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱测定化妆品中2,4,6-三氯苯酚和五氯苯酚%Determination of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol,pentachlorophenol in toner and moisturizer by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周法东; 张玮; 李利元; 卢晓宇; 李强

    2015-01-01

    A liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry method was built to determine 2 ,4 ,6‐trichlorophenol ,pentachlorophenol in toner and moisturizer ,Q1 multiple ions scan mode was used in the experiment .1 .0 g toner and 1 .0 g moisturizer was extracted by n‐hex‐ane with ultrasonic assisted extraction .The extracts of n‐hexane were dried by nitrogen at 45℃ ,and then dissolved by methanol .Anlytes were separated by liquid chromatography ,de‐termined by mass spectrometry and quantified with external standard method .Recoveries of 2 ,4 ,6‐trichlorophenol were in range of 81 .6% -94 .5% with spike level of 200μg/kg and 800μg/kg ;recoveries of pentachlorophenol were in range of 65 .3% -74 .3% with spike level of 50μg/kg and 200μg/kg ;relative standard deviations of method w ere low er than 6% .Limit of detection of 2 , 4 , 6‐trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol in toner was 20μg/kg 和3μg/kg ,limit of quantitation of 2 ,4 ,6‐trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol in toner was 50μg/kg和10μg/kg ;limit of detection of 2 ,4 ,6‐trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol in moisturizer w as 30μg/kg和5μg/kg ,limit of quantitation of 2 ,4 ,6‐trichlorophenol and pen‐tachlorophenol in moisturizer was 100μg/kg和20μg/kg .This method could be used in rapid screening and quantitative analysis of 2 ,4 ,6‐trichlorophenol ,pentachlorophenol in toner and moisturizer .%本试验建立了化妆品(爽肤水和润肤乳)中禁用的含氯苯酚(2,4,6‐三氯苯酚和五氯苯酚)的超高效液相色谱-串联质谱测定方法,采用Q1多离子监测模式。1.0g爽肤水和1.0g润肤乳样品经10 m L正己烷超声辅助提取后,取正己烷层45℃氮吹至近干,甲醇定容,经液相色谱分离、质谱测定,外标法定量。2,4,6‐三氯苯酚在添加水平200μg/kg和800μg/kg时,方法的回收率范围为81.6%-94.5%,五氯苯酚在添加水平50μg/kg和200μg/kg时回收率范围为65.3%-74.3%,相对标准偏差小于6%。爽肤水中2,4,6‐三氯苯酚和五氯苯酚的检出限分别为20μg/kg和3μg/kg ,定量限分别为50μg/kg和10μg/kg ;润肤乳中2,4,6‐三氯苯酚和五氯苯酚的检出限分别为30μg/kg和5μg/kg ,定量限分别为100μg/kg和20μg/kg。该方法可用于爽肤水和润肤乳中2,4,6‐三氯苯酚和五氯苯酚的快速筛查和定量分析。

  17. TOWARD AN IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF STRUCTURE AND MAGNETISM IN NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM PHOSPHONATES AND SULFONATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This grant supported the exploratory synthesis of new actinide materials with all of the actinides from thorium to californium with the exceptions of protactinium and berkelium. We developed detailed structure-property relationships that allowed for the identification of novel materials with selective ion-exchange, selective oxidation, and long-range magnetic ordering. We found novel bonding motifs and identified periodic trends across the actinide series. We identified structural building units that would lead to desired structural features and novel topologies. We also characterized many different spectroscopic trends across the actinide series. The grant support the preparation of approximately 1200 new compounds all of which were structurally characterized.

  18. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  19. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  20. An ECR Charge Breeder for the 252 Cf Fission Source Project (CARIBU) at ATLAS%ATLAS用于CARIBU项目的ECR离子剥离器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.C.Pardo; R.Vondrasek; T.Kulevoy; V.Aseev; R.Scott; P.Suominen

    2007-01-01

    A new radioactive beam facility for ATLAS,the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade(CARIBU),is under construction.The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci 252 Cf source;thermalized and collected into a low-energy beam by a helium gas catcher.In order to reaccelerate these beams.the existing ATLAS ECR-I ion source is being redesigned to function as a charge breeder source.The design and features of this charge breeder configuration is discussed and the project status described.

  1. Advanced development of the spectrum sciences Model 5005-TF, single-event test fixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.R.; Browning, J.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hughlock, B.W. (Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Co., Seattle, WA (USA)); Lum, G.K. (Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Sunnyvale, CA (USA)); Tsacoyeanes, W.C. (Draper (Charles Stark) Lab., Inc., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Weeks, M.D. (Spectrum Sciences, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the advanced development of the Spectrum Sciences Model 5005-TF, Single-Event Test Fixture. The Model 5005-TF uses a Californium-252 (Cf-252) fission-fragment source to test integrated circuits and other devices for the effects of single-event phenomena. Particle identification methods commonly used in high-energy physics research and nuclear engineering have been incorporated into the Model 5005-TF for estimating the particle charge, mass, and energy parameters. All single-event phenomena observed in a device under test (DUT) are correlated with an identified fission fragment, and its linear energy transfer (LET) and range in the semiconductor material of the DUT.

  2. Method for measuring multiple scattering corrections between liquid scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, J. M.; Glenn, A. M.; Keefer, G. J.; Wurtz, R. E.

    2016-07-01

    A time-of-flight method is proposed to experimentally quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between scintillators. An array of scintillators is characterized in terms of crosstalk with this method by measuring a californium source, for different neutron energy thresholds. The spectral information recorded by the scintillators can be used to estimate the fractions of neutrons multiple scattering. With the help of a correction to Feynman's point model theory to account for multiple scattering, these fractions can in turn improve the mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation.

