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Sample records for californium 240

  1. Metabolism and toxicity of californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolism of californium can be compared with that of other transplutonium elements. The most important points are as follows: a fast blood clearance and fast bone uptake more important than liver uptake, a relatively high urinary excretion and kidney retention. Blood clearance of californium can be compared with that of americium. Distribution of californium 252 nitrate after intramuscular injection in rats was studied. There are very few experimental data on acute or long term toxicity of californium. (28 references)

  2. Magnetism in californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SQUID-based magnetic susceptometer has been constructed for studying small radioactive samples at temperatures below 350 K and in magnetic fields up to 50 kilogauss. The device has been used to study californium (element 98) in a number of solid-state forms: the dhcp metal, several oxides (Cf2O3 in both the bcc and monoclinic structures, Cf7O12, CfO2 and BaCfO3), several monopnictides (CfN, CfAs and CfSb) and the trichloride (in both the hexagonal and orthorhombic structures). All of these materials were studied in polycrystalline form, and hexagonal CfCl3 was studied in single-crystal form as well. The susceptometer has the sensitivity to measure samples containing less than 10 micrograms of californium. The magnetic susceptibilities of all of the californium materials at temperatures above about 100 K are described well by the Curie-Weiss relationship. This behavior is consistent with the assumption that the magnetic 5f electrons are localized and that the paramagnetic behavior can be interpreted in terms of the properties of the free ion. The measured values of the effective paramagnetic moment, μ/sub eff/, for all the californium materials that were studied are reasonably consistent with theoretical values based on intermediate coupling models. All of the californium materials showed some indications of cooperative magnetic effects. The dhcp metal was observed to order ferromagnetically at 52 K, and all of the californium compounds studied showed signs of antiferromagnetic ordering, mostly at temperatures below 25 K. 91 refs., 50 figs., 19 tabs

  3. Californium Multiplier (CFX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of 252Cf as an economical high-intensity neutron source has made it possible to construct compact neutron irradiation devices with widespread applications. The simplest such device consists of a single 252Cf source within a moderating and shielding medium. Higher neutron flux levels can be attained either through the use of more 252Cf or through source multiplication by means of a subcritical uranium assembly. Although the use of larger 252Cf sources to achieve higher neutron flux is technically straightforward, an economic penalty is paid as the source strength is increased. Larger californium sources imply larger initial investments to cover the cost of source material and larger operating costs resulting from the decay of the 252Cf source. A Californium Multiplier, the CFX, which produces a flux enhancement of 30 when compared to a conventional moderated 252Cf system has been designed, licensed, built, and tested by IRT Corporation. Such systems are now available on a commercial basis for both neutron radiography and neutron activation analysis. The first commercial CFX system was installed at the Research Laboratories of Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, NY, in March 1975. This device, using 1 mg of 252Cf, is very stable and the neutron flux generated by the CFX is very reproducible. The performance characteristics of this system are summarized

  4. Californium--palladium metal neutron source material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, B.L.; Mosly, W.C. Jr.; Smith, P.K.; Albenesius, E.L.

    1974-01-22

    Californium, as metal or oxide, is uniformly dispersed throughout a noble metal matrix, provided in compact, rod or wire form. A solution of californium values is added to palladium metal powder, dried, blended and pressed into a compact having a uni-form distribution of californium. The californium values are decomposed to californium oxide or metal by heating in an inert or reducing atmosphere. Sintering the compact to a high density closes the matrix around the dispersed californium. The sintered compact is then mechanically shaped into an elongated rod or wire form. (4 claims, no drawings) (Official Gazette)

  5. Californium-252 Neutron Sources for Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 neutron sources are being prepared to investigate the value of this radionuclide in diagnosing and treating diseases. A source resembling a cell-loaded radium needle was developed for neutron therapy. Since therapy needles are normally implanted in the body, very conservative design criteria were established to prevent leakage of radioactive. Methods are being developed to prepare very intense californium sources that could be used eventually for neutron radiography and for diagnosis by neutron activation analysis. This paper discusses these methods

  6. Californium Electrodepositions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, Rose Ann [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Electrodepositions of californium isotopes were successfully performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the past year involving two different types of deposition solutions, ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) and isobutanol ((CH3)2CHCH2OH). A californium product that was decay enriched in 251Cf was recovered for use in super-heavy element (SHE) research. This neutron-rich isotope, 251Cf, provides target material for SHE research for the potential discovery of heavier isotopes of Z=118. The californium material was recovered from aged 252Cf neutron sources in storage at ORNL. These sources have decayed for over 30 years, thus providing material with a very high 251Cf-to-252Cf ratio. After the source capsules were opened, the californium was purified and then electrodeposited using the isobutanol method onto thin titanium foils for use in an accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Another deposition method, ammonium acetate, was used to produce a deposition containing 1.7 0.1 Ci of 252Cf onto a stainless steel substrate. This was the largest single electrodeposition of 252Cf ever prepared. The 252Cf material was initially purified using traditional ion exchange media, such as AG50-AHIB and AG50-HCl, and further purified using a TEVA-NH4SCN system to remove any lanthanides, resulting in the recovery of 3.6 0.1 mg of purified 252Cf. The ammonium acetate deposition was run with a current of 1.0 amp, resulting in a 91.5% deposition yield. Purification and handling of the highly radioactive californium material created additional challenges in the production of these sources.

  7. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  8. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  9. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 (252Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, 252Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of 252Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the 252Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, 252Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of 252Cf from ORNL is summarized herein

  10. Californium-252 Neutron Therapy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 brachytherapy, believed to be the most successful source for neutron therapy, gives most of the cures as well as long-term and complication-free survivals. Chinese radiation oncologists were interested in californium neutron therapy (Cf-NT) in the early 1980s, but 252Cf sources for medical use were not available in China until 1992 when a californium joint venture was established by the China Institute of Atomic Energy (Beijing) and the Research Institute for Nuclear Reactors (Dimitrovgrad) of Russia. In 1995, 25 seeds of 252Cf with a strength of 3 μg each were sent to China for preclinical investigation. Three years later, a high dose rate (HDR) 252Cf source was imported and transferred into a home-made remote after-loader for intracavitary treatment in Chongqing, and a clinical trail was started in February 1999. This is the first time that Cf-NT was performed for cancer patients in China. Since then, Cf-NT in China has developed rapidly. It is estimated that one-tenth of those radiation oncology centers with brachytherapy practice will be equipped with californium units in 5 yr. That means more than 30 units will be in use in hospitals. That is significant compared with other countries, but it is just one, on average, for each province or one per 40 million people in China. Progress also has been achieved in the 252Cf treatment delivery equipment. Preliminary clinical trails showed complete response observed in all cases treated, with a rapid clearance of tumors and mild reactions in normal tissues. The short-term results are quite encouraging. To deal with problems due to the demand for Cf-NT in China, attention should be paid to the following particulars: (1) A high-strength miniature source is needed for HDR/MDR interstitial therapy to extend the Cf-NT coverage. (2) Basic work on radiophysics and radiobiology needs to be done, including source calibration, clinical dosimetry, clinical RBE determination, and Cf-NT quality assurance

  11. Californium-252 sales and loans at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and distribution in the United States of 252Cf has recently been consolidated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 252Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program and the 252Cf University Load Program, which were formerly located at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), have been combined with the californium production and distribution activities of the Transuranium Element Production Program at ORNL. Californium-252 is sold to commercial users in the form of bulk californium oxide, palladium-californium alloy pellets, or alloy wires. Neutron source capsules, which are fabricated for loans to DOE or other US government agencies, are still available in all forms previously available. The consolidation of all 252Cf distribution activities at the production site is expected to result in better service to users. In particular, customers for neutrons sources will be ale to select from a wider range of neutron source forms, including custom designs, through a single contact point

  12. BIO 240 Tutorials /bio240dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    veena022

    2015-01-01

    BIO 240 Entire Course (UOP) For more course tutorials visit www.bio240.com BIO 240 Week 1 DQ 1 Cells BIO 240 Week 1 DQ 2 Virus BIO 240 Week 1 Comparing Cell Structures Worksheet  BIO 240 Week 1 Photosynthesis and Respiration Paper  BIO 240 Week 2 DQ 1 BIO 240 Week 2 DQ 2 BIO 240 Week 3 DQ 1  BIO 240 Week 3 DQ 2  BIO 240 Week 3 Learning Team Outline BIO 240 Week 3 DNA and Protein Synthesis BIO 240 Week 4 DQ 1 BIO 240 W...

  13. Californium-252 encapsulation at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1 g of the neutron-emitting isotope californium-252 has been encapsulated at SRL for worldwide medical, industrial, and research uses. Bulk sales packages have been prepared for the USDOE sales program since 1971. Doubly-encapsulated sources have been prepared for USDOE's market evaluation program since 1968. Californium-252 sources for loan and sales packages satisfy the criteria for Special Form Radioactive Material. Encapsulation is performed in special neutron-shielded containment facilities at SRL. Development of improved source and shipping package designs and processes is continuing. 17 figures

  14. HCA 240 uop / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    HCA 240 Assignment: Blood Disorders HCA 240 Exercise: Name That Pathogen HCA 240 CheckPoint: Nervous System Diseases HCA 240 CheckPoint: Nutrition and the Food Pyramid HCA 240 CheckPoint 2: Radio Ad HCA 240 WEEK 1 Discussion Question 1 HCA 240 WEEK 1 Discussion Question 2 HCA 240 WEEK 3 Discussion Question 1 HCA 240 WEEK 3 Discussion Question 2 HCA 240 WEEK 5 Discussion Question 1 HCA 240 WEEK 5 Discussion Question 2 HCA 240 WEEK 7 Discussion Questi...

  15. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 1011 neutrons s-1. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  16. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R C; Knauer, J B; Balo, P A

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10(11) neutrons s(-1). Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordinance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations. PMID:11003521

  17. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial

  18. Production of extra pure curium and californium preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations of curium-244,245,248 and californium-249,252 are used for the production of ionizing radiation sources for different applications and fundamental nuclear-physical investigations, placing high requirements on the radiochemical and chemical purity of the preparations. Extraction chromatography using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as extractant was chosen to prepare extra pure curium and californium preparations. In order to identify the optimal conditions of Cm-Cf separation and to remove impurities from them (reagent and other impurities), investigations were performed into the effect of impurities (Na+, Ca2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+ taken as example), extractant and eluent concentration and solution flow rate on the efficiency of mutual purification of Cm and Cf. Both theoretical and experimental estimations were made of the maximum concentration at which the impurities do not affect the process. The conditions chosen allow mutual purification of milligram amounts of Cm and Cf from impurity elements at E(pur) =102 - 103 during a single chromatographic cycle (E(pur) =>103) using a column with 5 - 10 cm3 volume. In this case the production yield exceeds 98%. The purification of milligram amounts of curium and californium from fission products (lanthanides in general, cerium in particular) was performed in D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 and D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3-Cit extraction chromatography systems. In order to establish the optimal conditions, the effect of [D2EHPA] and eluent on the mutual purification of Cm and Cf and on their purification from cerium and impurity elements was studied in the D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 system. During a single chromatographic cycle the mutual purification factors of TPE and of their purification from impurity cations achieve 102-103, from cerium - E(pur) > 10. In the D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3Cit system, the effect of concentration of extractant and eluent pH on the efficiency of Cm and Cf purification from lanthanides was

  19. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  20. Prompt neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum was measured in the energy range of 0.01 to 10 MeV by the time-of-flight technique using various neutron detectors. The measurements of 252Cf neutron spectrum at energies of 0.01 to 5 MeV were performed as a function of fission fragment kinetic energy. The mean neutron spectrum energy in the range of 0.7 to 10 MeV was found from the results of measurements. The irregularity in the 252Cf neutron spectrum in the neutron energy range of less than 0.7 MeV compared to theoretical values is discussed. The mechanism of 252Cf neutron emission is also discussed on the basis of neutron yield angle measurements. 12 references

  1. BIO 240 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

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    ADGF

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BIO 240 Week 1 DQ 1 Cells BIO 240 Week 1 DQ 2 Virus BIO 240 Week 1 Comparing Cell Structures Worksheet BIO 240 Week 1 Photosynthesis and Respiration Paper BIO 240 Week 2 DQ 1 BIO 240 Week 2 DQ 2 BIO 240 Week 3 DQ 1 BIO 240 Week 3 DQ 2 BIO 240 Week 3 Learning Team Outline BIO 240 Week 3 DNA and Protein Synthesis BIO 240 Week 4 DQ 1 BIO 240 Week 4 DQ2 BIO 240 Week 4 Natural Selection Pap...

  2. Separation of californium from actinides and lanthanides in aqueous solution by electrochemical formation of amalgams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical reduction of transneptunium elements (Pu to Cf) and rare earths (Eu, Tm) from aqueous complexing solutions to amalgams was studied over a wide range of cathodic potentials in order to achieve optimal separation of californium. The reduction in acetate media (pH 4.5-4.6) at potentials around -1.7 to -1.9 V1 leads to a quantitative extraction of californium into the mercury phase, while more negative potentials are required for the reduction of the lighter transuranium elements and of the lanthanides. Hence, the optimal conditions for the separation of californium from the investigated actinides and lanthanides were determined. Separation factors α between 25 and 90 were found except in the case of Cf/Eu, where poor values (α varying from 7 to 12) were observed. More negative cathodic potentials decrease the selectivity of the reduction process. A similar study with lithium citrate solutions (pH ∝6) shows that satisfactory separation of californium from lighter and heavier actinides is achievable. A separation factor of 88 is obtained for Cf/Am at -1.98 V. The anodic stripping of mixed amalgams (Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Tm and Cf) Hg in nitric and acetic acid soultions at potentials ranging from +0.1 to -0.7 V proceeds slowly and proved to be ineffective for the separation of californium from light actinides under conditions described. (orig.)

