Sample records for californium 244 target

  1. Historical Review of Californium-252 Discovery and Development (United States)

    Stoddard, D. H.


    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed. (PLG)

  2. Californium Electrodepositions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, Rose Ann [ORNL


    Electrodepositions of californium isotopes were successfully performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the past year involving two different types of deposition solutions, ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) and isobutanol ((CH3)2CHCH2OH). A californium product that was decay enriched in 251Cf was recovered for use in super-heavy element (SHE) research. This neutron-rich isotope, 251Cf, provides target material for SHE research for the potential discovery of heavier isotopes of Z=118. The californium material was recovered from aged 252Cf neutron sources in storage at ORNL. These sources have decayed for over 30 years, thus providing material with a very high 251Cf-to-252Cf ratio. After the source capsules were opened, the californium was purified and then electrodeposited using the isobutanol method onto thin titanium foils for use in an accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Another deposition method, ammonium acetate, was used to produce a deposition containing 1.7 0.1 Ci of 252Cf onto a stainless steel substrate. This was the largest single electrodeposition of 252Cf ever prepared. The 252Cf material was initially purified using traditional ion exchange media, such as AG50-AHIB and AG50-HCl, and further purified using a TEVA-NH4SCN system to remove any lanthanides, resulting in the recovery of 3.6 0.1 mg of purified 252Cf. The ammonium acetate deposition was run with a current of 1.0 amp, resulting in a 91.5% deposition yield. Purification and handling of the highly radioactive californium material created additional challenges in the production of these sources.

  3. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.


    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial

  4. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments...

  5. 48 CFR 244.301 - Objective. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objective. 244.301 Section 244.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... 244.301 Objective. The administrative contracting officer (ACO) is solely responsible for...

  6. 24 CFR 244.2 - License. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License. 244.2 Section 244.2 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... FOR GROUP PRACTICE FACILITIES Eligibility Requirements § 244.2 License. The Commissioner shall...

  7. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  8. Dicty_cDB: SLA244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLA244 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16368-1 SLA244Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLA244Z 605 - - - - Show SLA244 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLA244 (Link Representative seq. ID SLA24...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLA244 (SLA244Q) /CSM/SL/SLA2-B/SLA244Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...CCACTTCATA AATAAAACTTTGATC sequence update 1997. 5. 7 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---QLCKVTQCPTDFSCKMIRGN

  9. Teratogenic effect of Californium-252 irradiation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satow, Yukio; Lee, Juing-Yi; Hori, Hiroshi; Okuda, Hiroe; Tsuchimoto, Shigeo; Sawada, Shozo; Yokoro, Kenjiro (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)


    The teratogenicity of Californium-252 (Cf-252) irradiation which generates approximately 70% 2.3 MeV fast neutron and 30% gamma rays was evaluated. A single whole body exposure of Cf-252 at various doses was given to pregnant rats on day 8 or 9 of pregnancy, followed by microscopic autopsy of the fetuses at the terminal stage of pregnancy to search for external and internal malformations. For comparison, pregnant rats were irradiated with various doses of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) standard gamma rays at the same dose rate (1 rad/min.). The doses were 20-120 rad of Cf-252 and 80-220 rad of Co-60. Using frequency of radiation induced malformations observed on day 8 of pregnancy as an index, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 2.3-2.7 was obtained from the straight line obtained by modifying by the least squares method the frequency curves of malformed fetuses in total implants and in surviving fetuses. The types of malformations induced by Cf-252 and Co-60 irradiation were alike. Using fetal LD/sub 50/ as an index, 2.4 was obtained as RBE when irradiated on day 8 of pregnancy and 3.1 as that when irradiated on day 9. The results showed that Cf-252 had stronger a teratogenic effect than Co-60 gamma rays. (author).

  10. Measurements of neutron cross section of the {sup 243}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 244}Am reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hata, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The effective thermal neutron cross section of {sup 243}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 244}Am reaction was measured by the activation method. Highly-purified {sup 243}Am target was irradiated in an aluminum capsule by using a research reactor JRR-3M. The tentative effective thermal neutron cross sections are 3.92 b, and 84.44 b for the production of {sup 244g}Am and {sup 244m}Am, respectively. (author)

  11. Experimental Limit to Interstellar 244Pu Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, M; Ahmad, I; Berkovits, D; Bordeanu, C; Ghelberg, S; Hashimoto, Y; Hershcovitch, A I; Jiang, S; Nakanishi, T; Sakamoto, K


    Short-lived nuclides, now extinct in the solar system, are expected to be present in the interstellar medium (ISM). Grains of ISM origin were recently discovered in the inner solar system and at Earth orbit and may accrete onto Earth after ablation in the atmosphere. A favorable matrix for detection of such extraterrestrial material is presented by deep open-sea sediments with very low sedimentation rates (0.8-3 mm/kyr). We report here on the measurement of Pu isotopic abundances in a 1-kg deep-sea dry sediment collected in 1992 in the North Pacific. Our measured value of (3+-3)x10^5 244Pu atoms in the Pu-separated fraction of the sample shows no excess over the expected stratospheric nuclear fallout content and under reasonable assumptions we derive a limit of 2x10^-11 g-244Pu/g-ISM for the abundance of 244Pu in ISM.

  12. Extinct 244Pu in Ancient Zircons (United States)

    Turner, Grenville; Harrison, T. Mark; Holland, Greg; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Gilmour, Jamie


    We have found evidence, in the form of fissiogenic xenon isotopes, for in situ decay of 244Pu in individual 4.1- to 4.2-billion-year-old zircons from the Jack Hills region of Western Australia. Because of its short half-life, 82 million years, 244Pu was extinct within 600 million years of Earth's formation. Detrital zircons are the only known relics to have survived from this period, and a study of their Pu geochemistry will allow us to date ancient metamorphic events and determine the terrestrial Pu/U ratio for comparison with the solar ratio.

  13. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAMS, W.H.


    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities.

  14. Apparatus for the measurement of total body nitrogen using prompt neutron activation analysis with californium-252. (United States)

    Mackie, A; Hannan, W J; Smith, M A; Tothill, P


    Details of clinical apparatus designed for the measurement of total body nitrogen (as an indicator of body protein), suitable for the critically ill, intensive-care patient are presented. Californium-252 radio-isotopic neutron sources are used, enabling a nitrogen measurement by prompt neutron activation analysis to be made in 40 min with a precision of +/- 3.2% for a whole body dose equivalent of 0.145 mSv. The advantages of Californium-252 over alternative neutron sources are discussed. A comparison between two irradiation/detection geometries is made, leading to an explanation of the geometry adopted for the apparatus. The choice of construction and shielding materials to reduce the count rate at the detectors and consequently to reduce the pile-up contribution to the nitrogen background is discussed. Salient features of the gamma ray spectroscopy system to reduce spectral distortion from pulse pile-up are presented.

  15. 27 CFR 28.244 - Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse. (United States)


    ... bonded warehouse. 28.244 Section 28.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Consignment § 28.244 Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse. Distilled spirits and wines withdrawn for shipment to a manufacturing bonded warehouse shall be consigned to the proprietor of...

  16. 10 CFR 600.244 - Termination for convenience. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination for convenience. 600.244 Section 600.244 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform... Requirements § 600.244 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 600.443 awards may be terminated...

  17. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.244-94 Section 86.244-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations;...

  18. 12 CFR 19.244 - Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment. 19.244 Section 19.244 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing...

  19. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress...

  20. 42 CFR 456.244 - Data sources for studies. (United States)


    ...: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.244 Data sources for studies. Data that the committee uses to perform studies must be obtained from one or more of the following sources: (a) Medical records or other... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data sources for studies. 456.244 Section...

  1. Spontaneous Partitioning of Californium from Curium: Curious Cases from the Crystallization of Curium Coordination Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Samantha K.; Silver, Mark A.; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Jamie C.; Bogart, Justin A.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Arico, Alexandra A.; Hanson, Kenneth; Schelter, Eric J.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.


    The reaction of 248CmCl3 with excess 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) under mild solvothermal conditions results in crystallization of the tris-chelate complex Cm(HDPA)3·H2O. Approximately half of the curium remains in solution at the end of this process, and evaporation of the mother liquor results in crystallization of the bis-chelate complex [Cm(HDPA)- (H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O. 248Cm is the daughter of the α decay of 252Cf and is extracted in high purity from this parent. However, trace amounts of 249,250,251Cf are still present in all samples of 248Cm. During the crystallization of Cm(HDPA)3·H2O and [Cm(HDPA)(H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O, californium(III) spontaneously separates itself from the curium complexes and is found doped within crystals of DPA in the form of Cf(HDPA)3. These results add to the growing body of evidence that the chemistry of californium is fundamentally different from that of earlier actinides.

  2. Plutonium-244 fission xenon in the most primitive meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, P.K.; Myers, W.A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States))


    The plutonium-244/xenon-136 ages of the Murchison, Murray and Orgueil meteorites have been calculated from the existing xenon isotope data and the uranium contents. The CI carbonaceous chondrite Orgueil, which is considered to be among the most primitive - in the sense of the least altered - sample of the solar system known to man, appears to have started to retain its xenon more than 5,000 million years ago, when the ratio of [sup 244]Pu to [sup 238]U in the solar system was as high as (0.5 [+-] 0.1) (atom/atom) and the CM carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and Murray started to retain their xenon about 4,940 million years ago, when the [sup 244]Pu to [sup 238]U ratio was about 0.17 (atom/atom). (orig.)

  3. 18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. (United States)


    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2440 Account 244... instrument liabilities. 367.2440 Section 367.2440 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  4. Double-contained receiver tank 244-TX, grab samples, 244TX-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.


    This document is the final report for the double-contained receiver tank (DCRT) 244-TX grab samples. Three grabs samples were collected from riser 8 on May 29, 1997. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in a table.

  5. Clinical Report on Californium-252 Neutron Intraluminal Brachytherapy Combined with External Irradiation for Cervical Carcinoma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanyu Zhao; Keming Wang; Jian Sun; Xin Geng; Weiming Zhang


    OBJECTIVE To observe the curative effects and complications of californium-252 (252Cf) neutron intraluminal brachytherapy (IBT) combined with external irradiation (El) for treatment of cervical carcinoma.METHODS From December 2000 to December 2004, 128 cases of cervical carcinoma staged into ⅡA~ⅢB according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) standards were treated with 252Cf neutron IBT using 8~10 Gy per fraction, once a week. The total dose at reference A point was 36~40 Gy in 4~5 fractions. From the second day after 252Cf neutron IBT treatment, the whole pelvic cavity was treated with 60Co γ-ray El, applying 2 Gy per fraction, 4 times per week. After 20~25 Gy of El, the center of the whole pelvic field was blocked with 4 cm of lead in width. The total dose of El was 45~50 Gy.RESULTS The short-term therapeutic effects were CR 95.3% and PR 4.7%. The 3 and 5-year local control rates were 93.5% and 87.9%. The overall 3-year survival rate was 87.5% and for Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ , 90.9%and 81.5% respectively; the overall 5-year survival rate was 70% and for Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ, 76.2% and 61% respectively. The rate of radiation complications was 4.7% for radiation cystitis, 7.8% for radiation proctitis, 6.3%for vagina contracture and adhesion and 5.5% for protracted radiation proctitis.CONCLUSION An combination of 252Cf neutron IBT with El for treatment of cervical carcinoma can be well-tolerated by cervical carcinoma patients. The rate of local tumor control is high and radiation complications are few.

  6. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Rekas, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  7. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252; Estudio de blindaje para fuentes de fision espontanea de Californio-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila R, I


    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  8. 8 CFR 244.11 - Renewal of application; appeal to the Board of Immigration Appeals. (United States)


    ... of Immigration Appeals. 244.11 Section 244.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.11 Renewal of application; appeal to the Board of Immigration Appeals. If a charging document is served on the alien with...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program. (United States)


    ... the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section 1852.244-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844.204-70, insert the following clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985)...

  10. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. (United States)


    ... standard wine. 24.244 Section 24.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.244 Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the...

  11. Investigation on dietary behaviors problems of 244 cases of preschool children%244例学龄前儿童饮食行为问题的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华丽; 叶天惠; 刘琳; 金星明


    Objective:To know about the dietary behaviors problems of preschool children,and provide scientific evidences for early intervention.Methods:The self designed questionnaire was used to survey the 244 cases of preschool children with dietary behavior problems in outpatient clinic in our hospital,and to analyze the influ-ence of different demographic characteristics on children’s dietary behavior problems.Results:In 244 cases of children,one kind of dietary behavior occurred in 101 cases,two kinds of dietary behaviors occurred in 86 cases, three kinds of dietary behaviors occurred in 83 cases,4 dietary behaviors occurred in 71 cases,and there were no children with five and six kinds of dietary behaviors.There was statistically significant difference in bad habits among different residences (P <0.05);there was statistically significant difference in children’s poor appetite, food preference,bad habits,parents excessive care,fear of eating among children with different living condi-tions,dependents,dependents’educational level and family monthly income (P <0.05).Conclusion:Bad habits, poor appetite,food preference,parents’excessive care and fear of eating are main dietary behaviors problems of preschool children,and the targeted intervention measures should be taken for the unhealthy dietary behaviors.%[目的]了解学龄前儿童饮食行为问题,为早期干预提供科学依据。[方法]自行设计调查问卷对因饮食行为问题来我院门诊就诊的244例学龄前儿童进行调查,并分析不同人口学特征对儿童饮食行为问题的影响。[结果]244例儿童中101例发生1种饮食行为,86例发生2种饮食行为,83例发生3种饮食行为,71例发生4种饮食行为,无5种和6种饮食行为的儿童。不同居住地在不良习惯方面比较,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);不同居住状况、抚养人、抚养人文化程度、家庭月收入在儿童胃口差、食物偏好、不良习惯、父母过度关心、害怕

  12. Estimated (n,f) cross sections for 236,236m237,238-Np, 237,237m-Pu, and 240,241,242,242m,243,244,244m-Am isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W; Becker, J; Britt, H


    Neutron-induced fission cross sections on targets of {sup 236,236m,237,238}Np, {sup 237,237m}Pu, and {sup 240,241,242,242m,243,244,244m}Am have been estimated for incident neutron energies of up to 6 MeV, using the ''surrogate'' technique and the ({sup 3}He,df) and ({sup 3}He,tf) reactions on stable targets to measure fission probabilities. In isotopes where low-lying isomeric states are known to exist, the (n,f) cross section on the corresponding isomeric targets has been estimated, using the surrogate technique. For targets of {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am, measurements of the (n,f) cross section exist, and comparison with the surrogate-method results suggests that the (n,f) cross sections estimated by the surrogate technique are reliable to within 10% for incident neutron energies E{sub n}{approx}>2 MeV. Tabulated values of the estimated (n,f) cross sections are given in an appendix.

  13. 48 CFR 52.244-4 - Subcontractors and outside associates and consultants (Architect-engineer services). (United States)


    ... associates and consultants (Architect-engineer services). 52.244-4 Section 52.244-4 Federal Acquisition... consultants (Architect-engineer services). As prescribed in 44.204(b), insert the following clause: Subcontractors and Outside Associates and Consultants (Architect-Engineer Services) (AUG 1998) Any...

  14. 8 CFR 244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 244.5 Section 244.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION... for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior to the registration...

  15. 9 CFR 354.244 - Temperatures and cooling and freezing procedures. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temperatures and cooling and freezing procedures. 354.244 Section 354.244 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and cooling and freezing procedures. Temperatures and procedures which are necessary for cooling...

  16. Involvement of CD244 in regulating CD4+ T cell immunity in patients with active tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfen Yang

    Full Text Available CD244 (2B4 is a member of the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM family of immune cell receptors and it plays an important role in modulating NK cell and CD8(+ T cell immunity. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of CD244/2B4 on CD4(+ T cells from active TB patients and latent infection individuals. Active TB patients had significantly elevated CD244/2B4 expression on M. tuberculosis antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells compared with latent infection individuals. The frequencies of CD244/2B4-expressing antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells were significantly higher in retreatment active TB patients than in new active TB patients. Compared with CD244/2B4-dull and -middle CD4(+ T cells, CD244/2B4-bright CD4(+ T cell subset had significantly reduced expression of IFN-γ, suggesting that CD244/2B4 expression may modulate IFN-γ production in M. tuberculosis antigen-responsive CD4(+ T cells. Activation of CD244/2B4 signaling by cross-linking led to significantly decreased production of IFN-γ. Blockage of CD244/2B4 signaling pathway of T cells from patients with active TB resulted in significantly increased production of IFN-γ, compared with isotype antibody control. In conclusion, CD244/2B4 signaling pathway has an inhibitory role on M. tuberculosis antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell function.

  17. CR-244氯丁胶乳闪蒸脱挥%Steam flashing for CR-244 neoprene latex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建雄; 彭瑞彬



  18. Table of radionuclides (Vol. 5 - A = 22 to 244)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Be, M.M.; Chiste, V.; Dulieu, C.; Mougeot, X.; Browne, E.; Chechev, V.; Kuzmenko, N.; Kondev, F.; Luca, A.; Galan, M.; Arinc, A.; Huang, X.


    have agreed on the methodologies to be used and the CD-ROM included with this monograph contains the evaluators' comments for each radionuclide in addition to the data tables included in the monograph. This volume includes the evaluation of the following radionuclides: {sup 22}Na, {sup 40}K, {sup 75}Se, {sup 124}Sb, {sup 207}Bi, {sup 211}Bi, {sup 217}At, {sup 222}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 231}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}Th, {sup 233}Pa, {sup 234}Th, {sup 235}U, {sup 237}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 242}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 244}Am, {sup 244}Am{sup m}. Primary recommended data comprise half-lives, decay modes, X-rays, gamma-rays, electron emissions, alpha -and beta- particle transitions and emissions, and their uncertainties

  19. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.


    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  20. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)


    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  1. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev S.; Alessi J.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pardo, R.C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A.


    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  2. 49 CFR 244.15 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan not involving an amalgamation of operations. (United States)


    ... ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.15 Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan not involving an amalgamation of operations. 244.15 Section 244.15 Transportation...

  3. 5 CFR 591.244 - How does OPM select COLA Advisory Committee members? (United States)


    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Program Administration § 591.244 How does OPM select COLA Advisory Committee members? (a)...

  4. Above-threshold structure in {sup 244}Cm neutron-induced fission cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)


    The quasi-resonance structure appearing above the fission threshold in neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 244}Cm(n,f) is interpreted. It is shown to be due to excitation of few-quasiparticle states in fissioning {sup 245}Cm and residual {sup 244}Cm nuclides. The estimate of quasiparticle excitation thresholds in fissioning nuclide {sup 245}Cm is consistent with pairing gap and fission barrier parameters. (author)

  5. Functional role of human NK cell receptor 2B4 (CD244) isoforms. (United States)

    Mathew, Stephen O; Rao, Krithi K; Kim, Jong R; Bambard, Nowland D; Mathew, Porunelloor A


    2B4 (CD244), a member of the signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM/CD150), is expressed on all NK cells, a subpopulation of T cells, monocytes and basophils. Human NK cells express two isoforms of 2B4, h2B4-A and h2B4-B that differ in a small portion of the extracellular domain. In the present investigation, we have studied the functions of h2B4-A and h2B4-B. Our study demonstrated that these two isoforms differ in their binding affinity for CD48, which results in differential cytotoxic activity as well as intracellular calcium release by NK cells upon target cell recognition. Analysis of the predicted 3-D structure of the two isoforms showed conformational differences that could account for their differences in binding affinity to CD48. h2B4-A was able to mediate natural cytotoxicity against CD48-expressing K562 target cells and induce intracellular calcium release, whereas h2B4-B showed no effects. NK-92MI, U937, THP-1, KU812, primary monocytes, basophils and NK cells showed expression of both h2B4-A and h2B4-B whereas YT and IL-2-activated NK cells did not show any h2B4-B expression. Stimulation of NK cells through 2B4 resulted in decreased mRNA levels of both h2B4-A and h2B4-B indicating that down-regulation of 2B4 isoforms may be an important factor in controlling NK cell activation during immune responses.

  6. Anthropogenic plutonium-244 in the environment: Insights into plutonium’s longest-lived isotope (United States)

    Armstrong, Christopher R.; Brant, Heather A.; Nuessle, Patterson R.; Hall, Gregory; Cadieux, James R.


    Owing to the rich history of heavy element production in the unique high flux reactors that operated at the Savannah River Site, USA (SRS) decades ago, trace quantities of plutonium with highly unique isotopic characteristics still persist today in the SRS terrestrial environment. Development of an effective sampling, processing, and analysis strategy enables detailed monitoring of the SRS environment, revealing plutonium isotopic compositions, e.g., 244Pu, that reflect the unique legacy of plutonium production at SRS. This work describes the first long-term investigation of anthropogenic 244Pu occurrence in the environment. Environmental samples, consisting of collected foot borne debris, were taken at SRS over an eleven year period, from 2003 to 2014. Separation and purification of trace plutonium was carried out followed by three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS) measurements for plutonium isotopic content and isotopic ratios. Significant 244Pu was measured in all of the years sampled with the highest amount observed in 2003. The 244Pu content, in femtograms (fg = 10−15 g) per gram, ranged from 0.31 fg/g to 44 fg/g in years 2006 and 2003 respectively. In all years, the 244Pu/239Pu atom ratios were significantly higher than global fallout, ranging from 0.003 to 0.698 in years 2014 and 2003 respectively. PMID:26898531

  7. 胶态二氧化硅SYLOID244FP固化肉桂挥发油的研究%Study on solidifying volatile oil of cinnamon with colloidal silicon dioxide SYLOID244FP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋艳荣; 张振海; 胡绍英; 贾晓斌


    目的:评价胶态二氧化硅SYLOID244FP固化肉桂挥发油的特性.方法:采用SYLOID244FP固化肉桂挥发油,以桂皮醛收率为指标,优选SYLOID244FP用量;采用差示扫描量热法和扫描电镜法对固化粉末进行物相表征;考察SY-LOID244FP对肉桂挥发油中桂皮醛体外溶出和受热稳定性的影响.结果:SYLOID244FP与肉桂挥发油最佳固化比例1∶1,肉桂挥发油被固化之后,体外溶出速率加快,受热稳定性提高.结论:SYLOID244FP吸附固化中药挥发油值得进一步研究.%Objective:To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil of cinnamon with colloidal silicon dioxide SYLOID244FP.Method:Volatile oil of cinnamon was solidified by SYLOID244FP.The amount of SYLOID244FP was optimized with the cinnamaldehyde yield as criteria.Curing powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).The effects of SYLOID244FP on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of cinnamaldehyde were studied.Result:The optimum solidification ratio of SYLOID244FP to volatile oil of cinnamon was 1 ∶ 1.Dissolution rate of cinnamaldehyde increasesd and its thermal stability improved after volatile oil of cinnamon was solidified.Conclusion:Solidifying herbal volatile oil with SY-LOID244FP deserves studying further.

  8. HAYNES 244 alloy – a new 760 ∘C capable low thermal expansion alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrmann Michael G.


    Full Text Available HAYNES® 244TM alloy is a new 760∘C capable, high strength low thermal expansion (CTE alloy. Its nominal chemical composition in weight percent is Ni – 8 Cr – 22.5 Mo – 6 W. Recently, a first mill-scale heat of 244 alloy was melted by Haynes International, and processed to various product forms such as re-forge billet, plate, and sheet. This paper presents key attributes of this new alloy (CTE, strength, low-cycle fatigue performance, oxidation resistance, thermal stability as they pertain to the intended use in rings and seals of advanced gas turbines.

  9. On Pu-244 in lunar rocks from Fra Mauro and implications regarding their origin. (United States)

    Marti, K.; Lightner, B. D.; Lugmair, G. W.


    The evidence for in situ produced fission xenon from Pu-244 in rock 14321 is presented. The inferred abundance ratio Pu-244/U-238 is found to be consistent with values observed in a meteorite. Data from a stepwise release of the xenon permits a characterization of the trapped component, which can be shown to be distinct from solar xenon. We discuss the evidence for the presence of fission gases and of uncorrelated radiogenic argon in this and in other Apollo 14 rocks and some implications regarding their origin.

  10. The measurement of prompt neutron spectrum in spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batenkov, O.I.; Boykov, G.S.; Drapchinsky, L.V.; Majorov, M.Ju.; Trenkin, V.A. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Under the Program of Measurements of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Minor Actinides for Transmutation Purposes the integral neutron spectrum in spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm has been measured by the time-of-flight method in the energy range of 0.1-15 MeV relative to the standard neutron spectrum in {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission. Essential attention was paid to revealing of possible systematic errors. It is shown, that the {sup 244}Cm spectrum shape may be well described by using Mannhart evaluation with appropriate parameter of Maxwell temperature T{sub M} = 1.37 MeV. (author)

  11. 27 CFR 28.244a - Shipment to a customs bonded warehouse. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipment to a customs... Export Consignment § 28.244a Shipment to a customs bonded warehouse. Distilled spirits and wine withdrawn for shipment to a customs bonded warehouse shall be consigned in care of the customs officer in...

  12. 49 CFR 173.244 - Bulk packaging for certain pyrophoric liquids (Division 4.2), dangerous when wet (Division 4.3... (United States)


    ... (Division 4.2), dangerous when wet (Division 4.3) materials, and poisonous liquids with inhalation hazards (Division 6.1). 173.244 Section 173.244 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.244 Bulk packaging for certain pyrophoric liquids (Division...

  13. A 190 by 244 charge-coupled area image sensor with interline transfer organization (United States)

    Walsh, L. R.


    A 190 x 244 element charge coupled area image sensor has been designed, fabricated and tested. This sensor employs an interline transfer organization and buried n-channel technology. It features a novel on-chip charge integrator and a distributed floating gate amplifier for high and low light level applications. The X-Y element count has been chosen to establish the capability of producing an NTSC compatible video signal. The array size is also compatible with the Super 8 lens format. The first few sample devices have been successfully operated at full video bandwidth for both high and low light levels with the charge amplifier system.

  14. Type B investigation report of curium-244 exposure at the ORNL TRU Facility, January 15, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, G.L.; Butler, H.M.; Duncan, D.T.; Oakes, T.W.


    This Type B Investigative Report provides an evaluation of relevant events and activities that led to, were a part of, or resulted from the release of curium-244 in the Building 7920 facility at ORNL in January 1986. Impacts have been evaluated with respect to employee exposures and the costs and loss of productivity resulting from increased bioassay analyses and activities of investigative committees. Management systems evaluated include (1) training of employees performing lab analyses, (2) adherence to procedures, and (3) response to unusual circumstances.

  15. Population and decay of a Kπ=8- two-quasineutron isomer in 244Pu (United States)

    Hota, S. S.; Tandel, S. K.; Chowdhury, P.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Greene, J. P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jackson, E. G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kay, B. P.; Khoo, T. L.; Kondev, F. G.; Lakshmi, S.; Lalkovski, S.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Moran, K.; Peterson, D.; Shirwadkar, U.; Seweryniak, D.; Stefanescu, I.; Toh, Y.; Zhu, S.


    The decay of a Kπ=8- isomer in 244Pu and the collective band structures populating the isomer were studied using deep inelastic excitations with 47Ti and 208Pb beams, respectively. Precise measurements of M 1 /E 2 branching ratios in the band confirm a 9 /2-[734] ν⊗7 /2+[624] ν configuration assignment for the isomer, validating the systematics of Kπ=8- , two-quasineutron isomers observed in even-Z , N =150 isotones. These isomers around the deformed shell gap at N =152 provide critical benchmarks for theoretical predictions of single-particle energies in this gateway region to superheavy nuclei.

  16. New limit of $^{244}$Pu on Earth points to rarity of actinide nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Wallner, A; Feige, J; Feldstein, C; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Kutschera, W; Ofan, A; Paul, M; Quinto, F; Rugel, G; Steier, P


    Half of the heavy elements including all actinides are produced in r-process nucleosynthesis whose sites and history still remain a mystery. If continuously produced, the Interstellar Medium (ISM) is expected to build up a quasi-steady state of abundances of short-lived nuclides (with half-lives <100My), including actinides produced in r-process nucleosynthesis. Their existence in today's ISM would serve as a radioactive clock and would establish that their production was recent. In particular $^{244}$Pu, a radioactive actinide nuclide (81 My half-life), can place strong constraints on recent r-process frequency and production yield. Here we report on the detection of live interstellar $^{244}$Pu, archived in Earth's deep-sea floor during the last 25 My, at abundances lower by about two orders of magnitude than expected from continuous production in the Galaxy. This large discrepancy may signal a rarity of actinide r-process nucleosynthesis sites, compatible with neutron-star mergers or with a small subset...

  17. Stability of 244-260Fm isotopes against alpha and cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Santhosh; R K Biju; Sabina Sahadevan


    Taking Coulomb and proximity potentials as the interacting barrier we have studied the cold valley in the radioactive decay of 244-260Fm isotopes. It is found that in addition to alpha particle minima, other minima occur at S, Ar and Ca clusters. We have computed the half-lives and other characteristics of different clusters emitted from these parents treating parent, daughter and emitted cluster as spheres. Our study reveals that most of these parents are unstable against alpha and heavy cluster (46Ar, 48,50Ca) emissions and stable against light cluster emission, except 8Be from 244-248Fm isotopes. The most probable clusters from these parents are predicted to be 46Ar, 48,50Ca which indicate the role of doubly or near doubly magic clusters ( = 20, = 28) and also stress the role of doubly magic 208Pb daughter. The computed half-lives for alpha decay are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is found that the presence of neutron excess in the parent nuclei slows down the cluster decay process. The effect of quadrupole (2) and hexadecapole (4) deformations of parent and fragments on half-lives are also studied. It is found that inclusion of 2 and 4 reduces the height and shape of the barrier (increases barrier penetrability) and hence the half-life decreases.

  18. Isotopic yield in cold binary fission of even-even $^{244-258}$Cf isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P; Krishnan, Sreejith


    The cold binary fission of even-even 244-258Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold valley plot (plot of driving potential vs. mass number of fragments) and by calculating the yield for charge minimized fragments. It is found that highest yield for 244,246,248Cf isotopes are for the fragments with isotope of Pb (Z=82) as one fragment, whereas for 250Cf and 252Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with isotope of Hg (Z=80) as one fragment. In the case of 254,256,258Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with Sn (Z=50) as one fragment. Thus, the fragment combinations with maximum yield reveal the role of doubly magic and near doubly magic nuclei in binary fission. It is found that asymmetric splitting is favoured for Cf isotopes with mass number A 252. In the case of Cf isotope with A=252, there is an equal probability for asymmetric and symmetric splitti...

  19. Preparation of powdered polychloroprene rubber-244 and comparison with lump polychloroprene rubber%粉末氯丁橡胶-244的制备及与块状氯丁橡胶的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏绪玲; 龚光碧; 高阳光; 郑聚成; 赵志超; 梁滔; 白竞冰; 艾纯金


    以氯丁胶乳为原料,采用直接凝聚法制备粉末氯丁橡胶(PCR-244),研究了体系pH值、凝聚剂和隔离剂用量、凝聚温度、搅拌转速对PCR-244凝聚效果的影响,并与块状氯丁橡胶进行了对比.结果表明,在体系pH值为11~13、凝聚剂和隔离剂用量分别为20份和10~15份以及凝聚温度为20~25℃、搅拌转速为80~100 r/min的条件下,能得到平均粒径小于0.80 mm、成粉率达100%的PCR.相同条件下,PCR比块状氯丁橡胶的溶解速率大大提高,但二者溶解后的溶液黏度和剥离强度相近.PCR-244仅仅改变了氯丁橡胶的形态,其内部主要结构与块状氯丁橡胶相似.%The powdered polychloroprene rubber (PCR-244) was prepared by direct coacervation with neoprene latex as material. The effects of pH value, the amount of coagulant and antiadhesion agent, the coacervation temperature, stirring speed on the powdering were investigated, and the comparison was carried out with lump polychloroprene rubber (CR-244). The results showed that PCR of the diameter less than 0.80 mm and powder ratio of 100% could be obtained when pH value was 11 - 13 in the system, the amounts of coagulant and antiadhesion agent were 20 phr and 10 - 15 phr respectively, coacervation temperature was 20 - 25 ℃, stirring speed was 80 - 100 r/min. Under the same conditions, the dissolution rate of PCR-244 increased greatly, while solution viscosity and peeling strength were similar compared with lump CR-244.So the preparation processs of PCR-244 only changed the geometric form of the latter, but not changed its main internal structure.

  20. Filaments and Ionized Gas in the Vicinity of 3C 244.1

    CERN Document Server

    Feinstein, C; Martel, A R; Sparks, W B; Feinstein, Carlos; Martel, Andre R.; Sparks, William B.


    We present results of Hubble Space Telescope observations of the radio galaxy 3C 244.1. The broadband F702W (R) and F555W (V) images (WFPC2/PC) show an elliptical galaxy and gaseous filaments and blobs surrounding it. In the narrow-band ramp filter, dominated by [OIII]lambda5007, these filaments are bright and have the same morphology as the broad band images. To the south, the filaments have a cone-shaped structure and the radio jet is located at the center of this cone. To the north of the galaxy, the structure is found near the nucleus of the galaxy within its elliptical profile. From the photometry, the two brighter structures seem to be extended narrow line emission regions (ENLRs). The comparison with diagnostic line ratios shows that the observed emission is consistent with interactions between the expanding radio-jet and the local denser medium.

  1. GD 244: asteroseismology of a pulsator in the middle of the ZZ Ceti instability strip

    CERN Document Server

    Bognár, Zs


    We present our preliminary results on the asteroseismological investigations of the ZZ Ceti star GD 244. We used literature values of the effective temperature and surface gravity and utilized the White Dwarf Evolution Code of Bischoff-Kim, Montgomery and Winget (2008, ApJ, 675, 1512) to build our model grid for the seismological analysis. Five observed pulsational modes published up to now were used to find acceptable model solutions. We found that the best model fits have masses between 0.61 and 0.74 M_solar and constitute two groups with hydrogen layer masses of either ~10^{-5} or 10^{-6} M_solar. Based on a statistical analysis of a larger sample of possible model solutions, we assume that the mass of the star is below ~0.68 M_solar and the oxygen content in the centre is less than 60 percent.

  2. Direct nuclear magnetic resonance observation of odorant binding to mouse odorant receptor MOR244-3. (United States)

    Burger, Jessica L; Jeerage, Kavita M; Bruno, Thomas J


    Mammals are able to perceive and differentiate a great number of structurally diverse odorants through the odorant's interaction with odorant receptors (ORs), proteins found within the cell membrane of olfactory sensory neurons. The natural gas industry has used human olfactory sensitivity to sulfur compounds (thiols, sulfides, etc.) to increase the safety of fuel gas transport, storage, and use through the odorization of this product. In the United States, mixtures of sulfur compounds are used, but the major constituent of odorant packages is 2-methylpropane-2-thiol, also known as tert-butyl mercaptan. It has been fundamentally challenging to understand olfaction and odorization due to the low affinity of odorous ligands to the ORs and the difficulty in expressing a sufficient number of OR proteins. Here, we directly observed the binding of tert-butyl mercaptan and another odiferous compound, cis-cyclooctene, to mouse OR MOR244-3 on living cells by saturation transfer difference (STD) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This effort lays the groundwork for resolving molecular mechanisms responsible for ligand binding and resulting signaling, which in turn will lead to a clearer understanding of odorant recognition and competition.

  3. 77 FR 27082 - StarTek USA, Inc., 244 Dundee Avenue, Greeley, CO; StarTek USA, Inc., 1250 H Street, Greeley, CO... (United States)


    ... Employment and Training Administration StarTek USA, Inc., 244 Dundee Avenue, Greeley, CO; StarTek USA, Inc... December 28, 2010, applicable to workers and former workers of StarTek USA, Inc., Greeley, Colorado. The...Tek USA, Inc. facilities in Greeley, Colorado (the ``west'' center at 244 Dundee Avenue and...

  4. Identification and characterization of SMU.244 encoding a putative undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase protein required for cell wall biosynthesis and bacitracin resistance in Streptococcus mutans. (United States)

    Jalal, Naif; Tian, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Gaofeng; Upham, Jacqueline; Chen, Chao; Parcells, Madison; Li, Yung-Hua


    Streptococcus mutans in dental biofilms often faces life-threatening threats such as killing by antimicrobial molecules from competing species or from the host. The ability of S. mutans to cope with such threats is crucial for its survival and persistence in dental biofilms. By screening a transposon mutant library, we identified 11 transposon insertion mutants that were sensitive to bacitracin. Two of these mutants, XTn-01 and XTn-03, had an independent insertion in the same locus, SMU.244, which encoded a homologue of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase (UppP). In this study, we describe the genetic and phenotypic characterization of SMU.244 in antibiotic resistance. The results revealed that deletion of SMU.244 results in a mutant (XTΔ244) that is highly sensitive to bacitracin, but confers more resistance to lactococcin G, a class IIb bacteriocin. Introduction of the intact SMU.244 into XTΔ244 in trans completely restores its resistance to bacitracin and the susceptibility to lactococcin G. The XTΔ244 was also defective in forming the WT biofilm, although its growth was not significantly affected. Using recombinant protein technology, we demonstrated that the SMU.244-encoded protein displays enzyme activity to catalyse dephosphorylation of the substrate. The lux transcriptional reporter assays showed that S. mutans maintains a moderate level of expression of SMU.244 in the absence of bacitracin, but bacitracin at sub-MICs can further induce its expression. We concluded that SMU.244 encodes an UppP protein that plays important roles in cell wall biosynthesis and bacitracin resistance in S. mutans. The results described here may further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which S. mutans copes with antibiotics such as bacitracin.

  5. The layered compound poly[mu2-4,4'-bipyridyl-di-mu2-chlorido-mercury(II)]. (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Ming; Wu, Ji-Huai


    The title compound, [HgCl2(C(10)H(8)N(2))]n, features two-dimensional [HgCl2(4,4'-bipy)]n neutral networks (4,4'-bipy is 4,4'-bipyridine), based on an octahedral Hg atom coordinated by four mu2-Cl atoms and two mu2-4,4'-bipy ligands in trans positions, yielding a HgCl(4)N(2) octahedron. The structure has mmm symmetry about the Hg atoms, with most of the atoms on at least one mirror plane, but the unsubstituted C atoms of the 4,4'-bipy rings are disordered across a mirror plane. Photoluminescent investigations reveal that the title compound displays a strong emission in the green region, which probably originates from a ligand-to-ligand charge-transfer transition.

  6. Al-26, Pu-244, Ti-50, REE, and trace element abundances in hibonite grains from CM and CV meteorites (United States)

    Fahey, A. J.; Mckeegan, K. D.; Zinner, E.; Goswami, J. N.


    Hibonites from the CM meteorites Murchison, Murray, and Cold Bokkeveld, and hibonites and Ti-rich pyroxene from the CV chondrite Allende are studied. Electron microprobe measurements of major element concentrations and track and ion probe measurements of Mg and Ti isotopic ratios, rare earth elements (REEs), and trace element abundances are analyzed. Correlations between isotopic anomalies in Ti, Al-26, Pu-244, and Mg-26(asterisk) are examined. Ti isotopic anomalies are compared with REE and trace element abundance patterns. Reasons for the lack of Al-26 in the hibonites are investigated and discussed. It is observed that there is no correlation between the Ti isotopic compositions, and the presence of Mg-26(asterisk), Pu-244, and REE and trace element patterns in individual hibonite samples. The data reveal that hibonites are not interstellar dust grains but formed on a short time scale and in localized regions of the early solar system.