  3. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SYMPOSIUM COMMEMORATING THE 25th ANNIVERSARY OF ELEMENTS 97 and 98 HELD ON JAN. 20, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.; Street Jr., Kenneth; Thompson, Stanley G.; Ghiorso, Albert

    1976-07-01

    This volume includes the talks given on January 20, 1975, at a symposium in Berkeley on the occasion of the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the discovery of berkelium and californium. Talks were given at this symposium by the four people involved in the discovery of these elements and by a number of people who have made significant contributions in the intervening years to the investigation of their nuclear and chemical properties. The papers are being published here, without editing, in the form in which they were submitted by the authors in the months following the anniversary symposium, and they reflect rather faithfully the remarks made on that occasion.

  4. Characterization of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid variants from oil palm affected by orange spotting disease in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y H; Cheong, L C; Meon, S; Lau, W H; Kong, L L; Joseph, H; Vadamalai, G

    2013-06-01

    A 246-nt variant of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) has been identified and described from oil palms with orange spotting symptoms in Malaysia. Compared with the 246-nt form of CCCVd from coconut, the oil palm variant substituted C(31)→U in the pathogenicity domain and G(70)→C in the central conserved domain. This is the first sequence reported for a 246-nt variant of CCCVd in oil palms expressing orange spotting symptoms.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13047-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 Identities = 27/27 (100%) Strand = Plus / Minus Query: 220 gtancaaattntttcccttcancttta 246 |||||||||||||||...|||||||||||| Sbjct: 175 gtancaaattntttcccttcancttta 149 Score = 28.2 bits (14), E

  6. Improved charge breeding efficiency of light ions with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.; Kutsaev, Sergey [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Blvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France)

    2012-11-15

    The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a {sup 252}Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for {sup 23}Na{sup 7+} and 17.9% for {sup 39}K{sup 10+} were obtained injecting stable Na{sup +} and K{sup +} beams from a surface ionization source.

  7. Critical appraisal of the current practice in murine TNBS-induced colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.T. Velde; M.I. Verstege; D.W. Hommes

    2006-01-01

    There is no standard practice in the induction of colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. In this review the current practice in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis is studied using 20 recently published articles. We compare the different protocols, discuss the mechanism of disease a

  8. 78 FR 64242 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sales 238, 246, and 248 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... proposed OCS oil and gas Lease Sales 238, 246, and 248, which are tentatively scheduled to be held...

  9. 78 FR 42544 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sale, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sale, Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sales 238, 246, and 248 MMAA104000 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... Supplemental EIS for proposed WPA lease sales beginning with Lease Sale 238 (WPA Lease Sales 238, 246, and...

  10. AcEST: BP920054 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available its) Value sp|Q9P246|STIM2_HUMAN Stromal interaction molecule 2 OS=Homo sap... 33 0.85 sp|P59438|HPS5_MOUSE Herman...LHDNH 246 +++R I SP P+R +A + P SHP H +H Sbjct: 514 RSRRSIVPSSPQPQRAQLAPHAPHPSHPRHPHH 546 >sp|P59438|HPS5_MOUSE Herman

  11. AcEST: DK951916 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available idase homolog OS=Xenopus tropicalis GN=cmbl PE=2 SV=1 Length = 246 Score = 84.0 bits (206), Expect = 5e-16 I...ethylenebutenolidase homolog OS=Xenopus laevis GN=cmbl PE=2 SV=1 Length = 246 Score = 82.0 bits (201), Expec

  12. AcEST: DK953729 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available arboxymethylenebutenolidase homolog OS=Xenopus tropicalis GN=cmbl PE=2 SV=1 Length = 246 Score = 80.1 bits (...BL_XENLA Carboxymethylenebutenolidase homolog OS=Xenopus laevis GN=cmbl PE=2 SV=1 Length = 246 Score = 78.2

  13. Bioaugmentation for Groundwater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    22:383-398 Holliger C, Schumacher, W (1994) Reductive dehalogenation as a respiratory process. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 66:239-246 Lee MD... Leeuwenhoek 66:239–246. doi:10.1007/BF00871642 14. Lee MD, Odom JM, Buchanan RJ Jr (1998) New perspectives on microbial dehalogenation of chlorinated

  14. Impact of Diversity on the Civil-Military Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Huntington, 165. 38 Marvin Kriedberg and Henry Merton , History of Military Mobilization in the United States Army, Department of the Army, November 1955...and Merton , 192-194. 49 Millett and Maslowski, 471 50 Johnson and Metz, 210. 17... Merton , 239-246. 86 Ibid., 239-246. 87 Griffith and Griffith Jr., 6-13. 88 Ibid. 30 the

  15. The effect of adenovirus-mediated gene expression of FHIT in small cell lung cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandi, Roza; Xu, Kai; Poulsen, Hans S

    2011-01-01

    or in combination with the mutant p53-reactivating molecule, PRIMA-1(Met)/APR-246, in SCLC. Overexpression of FHIT by recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad-FHIT)-mediated gene transfer in SCLC cells inhibited their growth by inducing apoptosis and when combined with PRIMA-1(Met)/APR-246, a synergistic cell growth...