  3. On-line slurry analyses by californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In chemical processing technology on-line activation methods gain an increasing importance for process monitoring and control. A method is described according to which the different fluorspar contents at various strategic points of a flotation plant are determined through neutron activation by 100 μg californium-252. A continuous analytical system for onstream process control of slurries was designed and constructed. A compact facility, called SUSAC, allows continuous application of the method on an industrial scale. The main components of the SUSAC facility are the irradiation and measurement cells. The cells are equipped with multistage countercurrent stirrers ensuring a proper radial and vertical distribution of the sample. The hollow shaft of the stirrer of the irradiation cell houses the Cf-source. The NaI-detector has been installed in a recess in the bottom of the measuring cell. The volumes are 9 dm3 for the irradiation cell, 7.5 dm3 for the measuring cell, 1/2 dm3 for the vonnection line and 4 dm3 for feed and drainage lines including the pump. Investigations on the following topics are discussed: selection of stirrers, residence time, flow rate, pulp density, calibration measurements. (T.G.)

  4. PSY 240 Course Tutorial / Snaptutorial

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    Aster

    2015-01-01

    PSY 240 Week 1 CheckPoint The Nature-Nurture Issue PSY 240 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 PSY 240 Week 2 CheckPoint The Nervous System PSY 240 Week 2 Assignment The Brain PSY 240 Week 3 CheckPoint Brain Studies PSY 240 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 PSY 240 Week 4 CheckPoint Eating What, When, and How Much PSY 240 Week 4 CheckPoint Set and Settling Points PSY 240 Week 4 Assignment To Eat or Not to Eat PSY 240 Week 5 CheckPoint Sexual Orientation and Identity PSY 240 Week 5...

  5. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy

  6. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Byrne, T.E. [Roane State Community College, Harriman, TN (United States); Miller, L.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with {sup 252}Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of {sup 252}Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a {sup 252}Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded {sup 252}Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy.

  7. Proposed Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL has petitioned to establish a Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science for academic, industrial, and governmental researchers. The REDC Californium Facility (CF) stores the national inventory of sealed 252Cf neutron source for university and research loans. Within the CF, the 252Cf storage pool and two uncontaminated hot cells currently in service for the Californium Program will form the physical basis for the User Facility. Relevant applications include dosimetry and experiments for neutron tumor therapy; fast and thermal neutron activation analysis of materials; experimental configurations for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis; neutron shielding and material damage studies; and hardness testing of radiation detectors, cameras, and electronics. A formal User Facility simplifies working arrangements and agreements between US DOE facilities, academia, and commercial interests

  8. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Samantha K; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E; Stritzinger, Jared T; Green, Thomas D; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N; Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A; DePrince, A Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J; Van Cleve, Shelley M; House, Jane H; Kikugawa, Naoki; Gallagher, Andrew; Arico, Alexandra A; Dixon, David A; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resultant complex with respect to that predicted for the free ion. We expand on this by characterizing the americium and curium analogues for comparison, and show that these pronounced effects result from a second transition in periodicity in the actinide series that occurs, in part, because of the stabilization of the divalent oxidation state. The metastability of californium(II) is responsible for many of the unusual properties of californium including the green photoluminescence. PMID:25880116

  9. Fissile analysis of Hanford waste using Californium Multiplier/Delayed Neutron Counter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of low-level (10 ng/g or lower) fissile material (mainly plutonium) in Hanford waste and process samples is becoming increasingly important. A system has been designed consisting of a Californium Multiplier (CFX) and a Delayed Neutron Counter (DNC) to characterize these samples. This report describes hardware and analytical capability of the CFX/DNC system

  10. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  11. Californium (252Cf) and its use as neutron source in science medicine and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radionuclides in science and nuclear techniques basically is related to unstable isotopes, which are produced from stable elements in nuclear reactor. Their specifications are various from view point of application . Using of physical and chemical properties of radionuclides in chemistry, for with marking the organic compounds we can exactly explain the mechanism of chemical reactions in medical, biology and bio-chemistry. In these cases the behaviour of radionuclides is very important and the selection of the suitable radionuclides is determined between the elements for investigation aims. The special specification of radio-nuclides analysis such as, half-life, kind of ray and energy should be considered with an special accuracy as well as the laws security regulations from view point of ray-protection should be completely observed mean time working these radio-nuclides. It should be considered that application of radio-isotopes is very important from their special specifications point of view. Applying the radionuclides from technology point of view in sciences and nuclear techniques aren't only limited to three analyses of α, β, and γ, but we can use the share of neutron which are produced from spli ting of heavy nucleus such as Californium252 as a neutron source in the depths of the sea and also determining the concentration of low quantity elements on moon and other spheres. The radioisotope of Californium252 is a neutron useful radiator for investigation in nuclear medical and technology because of automatically rapid split to 3.2% Californium252 radiates 1.34 * 109N/m in each mil/GH which suitable replacement for neutron sources based on (a, n) reaction, for example, Radium-Brellium or Amersium-Brellium. The energy distribution of radiated neutrons from analyzing of Californium252 like the spectrum of neutron which is produced from splitting of U235, Pu239 nucleus has the maximum energy in quantity, En=1 MeV in the range of 1.5 MeV. The

  12. NTC 240 Course Tutorial / Indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    jeethu

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   NTC 240 Week 2 Individual Assignment : OSI Model Key Terms NTC 240 Week 3 Individual Assignment : LAN Topologies NTC 240 Week 4 Individual Assignment : Vocabulary Definitions NTC 240 Week 5 Individual Assignment : Security Threats

  13. Contribution to clinical dosimetry of californium 252 sources used at Gustave Roussy institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of californium 252 sources are presented in the first part of the report. Dose measurements around Californium sources were performed with a pair of ionization multiplication chambers: the first one has an Aluminium wall and is filled with Argon, the second one a plastic tissue-equivalent gas. A set of experiments was performed in order to investigate the relative influence of beta rays on the response of both chambers. Besides the experimental work a computer program was written to calculate the dose distribution around the actual sources made of a series of small active sources placed in catheters. Theoretical data around small sources can be found in the litterature. The comparison between experimental results and theoretical ones has shown a good agreement. The computer program will be included as a sub-routine in the more general computer program used for patients treated with interstitial therapy

  14. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  15. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series

    OpenAIRE

    Cary, Samantha K.; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; GREEN, THOMAS D.; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A.; DePrince, A. Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J.; Van Cleve, Shelley M.; House, Jane H.; Kikugawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resu...

  16. Measurements of integral cross sections in the californium-252 fission neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a low-scattering arrangement cross sections averaged over the californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were measured. The reactions 27Al(n,α)46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti(n,p), 54Fe,56Fe(n,p), 58Ni(n,p), 64Zn(n,p), 115In(n,n') were studied in order to obtain a consistent set of threshold detectors used in fast neutron flux density measurements. Overall uncertainties between 2 and 2.5% could be achieved; corrections due to neutron scattering in source and samples are discussed

  17. Measurement of californium-252 gamma photons depth dose distribution in tissue equivalent material. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phantom of tissue equivalent material with and without bone was used measuring depth dose distribution of gamma-rays from californium-252 source. The source was positioned at center of perspex walled phantom. Depth dose measurements were recorded for X, Y and Z planes at different distances from source. TLD 700 was used for measuring the dose distribution. Results indicate that implantation of bone in tissue equivalent medium cause changes in the gamma depth dose distribution which varies according to variation in bone geometry. 9 figs

  18. Spontaneous Partitioning of Californium from Curium: Curious Cases from the Crystallization of Curium Coordination Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Samantha K.; Silver, Mark A.; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Jamie C.; Bogart, Justin A.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Arico, Alexandra A.; Hanson, Kenneth; Schelter, Eric J.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2015-12-07

    The reaction of 248CmCl3 with excess 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) under mild solvothermal conditions results in crystallization of the tris-chelate complex Cm(HDPA)3·H2O. Approximately half of the curium remains in solution at the end of this process, and evaporation of the mother liquor results in crystallization of the bis-chelate complex [Cm(HDPA)- (H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O. 248Cm is the daughter of the α decay of 252Cf and is extracted in high purity from this parent. However, trace amounts of 249,250,251Cf are still present in all samples of 248Cm. During the crystallization of Cm(HDPA)3·H2O and [Cm(HDPA)(H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O, californium(III) spontaneously separates itself from the curium complexes and is found doped within crystals of DPA in the form of Cf(HDPA)3. These results add to the growing body of evidence that the chemistry of californium is fundamentally different from that of earlier actinides.

  19. FIS 240 UOP course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 1

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com       FIS 240 Week 1 CheckPoint: Is Time on My Side (UOP) FIS 240 Week 1 DQs (UOP) FIS 240 Week 2 CheckPoint: Risk Assessment Matrix (UOP) FIS 240 Week 2 Exercise: Risk and Reward: First 10% (UOP) FIS 240 Week 2 Assignment: What’s In It for Me? (UOP) FIS 240 Week 3 DQs (UOP) FIS 240 Week 3 CheckPoint: Primary and Secondary…Not Just Schools (UOP) FIS 240 Week 4 CheckPoint...

  20. NTC 240 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A           NTC 240 Week 2 Individual Assignment : OSI Model Key Terms NTC 240 Week 3 Individual Assignment : LAN Topologies NTC 240 Week 4 Individual Assignment : Vocabulary Definitions NTC 240 Week 5 Individual Assignment : Security Threats  

  1. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumov, P. N., E-mail: ostroumov@anl.gov; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz.

  2. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz

  3. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U233 when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO2(NO3)4 and 18% of thorium Th(NO3)4 as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 107 s-1. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out keff <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  4. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P N; Barcikowski, A; Dickerson, C A; Perry, A; Pikin, A I; Sharamentov, S I; Vondrasek, R C; Zinkann, G P

    2015-08-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz. PMID:26329185

  5. Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide 252Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world's largest inventory of compact 252Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of ≤ 1011 neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 108 cm-2 s-1 at the sample. Total flux of ≥109 cm-2 s-1 is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the 252Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis

  6. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252Cf and 7000 rad from 226Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252Cf and 5000 rad from 226Ra

  7. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction 55Mn (n.gamma)56 Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of 56Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions 56Fe(n,p)56Mn and 59 Co (n, α)56 were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  8. Five-year cure of cervical cancer treated using californium-252 neutron brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female pelvic carcinoma is one of the common malignancies seen at the University of Kentucky Medical Center and often presents in an advanced stage. In 1976, the authors began to test californium-252 neutron brachytherapy (NT) for its efficacy for control of primary and recurrent advanced uterine, cervix, and vaginal cancers. The first protocol used was 5000-5500 rad of whole pelvis irradiation followed by 1-2 Cf-252 insertions using a single tandem placed in the utero-cervico-vaginal region. Of 27 patients with primary carcinomas treated, 10 are alive and well 5 year later (37%). Two of two recurrent tumors were locally controlled but failed later. These patients had advanced cervical, vaginal, or endometrial carcinomas. In 1977, a transitional year, treatment of only unfavorable stages and presentations with NT was initiated. Similar results were obtained with NT as compared to conventional photon therapy (PT). Further improvement in treatment results can be anticipated as NT brachytherapy is used for advanced cancer therapy by more effective treatment schedules and radiation doses. Cf-252 can be used as a radium substitute and achieved similar rates of tumor control and 5-year survivals. 21 references, 2 tables

  9. Uptake and distribution of californium-252 chloride administered intraperitoneally, intravenously or intratracheally and the effect of in vivo DTPA chelation on intratracheal instillation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first phase of this investigation, comprising of three groups of animals, was designed to study the fate of californium-252 chloride administered intraperitoneally, intravenously or intratracheally. The second phase, which consisted of two groups of animals, was designed to examine the effectiveness of DTPA chelation therapy in accelerating the excretion and preventing the deposition of californium-252 chloride instilled into the lungs of rats. Immediately following the dose administration of 2 uCi of californium-252 chloride which was dissolved in 0.2 ml of 0.9% NaCl at pH 3.5, each rat was placed in a metabolism cage. Each rat in the first group of phase II was given intraperitoneal injection of CaNa3 DTPA (50 mg/kg) and each rat in the second group was given intraperitoneal injections of 0.9% NaCl. Injections of the DTPA or the NaCl sham were initiated immediately after the intratracheal administration of californium-252 chloride and were continued every three days until sacrifice. Following intraperitoneal, intravenous or intratracheal administration, the whole body retention of californium as a function of time was described by a three component exponential equation. For each mode of administration the short term component exhibited a biological half-life of between 5 and 10 hours; the intermediate component between 4 and 6 days; and the long term component between 200 and 300 days. The organ data obtained following intraperitoneal and intravenous administration were indistinguishable. On day one, the liver retained about 9% of the administered dose and the kidneys retained 2.4%. Retention for these organs decreased to about 1% by day 32. The femurs maintained an almost constant level of 4.5% of the injected dose over the 32 days. The lungs, spleen, heart, and testes showed significant retention of californium

  10. ENEA results in the international comparison organized by BIPM for the measurament of neutron fluxes of a Californium source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period between May 1978 and August 1984 under the auspices of Section III of CCEMRI of CIPM it has been carried out the international intercomparison of Californium neutron source emission rate. The previous intercomparison was based on Ra-Be (α -n) source measuraments, which took place between 1959 and 1965, and the results showed a total spread of +- 3%. Owing to the better accuracy achived over the following decade the Ra-Be intercomparison was no longer representative of the state of the art, therefore it was decided to arrange the intercomparison based on Californium which in the meantime reached a wide use in the world. Contributions to the intercomparison were received from fourteen laboratories representative of twelve Nations plus the BIPM. The results put into evidence a considerable advance on accuracy in the neutron source emission rate measuraments. The standard deviation of the residuals obtained from least square fit of normalized data resulted +- 0,57%. In the present report it is widely described the Manganese bath method used at ENEA, CRE Casaccia in Roma, and the experimental procedure followed for its absolute calibration. All measuraments are reported and analysed, including those effectuated for corrective factors determination. The final results obtained at ENEA for the circulated Californium source is (3,457 +- 0,013) 10*H7 neutron/s. The analysis of data from all partecipantes has been effectuated and concluded by J. Axton in March 1986 and the conclusions which have been showed in the present report put in evidence the satisfactory results achived by the ENEA

  11. 40 CFR 240.203 - General design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General design. 240.203 Section 240.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR... design....