  7. The statistical model calculation of prompt neutron spectra from spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimenko, B.F. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Peterburg (Russian Federation)


    The calculations of integral spectra of prompt neutrons of spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm were carried out. The calculations were done by the Statistical Computer Code Complex SCOFIN applying the Hauser-Feschbach method as applied to the description of the de-excitation of excited fission fragments by means of neutron emission. The emission of dipole gamma-quanta from these fragments was considered as a competing process. The average excitation energy of a fragment was calculated by two-spheroidal model of tangent fragments. The density of levels in an excited fragment was calculated by the Fermi-gas model. The quite satisfactory agreement was reached between theoretical and experimental results obtained in frames of Project measurements. The calculated values of average multiplicities of neutron number were 2,746 for {sup 244}Cm and 2,927 for {sup 246}Cm that was in a good accordance with published experimental figures. (author)

  8. Problem Assessment for a Formal Decision on the Future of the 244-S Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document describes the background, concerns, and issues associated with continued use of the 244-S DCRT. A problem statement is defined such that management may in the future make a decision about the preferred path forward on this DCRT. Influences and potential answers are outlined and presented such that costs, waste volume projections, projects (such as W-314), and other facilities (such as 222-S and PFP) are accurately represented.

  9. Surveillance snapshot of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals across Queensland detects binary toxin producing ribotype UK 244. (United States)

    Huber, Charlotte A; Hall, Lisa; Foster, Nikki F; Gray, Mareeka; Allen, Michelle; Richardson, Leisha J; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Schlebusch, Sanmarie; George, Narelle; Nimmo, Graeme R; Riley, Thomas V; Paterson, David L


    In North America and Europe, the binary toxin positive Clostridium difficile strains of the ribotypes 027 and 078 have been associated with death, toxic megacolon and other adverse outcomes. Following an increase in C. difficile infections (CDIs) in Queensland, a prevalence study involving 175 hospitals was undertaken in early 2012, identifying 168 cases of CDI over a 2 month period. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were recorded, and C. difficile isolates were ribotyped and tested for the presence of binary toxin genes. Most patients (106/168, 63.1%) were aged over 60 years. Overall, 98 (58.3%) developed symptoms after hospitalisation; 89 cases (53.0%) developed symptoms more than 48 hours after admission. Furthermore, 27 of the 62 (67.7%) patients who developed symptoms in the community ad been hospitalised within the last 3 months. Thirteen of the 168 (7.7%) cases identified had severe disease, resulting in admission to the Intensive Care Unit or death within 30 days of the onset of symptoms. The 3 most common ribotypes isolated were UK 002 (22.9%), UK 014 (13.3%) and the binary toxin-positive ribotype UK 244 (8.4%). The only other binary toxin positive ribotype isolated was UK 078 (n = 1). Of concern was the detection of the binary toxin positive ribotype UK 244, which has recently been described in other parts of Australia and New Zealand. No isolates were of the international epidemic clone of ribotype UK 027, although ribotype UK 244 is genetically related to this clone. Further studies are required to track the epidemiology of ribotype UK 244 in Australia and New Zealand.

  10. {\\alpha}-accompanied cold ternary fission of $^{238-244}$Pu isotopes in equatorial and collinear configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P; Priyanka, B


    The cold ternary fission of $^{238}$Pu, $^{240}$Pu, $^{242}$Pu and $^{244}$Pu isotopes, with $^{4}$He as light charged particle, in equatorial and collinear configuration has been studied within the Unified ternary fission model (UTFM). The fragment combination $^{100}$Zr+$^{4}$He+$^{134}$Te possessing the near doubly magic nuclei $^{134}$Te (N=82, Z=52) gives the highest yield in the alpha accompanied ternary fission of $^{238}$Pu. For the alpha accompanied ternary fission of $^{240}$Pu, $^{242}$Pu and $^{244}$Pu isotopes, the highest yield was found for the fragment combination with doubly magic nuclei $^{132}$Sn (N=82, Z=50) as the heavier fragment. The deformation and orientation of fragments have also been taken into account for the alpha accompanied ternary fission of $^{238-244}$Pu isotopes, and it has been found that in addition to closed shell effect, ground state deformation also plays an important role in determining the isotopic yield in the ternary fission process. The emission probability and ki...

  11. The emission probabilities of long range alpha particles from even-even 244-252Cm isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P; Priyanka, B


    The alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even 244Cm, 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes have been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential with the fragments in equatorial configuration. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold reaction valley plot and by calculating the relative yield for the charge minimized fragments. In the alpha accompanied ternary fission of 244Cm isotope, the highest yield is found for the fragment combination 110Ru+4He+130Sn, which possess near doubly magic nuclei 130Sn. For the ternary fission of 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes with 4He as light charged particle, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination with doubly magic nuclei 132Sn as the heavier fragment. The emission probabilities and kinetic energies of long range alpha particle have been computed for the 242,244,246,248Cm isotopes and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The relative yields for th...

  12. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  13. Preliminary Mark-18A (Mk-18A) Target Material Recovery Program Product Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bradley D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) manages an inventory of materials that contains a range of long-lived radioactive isotopes that were produced from the 1960s through the 1980s by irradiating targets in production nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One reactor was operated in a high-flux mode to produce heavy isotopes for defense purposes, DOE programmatic use, scientific research, and industrial and medical applications. In this reactor, eighty-six Mk-18A (Mk-18A) targets were subjected to long-term high neutron fluxes 47 years ago. Twentyone targets of these were processed to recover 244Pu, heavy curium (i.e., curium rich in 246-248Cm), and 252Cf. The plutonium fraction, which was rich in 244Pu, was electromagnetically enriched in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) calutrons to produce gram quantities of 244Pu. This high-purity 244Pu was portioned out to scientists for basic research and for nuclear nonproliferation safeguards programs. The recovered tails (designated as FP-33) contain 244Pu isotopic purities below 20% and are stored at ORNL. The processing of these 21 Mk-18A targets provided the supply of 244Pu and heavy curium in use today. The remaining 65 unprocessed targets are currently in a storage pool at SRS; they contain the world’s remaining supply of unseparated 244Pu and heavy curium.

  14. Poweo 2006 consolidated revenue at euro 244 million, up 121%; Poweo chiffre d'affaires 2006 de 244 millions euro, en hausse de 121%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the 4. quarter of 2006 and the full year: POWEO records again a strong rise of its annual revenue, exceeding its euro 220 million target. This progression relates to all the business components. The particularly soft climatic conditions recorded in France at the end of the year did not result in a significant fall of revenue compared to initial forecasts. The number of customer sites amounts to 80.300 at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. The customer base remained overall stable during the second half of 2006, POWEO limiting voluntarily the acquisition of customers in electricity during the preparation of the opening to competition of the residential market due to take place on July 1, 2007. The gas customer base for its part more than doubled compared to end June 2006, with more than 5.000 customer sites transferred as at December 31, 2006. The Energy Management net margin, realised or un-realised, amounted to euro 49.7 million in 2006, recognised as revenue under IFRS standards. This includes the euro 22 million exceptional capital gain mentioned in previous financial releases in 2006, as well as a euro 7.9 million un-realised capital gain resulting from the transfer of some contracts into the Energy Management portfolio further to the capacity swap agreement with EDF announced publicly on January 3, 2007. The services provided by POWEO to its customers enjoy a high level of acceptance and represented revenue of euro 2.9 million in 2006. As from 2007, the revenue realised through these services will be presented separately from other components of revenue in order to better reflect its expected growth. The services offering will be indeed a key element of the marketing strategy of POWEO in the years to come, with a potentially significant impact on the results taking into account their level of gross margin which

  15. Chemical evolution of 244Pu in the solar vicinity and its implications for the properties of r-process production (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Bekki, Kenji


    Meteoritic abundances of r-process elements are analyzed to deduce the history of chemical enrichment by the r-process, from the beginning of disk formation to the present time in the solar vicinity. Our analysis combines the abundance information from short-lived radioactive nuclei such as 244Pu with the abundance information from stable r-process nuclei such as Eu. These two types of nuclei can be associated with one r-process event and an accumulation of events until the formation of the solar system, respectively. With the help of the observed local star formation (SF) history, we deduce the chemical evolution of 244Pu and obtain three main results: (i) the last r-process event occurred 130–140 Myr before the formation of the solar system; (ii) the present-day low 244Pu abundance as measured in deep-sea reservoirs results from the low recent SF rate compared to ∼4.5‑5 Gyr ago; and (iii) there were ∼15 r-process events in the solar vicinity from the formation of the Galaxy to the time of solar system’s formation and ∼30 r-process events to the present time. Then, adopting the hypothesis that a neutron star (NS) merger is the r-process production site, we find that the ejected r-process elements are extensively spread out and mixed with interstellar matter, with a mass of ∼ 3.5× {10}6 M⊙, which is about 100 times larger than that for supernova ejecta. In addition, the event frequency of r-process production is estimated to be 1 per ~1400 core-collapse supernovae, which is identical to the frequency of NS mergers estimated from the analysis of stellar abundances.

  16. A multi-channel 24.4 ps bin size Time-to-Digital Converter for HEP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mester, C; Morira, P


    A multi-channel time-tagging Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) ASIC with a resolution of 24.4 ps (bin size) has been implemented and fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. An on-chip PLL is used to generate an internal timing reference from an external 40 MHz clock source. The circuit is based on a 32 element Delay Locked Loop (DLL) which performs the time interpolation. The 32 channel architecture of the TDC is suitable for both triggered and non-triggered applications. The prototype contains test structures such as a substrate noise generator. The paper describes the circuit architecture and its principles of operation.

  17. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Manuel Cerqueira Costa


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis. Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14% cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%, steatosis (3%, adrenal nodule (0.7% and cholelithiasis (0.3%. Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis.

  18. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danilo Manuel Cerqueira; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Monjardim, Rodrigo da Fonseca; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Torres, Lucas Rios; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; D' ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem


    Objective: to evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis). Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others). Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant) out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14%) cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%), steatosis (3%), adrenal nodule (0.7%) and cholelithiasis (0.3%). Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis. (author)

  19. Deformation effects in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even $^{244-260}$Cf isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P


    Within the Unified ternary fission model (UTFM), the alpha accompanied ternary fission of even-even $^{244-260}$Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. For the alpha accompanied ternary fission of 244^Cf isotope, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination 108^Ru+4^He+132^Te, which contain near doubly magic nuclei 132^Te (N=80, Z=52). In the case of 246^Cf and 248^Cf isotopes, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combinations with near doubly magic nuclei 134^Te (N=82, Z=52) as the heavier fragment. The highest yield obtained for 250^Cf, 252^Cf, 254^Cf, 256^Cf, 258^Cf and 260^Cf isotopes is for the fragment combination with doubly magic nuclei 132^Sn (N=82, Z=50) as the heavier fragment. We have included the effect of deformation and orientation of fragments and this has revealed that in addition to closed shell effect, ground state deformation also plays an important role in the calculation of relative yield of fav...

  20. The smart home system based on S3C244OA and ZigBee technology%基于S3C244OA和ZigBee技术的智能家居系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪玉凤; 冯泽中


    本文介绍一种基于ZigBee技术的网络化智能家居系统的设计和实现方案.系统硬件上以S3C244OA为控制核心,利用CC2430组建家庭内部网络来采集家庭设备的数字信号,用USB camera采集家庭内部的视频信号.软件上利用嵌入式Web服务器和CGI技术实现家庭内网和Internet相连,达到远程监控的目的.通过实际测试证明系统功能强大,运行稳定,满足了家庭信息网络化的要求.

  1. Tolerance Analysis and Control on L4 Length for 244.5 mm BC Casing%244.5mm管偏梯形螺纹接头L4长度公差分析及控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕拴录; 姬丙寅; 杨成新; 文志明; 张锋; 徐永康; 樊文刚


    某油田在检验一批244.5 mm偏梯形螺纹接头套管时发现,管端至螺纹消失点的长度L4比公称值小25.22 mm.虽然API SPEC 5B对套管偏梯形外螺纹接头L4没有规定公差,但依据APISPEC 5CT和油田规定的外径公差可以推算结果,L4的上偏差为39.11 mm(7.7扣),下偏差为一17.39 mm(3.42扣).分析结果表明:该批套管L4实际公差已经超过推算出的L4负公差,使套管接头密封性能降低22.0%,并降低了螺纹连接强度.%It was found that the total length end of pipe to vanish point L4 is less 25. 22 mm of casing connection than that of the normal dimension specified in API SPEC 5B for 244. 5mm buttress thread casing during inspection in one oil field. Though L4 tolerance is not specified in API SPEC 5B,but it is considered that L4 tolerance can be deduced per outside diameter tolerance in accordance with API SPEC 5CT and the oil field specification, the calculation result is that the upper deviation and lower deviation of L, is +39.11mm (7. 7 thread) and ?7. 39mm (3. 42 thread) .respectively. The actual L, is shorter than the lower deviation that will decrease 22% of seal performance of casing connection,and reduce the tension strength of casing connection.

  2. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  3. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio


    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  4. Deformation effects in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even {sup 244-260}Cf isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P.; Krishnan, Sreejith [Kannur University, School of Pure and Applied Physics, Payyanur, Kerala (India)


    Within the unified ternary fission model (UTFM), the alpha accompanied ternary fission of even-even {sup 244-260}Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. For the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the {sup 244}Cf isotope, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination {sup 108}Ru + {sup 4}He + {sup 132}Te, which contains the near doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Te (N = 80, Z = 52). In the case of {sup 246}Cf and {sup 248}Cf isotopes, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combinations with the near doubly magic nucleus {sup 134}Te (N = 82, Z = 52) as the heaviest fragment. The highest yield obtained for {sup 250}Cf, {sup 252}Cf, {sup 254}Cf, {sup 256}Cf, {sup 258}Cf and {sup 260}Cf isotopes is for the fragment combination with the doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn (N = 82), Z = 50 as the heaviest fragment. We have included the effect of deformation and orientation of fragments and this has revealed that in addition to the closed shell effect, ground-state deformation also plays an important role in the calculation of the relative yield of favorable fragment combinations. The computed isotopic yields for the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the {sup 252}Cf isotope are found to be in agreement with the experimental data. The emission probability and kinetic energy of the long-range alpha particle is calculated for the various isotopes of Cf and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  5. 8 CFR 240.21 - Suspension of deportation and adjustment of status under section 244(a) of the Act (as in effect... (United States)


    ...)(i) of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), as amended by... Section 240.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS... 244(a)(3) of the Act (as in effect prior to April 1, 1997). The Immigration Court and the Board...

  6. Determination Result analysis of Lead in Urine of 244 Workers in a storage battery factory%某蓄电池厂244例尿铅测定结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少旦; 彭卫芳



  7. Evolving role of 2B4/CD244 in T and NK cell responses during virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Noel Waggoner


    Full Text Available The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM family receptor, 2B4/CD244, was first implicated in anti-viral immunity by the discovery that mutations of the SLAM-associated protein, SAP/SH2D1A, impaired 2B4-dependent stimulation of T and natural killer (NK cell anti-viral functions in X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP syndrome patients with uncontrolled Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infections. Engagement of 2B4 has been variably shown to either activate or inhibit lymphocytes which express this receptor. While SAP expression is required for stimulatory functions of 2B4 on lymphocytes, it remains unclear whether inhibitory signals derived from 2B4 can predominate even in the presence of SAP. Regardless, mounting evidence suggests that 2B4 expression by NK and CD8 T cells is altered by virus infection in mice as well as in humans, and 2B4-mediated signaling may be an important determinant of effective immune control of chronic virus infections. In this review, recent findings regarding the expression and function of 2B4 as well as SAP on T and NK cells during virus infection is discussed, with a focus on the role of 2B4-CD48 interactions in crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity.

  8. In vivo characterization of radioiodinated (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl) piperidino] cyclohexanol as a potential {sigma}-1 receptor imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhter, Nasima [Department of Biotracer Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Shiba, Kazuhiro [Division of Tracer Kinetics, Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan)], E-mail:; Ogawa, Kazuma [Division of Tracer Kinetics, Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Kinuya, Seigo; Nakajima, Kenichi [Department of Biotracer Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Mori, Hirofumi [Division of Tracer Kinetics, Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan)


    In this study, the (+)-enantiomer of radioiodinated 2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-[{sup 125}I]-p-iodovesamicol] [(+)-[{sup 125}I]pIV], which is reported to bind with high affinity to {sigma}-1 receptors in vitro, was tested for its usefulness in imaging {sigma}-1 receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) in vivo. In biodistribution studies, significant amounts (approximately 3% of the injected dose) of (+)-[{sup 125}I]pIV accumulated in rat brain, and its retention was prolonged. In blocking studies, the accumulation of (+)-[{sup 125}I]pIV in the rat brain was significantly reduced by the coadministration of {sigma}-ligands such as pentazocine (5.0 {mu}mol), haloperidol (0.5 {mu}mol) or SA4503 (0.5 {mu}mol). The blocking effect of pentazocine (selective {sigma}-1 ligand) was similar to the blocking effects of SA4503 and haloperidol [nonselective {sigma} ({sigma}-1 and {sigma}-2) ligands]. Ex vivo autoradiography of the rat brain at 45 min following intravenous injection of (+)-[{sup 125}I]pIV showed high localization in brain areas rich in {sigma}-1 receptors. Thus, the distribution of (+)-[{sup 125}I]pIV was thought to bind to {sigma}-1 receptors in the CNS in vivo. These results indicate that radioiodinated (+)-pIV may have the potential to image {sigma}-1 receptors in vivo.

  9. Synergistic extraction of rare earths with bis(2,4,4-trimethyl pentyl) dithiophosphinic acid and trialkyl phosphine oxide. (United States)

    Reddy, M L; Bosco Bharathi, J R; Peter, S; Ramamohan, T R


    Synergistic extraction of trivalent rare earths from nitrate solutions using mixtures of bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanex 301=HX) and trialkyl phosphine oxide (Cyanex 923=TRPO) in xylene has been investigated. The results demonstrate that these trivalent metal ions are extracted into xylene as MX(3).3HX with Cyanex 301 alone. In the presence of Cyanex 923, La(III) and Nd(III) are found to be extracted as MX(2).NO(3).TRPO. On the other hand, Eu(III), Y(III) and heavier rare earths are found to be extracted as MX(3).HX.2TRPO. The addition of a trialkylphosphine oxide to the metal extraction system not only enhances the extraction efficiency of these metal ions but also improves the selectivities significantly, especially between yttrium and heavier lanthanides. The separation factors between these metal ions were calculated and compared with that of commercially important extraction systems like di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid.

  10. Resíduos de glifosato e ácido aminometilfosfônico e teores de isoflavonas em soja BRS 244 RR e BRS 154 Residues of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid and levels of isoflavones in BRS 244 RR and BRS 154 soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Mariza Bärwald Bohm


    Full Text Available A principal forma de controle das plantas daninhas durante o cultivo de soja geneticamente modificada (GM RR BRS 244 RR é o uso de glifosato. Porém, existem dúvidas quanto à segurança desse herbicida, à qualidade dos grãos e do solo da soja GM RR cultivada em Planossolo. Resíduos da molécula do glifosato e do metabólito ácido aminometilfosfônico (AMPA podem estar presentes nos grãos, bem como, podem afetar a concentração de isoflavonas. Por isso, avaliaram-se as sojas BRS 244 RR e BRS 154 cultivadas nos seguintes tratamentos: T1 - soja BRS 244 RR, sem aplicação de herbicida, com capina manual aos 28 dias após o plantio (dap; T2 - soja BRS 154 sem aplicação de herbicida, com capina manual também aos 28 dap; T3 - soja BRS 244 RR com uma aplicação de glifosato a 960 g ia ha-1 aos 28 dap; T4 - soja BRS 244 RR com duas aplicações de glifosato a 960 g ia ha-1 aos 28 e 56 dap; T5 - soja BRS 244 RR com uma aplicação de herbicida imazetapir a 100 g ia ha-1 aos 28 dap; T6 - soja BRS 154 com uma aplicação de herbicida imazetapir a 100 g ia ha-1 aos 28 dap. Verificou-se que a aplicação de glifosato no controle de plantas daninhas resultou em teores elevados de glifosato e ácido aminometilfosfônico no solo. Nos grãos, o teor de isoflavonas não parece ser significativamente afetado pela aplicação de glifosato, mas os resíduos desse herbicida foram superiores ao permitido pela legislação vigente, que é de 10 use of Glyphosate is the best way to control weed growing when cultivating genetically modified soybean (GMRR BRS 244 RR. However, there have been doubts about the safety of this herbicide use concerning its effects on the quality of grains and on the soil of Albaqualf cultivated GMRR soybean. Glyphosate and the metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA residues can be present in the grains and affect the isoflavones concentration. Therefore, BRS 244 RR and BRS 154 soybeans with the following

  11. 2-[4-(4-Methoxyphenylcarbonyloxy)benzylidene]-6-dimethylaminomethyl cyclohexanone hydrochloride: a Mannich base which inhibits the growth of some drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (United States)

    Das, S; Das, U; Bandy, B; Gorecki, D K J; Dimmock, J R


    2-[4-(4-Methoxyphenylcarbonyloxy)benzylidene]-6-dime-thylaminomethyl cyclohexanone hydrochloride 1 has a MIC value of 0.78 microg/mL towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and displays similar or identical MIC figures towards various drug-resistant strains of this microorganism. The enone 1 along with a partial structure 2-dimethylaminomethylcyclohexanone hydrochloride 3 affected respiration in isolated rat liver mitochondria differently which may contribute to the variation in toxicity to both normal cells and M. tuberculosis.

  12. The effect of occupational stress on depression symptoms among 244 policemen in a city%某市244名警察职业紧张对抑郁症状发生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷桂珍; 余善法; 吴辉; 周文慧


    Objective To explore the influence of occupational stress related factors on depression symptoms among 244 policemen in a city in China. Methods In May 2011, 287 policemen from a city public security bureau were recruited to this survey by cluster sampling method. We deleted questionnaires which include missing variables on demographic characteristics and factors associated with occupational stress questionnaires which include over 3 missing items. 244 policemen were included in this study. Depression symptoms and occupational stressors were measured using Chinese version of depression self-reported questionnaire, job content questionnaire,Chinese version of effort-reward imbalances questionnaire,job hazard scale and occupational stress inventory. Depression symptom scores and the relationship between the variables and occupational stress were analyzed by Spearman correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results The Median (P25-P75) of depression symptom scores of all respondents was 16.50 (11.00-25.00). 144 were policemen with no depression symptoms and 100 were with depression symptoms. The median (P25-P75) of depression symptoms scores among policemen with length of serves<10, 10-19, 20-29 and≥30 was 17.00 (8.00-26.00), 16.00 (11.00-24.50), 19.00 (12.00-27.00), and 12.00 (6.25-15.00), respectively. The difference of scores was significant among length of serves groups (χ2=9.52,P=0.023). The scores of psychological demands, sleep disorder , daily life stress and negative affectivity among policemen with depression symptoms were 17.00 (8.00-26.00), 16.00 (11.00-24.50), 19.00 (12.00-27.00), and 12.00 (6.25-15.00), respectively, which were higher than those with no depression symptoms (24.00 (22.00-25.00),8.00 (5.00-13.00),8.00 (6.00-10.00),1.00 (0-2.75)), and the differences were significant (Z=3.82, 5.39, 5.15, 6.41,P<0.001). Spearman correlation analysis revealed that depression symptoms score was positively related to sleep disorder, commitment

  13. Drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol 3 mg/20 µg (24/4 day regimen: hormonal contraceptive choices – use of a fourth-generation progestin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Bachmann


    Full Text Available Gloria Bachmann, Sharon KopaczWomen’s Health Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, USAAbstract: The combined oral contraceptive pill (COC consisting of drospirenone 3 mg/ethinyl estradiol 20 µg (3 mg DRSP/20 µg EE-24/4 supplies 24 days of pills with hormones followed by 4 days of hormone-free pills. This regimen is called the 24/4 regimen. The progesterone component of this oral contraceptive pill (OCP, drospirenone (DRSP, is a fourth-generation progestin that has potent progestogenic, antimineralocorticoid, and antiandrogenic activity, which are unique characteristics compared with the other progestogens contained in most of the other OCPs currently marketed. This formulation, in addition to being an effective long-term OCP, has the additional medical benefit of providing a good parallel treatment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder and moderate acne. The effectiveness of 3 mg DRSP/20 µg EE-24/4, its tolerability and safety, and its additional non-contraceptive benefits are discussed.Keywords: drospirenone, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, acne vulgaris, contraception, antimineralocorticoid activity, antiandrogenic activity

  14. Target Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  15. Awareness of occupational low back pain: a survey of 244 midwives%助产士对职业性下背痛认知的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶朝; 郭路; 张清梅; 耿志洁; 尚晓娣; 李星


    目的 了解助产士对职业性下背痛的认知、预防和保健的知识,调查该人群职业性下背痛的发生率.方法 应用调查问卷和中文版Roland-Morris功能障碍调查表(CRMDQ),对某市二、三级医院随机抽取的244名助产士进行问卷调查,并对相关指标进行统计分析.结果 参与调查的244名助产士中,了解职业性下背痛的概念、发生机制及危害的仅分别占18.4%、28.3%和54.1%,掌握一种职业性下背痛预防和保健方法的占9.4%~85.2%;能否正确应用人体力学与是否出现职业性下背痛情况密切相关(P<0.01),244名助产士对应用人体力学原理操作的需求率较高,最高达99.2%; CRMDQ腰痛量表的24个项目均有得分,最低为1分,最高为24分,总得分平均值为(8.5±7.2)分.结论 本次调查的244名助产士对职业性下背痛的认知度较低,而职业性下背痛在助产士中有较高的发生率,并对助产士的身体健康及正常执业构成了不同程度的影响.%Objective To investigate the awareness of occupational low back pain and knowledge of related prevention and healthcare measures among midwives,and to determine the incidence of low back pain among them.Methods A questionnaire survey was carried out with the use of Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (Chinese version) (CRMDQ) among 244 midwives from second-and third-class hospitals in Tianjin,China.Related indices were statistically analyzed.Results Among 244 midwives who participated in the survey,only 18.4% knew the definition of occupational low back pain,28.3% knew the pathogenic mechanism,and 54.1% knew its harm.About 9.4%~85.2% of midwives mastered at least one method for prevention and health care against occupational low back pain.Proper or improper use of human body mechanics was closely related to the development of occupational low back pain (P<0.01).There was a high proportion of midwives with a demand for application of human

  16. Biological, chemical and other data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN244 in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska from 2009-12-05 to 2009-12-08 (NODC Accession 0117395) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0117395 includes biological, chemical, optical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN244 in the Coastal Waters of...

  17. Magnetic thermal hysteresis due to paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition in Fe-24.4Mn-5.9Si-5.1Cr alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang


    Full Text Available Magnetic thermal hysteresis (MTH associated with a paramagnetic (PM-antiferromagnetic (AFM phase transition was found in an Fe-24.4Mn-5.9Si-5.1Cr shape-memory alloy. Aside from the magnetic field (H, the driving rate (v can also tune the critical temperature of the magnetic transition and cause an increase in MTH. The magnetic phase diagram obtained is discussed. The equation for MTH was deduced based on the Landau model for a PM-AFM transition that includes H and v dependence, which gives a reasonable account of the experimental results.

  18. Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property of a Two-dimensional Manganese Compound [Mn(PhCOO)2(4,4'-bipyridine)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hui; WANG Wen-Guo; MA Cheng-Bing; CHEN Chang-Neng; LIU Qiu-Tian; LIAO Dai-Zheng; LI Li-Cun


    A new two-dimensional polymeric manganese compound [Mn(PhCOO)2(4,4'-bipyridine)]n 1 has been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. The complex crystallizes in space group Pbcn with a = 18.7158(2), b = 11.6919(3), c = 9.4799(2)(A), V = 2074.42(7)(A)3, Z = 4, Mr = 453.34, Dc = 1.452 g/cm3, μ = 0.670 mm-1 and F(000) = 932. The final refinement gave R = 0.0458 and wR = 0.1439 for 1358 observed reflections with Ⅰ> 2σ(Ⅰ). The complex consists of repeating units of Mn(PhCOO)2(4,4'-bipyridine). Each Mn center is sixcoordinated by four carboxylate O atoms of four benzoate anions and two pyridyl N atoms from bipy ligands to furnish a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The two adjacent Mn atoms are connected by a pair of μ1,3-carboxylate groups to form infinite chains, which are further interlinked by bipy to complete a 2D grid network. The magnetic property of the polymeric complex has also been investigated.

  19. Analysis of the tumor-promoting potency of 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',4,5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, S.; Schmitz, H.J.; Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology; Buchmann, A.; Schwarz, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Toxicology; Schilling, B.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Research, Hamburg (Germany); Robertson, L.W.; Lehmler, H.J. [Iowa Univ, Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Health


    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are potent persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumor-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxin-like' and 'non-dioxin-like' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxin-like' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxin-like' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. The tumor-promoting potency of several PCBs has been demonstrated in two-stage initiation-promotion experiments in rat liver. Preneoplastic cell clones, targets for tumor promotion, can be identified as phenotypically altered foci showing characteristic enzyme patterns including the decreased activity of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) or the increased expression of the placental form of gluthatione S-transferase (GSTP). In the present study, the effect of the 'non-dioxin-like' 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28) and 2,2',4,5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 101) on the promotion of enzyme-altered hepatic foci was investigated in female Wistar rats after initiation with diethylnitrosamine (DEN).

  20. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia


    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  1. Micro-Raman, Mid-IR, Far-IR and DFT studies on 2-[4-(4-Fluorobenzamido)phenyl]benzothiazole (United States)

    Unsalan, O.; Sert, Y.; Ari, H.; Simão, A.; Yilmaz, A.; Boyukata, M.; Bolukbasi, O.; Bolelli, K.; Yalcin, I.

    Molecular structure of 2-[4-(4-Fluorobenzamido)phenyl]benzothiazole was determined by quantum chemical calculations. MidIR and FarIR spectra were recorded at room temperature, with 4 cm-1 resolution in the 4000-400 cm-1 and 700-30 cm-1 regions, respectively for the first time. Raman spectrum was recorded in the 4000-100 cm-1 range. Optimized molecular structure and vibrational wavenumbers of the compound in its ground state have been calculated by using Density Functional Theory using B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Vibrational wavenumbers were seen to be in good agreement with the experimental IR data. Furthermore, assignments of each vibrational mode were interpreted in terms of potential energy distributions in detail.

  2. Raman spectra and molecular conformation of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentanethiol as a model compound of a hydrophobic group of triton X-100 surfactant (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroatsu; Fukuhara, Koichi


    Raman spectra of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentanethiol were measured. The spectral analysis with the normal coordinate treatment indicated that this molecule takes the gauche conformation about the CCCS bond in the solid state and the trans and gauche conformations in the liquid state. The Raman bands due to the totally symmetric C&.zdbnd;C streching vibration of the t-butyl part of the 1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl group were found to be important to distinguish the two conformations. These key bands were applied to the interpretation of the Raman spectra of Triton X-100 surfactant which contains the p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenoxyl group as a hydrophobic moiety. The 1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl group of Triton X-100 molecules is shown to be predominantly in the gauche conformation in the liquid state and in aquaeous solution.

  3. Mesures magnétiques d'aimants dipôles de type MBA révisés (MBA 005, 244, 297, 375)

    CERN Document Server

    Dutour, J


    Dans l'anneau SPS, les dipôles MBA et MBB sont installés depuis 1975 (assemblés au CERN, Réf. 1 et 2). Lorsque certains de ces aimants sont défectueux, ils sont révisés: changement de chambre, isolation, etc. Après révision, il est nécessaire de contrôler leurs caractéristiques magnétiques. De même, sont contrôlés aussi les aimants de réserve stockes dans le hall 867. C'est le cas des dipôles MBA 005, 244, 297, 375.

  4. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J


    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  5. KCB-1型气囊仿生助产仪助产244例临床分析%Clinical airbag bionic midwifery instrument for childbirth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琴; 祝艳; 张秀华; 唐晓英; 贾晓梅; 胡海燕


    Objective To explore the clinical airbag bionic midwifery instrument for childbirth. Methods random selection primigravida 244 patients, the observation group 122 cases (application midwifery), control air 122 cases. Observe the two groups were the first and second maternal dilivery method, delivery time, time and among situation, etc. Results The observation group's first, second labor significantly shortened;Natural childbirth greatly improve,cesarean section rate reduce lmin Apgar score babies, bleeding and breastfeeding postpartum 2h situation compared with control statistically significant (P0. 05) sex. Conclusion Can obviously reduce air-bag operation of midwifery and reduce maternal labor pain and macrosomic infant damage,increase the natural childbirth, improve childbirth, reducing cesarean section rate during the day. reduce postpartum hemorrhage and postnatal urinary retention.%目的 探讨气囊仿生助产仪在临床分娩中的作用.方法 选择初产妇244例,随机分为观察组122例(应用气囊助产)和对照组122例,观察两组产妇的第一及第二产程时间、分娩方式、分娩时段和围产情况等.结果 观察组的第一、二产程时间明显缩短;自然分娩率大大提高,剖宫产率降低,新生儿1min Apgar评分、产后2h出血量及母乳喂养情况与对照组相比有统计学差异(P<0.05);白天分娩率大大提高,宫颈撕伤率、产后感染率两组差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 气囊助产术可明显缩短产程,减少产妇疼痛及软产道损伤,增加自然分娩率,提高白天分娩率,降低剖宫产率,减少产后出血及产后尿潴留.

  6. Synthesis of 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone as a candidate anticancer against cervical (WiDr), colon (HeLa), and breast (T47d) cancer cell lines in vitro (United States)

    Matsjeh, Sabirin; Swasono, Respati Tri; Anwar, Chairil; Solikhah, Eti Nurwening; Lestari, Endang


    The compound 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone have been synthesized through Claisen-Schmidt reaction from 2-hydroxyacetophenone and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone with 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehida (vanillin) in aqueous KOH 40% and KSF montmorillonite as catalyst in methanol. All these products were characterized by FT-IR, TLC Scanner, GC-MS, MS-Direct, and 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrometer. Both of these compounds were tested citotoxycity activity as an anticancer against cervical, colon, and breast cancer cells (Hela, WiDr, and T47D cell lines) using MTT assay in vitro. Dose series given test solution concentration on Hela, WiDr, and T47D cells started from 6,25; 25; 50 and 100 µg/mL with incubation treatment for 24 hours. The result of study showed that the 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone as bright yellow crystal with the melting point of 114-115 °C and the yield of 13.77% and the 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone as bright yellow crystals with the melting point of 195-197 °C and the yield of 6%. Other 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone also exhibited cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines, with the 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone showed greater activities than the 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone in WiDr cell lines. The 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone exhibited strong anticancer activities with IC50 value below 20 µg/mL. The activity of 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone showed the most active against Hela and WiDr cell lines with IC50 value 8.53 and 2.66 µg/mL respectively, than T47D cell lines with IC50 value 24.61 µg/mL. The test results cytotoxic of 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone showed the most active against Hela and WiDr cell lines with IC50 value 12.80, 19.57 µg/mL than T47D cell lines with IC50 value of 20.73 µg/mL. IC50 value indicated that 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3

  7. Target Space $\

    CERN Document Server

    Huggett, Nick


    This paper investigates the significance of T-duality in string theory: the indistinguishability with respect to all observables, of models attributing radically different radii to space -- larger than the observable universe, or far smaller than the Planck length, say. Two interpretational branch points are identified and discussed. First, whether duals are physically equivalent or not: by considering a duality of the familiar simple harmonic oscillator, I argue that they are. Unlike the oscillator, there are no measurements 'outside' string theory that could distinguish the duals. Second, whether duals agree or disagree on the radius of 'target space', the space in which strings evolve according to string theory. I argue for the latter position, because the alternative leaves it unknown what the radius is. Since duals are physically equivalent yet disagree on the radius of target space, it follows that the radius is indeterminate between them. Using an analysis of Brandenberger and Vafa (1989), I explain wh...

  8. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Properties of a One-dimensional Chain Coordination Polymer [Mn(NAA)2(4,4'-bipy)(H2O)4]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying-Qun; LI Chang-Hong; LI Wei; KUANG Yun-Fei


    A novel one-dimensional chain coordination polymer [Mn(NAA)2(4,4'-bipy)(H2O)4]n has been synthesized with α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 4,4'-bipy and manganese(Ⅱ) sulfate as raw materials. Crystal data for this complex: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 1.1421(2), b=1.6337(3), c=0.94177(19) nm, β = 112.15(3)°, V= 1.6275(6) nm3, Dc = 1.407 g/cm3, Z = 2,μ(MoKα) = 0.467 mm-1, F(000) = 722, S = 1.007, R= 0.0412 and wR = 0.1022. The crystal structure shows that two neighboring manganese(Ⅱ) ions are linked together by one 4,4'-bipy molecule, and the whole complex molecule forms a one-dimensional chain structure. Each manganese(Ⅱ) ion is coordinated with two oxygen atoms of two α-naphthaleneacetic acid molecules, two nitrogen atoms of two 4,4'-bipy molecules and two oxygen atoms from two water molecules, giving a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The electrochemical properties were also analyzed.

  9. Effects of self-radiation damage on electronic properties of {sup 244}Cm{sup 3+} in an orthophosphate crystal of YPO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, G.K.; Li, S.T.; Beitz, J.V. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Abraham, M.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Electronic energy level of alpha-emitting isotope {sup 244}Cm{sup 3+} (t{sub {1/2}}=18.1 y) doped into single crystals of YPO{sub 4} has been studied using site-selected laser spectroscopic methods. Electronic transitions between the nominal {sup 8}S{sub 7/2} state of Cm{sup 3+} were utilized to characterize the effects of alpha-decay induced structural damage. The total splitting of the four crystal field doublets in the ground multiplet is 12.5 cm{sup -1} and that of the excited multiplet is 611 cm{sup -1}. Due to radiation damage accumulated in 17 years since the crystals were grown, the inhomogeneous line width of the {sup 8}S{sub 7/2} {leftrightarrow} {sup 6}D{sub 7/2} transitions in broader than 50 cm{sup -1} as measured without site selection. The line width of resonant fluorescence line narrowing (RFLN) is less than 1 cm{sup -1} at 4 K. A total of 12 satellite lines were observed symmetrically spacing about the RFLN line. The position, width, and intensity of these satellite lines have been analyzed to gain information on the electronic and structural properties of the actinide ions in the metamict phases of Cm{sup 3+}:YPO{sub 4}.

  10. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a 1D Alternate Chain Polymer [Zn2(NBA)2(4,4--bipy)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke-Wei; YIN Pei-Xiu; SHEN Yi-Cheng; LI Zhao-Ji; QIN Ye-Yan; YAO Yuan-Gen


    A one-dimensional zinc-containing coordination polymer, [Zn2(NBA)2(4,4--bipy)]n (NBA = 3-nitrobenzoic acid, 4,4--bipy = 4,4--bipyrindine), has been solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR and elemental analysis.The crystal structure is of monoclinic, space group C2/c with a = 24.6478(2), b = 14.0964(3), c = 11.4275(2) -, β =108.7870(10)°, V = 3758.89(11) -3, C38H20N6O16Zn2, Mr = 947.34, Z = 4, Dc = 1.674 g/cm3, μ = 1.363 mm-1, F(000) = 1912, R = 0.0720 and wR = 0.2277 for 2841 observed reflections (I > 2((I)).In this compound, NBA in syn-syn coordination mode bridges zinc centers into dimeric- zinctetracarboxylate [Zn2(COO)4] secondary building units (SBUs) which are linked through μ-4,4--bpy affording 1D alternating chains.These adjacent chains are further stacked through intermolecular π…π interactions to form a 3D framework.

  11. Synergistic extraction of uranium(VI) by bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid in the presence of neutral oxo-donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meera, R.; Reddy, M.L.P. [Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Unit, Regional Research Lab. (CSIR), Trivandrum (India)


    The extraction behavior of uranium(VI) from nitric acid solutions has been investigated using mixtures of bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid (HBTMPP) and trialkylphosphine oxide (Cyanex 923 = TRPO), triphenylphosphine oxide (TPhPO) or tributylphosphate (TBP). The results demonstrate that uranium(VI) is extracted into xylene as UO{sub 2}(BTMPP){sub 2} with HBTMPP alone and as UO{sub 2}(BTMPP){sub 2}.S (where S = TRPO, TPhPO or TBP) in the presence of neutral oxo-donors. The extraction equilibrium constants of the above extracted complexes have been deduced by non-linear regression analysis with the aid of suitable chemically based model developed taking into account aqueous phase complexation of metal ion with inorganic ligands and all plausible complexes extracted into the organic phase. The addition of a neutral oxo-donor to the metal chelate system significantly enhances the extraction efficiency of uranium(VI). Complexation strength of uranium(VI) with neutral oxo-donors follows the order: TRPO > TPhPO > TBP, which is also the basicity sequence of these ligands. The IR spectral studies of the extracted complexes were used to further clarify the nature of the extracted complexes. (orig.)