  16. Relationship between Indian summer monsoon rainfall and position of Pacific Ocean warm pool

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.; Sastry, J

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Mar_Sci_19_246.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Mar_Sci_19_246.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. Drug: D08222 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08222 Drug Milnacipran (INN) C15H22N2O 246.1732 246.348 D08222.gif Antidepressant ...rgic synapse map07027 Antidepressants map07234 Neurotransmitter transporter inhib...S N06A ANTIDEPRESSANTS N06AX Other antidepressants N06AX17 Milnacipran D08222 Milnacipran (INN) USP drug cla

  18. 76 FR 35095 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Exclusion of Combat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 246 RIN 0584-AE04 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and... regulations governing the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) a... 246--SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN (WIC) 0 1. The...

  19. 76 FR 59885 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Implementation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 246 RIN 0584-AE13 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and... into the regulations governing the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and... NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN 0 1. The authority citation for part 246 continues to...

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16225-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS... 46 4.4 1 ( AC233188 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-474C1, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE...... 46 4.4 1 ( AC231204 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-260A19, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 46

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14977-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available some 5 clon... 48 0.97 1 ( AC232179 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-396L20, WORKING DRAF...T SEQU... 48 0.97 1 ( AC232178 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-380H24, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 0.97 1 ( EK496662 )

  2. Dicty_cDB: SLD388 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6055249 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-30-02-01-1... 40 0.50 2 ( AC232784 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-216B4, WORKING ...DRAFT SEQUE... 44 1.1 1 ( AC232186 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-66H15, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE... 44 1.1 1 ( AC19251

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05111-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e from clone CH211-269M1 in ... 34 0.004 7 ( AC226639 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-29... DNA sequence from clone DKEY-145J6 in l... 38 0.083 4 ( AC232666 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-243P10, WORKING D

  4. bu ke kao xu shu zhe zhi zai shen shi (不可靠叙述者之再审视)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Krogh

    2008-01-01

    Kinesisk oversættelse af "Reconsidering the Unreliable Narrator" in Semiotica 165 - 1/4 2007: 227-246. Oversætter: Shang Biwu.......Kinesisk oversættelse af "Reconsidering the Unreliable Narrator" in Semiotica 165 - 1/4 2007: 227-246. Oversætter: Shang Biwu....

  5. Drug: D03028 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03028 Drug Azanidazole (USAN/INN) C10H10N6O2 246.0865 246.2254 D03028.gif Antiprotozoa...asitics Agents against Amebiasis and other antiprotozoals Nitroimidazole derivatives Azanidazole [ATC:G01AF1

  6. Dollar Summary of Prime Contract Awards by State, Place, and Contractor, FY84, Part 2 (Air Force Academy, Colorado-Zion, Illinois).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    CO INC 97 97 D C ELECTRONICS 26 26 D P ENTERPRISES 113 I3 DARWIN CONSTRUCTION CO INC 849 693 91 65 DATA ACCESS SYSTEMS INC 49 49 DATA GENERAL...62 62 C C DISTRIBUTORS INC 246 246 CARTWRIGHT ENGINEERING INC 74 74 CH2M HILL COMPANIES LTD 26 26 CH2M HILL SOUTHEAST INC 528 528 CID CONSTRUCTION INC

  7. Great Lakes Research Review, 1982. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    sludge, including pretreatment of wastes entering municipal A systems and alternative technology for disposal or reuse of waste treatment by-products. (p...Studies on Wastewater Treatment Processes 104 C 246 ORF Assessment of Greywater on a Commercial Vessel 105 C 246 J. DAGG Collection and Analysis of

  8. Drug: D05468 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05468 Drug Phthalofyne (USAN); Ftalofyne (INN) C14H14O4 246.0892 246.2586 D05468.gif Anthelmintic [veterina...ry] CAS: 131-67-9 PubChem: 47207137 LigandBox: D05468 NIKKAJI: J5.564F ATOM 18 1 C8

  9. USING ROTIFER POPULATION DEMOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS TO ASSESS IMPACTS OF THE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FROM TRINITROTOLUENE PHYTOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the aquatic chronic lethal and sublethal toxicity effects from the phytoremediation of water contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) by the wetland plant species Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot feather). Rotifers (Brachionus...

  10. EST Table: FS919087 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS919087 E_FL_fufe_46E24_F_0 10/09/28 76 %/246 aa ref|XP_970542.1| PREDICTED: similar to brix...B12626-PA 10/09/10 76 %/246 aa gi|91090402|ref|XP_970542.1| PREDICTED: similar to brix domain-containing protein 2 [Tribolium castaneum] FS911686 fufe ...

  11. Biodegradation kinetics of selected brominated flame retardants in aerobic and anaerobic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt, E-mail: jenny.rattfelt@chem.umu.s [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Lundberg, Charlott; Andersson, Patrik L. [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biodegradation kinetics in aerobic and anaerobic soil of the following brominated flame retardants: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (246BrPh), and hexabromobenzene (HxBrBz). For comparison, the biodegradation of the chlorinated compounds 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl ether (CDE 28), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246ClPh), hexachlorobenzene (HxClBz), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) was also assessed. In aerobic soil, BDE 209 showed no significant degradation during the test period, but concentrations of the other BFRs declined, with half-lives decreasing in the following order: BDE 28 > TBBPA > TBECH > HxBrBz > 246BrPh. Declines in almost the same order were observed in anaerobic soil: BDE 28, BDE 209 > TBBPA > HxBrBz > TBECH >246BrPh. - Intra- and extrapolated half-lives in soil of tested brominated flame retardants ranged from 7 days for 2,4,6-tribromorophenol to >400 days for decabromodiphenyl ether.