  12. Feasibility and market potential of protein determination of wheat using californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the feasibility of protein determination by capture gamma-ray analysis using californium-252 neutrons, an in-situ protein analysis system for use by grain handlers has been examined. Three 227 kilogram (approximately) lots of wheat were used to determine the amount of nitrogen present. Protein analyses by the Kjeldahl method were obtained from samples taken before and after the capture gamma-ray analyses. The 5.267-MeV gamma-ray was selected for use in this study as a compromise between efficiency and interference from other elements. The associated counting equipment was a multichannel analyzer with pulse shaping electronic and analysis computing equipment. A linear regression program was used to compare the regions of interest to the Kjeldahl protein averages. The counts composing each peak were summed and normalized using the total count of the hydrogen peak. The normalized nitrogen percentages indicate a significant correlation between the spectral regions and the Kjeldahl analyses. To a first approximation, the value of wheat is the wheat protein. At the present time, protein testing of wheat is destructive, cumbersome, and time-consuming as compared to the potential for capture gamma-ray analysis testing. Assuming that such a protein analysis unit can analyze 42 tonne of wheat per hour, over 120 units would be needed to monitor one-half the U.S. annual wheat production. A 0.5% improvement in processor realizations and grain throughput value of $167.00 per tonne will result in a projected savings of $150,000 per year per unit

  13. Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and therapeutic gain factor (GF) for californium-252 at low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential benefit of the introduction of californium-252 in interstitial and intracavitary therapy is related to the greater efficiency of its neutron emission against anoxic cancer cells. In that respect, the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of the 252Cf emission has been determined for a continuous low dose rate irradiation. The biological system is growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. A new Vicia faba ''BelB'' strain has been used, which better tolerates long periods (up to about 10 hours) of anoxia. In a first series of experiments, for a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.11 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.4+-0.1 was observed (the γ contribution Dγ to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) was 0.35 at the position of the root tips). In a second series of experiments, in somewhat different geometrical conditions with a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.13 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.5+-0.1 was observed (Dγ/Dsub(n+γ)=0.42). The OER values observed for similar irradiation times, with iridium-192 γ-rays, were 2.3+-0.2 and 2.6+-0.1 respectively, which leads to therapeutic gain factors (GF) of 1.6 and 1.7 respectively. These GF values are slightly lower than those previously obtained (GF=1.8) on the same system, with d(50)-Be p(75)-Be and 15 MeV neutron beams

  14. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  15. 8 CFR 240.63 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 240.63 Section 240.63 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE... Cancellation of Removal Under Section 203 of Pub. L. 105-100 § 240.63 Application process. (a) Form and...

  16. 40 CFR 240.203-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.203-1 Section 240.203-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.203-1...

  17. 40 CFR 240.206-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.206-1 Section 240.206-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206-1...

  18. 40 CFR 240.209-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.209-1 Section 240.209-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.209-1...

  19. 40 CFR 240.205-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.205-1 Section 240.205-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205-1...

  20. 40 CFR 240.207-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.207-1 Section 240.207-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.207-1...

  1. 40 CFR 240.210-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.210-1 Section 240.210... THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.210-1 Requirement... the design requirements. An operations manual describing the various tasks to be performed,...

  2. 40 CFR 240.200-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.200-1 Section 240.200-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200-1...

  3. 40 CFR 240.202-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.202-1 Section 240.202-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.202-1...

  4. 40 CFR 240.201-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.201-1 Section 240.201-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201-1...

  5. 40 CFR 240.204-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.204-1 Section 240.204-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204-1...

  6. 40 CFR 240.208-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.208-1 Section 240.208-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208-1...

  7. 40 CFR 240.208 - Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residue. 240.208 Section 240.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208 Residue....

  8. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  9. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 240.206 - Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors....

  11. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.240 Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol may be... label of the hops extract specifies the presence of the isopropyl alcohol and provides for the use...

  12. 16 CFR 240.15 - Cost justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost justification. 240.15 Section 240.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.15 Cost justification. It is no defense to...

  13. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used...

  14. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term interstate commerce has not been precisely defined in the statute. In general, if there is any part of a...

  15. 40 CFR 240.209 - Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety. 240.209 Section 240.209 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.209 Safety....

  16. 46 CFR 184.240 - Gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas systems. 184.240 Section 184.240 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems... requirements: (a) The design, installation and testing of each LPG system must meet ABYC A-1, “Marine...

  17. Divalent and trivalent gas-phase coordination complexes of californium: evaluating the stability of Cf(ii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Phuong D; Shuh, David K; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Abergel, Rebecca J; Gibson, John K

    2016-08-01

    The divalent oxidation state is increasingly stable relative to the trivalent state for the later actinide elements, with californium the first actinide to exhibit divalent chemistry under moderate conditions. Although there is evidence for divalent Cf in solution and solid compounds, there are no reports of discrete complexes in which Cf(II) is coordinated by anionic ligands. Described here is the divalent Cf methanesulfinate coordination complex, Cf(II)(CH3SO2)3(-), prepared in the gas phase by reductive elimination of CH3SO2 from Cf(III)(CH3SO2)4(-). Comparison with synthesis of the corresponding Sm and Cm complexes reveals reduction of Cf(III) and Sm(III), and no evidence for reduction of Cm(III). This reflects the comparative 3+/2+ reduction potentials: Cf(3+) (-1.60 V) ≈ Sm(3+) (-1.55 V) ≫ Cm(3+) (-3.7 V). Association of O2 to the divalent complexes is attributed to formation of superoxides, with recovery of the trivalent oxidation state. The new gas-phase chemistry of californium, now the heaviest element to have been studied in this manner, provides evidence for Cf(II) coordination complexes and similar chemistry of Cf and Sm. PMID:27424652

  18. Hypoxic versus normoxic external-beam irradiation of cervical carcinoma combined with californium-252 neutron brachytherapy. Comparative treatment results of a 5-year randomized study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tačev, T.; Vacek, Antonín; Ptáčková, B.; Strnad, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 5 (2005), s. 273-284. ISSN 0179-7158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : cervical carcinoma * hypoxyradiotherapy * californium-252 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2005

  19. Solving the Hydration Structure of the Heaviest Actinide Aqua Ion Known: The Californium(III) Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Auwer, Ch.; Guillaumont, D. [CEA Marcoule, Nucl Energy Div, Radiochem Proc Dept, SCPS LILA, 30 (France); Galbis, E.; Pappalardo, Rafael R.; Marcos Sanchez, E. [Univ Seville, Dept Quim Fis, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Hernandez-Cobos, J. [Inst Ciencias Fis, Cuernavaca 62251, Morelos (Mexico); Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E. [Univ Paris Sud, Inst Phys Nucl Orsay, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    In summary, the first MC simulation of the trivalent cation of californium, based on an exchangeable hydrated ion-water intermolecular potential, has been shown to extend and improve the hydrated ion model. Likewise, the CfL{sub III}-edge EXAFS spectrum of an acidic 1 mm Cf(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3} aqueous solution recorded under optimized experimental conditions has greatly improved the signal/noise ratio of the only previously recorded spectrum. The comparison of the experimental EXAFS spectrum with the two computed ones, obtained from two different intermolecular potentials that predict eight (BP86) or nine (MP2) water molecules in the first coordination shell, leads to the conclusion that the lowest hydration number is preferred. Then, as Cf{sup III} is the heaviest actinide aqua ion for which there is experimental information, the actinide contraction is supported by the present study. (For U{sup III}, R{sub U-O}=2.56 Angstroms, and CN=9{+-}1; for Pu{sup III}, R{sub Pu-O}=2.51 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1; for Cm{sup III}, R{sub Cm-O}=2.47 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1). The role of the second hydration shell is important in defining the structure and dynamics of the Cf{sup III} aqua ion, but the contribution of second-shell water molecules to the EXAFS signal as back-scatters is marginal. Finally, this work gives an illustrative example of the benefits which can be achieved from the combination of experimental X-ray absorption spectroscopy and computer simulations. The usefulness of the simultaneous analysis of the results as well as the importance of the structural statistical average has been clearly demonstrated herein. Each technique independently was not adequate. We believe that this study traces out a still poorly explored combined methodology which may be extremely useful for many other complexes and chemical problems. A systematic theoretical and experimental examination of the other known actinide cations on the same basis should be undertaken to confirm the

  20. Design, construction, and characterization of a facility for neutron capture gamma ray analysis of sulfur in coal using californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of neutron capture gamma ray analysis of sulfur in coal using californium-252 as a neutron source is reported. Both internal and external target geometries are investigated. The facility designed for and used in this study is described. The external target geometry is found to be inappropriate because of the low thermal neutron flux at the sample location, which must be outside the biological shielding. The internal target geometry is found to have a sufficient thermal neutron flux, but an excessive gamma ray background. A water filled plastic facility, rather than the paraffin filled steel one used in this study, is suggested as a means of increasing flexibility and decreasing the beackground in the internal target geometry

  1. 7 CFR 57.240 - Detaining product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detaining product. 57.240 Section 57.240 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Administrative Detention §...

  2. 9 CFR 590.240 - Detaining product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detaining product. 590.240 Section 590.240 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  3. 33 CFR 106.240 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications. 106.240 Section... Requirements § 106.240 Communications. (a) The Facility Security Officer (FSO) must have a means to effectively notify OCS facility personnel of changes in security conditions at the OCS facility. (b)...

  4. 20 CFR 410.240 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 410.240 Section 410.240 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK... claims, including the reasonable and necessary cost of travel incident thereto. A medical...

  5. 31 CFR 240.7 - Declination protest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declination protest. 240.7 Section... STATES TREASURY General Provisions § 240.7 Declination protest. (a) Who may protest. Only a presenting bank may protest the declination of a check that it has presented to a Federal Reserve Bank for...

  6. Modeling and production of 240Am by deuteron-induced activation of a 240Pu target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Erin C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Woods, Vincent T.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Metz, Lori A.; Friese, Judah I.

    2015-02-01

    A novel reaction pathway for production of 240Am is reported. Models of reaction cross-sections in EMPIRE II suggests that deuteron-induced activation of a 240Pu target produces maximum yields of 240Am from 11.5 MeV incident deuterons. This activation had not been previously reported in the literature. A 240Pu target was activated under the modeled optimum conditions to produce 240Am. The modeled cross-section for the 240Pu(d, 2n)240Am reaction is on the order of 20-30 mbarn, but the experimentally estimated value is 5.3 ± 0.2 mbarn. We discuss reasons for the discrepancy as well as production of other Am isotopes that contaminate the final product.

  7. Modeling and production of 240Am by deuteron-induced activation of a 240Pu target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel reaction pathway for production of 240Am is reported. Models of reaction cross-sections in EMPIRE II suggest that deuteron-induced activation of a 240Pu target produces maximum yields of 240Am from 11.5 MeV incident deuterons. This activation had not been previously reported in the literature. A 240Pu target was activated under the modeled optimum conditions to produce 240Am. The modeled cross-section for the 240Pu(d, 2n)240Am reaction is on the order of 20–30 mbarn, but the experimentally estimated value is 5.6 ± 0.2 mbarn. We discuss reasons for the discrepancy as well as production of other Am isotopes that contaminate the final product

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFM240 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFM240 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - AFM240P (Link to Original site) AFM240F 638 AFM...240Z 291 AFM240P 909 - - Show AFM240 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFM240 (Link ...to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFM...2-B/AFM240Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID AFM240P (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFM240 (AFM240Q) /CSM/AF/AFM2-B/AFM240Q.Seq.d/ TATTAAAAAAATGTACT

  9. Dicty_cDB: SLB240 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLB240 (Link to dictyBase) - G01905 DDB0216342 Contig-U01115-1 | Contig-U16357-1 SLB...240P (Link to Original site) SLB240F 367 SLB240Z 159 SLB240P 526 - - Show SLB240 Libra...ry SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLB240 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G01905 dictyBase ID DDB021634...cdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLB2-B/SLB240Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLB240P (Link to Original site) R...epresentative DNA sequence >SLB240 (SLB240Q) /CSM/SL/SLB2-B/SLB240Q.Seq.d/ CAACAATATGAAACCTGAAGATGCAAACGCTGC

  10. Operational experience with the Argonne National Laboratory Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade facility and electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R.; Clark, J.; Levand, A.; Palchan, T.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility provides low-energy and accelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics and astrophysics questions. A 350 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The ECR charge breeder has achieved stable beam charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+, 17.9% for 39K10+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 12.4% for 133Cs27+. For the radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The typical breeding times are 10 ms/charge state, but the source can be tuned such that this value increases to 100 ms/charge state with the best breeding efficiency corresponding to the longest breeding times—the variation of efficiencies with breeding time will be discussed. Efforts have been made to characterize and reduce the background contaminants present in the ion beam through judicious choice of q/m combinations. Methods of background reduction are being investigated based upon plasma chamber cleaning and vacuum practices.

  11. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  12. Results with the electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder for the 252Cf fission source project (Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade) at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is nearing completion. The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci 252Cf source; thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams, an existing ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source was redesigned to function as an ECR charge breeder. Thus far, the charge breeder has been tested with stable beams of rubidium and cesium achieving charge breeding efficiencies of 9.7% into 85Rb17+ and 2.9% into 133Cs20+.