  12. Crystal Structure of catena-[(Tetrakis-μ2-acetato-μ2-4,4'-bipyridine) dicopper(Ⅱ)] Acetonitrile Solvate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yi-Hang; HE Yin-Hua; FENG Yun-Long; NG Seik Weng


    The title compound,[Cu2(CH3COO)4(C8H10N2)]n·nCH3CN1 (C8H10N2,4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine),has been solvothermally synthesized in CH3CN and characterized by X-ray diffraction.The crystal is of monoclinic,space group Cc with a = 22.626(6),b = 14.012(4),c =15.106(4) (A),β = 107.610(3)°,V = 4565(2) (A)3,C20H23Cu2N3O8,Mr = 560.49,Z = 8,Dc = 1.631 g/cm3,μ = 1.914 mm-1,Flack parameter = 0.48(1),F(000) = 2288,R = 0.042 and wR = 0.)98 for 8887 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)).It consists of nearly linear one-dimensional chains [Cu2(CH3COO)4(C8H10N2)]n derived from paddle-wheel [Cu2(CH3COO)4] unit linked by 4,4'-bipy,and CH3CN as guest molecule regularly decorates between the chains.

  13. 社区卫生服务中心门诊腹痛患者244例诊治情况分析%Analysis of diagnosis and treatment of 244 cases of patients with abdominal pain in outpatient services of community health service center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:分析某社区卫生服务中心门诊腹痛患者伴随症状及病因,探索门诊腹痛诊治过程中的注意事项及腹痛诊断思维。方法:2013年1-12月收治腹痛患者244例,回顾性分析其临床资料。结果:244例腹痛患者中,102例伴恶心呕吐,86例伴腹泻,28例伴反跳痛,5例伴牵涉痛,19例有发热。腹痛病因最后确诊为急性胃肠炎等18种疾病,病例数及百分比排在前5位的疾病有急性胃肠炎92例(38.70%)、胆囊炎及胆结石34例(13.92%)、急性阑尾炎17例(6.97%)、泌尿系结石及感染12例(4.92%)、急性盆腔炎11例(4.51%)。另有腹痛患者诊断为心肌梗死、心肌炎和癫痫等。结论:腹痛病因较为复杂,社区门诊医师应完善自己的知识结构,打破固有的思维定势,进一步扩大腹痛病因诊断方面的知识面,以减少误诊和漏诊。%Objective:To analyze the associated symptoms and etiology of patients with abdominal pain in outpatient services of community health service center,to explore the matters needing attention in the course of diagnosis and treatment of abdominal pain and abdominal pain diagnosis thinking.Methods:244 patients with abdominal pain were selected from January to December 2013.The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Results:In 244 cases of patients with abdominal pain,102 cases accompanied with nausea and vomiting;86 cases had diarrhea;28 cases had rebound pain;5 cases had referred pain;19 cases had fever.The cause of abdominal pain finally diagnosed as acute gastroenteritis and other 18 kinds of diseases.The case number and percentage of the top five diseases were acute gastroenteritis in 92 cases(38.70% ),cholecystitis and gallstones in 34 cases(13.92% ),17 cases(6.97%) of acute appendicitis,urinary calculi and infection in 12 cases(4.92%),11 cases(4.51%) of acute pelvic inflammatory disease.In addition,some abdominal pain were diagnosed with myocardial infarction

  14. Codex Vindobonensis theologicus graecus 244

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejleskov, Peter


    palæografi, kodikologi, kopist, skriver, tekstkritik, editionsmetodik, boghistorie, håndskrift, codex, inkunabel, tekstoverleveringshistorie, klassikeroverlevering, middelaldergræsk, senbyzantinsk, postbyzantinsk, renæssance, tidlig moderne græsk, protonygræsk, folkesprogslitteratur, folkesang...

  15. In silico enhanced restriction enzyme based methylation analysis of the human glioblastoma genome using Agilent 244K CpG Island microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tran


    Full Text Available Genome wide methylation profiling of gliomas is likely to provide important clues to improving treatment outcomes. Restriction enzyme based approaches have been widely utilized for methylation profiling of cancer genomes and will continue to have importance in combination with higher density microarrays. With the availability of the human genome sequence and microarray probe sequences, these approaches can be readily characterized and optimized via in silico modeling. We adapted the previously described HpaII/MspI based Methylation Sensitive Restriction Enzyme (MSRE assay for use with two-color Agilent 244K CpG island microarrays. In this assay, fragmented genomic DNA is digested in separate reactions with isoschizomeric HpaII (methylation-sensitive and MspI (methylation-insensitive restriction enzymes. Using in silico hybridization, we found that genomic fragmentation with BfaI was superior to MseI, providing a maximum effective coverage of 22,362 CpG islands in the human genome. In addition, we confirmed the presence of an internal control group of fragments lacking HpaII/MspI sites which enable separation of methylated and unmethylated fragments. We used this method on genomic DNA isolated from normal brain, U87MG cells, and a glioblastoma patient tumor sample and confirmed selected differentially methylated CpG islands using bisulfite sequencing. Along with additional validation points, we performed a receiver operating characteristics (ROC analysis to determine the optimal threshold (p ≤ 0.001. Based on this threshold, we identified ~2400 CpG islands common to all three samples and 145 CpG islands unique to glioblastoma. These data provide more general guidance to individuals seeking to maximize effective coverage using restriction enzyme based methylation profiling approaches.

  16. A series of chiral coordination polymers containing helicals assembled from a new chiral (R)-2-(4'-(4''-carboxybenzyloxy)phenoxy)propanoic acid: syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties. (United States)

    He, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jin; Yang, Yan; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Jian-Fang


    Ten new chiral coordination polymers, namely, [Ni(L)(H(2)O)(2)] (1), [Co(L)(H(2)O)(2)] (2), [Cd(L)(H(2)O)] (3), [Cd(L)(phen)] (4), [Mn(2)(L)(2) (phen)(2)]·H(2)O (5), [Cd(2)(L)(2)(biim-4)(2)] (6), [Zn(2)(L)(2)(biim-4)(2)] (7), [Cd(L)(pbib)] (8), [Cd(L)(bbtz)] (9) and [Cd(L)(biim-6)] (10), where phen = 1,10-phenathroline, biim-4 = 1,1'-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole), pbib = 1,4-bis(imidazole-1-ylmethyl)benzene, bbtz = 1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene, biim-6 = 1,1'-(1,6-hexanedidyl)bis(imidazole), and H(2)L = (R)-2-(4'-(4''-carboxybenzyloxy)phenoxy)propanoic acid, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by infrared spectra (IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), elemental analyses and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit similar 1D left-handed helical chains, which are further extended into 3D supramolecular structures through O-H···O hydrogen-bonding interactions, respectively. Compound 3 shows a 2D double-layer architecture containing helical chains. Compound 4 features two types of 2D undulated sheets with helical chains, which are stacked in an ABAB fashion along the c direction. Compound 5 possesses a 1D double chain ribbon structure containing unusual meso-helical chains, which is linked by π-π interactions into a 2D supramolecular layer. These layers are further extended by hydrogen-bonding interactions to form a 3D supramolecular assembly. Compounds 6 and 7 are isostructural and exhibit 2D (4(4))-sql networks with helical chains. Neighboring sheets are further linked by C-H···O hydrogen-bonding interactions to generate 3D supramolecular architectures. Compounds 8-10 are isostructural and display 3D 3-fold interpenetrating diamond frameworks with helical chains. The effects of coordination modes of L anions, metal ions and N-donor ligands on the structures of the coordination polymers have been

  17. Soil washing in combination with homogeneous Fenton-like oxidation for the removal of 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl from soil contaminated with capacitor oil. (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Ling; Lin, Zhi-Rong; Dong, Yuan-Hua


    Detoxification by chemical oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated soils is very difficult and inefficient because PCBs typically associate with the solid phase or exist as non-aqueous-phase liquids due to their low solubility and slow desorption rates, and thus, they are difficult to remove from soils by using traditional, water-based elution techniques. Surfactant can enhance washing efficiency of PCBs from contaminated soils. This study used Brij 58, Brij 30, Tween 80, and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to solubilize 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl (PCB28) from soil contaminated with capacitor oil into solution. The feasibility of PCB28 oxidation in soil washing wastewater through a Fe(3+)-catalyzed Fenton-like reaction was subsequently examined. Washing with 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution showed the highest extraction efficiency (up to 61.5 %) compared with that of the three other surfactants. The total concentration of PCB28 in contaminated soil at 25 °C after 48-h extraction was 286 mg L(-1). In contrast to conditions in which no washing agent was added, addition of the four washing agents decreased the efficiency of PCB28 degradation by the Fenton-like reaction, with the decrease due to addition of 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution being the smallest. The optimal concentration of H2O2 for preventing its useless decomposition was found to be 50 mM. The efficiency of PCB28 removal was lower when the initial concentration of PCB28 treated in the Fenton-like reaction was higher. The degradation efficiencies of PCB28 at initial concentrations of 0.1, 10, and 176 mg L(-1) in 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution at 25 °C and pH 3.0 and 9 h of reaction using 50 mM H2O2 were 64.1, 42.0, and 34.6 %, respectively. This result indicates that soil washing combined with Fenton-like oxidation may be a practical approach for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.

  18. 232Th、233U、238Pu、240Pu、242Pu、241Am、242Cm、243Cm和244Cm的裂变释放热能研究%Thermal Energy Released in Fission of 232 Th,233 U,238 Pu, 240 Pu,242 Pu,241 Am,242 Cm,243 Cm and 244 Cm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳飞; 马续波; 陈义学


    In the nuclear reactor design ,the precise calculation of thermal fission energy is of great significance .In the pressurized water reactor ,high energy neutron-induced fission rarely occurs ,the isotopes including 233 U ,241 Am and 243 Cm are mostly induced by thermal neutrons ,while the other isotopes such as 232Th ,238Pu ,240Pu ,242Pu ,242Cm and 244 Cm are by fast neutron . In order to carry out this work , the nuclear data extracted from the latest evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF/B-Ⅶ ) were adopted ,and the energy-conservation law for the calculation of total fission energy were used , meanw hile ,with the consideration of capture energy and the correction of βand γ ,the thermal fission energy of nine isotopes was obtained .Compared with the data excerpted from IAEA issued WIMS-D database ,the results are reasonable .The thermal fission energy and its uncertainties of the nine isotopes are :(193.939 ± 0.176) MeV for 232 Th , (200.063 ± 0.084) MeV for 233 U ,(208.786 ± 1.133 ) MeV for 238 Pu ,(211.266 ± 0.220 ) MeV for 240 Pu ,(213.862 ± 0.299 ) MeV for 242 Pu ,(215.077 ± 0.210 ) MeV for 241 Am ,(218.821 ± 0.159) MeV for 242Cm ,(218.525 ± 0.388) MeV for 243Cm ,and (220.067 ± 0.131) MeV for 244 Cm ,respectively .%在核反应堆设计中,对每次裂变释放热能进行精确计算具有重要意义。在压水堆内,高能中子诱发核裂变份额很小,233 U、241 Am、243 Cm主要由热中子诱发裂变,232 T h、238 Pu、240 Pu、242 Pu、242 Cm、244 Cm主要由快中子诱发裂变。本文采用最新的核评价数据库 ENDF/B-Ⅶ,利用质量守恒法计算裂变释放总能,同时研究了中微子带走的能量,中子俘获能及β、γ修正项,最终给出了9种核素裂变释放热能。与IAEA颁布的WIMS-D格式数据库中的裂变释放热能数据的对比表明,本文所用方法计算结果合理。9种核素每次裂变释放热能分别为:232 Th ,(193.939±0.176) MeV ;233 U ,(200.063

  19. CHLOROPHYLL A, growth rate and graze rate (or grazing rate) site samples data collected in the Gulf of Alaska on the ALPHA HELIX cruises HX242, HX244 and others as part of the NEP project from 2001-04-18 to 2003-08-10 (NODC Accession 0114241) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114241 includes site samples and biological data collected aboard the ALPHA HELIX during cruises HX242, HX244, HX247, HX271 and HX275 in the Gulf of...

  20. SALINITY, WATER TEMPERATURE, FLUORESCENCE, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR) and other profile data collected in the Gulf of Alaska on the ALPHA HELIX cruises HX242, HX244 and others as part of the NEP project from 2001-04-18 to 2003-08-11 (NODC Accession 0115255) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115255 includes profile, biological and physical data collected aboard the ALPHA HELIX during cruises HX242, HX244, HX247, HX271 and HX275 in the...

  1. SILICATE, WATER TEMPERATURE, FLUORESCENCE, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR) and other profile and discrete sample data collected in the Gulf of Alaska on the ALPHA HELIX cruises HX242, HX244 and others as part of the NEP project from 2001-04-18 to 2003-08-11 (NODC Accession 0113348) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113348 includes profile, discrete sample, biological, chemical and physical data collected aboard the ALPHA HELIX during cruises HX242, HX244, HX247,...

  2. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Metals Using Bis(2,4,4-trimethyl-pentylmonothiophosphinic Acid as Chelating Agent for Subsequent ICP-MS Analyses of Mercury, Cadmium and Lead in Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Roa


    Full Text Available This study investigated and validated the optimum conditions for a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE method using bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl-monothiophosphinic acid as a chelating ligand, for subsequent ICP-MS analyses of mercury, cadmium and lead in sediment. Several combinations of pressure, temperature and modifier (P-T-M conditions for SFE were tested and an appropriate collection solvent was also determined using a sediment certified reference material (CRM as sample, to determine the optimum set of conditions. Validation results of the optimized method indicated high percent recoveries which are better compared to standard methods.

  3. AG Turbo, Turbotech II, project 1.244. Experimental investigations of rotary instabilities in axial compressors and their effects in terms of compressor stability. Final report; AG Turbo, Turbotech II, Vorhaben 1.244. Experimentelle Untersuchungen rotierender Instabilitaeten in Axialverdichtern und ihr Einfluss auf die Verdichterstabilitaet. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holste, F.; Haukap, C.; Kameier, F.


    The physical phenomena of rotary instabilities in industrial compressors and high-pressure aircraft compressors were investigated, which may be a cause of compressor blade fracture. The investigations were carried out by Duesseldorf Technical University on behalf of Rolls-Royce Deutschland GmbH at the new four-stage low-pressure compressor test stand of TU Dresden University. Extensive measurements were made both in the rotary and stationary system in the third compressor stage. Rotary instabilities could be detected by increasing the clearance between the blade tip and compressor wall. Modal analyses yielded a rate of about 30 for 63 blades, i.e. a characteristic wavelength of about twice the length of a blade. So far, an accurate description of the physical mechanism was impossible. Investigations using a Snubber model showed no significant influence on the rotary instabilities. [German] Im Turbotech II Forschungsvorhaben 1.244 wurden die physikalischen Vorgaenge der rotierenden Instabilitaet untersucht, die sowohl in industriellen Verdichtern als auch in Hochdruckverdichtern von Flugtriebwerken auftreten koennen. Diese Instabilitaeten stellen eine zusaetzliche Belastung fuer die Verdichterblaetter dar und koennen damit die Ursache fuer Blattbrueche sein. Im Auftrag von Rolls-Royce Deutschland wurden die Untersuchungen von der Faachhochschule Duesseldorf durchgefuehrt. Testobjekt war der neu aufgebaute vier stufige Niedergeschwindigkeitsverdichter der TU Dresden. In enger Kooperation mit den Vorhaben 1.243 und 1.246 wurden umfangreiche Messungen sowohl im rotierenden als auch im festen System an der dritten Stufe des Verdichters durchgefuehrt. Durch Vergroesserung des Spaltes zwischen Schaufelspitze und Verdichterwandung konnten rotierenden Instabilitaeten nachgewiesen werden. Modenanalysen ergaben Umfangsordnungen von ungefaehr 30 bei einer Blattzahl von 63, wodurch die charakteristische Wellenlaenge etwa zwei Schaufelwellenlaengen entspricht. Eine exakte

  4. Systematic study of probable projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of the superheavy nucleus 302120 (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Safoora, V.


    Probable projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of the superheavy element 302120 have been studied taking the Coulomb and proximity potential as the interaction barrier. The probabilities of the compound nucleus formation PCN for the projectile-target combinations found in the cold reaction valley of 302120 are estimated. At energies near and above the Coulomb barrier, we have calculated the capture, fusion, and evaporation residue cross sections for the reactions of all probable projectile-target combinations so as to predict the most promising projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of the superheavy element 302120 in heavy-ion fusion reactions. The calculated fusion and evaporation cross sections for the more asymmetric ("hotter") projectile-target combination is found to be higher than the less asymmetric ("colder") combination. It can be seen from the nature of the quasifission barrier height, mass asymmetry, the probability of compound nucleus formation, survival probability, and excitation energy, the systems 44Ar+258No , 46Ar+256No , 48Ca+254Fm , 50Ca+252Fm , 54Ti+248Cf , and 58Cr+244Cm in deep region I of the cold reaction valley and the systems 62Fe+240Pu , 64Fe+238Pu , 68Ni+234U , 70Ni+232U , 72Ni+230U , and 74Zn+228Th in the other cold valleys are identified as the better projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of 302120. Our predictions on the synthesis of 302120 superheavy nuclei using the combinations 54Cr+248Cm , 58Fe+244Pu , 64Ni+238U , and 50Ti+249Cf are compared with available experimental data and other theoretical predictions.

  5. Electrically charged targets (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.


    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  6. A randomised study comparing the effect on ovarian activity of a progestogen-only pill (POP) containing desogestrel and a new POP containing drospirenone in a 24/4 regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijkers, Ingrid J M; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Drouin, Dominique


    OBJECTIVES: Progestogen-only pills (POPs) are safer with respect to cardiovascular risks than contraceptives containing estrogens. Despite the increased contraceptive efficacy of a desogestrel-only pill compared with a traditional POP, POPs are still not widely used due to an unpredictable bleeding...... pattern. A new POP containing 4 mg drospirenone has been developed with a 24/4 intake regimen which may improve the bleeding pattern. The objectives of this study were to investigate ovulation inhibition with the new drospirenone-only pill in comparison with the desogestrel-only pill and, in addition......, to assess the effects on cervical mucus permeability and bleeding. METHODS: Sixty-four healthy volunteers with proven ovulatory cycles were randomised and treated with either the drospirenone-only or the desogestrel-only pill during two 28-day cycles. Follicular diameter, endometrial thickness, and serum...

  7. Paired observation of californium-252 neutron intraluminal brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy with and without lead shielding for cervical cancer%252 Cf中子腔内照射结合挡铅与不挡铅外照射治疗宫颈癌的配对观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴卓捷; 雷新; 陈永红; 刘佳


    目的:比较252 Cf中子腔内照射结合挡铅盆腔对穿野和不挡铅箱式四野外照射治疗宫颈癌的治疗结果。方法2004—2007年本院收治的Ⅱa—Ⅲb 期的宫颈鳞癌患者,按照临床分期、年龄、肿瘤大小、贫血程度为配对条件,共筛选出26对(52例)研究对象,分为挡铅盆腔对穿野组(挡铅组)和不挡铅箱式四野组(不挡铅组)。两组患者外照射期间穿插252 Cf中子后装治疗。 Kaplan?Meier法计算5年LC、OS、DFS 并 Logrank 检验差异,晚期并发症发生率差异行 McNemar 法检验。结果挡铅、不挡铅组5年LC 率分别为85%、81%(P=0??014),OS 率分别为89%、73%(P=0??013),DFS 率分别为89%、73%(P=0??013),晚期并发症发生率分别为12%、23%(P=0??008)。结论腔内照射结合外照射治疗宫颈癌时无论采取对穿野还是箱式四野,后程前后野中央均应挡铅。%Objective To compare the efficacy between californium?252 ( 252 Cf ) neutron intraluminal brachytherapy combined with external?beam radiotherapy with lead?shielding pelvic parallel opposing field technique and non?lead?shielding four?field box technique for cervical cancer. Methods A total of 52 patients with stage Ⅱa?Ⅲb cervical squamous cell carcinoma who were admitted to our hospital from 2004 to 2007 were enrolled as subjects and paired by clinical stage, age, tumor size, and degree of anemia. The 26 pairs of patients were divided into lead?shielding pelvic parallel opposing field group (lead?shielding group) and non?lead?shielding four?field box group (non?lead?shielding group). For all patients in both groups, 252 Cf neutron brachytherapy was added in external?beam radiotherapy. The local control (LC), overall survival (OS), and disease?free survival (DFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan?Meier method and analyzed using the log?rank test. The difference in the incidence of late complications was

  8. SU-E-J-244: Development and Validation of a Knowledge Based Planning Model for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Kennedy, A [Sarah Cannon, Nashville, TN (United States); Larsen, E; Hayes, C; Grow, A [North Florida Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bahamondes, S.; Zheng, Y; Wu, X [JFK Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Lake Worth, FL (United States); Choi, M; Pai, S [Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Gatos, CA (United States); Li, J [Doctors Hospital of Augusta, Augusta, GA (United States); Cranford, K [Trident Medical Center, Charleston, SC (United States)


    Purpose: The study aims to develop and validate a knowledge based planning (KBP) model for external beam radiation therapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: RapidPlan™ technology was used to develop a lung KBP model. Plans from 65 patients with LA-NSCLC were used to train the model. 25 patients were treated with VMAT, and the other patients were treated with IMRT. Organs-at-risk (OARs) included right lung, left lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord. DVH and geometric distribution DVH were extracted from the treated plans. The model was trained using principal component analysis and step-wise multiple regression. Box plot and regression plot tools were used to identify geometric outliers and dosimetry outliers and help fine-tune the model. The validation was performed by (a) comparing predicted DVH boundaries to actual DVHs of 63 patients and (b) using an independent set of treatment planning data. Results: 63 out of 65 plans were included in the final KBP model with PTV volume ranging from 102.5cc to 1450.2cc. Total treatment dose prescription varied from 50Gy to 70Gy based on institutional guidelines. One patient was excluded due to geometric outlier where 2.18cc of spinal cord was included in PTV. The other patient was excluded due to dosimetric outlier where the dose sparing to spinal cord was heavily enforced in the clinical plan. Target volume, OAR volume, OAR overlap volume percentage to target, and OAR out-of-field volume were included in the trained model. Lungs and heart had two principal component scores of GEDVH, whereas spinal cord and esophagus had three in the final model. Predicted DVH band (mean ±1 standard deviation) represented 66.2±3.6% of all DVHs. Conclusion: A KBP model was developed and validated for radiotherapy of LA-NSCLC in a commercial treatment planning system. The clinical implementation may improve the consistency of IMRT/VMAT planning.

  9. Targeted Cancer Therapies (United States)

    ... targeted therapies are directed against HER-2, including trastuzumab (Herceptin®), which is approved to treat certain breast and ... traditional chemotherapy drugs. For example, the targeted therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin®) has been used in combination with docetaxel , ...

  10. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith


    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  11. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing


    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  12. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga


    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  13. Targeted tumor radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unak Perihan


    Full Text Available Targeted tumor radiotherapy is selectively delivery of curative doses of radiation to malignant sites. The aim of the targeted tumor radiotherapy is to use the radionuclides which have high LET particle emissions conjugated to appropriate carrier molecules. The radionuclides are selectively collected by tumor cells, depositing lethal doses to tumor cells while no admission occur to normal cells. In theory, targeted radiotherapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy since it allows a high radiation dose to be administered without causing normal tissue toxicity, although there are some limitations in the availability of appropriate targeting agents and in the calculations of administered doses. Therefore, for routine clinical applications more progress is still needed. In this article, the potential use of targeted tumor radiotherapy is briefly reviewed. More general aspects and considerations, such as potential radionuclides, mechanisms of tumor targeting was also outlined.

  14. Targeting Notch to target cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Pannuti, Antonio; Foreman, Kimberly; Rizzo, Paola; Osipo, Clodia; Golde, Todd; Osborne, Barbara; Miele, Lucio


    The cellular heterogeneity of neoplasms has been at the center of considerable interest since the "cancer stem cell hypothesis", originally formulated for hematologic malignancies, was extended to solid tumors. The origins of cancer "stem" cells (CSC) or tumor-initiating cells (TIC; henceforth referred to as CSCs) and the methods to identify them are hotly debated topics. Nevertheless, the existence of subpopulations of tumor cells with stem-like characteristics has significant therapeutic implications. The stem-like phenotype includes indefinite self-replication, pluripotency, and, importantly, resistance to chemotherapeutics. Thus, it is plausible that CSCs, regardless of their origin, may escape standard therapies and cause disease recurrences and/or metastasis after apparently complete remissions. Consequently, the idea of selectively targeting CSCs with novel therapeutics is gaining considerable interest. The Notch pathway is one of the most intensively studied putative therapeutic targets in CSC, and several investigational Notch inhibitors are being developed. However, successful targeting of Notch signaling in CSC will require a thorough understanding of Notch regulation and the context-dependent interactions between Notch and other therapeutically relevant pathways. Understanding these interactions will increase our ability to design rational combination regimens that are more likely to prove safe and effective. Additionally, to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from treatment with Notch-targeting therapeutics, reliable biomarkers to measure pathway activity in CSC from specific tumors will have to be identified and validated. This article summarizes the most recent developments in the field of Notch-targeted cancer therapeutics, with emphasis on CSC.

  15. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice


    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  16. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  17. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean


    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  18. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng


    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  19. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L


    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  20. Target Assembly Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  1. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.


    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  2. Psychological Empowerment of Contract Nurses and Its Influencing Factors%244名合同制护士心理授权及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭青; 覃巍; 何红燕; 程嘉莉; 胡华琼; 张小虹


    Objective To understand the status quo and the potential influencing factors of psychological empowerment of contract nurses and to provide reference for nursing managers to take psychological empowerment and improve contract nurses ' psychological empowerment. Methods Psychological Empowerment Scale (PES) was used to survey 244 contract nurses. Results The score of PES of contract nurses was (40.70±4.96), and there was no statistically significant difference in terms of different ages, marriages, work length, educational background, professional titles and departments. However, statistically significant difference was found in the factor of different working purposes (P<0.01). Conclusion Psychological empowerment of contract nurses needs to be improved. The recognition of importance of psychological empowerment, and the devotion to nursing will contribute to the improvement of psychological empowerment of contract nurses.%目的 了解合同制护士心理授权状况,探讨潜在的影响因素,为护理管理者实施心理授权提供依据,以有效提高合同制护士心理授权水平.方法 采用中文版心理授权量表对湖北省襄阳市3 所三级甲等综合性医院的244 名合同制护士进行调查.结果 合同制护士心理授权问卷总分(40.70±4.96)分,不同年龄、婚姻状态、护龄、学历、职称、科室的合同制护士心理授权总分差异无统计学意义,而工作目的 不同的合同制护士心理授权总分差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 合同制护士的心理授权水平有待提高,认识合同制护士心理授权的重要性,培养合同制护士热爱护理专业有助于提高合同制护士心理授权水平.

  3. Preliminary Mark-18A (Mk-18A) Target Material Recovery Program Product Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bradley D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The Mk-18A Target Material Recovery Program (MTMRP) was established in 2015 to preserve the unique materials, e.g. 244Pu, in 65 previously irradiated Mk-18A targets for future use. This program utilizes existing capabilities at SRS and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to process targets, recover materials from them, and to package the recovered materials for shipping to ORNL. It also utilizes existing capabilities at ORNL to receive and store the recovered materials, and to provide any additional processing of the recovered materials or residuals required to prepare them for future beneficial use. The MTMRP is presently preparing for the processing of these valuable targets which is expected to begin in ~2019. As part of the preparations for operations, this report documents the preliminary acceptance criteria for the plutonium and heavy curium materials to be recovered from the Mk-18A targets at SRNL for transport and storage at ORNL. These acceptance criteria were developed based on preliminary concepts developed for processing, transporting, and storing the recovered Mk-18A materials. They will need to be refined as these concepts are developed in more detail.

  4. Vibrotactile target saliency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Groen, E.l.; Oosterbeek, M.T.J.; Hooge, I.T.C.


    We tested the saliency of a single vibrotractile target (T) among 2 to 7 nontargets (N), presented by 8 tactors that were equally distributed over a horizontal band around the torso. Targets and nontargets had different pulse duration, but the same activation period and no onset asynchrony. T-N simi

  5. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)


    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  6. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  7. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Properties of One-dimensional Chain Coordination Polymer [Co(Ⅱ)(C6H5CH=CHCOOH)2(4,4'-bipy)(H2O)5]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A one-dimensional chain coordination polymer [Co(Ⅱ)(C6H5CH=CHCOOH)2(4,4'-bipy)(H2O)5]n has been synthesized with cinnamylic acid, 4,4'-bipy and cobaltous chloride as raw materials. Crystal data for this complex: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a - 1.1481(3), b =1.1230(2), c = 1.1759(3) nm, β = 97.054(4)°, V = 1.5046(6) nm3, Mr= 617.50, Dc = 1.363 g/cm3, Z= 2, μ(MoKα) = 0.627 mm-1, F(000) = 646, S = 1.062, R 0.0443 and wR = 0.1178. The crystal structure shows that two neighboring cobalt(Ⅱ) ions are linked together by one 4,4'-bipy, and the whole complex molecule adopts a one-dimensional chain structure. Each cobalt(Ⅱ) ion is coordinated with two nitrogen atoms from two 4,4'-bipy molecules and four oxygen atoms from four water molecules, giving a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The electrochemical properties were analyzed by combining with the crystal structure.

  8. Cutting edge: The adapters EAT-2A and -2B are positive regulators of CD244- and CD84-dependent NK cell functions in the C57BL/6 mouse. (United States)

    Wang, Ninghai; Calpe, Silvia; Westcott, Jill; Castro, Wilson; Ma, Chunyan; Engel, Pablo; Schatzle, John D; Terhorst, Cox


    EWS/FLI1-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2)A and EAT-2B are single SH2-domain proteins, which bind to phosphorylated tyrosines of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptors in murine NK cells. While EAT-2 is a positive regulator in human cells, a negative regulatory role was attributed to the adapter in NK cells derived from EAT-2A-deficient 129Sv mice. To evaluate whether the genetic background or the presence of a selection marker in the mutant mice could influence the regulatory mode of these adapters, we generated EAT-2A-, EAT-2B-, and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice using C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. We found that NK cells from EAT-2A- and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice were unable to kill tumor cells in a CD244- or CD84-dependent manner. Furthermore, EAT-2A/B positively regulate phosphorylation of Vav-1, which is known to be implicated in NK cell killing. Thus, as in humans, the EAT-2 adapters act as positive regulators of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptor-specific NK cell functions in C57BL/6 mice.

  9. Nuclear target development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.


    The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces thin foil targets needed for experiments performed at the ATLAS and Dynamitron accelerators. Targets are not only produced for the Physics Division but also for other divisions and occasionally for other laboratories and universities. In the past year, numerous targets were fabricated by vacuum evaporation either as self-supporting foils or on various substrates. Targets produced included Ag, Au, {sup 10,11}B, {sup 138}Ba, Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 155,160}Gd, {sup 76}Ge, In, LID, {sup 6}LiH, Melamine, Mg, {sup 142,150}Nd, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 206,208}Pb, {sup 194}Pt, {sup 28}Si, {sup 144,148}Sm, {sup 120,122,124}Sn, Ta, {sup 130}Te, ThF{sub 4}, {sup 46,50}Ti, TiH, U, UF{sub 4}, {sup 182}W and {sup 170}Yb. Polypropylene and aluminized polypropylene, along with metallized Mylar were produced for experiments at ATLAS. A number of targets of {sup 11}B of various thickness were made for the DEP 2-MeV Van de Graff accelerator. An increased output of foils fabricated using our small rolling mill included targets of Au, C, {sup 50}Cr, Cu, {sup 155,160}Gd, Mg, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 105,110}Pd. Sc, Ti, and {sup 64,66}Zn.

  10. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia


    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  11. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)


    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  12. STIS target acquisition (United States)

    Kraemer, Steve; Downes, Ron; Katsanis, Rocio; Crenshaw, Mike; McGrath, Melissa; Robinson, Rich


    We describe the STIS autonomous target acquisition capabilities. We also present the results of dedicated tests executed as part of Cycle 7 calibration, following post-launch improvements to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight software. The residual pointing error from the acquisitions are < 0.5 CCD pixels, which is better than preflight estimates. Execution of peakups show clear improvement of target centering for slits of width 0.1 sec or smaller. These results may be used by Guest Observers in planning target acquisitions for their STIS programs.

  13. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  14. 48 CFR 1652.244-70 - Subcontracts. (United States)


    ... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses... team arrangement as defined in FAR subpart 9.6 and— (1) The Contracting officer evaluated...

  15. 8 CFR 244.9 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... nationality. During this interview, the applicant may present any secondary evidence that he or she feels... national identity document from the alien's country of origin bearing photo and/or fingerprint. (2) Proof...; and (G) Establishes the origin of the information being attested to. (vi) Additional documents...

  16. 50 CFR 216.244 - Mitigation. (United States)


    ... naked eye. (xi) After sunset and prior to sunrise, lookouts shall employ Night Lookouts Techniques in... their eyes, paying attention to the things on the outer edges of their field of vision. (xii) Personnel... and shall maneuver to keep at least 457 m (1,500 ft) away from any observed whale, consistent...

  17. 49 CFR 244.9 - Definitions. (United States)


    ...; any owner, manufacturer, lessor, or lessee of railroad equipment, track, or facilities; any independent contractor providing goods or services to a railroad; and any employee of such owner, manufacturer... deflator formula) from time to time. Corporate culture means the totality of the commitments, written...

  18. 48 CFR 52.244-2 - Subcontracts. (United States)


    ...) Definitions. As used in this clause— Approved purchasing system means a Contractor's purchasing system that... certified cost or pricing data and Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data, if required by other... cost or pricing data were or were not required; (D) The extent, if any, to which the Contractor did...

  19. 27 CFR 19.244 - Unit bond. (United States)


    ... sum which represents the penal sum (computed in accordance with § 19.245) for operations at and withdrawals from each plant. If the penal sum of the bond covering a plant, or the penal sum allocated to any... reflected by the penal sum in the bond for such plant. The unit bond shall be conditioned that the...

  20. Reference: 244 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -function mutants for CYP51A2 showed multiple defects, such as stunted hypocotyls, short roots, reduced cell...cyp51A2 mutant has only minor defects in early embryogenesis. Measurements of end...1, and a high proportion of 14alpha-methyl-delta8-sterols, at the expense of campesterol and sitosterol. The... cyp51A2 mutants have defects in membrane integrity and hypocotyl elongation. The defect in hypocotyl elonga...rassinosteroid-signaling cascade is apparently not affected in the mutants. Developmental defects in the cyp

  1. 17 CFR 244.101 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... applicable to the registrant. (b) GAAP. GAAP refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United... prepared in accordance with non-U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, GAAP refers to the principles under which those primary financial statements are prepared; and (2) In the case of...

  2. 15 CFR 24.4 - Applicability. (United States)


    ... Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... National School Lunch Act: (i) School Lunch (section 4 of the Act), (ii) Commodity Assistance (section 6 of...), and (ii) School Breakfast (section 4 of the Act). (6) Entitlement grants for State...

  3. Issues in Target Tracking (United States)


    the CUSUM (Page) test yields the quickest detection of a change of distribution for the case of i.i.d. observations [3]. In fact, in a (highly...11. Autocorrelation of the CUSUM increments, sn, under H1 (target present). Issues in Target Tracking RTO-EN-SET-157(2010...restrictive condition that the increments of the cumulative sum, sn, be i.i.d. [3], [22]. Fig. 11 plots the autocorrelation of the CUSUM increments as a

  4. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  5. The Sinuous Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab


    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  6. Production Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  7. Targeted assets risk analysis. (United States)

    Bouwsema, Barry


    Risk assessments utilising the consolidated risk assessment process as described by Public Safety Canada and the Centre for Security Science utilise the five threat categories of natural, human accidental, technological, human intentional and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE). The categories of human intentional and CBRNE indicate intended actions against specific targets. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify which pieces of critical infrastructure represent the likely targets of individuals with malicious intent. Using the consolidated risk assessment process and the target capabilities list, coupled with the CARVER methodology and a security vulnerability analysis, it is possible to identify these targeted assets and their weaknesses. This process can help emergency managers to identify where resources should be allocated and funding spent. Targeted Assets Risk Analysis (TARA) presents a new opportunity to improve how risk is measured, monitored, managed and minimised through the four phases of emergency management, namely, prevention, preparation, response and recovery. To reduce risk throughout Canada, Defence Research and Development Canada is interested in researching the potential benefits of a comprehensive approach to risk assessment and management. The TARA provides a framework against which potential human intentional threats can be measured and quantified, thereby improving safety for all Canadians.

  8. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  9. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller


    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  10. Setting reference targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.


    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  11. Cooled particle accelerator target (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.


    A novel particle beam target comprising: a rotating target disc mounted on a retainer and thermally coupled to a first array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially inwardly from the retainer and mesh without physical contact with a second array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially outwardly from and are thermally coupled to a cooling mechanism capable of removing heat from said second array of spaced-apart fins and located within the first array of spaced-apart parallel fins. Radiant thermal exchange between the two arrays of parallel plate fins provides removal of heat from the rotating disc. A method of cooling the rotating target is also described.

  12. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia


    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  13. Targeting peroxiredoxins against leukemia. (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Xu; Zhou, Hu-Chen; Yin, Qian-Qian; Wu, Ying-Li; Chen, Guo-Qiang


    Peroxiredoxins (Prx), a family of small non-seleno peroxidases, are important regulators for cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to many signaling pathways and pathogenesis of diseases. Targeting redox homeostasis is being developed as a promising therapeutic strategy for many diseases such as cancers. This mini-review attempts to focus on our recent discoveries on adenanthin as the first natural molecule to specifically target the resolving cysteines of Prx I and Prx II and thus inhibit their peroxidase activities, and its role in differentiation induction in vitro and in vivo of acute myeloid leukemic cells.

  14. Cancer immunotherapy targeting neoantigens. (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Chen; Robbins, Paul F


    Neoantigens are antigens encoded by tumor-specific mutated genes. Studies in the past few years have suggested a key role for neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy. Here we review the discoveries of neoantigens in the past two decades and the current advances in neoantigen identification. We also discuss the potential benefits and obstacles to the development of effective cancer immunotherapies targeting neoantigens.

  15. Microenvironmental targets in sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eEhnman


    Full Text Available Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors affecting all age groups. They are typically classified according to their resemblance to corresponding normal tissue. Their heterogeneous features, for example in terms of disease-driving genetic aberrations and body location, complicate both disease classification and development of novel treatment regimens. Many years of failure of improved patient outcome in clinical trials has lead to the conclusion that novel targeted therapies are likely needed in combination with current multimodality regimens. Sarcomas have not, in contrast to the common carcinomas, been the subject for larger systematic studies on how tumor behavior relates to characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. There is consequently an urgent need for identifying suitable molecular targets, not only in tumor cells, but also in the tumor microenvironment. This review discusses preclinical and clinical data about potential molecular targets in sarcomas. Studies on targeted therapies involving the tumor microenvironment are prioritized. A greater understanding of the biological context is expected to facilitate more successful design of future clinical trials in sarcoma.

  16. Major Targets for 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ This year, the main targets we have set for economic and social development are: increasing GDP by approximately 8 percent, creating jobs for more than 9 million people, keeping the urban registered unemployment rate no higher than 4.6 percent, holding the rise in consumer prices to around 3 percent, and improving the balance of payments.