  12. Triton and alpha-particle contribution from LiF converter for neutron dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, M E; Balcazar, M

    1999-01-01

    A personnel neutron dosimeter prototype based on chemical and electrochemical etched CR-39 detector, combined with LiF converter, has been calibrated using an ICRP-like phantom, under a heavy-water moderated Californium source neutron spectra; A conversion factor of 1.052+-126 spots cm sup - sup 2 mSv sup - sup 1 was obtained. The sealing properties of the detector holder showed a ten-fold reduction in radon background when it was tested in a high radon atmosphere. A convenient mechanical shock resistance was achieved in LiF converters by sintering to 11 tons pressure LiF powder at 650 deg. C, during one hour.

  13. Reliability of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for over-voltage protection exposed to ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Koviljka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread use of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for non-linear over-voltage protection results in a variety of possible working conditions. It is therefore essential to have a thorough insight into their reliability in exploitation environments which imply exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of irradiation on over-voltage diode characteristics by exposing the diodes to californium-252 combined neutron/gamma radiation field. The irradiation of semiconductor over-voltage diodes causes severe degradation of their protection characteristics. On the other hand, gas-filled over-voltage diodes exhibit a temporal improvement of performance. The results are presented with the accompanying theoretical interpretations of the observed changes in over-voltage diode behaviour, based on the interaction of radiation with materials constituting the diodes.

  14. First results from the CARIBU facility: mass measurements on the r-process path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schelt, J; Lascar, D; Savard, G; Clark, J A; Bertone, P F; Caldwell, S; Chaudhuri, A; Levand, A F; Li, G; Morgan, G E; Orford, R; Segel, R E; Sharma, K S; Sternberg, M G

    2013-08-09

    The Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer has made mass measurements of 33 neutron-rich nuclides provided by the new Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The studied region includes the 132Sn double shell closure and ranges in Z from In to Cs, with Sn isotopes measured out to A=135, and the typical measurement precision is at the 100 ppb level or better. The region encompasses a possible major waiting point of the astrophysical r process, and the impact of the masses on the r process is shown through a series of simulations. These first-ever simulations with direct mass information on this waiting point show significant increases in waiting time at Sn and Sb in comparison with commonly used mass models, demonstrating the inadequacy of existing models for accurate r-process calculations.

  15. Nuclear fission and the transuranium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1989-02-01

    Many of the transuranium elements are produced and isolated in large quantities through the use of neutrons furnished by nuclear fission reactions: plutonium (atomic number 94) in ton quantities; neptunium (93), americium (95), and curium (96) in kilogram quantities; berkelium (97) in 100 milligram quantities; californium (98) in gram quantities; and einsteinium (99) in milligram quantities. Transuranium isotopes have found many practical applications---as nuclear fuel for the large-scale generation of electricity, as compact, long-lived power sources for use in space exploration, as means for diagnosis and treatment in the medical area, and as tools in numerous industrial processes. Of particular interest is the unusual chemistry and impact of these heaviest elements on the periodic table. This account will feature these aspects. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Production of highly pure einsteinium and fermium preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, O.I.; Tarasov, V.A.; Zotov, E.A.; Baranov, A.Yu. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' ' State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Research Institute of Atomic Reactors' ' (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Highly pure einsteinium and fermium preparations are in increased demand due to the progress of the following fields of modern sciences: Fundamental and applied nuclear physics. Heavy actinides are necessary for detailed study of structure and decay of a nucleus, as well as initial material both for nuclear synthesis of new superheavy elements and for manufacturing radioactive radiation sources. Fundamental and applied radiochemistry. Einsteinium and fermium preparations are required to investigate chemical properties of these hard-to-obtain elements and to improve technology of their recovery and purification. Nuclear medicine. Biologically active compounds labeled with alpha- emitting einsteinium and fermium may be applied in prospect for a radioimmunotherapy of oncological diseases. The principal method of einsteinium and fermium production is irradiation of curium or californium isotopes in a high-flux nuclear reactor. Large-scale production of transplutonium elements at RIAR enables also to produce regularly significant quantities of einsteinium and fermium. (orig.)

  17. Beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy using ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Barbara; Czeszumska, A.; Siegl, K.; Caldwell, S.; Aprahamian, A.; Burkey, M.; Clark, J.; Levand, A.; Marley, S.; Morgan, G.; Norman, E.; Nystrom, A.; Orford, R.; Padgett, S.; Perez Galvan, A.; Savard, G.; Scielzo, N.; Sharma, K.; Strauss, S.

    2017-01-01

    Trapped radioactive ions suspended in vacuum allow for a new way to perform beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy. Decay branching ratios and energy spectra of the emitted neutrons are inferred from a measurement of the nuclear recoil, thereby circumventing the many limitations associated with direct neutron detection. Beta-delayed neutron measurements were carried out for 137-138,140I, 134-136Sb, and 144-145Cs at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The data collected are needed in many fields of basic and applied science such as nuclear energy, nuclear astrophysics, and stockpile stewardship. Results for the isotopes 135-136Sb and 140I will be presented. Supported by NSF under PHY-1419765, and U.S. DOE under NEUP 13-5485, DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), and DE-NA0000979 (NNSA).

  18. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. TRIGA-TRAP: A penning trap mass spectrometer at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorra, Christian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Blaum, Klaus [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, Michael; Herfurth, Frank [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Eibach, Martin; Ketelaer, Jens; Ketter, Jochen; Knuth, Konstantin; Repp, Julia [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear masses represent the binding energies and, therefore, the sum of all interactions in the nucleus. They provide an important input parameter to nuclear structure models. Presently, a tremendous interest in masses of very exotic neutron-rich nuclides exists to support theoretical models for the nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron capture process. The research reactor TRIGA Mainz provides access to a large variety of neutron-rich nuclides produced by thermal-neutron induced fission of an actinide target. The double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP will perform high-precision mass measurements in this region of the nuclear chart as well as on actinides from uranium to californium. It also serves as a test facility for the development of new techniques that will be implemented in future facilities like MATS at FAIR (GSI, Darmstadt). The layout of TRIGA-TRAP as well as recent mass measurements are presented.