  13. 7 CFR 240.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unmarried mothers and their infants; group homes; halfway houses; orphanages; temporary shelters for abused children and for runaway children; long-term care facilities for chronically ill children; and juvenile... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CASH IN LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.2 Definitions. For the purpose of this...

  14. TRAP230/ARC240 and TRAP240/ARC250 Mediator subunits are functionally conserved through evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Camilla O; Baraznenok, Vera; Khorosjutina, Olga;

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator, a subgroup of proteins (Srb8, Srb9, Srb10, and Srb11) form a module, which is involved in negative regulation of transcription. Homologues of Srb10 and Srb11 are found in some mammalian Mediator preparations, whereas no clear homologues have been reported for...... Srb8 and Srb9. Here, we identify a TRAP240/ARC250 homologue in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and demonstrate that this protein, spTrap240, is stably associated with a larger form of Mediator, which also contains conserved homologues of Srb8, Srb10, and Srb11. We find that spTrap240 and Sch. pombe Srb8 (sp...

  15. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Bouhafs, B.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young's modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  16. 16 CFR 240.1 - Purpose of the Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose of the Guides. 240.1 Section 240.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.1 Purpose of the Guides. The purpose of these Guides is to provide assistance...

  17. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.240...

  18. 16 CFR 240.4 - Definition of customer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of customer. 240.4 Section 240.4... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.4 Definition of customer. A customer is any... “customer” is any buyer of the seller's product for resale who purchases from or through a wholesaler...

  19. 20 CFR 405.240 - Sunset of this subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunset of this subpart. 405.240 Section 405.240 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Review of Initial Determinations by a Federal Reviewing Official § 405.240 Sunset of this subpart. (a) If you filed...

  20. Modeling and production of {sup 240}Am by deuteron-induced activation of a {sup 240}Pu target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Erin C., E-mail: Erin.Finn@pnnl.gov; McNamara, Bruce, E-mail: Bruce.McNamara@pnnl.gov; Greenwood, Larry, E-mail: Larry.Greenwood@pnnl.gov; Wittman, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Wittman@pnnl.gov; Soderquist, Charles, E-mail: Chuck.Soderquist@pnnl.gov; Woods, Vincent, E-mail: Vincent.Woods@pnnl.gov; VanDevender, Brent, E-mail: Brent.Vandevender@pnnl.gov; Metz, Lori, E-mail: Lori.Metz@pnnl.gov; Friese, Judah, E-mail: Judah.Friese@pnnl.gov

    2015-04-15

    A novel reaction pathway for production of {sup 240}Am is reported. Models of reaction cross-sections in EMPIRE II suggest that deuteron-induced activation of a {sup 240}Pu target produces maximum yields of {sup 240}Am from 11.5 MeV incident deuterons. This activation had not been previously reported in the literature. A {sup 240}Pu target was activated under the modeled optimum conditions to produce {sup 240}Am. The modeled cross-section for the {sup 240}Pu(d, 2n){sup 240}Am reaction is on the order of 20–30 mbarn, but the experimentally estimated value is 5.6 ± 0.2 mbarn. We discuss reasons for the discrepancy as well as production of other Am isotopes that contaminate the final product.

  1. Anatomy of a controversy: Application of the Langevin technique to the analysis of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis method for subcriticality determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expressions for the power spectral density of the noise equivalent sources have been calculated explicitly for the (a) stochastic transport equation, (b) the one-speed transport equaton, (c) the one-speed P1 equations, (d) the one-speed diffusion equation and (e) the point kinetic equation. The stochastic nature of Fick's law in (d) has been emphasized. The Langevin technique has been applied at various levels of approximation to the interpretation of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis (CSDNA) experiment for determining the reactivity in subcritical media. The origin of the controversy surrounding this method has been explained. The foundations of the CSDNA method as a viable experimental technique to infer subcriticality from a measured ratio of power spectral densities of the outputs of two neutron detectors and a third external source detector has been examined by solving the one-speed stochastic diffusion equation for a point external Californium-252 source and two detectors in an infinite medium. The expression relating reactivity to the measured ratio of PSDs was found to depend implicitly on k itself. Through a numerical analysis fo this expression, the authors have demonstrated that for a colinear detector-source-detector configuration for neutron detectors far from the source, the expression for the subcritical multiplication factor becomes essentially insensitive to k, hence, demonstrating some possibility for the viability of this technique. However, under more realistic experimental conditions, i.e., for finite systems in which diffusion theroy is not applicable, the measurement of the subcritical multiplication factor from a single measured ratio of PSDs, without extensive transport calculations, remains doubtful

  2. Application of SCGE assay, classical cytogenetics and FISH for studying in vitro californium-252 neutrons irradiations and BSH pretreatment on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there has been observed a tendency to apply various energy neutrons for tumor therapy and particularly low energy neutrons from various sources, including californium-252 source, for cancer radiotherapy based on the neutron capture. In this study peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells and three methods were applied to assess the effectiveness of californium-252 neutrons irradiations in vitro in normal cells or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with neutrons from isotopic 252Cf source at the Faculty of Nuclear Physics and Technics at University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with BSH (Na210B12H11SH) was done to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetics was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics and rings). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of whole genome) and pancentromeric probe was performed to evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations. Linear (or close to linear) increase of DNA damage and aberration frequency was observed with dose of radiation both for lymphocytes untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Very little differences (statistically insignificant) due to radiation dose and BSH pretreatment were observed in the frequencies of SCEs detected in the second mitosis. There is no significant difference between boron pre-treated and not treated cells, and even slightly higher effects were observed in case of the highest dose without BSH pretreatment. The level of translocations observed is comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. (author)

  3. Neutron nuclear data for Pu-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives evaluated nuclear data for the isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu, in the energy region 10-5eV-15 MeV needed for reactor calculations and other applications. Tables of Q-values and threshold energies are first presented for different possible reactions of neutrons with these nuclei. Then, evaluated data for 240Pu are given for the following characteristics of possible neutron reactions: total interaction cross-section, absorption cross-section, radiative capture cross-section, elastic and inelastic scattering cross-sections, cross sections of the (n, zn) and (n, 3n) reactions, average number of neutrons per fission event and per absorption event, elastic and inelastic scattering angular distributions, energy distributions of secondary neutrons, gamma-ray spectra. In addition, group-averaged constants are given. The parameters used in the calculations in the resonance energy region, unresolved resonance region and fast neutron energy region are specified. The evaluated data constitute a nuclear constants library and have been approved as standard for use in the USSR

  4. Californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major production programs for the Savannah River reactors and the High Flux Isotopes Reactor at Oak Ridge have made 252Cf one of the most available and, at the USAEC's sales price of $10/μg, one of the least-expensive isotopic neutron sources. Reactor production has totaled approximately 2 g, and, based on expected demand, an additional 10 g will be produced in the next decade. The approximately 800 mg chemically separated to date has been used to prepare over 600 neutron sources. Most, about 500, have been medical sources containing 1 to 5 μg of 252Cf plated in needles for experimental cancer therapy studies. The remainder have generally been point sources containing 10 μg to 12 mg of oxide for activation, well logging, or radiography uses. Bulk sources have also been supplied to the commercial encapsulators. The latest development has been the production of 252Cf cermet wire which can be cut into almost contamination-free lengths of the desired 252Cf content. Casks are available for transport of sources up to 50 mg. Subcritical assemblies have been developed to multiply the source neutrons by a factor of 10 to 40, and collimators and thermalizers have also been extensively developed to shape the neutron flux and energy distributions for special applications. (U.S.)

  5. Microscopic Calculations of 240Pu Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2007-09-11

    Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations have been performed with the Gogny finite-range effective interaction for {sup 240}Pu out to scission, using a new code developed at LLNL. A first set of calculations was performed with constrained quadrupole moment along the path of most probable fission, assuming axial symmetry but allowing for the spontaneous breaking of reflection symmetry of the nucleus. At a quadrupole moment of 345 b, the nucleus was found to spontaneously scission into two fragments. A second set of calculations, with all nuclear moments up to hexadecapole constrained, was performed to approach the scission configuration in a controlled manner. Calculated energies, moments, and representative plots of the total nuclear density are shown. The present calculations serve as a proof-of-principle, a blueprint, and starting-point solutions for a planned series of more comprehensive calculations to map out a large set of scission configurations, and the associated fission-fragment properties.

  6. Calculations of Nuclear Astrophysics and Californium Fission Neutron Spectrum Averaged Cross Section Uncertainties Using ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and Low-fidelity Covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear astrophysics and californium fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections and their uncertainties for ENDF materials have been calculated. Absolute values were deduced with Maxwellian and Mannhart spectra, while uncertainties are based on ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and Low-Fidelity covariances. These quantities are compared with available data, independent benchmarks, EXFOR library, and analyzed for a wide range of cases. Recommendations for neutron cross section covariances are given and implications are discussed

  7. Dicty_cDB: SHA240 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHA240 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16259-1 SHA240P (Link to Original ... ence. 44 7.6 1 CX078364 |CX078364.1 UCRCS08_8F05_b Parent ... Washington Navel Orange Callus cDNA Library UCRCS0 ...

  8. 42 CFR 455.240 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... though the conflict of interest exists and a request for waiver is approved in accordance with 48 CFR 9... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 455.240 Section... § 455.240 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board: CMS may establish a Conflicts of...

  9. 49 CFR 240.125 - Criteria for testing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for testing knowledge. 240.125 Section... Elements of the Certification Process § 240.125 Criteria for testing knowledge. (a) Each railroad's program... locomotive service to determine that the person has sufficient knowledge of the railroad's rules...

  10. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-3 - Limitations on expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on expansion. 240.17Ad-3 Section 240.17Ad-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... expansion. (a) Any registered transfer agent which is required to file any notice pursuant to §...

  11. 16 CFR 240.13 - Customer's and third party liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customer's and third party liability. 240.13... ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.13 Customer's and third party liability. (a) Customer's liability: Sections 2 (d) and (e) apply to sellers and not to customers....

  12. 49 CFR 240.127 - Criteria for examining skill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for examining skill performance. 240.127... Elements of the Certification Process § 240.127 Criteria for examining skill performance. (a) Each railroad... have procedures for examining the performance skills of a person being evaluated for qualification as...

  13. 17 CFR 240.17g-5 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... money market instruments for which it accesses information pursuant to 17 CFR 240.17g-5(a)(3)(iii), if... market instruments; or (B) Has not accessed information pursuant to 17 CFR 240.17g-5(a)(3) 10 or more... section relating to issuing or maintaining a credit rating for a security or money market...

  14. 46 CFR 172.240 - Permeability of spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permeability of spaces. 172.240 Section 172.240 Shipping... Permeability of spaces. When doing the calculations required in § 172.225, (a) The permeability of a floodable... space permeability of 85% unless the use of an assumed permeability of less than 85% is justified...

  15. Dicty_cDB: SLE240 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLE240 (Link to dictyBase) - G24169 DDB0188248 Contig-U04015-1 SLE240E (Lin ... 78 3 ( E16012 ) Marker DNA sequence related to the sensitivity ... agai... 48 0.25 1 ( GF032701 ) pRRL2:Newb:20080411 ...

  16. 16 CFR 240.12 - Checking customer's use of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking customer's use of payments. 240.12... ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.12 Checking customer's use of... are furnished and that the seller is not overpaying for them. The customer should expend the...

  17. Dicty_cDB: SFL240 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFL240 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16243-1 SFL240P (Link to Original ... .. 284 4e-75 X75329_1( X75329 |pid:none) M.indica (Manila ) THMF5 mRNA for 3-ket... 284 4e-75 AK222103_1( AK2 ...

  18. 46 CFR 16.240 - Serious marine incident testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... chemically tested for evidence of dangerous drugs and alcohol in accordance with the requirements of 46 CFR 4... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Serious marine incident testing requirements. 16.240... CHEMICAL TESTING Required Chemical Testing § 16.240 Serious marine incident testing requirements....

  19. AN INTEGRAL REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT TO INFER ACTINIDE CAPTURE CROSS-SECTIONS FROM THORIUM TO CALIFORNIUM WITH ACCELERATOR MASS SPECTROMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of the proposed experiment is to irradiate very pure actinide samples in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INL and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The determination of the nuclide densities before and after neutron irradiation will allow inference of effective neutron capture cross-sections. This approach has been used in the past and the novelty of this experiment is that the atom densities of the different transmutation products will be determined using the Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) technique at the ATLAS facility located at ANL. It is currently planned to irradiate the following isotopes: 232Th, 235U, 236U, 238U, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 248Cm.

  20. A double-blind, prospective, randomized, multicenter group comparison study of iopromide 240 vs iohexol 240 in myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of iopromide 240 mgI/ml in comparison with iohexol 240 mgI/ml in myelography. A total of 421 patients in seven centers and four countries received an average of 11.9 ml of either iopromide 240 (278 patients) or iohexol 240 (143 patients) for X-ray and/or CT myelography in a randomized (2:1), prospective, double-blind study. All patients were followed up 3-4 h after the procedure, and 327 patients remained hospitalized for 24 h. In 82 patients an EEG was recorded prior to as well as 3-4 h and 24 h after myelography. Physical examinations, including measurement of vital signs, were performed in all patients at these time points. The results were subject to statistical analysis with the primary variable being the incidence of adverse events. Both contrast media (CM) were equally effective in terms of opacification. The rating for opacity was ''good'' or ''excellent'' in 88 % for both CM. Four patients (iopromide group: n = 3; iohexol group: n = 1) had transient EEG changes but did not show clinical symptomatology. The overall rate of patients experiencing any adverse event (AE) was 16.9 % for iopromide 240 and 14.0 % for iohexol 240. Equivalence testing was inconclusive; however, the results indicated equivalence. The rate for AEs considered as study-drug related was slightly lower with iopromide 240 than with iohexol 240 (7.2 vs 7.7 %, respectively). Neither unknown nor unexpected AEs known for myelographic X-ray CM nor serious adverse events were observed. Iopromide 240 and iohexol 240 are equally safe and effective and can be recommended for myelography. (orig.)