  17. Target chambers for gammashpere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Falout, J.W.; Nardi, B.G. [and others


    One of our responsibilities for Gammasphere, was designing and constructing two target chambers and associated beamlines to be used with the spectrometer. The first chamber was used with the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, and consisted of two spun-Al hemispheres welded together giving a wall thickness of 0.063 inches and a diameter of 12 inches.

  18. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  19. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)


    The research project entitled,” Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  20. Syntheses and pharmacological evaluation of two potent antagonists for dopamine D{sub 4} receptors: [{sup 11}C]YM-50001 and N-[2-[4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-piperizin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-[{sup 11}C]methoxybenzamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Mingrong E-mail:; Haradahira, Terushi; Maeda, Jun; Okauchi, Takashi; Kawabe, Kouichi; Noguchi, Junko; Kida, Takayo; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Suhara, Tetsuya


    Two benzamide derivatives as dopamine D{sub 4} receptor antagonists, YM-50001(4) and N- [2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl]piperizin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-methoxybenzamide (9), were labeled by positron-emitter ({sup 11}C), and their pharmacological specificities to dopamine D{sub 4} receptors were examined by quantitative autoradiography and positron emission tomography (PET). Radiosyntheses were accomplished by O-methylation of corresponding phenol precursors (5 and 10) with [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I followed by HPLC purifications. In vitro binding on rat brain slices showed different distribution patterns and pharmacological properties between the two radioligands. The [{sup 11}C]4 showed the highest binding in the striatum, which was inhibited not only by 10 {mu}M 4 but also by 10 {mu}M raclopride, a selective dopamine D{sub 2} receptor antagonist. In contrast, [{sup 11}C]9 showed the highest binding in the cerebral cortex, which was inhibited by several D{sub 4} receptor antagonists (9, RBI-254, L-745,870), but not by any other receptor ligands (D{sub 1}/D{sub 5}, D{sub 2}/D{sub 3}, 5-HT{sub 1A}, 5-HT{sub 2A}, {sigma}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 1}) tested. In vivo brain distribution of [{sup 11}C]9 in rat showed the highest uptake in the frontal cortex, a region that has a high density of D{sub 4} receptors. These results indicate that the pharmacological property of [{sup 11}C]9 matches the rat brain D{sub 4} receptors, but that of [{sup 11}C]4 rather appears to match the rat brain D{sub 2} receptors. The results for the benzamide [{sup 11}C]9 prompted us to further evaluate its potential as a PET radioligand for D{sub 4} receptors by employing PET on monkey brain. Unfortunately, in contrast to rats, neither specific binding nor differences in regional uptake of radioactivity were observed in monkey brain after intravenous {sup 11}C]9 injection. Based on that specific activities of radioligands might be critical in mapping the neurotransmitter receptors if they are only faintly expressed

  1. Efficacy and safety of an oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg (24/4 regimen in three indications in the People's Republic of China: a comparison with international studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marr J


    Full Text Available Joachim Marr,1 Zirong Huang,2 Baoxi Wang,3 Hongyan Zhang,4 Katrin Roth1 1Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany; 2Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 3Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 4Peking University Sixth Hospital, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Ministry of Health (Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: While combined oral contraceptives are a popular choice in developed Western countries, they are used by only 1% of women who are married or in a relationship in the People's Republic of China. The purpose of this review is to describe the efficacy and safety of the combined oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol (EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg taken in a 24/4 regimen (YAZ®; Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany by Chinese women and to compare these results with those in women assessed in the international studies. Studies of EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg in three different indications (contraception, acne, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder [PMDD] have been conducted in Chinese women. The results of these three studies indicate that the EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg combined oral contraceptive is a good long-term contraceptive option in Chinese women, providing 99% contraceptive protection over the observed 1-year treatment period, and additionally had a favorable effect on moderate acne vulgaris and relieved the symptoms of PMDD. The contraceptive efficacy, improvement in acne, and relief from PMDD symptoms observed in these studies did not differ from the effects observed in other international studies of EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg, indicating that EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg is as effective in Chinese women as in other ethnicities. Further, EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg demonstrated a similar safety and tolerability profile in women enrolled in the Chinese and international trials, with no unexpected adverse

  2. Polarization discrimination between repeater false-target and radar target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI LongFei; WANG XueSong; XIAO ShunPing


    High fidelity repeater false-target badly affects a radar system's detecting, tracking, and data processing. It is an available approach of confronting false-target for radar that discriminates firstly and then eliminates. Whereas for the technique progress about the repeater false-target jam, it is more and more difficult to discriminate this jam in the time-domain, frequency-domain, or space-domain. The technique using polarization information to discriminate the target and false-target is discussed in this paper. With the difference that false-target signal vector's polarization ratio is fixed and target echo signal vector's polarization ratio is variational along with radar transmission signal's polarization, we transform the discrimination problem to beeline distinguish problem in the 2-dim complex space. The distributing characteristic expression of the false-target discrimination statistic is constructed, with which the discrimination ratio of false-target is analyzed. For the target case, the decomposed model of target scattering matrix and the concept of distinguish quantity are proposed. Then, the discrimination ratio of target can be forecasted according to target distinguish quantity. Thus, the performance of discrimination method has been analyzed integrally. The simulation results demonstrate the method in this paper is effective on the discrimination of target and false-target.

  3. Gene Targeting in Neuroendocrinology. (United States)

    Candlish, Michael; De Angelis, Roberto; Götz, Viktoria; Boehm, Ulrich


    Research in neuroendocrinology faces particular challenges due to the complex interactions between cells in the hypothalamus, in the pituitary gland and in peripheral tissues. Within the hypothalamus alone, attempting to target a specific neuronal cell type can be problematic due to the heterogeneous nature and level of cellular diversity of hypothalamic nuclei. Because of the inherent complexity of the reproductive axis, the use of animal models and in vivo experiments are often a prerequisite in reproductive neuroendocrinology. The advent of targeted genetic modifications, particularly in mice, has opened new avenues of neuroendocrine research. Within this review, we evaluate various mouse models used in reproductive neuroendocrinology and discuss the different approaches to generate genetically modified mice, along with their inherent advantages and disadvantages. We also discuss a variety of versatile genetic tools with a focus on their potential use in reproductive neuroendocrinology.

  4. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.


    the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...... will need to make efforts to recover all recyclable fractions, and that the increased recycling efforts of only selected municipalities will not be sufficient to reach the target.......Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22...

  5. Foucault on targets. (United States)

    Lynch, John


    This paper seeks to gain an insight into the behavior of a large NHS trust, in its attempt to meet a 90 percent patient access target, in a week long national audit in March 2003. Why did individuals act in dramatically different ways to their norm over this period. The work of Michel Foucault is used to explore these issues. The discourses of power, knowledge, discipline and governmentality are identified as key foucaudian themes that offer an alternative interpretation of how individuals behave in their place of work. The importance of the historical context of discourse within the NHS cannot be underestimated in shaping the behavior of individuals and groups today. Power and knowledge permeate NHS organizations through disciplinary practices and dressage. Governmentality seeks to maintain the status quo through disciplinary processes such as national healthcare targets. The natural response of NHS organizations is therefore, to seek order and conformity rather than disorder and conflict.

  6. Recognizing occluded MSTAR targets (United States)

    Bhanu, Bir; Jones, Grinnell, III


    This paper presents an approach for recognizing occluded vehicle targets in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. Using quasi-invariant local features, SAR scattering center locations and magnitudes, a recognition algorithm is presented that successfully recognizes highly occluded versions of actual vehicles from the MSTAR public data. Extensive experimental results are presented to show the effect of occlusion on recognition performance in terms of Probability of Correct Identification, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and confusion matrices. The effect of occlusion on performance of this recognition algorithm is accurately predicted. Combined effects such as occlusion and measured positional noise, as well as occlusion and other observed extended operating conditions (e.g., articulation) are also addressed. Although excellent forced recognition results can be achieved at very high (70%) occlusion, practical limitations are found due to the similarity of unoccluded confuser vehicles to highly occluded targets.

  7. Targeting biodefense markets. (United States)

    Olinger, Gene Garrard


    The "World Vaccine Congress 2009" held in Washington D.C. (April 20-23, 2009) sponsored several sessions focused on the vaccine market targeting biodefense. On day one of the congress, a panel discussion outlined the federal progress in medical countermeasure preparedness that included emerging infections, influenza, and biodefense focuses. The second day, a session focused on the biodefense vaccine market with both government and industry members discussing the opportunities and challenges associated with the budding market.

  8. Implementing Target Value Design. (United States)

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K


    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  9. Follicular penetration and targeting. (United States)

    Lademann, Jürgen; Otberg, Nina; Jacobi, Ute; Hoffman, Robert M; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike


    In the past, intercellular penetration was assumed to be the most important penetration pathway of topically applied substances. First hints that follicular penetration needs to be taken into consideration were confirmed by recent investigations, presented during the workshop "Follicular Penetration and Targeting" at the 4th Intercontinental Meeting of Hair Research Societies", in Berlin 2004. Hair follicles represent an efficient reservoir for the penetration of topically applied substances with subsequent targeting of distinct cell populations, e.g., nestin-expressing follicular bulge cells. The volume of this reservoir can be determined by differential stripping technology. The follicular penetration processes are significantly influenced by the state of the follicular infundibulum; recent experimental investigations could demonstrate that it is essential to distinguish between open and closed hair follicles. Topically applied substances can only penetrate into open hair follicle. Knowledge of follicular penetration is of high clinical relevance for functional targeting of distinct follicular regions. Human hair follicles show a hair-cycle-dependent variation of the dense neuronal and vascular network. Moreover, during hair follicle cycling with initiation of anagen, newly formed vessels occur. Thus, the potential of nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells to form neurons and blood vessels was investigated.

  10. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C


    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  11. Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0412 TITLE: "Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis " PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yong Teng CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Prost a t e Cancer Metastasi s Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 14- 1- 0 41 2 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER YongTeng Se...r egulator in contr olling metastasis of p r ost a t e cancer and i nhi b i t i ng i t prevent s met ast asis . There are no drugs available to tar

  12. Open Targets: a platform for therapeutic target identification and validation (United States)

    Koscielny, Gautier; An, Peter; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Cham, Jennifer A.; Fumis, Luca; Gasparyan, Rippa; Hasan, Samiul; Karamanis, Nikiforos; Maguire, Michael; Papa, Eliseo; Pierleoni, Andrea; Pignatelli, Miguel; Platt, Theo; Rowland, Francis; Wankar, Priyanka; Bento, A. Patrícia; Burdett, Tony; Fabregat, Antonio; Forbes, Simon; Gaulton, Anna; Gonzalez, Cristina Yenyxe; Hermjakob, Henning; Hersey, Anne; Jupe, Steven; Kafkas, Şenay; Keays, Maria; Leroy, Catherine; Lopez, Francisco-Javier; Magarinos, Maria Paula; Malone, James; McEntyre, Johanna; Munoz-Pomer Fuentes, Alfonso; O'Donovan, Claire; Papatheodorou, Irene; Parkinson, Helen; Palka, Barbara; Paschall, Justin; Petryszak, Robert; Pratanwanich, Naruemon; Sarntivijal, Sirarat; Saunders, Gary; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Smith, Thomas; Sondka, Zbyslaw; Stegle, Oliver; Tang, Y. Amy; Turner, Edward; Vaughan, Brendan; Vrousgou, Olga; Watkins, Xavier; Martin, Maria-Jesus; Sanseau, Philippe; Vamathevan, Jessica; Birney, Ewan; Barrett, Jeffrey; Dunham, Ian


    We have designed and developed a data integration and visualization platform that provides evidence about the association of known and potential drug targets with diseases. The platform is designed to support identification and prioritization of biological targets for follow-up. Each drug target is linked to a disease using integrated genome-wide data from a broad range of data sources. The platform provides either a target-centric workflow to identify diseases that may be associated with a specific target, or a disease-centric workflow to identify targets that may be associated with a specific disease. Users can easily transition between these target- and disease-centric workflows. The Open Targets Validation Platform is accessible at PMID:27899665

  13. Low intensity beam target unit

    CERN Multimedia


    This is a wheel fitted with many targets around its periphery (each with three longitudinally arranged thin rods) of which one is placed into the beam via a rotation of the wheel. Upstream of each target is placed a luminescent screen, aligbed on each target axis and viewed with a TV camera, to make sure that one is hitting the target. This target unit was probably used to study target's behaviour (like beam heating). Gualtiero Del Torre stands on the left, Pierre Gerdil on the right.

  14. Targeting adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Bodo


    Full Text Available Abstract Two different types of adipose tissues can be found in humans enabling them to respond to starvation and cold: white adipose tissue (WAT is generally known and stores excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TG, insulates against cold, and serves as a mechanical cushion. Brown adipose tissue (BAT helps newborns to cope with cold. BAT has the capacity to uncouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby generating heat rather than adenosine triphosphate (ATP. The previously widely held view was that BAT disappears rapidly after birth and is no longer present in adult humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET, however, it was recently shown that metabolically active BAT occurs in defined regions and scattered in WAT of the adult and possibly has an influence on whole-body energy homeostasis. In obese individuals adipose tissue is at the center of metabolic syndrome. Targeting of WAT by thiazolidinediones (TZDs, activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ a ‘master’ regulator of fat cell biology, is a current therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since its unique capacity to increase energy consumption of the body and to dissipate surplus energy as heat, BAT offers new perspectives as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Recent discoveries of new signaling pathways of BAT development give rise to new therapeutic possibilities in order to influence BAT content and activity.

  15. Target Housing Material Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    With gas cooling, heat transfer coefficients are low compared to water. The benefit of gas from a heat transfer point of view is that there is really no upper temperature limit for the coolant, as compared to water, which is limited ultimately by the critical point, and in practice the critical heat flux. In our case with parallel flow channels, water is limited to even lower operating limits by nucleate boiling. So gas can get as hot as the containment material will allow, but to get the density and heat transfer up to something reasonable, we must also increase pressure, thus increasing stress on the containment, namely the front and back faces. We are designing to ASME BPVC, which, for most materials allows a maximum stress of UTS/3. So we want the highest possible UTS. For reference, the front face stress in the 12 mm target at 300 psi was about 90 MPa. The inconel 718 allowable stress at 900°C is 1/3 of 517 or 172 MPa. So we are in a very safe place, but the uTS is dropping rapidly with temperature above 900°C. As we increase target diameter, the challenge will be to keep the stress down. We are probably looking at keeping the allowable at or above the present value, and at as high a temperature as possible.

  16. Targeted therapy in melanoma. (United States)

    Kudchadkar, Ragini R; Smalley, Keiran S M; Glass, L Frank; Trimble, James S; Sondak, Vernon K


    Since the discovery of activating mutations in the BRAF oncogene in melanoma, there has been remarkable progress in the development of targeted therapies for unresectable and metastatic melanoma. We review the latest developments in our understanding of the role of BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway signaling in melanoma, and the development of inhibitors of this pathway. We also explore alternative mutations seen in melanoma, such as NRAS, KIT, GNAQ, and GNA11, and the drug development that is ongoing based on this biology. Strategies for the management of the vexing clinical problem of BRAF inhibitor resistance, primarily via combination therapy, are outlined. With the recent approval of the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib for stage IV metastatic melanoma, use of this agent is expanding in the United States. Thus, management of the skin toxicities of this agent, such as squamous cell carcinomas, "acneiform" eruptions, hand-foot syndrome, and panniculitis, will be a growing problem facing dermatologists today. We discuss the toxicities of targeted agents in use for melanoma, in particular the dermatologic effects and the management of these skin toxicities.

  17. A Note on Inflation Targeting. (United States)

    Lai, Ching-chong; Chang, Juin-jen


    Presents a pedagogical graphical exposition to illustrate the stabilizing effect of price target zones. Finds that authorities' commitment to defend a price target zone affects the public's inflation expectations and, in turn, reduces actual inflation. (RLH)

  18. Bradycardia During Targeted Temperature Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Nielsen, Niklas; Hassager, Christian


    OBJECTIVES: Bradycardia is common during targeted temperature management, likely being a physiologic response to lower body temperature, and has recently been associated with favorable outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in smaller observational studies. The present study sought...... to confirm this finding in a large multicenter cohort of patients treated with targeted temperature management at 33°C and explore the response to targeted temperature management targeting 36°C. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a prospective randomized study. SETTING: Thirty-six ICUs in 10 countries. PATIENTS......: We studied 447 (targeted temperature management = 33°C) and 430 (targeted temperature management = 36°C) comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with available heart rate data, randomly assigned in the targeted temperature management trial from 2010 to 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Targeted...

  19. Scaling of exploding pusher targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuckolls, J.H.


    A theory of exploding pusher laser pusher targets is compared to results of LASNEX calculations and to Livermore experiments. A scaling relationship is described which predicts the optimum target/pulse combinations as a function of the laser power.

  20. Inforna 2.0: A Platform for the Sequence-Based Design of Small Molecules Targeting Structured RNAs. (United States)

    Disney, Matthew D; Winkelsas, Audrey M; Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Southern, Mark; Fallahi, Mohammad; Childs-Disney, Jessica L


    The development of small molecules that target RNA is challenging yet, if successful, could advance the development of chemical probes to study RNA function or precision therapeutics to treat RNA-mediated disease. Previously, we described Inforna, an approach that can mine motifs (secondary structures) within target RNAs, which is deduced from the RNA sequence, and compare them to a database of known RNA motif-small molecule binding partners. Output generated by Inforna includes the motif found in both the database and the desired RNA target, lead small molecules for that target, and other related meta-data. Lead small molecules can then be tested for binding and affecting cellular (dys)function. Herein, we describe Inforna 2.0, which incorporates all known RNA motif-small molecule binding partners reported in the scientific literature, a chemical similarity searching feature, and an improved user interface and is freely available via an online web server. By incorporation of interactions identified by other laboratories, the database has been doubled, containing 1936 RNA motif-small molecule interactions, including 244 unique small molecules and 1331 motifs. Interestingly, chemotype analysis of the compounds that bind RNA in the database reveals features in small molecule chemotypes that are privileged for binding. Further, this updated database expanded the number of cellular RNAs to which lead compounds can be identified.

  1. ORION laser target diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others


    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  2. [Targeted therapies for melanoma]. (United States)

    Leiter, U; Meier, F; Garbe, C


    Since the discovery of activating mutations in the BRAF oncogene and also stimulation of immune mediated antitumor response in melanoma, there has been remarkable progress in the development of targeted therapies for unresectable and metastatic melanoma. This article addresses the latest developments of BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway signaling. In addition, the development of drugs to attack alternative mutations in melanoma, such as NRAS and KIT is described. Strategies for the management of BRAF inhibitor resistance, such as with combination therapy, are outlined. Antitumor immune therapies with monoclonal antibodies such as ipilimumab which acts by promoting T-cell activation or antibody blockade of programmed death-1 (PD-1) led to a long term response in metastatic melanoma. Results of latest clinical studies including the toxicity profile are described. Due to selective kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockade, the therapy of unresectable metastatic melanoma has greatly improved and long-term survival of patients with metastatic melanoma seems a real possibility.

  3. ORION laser target diagnostics. (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P


    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  4. SRNL Development of Recovery Processes for Mark-18A Heavy Actinide Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, Jeffrey S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bridges, Nicholas J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Loftin, Bradley M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dunsmuir, Michael D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are developing plans for the recovery of rare and unique isotopes contained within heavy-actinide target assemblies, specifically the Mark-18A. Mark-18A assemblies were irradiated in Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors in the 1970s under extremely high neutron-flux conditions and produced, virtually, the world's supply of plutonium-244, an isotope of key importance to high-precision actinide measurement and other scientific and nonproliferation uses; and curium highly enriched in heavy isotopes (e.g., curium-246 and curium-248). In 2015 and 2016, SRNL is pursuing tasks that would reduce program risk and budget requirements, including further characterization of unprocessed targets; engineering studies for the use of the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) for recovery; and development of onsite and offsite shipping methods including a replacement for the heavy (70 ton) cask previously used for onsite transfer of irradiated items at SRS. A status update is provided for the characterization, including modeling using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP); direct non-destructive assay measurements; and cask design.

  5. Targeting of Antibodies using Aptamers



    The chapter presents a methodology for the rapid selection of aptamers against antibody targets. It is a detailed account of the various methodological steps that describe the selection of aptamers, including PCR steps, buffers to be used, target immobilisation, partitioning and amplification of aptamers, clonning and sequencing, to results in high affinity and specificity ligands for the chosen target antibody.

  6. Emerging targets in migraine. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jan; Goadsby, Peter J


    Migraine is a common and highly disabling neurological disorder. Despite the complexity of its pathophysiology, substantial advances have been achieved over the past 20 years in its understanding, as well as the development of pharmacological treatment options. The development of serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists ("triptans") substantially improved the acute treatment of migraine attacks. However, many migraineurs do not respond satisfactorily to triptans and cardiovascular co-morbidities limit their use in a significant number of patients. As migraine is increasingly considered to be a disorder of the brain, and preclinical and clinical data indicate that the observed vasodilation is merely an epiphenomenon, research has recently focused on the development of neurally acting compounds that lack vasoconstrictor properties. This review highlights the most important pharmacological targets for which compounds have been developed that are highly likely to enter or have already advanced into clinical trials for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. In this context, preclinical and clinical data on compounds acting on calcitonin gene-related peptide or its receptor, the 5-HT(1F) receptor, nitric oxide synthase, and acid-sensing ion channel blockers are discussed.

  7. EURISOL High Power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Lindroos, M; Ridikas, D; Stora, T; Tecchio, L; CERN. Geneva. BE Department


    Modern Nuclear Physics requires access to higher yields of rare isotopes, that relies on further development of the In-flight and Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) production methods. The limits of the In-Flight method will be applied via the next generation facilities FAIR in Germany, RIKEN in Japan and RIBF in the USA. The ISOL method will be explored at facilities including ISAC-TRIUMF in Canada, SPIRAL-2 in France, SPES in Italy, ISOLDE at CERN and eventually at the very ambitious multi-MW EURISOL facility. ISOL and in-flight facilities are complementary entities. While in-flight facilities excel in the production of very short lived radioisotopes independently of their chemical nature, ISOL facilities provide high Radioisotope Beam (RIB) intensities and excellent beam quality for 70 elements. Both production schemes are opening vast and rich fields of nuclear physics research. In this article we will introduce the targets planned for the EURISOL facility and highlight some of the technical and safety cha...

  8. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann


    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  9. The target effect: visual memory for unnamed search targets. (United States)

    Thomas, Mark D; Williams, Carrick C


    Search targets are typically remembered much better than other objects even when they are viewed for less time. However, targets have two advantages that other objects in search displays do not have: They are identified categorically before the search, and finding them represents the goal of the search task. The current research investigated the contributions of both of these types of information to the long-term visual memory representations of search targets. Participants completed either a predefined search or a unique-object search in which targets were not defined with specific categorical labels before searching. Subsequent memory results indicated that search target memory was better than distractor memory even following ambiguously defined searches and when the distractors were viewed significantly longer. Superior target memory appears to result from a qualitatively different representation from those of distractor objects, indicating that decision processes influence visual memory.

  10. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  11. The OLYMPUS internal hydrogen target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, J.C., E-mail: [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Henderson, B.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ihloff, E.; Kelsey, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Lenisa, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Milner, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Schmidt, A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Statera, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)


    An internal hydrogen target system was developed for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY, in Hamburg, Germany. The target consisted of a long, thin-walled, tubular cell within an aluminum scattering chamber. Hydrogen entered at the center of the cell and exited through the ends, where it was removed from the beamline by a multistage pumping system. A cryogenic coldhead cooled the target cell to counteract heating from the beam and increase the density of hydrogen in the target. A fixed collimator protected the cell from synchrotron radiation and the beam halo. A series of wakefield suppressors reduced heating from beam wakefields. The target system was installed within the DORIS storage ring and was successfully operated during the course of the OLYMPUS experiment in 2012. Information on the design, fabrication, and performance of the target system is reported.

  12. Oxide Fiber Targets at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Carminati, D; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Correia, J G; Crepieux, B; Dietrich, M; Elder, K; Fedosseev, V; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Fynbo, H O U; Georg, U; Giles, T; Joinet, A; Jonsson, O C; Kirchner, R; Lau, C; Lettry, Jacques; Maier, H J; Mishin, V I; Oinonen, M; Peräjärvi, K; Ravn, H L; Rinaldi, T; Santana-Leitner, M; Wahl, U; Weissman, L


    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxyde fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxyde fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce...

  13. Learning About Intervention Target Zones


    Klein, Michael W; Karen K. Lewis


    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  14. Data Mining for Target Marketing (United States)

    Levin, Nissan; Zahavi, Jacob

    Targeting is the core of marketing management. It is concerned with offering the right product/service to the customer at the right time and using the proper channel. In this chapter we discuss how Data Mining modeling and analysis can support targeting applications. We focus on three types of targeting models: continuous-choice models, discrete-choice models and in-market timing models, discussing alternative modeling for each application and decision making. We also discuss a range of pitfalls that one needs to be aware of in implementing a data mining solution for a targeting problem.

  15. Inflation Targeting and Inflation Persistence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper argues that the adoption of an inflation target reduces the persistence of inflation.We develop the theoretical literature on inflation persistence by introducing a Taylor Rule for monetary policy into a model of persistence and showing that inflation targets reduce inflation persistence.We investigate changes in the time series properties of inflation in seven countries that introduced inflation targets in the late 1980s or early 1990s.We find that the persistence of inflation is greatly reduced or eliminated following the introduction of inflation targets.

  16. Limits of Inflation Targeting Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Niculescu


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the trade-off between output volatility and the variability of the inflation rate around its target (Romanian case. The optimal choice for National Bank of Romania (NBR, in our opinion, is the flexible inflation targeting. For this purpose, NBR must explain the loss function and the optimal monetary policy rule. We then argued that this Romanian authority – NBR – can substantially improve its credibility under inflation targeting policy regime by becoming more accountable and transparent. Is the direct inflation targeting the best choice for the monetary policy regime in Romanian economy?

  17. Target engagement in lead generation. (United States)

    Durham, Timothy B; Blanco, Maria-Jesus


    The pharmaceutical industry is currently facing multiple challenges, in particular the low number of new drug approvals in spite of the high level of R&D investment. In order to improve target selection and assess properly the clinical hypothesis, it is important to start building an integrated drug discovery approach during Lead Generation. This should include special emphasis on evaluating target engagement in the target tissue and linking preclinical to clinical readouts. In this review, we would like to illustrate several strategies and technologies for assessing target engagement and the value of its application to medicinal chemistry efforts.

  18. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Jäger


    Full Text Available Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT, which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination

  19. Transverse target spin asymmetries on a proton target at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Andreas


    Transversity and transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are been measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) by using a transversely polarized target at the COMPASS experiment. COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at the CERN M2 beamline, which provides a 160GeV/c polarized m+ beam. In the years 2002-2004 COMPASS has collected data with a transversely polarized deuteron 6LiD target. In 2007, COMPASS has used for the first time a proton NH3 target. To access transversity COMPASS has used three different quark polarimeters: the Collins effect, responsible for an azimuthal asymmetry in the single hadron distribution, azimuthal target spin asymmetries of charged hadron pairs and the transverse polarisation of L hyperons. Beside this also the Sivers asymmetry arising from the correlation between the transverse nucleon spin and the quark intrinsic transverse momentum was measured. European

  20. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia


    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  1. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio;


    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure...

  2. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R


    BACKGROUND: Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards...

  3. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars


    delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....

  4. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J;


    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS...

  5. Oxide fiber targets at ISOLDE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, U.; Bergmann, U.C.; Carminati, D.


    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxide fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at so...

  6. Dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eAst


    Full Text Available Cellular compartmentalization into organelles serves to separate biological processes within the environment of a single cell. While some metabolic reactions are specific to a single organelle, others occur in more than one cellular compartment. Specific targeting of proteins to compartments inside of eukaryotic cells is mediated by defined sequence motifs. To achieve multiple targeting to different compartments cells use a variety of strategies. Here, we focus on mechanisms leading to dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins. In many instances, isoforms of peroxisomal proteins with distinct intracellular localization are encoded by separate genes. But also single genes can give rise to differentially localized proteins. Different isoforms can be generated by use of alternative transcriptional start sites, by differential splicing or ribosomal read-through of stop codons. In all these cases different peptide variants are produced, of which only one carries a peroxisomal targeting signal. Alternatively, peroxisomal proteins contain additional signals that compete for intracellular targeting. Dual localization of proteins residing in both the cytoplasm and in peroxisomes may also result from use of inefficient targeting signals. The recent observation that some bona fide cytoplasmic enzymes were also found in peroxisomes indicates that dual targeting of proteins to both the cytoplasm and the peroxisome might be more widespread. Although current knowledge of proteins exhibiting only partial peroxisomal targeting is far from being complete, we speculate that the metabolic capacity of peroxisomes might be larger than previously assumed.

  7. Target-Searching on Percolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We study target-searching processes on a percolation, on which a hunter tracks a target by smelling odors it emits. The odor intensity is supposed to be inversely proportional to the distance it propagates. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed on a 2-dimensional bond-percolation above the threshold. Having no idea of the location of the target, the hunter determines its moves only by random attempts in each direction. For lager percolation connectivity p (>~) 0.90, it reveals a scaling law for the searching time versus the distance to the position of the target. The scaling exponent is dependent on the sensitivity of the hunter. For smaller p, the scaling law is broken and the probability of finding out the target significantly reduces. The hunter seems trapped in the cluster of the percolation and can hardly reach the goal.

  8. Ocular toxicity of targeted therapies. (United States)

    Renouf, Daniel J; Velazquez-Martin, Juan P; Simpson, Rand; Siu, Lillian L; Bedard, Philippe L


    Molecularly targeted agents are commonly used in oncology practice, and many new targeted agents are currently being tested in clinical trials. Although these agents are thought to be more specific and less toxic then traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, they are associated with a variety of toxicities, including ocular toxicity. Many of the molecules targeted by anticancer agents are also expressed in ocular tissues. We reviewed the literature for described ocular toxicities associated with both approved and investigational molecularly targeted agents. Ocular toxicity has been described with numerous approved targeted agents and also seems to be associated with several classes of agents currently being tested in early-phase clinical trials. We discuss the proposed pathogenesis, monitoring guidelines, and management recommendations. It is important for oncologists to be aware of the potential for ocular toxicity, with prompt recognition of symptoms that require referral to an ophthalmologist. Ongoing collaboration between oncologists and ocular disease specialists is critical as the use of molecularly targeted agents continues to expand and novel targeted drug combinations are developed.

  9. Targeting Peace: Understanding UN and EU Targeted Sanctions



    In recent years, the international community has increasingly come to abandon the use of comprehensive sanctions in favour of targeted sanctions. Unlike adopting a coercive strategy on entire states, actors like the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU) have come to resort to measures that are aimed at individuals, groups and government members. Targeted sanctions involve adopting measures such as asset freezes, travel bans, commodity sanctions, as well as arms embargoes. Eriksson a...

  10. Targeted biopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment. (United States)

    Zhou, Lufang; Xu, Ningning; Sun, Yan; Liu, Xiaoguang Margaret


    Cancer is a complex invasive genetic disease that causes significant mortality rate worldwide. Protein-based biopharmaceuticals have significantly extended the lives of millions of cancer patients. This article reviews the biological function and application of targeted anticancer biopharmaceuticals. We first discuss the specific antigens and core pathways that are used in the development of targeted cancer therapy. The innovative monoclonal antibodies, non-antibody proteins, and small molecules targeting these antigens or pathways are then reviewed. Finally, the current challenges in anticancer biopharmaceuticals development and the potential solutions to address these challenges are discussed.

  11. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads;


    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov...

  12. Strategically targeting MYC in cancer (United States)

    Posternak, Valeriya; Cole, Michael D.


    MYC is a major driver of cancer cell growth and mediates a transcriptional program spanning cell growth, the cell cycle, metabolism, and cell survival. Many efforts have been made to deliberately target MYC for cancer therapy. A variety of compounds have been generated to inhibit MYC function or stability, either directly or indirectly. The most direct inhibitors target the interaction between MYC and MAX, which is required for DNA binding. Unfortunately, these compounds do not have the desired pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for in vivo application. Recent studies report the indirect inhibition of MYC through the development of two compounds, JQ1 and THZ1, which target factors involved in unique stages of transcription. These compounds appear to have significant therapeutic value for cancers with high levels of MYC, although some effects are MYC-independent. These approaches serve as a foundation for developing novel compounds to pharmacologically target MYC-driven cancers. PMID:27081479

  13. Gene targeting with retroviral vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Bernstein, A. (Toronto Univ., ON (Canada))


    The authors have designed and constructed integration-defective retroviral vectors to explore their potential for gene targeting in mammalian cells. Two nonoverlapping deletion mutants of the bacterial neomycin resistance (neo) gene were used to detect homologous recombination events between viral and chromosomal sequences. Stable neo gene correction events were selected at a frequency of approximately 1 G418/sup r/ cell per 3 x 10/sup 6/ infected cells. Analysis of the functional neo gene in independent targeted cell clones indicated that unintegrated retroviral linear DNA recombined with the target by gene conversion for variable distances into regions of nonhomology. In addition, transient neo gene correction events which were associated with the complete loss of the chromosomal target sequences were observed. These results demonstrated that retroviral vectors can recombine with homologous chromosomal sequences in rodent and human cells.

  14. Gene targeting in malaria parasites. (United States)

    Ménard, R; Janse, C


    Gene targeting, which permits alteration of a chosen gene in a predetermined way by homologous recombination, is an emerging technology in malaria research. Soon after the development of techniques for stable transformation of red blood cell stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei, genes of interest were disrupted in the two species. The main limitations of gene targeting in malaria parasites result from the intracellular growth and slow replication of these parasites. On the other hand, the technology is facilitated by the very high rate of homologous recombination following transformation with targeting constructs (approximately 100%). Here, we describe (i) the vector design and the type of mutation that may be generated in a target locus, (ii) the selection and screening strategies that can be used to identify clones with the desired modification, and (iii) the protocol that was used for disrupting the circumsporozoite protein (CS) and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) genes of P. berghei.

  15. Targeted therapy for pediatric glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Olow


    This thesis assesses molecular underpinnings of responses to promising targeted agents for pediatric tumors of Central Nervous System (CNS), incorporating preclinical testing of novel and translatable combination therapies to define the best therapy for each tumor cell specific molecular aberration.

  16. After treat-to-target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Naredo, Esperanza;


    have recently formed a research network - the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI) group. The statement proposes that targeting therapy to PD activity provides superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone and introduces the rationale for a new randomised trial using targeted...... defined by clinical remission criteria (disease activity score, simplified disease activity index, etc) does not always equate to the complete absence of inflammation as measured by new sensitive imaging techniques such as ultrasound (US) . There is evidence that imaging synovitis is frequently found...... in these patients and associated with adverse clinical and functional outcomes. This article reviews the data regarding remission, ultrasound imaging and outcomes in patients with RA to provide the background to a consensus statement from an international collaboration of ultrasonographers and rheumatologists who...

  17. Targeted therapy: tailoring cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yan; Quentin Qiang Liu


    Targeted therapies include small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies,have made treatment more tumor-specific and less toxic,and have opened new possibilities for tailoring cancer treatment.Nevertheless,there remain several challenges to targeted therapies,including molecular identification,drug resistance,and exploring reliable biomarkers.Here,we present several selected signaling pathways and molecular targets involved in human cancers including Aurora kinases,PI3K/mTOR signaling,FOXO-FOXM1 axis,and MDM2/MDM4-p53 interaction.Understanding the molecular mechanisms for tumorigenesis and development of drug resistance will provide new insights into drug discovery and design of therapeutic strategies for targeted therapies.

  18. "Cavitation in a Mercury Target"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.


    Recent theoretical work on the formation of bubble nucleation centers by energetic particles leads to some reasonably credible calculations of the maximum negative pressure that might be sustained without bubble formation in the mercury target of the Spallation Neutron Source.

  19. Cavitation in a Mercury Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.


    Recent theoretical work on the formation of bubble nucleation centers by energetic particles leads to some reasonably credible calculations of the maximum negative pressure that might be sustained without bubble formation in the mercury target of the Spallation Neutron Source.

  20. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz


    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  1. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J


    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  2. Target Oriented Drugs against Leishmania. (United States)


    the leishmanial source. Leishmanial strains L32 Leishmania tropica LRC L32 L137 Leishmania tropica LRC L137 L52 Leishmania donovani LRC L52 These...RESOLUTION TEST CHAR] 0REPORT NUMBER I TARGET ORIENTED DRUGS AGAINST LEISHMANIA (First Annual Summary Report) 0URI ZEHAVI, PhD and JOSEPH EL-ON, PhD...GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RE PIENT.S CATALOG NUMBER A....*( - ) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED TARGET ORIENTED DRUGS AGAINST LEISHMANIA 6 FIRST

  3. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin


    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  4. Nanotechnology of emerging targeting systems. (United States)

    Smith, S S


    Recent developments in the design and testing of complex nanoscale payload-carrying systems (i.e. systems with payloads that do not exceed 100 nm in size) are the focus of this brief review. Emerging systems include targeted single-walled nanotubes, viral capsids, dendrimers, gold nanoparticles, milled boron carbide nanoparticles, and protein nucleic acid assemblies. Significant advances are emerging with each of these bionanotechnological approaches to cellular targeting.

  5. Target-local Gromov compactness

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Joel W


    We prove a version of Gromov's compactness theorem for pseudo-holomorphic curves which holds locally in the target symplectic manifold. This result applies to sequences of curves with an unbounded number of free boundary components, and in families of degenerating target manifolds which have unbounded geometry (e.g. no uniform energy threshold). Core elements of the proof regard curves as submanifolds (rather than maps) and then adapt methods from the theory of minimal surfaces.

  6. Nanotechnology of emerging targeting systems (United States)

    SMITH, S. S.


    Recent developments in the design and testing of complex nanoscale payload-carrying systems (i.e. systems with payloads that do not exceed 100 nm in size) are the focus of this brief review. Emerging systems include targeted single-walled nanotubes, viral capsids, dendrimers, gold nanoparticles, milled boron carbide nanoparticles, and protein nucleic acid assemblies. Significant advances are emerging with each of these bionanotechnological approaches to cellular targeting. PMID:21687833

  7. Radiation target analysis of RNA. (United States)

    Benstein, S L; Kempner, E


    Ribozymes are polynucleotide molecules with intrinsic catalytic activity, capable of cleaving nucleic acid substrates. Large RNA molecules were synthesized containing a hammerhead ribozyme moiety of 52 nucleotides linked to an inactive leader sequence, for total lengths of either 262 or 1226 nucleotides. Frozen RNAs were irradiated with high energy electrons. Surviving ribozyme activity was determined using the ability of the irradiated ribozymes to cleave a labeled substrate. The amount of intact RNA remaining was determined from the same irradiated samples by scanning the RNA band following denaturing gel electrophoresis. Radiation target analyses of these data revealed a structural target size of 80 kDa and a ribozyme activity target size of 15 kDa for the smaller ribozyme, and 319 kDa and 16 kDa, respectively, for the larger ribozyme. The disparity in target size for activity versus structure indicates that, in contrast to proteins, there is no spread of radiation damage far from the primary site of ionization in RNA molecules. The smaller target size for activity indicates that only primary ionizations occurring in the specific active region are effective. This is similar to the case for oligosaccharides. We concluded that the presence of the ribose sugar in the polymer chain restricts radiation damage to a small region and prevents major energy transfer throughout the molecule. Radiation target analysis should be a useful technique for evaluating local RNA:RNA and RNA:protein interactions in vitro.