  20. Populations of selected microbial and fungal species growing on the surface of rape seeds following treatment with desiccants or plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frac, Magdalena; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Tys, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desiccants and plant growth regulators on selected microbial species affecting rape seeds, with special emphasis on the growth of fungi and identification of the genus and species composition. The experimental material in the study was seeds of winter rape cv. Californium that were collected from the field during combine harvest. The chemical agents applied, both desiccants and growth regulators, generally decreased the populations of bacteria occurring on the surface of rape seeds. The responses of fungi depended upon the type of agent applied and were manifested as either stimulation or inhibition of the growth of the fungal species. The fungi isolated from the surface of rape seeds were characteristic of those found in the field environment (Cladosporium and Penicillium) and typical for those present on the surface of rape seeds (Alternaria).

  1. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes; Mesures des sections efficaces de capture et potentiels d'incineration des actinides mineurs dans les hauts flux de neutrons: Impact sur la transmutation des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O

    2007-10-15

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of {sup 241}Am and {sup 237}Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the {sup 241}Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  2. Sequence Classification: 894414 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n S. cerevisiae, which is a model system for studying replication of positive-strand RNA viruses in their natural hosts; Yor246cp || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6324820 ...

  3. Gclust Server: 86919 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequences Cluster Sequences Link to related sequences Related Sequences(246) Sequence length 888 Representative...ld 1.00e-50 Plants and algae (7species) (%) 14.29 Other Bikonts (Chromalveolata, Excavata) (9species) (%) 0.

  4. MUK ja maksujärelevalve = TAFIC and tax supervision

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Maksuameti Maksupettuste Uurimise Keskus (MUK) viis 2003. aastal lõpule eeluurimise 42 maksukuritegusid ja rahapesu puudutavas kriminaalasjas ning saatis kohtu ette 76 süüdistatavat 246 kuriteoepisoodis

  5. 75 FR 74697 - Questar Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... public convenience to construct and operate 24.6 miles of 24-inch diameter pipeline and related facilities in Uintah County, Utah (the Mainline 104 Extension Project), all as more fully set forth in...

  6. 78 FR 21916 - Procurement List; Addition And Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Activity: General Services Administration, New York, NY Handle, Mop NSN: 7920-00-246-0930 NPA: Industries... Activity: General Services Administration, New York, NY VuRyte--VuRyser Ergonomic Computer Workstation...

  7. 75 FR 20365 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... CMS to conduct consumer satisfaction surveys regarding Medicare prescription drug plans and Medicare... consumer satisfaction information. Form Number: CMS- R-246 (OMB : 0938-0732); Frequency: Yearly; Affected... approved collection; Title of Information Collection: Consumer Assessment of Health Care Providers...

  8. ElectronTransfer Induced Ring Opening of α-Epoxyketones: Spirodioxolane Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Nikpour

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereospecific formation of spirodioxolanes has been observed on electron transfer induced ring opening of α-epoxyketones by 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate in the presence of cyclohexanone

  9. Gclust Server: 80545 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 80545 SCE_YDL246C=SOR2 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(311) 357 Protein of unknown function, computation...sequences Related Sequences(311) Sequence length 357 Representative annotation Protein of unknown function, computation

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CMWA-5KTQA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CMWA-5KTQA 1CMW 5KTQ A A PKGRVLLVDGHHLAYRTFHALKGLTTSRGEPVQAVYGFA...DRERLRAFLERLEFGSLLHEFGLLESPALEEAPWPPPEGAFVGFVLSRKEPMWADLLALAAARGGRVHRAPEPYKALRDLK...SPKALE---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------EAPWPPPEGAFVGFVLSRKEPMW...ine> ALA CA 267 1CMW A 1CMW...17 ASP CA 189 GLN CA 246 1CMW

  11. N4-phenyl modifications of N2-(2-hydroxyl)ethyl-6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamines enhance glucocerebrosidase inhibition by small molecules with potential as chemical chaperones for Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenwei; Zheng, Wei; Urban, Daniel J; Inglese, James; Sidransky, Ellen; Austin, Christopher P; Thomas, Craig J

    2007-11-01

    A series of 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamines were prepared and analyzed as inhibitors of glucocerebrosidase. Synthesis, structure activity relationships and the selectivity of chosen analogues against related sugar hydrolases enzymes are described.

  12. 77 FR 50457 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-WIC Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Regulations (7 CFR part 246) for the... Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is to provide supplemental... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection;...

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08552-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CING IN PROGRESS *** f... 48 0.57 1 ( AC232186 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-66H15, WO...RKING DRAFT SEQUE... 48 0.57 1 ( AC231687 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-302G14, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 0.57 1 (....57 1 ( AC229617 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-435F5, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE... 48 0.57 1 ( AC226638 ) Lama pacos cl...one CH246-281G15, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 0.57 1 ( AC226637 ) Lama pacos clone C... 1 ( CU462853 ) Pig DNA sequence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS *** f... 46 2.3 1 ( AC232180 ) Lama pacos clone

  14. Use of Vascular Ports for Long-Term Apheresis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Rajat; Sertic, Madeleine; Nemec, Rose; Tomlin, Keturah; Connolly, Bairbre

    2015-11-01

    High-flow ports have been used for apheresis in adults. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of ports for apheresis in children and to survey satisfaction of patients and their families with their use. A retrospective review of clinical details was combined with a prospective assessment of the experience of patients and their families. Eight patients (mean age, 10.4 y; mean weight, 35 kg) had nine ports placed for long-term apheresis. All 246 treatment sessions were completed successfully. Access difficulties occurred in eight of 246 sessions (3%). Alarms occurred in 40 of 246 sessions (16%), resulting in delays in 10 of 246 sessions (4%). A survey of early experience indicated overall satisfaction with and a preference for ports for apheresis.