  1. 17 CFR 240.15g-100 - Schedule 15G-Information to be included in the document distributed pursuant to 17 CFR 240.15g-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... included in the document distributed pursuant to 17 CFR 240.15g-2. 240.15g-100 Section 240.15g-100... included in the document distributed pursuant to 17 CFR 240.15g-2. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... calculated to draw the customer's attention to the language in the document, especially words that...

  2. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel-Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Trellue, H. R.; Tobin, S. J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be orientation in the instrument.

  3. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1g - Conditions for ultimate holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... application under § 240.15c3-1e(a)). (B) A graph reflecting, for each business line, the daily intra-month VaR... holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1g Section 240... companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). As a condition for a broker...

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFF240 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFF240 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11212-1 AFF240Z (Link to Original ... b Zea mays genomic clone ZMMBBb0237K14 3', genomic survey ... sequence. 46 0.35 1 BZ402539 |BZ402539.1 OGAAN59TC ... ubsp. mays genomic clone ZMMBBb0577H08 5', genomic survey ... sequence. 46 0.35 1 CL261567 |CL261567.1 ZMMBBb061 ...

  5. 17 CFR 240.10A-2 - Auditor independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Auditor independence. 240.10A... Exchange Act of 1934 Reports Under Section 10a § 240.10A-2 Auditor independence. It shall be unlawful for an auditor not to be independent under § 210.2-01(c)(2)(iii)(B), (c)(4), (c)(6), (c)(7), and §...

  6. 17 CFR 240.14a-2 - Solicitations to which § 240.14a-3 to § 240.14a-15 apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) and specified in the Notice of Exempt Preliminary Roll-up Communication (§ 240.14a-104). If the communication is oral, this disclosure may be provided to the security holder orally. Whether the communication... another's behalf, the power to act as proxy for a shareholder and does not furnish or otherwise...

  7. Biological Efficiency of Californium-252 Source Evaluated by Comet Assay, Classical Cytogenetics and FISH in Human Lymphocytes Irradiated without and with BSH Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological effectiveness of californium-252 source was evaluated after irradiations in vitro of normal or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells. DNA and chromosomal damage were studied to compare biological effectiveness of irradiation. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with the isotopic source of 252Cf, at the Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques at the University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in ''infinite'' polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with Na210B12H11SH (BSH) was performed to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Single cell gel electrophoresis also known as the Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetic analysis was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics, rings and a centric fragments). To evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of the whole genome) was performed. Linear (or close to linear) increase with radiation dose were observed for the DNA damage and aberration frequencies in lymphocytes both untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Levels of translocations evaluated for the whole genome were comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. No significant differences were detected due to radiation dose in the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) detected in the second mitosis. No statistically significant differences were observed in various biological end-points between normal or boron pre-treated cells. (author)

  8. Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/ Pu-239 atom ratios in the water column off Sanriku, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo

    2013-04-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami occurred in the Pacific Ocean off northern Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 which caused severe damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has resulted in a substantial release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and ocean, and has caused extensive contamination of the environment. However, no information is available on the amounts of radionuclides such as Pu isotopes released into the ocean at this time. Investigating the background baseline concentration and atom ratio of Pu isotopes in seawater is important for assessment of the possible contamination in the marine environment. Pu-239 (half-life: 24,100 years), Pu-240 (half-life: 6,560 years) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 years) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater samples collected in the western North Pacific off Sanriku before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant will provide useful background baseline data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing additional Pu sources. Seawater samples were collected with acoustically triggered quadruple PVC sampling bottles during the KH-98-3 cruise of the R/V Hakuho-Maru. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios were measured with a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS, which was equipped with a guard electrode to eliminate secondary discharge in the plasma and to enhance overall sensitivity. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 concentrations were 2.07 and 1.67 mBq/m3 in the surface water, respectively, and increased with depth; a subsurface maximum was identified at 750 m depth, and the concentrations decreased with depth, then increased at the bottom layer. The total Pu-239+240 inventory in the entire water column (depth interval 0

  9. Fabrication of 12% {sup 240}Pu calorimetry standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.M.; Hildner, S.; Gutierrez, D.; Mills, C.; Garcia, W.; Gurule, C.

    1995-08-01

    Throughout the DOE complex, laboratories are performing calorimetric assays on items containing high burnup plutonium. These materials contain higher isotopic range and higher wattages than materials previously encountered in vault holdings. Currently, measurement control standards have been limited to utilizing 6% {sup 240}Pu standards. The lower isotopic and wattage value standards do not complement the measurement of the higher burnup material. Participants of the Calorimetry Exchange (CALEX) Program have identified the need for new calorimetric assay standards with a higher wattage and isotopic range. This paper describes the fabrication and verification measurements of the new CALEX standard containing 12% {sup 240}Pu oxide with a wattage of about 6 to 8 watts.

  10. 40 CFR 161.240 - Residue chemistry data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirement if their residues are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 178.1010. (11... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residue chemistry data requirements... § 161.240 Residue chemistry data requirements. (a) Table. Sections 161.100 through 161.102 describe...

  11. Evaluation of neutron nuclear data for 240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the experimental data evaluation and theoretical calculation, a complete set of neutron nuclear data for 240Pu has been recommended in the incident neutron energy range from 10-5 eV to 20 MeV for CENDL-2. The comparison of present evaluation with ENDF/B-6 and JENDL-3 has been carried out

  12. 46 CFR 179.240 - Foam flotation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., see 46 CFR 175.600). The fire resistance test is not required. (2) Foam may be installed only in void spaces that are free of ignition sources, unless the foam complies with the requirements of 33 CFR 183... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foam flotation material. 179.240 Section...

  13. Evaluation of the neutron cross sections for Pu-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present evaluation is proposed to supersede the ENDF/B-V, Revision 2 file for 240Pu. In this work, resonance parameters, cross sections, energy distributions, and angular distributions have been modified. These changes are outlined in detail and appropriate references included. 37 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  14. 17 CFR 240.14a-17 - Electronic shareholder forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic shareholder forums... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14a: Solicitation of Proxies § 240.14a-17 Electronic shareholder forums. (a) A shareholder, registrant, or third party acting on behalf of a shareholder or registrant...

  15. Application of slingshot model to the giant radio galaxy DA240 (Brief : DA 240 in slingshot model)

    CERN Document Server

    Muthumeenal, S

    2010-01-01

    We attempt a slingshot model interpretation of the unusual association of some 1&1/3 dozen nonstellar galaxian objects around the parent optical galaxy of the giant radio galaxy DA 240 (= 0748.6+55.8 (J2000)). Similar interpretation may be possible for another large radio galaxy 3C 31 (= NGC 383 = 0104.6+32.1 (1950.0)).

  16. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-13 - Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... internal accounting control. 240.17Ad-13 Section 240.17Ad-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-13 Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control. (a) Accountant's... accountant concerning the transfer agent's system of internal accounting control and related procedures...

  17. 17 CFR 240.12f-3 - Termination or suspension of unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-3 Section 240.12f-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-3 Termination or suspension of unlisted trading privileges. (a) The issuer of any security for which unlisted trading...

  18. 17 CFR 240.12f-1 - Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinstate unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-1 Section 240.12f-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-1 Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges. (a) An application to reinstate...

  19. 49 CFR 240.211 - Procedures for making the determination on performance skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance skills. 240.211 Section 240.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... determination on performance skills. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially certifying or recertifying any person... demonstrated, in accordance with the requirements of § 240.127 of this part, the skills to safely...

  20. 17 CFR 240.17f-2 - Fingerprinting of securities industry personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... interests in limited partnerships, unit investment trusts or real estate investment trusts; Provided, That... industry personnel. 240.17f-2 Section 240.17f-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Activities § 240.17f-2 Fingerprinting of securities industry personnel. (a) Exemptions for the...

  1. 17 CFR 240.13a-20 - Plain English presentation of specified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plain English presentation of specified information. 240.13a-20 Section 240.13a-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.13a-20 Plain English presentation...

  2. 17 CFR 240.15d-20 - Plain English presentation of specified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plain English presentation of specified information. 240.15d-20 Section 240.15d-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.15d-20 Plain English presentation...

  3. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-21T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.17Ad-21T Section 240.17Ad-21T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-21T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section...

  4. 17 CFR 240.13b2-1 - Falsification of accounting records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Falsification of accounting records. 240.13b2-1 Section 240.13b2-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Required Reports § 240.13b2-1 Falsification of accounting records. No person shall directly or...

  5. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  6. MANTRA: An Integral Reactor Physics Experiment to Infer Actinide Capture Cross-sections from Thorium to Californium with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Youinou; C. McGrath; G. Imel; M. Paul; R. Pardo; F. Kondev; M. Salvatores; G. Palmiotti

    2011-08-01

    The principle of the proposed experiment is to irradiate very pure actinide samples in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The determination of the nuclide densities before and after neutron irradiation will allow inference of effective neutron capture cross-sections. This approach has been used in the past and the novelty of this experiment is that the atom densities of the different transmutation products will be determined using the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technique at the ATLAS facility located at ANL. It is currently planned to irradiate the following isotopes: 232Th, 235U, 236U, 238U, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, 241Am, 243Am, 244Cm and 248Cm.

  7. MANTRA: An Integral Reactor Physics Experiment to Infer Actinide Capture Cross-sections from Thorium to Californium with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of the proposed experiment is to irradiate very pure actinide samples in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The determination of the nuclide densities before and after neutron irradiation will allow inference of effective neutron capture cross-sections. This approach has been used in the past and the novelty of this experiment is that the atom densities of the different transmutation products will be determined using the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technique at the ATLAS facility located at ANL. It is currently planned to irradiate the following isotopes: 232Th, 235U, 236U, 238U, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, 241Am, 243Am, 244Cm and 248Cm.

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHJ240 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 08 1 AQ874658 |AQ874658.1 V112D8 mTn-3xHA/lacZ Insertion Library, strain Y2278 Saccharomyces cerevisiae geno...brane 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for VHJ240 is cyt 5' end seq. ID - 5' end se...AACGCTTATAAATTCTATCAATATGATCCAACTAAATGGTTG ATCTCT Length of 3' end seq. 546 Connected seq. ID - Connected seq. - Length of connect...) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15950-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.ts...skh* rp*rrsmgyvat*tlh*nrhfygsrfpnigswfrlg*lgwwlfllwctssrysstfhilg qfigslfr*lsir**tyskgfscdcyiniw*rls*lps*ipk

  9. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  10. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  11. 17 CFR 240.12d2-1 - Suspension of trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of trading. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Suspension of Trading, Withdrawal, and Striking from Listing and Registration § 240.12d2-1 Suspension of trading. (a) A national securities exchange may suspend from trading...

  12. 8 CFR 240.69 - Reliance on information compiled by other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reliance on information compiled by other sources. 240.69 Section 240.69 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION... Reliance on information compiled by other sources. In determining whether an applicant is eligible...

  13. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-10 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...

  14. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval. 72.240... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.240 Conditions for spent fuel storage cask...

  15. 40 CFR 436.240 - Applicability; description of the diatomite subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the diatomite subcategory. 436.240 Section 436.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  16. 17 CFR 240.17a-10 - Report on revenue and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report on revenue and expenses. 240.17a-10 Section 240.17a-10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION....17a-10 Report on revenue and expenses. (a)(1) Every broker or dealer exempted from the...

  17. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  18. 17 CFR 240.3b-15 - Definition of ancillary portfolio management securities activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... portfolio management securities activities. 240.3b-15 Section 240.3b-15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... ancillary portfolio management securities activities. (a) The term ancillary portfolio management securities... of incidental trading activities for portfolio management purposes; and (3) Are limited to...

  19. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240... ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity... paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards...

  20. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially...

  1. 33 CFR 96.240 - What functional requirements must a safety management system meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a safety management system meet? 96.240 Section 96.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... requirements must a safety management system meet? The functional requirements of a safety management system... vessel's safety management system, and the ISM Code; (e) Procedures to prepare for and respond...

  2. 17 CFR 240.12b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., if the filing is an HTML document, as defined in Regulation S-T Rule 11 (17 CFR 232.11). (e) Where a..., printing and language. 240.12b-12 Section 240.12b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... paper, printing and language. (a) Statements and reports shall be filed on good quality, unglazed...

  3. 17 CFR 240.12b-37 - Satisfaction of filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... IC-25463 (March 18, 2002) (each of which may be viewed on the Commission's website at www.sec.gov... Effectiveness of Registration Source: Sections 240.12d1-1 through 240.12d-6 appear at 19 FR 670, Feb. 5,...

  4. 20 CFR 404.240 - Old-start method-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....240 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Old-Start Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.240 Old-start method—general. If you had all or substantially all your social...

  5. Restaurant No. 1 seating capacity increases by 240

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    These days you need patience when looking for a seat in Restaurant No. 1 to eat your lunch. The opening of the new dining room, which will increase the restaurant’s seating capacity by 240, should alleviate the problem and improve service.   The new restaurant area. For the past several years the number of people using Restaurant No. 1 has grown steadily. Now, for a change, the restaurant itself is growing. Luz Lopez-Hernandez, leader of the project in the GS Department, explains: “Enlarging the restaurant has been on the GS Department's agenda for several years, but the project really got off the ground in 2009. Once it was approved and the design completed, construction itself only took seven months.” Seven months later, the restaurant extension is indeed on the verge of opening. One of the people who will be particularly happy is Joël Nallet, who manages the Novae restaurant: “I am thrilled, because until now, even if we managed to increase...