  8. Oxide fiber targets at ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. E-mail:; Bergmann, U.C.; Carminati, D.; Catherall, R.; Cederkaell, J.; Correia, J.G.; Crepieux, B.; Dietrich, M.; Elder, K.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Fraile, L.; Franchoo, S.; Fynbo, H.; Georg, U.; Giles, T.; Joinet, A.; Jonsson, O.C.; Kirchner, R.; Lau, Ch.; Lettry, J.; Maier, H.J.; Mishin, V.I.; Oinonen, M.; Peraejaervi, K.; Ravn, H.L.; Rinaldi, T.; Santana-Leitner, M.; Wahl, U.; Weissman, L


    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxide fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxide fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce very intense {sup 6}He beams (order of 10{sup 13} ions per second) via the {sup 9}Be(n,{alpha}) reaction using spallation neutrons.

  9. Killing cells by targeting mitosis. (United States)

    Manchado, E; Guillamot, M; Malumbres, M


    Cell cycle deregulation is a common feature of human cancer. Tumor cells accumulate mutations that result in unscheduled proliferation, genomic instability and chromosomal instability. Several therapeutic strategies have been proposed for targeting the cell division cycle in cancer. Whereas inhibiting the initial phases of the cell cycle is likely to generate viable quiescent cells, targeting mitosis offers several possibilities for killing cancer cells. Microtubule poisons have proved efficacy in the clinic against a broad range of malignancies, and novel targeted strategies are now evaluating the inhibition of critical activities, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, Aurora or Polo kinases or spindle kinesins. Abrogation of the mitotic checkpoint or targeting the energetic or proteotoxic stress of aneuploid or chromosomally instable cells may also provide further benefits by inducing lethal levels of instability. Although cancer cells may display different responses to these treatments, recent data suggest that targeting mitotic exit by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex generates metaphase cells that invariably die in mitosis. As the efficacy of cell-cycle targeting approaches has been limited so far, further understanding of the molecular pathways modulating mitotic cell death will be required to move forward these new proposals to the clinic.

  10. Target-oriented chaos control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattani, Justine [Centre for Mathematical Biology, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Blake, Jack C.H. [Centre for Mathematical Biology, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Hilker, Frank M., E-mail: [Centre for Mathematical Biology, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)


    Designing intervention methods to control chaotic behavior in dynamical systems remains a challenging problem, in particular for systems that are difficult to access or to measure. We propose a simple, intuitive technique that modifies the values of the state variables directly toward a certain target. The intervention takes into account the difference to the target value, and is a combination of traditional proportional feedback and constant feedback methods. It proves particularly useful when the target corresponds to the equilibrium of the uncontrolled system, and is available or can be estimated from expert knowledge (e.g. in biology and economy). -- Highlights: → We propose a chaos control method that forces the system to a certain target. → The intervention takes into account the difference to the target value. → It can be seen as a combination of proportional and constant feedback methods. → The method is very robust and highly efficient in the long-term. → It is particularly applicable when suitable target values are known or available.

  11. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition (United States)

    Schachter, Bruce J.


    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  12. Mannose receptor-targeted vaccines. (United States)

    Keler, Tibor; Ramakrishna, Venky; Fanger, Michael W


    Targeting antigens to endocytic receptors on professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) represents an attractive strategy to enhance the efficacy of vaccines. Such APC-targeted vaccines have an exceptional ability to guide exogenous protein antigens into vesicles that efficiently process the antigen for major histocompatibility complex class I and class II presentation. Efficient targeting not only requires high specificity for the receptor that is abundantly expressed on the surface of APCs, but also the ability to be rapidly internalised and loaded into compartments that contain elements of the antigen-processing machinery. The mannose receptor (MR) and related C-type lectin receptors are particularly designed to sample antigens (self and non-self), much like pattern recognition receptors, to integrate the innate with adaptive immune responses. In fact, a variety of approaches involving delivery of antigens to the MR have demonstrated effective induction of potent cellular and humoral immune responses. Yet, although several lines of evidence in diverse experimental systems attest to the efficacy of targeted vaccine strategies, it is becoming increasingly clear that additional signals, such as those afforded by adjuvants, may be critical to elicit sustained immunity. Therefore, MR-targeted vaccines are likely to be most efficacious in vivo when combined with agents that elicit complementary activation signals. Certainly, a better understanding of the mechanism associated with the induction of immune responses as a result of targeting antigens to the MR, will be important in exploiting MR-targeted vaccines not only for mounting immune defenses against cancer and infectious disease, but also for specific induction of tolerance in the treatment of autoimmune disease.

  13. CPHD filter derivation for extended targets

    CERN Document Server

    Orguner, Umut


    This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.

  14. Neuroinflammation: a potential therapeutic target. (United States)

    Craft, Jeffrey M; Watterson, D Martin; Van Eldik, Linda J


    The increased appreciation of the importance of glial cell-propagated inflammation (termed 'neuroinflammation') in the progression of pathophysiology for diverse neurodegenerative diseases, has heightened interest in the rapid discovery of neuroinflammation-targeted therapeutics. Efforts include searches among existing drugs approved for other uses, as well as development of novel synthetic compounds that selectively downregulate neuroinflammatory responses. The use of existing drugs to target neuroinflammation has largely met with failure due to lack of efficacy or untoward side effects. However, the de novo development of new classes of therapeutics based on targeting selective aspects of glia activation pathways and glia-mediated pathophysiologies, versus targeting pathways of quantitative importance in non-CNS inflammatory responses, is yielding promising results in preclinical animal models. The authors briefly review selected clinical and preclinical data that reflect the prevailing approaches targeting neuroinflammation as a pathophysiological process contributing to onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The authors conclude with opinions based on recent experimental proofs of concept using preclinical animal models of pathophysiology. The focus is on Alzheimer's disease, but the concepts are transferrable to other neurodegenerative disorders with an inflammatory component.

  15. Integrin Targeted Delivery of Chemotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen, Xiaoyuan Chen


    Full Text Available Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics is defined in the sense, that is, to maximize the therapeutic index of a chemotherapeutic agent by strictly localizing its pharmacological activity to the site or tissue of action. Integrins are a family of heterodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins involved in a wide range of cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM and cell-to-cell interactions. As cell surface receptors, integrins readily interact with extracellular ligands and play a vital role in angiogenesis, leukocytes function and tumor development, which sets up integrins as an excellent target for chemotherapy treatment. The peptide ligands containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD, which displays a strong binding affinity and selectivity to integrins, particularly to integrin αvβ3, have been developed to conjugate with various conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as small molecules, peptides and proteins, and nanoparticle-carried drugs for integtrin targeted therapeutic studies. This review highlights the recent advances in integrin targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents with emphasis on target of integrin αvβ3, and describes the considerations for the design of the diverse RGD peptide-chemotherapeutics conjugates and their major applications.

  16. Target-Centric Network Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence repor....... Working through these cases, students will learn to manage and evaluate realistic intelligence accounts.......In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence......, and collaborative sharing in the process of creating a high-quality, actionable intelligence product. The case studies reflect the complexity of twenty-first century intelligence issues by dealing with multi-layered target networks that cut across political, economic, social, technological, and military issues...

  17. Antibiotic drugs targeting bacterial RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Hong


    Full Text Available RNAs have diverse structures that include bulges and internal loops able to form tertiary contacts or serve as ligand binding sites. The recent increase in structural and functional information related to RNAs has put them in the limelight as a drug target for small molecule therapy. In addition, the recognition of the marked difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic rRNA has led to the development of antibiotics that specifically target bacterial rRNA, reduce protein translation and thereby inhibit bacterial growth. To facilitate the development of new antibiotics targeting RNA, we here review the literature concerning such antibiotics, mRNA, riboswitch and tRNA and the key methodologies used for their screening.

  18. The SPES direct UCx target (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Antonucci, C.; Barbui, M.; Carturan, S.; Cervellera, F.; Cevolani, S.; Cinausero, M.; Colombo, P.; Dainelli, A.; di Bernardo, P.; Gramegna, F.; Maggioni, G.; Meneghetti, G.; Petrovich, C.; Piga, L.; Prete, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tonezzer, M.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Zanonato, P.


    A possible solution for a target system aimed at the production of exotic nuclei as a result of high energy fissions in 238U compounds has been analyzed. The proposed configuration is constituted by a primary proton beam (40 MeV, 0.2 mA) directly impinging on uranium carbide disks inserted within a cylindrical carbon box. This system has been conceived to obtain both a high number of neutron rich atoms (originated from about 1013 fissions/s) and a low power deposition in the target. In order to extract the fission fragments, the box has to be hold at 2000○C. The thermal analysis shows the capability of the thermal radiation to cool the disks with a reasonable margin below the material melting point. Moreover, the analyses of the thermo-mechanical behaviour and of the effusion times confirm the promising features of this target configuration.

  19. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il;


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...... take advantage of differentially expressed molecules on the surface of tumor cells, providing effective release of cytotoxic drugs. Several efforts have recently reported the use of diverse molecules as ligands on the surface of nanoparticles to interact with the tumor cells, enabling the effective...... delivery of antitumor agents. Here, we present recent advances in targeted nanoparticles against CRC and discuss the promising use of ligands and cellular targets in potential strategies for the treatment of CRCs....

  20. 3-Bromopyruvate: targets and outcomes. (United States)

    Shoshan, Maria C


    The pyruvate mimetic 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is generally presented as an inhibitor of glycolysis and has shown remarkable efficacy in not only preventing tumor growth, but even eradicating existant tumors in animal studies. We here review reported molecular targets of 3-BP and suggest that the very range of possible targets, which pertain to the altered energy metabolism of tumor cells, contributes both to the efficacy and the tumor specificity of the drug. Its in vivo efficacy is suggested to be due to a combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial targets, as well as to secondary effects affecting the tumor microenvironment. The cytotoxicity of 3-BP is less due to pyruvate mimicry than to alkylation of, e.g., key thiols. Alkylation of DNA/RNA has not been reported. More research is warranted to better understand the pharmacokinetics of 3-BP, and its potential toxic effects to normal cells, in particular those that are highly ATP-/mitochondrion-dependent.

  1. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target (United States)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Rinehart, S. A.


    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R < or = 0.003, from 800 to 4800/cm (12 - 2 microns ). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10,000/ cm-1 (25 - 1 microns) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R < or = 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to approx.4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented

  2. Materials considerations in accelerator targets (United States)

    Peacock, H. B.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R.


    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  3. Targeting α-synuclein oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Diggelen, Femke


    . Although there is currently no cure for PD, αSn oligomers (αSOs) are a potential therapeutic target, but a major drawback it that little is known about the nature of PD-associated αSOs. The scientific literature describes a wide variety of protocols to generate αSOs in vitro, with a subsequent......+/K+ ATPase, V-type ATPase, VDAC, CaMKII and Rab-3A. The identification of these targets is a first step towards unravelling the toxic pathways which are activated upon synaptic binding of extracellularly added αSOs, and hopefully will contribute to the discovery of new disease modifying compounds, which can...

  4. Prediction of underwater target strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG TongQing; Mohammad Amjad


    A model as well as its numerical method to calculate target strength of rigid body using Lighthill's acoustic analogy approach which developed from the propeller aircraft sound field study have been presented. The cases of ellipsoid target has been used to demonstrate the approach. The comparison of the numerical results with that of analytical formulation provides a satisfactory check for the validity of the approach. Some reasonable results have been discussed. The advantage of the present model is that it is suitable for any arbitrarily shaped rigid body moving with small Mach number.

  5. Targeted therapies for cutaneous melanoma. (United States)

    Kee, Damien; McArthur, Grant


    Melanoma is resistant to cytotoxic therapy, and treatment options for advanced disease have been limited historically. However, improved understanding of melanoma driver mutations, particularly those involving the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, has led to the development of targeted therapies that are effective in this previously treatment-refractory disease. In cutaneous melanomas with BRAF V600 mutations the selective RAF inhibitors, vemurafenib and dabrafenib, and the MEK inhibitor, trametinib, have demonstrated survival benefits. Early signals of efficacy have also been demonstrated with MEK inhibitors in melanomas with NRAS mutations, and KIT inhibitors offer promise in melanomas driven through activation of their target receptor.

  6. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio


    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...

  7. Targeting autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases. (United States)

    Vidal, René L; Matus, Soledad; Bargsted, Leslie; Hetz, Claudio


    The most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders involve protein misfolding and the aggregation of specific proteins. Autophagy is becoming an attractive target to treat neurodegenerative disorders through the selective degradation of abnormally folded proteins by the lysosomal pathway. However, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy impairment at different regulatory steps may contribute to the neurodegenerative process. Thus, a complex scenario is emerging where autophagy may play a dual role in neurodegenerative diseases by causing the downstream effect of promoting the degradation of misfolded proteins and an upstream effect where its deregulation perturbs global proteostasis, contributing to disease progression. Challenges in the future development of therapeutic strategies to target the autophagy pathway are discussed.

  8. [Biotherapy targeting the immune system]. (United States)

    Frenzel, Laurent


    The use of monoclonal antibody targeted therapy has changed the management of several diseases, including in hematology and immunology. The panel of the present available biotherapies allows a specific action at various stages of the immune response. Indeed, some of these molecules can target the naive T cell at the immunological synapse or the way of TH1, TH17 and regulatory T cell. Others may be more specific for the B cell and immunoglobulin. Some will even be active on both B and T cells.

  9. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit (United States)

    Pal, S.


    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  10. Manifold knowledge extraction and target recognition (United States)

    Chao, Cai; Hua, Zhou


    Advanced mammalian target identification derived from the perception of target's manifold and measurement manifolddistance. It does not rely on object's segmented accuracy, not depend on target's variety model, and adapt to a range of changes on targets. In this paper, based on the existed manifold learning algorithm, set up a new bionic automatic target recognition model, discussed the targets manifold knowledge acquisition and the knowledge expression architecture, gave a manifold knowledge-based new method for automatic target recognition. Experiments show that the new method has a strong adaptability to targets various transform, and has a very high correctly identification probability.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Since the conventional open-loop optimal targeting of chaos is very sensitive to noise, a close-loop optimal targeting method is proposed to improve the targeting performance under noise. The present optimal targeting model takes into consideration both precision and speed of the targeting procedure. The parameters, rather than the output, of the targeting controller, are directly optimized to obtain optimal chaos targeting. Analysis regarding the mechanism is given from physics aspect and numerical experiment on the Hénon map is carried out to compare the targeting performance under noise between the close-loop and the open-loop methods.

  12. Targeted Therapies in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Dogan


    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common genital cancer in developed world. It is generally diagnosed in early stage and it has a favorable prognosis. However, advanced staged disease and recurrences are difficult to manage. There are some common genetic alterations related to endometrial carcinogenesis in similar fashion to other cancers. Personalized medicine, which means selection of best suited treatment for an individual, has gain attention in clinical care of patients in recent years. Targeted therapies were developed as a part of personalized or %u201Ctailored%u201D medicine and specifically acts on a target or biologic pathway. There are quite a number of molecular alteration points in endometrial cancer such as PTEN tumor suppressor genes, DNA mismatch repair genes, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and p53 oncogene which all might be potential candidates for tailored targeted therapy. In recent years targeted therapies has clinical application in ovarian cancer patients and in near future with the advent of new agents these %u201Ctailored%u201D drugs will be in market for routine clinical practice in endometrial cancer patients, in primary disease and recurrences as well.

  13. Targeted Advertising and Social Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Vikander (Nick)


    textabstractThis paper shows how a firm can use non-targeted advertising to exploit consumers' desire for social status. A monopolist sells multiple varieties of a good to consumers who each care about what others believe about his wealth. Advertising allows consumers both to buy different varieties

  14. Bacterial Cytotoxins Target Rho GTPases (United States)

    Schmidt, Gudula; Aktories, Klaus


    Low molecular mass GTPases of the Rho family, which are involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and in various signal transduction processes, are the eukaryotic targets of bacterial protein toxins. The toxins covalently modify Rho proteins by ADP ribosylation, glucosylation, and deamidation, thereby inactivating and activating the GTPases.

  15. CERN neutrino project on target

    CERN Multimedia


    Scientists at CERN announced the completion of the target assembly for the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso project, CNGS. On schedule for start-up in May 2006, CNGS will send a beam of neutrinos through the Earth to the Gran Sasso laboratory 730 km away in Italy in a bid to unravel the mysteries of nature's most elusive particles (½ page)

  16. Natural products to target inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allijn, Iris Eva


    Chapter 1 Most Western lifestyle diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer have a chronic inflammatory process at its base. Therefore, inflammation is an important therapeutic target. Due to their potency, steroidal drugs dominate the current treatment of inflammat

  17. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: saliba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl{sub x} dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of {sup 235}U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  18. Tumor targeting via integrin ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Kiran eMarelli


    Full Text Available Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

  19. High power neutron production targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  20. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferbel, T.


    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references.

  1. Exploring targeted therapies in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, Constantijne Helene


    Targeted therapy in oncology is treatment directed at specific biological pathways and processes that play a critical role in carcinogenesis. Increased knowledge regarding the molecular changes underlying tumor progression and metastatis has resulted in the development of agents that are designed to

  2. Targeted therapy using alpha emitters (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R.


    Radionuclides such as and which decay by the emission of -particles are attractive for certain applications of targeted radiotherapy. The tissue penetration of and -particles is equivalent to only a few cell diameters, offering the possibility of combining cell-specific targeting with radiation of similar range. Unlike the -particles emitted by radionuclides such as and , -particles are radiation of high linear energy transfer and thus greater biological effectiveness. Several approaches have been explored for targeted radiotherapy with - and -labelled substances including colloids, monoclonal antibodies, metabolic precursors, receptor-avid ligands and other lower molecular weight molecules. An additional agent which exemplifies the promise of -emitting radiopharmaceuticals is meta-[]astatobenzylguanidine. The toxicity of this compound under single-cell conditions, determined both by []thymidine incorporation and by limiting dilution clonogenic assays, for human neuroblastoma cells is of the order of 1000 times higher than that of meta-[]iodobenzylguanidine. For meta-[]astatobenzylguanidine, the value was equivalent to only atoms bound per cell. These results suggest that meta-[]astatobenzylguanidine might be valuable for the targeted radiotherapy of micrometastatic neuroblastomas.

  3. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer (United States)

    ... The most common side effects seen with this drug include fatigue, rash, diarrhea, increases in blood pressure, and redness, pain, swelling, ... other targets that help cancer cells grow. This drug is taken as a ... effects are nausea, diarrhea, changes in skin or hair color, mouth sores, ...

  4. Targeted multi-pinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branderhorst, Woutjan; Blezer, Erwin L.A. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vastenhouw, Brendan; Have, Frans van der; Beekman, Freek J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands); Molecular Imaging Laboratories BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Section of Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Bleeker, Wim K. [Genmab BV, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with focused multi-pinhole collimation geometries allows scanning modes in which large amounts of photons can be collected from specific volumes of interest. Here we present new tools that improve targeted imaging of specific organs and tumours, and validate the effects of improved targeting of the pinhole focus. A SPECT system with 75 pinholes and stationary detectors was used (U-SPECT-II). An XYZ stage automatically translates the animal bed with a specific sequence in order to scan a selected volume of interest. Prior to stepping the animal through the collimator, integrated webcams acquire images of the animal. Using sliders, the user designates the desired volume to be scanned (e.g. a xenograft or specific organ) on these optical images. Optionally projections of an atlas are overlaid semiautomatically to locate specific organs. In order to assess the effects of more targeted imaging, scans of a resolution phantom and a mouse myocardial phantom, as well as in vivo mouse cardiac and tumour scans, were acquired with increased levels of targeting. Differences were evaluated in terms of count yield, hot rod visibility and contrast-to-noise ratio. By restricting focused SPECT scans to a 1.13-ml resolution phantom, count yield was increased by a factor 3.6, and visibility of small structures was significantly enhanced. At equal noise levels, the small-lesion contrast measured in the myocardial phantom was increased by 42%. Noise in in vivo images of a tumour and the mouse heart was significantly reduced. Targeted pinhole SPECT improves images and can be used to shorten scan times. Scan planning with optical cameras provides an effective tool to exploit this principle without the necessity for additional X-ray CT imaging. (orig.)

  5. Targeting targeted agents: open issues for clinical trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannarelli Diana


    Full Text Available Abstract Molecularly targeted agents for the treatment of solid tumors had entered the market in the last 5 years, with a great impact upon both the scientific community and the society. Many randomized phase III trials conducted in recent years with new targeted agents, despite previous data coming from preclinical research and from phase II trials were often promising, have produced disappointingly negative results. Some other trials have actually met their primary endpoint, demonstrating a statistically significant result favouring the experimental treatment. Unfortunately, with a few relevant exceptions, this advantage is often small, if not negligible, in absolute terms. The difference between statistical significance and clinical relevance should always be considered when translating clinical trials' results in the practice. The reason why this 'revolution' did not significantly impact on cancer treatment to displace chemotherapy from the patient' bedside is in part due to complicated, and in many cases, unknown, mechanisms of action of such drugs; indeed, the traditional way the clinical investigators were used to test the efficacy of 'older' chemotherapeutics, has become 'out of date' from the methodological perspective. As these drugs should be theoretically tailored upon featured bio-markers expressed by the patients, the clinical trial design should follow new rules based upon stronger hypotheses than those developed so far. Indeed, the early phases of basic and clinical drug development are crucial in the correct process which is able to correctly identify the target (when present. Targeted trial designs can result in easier studies, with less, better selected, and supported by stronger proofs of response evidences, patients, in order to not waste time and resources.

  6. Emerging targets in human lymphoma: targeting the MYD88 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JQ


    Full Text Available James Q Wang,* Yogesh S Jeelall,* Keisuke Horikawa* Department of Immunology, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia *All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: B cell neoplasms co-opt the molecular machinery of normal B cells for their survival. Technological advances in cancer genomics has significantly contributed to uncovering the root cause of aggressive lymphomas, revealing a previously unknown link between TLR signaling and B cell neoplasm. Recurrent oncogenic mutations in MYD88 have been found in 39% of the activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC DLBCL. Interestingly, 29% of ABC DLBCL have a single amino acid substitution of proline for the leucine at position 265 (L265P, and the exact same variant has also been identified in a number of lymphoid malignancies. The MYD88 L265P variant was recently identified in 90% of Wadenstrom's macroglobulinemia patients. These recent developments warrant the need for novel diagnostic tools as well as targeted therapeutics. In this review, we discuss the physiological functions of MYD88 and focus on its role in B cell lymphomas, evaluating the potential for targeting oncogenic MYD88 in lymphoma. Keywords: MYD88, L265P mutation, lymphoma, targeted therapy

  7. Multi-dimensional target profiling of N,4-diaryl-1,3-thiazole-2-amines as potent inhibitors of eicosanoid metabolism. (United States)

    Rödl, Carmen B; Vogt, Dominik; Kretschmer, Simon B M; Ihlefeld, Katja; Barzen, Sebastian; Brüggerhoff, Astrid; Achenbach, Janosch; Proschak, Ewgenij; Steinhilber, Dieter; Stark, Holger; Hofmann, Bettina


    Eicosanoids like leukotrienes and prostaglandins play a considerable role in inflammation. Produced within the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade, these lipid mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of pain as well as acute and chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. With regard to the lipid cross-talk within the AA pathway, a promising approach for an effective anti-inflammatory therapy is the development of inhibitors targeting more than one enzyme of this cascade. Within this study, thirty N-4-diaryl-1,3-thiazole-2-amine based compounds with different substitution patterns were synthesized and tested in various cell-based assays to investigate their activity and selectivity profile concerning five key enzymes involved in eicosanoid metabolism (5-, 12-, 15-lipoxygenase (LO), cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1/-2)). With compound 7, 2-(4-phenyl)thiazol-2-ylamino)phenol (ST-1355), a multi-target ligand targeting all tested enzymes is presented, whereas compound 9, 2-(4-(4-chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-ylamino)phenol (ST-1705), represents a potent and selective 5-LO and COX-2 inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.9 ± 0.2 μM (5-LO) and a residual activity of 9.1 ± 1.1% at 10 μM (COX-2 product formation). The promising characteristics and the additional non-cytotoxic profile of both compounds reveal new lead structures for the treatment of eicosanoid-mediated diseases.

  8. Progress of gene targeting in mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Gene targeting is a powerful approach of study- ing the genefunction in vivo. Specific genetic modifications, including simple gene disruption, point mutations, large chromosomal deletions and rearrangements, targeted incor- poration of foreign genes, could be introduced into the mouse genome by gene targeting. Recent studies make it possible to do the gene targeting with temporal and spatial control.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Gui; Kuang Gangyao; Jiang Yongmei; Wang Baosun; Gao Sheng


    A successful algorithm for detecting target groups is presented. Firstly, A global Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector is utilized to locate the potential target regions, and then the features are computed for target discrimination based on voting mechanism. Finally, Target groups are extracted. The results of experiments show the validity of this algorithm.

  10. Downstream targets of WRKY33. (United States)

    Petersen, Klaus; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten


    Innate immunity signaling pathways in both animals and plants are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. In a recent publication we show that MPK4 and its substrate MKS1 interact with WRKY33 in vivo, and that WRKY33 is released from complexes with MPK4 upon infection. Transcriptome analysis of a wrky33 loss-of-function mutant identified a subset of defense-related genes as putative targets of WRKY33. These genes include PAD3 and CYP71A13, which encode cytochrome P450 monoxygenases required for synthesis of the antimicrobial phytoalexin camalexin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that WRKY33 bound the promoter of PAD3 when plants were inoculated with pathogens. Here we further discuss the involvement of two other targets of WRKY33, NUDT6 and ROF2 in defense responses against invading pathogens.

  11. Downstream targets of WRKY33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Klaus; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Mundy, John;


    Innate immunity signaling pathways in both animals and plants are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. In a recent publication we show that MPK4 and its substrate MKS1 interact with WRKY33 in vivo, and that WRKY33 is released from complexes with MPK4 upon infection....... Transcriptome analysis of a wrky33 loss-of-function mutant identified a subset of defense-related genes as putative targets of WRKY33. These genes include PAD3 and CYP71A13, which encode cytochrome P450 monoxygenases required for synthesis of the antimicrobial phytoalexin camalexin. Chromatin...... immunoprecipitation confirmed that WRKY33 bound the promoter of PAD3 when plants were inoculated with pathogens. Here we further discuss the involvement of two other targets of WRKY33, NUDT6 and ROF2 in defense responses against invading pathogens....

  12. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes......, paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization...

  13. CNOOC Lifts 2011 Production Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), China's top offshore oil and gas producer, has lifted its 2011 production target by up to 11 percent as new projects at home and overseas come on stream.The offshore oil giant, with a market capitalization of about US$105 billion, said in a statement released in late January 2011 that it aimed to produce between 355 and 365 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE).Oil prices climbed 15 percent in 2010 on the back of expectations that a global economic recovery will drive the demand.Analysts are similarly bullish for 2011, predicting crude prices to trade at around US$100 for the year.CNOOC, the smallest of China's triumvirate of energy companies that also includes CNPC and Sinopee, said it targeted US$8.8 billion in capital expenditure for 2011.

  14. Endocrine disruptors targeting ERbeta function. (United States)

    Swedenborg, E; Pongratz, I; Gustafsson, J-A


    Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) circulating in the environment constitute a risk to ecosystems, wildlife and human health. Oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta are targeted by various kinds of EDCs but the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of exposure are largely unknown. Some biological effects of EDCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a key player in the cellular defence against xenobiotic substances. Adding complexity to the picture, there is also accumulating evidence that AhR-ER pathways have an intricate interplay at multiple levels. In this review, we discuss some EDCs that affect the oestrogen pathway by targeting ERbeta. Furthermore, we describe some effects of AhR activities on the oestrogen system. Mechanisms as well as potential adverse effects on human health are discussed.

  15. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark


    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  16. Genome engineering with targetable nucleases. (United States)

    Carroll, Dana


    Current technology enables the production of highly specific genome modifications with excellent efficiency and specificity. Key to this capability are targetable DNA cleavage reagents and cellular DNA repair pathways. The break made by these reagents can produce localized sequence changes through inaccurate nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), often leading to gene inactivation. Alternatively, user-provided DNA can be used as a template for repair by homologous recombination (HR), leading to the introduction of desired sequence changes. This review describes three classes of targetable cleavage reagents: zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs). As a group, these reagents have been successfully used to modify genomic sequences in a wide variety of cells and organisms, including humans. This review discusses the properties, advantages, and limitations of each system, as well as the specific considerations required for their use in different biological systems.

  17. Classical scattering from oscillating targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papachristou, P.K.; Diakonos, F.K.; Constantoudis, V.; Schmelcher, P.; Benet, L


    We study planar classical scattering from an oscillating heavy target whose dynamics defines a five-dimensional phase space. Although the system possesses no periodic orbits, and thus topological chaos is not present, the scattering functions display a variety of structures on different time scales. These structures are due to scattering events with a strong energy transfer from the projectile to the moving disk resulting in low-velocity peaks. We encounter initial conditions for which the projectile exhibits infinitely many bounces with the oscillating disk. Our numerical investigations are supported by analytical results on a specific model with a simple time-law. The observed properties possess universal character for scattering off oscillating targets.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic therapies targeting PCSK9. (United States)

    Weinreich, Michael; Frishman, William H


    Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of cardiovascular disease despite the availability of first-line cholesterol-lowering agents such as statins. A new therapeutic approach to lowering low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) acts by blocking LDL-receptor degradation by serum proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9). Human monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 and its interaction with the LDL receptor are now in clinical trials (REGN727/SAR23653, AMG145, and RN316). These agents are administered by either subcutaneous or intravenous routes, and have been shown to have major LDL-C and apolipoprotein B effects when combined with statins. A phase III clinical trial program evaluating clinical endpoints is now in progress. Other PCSK9-targeted approaches are in early stages of investigation, including natural inhibitors of PCSK9, RNA interference, and antisense inhibitors.

  19. Navy Advertising: Targeting Generation Z (United States)


    influence the navy recruiting and advertising goals. Results from our study can influence advertisement targeting goals and also better aid in the...250 advertising studies to deduce a formula on how advertising works . They developed a framework, seen in Figure 2, to help classify the advertising...advertising works : What do we really know? Journal of Marketing, 63(1), 26-43. By using the framework and classifying studies into different models

  20. Nonlinear Acoustic Characterization of Targets (United States)


    matching so as to transmit as much energy as possible into the test object. In addition to this limitation, ultrasound is only able to measure range by...metric arrays for standoff analysis of targets. In 1982, Yoneyama[4] discussed the nonlinear interaction of ultrasound with air as the “scattering of... cavitation effect. This produces a rectification at higher frequencies just as a diode does in an electrical circuit. This natural rectification allows

  1. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim


    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range. F...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  2. Electronic warfare target location methods

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard


    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  3. Targeted Communication and Investor Attention


    Boulland, Romain; Degeorge, François; Ginglinger, Edith


    In the spirit of Merton (1987) we find that targeted communication by firms raises investor attention. Continental European firms using English-language commercial press wires to disseminate corporate press releases exhibit less drift and more trading volume after their earnings announcements than firms that do not, consistent with communication on English speaking wires raising investor attention. Continental European firms using English-language commercial press wires also receive more pres...

  4. Cancer Immunotherapy of Targeting Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianmeiHou; LingTian; YuquanWei


    Tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis-dependent. Anti-angiogenic therapy may be a useful approach to cancer therapy. This review discussed tumor angiogenesis and immunotherapy of targeting tumor angiogenesis from two main aspects: (1) active vaccination to induce effective anti-angiogenesis immunity; (2) passive immunotherapy with anti-pro-angiogenic molecules relevant antibody. Evidence from the recent years suggested that anti-angiogenic therapy should be one of the most promising approaches to cancer therapy.

  5. Targeting inflammation in metabolic syndrome. (United States)

    Welty, Francine K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K


    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is comprised of a cluster of closely related risk factors, including visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, hypertension, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; all of which increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A chronic state of inflammation appears to be a central mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and MetS. In this review, we summarize recent research which has provided insight into the mechanisms by which inflammation underlies the pathophysiology of the individual components of MetS including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. On the basis of these mechanisms, we summarize therapeutic modalities to target inflammation in the MetS and its individual components. Current therapeutic modalities can modulate the individual components of MetS and have a direct anti-inflammatory effect. Lifestyle modifications including exercise, weight loss, and diets high in fruits, vegetables, fiber, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and low in saturated fat and glucose are recommended as a first line therapy. The Mediterranean and dietary approaches to stop hypertension diets are especially beneficial and have been shown to prevent development of MetS. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet has been associated with reductions in total and cardiovascular mortality. Omega-3 fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists lower high levels of triglyceride; their role in targeting inflammation is reviewed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone blockers comprise pharmacologic therapies for hypertension but also target other aspects of MetS including inflammation. Statin drugs target many of the underlying inflammatory pathways involved in MetS.

  6. Multisensor Target Detection And Classification (United States)

    Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Mills, James P.; Kabrisky, Matthew


    In this paper a new approach to the detection and classification of tactical targets using a multifunction laser radar sensor is developed. Targets of interest are tanks, jeeps, trucks, and other vehicles. Doppler images are segmented by developing a new technique which compensates for spurious doppler returns. Relative range images are segmented using an approach based on range gradients. The resultant shapes in the segmented images are then classified using Zernike moment invariants as shape descriptors. Two classification decision rules are implemented: a classical statistical nearest-neighbor approach and a multilayer perceptron architecture. The doppler segmentation algorithm was applied to a set of 180 real sensor images. An accurate segmentation was obtained for 89 percent of the images. The new doppler segmentation proved to be a robust method, and the moment invariants were effective in discriminating the tactical targets. Tanks were classified correctly 86 percent of the time. The most important result of this research is the demonstration of the use of a new information processing architecture for image processing applications.

  7. Renal Toxicities of Targeted Therapies. (United States)

    Abbas, Anum; Mirza, Mohsin M; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Tendulkar, Ketki


    With the incorporation of targeted therapies in routine cancer therapy, it is imperative that the array of toxicities associated with these agents be well-recognized and managed, especially since these toxicities are distinct from those seen with conventional cytotoxic agents. This review will focus on these renal toxicities from commonly used targeted agents. This review discusses the mechanisms of these side effects and management strategies. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents including the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, aflibercept (VEGF trap), and anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) all cause hypertension, whereas some of them result in proteinuria. Monoclonal antibodies against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptors, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, cause electrolyte imbalances including hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia due to the direct nephrotoxic effect of the drug on renal tubules. Cetuximab may also result in renal tubular acidosis. The TKIs, imatinib and dasatinib, can result in acute or chronic renal failure. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can cause acute renal failure following initiation of therapy because of the onset of acute tumor lysis syndrome. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, can result in proteinuria. Discerning the renal adverse effects resulting from these agents is essential for safe treatment strategies, particularly in those with pre-existing renal disease.

  8. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    CERN Document Server

    Wollack, Edward J; Rinehart, Stephan A


    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, $R \\le 0.003$, from $800-4,800\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(12-2\\,\\mu$m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to $400-10,000\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(25-1\\,\\mu$m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to $R \\le 0.02$ at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to $\\sim4\\,$K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials -- Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder -- are character...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xue-mei(孙雪梅); BRADY Ben


    This review evaluates the role of Glivec in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia and other malignant tumors. Preclinical and clinical evidence showed that Glivec demonstrated a potent and specific inhibition on BCR-ABL positive leukemias and other malignant tumors in which overexpression of c-kit and PDGFR-β played a major role in their pathogenesis. Glivec has induced complete hematologic responses in up to 98% of patients evaluated in clinical trials. It's a very successful drug that supported the idea of targeted therapy through inhibition of tyrosine kinases. Although it's still in the early stages of clinical development and the resistance to Glivec remains to be a problem needed further study, a great deal has been learned from these research and observation. And with the increasing data, molecular targeting therapy will play much more important role in the treatment of malignant tumors. With the better understanding of the pathogenesis of malignant tumors, well-designed drugs targeting the specific molecular abnormalities with higher efficacy and lower side effect will benefit numerous patients with malignant tumors.

  10. Fixed Target Collisions at STAR (United States)

    Meehan, Kathryn C.


    The RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program was proposed to look for the turn-off of signatures of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), search for a possible QCD critical point, and study the nature of the phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter. Previous results have been used to claim that the onset of deconfinement occurs at a center-of-mass energy of 7 GeV. Data from lower energies are needed to test if this onset occurs. The goal of the STAR Fixed-Target Program is to extend the collision energy range in BES II to energies that are likely below the onset of deconfinement. Currently, STAR has inserted a gold target into the beam pipe and conducted test runs at center-of-mass energies of 3.9 and 4.5 GeV. Tests have been done with both Au and Al beams. First physics results from a Coulomb potential analysis of Au + Au fixed-target collisions are presented and are found to be consistent with results from previous experiments. Furthermore, the Coulomb potential, which is sensitive to the Z of the projectile and degree of baryonic stopping, will be compared to published results from the AGS.

  11. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Bronte, F; Bronte, G; Cusenza, S; Fiorentino, E; Rolfo, C; Cicero, G; Bronte, E; Di Marco, V; Firenze, A; Angarano, G; Fontana, T; Russo, A


    The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life.

  12. Targeted gene flow for conservation. (United States)

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L


    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens.

  13. Mitochondrially targeted fluorescent redox sensors. (United States)

    Yang, Kylie; Kolanowski, Jacek L; New, Elizabeth J


    The balance of oxidants and antioxidants within the cell is crucial for maintaining health, and regulating physiological processes such as signalling. Consequently, imbalances between oxidants and antioxidants are now understood to lead to oxidative stress, a physiological feature that underlies many diseases. These processes have spurred the field of chemical biology to develop a plethora of sensors, both small-molecule and fluorescent protein-based, for the detection of specific oxidizing species and general redox balances within cells. The mitochondrion, in particular, is the site of many vital redox reactions. There is therefore a need to target redox sensors to this particular organelle. It has been well established that targeting mitochondria can be achieved by the use of a lipophilic cation-targeting group, or by utilizing natural peptidic mitochondrial localization sequences. Here, we review how these two approaches have been used by a number of researchers to develop mitochondrially localized fluorescent redox sensors that are already proving useful in providing insights into the roles of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria.

  14. Phenotypic screens targeting neurodegenerative diseases. (United States)

    Zhang, Minhua; Luo, Guangrui; Zhou, Yanjiao; Wang, Shaohui; Zhong, Zhong


    Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people worldwide, and the incidences increase as the population ages. Disease-modifying therapy that prevents or slows disease progression is still lacking, making neurodegenerative diseases an area of high unmet medical need. Target-based drug discovery for disease-modifying agents has been ongoing for many years, without much success due to incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. Phenotypic screening, starting with a disease-relevant phenotype to screen for compounds that change the outcome of biological pathways rather than activities at certain specific targets, offers an alternative approach to find small molecules or targets that modulate the key characteristics of neurodegeneration. Phenotypic screens that focus on amelioration of disease-specific toxins, protection of neurons from degeneration, or promotion of neuroregeneration could be potential fertile grounds for discovering therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we will summarize the progress of compound screening using these phenotypic-based strategies for this area, with a highlight on unique considerations for disease models, assays, and screening methodologies. We will further provide our perspectives on how best to use phenotypic screening to develop drug leads for neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Classical Geometry and Target Space Duality



    This is the written version of lectures presented at Cargese 95. A new formulation for a ``restricted'' type of target space duality in classical two dimensional nonlinear sigma models is presented. The main idea is summarized by the analogy: euclidean geometry is to riemannian geometry as toroidal target space duality is to ``restricted'' target space duality. The target space is not required to possess symmetry. These lectures only discuss the local theory. The restricted target space duali...

  16. Method for forming electrically charged laser targets (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.


    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  17. Experimental identification of microRNA targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Lund, Anders H


    microRNAs are small RNAs that regulate protein synthesis post-transcriptionally. Animal microRNAs recognize their targets by incomplete base pairing to sequence motifs most often present in the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNAs. This partial complementarity vastly expands the repertoire...... of potential targets and constitutes a problem for computational target prediction. Although computational analyses have shed light on important aspects of microRNA target recognition, several questions remain regarding how microRNAs can recognize and regulate their targets. Forward experimental approaches...... allow for an unbiased study of microRNA target recognition and may unveil novel, rare or uncommon target binding patterns. In this review we focus on animal microRNAs and the experimental approaches that have been described for identification of their targets....