  15. Gene : CBRC-MDOM-11-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ica protamine 1 (PRM1), mRNA /cds=p(73,249) /gb=NM_001032967 /gi=74136486 /ug=Mdm.246 /len=400 0.004 29% MEGKGKKKRKKERKKERKKERKKERK...KERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERERERKKERKKVRKRERKKERKREREKERKKERKKERK...RERKREREKERKREREKERKKEREKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKEKKEKRRREMKSQRGEVLKVVQRRRARI ...

  16. Gene : CBRC-MDOM-08-0074 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ca protamine 1 (PRM1), mRNA /cds=p(73,249) /gb=NM_001032967 /gi=74136486 /ug=Mdm.246 /len=400 2e-04 25% MIFRINSKIESKNFLRKERKKERK...KERRKKERRKKKKERKKERRKKKERRRRKKEEREREREREREPVEKEREKKERKRESLRERKNERKKERKKERKKDRQKERKKERK...KERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKEREKEREREREKERKREREKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKESERKGEKGRETHEEREKQRKKKKKGSKKKK ...

  17. Gene : CBRC-MDOM-04-0419 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ca protamine 1 (PRM1), mRNA /cds=p(73,249) /gb=NM_001032967 /gi=74136486 /ug=Mdm.246 /len=400 0.002 24% MRFEPRSSGSRASALSTINVLRKKERK...KERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKEERKKERKKERKKERKKERKEERKKGRKKERKKERK...KGRKEGRKEERKEERKKGRKEERKKGRKEERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERVRSGRDLRT ...

  18. Gene : CBRC-MDOM-01-0367 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ca protamine 1 (PRM1), mRNA /cds=p(73,249) /gb=NM_001032967 /gi=74136486 /ug=Mdm.246 /len=400 0.002 40% MEGKGEERKRERKKERKREREKERKKERK...KERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKREREKERKREREKERKKERKKERKKERERKKERKRERQERKKERKKERK...KERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKGRKEGRKEGRKEGRKEERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKEGRKEGR

  19. Gene : CBRC-MDOM-03-0097 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mestica protamine 1 (PRM1), mRNA /cds=p(73,249) /gb=NM_001032967 /gi=74136486 /ug=Mdm.246 /len=400 3e-04 31% MCRKKEKKKERKKERKKERKKERK...KERERKRERERKKERERERERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERERERERRRERKREREKEKERKREREKERK...REREKERKREREKERKREREKERKREREKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKKERKGGRKEGRKEGRKEGRKEGRKEGERKGGRRRNRKGRGVEEGRER ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... side of the face and the other (facial asymmetry). Related Information What does it mean if a ... clinical spectrum of neuralgic amyotrophy in 246 cases. Brain. 2006 Feb;129(Pt 2):438-50. Epub ...

  1. Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu inimesepilt / Lauri Mälksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälksoo, Lauri, 1975-

    2016-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Katri Lõhmus. Caring Autonomy. European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism. Cambridge University Press 2015, 246 lk. Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni artikli 8 sisustamisest

  2. Treatment with diammonium glycyrrhizinate down-regulates M30 expression in ulcerative colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原皓

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the therapeutic effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate(DG) on2,4,6-trinitro-benzene sulfonic acid(TNBS)-induced ulcerative colitis in rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms by

  3. 75 FR 57514 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Worker from Express Personnel Services, etc. 74,550 Artisans, Inc Glen Flora, WI...... August 20, 2009...,246 Bank of America, Card State College, PA... Customer Assistance Division. 74,290 Supermedia...

  4. Method of reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with redox enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish M.

    2000-01-01

    A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with redox enzymes, such as Oxyrase (Trademark of Oxyrase, Inc., Mansfield, Ohio).

  5. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish M.; Campbell, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

  6. Birds of Modoc NWR annotated checklist

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following list includes species which have been observed by refuge personnel and other observers since the establishment of Modoc NWR in 1960. A total of 246...

  7. Loggerhead oceanic stage duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 246 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded dead along the Atlantic US...

  8. First aid to aid Helmand / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Välisministeeriumi rahastatud projekti raames saatsid MTÜ Mondo ja Eesti Kaitsevägi Afganistani 1500 esmaabipakki, mis on mõeldud Helmandi provintsis toimunud esmaabikoolituse läbinutele. Koolitusprojekti kogumaksumus on 2 246 580 krooni

  9. Examination of Some Organic Explosives by Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The increase in terrorist activities committed using explosives in recent years has generated the need for improved analytical methods that can accurately and quickly identify explosives and their residues. In this study such an analytical method is evaluated. In the first phase of the study, standard solutions and a standard mixture solution of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazocyclohexane), PETN (pentaerythritoltetranitrate) and TETRYL (2,4,6-trinitrophen...