  6. Design of the Atlas 240 kV Marx modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, D.W.; Bennett, G.; Biehl, F. [and others

    1997-06-01

    A prototype 240 kV, oil-insulated Marx module has been designed and constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The prototype will be used for testing and certifying the design of the Marx module and certain components, including the closing switches, series resistor, and the capacitors themselves. The prototype will also be used to evaluate proposed mechanical systems designs. Information gained from the construction and testing of the 4-capacitor prototype will be folded into the design of the 16-capacitor maintenance unit. The prototype module consists of four 60 kV capacitors, two closing switches, one shunt resistor, and one series resistor. Cables are used to deliver the current to a dummy load scaled to match Atlas system parameters. The Marx unit is contained in a structure made from G-10, suspended from a steel frame that also serves to support components of the trigger, charging, and control system. Appropriate safety and charging systems are an integral part of the prototype design.

  7. Human triosephosphate isomerase deficiency resulting from mutation of Phe-240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minling Chang; Xiaoyun Wu; Maquat, L.E. (Roswell Park Cancer Inst., Buffalo, NY (United States)); Artymiuk, P.J. (Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)); Hollan, S. (National Inst. of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Budapest (Hungary)); Lammi, A. (Children' s Hospital, Sydney (Australia))

    1993-06-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI; D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ketolisomerase [E.C.5.3.1.1]) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that typically results in chronic, nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia and in neuromuscular impairment. The molecular basis of this disease was analyzed for one Hungarian family and for two Australian families by localizing the defects in TPI cDNA and by determining how each defect affects TPI gene expression. The Hungarian family is noteworthy in having the first reported case of an individual, A. Jo., who harbors two defective TPI alleles but who does not manifest neuromuscular disabilities. This family was characterized by two mutations that have never been described. One is a missense mutation within codon 240 (TTC [Phe][r arrow]CTC [Leu]), which creates a thermolabile protein, as indicated by the results of enzyme activity assays using cell extracts. This substitution, which changes a phylogenetically conserved amino acid, may affect enzyme activity by dusrupting intersubunit contacts or substrate binding, as deduced from enzyme structural studies. The other mutation has yet to be localized but reduces the abundance of TPI mRNA 10--20-fold. Each of the Australian families was characterized by a previously described mutation within codon 104 (GAG [Glu][r arrow]GAC [Asp]), which also results in thermolabile protein. 49 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Concentrations of sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am in drinking water and organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an investigation of the chemistry and aquatic distribution of fallout-derived sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am in the aquatic environment a study has been made of the concentration of these nuclides in the drinking water and organic fertilizer, distributed to the populace of the Chicago area. The results clearly indicate that the concentration of sup(239,240)Pu is always lower in the water which has been treated at the Chicago Central Water Filtration Plant than in the raw water before treatment. Raw water levels are consistent with normal levels of sup(239,240)PU found in Lake Michigan waters which are approx 6 orders of magnitude below the maximum permissible concentration standard for drinking water. An additional possible source of sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am to humans can be through the distribution of the organic fertilizer, 'Nu Earth', by the Metropolitan Sanitary District, free of charge, for the use in home gardens. 'Nu Earth' consists primarily of sediment from an Imhoff Process which has been air-dried and aged in large, open-air piles. Samples of this organic fertilizer were analysed for sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am. The results indicate that there is little evidence to indicate that sup(239,240)Pu in drinking water or sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am from organic sludge will be health hazards in the Chicago area under current conditions. (U.K.)

  9. 17 CFR 240.15g-2 - Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... document relating to the penny stock market. 240.15g-2 Section 240.15g-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 15(d) of the Act § 240.15g-2 Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market... required by paragraph (a) of this section for the period specified in 17 CFR 240.17a-4(b) of this...

  10. Weldability examination of ASTM A 240 S41500 martensitic stainless steel by thermal cycles simulation testings

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Velázquez-del Rosario; Armín Mariño-Pérez; Maritza Mariño-Cala

    2015-01-01

    The weldability assets of ASTM A 240 S41500 (ASTM A 240/A 240M) martensitic stainless steel are presented through the study of the effects of single and double thermal weld cycles on mechanical properties and microstructure of base metal (BM) and the artificial heat affected zone (HAZ) created by thermal weld simulations. For single cycles, separate peak temperatures of 1000 ºC/12 s and 1350 ºC/12 s (cooling times: 12 s in both cases) were evaluated, whilst two combinations of peak temperatur...

  11. 239+240Pu and 90Sr deposition densities in undisturbed surface soil in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study's goal is determination of 239+240Pu and 90Sr deposition densities from known distribution of 137Cs deposition density. The tasks done include: simultaneous determination of 239+240Pu, 90Sr and 137Cs deposition densities in undisturbed surface soil layer having depth to 20 cm and use it as basis for determining the ratios of deposition densities 239+240Pu/137Cs and 90Sr/137Cs; studying the impact of soil parameters such as soil texture, content of organic matter, Humic, Fulvic as well as of geography parameters such as latitude, longitude, annual rainfall to the variation of these ratios. (NHA)

  12. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in misappropriation insider trading cases. 240.10b5-2 Section 240.10b5-2 Commodity and Securities... Devices and Contrivances § 240.10b5-2 Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading... of insider trading under Section 10(b) of the Act and Rule 10b-5. The law of insider trading...

  13. 17 CFR 240.15a-2 - Exemption of certain securities of cooperative apartment houses from section 15(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain securities of cooperative apartment houses from section 15(a). 240.15a-2 Section 240.15a-2 Commodity and... Securities from Section 15(a) § 240.15a-2 Exemption of certain securities of cooperative apartment...

  14. Worldwide data on fluxes of 239,240Pu, 238Pu to the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to measurements (GEOSECS) the world's oceans contain approximately 16 PBq 239,240Pu, of which one-fourth is in the Atlantic and three-fourths in the Pacific Ocean. The expected inventory (from nuclear weapons testing) in the world's oceans is 12 PBq 239,240Pu including local fallout at the test sites. In the Irish Sea a local contamination of 0.3 PBq 239,240Pu from the Sellafield reprocessing plant resides in the sediments. No other sources than fallout and reprocessing add significantly to the 239,240Pu inventories in the oceans. The discrepancy between measurements and expectations are assumed to be due to an underestimate of the rainfall and dry fallout (seaspray) and thus of the Pu-deposition over the oceans, but may also to some degree be due to inadequate sampling

  15. Measurement of the 240Am production cross section via proton irradiation of 242Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new nuclear reaction for the production of 240Am was experimentally investigated. Targets of 150-500 μg/cm2242Pu on 2 μm Ti were produced through molecular deposition. Five irradiations, in which 242Pu, natTi, and natNi targets were jointly activated with protons from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron produced 240Am, 48V, and 57Ni, respectively. The radioactive decay of these nuclides was monitored using high-purity Ge gamma ray detectors in the weeks following irradiation. A maximum 242Pu(p, 3n)240Am nuclear reaction cross section was measured to be 45 ± 13 mb with 23 MeV protons. While this value is lower than theoretical predictions, it is high enough to be the most viable nuclear reaction for the large-scale production of 240Am. (orig.)

  16. 17 CFR 240.11a-1 - Regulation of floor trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., particularly sections 11(a) and 23(a) thereof, and Rule 11a-1 (17 CFR 240.11a-1) under the Act, deeming it... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulation of floor trading... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Adoption of Floor Trading Regulation (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a-1 Regulation...

  17. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  18. Plutonium isotopes 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios in the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara I. Strumińska-Parulska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the results of plutonium findings in atmospheric fallout samples and marine samples from the southern Baltic Sea during our research in 1986-2007. The activities of 238Pu and 239+240Pu isotopes were measured with an alpha spectrometer. The activities of 241Pu were calculated indirectly by 241Am activity measurements 16-18 years after the Chernobyl accident. The 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. The 241Pu activities indicate that the main impact of the Chernobyl accident was on the plutonium concentration in the components of the Baltic Sea ecosystem examined in this work. The highest 241Pu/239+240Pu activity ratio was found in sea water (140 ± 33. The AMS measurements of atmospheric fallout samples collected during 1986 showed a significant increase in the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio from 0.29 ± 0.04 in March 1986 to 0.47 ± 0.02 in April 1986.

  19. 240例耳聋患者常见耳聋基因筛查分析%Analysis of common deafness genes screening in 240 deaf patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲长红; 张宁; 曹东华; 郝冬梅

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析非综合征型耳聋患者常见耳聋基因突变情况,探讨遗传性耳聋基因芯片检测的临床意义.方法 2013年3-8月来自沈阳市和平区残联的非综合征型耳聋患者240例,患者或监护人签署知情同意后提取被检者外周静脉血基因组DNA,采用晶芯8遗传性耳聋基因检测试剂盒对常见的4个耳聋基因(GJB2、GJB3、SLC26A4以及线粒体12S rRNA)的9个突变位点进行检测.结果 240例受检者中,102例存在被检测基因突变,其中GJB2基因突变44例(18.33%,44/240),SLC26A4基因突变38例(15.83%,38/240),线粒体12S rRNA基因突变17例(7.08%,17/240),GJB3538C>T1例(0.39%,1/240).明确诊断为遗传性耳聋60例,提示遗传性耳聋42例,占全部耳聋患者的42.5%(102/240).结论 非综合征型耳聋患者耳聋基因携带率较高,对高危人群进行耳聋基因突变的筛查和遗传咨询是防止和控制遗传性耳聋、优生优育的重要步骤.

  20. Hydrogeology of the rock mass encountered at the 240 level of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rock mass surrounding the 240 level of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) has been hydrogeologically characterized through observations made in the tunnel and room excavations and from a network of radiating low-dipping boreholes. The 240 level complex sits in a wedge of grey-to-pink granite between two important, low-dipping, hydraulically active fracture zones, known as Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2) and Fracture Zone 2.5 (FZ2.5), a splay of FZ2. There is no apparent seepage into the 240 level room and tunnel network from the surrounding rock mass except from a vertical fracture intersected by the Room 209 tunnel. Extensive hydraulic and geomechanical tests have been conducted in boreholes intersecting the Room 209 vertical fracture, and transmissivities were found to range from 10-10 to 10 -6 m2/s. FZ2 and FZ2.5 occur at the 240 m depth approximately 10 m to the west and 100 m to the south respectively of the 240 level tunnel network. Hydraulic testing within packer-isolated boreholes intersecting these fracture zones showed that transmissivities ranged from 10-7 to 10-5 m2/s in FZ2, and 10-9 to 10-7 m2/s in FZ2.5. No naturally-occurring fractures were encountered east of the 240 level complex up to 300 m away. The rock mass to the north of the 240 level is dominated by the Room 209 vertical fracture, which tends to splay with distance and has been intersected 95 m from the Room 209 tunnel. (Author) (50 figs., 5 tabs., 10 refs.)

  1. Discovery and characterization of cadherin domains in Saccharophagus degradans 2-40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiberg, Milana; Borovok, Ilya; Weiner, Ronald M; Lamed, Raphael

    2010-02-01

    Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 is a prominent member of newly discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycle complex polysaccharides. The S. degradans 2-40 genome codes for 15 extraordinary long polypeptides, ranging from 274 to 1,600 kDa. Five of these contain at least 52 cadherin (CA) and cadherin-like (CADG) domains, the types of which were reported to bind calcium ions and mediate protein/protein interactions in metazoan systems. In order to evaluate adhesive features of these domains, recombinant CA doublet domains (two neighboring domains) from CabC (Sde_3323) and recombinant CADG doublet domains from CabD (Sde_0798) were examined qualitatively and quantitatively for homophilic and heterophilic interactions. In addition, CA and CADG doublet domains were tested for adhesion to the surface of S. degradans 2-40. Results showed obvious homophilic and heterophilic, calcium ion-dependent interactions between CA and CADG doublet domains. Likewise, CA and CADG doublet domains adhered to the S. degradans 2-40 surface of cells that were grown on xylan from birch wood or pectin, respectively, as a sole carbon source. This research shows for the first time that bacterial cadherin homophilic and heterophilic interactions may be similar in their nature to cadherin domains from metazoan lineages. We hypothesize that S. degradans 2-40 cadherin and cadherin-like multiple domains contribute to protein-protein interactions that may mediate cell-cell contact in the marine environment. PMID:20023015

  2. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to...

  3. 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in seawater from the western North Pacific and its marginal sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The atom ratio of 240Pu/239Pu is known to be a useful tracer to identify the sources of plutonium in the ocean. The objectives of this study are to measure the 239+240Pu activities and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in seawater from the western North Pacific and its marginal sea and to discuss the transport processes of plutonium. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were measured with sector-field ICPMS. The atom ratios were significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio. These high atom ratios proved the existence of close-in fallout plutonium originating from the Pacific proving grounds. (author)

  4. 17 CFR 240.14a-16 - Internet availability of proxy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internet availability of proxy... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14a: Solicitation of Proxies § 240.14a-16 Internet... the security holder a Notice of Internet Availability of Proxy Materials, as described in this...

  5. Presence of plutonium isotopes, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu, in soils from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Leon, M., E-mail: manugar@us.es [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes sn, 41012 Seville (Spain); Peruchena, J.I., E-mail: jiperuchena@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Cereceda, F., E-mail: francisco.cereceda@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Vidal, V., E-mail: victor.vidal@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Pinilla, E., E-mail: epinilla@unex.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas sn, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Miro, C., E-mail: cmiro@unex.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad sn, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20-40 Degree-Sign Southern latitude range, with {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30-53 Degree-Sign S latitude range (0.185 {+-} 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The {sup 239+240}Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  6. 17 CFR 240.15g-4 - Disclosure of compensation to brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transactions in the penny stock reported on a Qualifying Electronic Quotation System (as defined in 17 CFR 240... or dealer to effect a transaction in any penny stock for or with the account of a customer unless... connection with such transaction. (b) Timing. (1) The information described in paragraph (a) of this...