  18. Research on the Mean Shift Algorithm in the Moving Target Detection and Tracking%Mean Shift算法在运动目标检测与跟踪中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强; 陈蒲阳


    运动行人的检测与跟踪技术已经成为智能视频监控中的关键性技术,是计算机视觉领域研究的一个重要领域。传统的视频监控技术应用虽然广泛,但是智能性不足、应用效率较低。针对摄像头固定情况下的运动行人跟踪进行研究,引入一种应用效果较好的Mean Shift算法,与目标区域灰度直方图结合,进行运动目标的检测跟踪,在Visual Studio 2010和OpenCV 2.4.4中对本算法进行仿真,从仿真结果中得出系统可以较好地实现对运动行人的检测与跟踪。%Motion pedestrian detection and tracking technology has become crucial in intelligent video surveillance technology, is an important area of research in computer vision. Although the traditional video surveillance technology are widely used , but less intelligent, less applica-tion efficiency. Aims at the tracking study of the movement of pedestrians in case of a fixed camera, introduces a better application of Mean Shift algorithm, combined with target area gray histogram , moving target detection and tracking, the simulation results obtained from the Visual Studio 2010 and OpenCV 2.4.4 can achieve better movement of pedestrian detection and tracking.

  19. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D


    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  20. Targeted Nanotechnology in Glioblastoma Multiforme (United States)

    Glaser, Talita; Han, Inbo; Wu, Liquan; Zeng, Xiang


    Gliomas, and in particular glioblastoma multiforme, are aggressive brain tumors characterized by a poor prognosis and high rates of recurrence. Current treatment strategies are based on open surgery, chemotherapy (temozolomide) and radiotherapy. However, none of these treatments, alone or in combination, are considered effective in managing this devastating disease, resulting in a median survival time of less than 15 months. The efficiency of chemotherapy is mainly compromised by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that selectively inhibits drugs from infiltrating into the tumor mass. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), with their unique biology and their resistance to both radio- and chemotherapy, compound tumor aggressiveness and increase the chances of treatment failure. Therefore, more effective targeted therapeutic regimens are urgently required. In this article, some well-recognized biological features and biomarkers of this specific subgroup of tumor cells are profiled and new strategies and technologies in nanomedicine that explicitly target CSCs, after circumventing the BBB, are detailed. Major achievements in the development of nanotherapies, such as organic poly(propylene glycol) and poly(ethylene glycol) or inorganic (iron and gold) nanoparticles that can be conjugated to metal ions, liposomes, dendrimers and polymeric micelles, form the main scope of this summary. Moreover, novel biological strategies focused on manipulating gene expression (small interfering RNA and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats [CRISPR]/CRISPR associated protein 9 [Cas 9] technologies) for cancer therapy are also analyzed. The aim of this review is to analyze the gap between CSC biology and the development of targeted therapies. A better understanding of CSC properties could result in the development of precise nanotherapies to fulfill unmet clinical needs.

  1. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma. (United States)

    Norain, Abdullah; Dadachova, Ekaterina


    An estimated 60,000 individuals in the United States and 132,000 worldwide are yearly diagnosed with melanoma. Until recently, treatment options for patients with stages III-IV metastatic disease were limited and offered marginal, if any, improvement in overall survival. The situation changed with the introduction of B-RAF inhibitors and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapies into the clinical practice. With only some patients responding well to the immune therapies and with very serious side effects and high costs of immunotherapy, there is still room for other approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma could be divided into the domains of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), radiolabeled peptides, and radiolabeled small molecules. RIT of melanoma is currently experiencing a renaissance with the clinical trials of alpha-emitter (213)Bi-labeled and beta-emitter (188)Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma producing encouraging results. The investigation of the mechanism of efficacy of melanoma RIT points at killing of melanoma stem cells by RIT and involvement of immune system such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The domain of radiolabeled peptides for targeted melanoma therapy has been preclinical so far, with work concentrated on radiolabeled peptide analogues of melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor and on melanin-binding peptides. The field of radiolabeled small molecule produced radioiodinated benzamides that cross the cellular membrane and bind to the intracellular melanin. The recent clinical trial demonstrated measurable antitumor effects and no acute or midterm toxicities. We are hopeful that the targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma would become a clinical reality as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with the immunotherapies such as anti-PD1 programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies

  2. Targeted Therapy in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Baron


    Full Text Available Targeted therapies use an understanding of the pathophysiology of a disease in an individual patient. Although targeted therapy for systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma has not yet reached the level of patient-specific treatments, recent developments in the understanding of the global pathophysiology of the disease have led to new treatments based on the cells and pathways that have been shown to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. The presence of a B cell signature in skin biopsies has led to the trial of rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, in SSc. The well-known properties of transforming growth factor (TGF-β in promoting collagen synthesis and secretion has led to a small trial of fresolimumab, a human IgG4 monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing TGF-β. Evidence supporting important roles for interleukin-6 in the pathogenesis of SSc have led to a large trial of tocilizumab in SSc. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP upon binding of nitric oxide (NO to the sGC molecule. Processes such as cell growth and proliferation are regulated by cGMP. Evidence that sGC may play a role in SSc has led to a trial of riociguat, a molecule that sensitizes sGC to endogenous NO. Tyrosine kinases (TKs are involved in a wide variety of physiologic and pathological processes including vascular remodeling and fibrogenesis such as occurs in SSc. This has led to a trial of nintedanib, a next-generation tyrosine-kinase (TK inhibitor which targets multiple TKs, in SSc.

  3. The challenge of targeting metastasis. (United States)

    Fidler, Isaiah J; Kripke, Margaret L


    Metastases that are resistant to conventional therapy are the major cause of death from cancer. In most patients, metastasis has already occurred by the time of diagnosis. Thus, the prevention of metastasis is unlikely to be of therapeutic benefit. The biological heterogeneity of metastases presents a major obstacle to treatment. However, the growth and survival of metastases depend on interactions between tumor cells and host homeostatic mechanisms. Targeting these interactions, in addition to the tumor cells, can produce synergistic therapeutic effects against existing metastases.

  4. Conotoxins: Molecular and Therapeutic Targets (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J.

    Marine molluscs known as cone snails produce beautiful shells and a complex array of over 50,000 venom peptides evolved for prey capture and defence. Many of these peptides selectively modulate ion channels and transporters, making them a valuable source of new ligands for studying the role these targets play in normal and disease physiology. A number of conopeptides reduce pain in animal models, and several are now in pre-clinical and clinical development for the treatment of severe pain often associated with diseases such as cancer. Less than 1% of cone snail venom peptides are pharmacologically characterised.

  5. Radar Imaging for Moving Targets (United States)


    solution as scatt (x)  Gk (x ’, x)(x ’)D  inc (x ’)  scatt (x ’) d 3x ’ (3.3) This is a Lippmann- Schwinger equation. It can be observed...boundary conditions for a known target. It is also important to note that there are several aspects to the Lippmann- Schwinger equation: 27 (1...can also be approached using the Lippmann- Schwinger equation as a model for scatt . B. LINEARIZED DATA MODEL (TIME-VARYING SYSTEMS) Besides using

  6. Zinc metalloproteins as medicinal targets. (United States)

    Anzellotti, A I; Farrell, N P


    Zinc bioinorganic chemistry has emphasized the role of the metal ion on the structure and function of the protein. There is, more recently, an increasing appreciation of the role of zinc proteins in a variety of human diseases. This critical review, aimed at both bioinorganic and medicinal chemists, shows how apparently widely-diverging diseases share the common mechanistic approaches of targeting the essential function of the metal ion to inhibit activity. Protein structure and function is briefly summarized in the context of its clinical relevance. The status of current and potential inhibitors is discussed along with the prospects for future developments (162 references).

  7. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P


    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  8. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression. (United States)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T


    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  9. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression (United States)

    Venning, Freja A.; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T.


    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression. PMID:26539408

  10. Assessing protein kinase target similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Osman A; Thakkar, Balmukund; Narayanan, Dilip


    : focussed chemical libraries, drug repurposing, polypharmacological design, to name a few. Protein kinase target similarity is easily quantified by sequence, and its relevance to ligand design includes broad classification by key binding sites, evaluation of resistance mutations, and the use of surrogate......" of sequence and crystal structure information, with statistical methods able to identify key correlates to activity but also here, "the devil is in the details." Examples from specific repurposing and polypharmacology applications illustrate these points. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled...

  11. Properties of protein drug target classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Bull

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of drug targets is a crucial part of any drug development program. We mined the human proteome to discover properties of proteins that may be important in determining their suitability for pharmaceutical modulation. Data was gathered concerning each protein's sequence, post-translational modifications, secondary structure, germline variants, expression profile and drug target status. The data was then analysed to determine features for which the target and non-target proteins had significantly different values. This analysis was repeated for subsets of the proteome consisting of all G-protein coupled receptors, ion channels, kinases and proteases, as well as proteins that are implicated in cancer. Machine learning was used to quantify the proteins in each dataset in terms of their potential to serve as a drug target. This was accomplished by first inducing a random forest that could distinguish between its targets and non-targets, and then using the random forest to quantify the drug target likeness of the non-targets. The properties that can best differentiate targets from non-targets were primarily those that are directly related to a protein's sequence (e.g. secondary structure. Germline variants, expression levels and interactions between proteins had minimal discriminative power. Overall, the best indicators of drug target likeness were found to be the proteins' hydrophobicities, in vivo half-lives, propensity for being membrane bound and the fraction of non-polar amino acids in their sequences. In terms of predicting potential targets, datasets of proteases, ion channels and cancer proteins were able to induce random forests that were highly capable of distinguishing between targets and non-targets. The non-target proteins predicted to be targets by these random forests comprise the set of the most suitable potential future drug targets, and should therefore be prioritised when building a drug development programme.

  12. Targeted local simultaneous iontophoresis of chemotherapeutics for topical therapy of head and neck cancers. (United States)

    Gratieri, Taís; Kalia, Yogeshvar N


    The objective was to investigate the feasibility of using buccal iontophoresis for the simultaneous delivery of chemotherapeutic agents with a view to developing a new approach to treat head and neck cancers. Short duration cathodal iontophoresis of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 20mM) and leucovorin (LV; 10 mM) at 1 mA/cm(2) for 10 or 20 min from aqueous solution and a 2% hydroxyethyl cellulose gel at pH 7.6 was evaluated using bovine mucosa in vitro. Iontophoresis resulted in a statistically significant increase in the mucosal deposition of both drugs as compared to passive diffusion (Student's t-test, α=0.05); in each case, drug delivery was selective for deposition with no permeation being observed. After 20 min of iontophoresis, there was an ~ 8-fold enhancement for 5-FU (1.46 ± 0.86 and 11.93 ± 3.81 μg/cm(2), respectively) and a 3-fold increase for LV (8.31 ± 2.44 and 25.08 ± 6.89 μg/cm(2), respectively) when using aqueous solutions. The same trend was observed when the gel was applied for 10 min; passive delivery of 5-FU from the gel resulted in non-detectable levels in the mucosa, while 4.62 ± 1.76 μg/cm(2) were deposited in the mucosa following iontophoresis. Similarly, iontophoretic delivery of LV from the gel resulted in ~ 3-fold higher deposition as compared to passive diffusion (6.71 ± 1.36 and 21.12 ± 9.94 μg/cm(2), respectively). No drug permeation was observed in either case. In conclusion, iontophoresis can be used for targeted topical delivery of chemotherapeutics to the buccal mucosa and may enable less invasive local therapy of head and neck cancers.

  13. Enzyme/pH dual sensitive polymeric nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to the inflamed colon. (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Kim, Wooseong; Cao, Jiafu; Jung, Yunjin; Yoo, Jin-Wook


    Novel nanoparticles whose drug release profiles are controlled by both enzyme and pH were prepared for the colon-specific drug delivery using a polymeric mixture of enzyme-sensitive azo-polyurethane and pH-sensitive Eudragit S100 (ES-Azo.pu). The enzyme/pH dual sensitive nanoparticles were designed to release a drug based on a two-fold approach which specifically aimed to target drug delivery to the inflamed colon while preventing the burst release of drugs in the stomach and small intestine. Single pH-sensitive (ES) and dual sensitive (ES-Azo.pu) nanoparticles were prepared using an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method and coumarin-6 (C-6) was used as a model drug. The successful formation of ES and ES-azo.pu nanoparticles that have 214 nm and 244 nm in mean particle size, respectively, was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and qNano. ES nanoparticles showed almost 100% of burst drug release at pH 7.4, whereas ES-Azo.pu nanoparticles prevented the burst drug release at pH 7.4, followed by a sustained release phase thereafter. Furthermore, ES-Azo.pu nanoparticles exhibited enzyme-triggered drug release in the presence of rat cecal contents obtained from a rat model of colitis. An in vivo localization study in rat gastrointestinal tract demonstrated that ES-Azo.pu nanoparticles were selectively distributed in the inflamed colon, showing 5.5-fold higher C-6 than ES nanoparticles. In conclusion, the enzyme/pH dual sensitive nanoparticles presented in this study can serve as a promising strategy for colon-specific drug delivery against inflammatory bowel disease and other colon disorders.

  14. Time Series Analysis For The Californium Source In Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Labranche, H


    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory uses a 252Cf source to measure the neutron detection efficiency of its detector. We propose a method, the Time Series Analysis, that uses pairs of time intervals between the detected events to find the neutron detection efficiency, the probability to detect from a fission the prompt γ-rays, the neutron mean life inside the detector, the source fission rate and the residual activity rate from non-fission events. We explain our theoretical model of the source and the procedure to fit the data. With a 2.5 MeV threshold cut on the data, the neutron mean life is 5.281 ± 0.004(stat) msec and the source fission rate at June 12, 2001 is 4.360 ± 0.004(stat) sec −1. At this moment, the Time Series can only be applied to data when the source is near the centre. The technique is also applied with an AmBe source. We also show the latest progress to improve the technique. Finally, we briefly show another method, the Multiplicity Analysis, which was ...

  15. Design and Potentials of the Californium-252 Radiation Facility at WES (United States)


    standards, using an Image Quality Indicator (IQI) and also a Beam Purity Indicator (BPI),** shows a relatively good thermal and epithermal neutron ...colli-nated beam of the desired neutron radiation. Consideration of the basic nuclear properties was therefore a necessity in achieving the desired...The upper 6 ft has been designed for use in radiography and neutron counting. The steel tank was prefabricated in two sections. The lower 6-ft

  16. Design of a californium-based epithermal neutron beam for neutron capture therapy. (United States)

    Yanch, J C; Kim, J K; Wilson, M J


    The potential of the spontaneously fissioning isotope, 252Cf, to provide epithermal neutrons for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to design an assembly composed of a 26 cm long, 11 cm radius cylindrical D2O moderator followed by a 64 cm long Al filter. Lithium filters are placed between the moderator and the filter and between the Al and the patient. A reflector surrounding the moderator/filter assembly is required in order to maintain adequate therapy flux at the patient position. An ellipsoidal phantom composed of skull- and brain-equivalent material was used to determine the dosimetric effect of this beam. It was found that both advantage depths and advantage ratios compare very favourably with reactor and accelerator epithermal neutron sources. The dose rate obtainable, on the other hand, is 4.1 RBE cGy min-1, based on a very large (1.0 g) source of 252Cf. This dose rate is two to five times lower than those provided by existing reactor beams and can be viewed as a drawback of using 252Cf as a neutron source. Radioisotope sources, however, do offer the advantage of in-hospital installation.

  17. String theory in target space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boels, Rutger H.; Hansen, Tobias [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, D- 22761 Hamburg (Germany)


    It is argued that the complete S-matrix of string theory at tree level in a flat background can be obtained from a small set of target space properties, without recourse to the worldsheet description. The main non-standard inputs are (generalised) Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten shifts, as well as the monodromy relations for open string theory and the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations for closed string theory. The roots of the scattering amplitudes and especially their appearance in the residues at the kinematic poles are central to the story. These residues determine the amplitudes through on-shell recursion relations. Several checks of the formalism are presented, including a computation of the Koba-Nielsen amplitude in the bosonic string. Furthermore the question of target space unitarity is (re-)investigated. For the Veneziano amplitude this question is reduced by Poincaré invariance, unitarity and locality to that of positivity of a particular numerical sum. Interestingly, this analysis produces the main conditions of the no-ghost theorem on dimension and intercept from the first three poles of this amplitude.

  18. Targeted therapies in gastroesophageal cancer. (United States)

    Kasper, Stefan; Schuler, Martin


    Gastroesophageal cancers comprising gastric cancer (GC), and cancers of the distal oesophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) are a global health threat. In Western populations the incidence of GC is declining which has been attributed to effective strategies of eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection. To the contrary, GEJ cancers are on the rise, with obesity and reflux disease being viewed as major risk factors. During the past decade perioperative chemotherapy, pre- or postoperative radio-chemotherapy, and, in Asian populations, adjuvant chemotherapy have been shown to improve the outcome of patients with advanced GC and GEJ cancers suited for surgery. Less progress has been made in the treatment of metastatic disease. The introduction of trastuzumab in combination with platinum/fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy for patients with HER2-positive disease has marked a turning point. Recently, several novel agents targeting growth factor receptors, angiogenic pathways, adhesion molecules and mediators of intracellular signal transduction have been clinically explored. Here we summarise the current status and future developments of molecularly targeted therapies in GC and GEJ cancer.

  19. Seismoelectric imaging of shallow targets (United States)

    Haines, S.S.; Pride, S.R.; Klemperer, S.L.; Biondi, B.


    We have undertaken a series of controlled field experiments to develop seismoelectric experimental methods for near-surface applications and to improve our understanding of seismoelectric phenomena. In a set of off-line geometry surveys (source separated from the receiver line), we place seismic sources and electrode array receivers on opposite sides of a man-made target (two sand-filled trenches) to record separately two previously documented seismoelectric modes: (1) the electromagnetic interface response signal created at the target and (2) the coseismic electric fields located within a compressional seismic wave. With the seismic source point in the center of a linear electrode array, we identify the previously undocumented seismoelectric direct field, and the Lorentz field of the metal hammer plate moving in the earth's magnetic field. We place the seismic source in the center of a circular array of electrodes (radial and circumferential orientations) to analyze the source-related direct and Lorentz fields and to establish that these fields can be understood in terms of simple analytical models. Using an off-line geometry, we create a multifold, 2D image of our trenches as dipping layers, and we also produce a complementary synthetic image through numerical modeling. These images demonstrate that off-line geometry (e.g., crosswell) surveys offer a particularly promising application of the seismoelectric method because they effectively separate the interface response signal from the (generally much stronger) coseismic and source-related fields. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  20. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells. (United States)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars


    Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized antigen presenting cells (APC) with a remarkable ability to take up antigens and stimulate major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted specific immune responses. Recent discoveries have shown that their role in initiating primary immune responses seems to be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC are considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC.

  1. Targeting FGFR Signaling in Cancer. (United States)

    Touat, Mehdi; Ileana, Ecaterina; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; André, Fabrice; Soria, Jean-Charles


    The fibroblast growth factor signaling pathway (FGFR signaling) is an evolutionary conserved signaling cascade that regulates several basic biologic processes, including tissue development, angiogenesis, and tissue regeneration. Substantial evidence indicates that aberrant FGFR signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Recent developments of deep sequencing technologies have allowed the discovery of frequent molecular alterations in components of FGFR signaling among several solid tumor types. Moreover, compelling preclinical models have demonstrated the oncogenic potential of these aberrations in driving tumor growth, promoting angiogenesis, and conferring resistance mechanisms to anticancer therapies. Recently, the field of FGFR targeting has exponentially progressed thanks to the development of novel agents inhibiting FGFs or FGFRs, which had manageable safety profiles in early-phase trials. Promising treatment efficacy has been observed in different types of malignancies, particularly in tumors harboring aberrant FGFR signaling, thus offering novel therapeutic opportunities in the era of precision medicine. The most exciting challenges now focus on selecting patients who are most likely to benefit from these agents, increasing the efficacy of therapies with the development of novel potent compounds and combination strategies, and overcoming toxicities associated with FGFR inhibitors. After examination of the basic and translational research studies that validated the oncogenic potential of aberrant FGFR signaling, this review focuses on recent data from clinical trials evaluating FGFR targeting therapies and discusses the challenges and perspectives for the development of these agents.

  2. Targeted Molecular Therapies for SBMA. (United States)

    Rinaldi, Carlo; Malik, Bilal; Greensmith, Linda


    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a late-onset neuromuscular disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor gene which results in progressive spinal and bulbar motor neuron degeneration, and muscle atrophy. Although the causative genetic defect is known, until recently, the molecular pathogenesis of the disease was unclear, resulting in few, if any, targets for therapy development. However, over the past decade, our understanding of the pathomechanisms that play a role in SBMA has increased dramatically, and several of these pathways and mechanisms have now been investigated as possible therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss some of the key pathomechanisms implicated in SBMA and describe some of the therapeutic strategies that have been tested in SBMA to date, which fall into four main categories: (i) gene silencing; (ii) protein quality control and/or increased protein degradation; (iii) androgen deprivation; and (iv) modulation of AR function. Finally, it is also now clear that in addition to a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie disease, the development of an effective disease modifying therapy for SBMA will require the coordinated, collaborative effort of research teams with diverse areas of expertise, clinicians, pharmaceutical companies as well as patient groups.

  3. Tamoxifen Resistance: Emerging Molecular Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rondón-Lagos


    Full Text Available 17β-Estradiol (E2 plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. As a result, blockade of the E2 signal through either tamoxifen (TAM or aromatase inhibitors is an important therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent estrogen receptor (ER positive breast cancer. However, resistance to TAM is the major obstacle in endocrine therapy. This resistance occurs either de novo or is acquired after an initial beneficial response. The underlying mechanisms for TAM resistance are probably multifactorial and remain largely unknown. Considering that breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease and patients respond differently to treatment, the molecular analysis of TAM’s biological activity could provide the necessary framework to understand the complex effects of this drug in target cells. Moreover, this could explain, at least in part, the development of resistance and indicate an optimal therapeutic option. This review highlights the implications of TAM in breast cancer as well as the role of receptors/signal pathways recently suggested to be involved in the development of TAM resistance. G protein—coupled estrogen receptor, Androgen Receptor and Hedgehog signaling pathways are emerging as novel therapeutic targets and prognostic indicators for breast cancer, based on their ability to mediate estrogenic signaling in ERα-positive or -negative breast cancer.

  4. Aquaporins as potential drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang WANG; Xue-chao FENG; Yong-ming LI; Hong YANG; Tong-hui MA


    The aquaporins (AQP) are a family of integral membrane proteins that selectively transport water and,in some cases,small neutral solutes such as glycerol and urea.Thirteen mammalian AQP have been molecularly identified and localized to various epithelial,endothelial and other tissues.Phenotype studies of transgenic mouse models of AQP knockout,mutation,and in some cases humans with AQP mutations have demonstrated essential roles for AQP in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology,including urinary concentrating function,exocrine glandular fluid secretion,brain edema formation,regulation of intracranial and intraocular pressure,skin hydration,fat metabolism,tumor angiogenesis and cell migration.These studies suggest that AQP may be potential drug targets for not only new diuretic reagents for various forms of pathological water retention,but also targets for novel therapy of brain edema,inflammatory disease,glaucoma,obesity,and cancer.However,potent AQP modulators for in vivo application remain to be discovered.

  5. String theory in target space

    CERN Document Server

    Boels, Rutger H


    It is argued that the complete S-matrix of string theory at tree level in a flat background can be obtained from a small set of target space properties, without recourse to the worldsheet description. The main non-standard inputs are (generalised) Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten shifts, as well as the monodromy relations for open string theory and the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations for closed string theory. The roots of the scattering amplitudes and especially their appearance in the residues at the kinematic poles are central to the story. These residues determine the amplitudes through on-shell recursion relations. Several checks of the formalism are presented, including a computation of the Koba-Nielsen amplitude in the bosonic string. Furthermore the question of target space unitarity is (re-)investigated. For the Veneziano amplitude this question is reduced by Poincare invariance, unitarity and locality to that of positivity of a particular numerical sum. Interestingly, this analysis produces the main condition...

  6. String theory in target space (United States)

    Boels, Rutger H.; Hansen, Tobias


    It is argued that the complete S-matrix of string theory at tree level in a flat background can be obtained from a small set of target space properties, without recourse to the worldsheet description. The main non-standard inputs are (generalised) Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten shifts, as well as the monodromy relations for open string theory and the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations for closed string theory. The roots of the scattering amplitudes and especially their appearance in the residues at the kinematic poles are central to the story. These residues determine the amplitudes through on-shell recursion relations. Several checks of the formalism are presented, including a computation of the Koba-Nielsen amplitude in the bosonic string. Furthermore the question of target space unitarity is (re-)investigated. For the Veneziano amplitude this question is reduced by Poincaré invariance, unitarity and locality to that of positivity of a particular numerical sum. Interestingly, this analysis produces the main conditions of the no-ghost theorem on dimension and intercept from the first three poles of this amplitude.

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHM244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IKESFKQSGLYDIVTPQFIFDINYEAVSFLEQSIN X*****fktsklkyatk*sil**fk***gwwf*stiffiiftf**skffkqk******** ***q***y*r*...IPVMDASAL LTIEEMVTAYHKRNVKVAFVQMSEKIKESFKQSGLYDIVTPQFIFDINYEAVSFLEQSIN X*****fktsklkyatk*sil**fk***gwwf*stiff

  8. Dicty_cDB: SHL244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tlf iwl*krsktk*klfl*frkeii*tpth*mlfqrty*lntiskfksnniqf*ikpkpnspi ynqiinlylvivfvlvsshlqylstifffyf*yi*nk*ink*k...skfksnniqf*ikpkpnspi ynqiinlylvivfvlvsshlqylstifffyf*yi*nk*ink*kksk*llnyflnf Frame C: c*fsiqg*tl*lyl*ylfftrn

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHK244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CK273593 |CK273593.1 EST719671 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone POADC22 5' en...5234 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis ...VB066D06_332552 An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardo...An expressed sequence tag database for abiotic stressed leaves of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinif

  10. Dicty_cDB: VSF244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gqnkvlgganqkkiveseedialpe lnpsvpqaiqrarnalkmtqkelafkinerpgvineyesgsaipsqavlskleka...qtkygagqnkvlgganqkkiveseedialpe lnpsvpqaiqrarnalkmtqkelafkinerpgvineyesgsaipsqavlsklekalnvkl rgkeigkplk*ianv

  11. 1935 15' Quad #244 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. Dicty_cDB: VSG244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /TC4. ;, mRNA sequence. 92 4e-40 5 BU498261 |BU498261.1 PfESToab94h09.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual c...UCLEAR PROTEIN RAN/TC4. ;, mRNA sequence. 92 4e-40 5 BI815642 |BI815642.1 PfESToaa31a10.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual...G NUCLEAR PROTEIN RAN/TC4. ;, mRNA sequence. 92 4e-40 5 BQ452295 |BQ452295.1 PfESToaa94h01.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual...asmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual cDNA Plasmodium falciparum cDNA 5' similar to SW:RAN_PLAFA P38545 GTP-BINDIN...IN RAN/TC4. ;, mRNA sequence. 92 4e-40 5 BI815554 |BI815554.1 PfESToaa29h11.y1 Pl

  13. 40 CFR 60.244 - Test methods and procedures. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate... (tons). K=conversion factor, 1000 mg/g (7,000 gr/lb). (2) Method 13A or 13B shall be used to...

  14. Dicty_cDB: VHQ244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gngceftqcplycstpngtc dinsgictcdnehigngceikfieckhkcstkhgicdndsgnckcdtqtkgltceesrll iesldsinskggtiniigyfgnttsl...nsceftrcpldcstpngtcdnntgnctchnehfgngceftqcplycstpngtc dinsgictcdnehigngceikfieckh

  15. Dark Galaxies and Lost Baryons (IAU S244) (United States)

    Davies, Jonathan I.; Disney, Michael J.


    Preface; Conference prelims; The HI that barked in the night M. J. Disney; The detection of dark galaxies in blind HI surveys J. I. Davies; Red haloes of galaxies - reservoirs of baryonic dark matter? E. Zackrisson, N. Bergvall, C. Flynn, G. Ostlin, G. Micheva and B. Baldwell; Constraints on dark and visible mass in galaxies from strong gravitational lensing S. Dye and S. Warren; Lost baryons at low redshift S. Mathur, F. Nicastro and R. Williams; Observed properties of dark matter on small spatial scales R. Wyse and G. Gilmore; The mass distribution in spiral galaxies P. Salucci; Connecting lost baryons and dark galaxies via QSO absorption lines T. Tripp; ALFALFA: HI cosmology in the local universe R. Giovanelli; The ALFALFA search for (almost) dark galaxies across the HI mass function M. Haynes; HI clouds detected towards Virgo with the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey B. Kent; Cosmic variance in the HI mass function S. Schneider; The Arecibo Galaxy Environments Survey - potential for finding dark galaxies and results so far R. Minchin et al.; Free-floating HI clouds in the M81 group E. Brinks, F. Walter and E. Skillman; Where are the stars in dark galaxies J. Rosenberg, J. Salzer and J. Cannon; The halo by halo missing baryon problem S. McGaugh; The local void is really empty R. Tully; Voids in the local volume: a limit on appearance of a galaxy in a dark matter halo A. Tikhonov and A. Klypin; Dim baryons in the cosmic web C. Impey; A census of baryons in galaxy clusters and groups A. Gonzalez, D. Zaritsky and A. Zabludo; Statistical properties of the intercluster light from SDSS image stacking S. Zibetti; QSO strong gravitational lensing and the detection of dark halos A. Maccio; Strong gravitational lensing: bright galaxies and lost dark-matter L. Koopmans; Mapping the distribution of luminous and dark matter in strong lensing galaxies I. Ferreras, P. Saha, L. Williams and S. Burles; Tidal debris posing as dark galaxies P. Duc, F. Bournaud and E. Brinks; Numerical simulation of the dwarf companions of giant galaxies A. Nelson and P. Williams; Delayed galaxies C. Struck, M. Hancock, B. Smith, P. Appleton, V. Charmandaris and M. Giroux; Probe of dark galaxies via disturbed/lopsided isolated galaxies I. Karachentsev, V. Karachentseva, W. Huchtmeier, D. Makarov and S. Kaisin; Star formation thresholds J. Schaye; Scaling relations of dwarf galaxies without supernova-driven winds K. Tassis, A. Kravtsov and N. Gnedin; Star formation in massive low surface brightness galaxies K. O'Neil; Linking clustering properties and the evolution of low surface brightness galaxies D. Bomans and S. Rosenbaum; Too small to form a galaxy: how the UV background determines the baryon fraction M. Hoeft, G. Yepes and S. Gottlober; Star formation in damped Lyman selected galaxies L. Christensen; Dark-matter content of early-type galaxies with planetary nebulae N. Napolitano et al.; Hunting for ghosts: low surface brightnesses from pixels R. Scaramella and S. Sabatini; Baryonic properties of the darkest galaxies E. Grebel; The dwarf low surface brightness population in different environments of the local universe S. Sabatini, J. Davies, S. Roberts and R. Scaramella; Mass modelling of dwarf spheroidal galaxies J. Klimentowski et al.; Evolution of dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A Group L. Makarova and D. Makarov; A flat faint end of the Fornax cluster galaxy luminosity function S. Mieske, M. Hilker, L. Infante and C. Mendes de Oliveira; Can massive dark halos destroy the discs of dwarf galaxies? B. Fuchs and O. Esquivel; 'Dark galaxies' and local very metal-poor gas-rich galaxies: possible interrelations S. Pustilnik; Morphology and environment of dwarf galaxies in the local universe H. Ann; Arecibo survey of HI emission from disk galaxies at redshift z 0.2 B. Catinella, M. Haynes, J. Gardner, A. Connolly and R. Giovanelli; AGES observations of

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSC244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gene for cytochrome c, partial sequence, country:Japan:Okinawa. 30 0.12 3 BQ476583 |BQ476583.1 curculio2h12....g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2h12 3', mRNA seque

  17. Dicty_cDB: VHE244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 038.1 Dictyostelium dimigraformum 18S rRNA gene, isolate AR5b. 1146 0.0 1 AM168039 |AM168039.1 Dictyostelium...1 Dictyostelium discoideum 18S rRNA gene, isolate NC4. 1154 0.0 1 AM168038 |AM168

  18. Dicty_cDB: VFH244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is centranthoides cDNA clone hj81f04, mRNA sequence. 36 3e-04 3 AY342298 |AY342298.1 Ictalurus punctatus ER-resident...1 AUF_IpTrk_27_j08 Trunk kidney cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to ER-resident chaperone ca

  19. Dicty_cDB: SHF244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t WO0168911. 38 2e-04 4 BD460610 |BD460610.1 Diagnosis of Diseases Associated with Cell Cycle.... 38 2e-04 4 BD452532 |BD452532.1 Diagnosis of Diseases Associated with Cell Cycle. 38 2e-04 4 A

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHE244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ing in prelim test: 0 Number of HSP's gapped (non-prelim): 0 length of query: 176 length of database: 80,480,566 effective... HSP length: 17 effective length of query: 159 effective length of database: 78,821,179 effe...ctive search space: 12532567461 effective search space used: 12532567461 T: 0 A: 0 ... of query: 176 length of database: Z,811,932,929 effective HSP length: 22 effective length of query: 154 effective... length of database: Y,960,467,611 effective search space: 6461912012094 effective

  1. 19 CFR 10.244 - Certificate of Origin. (United States)


    ... though D 10.243(a)(2). F Handloomed, handmade, or folklore textile and apparel goods 10.243(a)(3). G... Producer Name & Address: 8. Handloomed, Handmade, or Folklore Article: 9. Name of Short Supply Fabric or... name of the folklore article or should state that the article is handloomed or handmade of...

  2. 48 CFR 52.244-6 - Subcontracts for Commercial Items. (United States)


    ... clauses in subcontracts for commercial items: (i) 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and... Recovery Act. (iii) 52.219-8, Utilization of Small Business Concerns (MAY 2004) (15 U.S.C. 637(d)(2) and (3... subcontracts to small business concerns) exceeds $650,000 ($1.5 million for construction of any public...

  3. Dicty_cDB: AHA244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available one) Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 chromos... 35 4.8 EU095850_1( EU095850 |pid:none) Turkey coronavirus isolate M...G10, c... 35 4.8 EU095850_2( EU095850 |pid:none) Turkey coronavirus isolate MG10, c... 35 4.8 CP000094_2730(

  4. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.


    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed...... in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published microRNA...... targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  5. Targets culture wastes energy on wrong things. (United States)

    Fyffe, Theresa


    Healthcare targets have been in the news a lot - and not in ways that offer comfortable reading. Missed emergency department waiting-time targets and patients waiting longer for treatments have made headlines.

  6. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jesse D; Malekos, Steven; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Korgan, Grant; Cowan, Thomas; Sentoku, Yasuhiko


    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  7. Purity of targets prepared on Cu substrates (United States)

    Méens, A.; Rossini, I.; Sens, J. C.


    The purity of several elemental self-supporting targets usually prepared by evaporation onto soluble Cu substrates has been studied. The targets were analysed by Rutherford backscattering and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Because of the high percentage of Cu observed in some Si targets, further measurements, including transmission electron microscopy, have been performed on Si targets deposited by e-gun bombardment onto Cu and ion-beam sputtering onto betaine.

  8. Evaluation and validation of drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Drug target is one of the key factors for discovering and developing new drugs. To find and validate drug targets is a crucial technique required in drug discovery by the strategy of high throughput screening. Based on the knowledge of molecular biology, human genomics and proteomics, it has been predicted that 5000 to 10000 drug targets exist in human. So, it is important orocedure to evaluate and validate the drug targets.

  9. Terahertz-based target typing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Wanke, Michael Clement; Reno, John Louis; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Grine, Albert D.; Barrick, Todd A.


    The purpose of this work was to create a THz component set and understanding to aid in the rapid analysis of transient events. This includes the development of fast, tunable, THz detectors, along with filter components for use with standard detectors and accompanying models to simulate detonation signatures. The signature effort was crucial in order to know the spectral range to target for detection. Our approach for frequency agile detection was to utilize plasmons in the channel of a specially designed field-effect transistor called the grating-gate detector. Grating-gate detectors exhibit narrow-linewidth, broad spectral tunability through application of a gate bias, and no angular dependence in their photoresponse. As such, if suitable sensitivity can be attained, they are viable candidates for Terahertz multi-spectral focal plane arrays.

  10. Therapeutic target for protozoal diseases (United States)

    Rathore, Dharmendar; Jani, Dewal; Nagarkatti, Rana


    A novel Fasciclin Related Adhesive Protein (FRAP) from Plasmodium and related parasites is provided as a target for therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by the parasites. FRAP has been shown to play a critical role in adhesion to, or invasion into, host cells by the parasite. Furthermore, FRAP catalyzes the neutralization of heme by the parasite, by promoting its polymerization into hemozoin. This invention provides methods and compositions for therapies based on the administration of protein, DNA or cell-based vaccines and/or antibodies based on FRAP, or antigenic epitopes of FRAP, either alone or in combination with other parasite antigens. Methods for the development of compounds that inhibit the catalytic activity of FRAP, and diagnostic and laboratory methods utilizing FRAP are also provided.

  11. Synchronous identification of friendly targets (United States)

    Telle, John M.; Roger, Stutz A.


    A synchronous communication targeting system for use in battle. The present invention includes a transceiver having a stabilizing oscillator, a synchronous amplifier and an omnidirectional receiver, all in electrical communication with each other. A remotely located beacon is attached to a blackbody radiation source and has an amplitude modulator in electrical communication with a optical source. The beacon's amplitude modulator is set so that the optical source transmits radiation frequency at approximately the same or lower amplitude than that of the blackbody radiation source to which the beacon is attached. The receiver from the transceiver is adapted to receive frequencies approximately at or below blackbody radiation signals and sends such signals to the synchronous amplifier. The synchronous amplifier then rectifies and amplifies those signals which correspond to the predetermined frequency to therefore identify whether the blackbody radiation source is friendly or not.

  12. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    that such grammatical changes have positive effects on the intelligibility of texts. The attempts to document such effects are scarce and that is one of the backgrounds for my involvement in the project. If I am able to show that the changes do have an effect, the literature on conveying professional communication......The paper proposal is part of a full-scale discourse analysis of a series of service information pamphlets published by the county of Ringkjøbing in Western Denmark. The project is an investigation of various aspects of the fact that government agencies as well as local and regional authorities...... very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live...

  13. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  14. Behavioral targeting: a European legal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.


    Behavioral targeting, or online profiling, is a hotly debated topic. Much of the collection of personal information on the Internet is related to behavioral targeting, although research suggests that most people don't want to receive behaviorally targeted advertising. The World Wide Web Consortium i

  15. Acoustic Signal Feature Extraction of Vehicle Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝金辉; 马宝华; 李科杰


    Acoustic signal feature extraction is an important part of target recognition. The mechanisms for producing acoustic signals and their propagation are analyzed to extract the features of the radiated noise from different targets. Analysis of the acoustic spectra of typical vehicle targets acquired outdoors shows that the vehicles can be classified based on the acoustic spectra and amplitudes.

  16. Target manifold formation using a quadratic SDF (United States)

    Hester, Charles F.; Risko, Kelly K. D.


    Synthetic Discriminant Function (SDF) formulation of correlation filters provides constraints for forming target subspaces for a target set. In this paper we extend the SDF formulation to include quadratic constraints and use this solution to form nonlinear manifolds in the target space. The theory for forming these manifolds will be developed and demonstrated with data.