  10. Preparation of a N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complex: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organic and Organometallic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritleng, Vincent; Brenner, Eric; Chetcuti, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A four-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of a cyclopentadienyl chloro-nickel(II) complex bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMes[middle dot]HCl) in a one-pot procedure by reaction of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline with…

  11. Identification of Metabolic Routes and Catabolic Enzymes Involved in Phytoremediation of the Nitro-Substituted Explosives TNT, RDX, and HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-31

    Merchie, Kate M.; Schnoor, Jerald L.; and VanAken, Benoit. Expression of Glutathione Transferases in poplar trees exposed to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene...cytochrome P-450. J. Appl. Microbiol. 93, 463-472. Dixon DP, Lapthorn A, Edwards R (2002) Plant glutathione transferases . Genome Biol 3: 3004.1...Schnoor, JL.; and VanAken, B. Expression of Glutathione Transferases in poplar trees exposed to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. (submitted for publication

  12. Drug: D00154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00154 Drug Santonin (JP16); Santonin (TN) C15H18O3 246.1256 246.3016 D00154.gif Ar...ents against pathologic organisms and parasites 64 Parasitics (systemic) 642 Anthelmintics 6424 Santo...nins D00154 Santonin (JP16) CAS: 481-06-1 PubChem: 7847222 LigandBox: D00154 NIKKAJI: J6

  13. CONTRAST STUDY ON CT AND BA IN DIAGNOSIS OF PATIENTS WITH ATHEROTHROMBOTIC BRAIN INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingshun Liu; Haixiang Gao; Xiaomei Fu; Po Ma

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To explore applied value on CT and BA in diagnosis of patients with atherothrombotic brain infarction. Methods:CT and BA were examined in 246 patients with atherothrombotic brain infarction. Results:The different change of CT and BA were showed in 246 patients with atherothrombotic brain infarction. Conclusions: There were separately different advantage and shortcoming in CT and BA in diagnosis of atherothrombotic brain infarction. The value of clinical application of BA was important in diagnosis of atherothrombotic brain infarction.

  14. Distinct Enzyme-Substrate Interactions Revealed by Two Dimensional Kinetic Comparison between Dehaloperoxidase-Hemoglobin and Horseradish Peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Lu, Chang; Franzen, Stefan

    2015-10-08

    The time-resolved kinetics of substrate oxidation and cosubstrate H2O2 reduction by dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin (DHP) on a seconds-to-minutes time scale was analyzed for peroxidase substrates 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and ABTS. Substrates 2,4,6-TBP and 2,4,6-TCP show substrate inhibition at high concentration due to the internal binding at the distal pocket of DHP, whereas ABTS does not show substrate inhibition at any concentration. The data are consistent with an external binding site for the substrates with an internal substrate inhibitor binding site for 2,4,6-TBP and 2,4,6-TCP. We have also compared the kinetic behavior of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in terms of kcat, Km(AH2) and Km(H2O2) using the same kinetic scheme. Unlike DHP, HRP does not exhibit any measurable substrate inhibition, consistent with substrate binding at the edge of heme near the protein surface at all substrate concentrations. The binding of substrates and their interactions with the heme iron were further compared between DHP and HRP using a competitive fluoride binding experiment, which provides a method for quantitative measurement of internal association constants associated with substrate inhibition. These experiments show the regulatory role of an internal substrate binding site in DHP from both a kinetic and competitive ligand binding perspective. The interaction of DHP with substrates as a result of internal binding actually stabilizes that protein and permits DHP to function under conditions that denature HRP. As a consequence, DHP is a tortoise, a slow but steady enzyme that wins the evolutionary race against the HRP-type of peroxidase, which is a hare, initially rapid, but flawed for this application because of the protein denaturation under the conditions of the experiment.

  15. Sphingobacterium pakistanensis sp. nov., a novel plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Iftikhar; Ehsan, Muhammad; Sin, Yeseul; Paek, Jayoung; Khalid, Nauman; Hayat, Rifat; Chang, Young H

    2014-02-01

    The taxonomic status of a bacterium, strain NCCP-246(T), isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo, was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain NCCP-246(T) can grow at 16-37 °C (optimum 32 °C), at pH ranges of 6-8 (optimum growth occurs at pH 7) and in 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based upon on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that strain NCCP-246(T) belonged to genus Sphingobacterium. Strain NCCP-246(T) showed highest similarity to the type strain of Sphingobacterium canadense CR11(T) (97.67 %) and less than 97 % with other species of the genus. The DNA-DNA relatedness value of strain NCCP-246(T) with S. canadense CR11(T) and Sphingobacterium thalpophilum JCM 21153(T) was 55 and 44.4 %, respectively. The chemotaxonomic data revealed the major menaquinone as MK-7 and dominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 [C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c] (37.07 %), iso-C15:0 (28.03 %), C16:0 (11.85 %), C17:0 cyclo (8.84 %) and C14:0 (2.42 %). The G+C content of the strain was 39.2 mol%. On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analyses, physiological and, biochemical data, strain NCCP-246(T) can be differentiated from the validly named members of genus Sphingobacterium and thus represents as a new species, for which the name, Sphingobacterium pakistanensis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain NCCP-246(T) (= JCM18974 (T) = KCTC 23914(T)).

  16. The occurrence of haloanisoles as an emerging odorant in municipal tap water of typical cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Xu, Bingbing; Qi, Fei; Kumirska, Jolanta

    2016-07-01

    In this study, occurrence of the haloanisoles odorous compounds in tap water of Chinese cities, were investigated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC/MS analysis. This study revealed the occurrence of four kinds of haloanisoles in 22 cities of China in both summer and winter. Except 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA), all studied haloanisoles showed higher frequency of detection. 2,3,6-Trichloroanisole (2,3,6-TCA) and 2,3,4-trichloroanisole (2,3,4-TCA) showed higher occurrence concentration; however, the relative odor values of them was lower. These values of 2,4,6-TBA and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in all samples were greater than zero in both summer and winter, indicating the odor from haloanisoles could be felt by human noise. This study further showed that Beijing exhibited most serious occurrence of haloanisoles that were depended on the season and drinking water distribution system (country and city). From this study, it was confirmed that haloanisoles was important taste and odor compounds in tap water of China. Based on the survey of occurrence of halophenol and residual chlorine, the possible source for the formation of haloanisoles in tap water was discussed. Furthermore, several suggestions on control the haloanisoles odor in drinking water treatment plant and water distribution system were provided.