  7. Highly accurate measurements of the spontaneous fission half-life of 240,242Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Eykens, R.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Moens, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Sibbens, G.; Vanleeuw, D.; Vidali, M.; Pretel, C.

    2013-12-01

    Fast spectrum neutron-induced fission cross-section data for transuranic isotopes are of special demand from the nuclear data community. In particular highly accurate data are needed for the new generation IV nuclear applications. The aim is to obtain precise neutron-induced fission cross sections for 240Pu and 242Pu. To do so, accurate data on spontaneous fission half-lives must be available. Also, minimizing uncertainties in the detector efficiency is a key point. We studied both isotopes by means of a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber with the goal of improving the present data on the neutron-induced fission cross section. For the two plutonium isotopes the high α-particle decay rates pose a particular problem to experiments due to piling-up events in the counting gas. Argon methane and methane were employed as counting gases, the latter showed considerable improvement in signal generation due to its higher drift velocity. The detection efficiency for both samples was determined, and improved spontaneous fission half-lives were obtained with very low statistical uncertainty (0.13% for 240Pu and 0.04% for 242Pu): for 240Pu, T1/2,SF=1.165×1011 yr (1.1%), and for 242Pu, T1/2,SF=6.74×1010 yr (1.3%). Systematic uncertainties are due to sample mass (0.4% for 240Pu and 0.9% for 242Pu) and efficiency (1%).

  8. The IMM Face Database - An Annotated Dataset of 240 Face Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordstrøm, Michael M.; Larsen, Mads; Sierakowski, Janusz;

    This note describes a dataset consisting of 240 annotated monocular images of 40 different human faces. Points of correspondence are placed on each image so the dataset can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Format specifications and terms of use are also given in this note....

  9. 17 CFR 240.14a-3 - Information to be furnished to security holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 240.14a-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... security holders is delivered through an electronic medium, issuers may satisfy legibility requirements... this section, the person making the request was a beneficial owner of securities entitled to vote....

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  11. 24 CFR 1000.240 - When is a local cooperation agreement required for affordable housing activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is a local cooperation... ACTIVITIES Indian Housing Plan (IHP) § 1000.240 When is a local cooperation agreement required for affordable housing activities? The requirement for a local cooperation agreement applies only to rental and...

  12. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgage related securities as defined in section 3(a)(41) of the Act subject to reverse repurchase... Examining Authorities pursuant to 17 CFR 240.17a-11, if the market maker or specialist fails to deposit any... same issue and quantity. In no event may a brokers' broker exclude any overnight bank loan...

  13. Isotope ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in soil samples from different areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in soil samples from Japan and other areas in the world (including IAEA standard reference materials) were determined by ICP-MS. The range of 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios observed in 21 Japanese soil samples was 0.155 - 0.194 and the average was 0.180 ± 0.011, which is comparable to the global fallout value. A low ratio of about 0.05, which is derived from Pu-bomb, was found in samples from Nishiyama (Nagasaki) and Mururoa Atoll (IAEA-368), while a high ratio of about 0.31 was found in a sample from Bikini Atoll (Marshall Islands). The ratio for Irish Sea sediment (IAEA-135) was 0.21, which was higher than the global fallout value, suggesting the influence by the contamination from the Sellafield facility. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in soils from the Chernobyl area were determined, and the ratio was found to be very high (about 0.4), indicating the high burn-up grade of the reactor fuel. These results show that the 240Pu/239Pu ratio can be used as a finger print to identify the source of the contamination. (author)

  14. 17 CFR 240.14d-6 - Disclosure of tender offer information to security holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of tender offer... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14d § 240.14d-6 Disclosure of tender offer.... If a tender offer is published, sent or given to security holders on the date of commencement...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-displacement pump (PDP), a subsonic venturi (SSV), or an ultrasonic flow meter (UFM). Combined with an upstream... dilution system, you may use a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a... § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust...

  16. 17 CFR 240.17g-4 - Prevention of misuse of material nonpublic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prevention of misuse of... Organizations § 240.17g-4 Prevention of misuse of material nonpublic information. (a) The written policies and... prevent the misuse of material, nonpublic information pursuant to section 15E(g)(1) of the Act (15...

  17. Presence of plutonium isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, in soils from Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global 239Pu and 240Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of 239Pu and 240Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20–40° Southern latitude range, with 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30–53°S latitude range (0.185 ± 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The 239+240Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  18. 17 CFR 240.14a-20 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder approval of... § 240.14a-20 Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients. If a solicitation is... shareholder vote to approve the compensation of executives, as disclosed pursuant to Item 402 of Regulation...

  19. Volikogu kergitas kruntide alghinna Olümpia vastas 240 miljoni kroonini / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna linnavolikogu tõstis 26. jaanuari istungil Juhkentali 1b, 3d ja 3e kruntide avaliku enampakkumise alghinna 78 miljonilt kroonilt 240 miljonile. Kruntidele on lubatud ehitada üks kuni 30-korruseline ning mitu 3-8 korruselist hoonet. Kaart: Ala detailplaneering

  20. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a...

  1. 17 CFR 240.17a-23 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements relating to broker-dealer trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements relating to broker-dealer trading systems. 240.17a-23 Section 240.17a-23 Commodity and Securities... relating to broker-dealer trading systems. (a) Scope of section. This section shall apply to any registered broker or dealer that acts as the sponsor of a broker-dealer trading system. (b) Definitions....

  2. 17 CFR 240.3a12-8 - Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading. 240.3a12-8 Section 240.3a12-8 Commodity and... trading. (a) When used in this Rule, the following terms shall have the meaning indicated: (1) The...

  3. 17 CFR 240.11a1-5 - Transactions by registered competitive market makers and registered equity market makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... competitive market makers and registered equity market makers. 240.11a1-5 Section 240.11a1-5 Commodity and... registered equity market makers. Any transaction by a New York Stock Exchange registered competitive market maker or an American Stock Exchange registered equity market maker effected in compliance with...

  4. 17 CFR 240.14e-2 - Position of subject company with respect to a tender offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with respect to a tender offer. 240.14e-2 Section 240.14e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... subject company with respect to a tender offer. (a) Position of subject company. As a means reasonably... position with respect to the bidder's tender offer. Such statement shall also include the reason(s) for...

  5. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-10 - Prompt posting of certificate detail to master securityholder files, maintenance of accurate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-10 Prompt posting of certificate detail to master... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prompt posting of certificate..., retention of certificate detail and âbuy-inâ of physical over-issuance. 240.17Ad-10 Section...

  6. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334.240 Section 334.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED...

  7. 239+240pn as a dating marker in lake sediments: An example from Lake Chenghai, China%239+240Pu作为湖泊沉积物计年时标:以云南程海为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万国江; 吴丰昌; J Zheng; 万恩源; 廖海清; Y Masatoshi; 王长生

    2011-01-01

    137 CS time mark combined with210Pb dating has been widely applied to recent sedimentation. The 137Cs specific activity is, however, hard to detect after decay for two half-lifes. Due to its comparatively long - term half - life, plutonium from global fallout is expected to provide a dating mark for sedimentation. In the present work, we discuss the vertical distribution of 239 + 240Pu and 137 Cs specific activities, and the 240 pu/239 Pu atom ratio in a sediment core of Lake Chenghai. The distribution pattern of 239 +240pu was similar to those of 137Cs specific activities( decay corrected to deposition time)in the sediment core, and also corresponded well with the annual deposition of 137Cs in the northern hemisphere. These results demonstrate that the 239 +240pu specific activity is available to construct recent chronology for lacustrine sediment. In the examined sediment core, the values of 0. 016 for average 239 +24Opu/137Cs activity ratio and 0.012 for ∑239+240Pu/∑ 137Cs, are close to that of global fallout. The vertical variation of 239+240Pu/137Cs activity ratio indicated that the postdepositional transport of plutonium is much less than radiocesium. The average 240Pu/239 Pu atom ratio is 0. 195 ±0. 021, which means plutonium in Lake Chenghai originated from global fallout. The abnormal distribution of 239+240Pu and 137Cs at 8 cm in the sediment core may be explained by the influence of Chernobyl-source radionuclides.%在近代沉积作用领域137Cs时标与210Pb计年结合,获得了广泛而有效的应用.然而,137Cs经过两个半衰期的衰变已难于辩识.环境中的Pu核素具有相对较长的半衰期,也随全球大气扩散而散落于地球表面,可望作为沉积计年的时间标志.通过程海沉积物柱芯中239+240Pu比活度、240Pu/239Pu原子比率及校正到沉积年代的137Cs比活度的对比研究表明:二者比活度的垂直剖面基本相似、239+240pu比活度与北半球137Cs逐年沉降量之间也具有很

  8. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura Kazunori

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs. This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control and from cirrhotic livers (LC (Child A-LC and Child C-LC. Immunohistochemical (IHC, Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver.

  9. Contactless Investigations of Yeast Cell Cultivation in the 7 GHz and 240 GHz Ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a microfluidic system based on PTFE tubes, experimental results of contactless and label-free characterization techniques of yeast cell cultivation are presented. The PTFE tube has an inner diameter of 0.5 mm resulting in a sample volume of 2 μ1 for 1 cm sample length. Two approaches (at frequencies around 7 GHz and 240 GHz) are presented and compared in terms of sensitivity and applicability. These frequency bands are particularly interesting to gain information on the permittivity of yeast cells in Glucose solution. Measurements from 240 GHz to 300 GHz were conducted with a continuous wave spectrometer from Toptica. At 7 GHz band, measurements have been performed using a rat-race based characterizing system realized on a printed circuit board. The conducted experiments demonstrate that by selecting the phase as characterization parameter, the presented contactless and label-free techniques are suitable for cell cultivation monitoring in a PTFE pipe based microfluidic system.

  10. The Pöschl Teller model for total cross section of neutron scattering from 240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron scattering cross-section of 240Pu have been investigated using an attractive potential. On applying the modified Pöschl-Teller model, the total cross-section of the n+240Pu in the energy range of 5-20 MeV have been calculated. It was compared with the available experimental data and evaluated data of JENDL-4.0, ENDF/B-VII.0 and CENDL-3.1 as well as with the theoretical values from TALYS-1.2 Nuclear Reaction Program, EMPIRE: 2.19 Nuclear Reaction Model Code and are found to be in reasonably good agreement. This supports the validity of the present calculation. (author)

  11. MEMORIES 240

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    This holiday is very unique. On June 5,2004 (the 18th day of the fourth lunar month) the Xibe people celebrated their Western Migration Festival. This year, the celebration was grander and more enthusiastic than any before.

  12. Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy: seven-year experience with 240 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Barczyński, Marcin; Konturek, Aleksander; Stopa, Małgorzata; Papier, Aleksandra; Nowak, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) has gained acceptance in recent years as an alternative to conventional thyroid surgery. Aim Assessment of our 7-year experience with MIVAT. Material and methods A retrospective study of 240 consecutive patients who underwent MIVAT at our institution between 01/2004 and 05/2011 was conducted. The inclusion criterion was a single thyroid nodule below 30 mm in diameter within the thyroid of 25 ml or less in volume. The exclusi...

  13. Skidding of fir roundwood by Timberjack 240C from selective forests of Gorski Kotar

    OpenAIRE

    Sabo, Anton; Poršinsky, Tomislav

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the productivity of the cable skidder Timberjack 240C equipped with double-drum winch Konrad Adler HY 16 during skidding of fir roundwood from the Croatian mountainous selective forests of fir and beech. The research took place in the area of Delnice Forest Management, at two workplaces with different degrees of stone obstacles provided with strip road network. Skidder productivity was determined by the method of time and work study. The paper shows th...

  14. Fission barriers of 237 to 240 plutonium isotopes with the 236U(α,xn) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation functions for the reactions 236U(α,xn)sup(240-x)Pu have been measured for x=2, 3, 4. The production of 236U targets as well as the chemical separation of Pu from the irradied targets are given. Experimental results have been analysed using the preequilibrium mechanism (PREEQ code) and the statistical model description of fission through a double humped barrier (GIVAB code)

  15. 17 CFR 240.16a-2 - Persons and transactions subject to section 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-29(h)), including any person specified in § 240.16a-8, shall be subject to... subject to section 16 of the Act unless the person otherwise is subject to section 16 of the Act. A ten... the issuer registered pursuant to section 12 of the Act. (d)(1) Transactions by a person or...

  16. Design of 240,000 orthogonal 25mer DNA barcode probes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qikai; Schlabach, Michael R.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    DNA barcodes linked to genetic features greatly facilitate screening these features in pooled formats using microarray hybridization, and new tools are needed to design large sets of barcodes to allow construction of large barcoded mammalian libraries such as shRNA libraries. Here we report a framework for designing large sets of orthogonal barcode probes. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by designing 240,000 barcode probes and testing their performance by hybridization. From the ...

  17. A 240W Monolithic Class-D Audio Amplifier Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Kaya, Cetin; Risbo, Lars;

    2006-01-01

    A single-channel class-D audio amplifier output stage outputs 240W undipped into 4Omega 0.1% open-loop THD+N allows using the device in a fully-digital audio signal path with no feedback. The output current capability is plusmn18A and the part is fabricated in a 0.4mum/1.8mum high-voltage Bi...