  17. Studies of release properties of ISOLDE targets

    CERN Document Server

    Peräjärvi, K; Fedosseev, V; Joinet, A; Köster, U; Lau, C; Lettry, Jacques; Ravn, H L; Santana-Leitner, M


    Off-line release rates of Be, Mg, S, Mn and Kr from refractory materials were studied. Mn yields were determined from a ZrO2 target and Kr yields from a SrO and ZrO2 targets. A Monte Carlo code to optimize ISOLDE targets was introduced.

  18. 40 CFR 35.9020 - Planning targets. (United States)


    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9020 Planning targets. The EPA Assistant Administrator for Water develops planning targets each year to help each... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Planning targets. 35.9020 Section...

  19. Moringa oleifera Lam: Targeting Chemoprevention. (United States)

    Karim, Nurul Ashikin Abd; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha; Rukayadi, Yaya; Hamid, Hazrulizawati Abd; Razis, Ahmad Faizal Abdull


    Moringa oleifera Lam, family Moringaceae, is a perennial plant which is called various names, but is locally known in Malaysia as "murungai" or "kelor". Glucomoringin, a glucosinolate with from M. oleifera is a major secondary metabolite compound. The seeds and leaves of the plant are reported to have the highest amount of glucosinolates. M. oleifera is well known for its many uses health and benefits. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal and chemopreventive potentials. Chemopreventive effects of M. oleifera are expected due to the existence of glucosinolate which it is reported to have the ability to induce apoptosis in anticancer studies. Furthermore, chemopreventive value of M. oleifera has been demonstrated in studies utilizing its leaf extract to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines. This review highlights the advantages of M. oleifera targeting chemoprevention where glucosinolates could help to slow the process of carcinogenesis through several molecular targets. It is also includes inhibition of carcinogen activation and induction of carcinogen detoxification, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, for synergistic effects of M. oleifera with other drugs and safety, essential for chemoprevention, it is important that it safe to be consumed by human body and works well. Although there is promising evidence about M. oleifera in chemoprevention, extensive research needs to be done due to the expected rise of cancer in coming years and to gain more information about the mechanisms involved in M. oleifera influence, which could be a good source to inhibit several major mechanisms involved in cancer development.

  20. Electrophilic eicosanoids: Signaling and targets. (United States)

    Pérez-Sala, Dolores


    Electrophilic eicosanoids are reactive mediators that arise by non-enzymatic transformations of arachidonic acid or of its products and display varied biological actions. Various electrophilic eicosanoids have shown anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects, which have elicited a great interest in their study as potential therapeutic agents. A key feature of these compounds is their ability to covalently modify proteins, thus altering their structure and function. The modification of several components of the NF-κB pathway contributes to the anti-inflammatory effects of electrophilic eicosanoids, whereas addition to redox-sensitive proteins plays a key role in the antioxidant response. However, electrophilic eicosanoids may also have a dark side, and accumulating evidence points towards their involvement in neurotoxicity and/or neurodegeneration. The ability of some electrophilic eicosanoids to induce protein oligomerization or aggregation through various mechanisms may contribute to these effects. Biochemical and proteomic studies have led to the identification of numerous protein targets for modification by electrophilic eicosanoids, the number of which continues to expand, revealing novel potential functions for these compounds and providing a basis for their pleiotropic effects. The ample number of targets identified, together with the non-enzymatic nature of the modification argue against the potential specificity or regulation of electrophilic eicosanoid action. However, protein modification displays selectivity depending on structural features of the proteins and of the electrophilic compounds as well as on context factors such as cell type and GSH availability. Understanding the factors which control the extent and selectivity of protein modification by electrophilic eicosanoids is therefore essential to elucidate their pathophysiological roles and therapeutic potential in specific settings.

  1. Targeting Cancer with Antisense Oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnatowich, DJ


    With financial assistance from the Department of Energy, we have shown definitively that radiolabeled antisense DNAs and other oligomers will accumulate in target cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by an antisense mechanism. We have also shown that the number of mRNA targets for our antisense oligomers in the cancer cell types that we have investigated so far is sufficient to provide and antisense image and/or radiotherapy of cancer in mice. These studies have been reported in about 10 publications. However our observation over the past several years has shown that radiolabeled antisense oligomers administered intravenously in their native and naked form will accumulate and be retained in target xenografts by an antisense mechanism but will also accumulate at high levels in normal organs such as liver, spleen and kidneys. We have investigated unsuccessfully several commercially available vectors. Thus the use of radiolabeled antisense oligomers for the imaging of cancer must await novel approaches to delivery. This laboratory has therefore pursued two new paths, optical imaging of tumor and Auger radiotherapy. We are developing a novel method of optical imaging tumor using antisense oligomers with a fluorophore is administered while hybridized with a shorter complementary oligomer with an inhibitor. In culture and in tumored mice that the duplex remains intact and thus nonfluorescent until it encounters its target mRNA at which time it dissociates and the antisense oligomer binds along with its fluorophore to the target. Simultaneous with the above, we have also observed, as have others, that antisense oligomers migrate rapidly and quantitatively to the nucleus upon crossing cell membranes. The Auger electron radiotherapy path results from this observation since the nuclear migration properties could be used effectively to bring and to retain in the nucleus an Auger emitting radionuclide such as 111In or 125I bound to the antisense oligomer. Since the object becomes

  2. Alternative synthetic route for the heterometallic CO-releasing [Sb@Rh12(CO)27]3-icosahedral carbonyl cluster and synthesis of its new unsaturated [Sb@Rh12(CO)24]4-and dimeric [{Sb@Rh12Sb(CO)25}2Rh(CO)2PPh3]7-derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristina Femoni; Iacopo Ciabatti; Maria Carmela Iapalucci; Silvia Ruggieri; Stefano Zacchini


    The hetero-metallic [Sb@Rh12(CO)27]3−cluster has been known as for over three decades thanks to Vidal and co-workers, and represents the first example of an E-centered (E=heteroatom) icosahedral rhodium carbonyl cluster. However, its synthesis required high temperature (140–160 °C) and elevated CO pressure (400 atm). Applying the redox condensation method for cluster preparation, we herein report a new synthetic, high-yield route for preparing [Sb@Rh12(CO)27]3−under much milder conditions of temperature and pressure. Notably, when the same synthesis was carried out under N2 instead of CO atmosphere, the new isostructural but unsaturated derivative [Sb@Rh12(CO)24]4− was obtained, for which we report the full X-ray structural characterization. This species represents one of the few examples of an icosahedral cluster disobeying the electron-counting Wade-Mingos rules, possessing less than the expected 170 cluster valence electrons (CVEs). Judging from IR monitoring, the two species can be obtained one from the other by switching between N2 and CO atmosphere, making [Sb@Rh12(CO)27]3− a spontaneous CO-releasing molecule. Finally, the study of the chemical reactivity of [Sb@Rh12(CO)27]3− with PPh3 allowed us to obtain the new [{Sb@Rh12Sb(CO)25}2Rh(CO)2PPh3]7− dimeric compound, for which we herein report the full X-ray structural and 31P NMR analyses.

  3. Alternative synthetic route for the heterometallic CO-releasing [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− icosahedral carbonyl cluster and synthesis of its new unsaturated [Sb@Rh12(CO24]4− and dimeric [{Sb@Rh12Sb(CO25}2Rh(CO2PPh3]7− derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Femoni


    Full Text Available The hetero-metallic [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− cluster has been known as for over three decades thanks to Vidal and co-workers, and represents the first example of an E-centered (E=heteroatom icosahedral rhodium carbonyl cluster. However, its synthesis required high temperature (140–160 °C and elevated CO pressure (400 atm. Applying the redox condensation method for cluster preparation, we herein report a new synthetic, high-yield route for preparing [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− under much milder conditions of temperature and pressure. Notably, when the same synthesis was carried out under N2 instead of CO atmosphere, the new isostructural but unsaturated derivative [Sb@Rh12(CO24]4− was obtained, for which we report the full X-ray structural characterization. This species represents one of the few examples of an icosahedral cluster disobeying the electron-counting Wade-Mingos rules, possessing less than the expected 170 cluster valence electrons (CVEs. Judging from IR monitoring, the two species can be obtained one from the other by switching between N2 and CO atmosphere, making [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− a spontaneous CO-releasing molecule. Finally, the study of the chemical reactivity of [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− with PPh3 allowed us to obtain the new [{Sb@Rh12Sb(CO25}2Rh(CO2PPh3]7− dimeric compound, for which we herein report the full X-ray structural and 31P NMR analyses.

  4. Improved Targeting of Cancers with Nanotherapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Christian; Watson, Andre; Kaplinsky, Joseph John;


    Targeted cancer nanotherapeutics offers numerous opportunities for the selective uptake of toxic chemotherapies within tumors and cancer cells. The unique properties of nanoparticles, such as their small size, large surface-to-volume ratios, and the ability to achieve multivalency of targeting...... ligands on their surface, provide superior advantages for nanoparticle-based drug delivery to a variety of cancers. This review highlights various key concepts in the design of targeted nanotherapeutics for cancer therapy, and discusses physicochemical parameters affecting nanoparticle targeting, along...... with recent developments for cancer-targeted nanomedicines....

  5. Targeting nominal income growth or inflation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik


    Within a simple New Keynesian model emphasizing forward-looking behavior of private agents, I evaluate optimal nominal income growth targeting versus optimal inflation targeting. When the economy is mainly subject to shocks that do not involve monetary policy trade-offs for society, inflation...... targeting is preferable. Otherwise, nominal income growth targeting may be superior because it induces inertial policy making, which improves the inflation-output-gap trade-off. Somewhat paradoxically, inflation targeting may be relatively less favorable the more society dislikes inflation, and the more...... persistent are the effects of inflation-generating shocks...

  6. The trajectory of the target probability effect. (United States)

    Hon, Nicholas; Yap, Melvin J; Jabar, Syaheed B


    The effect of target probability on detection times is well-established: Even when detection accuracy is high, lower probability targets are detected more slowly than higher probability ones. Although this target probability effect on detection times has been well-studied, one aspect of it has remained largely unexamined: How the effect develops over the span of an experiment. Here, we investigated this issue with two detection experiments that assessed different target probability ratios. Conventional block segment analysis and linear mixed-effects modeling converged on two key findings. First, we found that the magnitude of the target probability effect increases as one progresses through a block of trials. Second, we found, by examining the trajectories of the low- and high-probability targets, that this increase in effect magnitude was driven by the low-probability targets. Specifically, we found that low-probability targets were detected more slowly as a block of trials progressed. Performance to high-probability targets, on the other hand, was largely invariant across the block. The latter finding is of particular interest because it cannot be reconciled with accounts that propose that the target probability effect is driven by the high-probability targets.

  7. The CRKL gene encoding an adaptor protein is amplified, overexpressed, and a possible therapeutic target in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsume Hiroko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic DNA amplification is a genetic factor involved in cancer, and some oncogenes, such as ERBB2, are highly amplified in gastric cancer. We searched for the possible amplification of other genes in gastric cancer. Methods and Results A genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism microarray analysis was performed using three cell lines of differentiated gastric cancers, and 22 genes (including ERBB2 in five highly amplified chromosome regions (with a copy number of more than 6 were identified. Particular attention was paid to the CRKL gene, the product of which is an adaptor protein containing Src homology 2 and 3 (SH2/SH3 domains. An extremely high CRKL copy number was confirmed in the MKN74 gastric cancer cell line using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, and a high level of CRKL expression was also observed in the cells. The RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of CRKL in MKN74 disclosed the ability of CRKL to upregulate gastric cell proliferation. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CRKL protein was overexpressed in 24.4% (88/360 of the primary gastric cancers that were analyzed. The CRKL copy number was also examined in 360 primary gastric cancers using a FISH analysis, and CRKL amplification was found to be associated with CRKL overexpression. Finally, we showed that MKN74 cells with CRKL amplification were responsive to the dual Src/BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor BMS354825, likely via the inhibition of CRKL phosphorylation, and that the proliferation of MKN74 cells was suppressed by treatment with a CRKL-targeting peptide. Conclusion These results suggested that CRKL protein is overexpressed in a subset of gastric cancers and is associated with CRKL amplification in gastric cancer. Furthermore, our results suggested that CRKL protein has the ability to regulate gastric cell proliferation and has the potential to serve as a molecular therapy target for gastric cancer.

  8. Infrared signature generation of airborne targets (United States)

    Whalen, Michael R.


    This report proposes a generic methodology for generating infrared signatures of airborne targets. The various issues, assumptions and simplifications utilized in signature studies are outlines to insure baseline consistency among future models and evaluation tools. More specifically, the target is characterized on a component level, and the at-aperture signature is generated by the correct inclusion of atmospheric transmission. While the technique and general concepts may apply to all airborne targets, this study places emphasis on cruise missiles and related targets due to their low contrast. For these targets, the background signature becomes more important as both the emitted target radiance and the reflected background radiance contribute to the overall signature. Example target signatures generated using the proposed methodology will be presented following the discussion of signature modeling.

  9. Design and Implementation of SCSI Target Emulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A SCSI target emulator is used in a storage area network (SAN) environment to simulate the behavior of a SCSI target for processing and responding to I/O requests issued by initiators. The SCSI target emulator works with general storage devices with multiple transport protocols. The target emulator utilizes a protocol conversion module that translates the SCSI protocols to a variety of storage devices and implements the multi-RAID-level configuration and storage visualization functions. Moreover, the target emulator implements RAM caching, multi-queuing, and request merging to effectively improve the I/O response speed of the general storage devices. The throughput and average response times of the target emulator for block sizes of 4 KB to 128 KB are 150% faster for reads and 67% faster for writes than the existing emulator. With a block size of 16 KB, the I/O latency of the target emulator is only about 20% that of the existing emulator.

  10. Targeting tumor suppressor genes for cancer therapy. (United States)

    Liu, Yunhua; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Han, Cecil; Wang, Liana; Zhang, Xinna; He, Xiaoming; Lu, Xiongbin


    Cancer drugs are broadly classified into two categories: cytotoxic chemotherapies and targeted therapies that specifically modulate the activity of one or more proteins involved in cancer. Major advances have been achieved in targeted cancer therapies in the past few decades, which is ascribed to the increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms for cancer initiation and progression. Consequently, monoclonal antibodies and small molecules have been developed to interfere with a specific molecular oncogenic target. Targeting gain-of-function mutations, in general, has been productive. However, it has been a major challenge to use standard pharmacologic approaches to target loss-of-function mutations of tumor suppressor genes. Novel approaches, including synthetic lethality and collateral vulnerability screens, are now being developed to target gene defects in p53, PTEN, and BRCA1/2. Here, we review and summarize the recent findings in cancer genomics, drug development, and molecular cancer biology, which show promise in targeting tumor suppressors in cancer therapeutics.

  11. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Barry J [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Raja, Chand [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Rizvi, Syed [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Li Yong [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Tsui, Wendy [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Zhang, David [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Song, Emma [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Qu, C F [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Kearsley, John [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Graham, Peter [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Thompson, John [Sydney Melanoma Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown 2050 NSW (Australia)


    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The {sup 213}Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 {mu

  12. 26 CFR 1.430(d)-1 - Determination of target normal cost and funding target. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of target normal cost and funding target. 1.430(d)-1 Section 1.430(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.430(d)-1 Determination of target normal cost and funding target....

  13. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash; Bieliauskas, Arunas [Institute of Energy, Joint Research Center of the European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)


    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events - among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability. (author)

  14. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route. (United States)

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K


    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery.

  15. Targeting hedgehog in hematologic malignancy. (United States)

    Irvine, David A; Copland, Mhairi


    The Hedgehog pathway is a critical mediator of embryonic patterning and organ development, including hematopoiesis. It influences stem cell fate, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis in responsive tissues. In adult organisms, hedgehog pathway activity is required for aspects of tissue maintenance and regeneration; however, there is increasing awareness that abnormal hedgehog signaling is associated with malignancy. Hedgehog signaling is critical for early hematopoietic development, but there is controversy over its role in normal hematopoiesis in adult organisms where it may be dispensable. Conversely, hedgehog signaling appears to be an important survival and proliferation signal for a spectrum of hematologic malignancies. Furthermore, hedgehog signaling may be critical for the maintenance and expansion of leukemic stem cells and therefore provides a possible mechanism to selectively target these primitive cell subpopulations, which are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Indeed, phase 1 clinical trials of hedgehog pathway inhibitors are currently underway to test this hypothesis in myeloid leukemias. This review covers: (1) the hedgehog pathway and its role in normal and malignant hematopoiesis, (2) the recent development of clinical grade small molecule inhibitors of the pathway, and (3) the potential utility of hedgehog pathway inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in hemato-oncology.

  16. Double-layered target and identification method of individual target correlated with evaporation residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaji, D., E-mail:; Morimoto, K.


    A double-layered target system and an identification method (target ID) for individual targets mounted on a rotating wheel using correlation with evaporation residues were newly developed for the study of superheavy elements (SHE). The target system can be used in three modes: conventional single-layered mode, double-layered mode, and energy-degrader mode. The target ID method can be utilized for masking a target, measuring an excitation function without changing the beam energy from the accelerator, and searching for SHE nuclides using multiple targets during a single irradiation.

  17. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy (United States)

    Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Moir, Ralph W.


    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS2. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of +/- 0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  18. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.


    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS{sub 2}. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of {plus_minus}0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  19. Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting. (United States)

    Odenbach, Stefan


    Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load.

  20. Memory for found targets interferes with subsequent performance in multiple-target visual search. (United States)

    Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R


    Multiple-target visual searches--when more than 1 target can appear in a given search display--are commonplace in radiology, airport security screening, and the military. Whereas 1 target is often found accurately, additional targets are more likely to be missed in multiple-target searches. To better understand this decrement in 2nd-target detection, here we examined 2 potential forms of interference that can arise from finding a 1st target: interference from the perceptual salience of the 1st target (a now highly relevant distractor in a known location) and interference from a newly created memory representation for the 1st target. Here, we found that removing found targets from the display or making them salient and easily segregated color singletons improved subsequent search accuracy. However, replacing found targets with random distractor items did not improve subsequent search accuracy. Removing and highlighting found targets likely reduced both a target's visual salience and its memory load, whereas replacing a target removed its visual salience but not its representation in memory. Collectively, the current experiments suggest that the working memory load of a found target has a larger effect on subsequent search accuracy than does its perceptual salience.

  1. Mitochondria: a target for bacteria. (United States)

    Lobet, Elodie; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Arnould, Thierry


    Eukaryotic cells developed strategies to detect and eradicate infections. The innate immune system, which is the first line of defence against invading pathogens, relies on the recognition of molecular patterns conserved among pathogens. Pathogen associated molecular pattern binding to pattern recognition receptor triggers the activation of several signalling pathways leading to the establishment of a pro-inflammatory state required to control the infection. In addition, pathogens evolved to subvert those responses (with passive and active strategies) allowing their entry and persistence in the host cells and tissues. Indeed, several bacteria actively manipulate immune system or interfere with the cell fate for their own benefit. One can imagine that bacterial effectors can potentially manipulate every single organelle in the cell. However, the multiple functions fulfilled by mitochondria especially their involvement in the regulation of innate immune response, make mitochondria a target of choice for bacterial pathogens as they are not only a key component of the central metabolism through ATP production and synthesis of various biomolecules but they also take part to cell signalling through ROS production and control of calcium homeostasis as well as the control of cell survival/programmed cell death. Furthermore, considering that mitochondria derived from an ancestral bacterial endosymbiosis, it is not surprising that a special connection does exist between this organelle and bacteria. In this review, we will discuss different mitochondrial functions that are affected during bacterial infection as well as different strategies developed by bacterial pathogens to subvert functions related to calcium homeostasis, maintenance of redox status and mitochondrial morphology.

  2. Application of VNIIRS for target tracking (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Kahler, Bart


    The Motion Imagery Standards Board (MISB) has created the Video National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (VNIIRS). VNIIRS extends NIIRS to scene characterization from streaming video to include object recognition of various targets for a given size. To apply VNIIRs for target tracking, there is a need to understand the operating conditions of the sensor type, environmental phenomenon, and target behavior (SET). In this paper, we explore VNIIRS for target tracking given the sensor resolution to support the relative tracking performance using track success. The relative assessment can be used in relation to the absolute target size associated with the VNIIRS. In a notional analysis, we determine the issues and capabilities of using VNIIRS video quality ratings to determine track success. The outcome of the trade study is an experiment to understand how to use VNIIRS can support target tracking evaluation.

  3. Development on dynamic nuclear polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Penttila, S I


    Our interest in understanding the spin content of the nucleon has left its marks on the recent development of the dynamic nuclear polarized (DNP) targets. This can be seen from the targets developed at CERN and SLAC for the measurement of the polarized spin structure functions in deep inelastic scattering. The results of the experiments indicated that less than 30% of the nucleon spin is carried by the quarks. This unpredicted small value initiated planning of new polarized target experiments to determine the gluon polarization on the nucleon using polarized real photons and polarized /sup 6/LiD targets. In several facilities very intense polarized photon beams are available at a wide energy range. During the next few years these photon beams with DNP targets will be used to test the fundamental GDH sum rule. Other DNP target developments are also discussed. (61 refs).

  4. Attentional processing of multiple targets and distractors. (United States)

    Munneke, Jaap; Fait, Elisa; Mazza, Veronica


    We assessed the functioning of attention when multiple relevant objects are intermingled with multiple distractors, measuring two electrophysiological subcomponents of the N2pc that have been associated, respectively, with target selection and distractor suppression: the target negativity (Nt) and the distractor positivity (Pd). To this aim, we orthogonally manipulated the number of targets and distractors in an enumeration task. The Nt was modulated by target, but not distractor numerosity, suggesting that an increase in target numerosity leads to an increase in attentional resources needed to form individual representations of the targets. In contrast, the number of distractors did not differentially alter the Pd. We hypothesize that distractors sharing similar visual features can be processed (and possibly suppressed) as a set, without the need for individuation.

  5. Liquid Hydrogen Target for the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, J; Duday-Chanat, L; Geyer, R; Mallot, G K; Pirotte, O; Vullierme, B


    A liquid hydrogen target has been developed for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The target has a diameter of 40 mm and a length of 2.5 meter, creating an active volume of about 3 liter of liquid hydrogen. The cylindrical part of the target wall is formed by a Kapton® foil strip, wound and glued to a thickness of 0.125 mm. The Kapton® foil is used to minimize the energy loss of the particles, scattered or created within the target volume, crossing the target boundary. The two end-caps enclosing the target volume have been fabricated from Mylar®. The system is cooled with a 30 W at 20 K cryocooler, delivering the cooling capacity for the cool-down as well as for the continuous operation of the system.

  6. Protection Related to High-power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A


    Target protection is an important part of machine protection. The beam power in high-intensity accelerators is high enough that a single wayward pulse can cause serious damage. Today's high-power targets operate at the limit of available technology, and are designed for a very narrow range of beam parameters. If the beam pulse is too far off centre, or if the beam size is not correct, or if the beam density is too high, the target can be seriously damaged. We will start with a brief introduction to high-power targets and then move to a discussion of what can go wrong, and what are the risks. Next we will discuss how to control the beam-related risk, followed by examples from a few different accelerator facilities. We will finish with a detailed example of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source target tune up and target protection.

  7. From monetary to exchange rate targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. ARTIS


    Full Text Available This paper was presented at the Fourth International Seminar on European Economic and Monetary Union, held in Copenhagen in March of 1981. The author takes up the theoretical issues in the framework of both static and dynamic analysis. He argues, on the basis of the criterion of minimising the variance of prices around their target value, that an exchange-rate target outperforms a monetary target under most conceivable types of disturbances in a static analysis. 

  8. Main Development Targets for CNOOC in 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ In order to obtain stable reserves and create scope economic management, the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) officially put forward the main development target and main sci-tech sector target of the Ninth Five-Year Plan in July, 1995. These targets aim to make CNOOC as an international group corporation,including exploration and development of oil and gas,refining, petrochemicals, chemical fertilizer, power generation, unitizing sales network of up and down stream.

  9. Inflation targeting and product market deregulation


    Moretti, Laura


    I evaluate the effect of inflation targeting on inflation and how it interacts with product market deregulation during the disinflationary process in the 1990s. Using a sample of 21 OECD countries, I show that, after controlling for product market deregulation, the effect of inflation targeting is quantitatively important and statistically significant. Moreover, product market deregulation also matters in particular in countries that adopted an inflation targeting regime. I propose a New Keyn...

  10. Novel Acoustic Scattering Processes for Target Discrimination (United States)


    Scattering Processes for Target Discrimination 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N000141010093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Marston...10-1-0093 December 2014 Novel Acoustic Scattering Processes for Target Discrimination Philip L. Marston, Principal Investigator Physics and...Target Discrimination (2010) Philip L. Marston Physics and Astronomy Dept., Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 phone: (509) 335

  11. Target tracking based on frequency spectrum amplitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Huidong; Zhang Xinhua; Xia Zhijun


    The amplitude of frequency spectrum can be integrated with probabilistic data association (PDA) to distinguish the target with clutter echoes, especially in low SNR underwater environment. A new target-tracking algorithm is presented which adopts the amplitude of frequency spectrum to improve target tracking in clutter. The probabilistic density distribution of frequency spectrum amplitude is analyzed. By simulation, the results show that the algorithm is superior to PDA. This approach enhances stability for the association probability and increases the performance of target tracking.

  12. ISAC target operation with high proton currents

    CERN Document Server

    Dombsky, M; Schmor, P; Lane, M


    The TRIUMF-ISAC facility target stations were designed for ISOL target irradiations with up to 100 mu A proton beam currents. Since beginning operation in 1998, ISAC irradiation currents have progressively increased from initial values of approx 1 mu A to present levels of up to 40 mu A on refractory metal foil targets. In addition, refractory carbide targets have operated at currents of up to 15 mu A for extended periods. The 1-40 mu A operational regime is achieved by tailoring each target to the thermal requirements dictated by material properties such as beam power deposition, thermal conductivity and maximum operating temperature of the target material. The number of heat shields on each target can be varied in order to match the effective emissivity of the target surface for the required radiative power dissipation. Targets of different thickness, surface area and volume have been investigated to study the effect of diffusion and effusion delays on the yield of radioisotopes. For yields of short-lived p...

  13. Target studies for surface muon production (United States)

    Berg, F.; Desorgher, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hajdas, W.; Hodge, Z.; Kettle, P.-R.; Knecht, A.; Lüscher, R.; Papa, A.; Rutar, G.; Wohlmuther, M.


    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  14. Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Taylor, Robin D [ORNL


    In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of {sup 252}Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The {sup 252}Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of {sup 252}Cf; the average irradiation period is {approx}10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of {sup 252}Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and

  15. Two target localization using passive monopulse radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah


    The simultaneous lobing technique, also known as monopulse technique, has been widely used for fast target localization and tracking purposes. Many works focused on accurately localizing one or two targets laying within a narrow beam centered around the monopulse antenna boresight direction. In this work, however, a new approach uses the outputs of a four quadrant antenna receiver to rapidly localize two point targets present in the hemisphere. A second set of antennas can be required to localize two targets sharing the same elevation or azimuth angles. To combine the outputs of both antenna sets and enhance the estimation performance of the algorithm, two methods are presented and compared.

  16. The drug target genes show higher evolutionary conservation than non-target genes. (United States)

    Lv, Wenhua; Xu, Yongdeng; Guo, Yiying; Yu, Ziqi; Feng, Guanglong; Liu, Panpan; Luan, Meiwei; Zhu, Hongjie; Liu, Guiyou; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Duan, Lian; Shang, Zhenwei; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Ruijie


    Although evidence indicates that drug target genes share some common evolutionary features, there have been few studies analyzing evolutionary features of drug targets from an overall level. Therefore, we conducted an analysis which aimed to investigate the evolutionary characteristics of drug target genes. We compared the evolutionary conservation between human drug target genes and non-target genes by combining both the evolutionary features and network topological properties in human protein-protein interaction network. The evolution rate, conservation score and the percentage of orthologous genes of 21 species were included in our study. Meanwhile, four topological features including the average shortest path length, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient and degree were considered for comparison analysis. Then we got four results as following: compared with non-drug target genes, 1) drug target genes had lower evolutionary rates; 2) drug target genes had higher conservation scores; 3) drug target genes had higher percentages of orthologous genes and 4) drug target genes had a tighter network structure including higher degrees, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficients and lower average shortest path lengths. These results demonstrate that drug target genes are more evolutionarily conserved than non-drug target genes. We hope that our study will provide valuable information for other researchers who are interested in evolutionary conservation of drug targets.

  17. ISOLDE target zone control room HD

    CERN Multimedia


    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  18. Technical Design Report, Second Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bechtol, D. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Bethea, Katie L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, N. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Carden, W. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chae, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, A. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Counce, Deborah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Craft, K. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Crofford, Mark T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Richard M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cousineau, Sarah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curry, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayton, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dean, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deibele, Craig E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Doleans, Marc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dye, T. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Eason, Bob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckroth, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fincrock, C. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Fritts, S. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gawne, Ken R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hartman, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hess, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Holmes, Jeffrey A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Horak, Charlie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Matthew P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Lorelei L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Larry C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, B. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Johnson, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Kasemir, Kay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Laughon, Gregory J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mahoney, Kelly L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mammosser, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamy, T. [McManamy Consulting, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Michilini, M. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Middendorf, Mark E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Neal, Ed [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nemec, B. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Peters, Roy Cecil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Plum, Michael A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reagan, G. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rennich, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saethre, Robert B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schubert, James Phillip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shishlo, Andrei P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, C. Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strong, William Herb [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tallant, Kathie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tennant, David Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibadeau, Barbara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trumble, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Trotter, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Webb, Steven B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Derrick C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, Karen S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhao, Jinkui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The Second Target Station (STS) is a proposed upgrade for SNS. It includes a doubling of the accelerator power and an additional instrument hall. The new instrument hall will receive a 467 kW 10 Hz beam. The parameters and preliminary design aspects of the STS are presented for the accelerator, target systems, instrument hall, instruments and civil construction aspects.

  19. Targeted Magnetic Hyperthermia for Lung Cancer (United States)


    O R R EC TE D PR O O F 928 were evident. In contrast, MRI scans of treated mice showed 929 no signs of intra-thoracic lung cancer (Fig. 4). The...mice that received SPIO-loaded nanoemulsion 1010 (either targeted or non-targeted) appeared hypointense, in- 1011 dicating SPIO accumulation in these

  20. Target Studies for Surface Muon Production

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, F; Fuchs, A; Hajdas, W; Hodge, Z; Kettle, P -R; Knecht, A; Lüscher, R; Papa, A; Rutar, G; Wohlmuther, M


    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programmes. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90{\\deg}. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30 - 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizin...

  1. Targeting herpesvirus reliance of the chemokine system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Kledal, Thomas N


    acquired homologs of both chemokines and chemokine receptors belonging to the 7 transmembrane (7TM) spanning, G protein-coupled receptor family. 7TM receptors are very efficient drug targets and are currently the most popular class of investigational drug targets. A notable trait for the virus encoded...

  2. Inflation targeting and interest rate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, W.H.


    The thesis contains a collection of papers on issues in inflation targeting and its implications for the way interest rates are set. In this respect, the first part deals with two largely positive issues: the effect of inflation forecast targeting on the term structure of interest rates and the impl

  3. Inflation Targeting in Emerging Market Countries


    Frederic S. Mishkin


    This paper outlines what inflation targeting involves for emerging market/transition countries and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this monetary policy strategy. The discussion suggests that although inflation targeting is not a panacea and may not be appropriate for many emerging market countries, it can be a highly useful monetary policy strategy in a number of them.

  4. Prodrug applications for targeted cancer therapy. (United States)

    Giang, Irene; Boland, Erin L; Poon, Gregory M K


    Prodrugs are widely used in the targeted delivery of cytotoxic compounds to cancer cells. To date, targeted prodrugs for cancer therapy have achieved great diversity in terms of target selection, activation chemistry, as well as size and physicochemical nature of the prodrug. Macromolecular prodrugs such as antibody-drug conjugates, targeted polymer-drug conjugates and other conjugates that self-assemble to form liposomal and micellar nanoparticles currently represent a major trend in prodrug development for cancer therapy. In this review, we explore a unified view of cancer-targeted prodrugs and highlight several examples from recombinant technology that exemplify the prodrug concept but are not identified as such. Recombinant "prodrugs" such as engineered anthrax toxin show promise in biological specificity through the conditionally targeting of multiple cellular markers. Conditional targeting is achieved by structural complementation, the spontaneous assembly of engineered inactive subunits or fragments to reconstitute functional activity. These complementing systems can be readily adapted to achieve conditionally bispecific targeting of enzymes that are used to activate low-molecular weight prodrugs. By leveraging strengths from medicinal chemistry, polymer science, and recombinant technology, prodrugs are poised to remain a core component of highly focused and tailored strategies aimed at conditionally attacking complex molecular phenotypes in clinically relevant cancer.

  5. Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Mark A.


    Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy.

  6. 28 CFR 55.17 - Targeting. (United States)


    ... REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.17 Targeting. The term...). “Targeting” refers to a system in which the minority language materials or assistance required by the Act are... targeting system will normally fulfill the Act's minority language requirements if it is designed...

  7. What "helps" tumors evade vascular targeting treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zhi-chao; LIU Jie


    Objective To throw a light on the possible factors which might induce resistance of vascular targeting treatment in tumors by reviewing the recent publications in the field of tumor angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed for relevant English language articles published from 1971 to January 2008. The search terms were "angiogenesis", "vascular targeting treatment" and "endothelial progenitor cells".Study selection Articles involved in the possible influence factors during angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment were selected, including angiogenic or anti-angiogenic mechanism, tumor vasculature, tumor cells, cancer stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells.Results As a promising strategy vascular targeting treatment still has experimental and clinical setbacks which may term tumor vasculature's resistance to anti-angiogenesis agents. There are several possible explanations for such a resistance that might account for clinical and preclinical failures of anti-angiogenic treatment against tumor.Proangiogenic effect of hypoxia, normal tumor vasculature, escape of tumor cells and tumor vasculogenesis are included.This review reveals some clues which might be helpful to direct future research in order to remove obstacles to vascular targeting treatment.Conclusions Generally and undoubtedly vascular targeting treatment remains a promising strategy. But we still have to realize the existence of a challenging future. Further research is required to enhance our knowledge of vascular targeting treatment strategy before it could make a more substantial success.

  8. Target Tracking and Interception by Aggressive Honeybees (United States)


    targets can hinder, prevent or endanger attacks to the centrally-located targets. Figure 15. Percentage of strikes (totalling 100%) to each of the...adjusted, 53  to minimize the drag that is produced by the medium through which they move. For example, 54  sharks , tuna and mackerel possess fusiform shapes

  9. Targeted inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meel, R.


    Two main strategies have been pursued for the development of an effective and targeted anti-cancer treatment. The first strategy comprised the generation of a targeted nanomedicine for the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation by blocking growth factor receptor pathways. The epidermal growth factor

  10. Waiting-time targets. Early learners. (United States)

    Moore, Alison


    Thirteen 'early achiever' sites have volunteered to deliver the new 18-week target ahead of schedule. The sites have highlighted recurring issues for trusts aiming for 18 weeks: orthopaedics, audiology, endoscopy and some smaller specialties have all proved challenging. The target should be seen as a vital step towards a 'no unnecessary delay' system of working and thinking.

  11. A rotating target for Ra production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohani, M.; Wilschut, H. W.


    A target wheel with pyrolytic graphite targets is designed and constructed at the TRI mu P facility to boost the production rate of Ra isotopes. Simulation, design properties and production results are discussed. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mathematical modelling of magnetically targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grief, Andrew D. [Theoretical Mechanics, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Richardson, Giles [Theoretical Mechanics, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:


    A mathematical model for targeted drug delivery using magnetic particles is developed. This includes a diffusive flux of particles arising from interactions between erythrocytes in the microcirculation. The model is used to track particles in a vessel network. Magnetic field design is discussed and we show that it is impossible to specifically target internal regions using an externally applied field.

  13. Population ageing and public finance targets


    Heikki Oksanen


    The paper incorporates intergenerational fairness into a framework to analyse long-term sustainability of public finances under population ageing. It establishes a link between ageing-related public expenditure projections and public finance targets, thereby clarifying the connection between pension reforms and general government budget balance and debt targets.

  14. NIF Target Assembly Metrology Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, E. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kroll, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dzenitis, E. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montesanti, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Swisher, M. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Segraves, K. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Lord, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    During our inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we require cryogenic targets at the 1-cm scale to be fabricated, assembled, and metrologized to micron-level tolerances. During assembly of these ICF targets, there are physical dimensmetrology is completed using optical coordinate measurement machines that provide repeatable measurements with micron precision, while also allowing in-process data collection for absolute accuracy in assembly. To date, 51 targets have been assembled and metrologized, and 34 targets have been successfully fielded on NIF relying on these metrology data. In the near future, ignition experiments on NIF will require tighter tolerances and more demanding target assembly and metrology capability. Metrology methods, calculations, and uncertainty estimates will be discussed. Target diagnostic port alignment, target position, and capsule location results will be reviewed for the 2009 Energetics Campaign. The information is presented via control charts showing the effect of process improvements that were made during target production. Certain parameters, including capsule position, met the 2009 campaign specifications but will have much tighter requirements in the future. Finally, in order to meet these new requirements assembly process changes and metrology capability upgrades will be necessary.

  15. Exploiting novel molecular targets in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Novel molecular targets are being discovered as we learn more about the aberrant processes underlying various cancers. Efforts to translate this knowledge are starting to impact on the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway and angiogenesis have been targeted successfully in colorectal cancer with cetuximab, panitunumab and bevacizumab. Similarly, EGFR-targeting with erlotinib yielded significant survival benefit in pancreatic cancer when combined with gemcitabine. The multi-targeting approach with sorafenib has made it the first agent to achieve significant survival benefit in hepatocellular carcinoma. Efforts to exploit the dysregulated Akt/mTOR pathway in GI cancer therapy are ongoing. These molecular targets can be disrupted by various approaches, including the use of monoclonal antibody to intercept extracellular ligands and disrupt receptor-ligand binding, and small molecule inhibitors that interrupt the activation of intracellular kinases.

  16. Epicardial fat: a new cardiovascular therapeutic target. (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca


    Epicardial fat is the visceral fat depot of the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, organ fat specificity and simple objective measurability, epicardial fat can serve as target for pharmaceutical agents targeting the adipose tissue. Epicardial fat has shown to significantly respond to thiazolidinediones, glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and statins. Epicardial fat may represent a measurable risk factor and modifiable therapeutic target. Targeted pharmaceutical interventions may allow the epicardial fat to resume its physiological role. A drug-induced browning effect on epicardial fat suggests the development of pharmacological strategies to increase energy consumption. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat transcriptome with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of cardio-metabolic diseases.

  17. The Jefferson Lab frozen spin target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, C.D., E-mail: [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Brock, J.; Carlin, C.; Comer, S.A.; Kashy, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); McAndrew, J. [School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Meekins, D.G.; Pasyuk, E.; Pierce, J.J.; Seely, M.L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)


    A frozen spin polarized target, constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside a large acceptance spectrometer, is described. The target has been utilized for photoproduction measurements with polarized tagged photons of both longitudinal and circular polarization. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol were dynamically polarized to approximately 90% outside the spectrometer at 5 T and 200-300 mK. Photoproduction data were acquired with the target inside the spectrometer at a frozen-spin temperature of approximately 30 mK with the polarization maintained by a thin, superconducting coil installed inside the target cryostat. A 0.56 T solenoid was used for longitudinal target polarization and a 0.50 T dipole for transverse polarization. Spin-lattice relaxation times as high as 4000 h were observed. We also report polarization results for deuterated propanediol doped with the trityl radical OX063.