  17. Regioselective trans-cis photoisomerization of m-styrylstilbenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y.; Uozy, Y.; Dote, T.; Ueda, M.; Matsuura, T.

    1988-01-06

    Trans-cis photoisomerization of m-styrylstilbenes, i.e., 2,4,6-triisopropyl-3'-styrylstilbene (TISS), 2,4,6-trimethyl-3'-styrylstilbene (TMSS), and 3-styrylstilbene (SS), and of stilbenes, i.e., 2,4,6-triisopropylstilbene (TIS), 2,4,6-trimethylstilbene (TMS), and stilbene (S), are studied under direct of benzophenone-sensitized irradiation in hexane. Measurements of quantum yields of isomerization have revealed that although the styrylstilbene molecule bears two styryl groups, the reaction is highly regioselective, depending upon the excitation conditions and reactant structures. For example, isomerization of trans, trans-TISS and trans,cis-TISS occurred either at the 2,4,6-trisubstituted styryl side upon direct excitation or at the unstubstituted styryl side upon sensitized excitation. When the starting material carries an unsubstituted cis-styryl group, the major isomerization always occurred at this moiety by either direct or sensitized excitation, e.g., cis,trans-TISS ..-->.. trans,trans-TISS, cis,cis-TISS ..-->.. trans,cis-TISS, and cis,trans-SS ..-->.. trans,trans-SS. Furthermore, the photoisomerization of cis,cis-SS was found to be one-way. These results are interpreted in terms of the usual energy sink concept: the excited-state energies (E/sub S/ and E/sub T/) of the stilbene chromophores depend on molecular distortion in a subtle manner.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of dendrimeric melamine cored [salen/salophFe(III)] and [salen/salophCr(III)] capped complexes and their magnetic behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Saban, E-mail: uysal77@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus of Alaaddin Keykubat, 42075 Selcuklu, Konya (Turkey); Koc, Ziya Erdem [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus of Alaaddin Keykubat, 42075 Selcuklu, Konya (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    2,4,6-Tris(4-hydroxybenzimino)-1,3,5-triazine [1] 2 has been synthesized from the reaction of 1 equiv. melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine) and 3 equiv. 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. Then, 2,4,6-tris(4-(4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine-2-yloxy)benzimino)-1,3,5-triazine 3 has been synthesized from the reaction of 1 equiv. 2 and 3 equiv. cyanuric chloride. And then, two new triazine centered dendrimeric ligands 2,4,6-tris(4-(4,6-bis(4-carboxyphenyloxy)-1,3,5-triazine-2-yloxy)benzimino) -1,3,5-triazine 4 and 2,4,6-tris(4-(4,6-bis(3,5-dicarboxyphenyloxy) -1,3,5-triazine-2-yloxy)benzimino)-1,3,5-triazine 5 have been synthesized from the reaction of 1 equiv. 3 and 6 equiv 4-hydroxybenzoic acid or 5-hydroxyisophtalic acid. Finally, eight new multinuclear Fe(III) and Cr(III) complexes involving tetradenta Schiff bases N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine-(salenH{sub 2}) or bis(salicylidene)-o-phenylene diamine-(salophH{sub 2}) with 4 or 5 have been synthesized and characterized by means of elemental analysis, {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal analyses and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The complexes can also be characterized as low-spin distorted octahedral Fe(III) and Cr(III) bridged by carboxylic acids.

  19. Impact of nutrient composition on a degradative biofilm community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Korber, Darren R.; Wolfaardt, Gideon M.;

    1997-01-01

    A microbial community was cultivated in flow cells with 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoic acid (2,4,6-TCB) as sole carbon and energy source and was examined with scanning confocal laser microscopy and fluorescent molecular probes. The biofilm community which developed under these conditions exhibited...... a characteristic architecture, including a basal cell layer and conspicuous mounds of bacterial cells and polymer (approximately 20 to 30 mu m high and 25 to 40 mu m in diameter) occurring at 20- to 200-mu m intervals. When biofilms grown on 2,4,6-TCB were shifted to a labile, nonchlorinated carbon source...... (Trypticase soy broth), the biofilms underwent an architectural change which included the loss of mound structures and the formation of a more homogeneous biofilm. Neutrally charged fluorescent dextrans, which upon hydration become cationic, were observed to bind to mounds, as well as to the basal cell layer...

  20. Dynamic headspace coupled to perevaporation for the analysis of anisoles in wine by gas chromatography-ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ariza, J L; García-Barrera, T; Lorenzo, F

    2004-11-12

    Off-flavours in wines are mainly due to the presence of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and other haloanisoles. The purpose of this study was to develop a method based on the coupling of dynamic headspace and perevaporation to GC-MS-MS to attain better analyte sensitivity and selectivity. The approach has been applied to the analysis of 2,6-dichloroanisole, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole in various wines. For these compounds that cause taste and odour problems, the method was linear from the quantification limit to 3 ng for all the analytes with recoveries greater than 80% and satisfactory precision. Detection limits were as low as 2-36 ng l(-1).