  18. Progress on LMJ targets for ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherfils-Clerouin, C; Boniface, C; Bonnefille, M; Dattolo, E; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Masson-Laborde, P E; Monteil, M C; Poggi, F; Seytor, P; Wagon, F; Willien, J L, E-mail: catherine.cherfils@cea.f [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)


    Targets designed to produce ignition on the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) are being simulated in order to set specifications for target fabrication. The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 160 laser beams, delivering up to 1.4 MJ and 380 TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness have then been designed for this purpose. Working specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, has led to the design of a rugby-ball shaped cocktail hohlraum; with these improvements, a target based on the 240-beam A1040 capsule can be included in the 160-beam laser energy-power space. Robustness evaluations of these different targets shed light on critical points for ignition, which can trade off by tightening some specifications or by preliminary experimental and numerical tuning experiments.

  19. Performance Targets and External Market Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan; Friis, Ivar; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    In this paper we explore the processes of ‘bringing the market inside the firm’ to set performance targets and benchmark production workers productivity. We analyze attempts to use external suppliers’ bids in target setting in a Danish manufacturing company. The case study illustrates how...... the implementation of external market information in target setting – well known in transfer pricing, relative performance evaluation, beyond budgeting, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management – relate to challenging motivation and information problem. The analysis and discussion of those...... problems, in particular those related to accounting for the internal performance (that are going to be compared with the external target), calculating the ‘inside’ costs and defining controllability, contributes to the management accounting as well as the piece-rate literature....

  20. Design of the NIF Cryogenic Target System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, C; Baltz, J; Malsbury, T; Atkinson, D; Brugmann, V; Coffield, F; Edwards, O; Haid, B; Locke, S; Shiromizu, S; Skulina, K


    The United States Department of Energy has embarked on a campaign to conduct credible fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 2010. The target assembly specified for this campaign requires the formation of a deuterium/tritium (DT) fuel ice layer in a 2 mm diameter capsule at the center of a 9 mm long by 5 mm diameter cylinder, called a hohlraum. The ice layer must be formed and maintained at temperatures below 20 K. At laser shot time, the target is positioned at the center of the NIF target chamber, aligned to the laser beams and held stable to less than 7 {micro}m rms. We have completed the final design of the Cryogenic Target System and are integrating the devices necessary to create, characterize and position the cryogenic target for ignition experiments. These designs, with supporting analysis and prototype test results, will be presented.

  1. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Gudkov


    Full Text Available Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed.

  2. Radiochemical aspects of liquid mercury spallation targets

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhausen, Joerg; Eichler, Bernd; Eller, Martin; Horn, Susanne; Schumann, Dorothea; Stora, Thierry


    Liquid metal spallation targets using mercury as target material are used in state-of-the-art high power pulsed neutron sources that have been constructed in the USA and Japan within the last decade. Similar target concepts were also proposed for next generation ISOL, beta-beam and neutrino facilities. A large amount of radioactivity will be induced in the liquid metal during operation caused by the interaction of the target material with the intense proton beam. This radioactivity - carried by a wide range of radioisotopes of all the elements of the periodic table from hydrogen up to thallium - must be considered for the assessment of safe operation and maintenance procedures as well as for a final disposal of the used target material and components. This report presents an overview on chemical investigations performed in our laboratory that deal with the behavior of radionuclides in proton irradiated mercury samples. The solubility of elements in mercury was calculated using thermodynamical data obtained by...

  3. Ecosystem Targets - Defining target levels for ecosystem components: a socio-ecological approach (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ecological indicators can facilitate Ecosystem-based Management, but only if targets for indicators exist. Because targets are an expression of the desired state of...

  4. Cooperative target convergence using multiple agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.


    This work considers the problem of causing multiple (100`s) autonomous mobile robots to converge to a target and provides a follow-the-leader approach to the problem. Each robot has only a limited-range sensor for sending the target and also larger but also limited-range robot-to-robot communication capability. Because of the small amount of information available to the robots, a practical approach to improve convergence to the target is to have a robot follow the robot with the best quality of information. Specifically, each robot emits a signal that informs in-range robots what its status is. A robot has a status value of 0 if it is itself in range of the target. A robot has a status of 1 if it is not in range of the target but is in communication range of a robot that is in range of the target. A robot has a status of 2 if it is not in range of the target but is within range of another robot that has status 1, and so on. Of all the mobile robots that any given robot is in range of, it follows the one with the best status. The emergent behavior is the ant-like trails of robots following each other toward the target. If the robot is not in range of another robot that is either in range of the target or following another robot, the robot will assign-1 to its quality-of-information, and will execute an exhaustive search. The exhaustive search will continue until it encounters either the target or another robot with a nonnegative quality-of-information. The quality of information approach was extended to the case where each robot only has two-bit signals informing it of distance to in-range robots.

  5. Identification, design and biological evaluation of bisaryl quinolones targeting Plasmodium falciparum type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2). (United States)

    Pidathala, Chandrakala; Amewu, Richard; Pacorel, Bénédicte; Nixon, Gemma L; Gibbons, Peter; Hong, W David; Leung, Suet C; Berry, Neil G; Sharma, Raman; Stocks, Paul A; Srivastava, Abhishek; Shone, Alison E; Charoensutthivarakul, Sitthivut; Taylor, Lee; Berger, Olivier; Mbekeani, Alison; Hill, Alasdair; Fisher, Nicholas E; Warman, Ashley J; Biagini, Giancarlo A; Ward, Stephen A; O'Neill, Paul M


    A program was undertaken to identify hit compounds against NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2), a dehydrogenase of the mitochondrial electron transport chain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfNDH2 has only one known inhibitor, hydroxy-2-dodecyl-4-(1H)-quinolone (HDQ), and this was used along with a range of chemoinformatics methods in the rational selection of 17 000 compounds for high-throughput screening. Twelve distinct chemotypes were identified and briefly examined leading to the selection of the quinolone core as the key target for structure-activity relationship (SAR) development. Extensive structural exploration led to the selection of 2-bisaryl 3-methyl quinolones as a series for further biological evaluation. The lead compound within this series 7-chloro-3-methyl-2-(4-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl)phenyl)quinolin-4(1H)-one (CK-2-68) has antimalarial activity against the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum of 36 nM, is selective for PfNDH2 over other respiratory enzymes (inhibitory IC(50) against PfNDH2 of 16 nM), and demonstrates low cytotoxicity and high metabolic stability in the presence of human liver microsomes. This lead compound and its phosphate pro-drug have potent in vivo antimalarial activity after oral administration, consistent with the target product profile of a drug for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Other quinolones presented (e.g., 6d, 6f, 14e) have the capacity to inhibit both PfNDH2 and P. falciparum cytochrome bc(1), and studies to determine the potential advantage of this dual-targeting effect are in progress.

  6. Search for Two Categories of Target Produces Fewer Fixations to Target-Color Items (United States)

    Menneer, Tamaryn; Stroud, Michael J.; Cave, Kyle R.; Li, Xingshan; Godwin, Hayward J.; Liversedge, Simon P.; Donnelly, Nick


    Searching simultaneously for metal threats (guns and knives) and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in X-ray images is less effective than 2 independent single-target searches, 1 for metal threats and 1 for IEDs. The goals of this study were to (a) replicate this dual-target cost for categorical targets and to determine whether the cost remains…

  7. Multiplexed modular genetic targeting of quantum dots. (United States)

    Saurabh, Saumya; Beck, Lauren E; Maji, Suvrajit; Baty, Catherine J; Wang, Yi; Yan, Qi; Watkins, Simon C; Bruchez, Marcel P


    While DNA-directed nanotechnology is now a well-established platform for bioinspired nanoscale assembly in vitro, the direct targeting of various nanomaterials in living biological systems remains a significant challenge. Hybrid biological systems with integrated and targeted nanomaterials may have interesting and exploitable properties, so methods for targeting various nanomaterials to precise biological locations are required. Fluorescence imaging has benefited from the use of nanoparticles with superior optical properties compared to fluorescent organic dyes or fluorescent proteins. While single-particle tracking (SPT) in living cells with genetically encoded proteins is limited to very short trajectories, the high photon output of genetically targeted and multiplexed quantum dots (QDs) would enable long-trajectory analysis of multiple proteins. However, challenges with genetic targeting of QDs limit their application in these experiments. In this report, we establish a modular method for targeting QD nanoparticles selectively to multiple genetically encoded tags by precomplexing QD-streptavidin conjugates with cognate biotinylated hapten molecules. This approach enables labeling and SPT of multiple genetically encoded proteins on living cells at high speed and can label expressed proteins in the cytosol upon microinjection into living cells. While we demonstrate labeling with three distinct QD conjugates, the approach can be extended to other specific hapten-affinity molecule interactions and alternative nanoparticles, enabling precise directed targeting of nanoparticles in living biological systems.

  8. Discovery of functional antibodies targeting ion channels. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Trevor C I; Gardener, Matthew J; Williams, Wendy A


    Ion channels play critical roles in physiology and disease by modulation of cellular functions such as electrical excitability, secretion, cell migration, and gene transcription. Ion channels represent an important target class for drug discovery that has been largely addressed, to date, using small-molecule approaches. A significant opportunity exists to target these channels with antibodies and alternative formats of biologics. Antibodies display high specificity and affinity for their target antigen, and they have the potential to target ion channels very selectively. Nevertheless, isolating antibodies to this target class is challenging due to the difficulties in expression and purification of ion channels in a format suitable for antibody drug discovery in addition to the complexity of screening for function. In this article, we will review the current state of ion channel biologics discovery and the progress that has been made. We will also highlight the challenges in isolating functional antibodies to these targets and how these challenges may be addressed. Finally, we also illustrate successful approaches to isolating functional monoclonal antibodies targeting ion channels by way of a number of case studies drawn from recent publications.

  9. Novel Targeted Therapies for Metastatic Melanoma. (United States)

    Iams, Wade T; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Chandra, Sunandana

    Oncogene-targeted therapy is a major component of precision oncology, and although patients with metastatic melanoma have experienced improved outcomes with this strategy, there are a number of potential therapeutic targets currently under study that may further increase the drug armamentarium for this patient population. In this review, we discuss the landscape of targeted therapies for patients with advanced melanoma, focusing on oncogene mutation-specific targets. In patients with typical BRAF V600-mutant melanoma, combination BRAF and MEK inhibition has surpassed outcomes compared with monotherapy with BRAF or MEK inhibition alone, and current strategies seek to address inevitable resistance mechanisms. For patients with NRAS-mutant melanoma, MEK inhibitor monotherapy and combined MEK and CDK4/6 inhibition are burgeoning strategies; for patients with KIT-mutant melanoma, tyrosine kinase inhibition is being leveraged, and for NF-1-mutant melanoma, mTOR and MEK inhibition is being actively evaluated. In patients with atypical, non-V600 BRAF-mutant melanoma, MEK inhibitor monotherapy is the potential novel targeted approach on the horizon. For advanced uveal melanoma, novel targets such as IMCgp100 and glembatumumab have shown activity in early studies. We review additional strategies that remain in the preclinical and early clinical pipeline, so there is much hope for the future of targeted agents for distinct molecular cohorts of patients with advanced melanoma.

  10. Target Injector and Sabot Remover for IFE (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroki; Kameyama, Nobukazu


    Target injectors for IFE are required to inject targets to the reactor center at a velocity of over 100 m/s with accuracy of several millimeters. A target injector system with a magnetic sabot remover is developed to demonstrate injection of polystyrene targets. A typical target used in this study is 4.0 mm in diameter and 0.8 mg in weight. It is inserted in to an aluminum sabot that is 9.2 mm in outer diameter and 40 mm in length. They are accelerated together by a pneumatic gun. Before injection into the reactor, the sabot is removed for laser irradiation. The sabot remover is composed of Neodymium magnets array that generates Lorentz force as a result of interaction between the magnets' field and induced current on the sabot. The Neodymium magnets are 14 mm at inner diameter and 316 mT on its surface. The magnetic array is designed and optimized its magnets number for complete target extraction. The theoretically and experimentally confirmed deceleration rate of the sabot is 60.2 m/s/s per one meter. The targets are shot into the vacuum chamber after extraction from the sabot at accelerated velocity of 30 m/s. The experimentally obtained injection accuracy is 5.3 mm in horizontal direction and 4.8 mm in vertical direction.

  11. COMPASS polarized target for Drell-Yan

    CERN Document Server

    Pešek, M


    In the COMPASS Drell–Yan experiment the pion beam with momen tum of 190 GeV/ c and in- tensity up to 10 8 pions/s will interact with transversely polarized proton t arget producing muon pair via Drell–Yan process. The solid-state NH 3 will be polarized by dynamic nuclear polar- ization. Maximum polarization reached during data taking i s expected to be up to 90%. The non-interacting beam and other particles produced inside t he target will be stopped in the hadron absorber after the target. Two target cells, sepparated by a 20 cm gap in between, each 55 cm long and 4 cm in diameter give the target material volume about 691 cm 3 . The target platform needs to be moved by 2.3 m in upstream dire ction from the position used in previous experiments in order to accomodate the absorber. D uring the beam time higher radiation is expected in the area of the control room. Thus a new target r emote control system is needed. The target magnet is undergoing a substantial upgrade. Drell–Yan data taking is expected t...

  12. Design of the LBNF Beamline Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, S. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K.; ; Buccellato, S. A. [Fermilab; Crowley, C. F. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. D. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Kasper, P. [Fermilab; Krafczyk, G. E. [Fermilab; Lee, A. [Fermilab; Lundberg, B. [Fermilab; Reitzner, S. D. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stefanik, A. M. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab; Vaziri, K. [Fermilab; Williams, K. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Densham, C. [RAL, Didcot


    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) project will build a beamline located at Fermilab to create and aim an intense neutrino beam of appropriate energy range toward the DUNE detectors at the SURF facility in Lead, South Dakota. Neutrino production starts in the Target Station, which consists of a solid target, magnetic focusing horns, and the associated sub-systems and shielding infrastructure. Protons hit the target producing mesons which are then focused by the horns into a helium-filled decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The target and horns are encased in actively cooled steel and concrete shielding in a chamber called the target chase. The reference design chase is filled with air, but nitrogen and helium are being evaluated as alternatives. A replaceable beam window separates the decay pipe from the target chase. The facility is designed for initial operation at 1.2 MW, with the ability to upgrade to 2.4 MW, and is taking advantage of the experience gained by operating Fermilab’s NuMI facility. We discuss here the design status, associated challenges, and ongoing R&D and physics-driven component optimization of the Target Station.

  13. Hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yu Zhang


    Full Text Available To improve the tracking accuracy of hypersonic sliding target in near space, the influence of target hypersonic movement on radar detection and tracking is analyzed, and an IMM tracking algorithm is proposed based on radial velocity compensating and cancellation processing of high dynamic biases under the earth centered earth fixed (ECEF coordinate. Based on the analysis of effect of target hypersonic movement, a measurement model is constructed to reduce the filter divergence which is caused by the model mismatch. The high dynamic biases due to the target hypersonic movement are approximately compensated through radial velocity estimation to achieve the hypersonic target tracking at low systematic biases in near space. The high dynamic biases are further eliminated by the cancellation processing of different radars, in which the track association problem can be solved when the dynamic biases are low. An IMM algorithm based on constant acceleration (CA, constant turning (CT and Singer models is used to achieve the hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space. Simulation results show that the target tracking in near space can be achieved more effectively by using the proposed algorithm.

  14. ZFN-Site searches genomes for zinc finger nuclease target sites and off-target sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iseli Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs are man-made restriction enzymes useful for manipulating genomes by cleaving target DNA sequences. ZFNs allow therapeutic gene correction or creation of genetically modified model organisms. ZFN specificity is not absolute; therefore, it is essential to select ZFN target sites without similar genomic off-target sites. It is important to assay for off-target cleavage events at sites similar to the target sequence. Results ZFN-Site is a web interface that searches multiple genomes for ZFN off-target sites. Queries can be based on the target sequence or can be expanded using degenerate specificity to account for known ZFN binding preferences. ZFN off-target sites are outputted with links to genome browsers, facilitating off-target cleavage site screening. We verified ZFN-Site using previously published ZFN half-sites and located their target sites and their previously described off-target sites. While we have tailored this tool to ZFNs, ZFN-Site can also be used to find potential off-target sites for other nucleases, such as TALE nucleases. Conclusions ZFN-Site facilitates genome searches for possible ZFN cleavage sites based on user-defined stringency limits. ZFN-Site is an improvement over other methods because the FetchGWI search engine uses an indexed search of genome sequences for all ZFN target sites and possible off-target sites matching the half-sites and stringency limits. Therefore, ZFN-Site does not miss potential off-target sites.

  15. BRVAAF and performance analysis for target detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A bistatic range-velocity-acceleration ambiguity function (BRVAAF) is proposed. The model of radar measurements of an accelerating target involving the time delay, Doppler frequency and Doppler rate is given. The relationships between these measurements and the parameters of the bistatic geometry, target position, velocity and acceleration are derived. Moreover, the effects of the bistatic geometry factors on these measurements are analyzed. Besides, the two relationships of the bistatic integration loss and the bistatic optimum integration time with these factors are built and their change trends are described respectively. This research is helpful to analyze the influences of the bistatic geometry factors on the target detection and signal processing.

  16. Characteristics of Hostile and Friendly Takeover Targets


    Randall Morck; Andrei Shleifer; Vishny, Robert W.


    Compared to an average Fortune 500 firm, a target of a hostile takeover is smaller, older, has a lower Tobin's Q, invests less of its income, and is growing more slowly. The low Q seems to be an industry-specific rather than a firm-specific effect. In addition, a hostile target is less likely to be run by a member of the founding family, and has lower officer ownership, than the average firm. In contrast, a target of a friendly acquisitions is smaller and younger than an average Fortune 500 f...

  17. Antiproton production target of the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service


    The target rods were initially of tungsten, later of iridium. Diameters were around 3 mm and the lengths 60-110 mm. The rod is embedded in graphite, pressed into an aluminium body with cooling fins for forced air cooling. The 26 GeV proton beam from the PS was focused to the dimension of the rod. To aim precisely at its centre, the target was fitted with a scintillator screen, with circles at every 5 mm radius. Both scintillator and target had to stand pulses of 1.4E13 protons every 4.8 s, without interruption for many months.

  18. Stereotactic radiosurgery: a "targeted" therapy for cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zeng; Liang-Fu Han


    The developments of medicine always follow innovations in science and technology.In the past decade,such innovations have made cancer-related targeted therapies possible.In general,the term "targeted therapy" has been used in reference to cellular and molecular level oriented therapies.However,improvements in the delivery and planning of traditional radiation therapy have also provided cancer patients more options for "targeted" treatment,notably stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).In this review,the progress and controversies of SRS and SBRT are discussed to show the role of stereotactic radiation therapy in the ever evolving multidisciplinary care of cancer patients.

  19. Target Cultural Issues in College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Xin


    With the passage time, China has been playing a increasingly important role in world stage, so what a current college English classroom needs is not a mere mastery of English language, but an overall understanding of target culture. In order to at-tain this goal, analysis concerning the current situation of target cultural teaching in college English teaching classroom should be done, and suggestions about target cultural teaching in college English teaching classroom should be put forward. By doing so, students will not only improve their linguistic competence, but also will enhance their inter-cultural performance.

  20. Performance Simulations of Moving Target Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. K. Loh


    Full Text Available The design of appropriate moving target search (MTS algorithms for computer-generated bots poses serious challenges as they have to satisfy stringent requirements that include computation and execution efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the performance and behaviour of existing moving target search algorithms when applied to search-and-capture gaming scenarios. As part of the investigation, we also introduce a novel algorithm known as abstraction MTS. We conduct performance simulations with a game bot and moving target within randomly generated mazes of increasing sizes and reveal that abstraction MTS exhibits competitive performance even with large problem spaces.

  1. Automatic Target Detection Using Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan L


    Full Text Available Automatic target recognition (ATR involves processing images for detecting, classifying, and tracking targets embedded in a background scene. This paper presents an algorithm for detecting a specified set of target objects embedded in visual images for an ATR application. The developed algorithm employs a novel technique for automatically detecting man-made and non-man-made single, two, and multitargets from nontarget objects, located within a cluttered environment by evaluating nonoverlapping image blocks, where block-by-block comparison of wavelet cooccurrence feature is done. The results of the proposed algorithm are found to be satisfactory.

  2. Automated High Throughput Drug Target Crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, B


    The molecular structures of drug target proteins and receptors form the basis for 'rational' or structure guided drug design. The majority of target structures are experimentally determined by protein X-ray crystallography, which as evolved into a highly automated, high throughput drug discovery and screening tool. Process automation has accelerated tasks from parallel protein expression, fully automated crystallization, and rapid data collection to highly efficient structure determination methods. A thoroughly designed automation technology platform supported by a powerful informatics infrastructure forms the basis for optimal workflow implementation and the data mining and analysis tools to generate new leads from experimental protein drug target structures.

  3. Novel targeted therapies for eosinophilic disorders (United States)

    Wechsler, Michael E.; Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Bochner, Bruce S.; Gauvreau, Gail M.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Henkel, Tim; Kolbeck, Roland; Mathur, Sameer K.; Ortega, Hector; Patel, Jatin; Prussin, Calman; Renzi, Paolo; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Roufosse, Florence; Simon, Dagmar; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Wardlaw, Andrew; Weller, Peter F.; Klion, Amy D.


    Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs) are a diverse group of conditions characterized by clinical manifestations attributable to eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration of tissues. HESs are chronic disorders with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the availability of targeted chemotherapeutic agents, including imatinib, has improved quality of life and survival in some patients with HESs, additional agents with increased efficacy and decreased toxicity are sorely needed. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of eosinophil biology with an emphasis on potential targets of pharmacotherapy and to provide a summary of potential eosinophil-targeting agents, including those in development, in clinical trials, or approved for other disorders. PMID:22935585


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. B. El-Rayes; Abd El-Moneim A. Mohamed; Hamdy M. Abou Gabal


    A target is assumed to move according to a Brownian motion on the real line.The searcher starts from the origin and moves in the two directions from the starting point.The object is to detect the target.The purpose of this paper is to find the conditions under which the expected value of the first meeting time of the searcher and the target is finite,and to show the existence of a search plan which made this expected value minimum.

  5. Resource implications of a national health target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Peter; Sopina, Liza Elizaveta; Ashton, Toni


    of clinical/service managers in ED throughout New Zealand determined the type and cost of resources used for the target. Responses to the target were classified according to their impact in ED, the hospital and the community. Quantifiable resource changes were assigned a financial value and grouped......, with estimated total expenditure of over NZ$52 m. The majority of expenditure occurred in ED (60.8%) and hospital (38.7%) with little spent in the community. New staff accounted for 76.5% of expenditure. Per capita expenditure in the ED was associated with improved target performance (r = 0.48, P = 0...

  6. Targets for a Neutral Kaon Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Christopher [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    A secondary beam of neutral Kaons is under consideration for Hall D at Jefferson Lab to perform spectroscopic studies of hyperons produced by K 0 L particles scattering from proton and deuteron targets. The proposed physics program would utilize the GlueX detector package currently installed in Hall D. This contribution looks at potential targets for use in the new facility, paying close attention to the existing infrastructure of GlueX and Hall D. Unpolarized cryotargets of liquid hydrogen and deuerium, as well as polarized solid targets of protons and deuterons are examined.

  7. Diagnostics for High Power Targets and Dumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E


    High power targets are generally used for neutrino, antiproton, neutron and secondary beam production whereas dumps are needed in beam waste management. In order to guarantee an optimized and safe use of these targets and dumps, reliable instrumentation is needed; the diagnostics in high power beams around targets and dumps is reviewed. The suite of beam diagnostics devices used in such extreme environments is discussed, including their role in commissioning and operation. The handling and maintenance of the instrumentation components in high radiation areas is also addressed.

  8. Radar automatic target recognition (ATR) and non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR)

    CERN Document Server

    Blacknell, David


    The ability to detect and locate targets by day or night, over wide areas, regardless of weather conditions has long made radar a key sensor in many military and civil applications. However, the ability to automatically and reliably distinguish different targets represents a difficult challenge. Radar Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) and Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) captures material presented in the NATO SET-172 lecture series to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art and continuing challenges of radar target recognition. Topics covered include the problem as applied to th

  9. TargetMine, an integrated data warehouse for candidate gene prioritisation and target discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-An Chen

    Full Text Available Prioritising candidate genes for further experimental characterisation is a non-trivial challenge in drug discovery and biomedical research in general. An integrated approach that combines results from multiple data types is best suited for optimal target selection. We developed TargetMine, a data warehouse for efficient target prioritisation. TargetMine utilises the InterMine framework, with new data models such as protein-DNA interactions integrated in a novel way. It enables complicated searches that are difficult to perform with existing tools and it also offers integration of custom annotations and in-house experimental data. We proposed an objective protocol for target prioritisation using TargetMine and set up a benchmarking procedure to evaluate its performance. The results show that the protocol can identify known disease-associated genes with high precision and coverage. A demonstration version of TargetMine is available at

  10. Targeted molecular trait stacking in cotton through targeted double-strand break induction. (United States)

    D'Halluin, Kathleen; Vanderstraeten, Chantal; Van Hulle, Jolien; Rosolowska, Joanna; Van Den Brande, Ilse; Pennewaert, Anouk; D'Hont, Kristel; Bossut, Martine; Jantz, Derek; Ruiter, Rene; Broadhvest, Jean


    Recent developments of tools for targeted genome modification have led to new concepts in how multiple traits can be combined. Targeted genome modification is based on the use of nucleases with tailor-made specificities to introduce a DNA double-strand break (DSB) at specific target loci. A re-engineered meganuclease was designed for specific cleavage of an endogenous target sequence adjacent to a transgenic insect control locus in cotton. The combination of targeted DNA cleavage and homologous recombination-mediated repair made precise targeted insertion of additional trait genes (hppd, epsps) feasible in cotton. Targeted insertion events were recovered at a frequency of about 2% of the independently transformed embryogenic callus lines. We further demonstrated that all trait genes were inherited as a single genetic unit, which will simplify future multiple-trait introgression.

  11. Consumer responses to ethnic targeted marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.-S.I.A. Lenoir (Anne-Sophie); S. Puntoni (Stefano)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Marketing is impacted more than ever by demographic change, to the extent that practitioners targeting ethnic groups should re-think their approach depending upon the strength with which different generations identify with their cultural heritage.

  12. Logarithm Laws and Shrinking Target Properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J S Athreya


    We survey some of the recent developments in the study of logarithm laws and shrinking target properties for various families of dynamical systems. We discuss connections to geometry, diophantine approximation and probability theory.

  13. Targeting influenza virosomes to ovarian carcinoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrobattista, E; Schoen, P; Wilschut, J; Crommelin, DJA; Storm, G


    Reconstituted influenza virus envelopes (virosomes) containing the viral hemagglutinin (HA) have attracted attention as delivery vesicles for cytosolic drug delivery as they possess membrane fusion activity. Here, we show that influenza virosomes can be targeted towards ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCA

  14. Observer's Interface for Solar System Target Specification (United States)

    Roman, Anthony; Link, Miranda; Moriarty, Christopher; Stansberry, John A.


    When observing an asteroid or comet with HST, it has been necessary for the observer to manually enter the target's orbital elements into the Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT). This allowed possible copy/paste transcription errors from the observer's source of orbital elements data. In order to address this issue, APT has now been improved with the capability to identify targets in and then download orbital elements from JPL Horizons. The observer will first use a target name resolver to choose the intended target from the Horizons database, and then download the orbital elements from Horizons directly into APT. A manual entry option is also still retained if the observer does not wish to use elements from Horizons. This new capability is available for HST observing, and it will also be supported for JWST observing. The poster shows examples of this new interface.

  15. Fabrication of Simple Step-Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Step-target was used to measure the shock velocity. If we can measure the shock velocity and particle velocity together, we get one point in the shock compress line. If we measure a series of shock velocity

  16. The expected radiation damage of CSNS target (United States)

    Yin, W.; Yu, Q. Z.; Lu, Y. L.; Wang, S. L.; Tong, J. F.; Liang, T. J.


    The radiation damage to the tungsten target and its SS316 vessel for Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been estimated with a Monte-Carlo simulation code MCNPX2.5.0. We compare the effects on the radiation damage due to two different proton beam profiles: a uniform distribution and a Gaussian distribution. We also discuss the dependence of the radiation damage estimation on different physics models. The results show the peak displacement productions in vessel and the fourth target plate are 2.5 and 5.5 dpa/y, respectively, under a Gaussian proton beam. The peak helium productions in the vessel and the fourth target are 305 and 353 appm/y, respectively, under the same proton beam. Based on these results and the allowable dpa values we have estimated the lifetime of the tungsten target and its vessel.

  17. Target Visualization at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Daniel Abraham [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the targets used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure target surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. Using these techniques we are able to produce a detailed view of the shell surface, which in turn allows us to refine target manufacturing and cleaning processes. However, the volume of data produced limits the methods by which this data can be effectively viewed by a user. This paper introduces an image-based visualization system for data exploration of target shells at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It aims to combine multiple image sets into a single visualization to provide a method of navigating the data in ways that are not possible with existing tools.

  18. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Lee, Michael; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)


    For practical applications of magnetized target fusion, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Quasi-spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a quasi-spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC). Theoretical analysis and computer modeling of the concept are presented. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of the flow parameters in the liner and the target, the impact between the liner and the target plasma can be made to be shockless in the liner or to generate at most a very weak shock in the liner. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Parametric estimation of ultra wideband radar targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Ping; Jing Zhanrong


    Based on the analysis of impulse response properties, a scattering model of ultra wideband (UWB) radar targets is developed to estimate the target parameters exactly. With this model, two algorithms of multiple signal classification (MUSIC), and matrix pencil (MP), are introduced to calculate the scattering center parame-ters of targets and their performances are compared. The simulation experiments show that there are no differ-ences in the estimation precision of MUSIC and MP methods when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is larger than 13 dB. However, the MP method has a better performance than that of MUSIC method when the SNR is smaller than 13 dB. Besides, the time consuming of MP method is leas than that of MUSIC method. Therefore, the MP algorithm is preferred for the parametric estimation of UWB radar targets.

  20. Enhancing proton acceleration by using composite targets

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Leemans, W P


    Efficient laser ion acceleration requires high laser intensities, which can only be obtained by tightly focusing laser radiation. In the radiation pressure acceleration regime, where the tightly focused laser driver leads to the appearance of the fundamental limit for the maximum attainable ion energy, this limit corresponds to the laser pulse group velocity as well as to another limit connected with the transverse expansion of the accelerated foil and consequent onset of the foil transparency. These limits can be relaxed by using composite targets, consisting of a thin foil followed by a near critical density slab. Such targets provide guiding of a laser pulse inside a self-generated channel and background electrons, being snowplowed by the pulse, compensate for the transverse expansion. The use of composite targets results in a significant increase in maximum ion energy, compared to a single foil target case.

  1. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan


    Magneto-resistive sensors in combination with magnetic beads provide sensing platforms, which are small in size and highly sensitive. These platforms can be fully integrated with microchannels and electronics to enable devices capable of performing complex tasks. Commonly, a sandwich method is used that requires a specific coating of the sensor\\'s surface to immobilize magnetic beads and biological targets on top of the sensor. This paper concerns a micro device to detect biological targets using magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer and reduces the number of steps required to run an experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. WTS - Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) application supports a new SMS-structured process designed to focus on safety oversight of systems and processes rather than...

  3. Does target viewing time influence perceived reachability? (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Ammar, Diala


    This study examined the influence of target viewing time on perceived (estimates of) reachability. Right-handed participants were asked to judge the simulated reachability of midline targets using their dominant limb in viewing conditions of 150 ms, 500 ms, 1 s and 2 s. Responses were compared to actual maximum reach. In reference to percent error, interestingly, the 150 ms condition revealed the least error at peripersonal targets and the most inaccuracy with distal (extrapersonal) targets. This condition was also distinct with a significant overestimation bias -- a common observation in earlier studies. However, with increasing viewing time this bias was reduced. These data provide evidence that 150 ms is effective for estimating reach within one's general peripersonal workspace. However, with judgments distal from that point, more time enhanced accuracy, with 500 ms and 1 s being optimal. Overall results are discussed relative to perceptual effectiveness in programming reaching movements.

  4. Discovering the 'Magic' of Target Marketing. (United States)

    Grier, Linda J.; Ackenbom, Charles R.


    Describes target marketing of children's summer camps, emphasizing the benefits of collaborative advertising campaigns. Discusses the scope and economics of four model campaigns. Outlines the design, implementation, and evaluation of collaborative marketing projects. (SV)

  5. Therapeutic Approaches to Target Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Arlhee, E-mail:; Leon, Kalet [Department of Systems Biology, Center of Molecular Immunology, 216 Street, PO Box 16040, Atabey, Havana 11600 (Cuba)


    The clinical relevance of cancer stem cells (CSC) remains a major challenge for current cancer therapies, but preliminary findings indicate that specific targeting may be possible. Recent studies have shown that these tumor subpopulations promote tumor angiogenesis through the increased production of VEGF, whereas the VEGF neutralizing antibody bevacizumab specifically inhibits CSC growth. Moreover, nimotuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with a potent antiangiogenic activity, has been shown by our group to reduce the frequency of CSC-like subpopulations in mouse models of brain tumors when combined with ionizing radiation. These studies and subsequent reports from other groups support the relevance of approaches based on molecular-targeted therapies to selectively attack CSC. This review discusses the relevance of targeting both the EGFR and angiogenic pathways as valid approaches to this aim. We discuss the relevance of identifying better molecular markers to develop drug screening strategies that selectively target CSC.

  6. Texture metric that predicts target detection performance (United States)

    Culpepper, Joanne B.


    Two texture metrics based on gray level co-occurrence error (GLCE) are used to predict probability of detection and mean search time. The two texture metrics are local clutter metrics and are based on the statistics of GLCE probability distributions. The degree of correlation between various clutter metrics and the target detection performance of the nine military vehicles in complex natural scenes found in the Search_2 dataset are presented. Comparison is also made between four other common clutter metrics found in the literature: root sum of squares, Doyle, statistical variance, and target structure similarity. The experimental results show that the GLCE energy metric is a better predictor of target detection performance when searching for targets in natural scenes than the other clutter metrics studied.

  7. Targeted therapies in upper gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordes, S.


    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, as esophageal, gastric and pancreatic cancer, are still highly lethal diseases, in spite of advances in surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and specific targeted therapy. Especially when patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastasized disease, upper

  8. IMS Mitigation Target Areas - 2010 [ds673 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Mitigation Target Areas (MTA) were developed by the California Department of Fish and Game for the Interim Mitigation Strategy (IMS). The MTAs are an identification...

  9. Enhancing proton acceleration by using composite targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Pegoraro, F.; Leemans, W. P.


    Efficient laser ion acceleration requires high laser intensities, which can only be obtained by tightly focusing laser radiation. In the radiation pressure acceleration regime, where the tightly focused laser driver leads to the appearance of the fundamental limit for the maximum attainable ion energy, this limit corresponds to the laser pulse group velocity as well as to another limit connected with the transverse expansion of the accelerated foil and consequent onset of the foil transparency. These limits can be relaxed by using composite targets, consisting of a thin foil followed by a near critical density slab. Such targets provide guiding of a laser pulse inside a self-generated channel and background electrons, being snowplowed by the pulse, compensate for the transverse expansion. The use of composite targets results in a significant increase in maximum ion energy, compared to a single foil target case.

  10. Characterizing Health Information for Different Target Audiences. (United States)

    Sun, Yueping; Hou, Zhen; Hou, Li; Li, Jiao


    Different groups of audiences in health care: health professionals and health consumers, each have different information needs. Health monographs targeting different audiences are created by leveraging readers' background knowledge. The NCI's Physician Data Query (PDQ®) Cancer Information Summaries provide parallel cancer information and education resources with different target audiences. In this paper, we used targeted audience-specific cancer information PDQs to measure characteristic differences on the element level between audiences. In addition, we compared vocabulary coverage. Results show a significant difference between the professional and patient version of cancer monographs in both content organization and vocabulary. This study provides a new view to assess targeted audience-specific health information, and helps editors to improve the quality and readability of health information.

  11. "UCx fission targets oxidation test stand"

    CERN Document Server

    Lacroix, Rachel


    "Set up a rig dedicated to the oxidation of UCx and define a procedure for repeatable, reliable and safe method for converting UC2 fission targets into an acceptable uranium carbide oxide waste for subsequent disposal by the Swiss Authorities."

  12. Nuclear Targeting Terms for Engineers and Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Ledger, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Department of Defense has a methodology for targeting nuclear weapons, and a jargon that is used to communicate between the analysts, planners, aircrews, and missile crews. The typical engineer or scientist in the Department of Energy may not have been exposed to the nuclear weapons targeting terms and methods. This report provides an introduction to the terms and methodologies used for nuclear targeting. Its purpose is to prepare engineers and scientists to participate in wargames, exercises, and discussions with the Department of Defense. Terms such as Circular Error Probable, probability of hit and damage, damage expectancy, and the physical vulnerability system are discussed. Methods for compounding damage from multiple weapons applied to one target are presented.

  13. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS) (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  14. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma (United States)

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  15. Ion channels: molecular targets of neuroactive insecticides. (United States)

    Raymond-Delpech, Valérie; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Sattelle, Benedict M; Rauh, James J; Sattelle, David B


    Many of the insecticides in current use act on molecular targets in the insect nervous system. Recently, our understanding of these targets has improved as a result of the complete sequencing of an insect genome, i.e., Drosophila melanogaster. Here we examine the recent work, drawing on genetics, genomics and physiology, which has provided evidence that specific receptors and ion channels are targeted by distinct chemical classes of insect control agents. The examples discussed include, sodium channels (pyrethroids, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), dihydropyrazoles and oxadiazines); nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (cartap, spinosad, imidacloprid and related nitromethylenes/nitroguanidines); gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (cyclodienes, gamma-BHC and fipronil) and L-glutamate receptors (avermectins). Finally, we have examined the molecular basis of resistance to these molecules, which in some cases involves mutations in the molecular target, and we also consider the future impact of molecular genetic technologies in our understanding of the actions of neuroactive insecticides.

  16. The Evolution of Air Force Targeting (United States)


    the idea of the “strategic” application of air power. German Zeppelin raids on London in 1917 are probably the first known uses of air forces beyond...bombardment led to an increasing emphasis on targeting. Then- Maj Donald Wilson, an instructor at the ACTS, believed that attack- ing a few critical targets...the organic industrial, economic, and civic systems that maintained the life of the enemy nation itself.13 This doctrine led to an even greater

  17. Probe Array Correction With Strong Target Interactions (United States)


    measurements, bistatic scattering cross section, array mutual impedances, Lorentz reciprocity theorem 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 50 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON (Monitor) a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS...fields scattered by a target. The measurements are made with the objective of estimating the far zone bistatic scattering from the target using

  18. Artifacts in Radar Imaging of Moving Targets (United States)


    leads to the wrong object localization and defocusing on the image. For SAR , a moving target’s physical location varies throughout the imaging...Imaging, Synthetic Aperture Radar, Bistatic Radar, Multistatic Radar, Moving Targets, Backprojection 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 133 16. PRICE CODE 17...broadening and range errors were introduced by target motion. This leads to incorrect object localization and defocusing on the image. For SAR , a

  19. Polarization Null Characteristics of Simple Targets (United States)


    propagation distance to the target, which is a very large number of wavelengths. Modelo 2 w, at can therefore be considered to be a random phase, uniformly...multiplied by a (sin x)Ix factor. There are also triple bounce, partial mirroring, and shadowing effects: for the thin fuselages considered here, these...the sphere, the linear wire target, the n-nounce corner reflector, the left/right winding helices , the cone-tip/ogival and/or spherical capped

  20. The History of Target-Controlled Infusion. (United States)

    Struys, Michel M R F; De Smet, Tom; Glen, John Iain B; Vereecke, Hugo E M; Absalom, Anthony R; Schnider, Thomas W


    Target-controlled infusion (TCI) is a technique of infusing IV drugs to achieve a user-defined predicted ("target") drug concentration in a specific body compartment or tissue of interest. In this review, we describe the pharmacokinetic principles of TCI, the development of TCI systems, and technical and regulatory issues addressed in prototype development. We also describe the launch of the current clinically available systems.