  18. Prompt fission γ -ray spectrum characteristics from 240Pu(sf ) and 242Pu(sf )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberstedt, S.; Oberstedt, A.; Gatera, A.; Göök, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Moens, A.; Sibbens, G.; Vanleeuw, D.; Vidali, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present first results for prompt fission γ -ray spectra (PFGS) characteristics from the spontaneous fission (sf) of 240Pu and 242Pu. For 242Pu(sf ) we obtained, after proper unfolding of the detector response, an average energy per photon ɛ¯γ=(0.843 ±0.012 ) MeV, an average multiplicity M¯γ=(6.72 ±0.07 ) , and an average total γ -ray energy release per fission E¯γ ,tot = (5.66 ± 0.06) MeV. The 240Pu(sf ) emission spectrum was obtained by applying a so-called detector-response transformation function determined from the 242Pu spectrum measured in exactly the same geometry. The results are an average energy per photon ɛ¯γ=(0.80 ±0.07 ) MeV, the average multiplicity M¯γ = (8.2 ± 0.4), and an average total γ -ray energy release per fission E¯γ ,tot = (6.6 ± 0.5) MeV. The PFGS characteristics for 242Pu(sf ) are in very good agreement with those from thermal-neutron-induced fission on 241Pu and scales well with the corresponding prompt neutron multiplicity. Our results in the case of 240Pu(sf ), although drawn from a limited number of events, show a significantly enhanced average multiplicity and average total energy, but may be understood from a different fragment yield distribution in 240Pu(sf ) compared to that of 242Pu(sf ).

  19. Weldability examination of ASTM A 240 S41500 martensitic stainless steel by thermal cycles simulation testings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Velázquez-del Rosario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The weldability assets of ASTM A 240 S41500 (ASTM A 240/A 240M martensitic stainless steel are presented through the study of the effects of single and double thermal weld cycles on mechanical properties and microstructure of base metal (BM and the artificial heat affected zone (HAZ created by thermal weld simulations. For single cycles, separate peak temperatures of 1000 ºC/12 s and 1350 ºC/12 s (cooling times: 12 s in both cases were evaluated, whilst two combinations of peak temperatures: (1350 ºC/5 s + 1000 ºC/5 s ºC and (1350 ºC/12 s + 1000 ºC/12 s ºC (cooling times: 5 s and 12 s, were applied for double cycles. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT with short and long holding times were applied and Vickers hardness, impact toughness and metallographic examinations were used in order to assess mechanical and metallographic properties in the as-simulated (no heat treated and postweld heat treated conditions. Best properties of the welded joint for double thermal weld cycles with long holding times were reached, which reveals the good weldability and applicability of the tested material in post weld heat treated conditions.

  20. Background distributions of 239+240Pu and 137Cs of upland soil in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background distributions of Pu and 137Cs in soil were investigated in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, where the first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is now being constructed. Soil core samples to 1 m depth were collected at 13 upland fields in Rokkasho and control sites in Hachinohe and Hirosaki. Since fields under yam (Dioscorea babatus) cultivation, which is a common crop in Rokkasho, were dug to approximately 1 m depth at harvesting, depth profiles of fallout radionuclides are heavily disturbed for most fields in Rokkasho. The mean inventories of 239+240Pu and 137Cs in three fields with no yam cultivation history were 116 Bq m-2 and 3.4 kBq m-2, respectively and similar to values in Hachinohe. However, the inventories were approximately a half of those in Hirosaki. The mean ratio of 239Pu/240Pu for all studied fields was 0.18±0.04, and similar to that of global fallout. The Pu concentrations correlate very well with 137Cs (r=0.97) in spite of heavy disturbance of soil, and the ratio of 239+240Pu/137Cs was 0.037±0.007, which is a typical value for global fallout. (author)

  1. Redshift measurement of the BL-Lac gamma-ray blazar PKS 1424+240

    CERN Document Server

    Rovero, A C; Pichel, A; Muriel, H

    2015-01-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a BL-Lac blazar with unknown redshift detected at high-energy gamma rays by Fermi-LAT with a hard spectrum. It was first detected at very-high-energy by VERITAS and latter confirmed by MAGIC. Attempts to find limits on its redshift include three estimations by modeling gamma-ray observations, and one obtained by analyzing Lyb and Lyg absorption lines observed in the far-UV spectra (from HST/COS) caused by absorbing gas along the line of sight. They allowed to constrain the redshift range to 0:6240 in the very interesting condition to be one of the few candidates to be the most distant blazars detected at very-high-energy gamma rays. Redshift determination of BL-Lac objects are difficult to achieve. We have found that redshift of blazars can be determined by its association to a galaxy group or cluster. To explore this possibility for PKS 1424+240, we have carried out spectroscopic measurements with the Gemini North telescope of galaxies in its field of view...

  2. Measurement of the ${240}$Pu(n,f) reaction cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    Following proposal CERN-INTC-2010-042 / INTC-P-280 (“Measurement of the fission cross-section of $^{240}$Pu and $^{242}$Pu at CERN’s n_TOF Facility”), the parallel measurement of the $^{240}$Pu(n,f) and $^{242}$Pu(n,f) reaction cross-sections was carried out at n_TOF EAR-1. While the $^{242}$Pu measurement was successful, unexpected sample-induced damage to the detectors caused by the high α-activity of the 240Pu samples resulted in a deterioration of the detector performance over the data taking period of several months, which compromised the measurement. This obstacle can be eliminated by performing the measurement in EAR-2, where the higher neutron flux will allow collecting data in a much shorter time, thus preventing the degradation of the detectors. In addition to this obvious advantage, the measurement would also benefit from the stronger suppression of the sample-induced α-background, due to the shorter times-of-flight involved.

  3. Neutron-induced fission cross section of 240,242Pu up to En = 3 MeV

    OpenAIRE

    SALVADOR CASTINEIRA PAULA; BRYS TOMASZ; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Pretel, C.; Vidali, Marzio

    2014-01-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross sections of 240,242Pu have been measured at JRC-IRMM with incident neutron energy from 0.2 MeV up to 3 MeV. A Twin-Frisch Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC) has been used in a back-to-back geometry. The measurements have been performed using the secondary standards 237Np and 238U as a reference. The purity of the plutonium samples was 99.89% for 240Pu and 99.97% for 242Pu. The results obtained follow the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation for 240Pu, but some discrepancies ...

  4. Evaluation both level and 239+240Pu spatial contamination of the Lira object and the neighbouring areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work the generalization of considerable data collection for revealing of 239+240Pu content range discriminative for Lira object and neighbouring areas is carried out. 239+240Pu mean specific activity in the soil cover surface and in the Berezovka River bottom sedimentations are determined. The correlation dependence between 239+240Pu artificial radionuclides and 137Cs is revealed. The general source of artificial radionuclide origination for examined isotopes is shown up, and it is related with global radioactive fallout

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1f - Optional market and credit risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1f Section... risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). Application... charges for market and credit risk pursuant to this Appendix F in lieu of computing securities...

  6. 17 CFR 240.17i-2 - Notice of intention to be supervised by the Commission as a supervised investment bank holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... holding company has established to manage the risks of the affiliate group, including market, credit... supervised by the Commission as a supervised investment bank holding company. 240.17i-2 Section 240.17i-2... Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17i-2 Notice of intention to be supervised by...

  7. Clinical significances of D2-40 expression in thymic epithelial tumors%D2-40在胸腺上皮肿瘤中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁东风; 江华; 刘凡英

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨D2-40在胸腺上皮肿瘤(TET)中的表达,分析D2-40表达与肿瘤侵袭和预后的关系.方法 采用免疫组织化学染色法观察D2-40在160例胸腺上皮肿瘤和40例正常胸腺标本中的表达情况,术后连续随访5年以上.应用统计学软件分析D2-40表达与肿瘤侵袭和预后的关系.结果 D2-40在TET及正常胸腺中的阳性表达率分别为58.8% (94/160)和20% (8/40),差异有统计学意义(P=0.013).D2-40在TET中的表达与TET侵袭性有关(P<0.01).D2-40阳性表达组和阴性表达组患者5年生存率分别为32%、90%(P<0.01).结论 D2-40在TET中的表达高于正常胸腺组织,且随着侵袭性的增强,表达也增强.D2-40表达阳性的患者预后较差.%Objective To investigate the expression of D2-40 in thymic epithelial tumors (TET) and its significance in tumor invasion and prognosis. Methods Immunohistochemical method was used to assess the expression of D240 in 160 samples of thymic epithelial tumors and 40 samples of normal thymuses. All cases were followed-up for more than 5 years after operation. Statistics softwares were used to analyze the correlation between the expression of D2-40 and the tumor invasion and prognosis. Results The positive rate of D2-40 expression in 160 TET and 40 normal thymuses were 58.8% (94/160) and20%(8/40) respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.013). The expression of D2-40 in TET was correlated with the invasion of TET (P<0.01). The 5-year-survival rates of the patients in the D2-40 expression positive group and the negative group were 32% and 90% respectively (P<0. 01). Conclusion Expression of 02-40 is higher in the TET than in the normal thymus, which correlates with the aggression of TET. The patients with D2-40 positive expression have worse prognosis.

  8. A Design of 240 W Communication Power Based on LLC Resonant Topology%基于LLC谐振拓扑的240W通讯电源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灵迪; 施华虎; 魏涛

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the principle of new resonant topology LLC based on half bridge detailedly, then proposes the design method for calculating the three parameters of serial resonant inductance, capacitance in resonance tank and transformer excitation in%详细分析了基于半桥的新型谐振拓扑结构LLC的原理,并采用基波近似结合时域仿真的方法,给出上LLC谐振腔的串联谐振电感、串联谐振电容和变压器励磁电感等三个重要参数的设计方法,同时给出了采用锁相控制法搭建240W功率输出的通讯电源的实现方案。

  9. 17 CFR 240.3a11-1 - Definition of the term “equity security.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 16 § 240.3a11-1 Definition of the term “equity security.” The term equity security is hereby defined... certificate or certificate of deposit for an equity security, limited partnership interest, interest in...

  10. Studies of the Pu-239/240 content in tissues from non-occupationally exposed individuals. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental levels of alpha-emitting actinides, specifically plutonium 239, 240 have been determined in tissues from non-occupationally exposed individuals of different ages, sexes and geographical areas and the results compared with those from other laboratories

  11. Neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential-neutron-emission cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu are measured between approx. = 1.0 and 3.5 MeV with the angle and magnitude detail needed to provide angle-integrated emission cross sections to approx. 232Th, 233U, 235U and 238U inelastic-scattering values, poor agreement is observed for 240Pu, and a serious discrepancy exists in the case of 239Pu

  12. Complete genome sequence of the complex carbohydrate-degrading marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 T.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, Ronald M.; Taylor, Larry E.; Bernard Henrissat; Loren Hauser; Miriam Land; Coutinho, Pedro M; Corinne Rancurel; Saunders, Elizabeth H.; Atkinson G Longmire; Haitao Zhang; Bayer, Edward A.; Gilbert, Harry J.; Frank Larimer; Zhulin, Igor B.; Ekborg, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 (Sde 2-40) is emerging as a vanguard of a recently discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycles complex polysaccharides. We report its complete genome sequence, analysis of which identifies an unusually large number of enzymes that degrade >10 complex polysaccharides. Not only is this an extraordinary range of catabolic capability, many of the enzymes exhibit unusual architecture including novel combinations of catal...

  13. Determination of 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya sediments using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been used to determine Pu activity concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in sediments from the Kara Sea and radioactive waste dumping sites at Novaya Zemlya. Measured 239,240Pu activities ranged from 0.06 - 9.8 Bq/kg dry weight, 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.13 to 0.28, and 238Pu/239,240Pu activity ratios from 0.02 to 0.6. Perturbations from global fallout isotope ratios were evident at three sites: the Yenisey Estuary and Abrosimov Fjords where 240Pu/239Pu ratios were lower (0.13-0.14); and Stepovogo Fjord sediments where ratios were higher (up to 0.28) than fallout ratios. Based on procedural blanks, detection limits for AMS were below 1 fg Pu and the method showed good precision for isotope ratio measurements, minimal matrix, interference and memory effects. For high level samples, comparison between alpha spectrometry and AMS gave good agreement for measurement of 239,240Pu activity concentrations. (author)

  14. Precision of gamma-ray measurements of the effective specific power and effective 240Pu fraction of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses gamma-ray spectrometry data from replicate measurements on 40 plutonium-bearing samples to examine the repeatability of the effective 240Pu fraction (240Pueff) and the effective specific power (Peff) calculated from the isotopic distribution analyzed with gamma-ray spectrometry codes. The measurements were used to identify the error component arising from repeatability in the determination of the isotopic composition of plutonium in the sample and the contribution of the error component to the uncertainty in total plutonium mass measurements from neutron coincidence counting (240Pueff) and calorimetry (Peff). The 40 samples had 240Pueff percentages ranging from 2 to 39% and Peff values ranging from 2 to 16 mW/g Pu. Four different gamma-ray spectrometry codes (FRAM, MGA, Blue Box, and PUJRC) were used to analyze the data (not all samples were analyzed with each code). All analyses showed that the % relative standard deviation of Peff was smaller than that of 240Pueff. This result coupled with a cursory examination of uncertainties in coincidence counting of well-characterized samples and water-bath calorimetry errors for the same types of samples lead to the conclusion that smaller uncertainties will be present in the total plutonium mass determined by the combination of calorimetry/gamma-ray spectrometry than in the mass determined by coincidence counting/gamma-ray spectrometry. An additional examination of the biases arising from the 240Pu correlation used in the gamma-ray spectrometry codes also supported this conclusion. 17 refs

  15. Association of fallout-derived 137Cs,90Sr and 239,240Pu with natural organic substances in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations and associations of fallout-derived Cs, Sr and Pu in soils were investigated. The activity concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in volcanic ash soil were much higher than those in granite soil. They decreased with increasing depth in the soil. The activity ratios of 239,240Pu/137Cs and 90Sr/137Cs tended to increase slightly with increasing soil depth. Alkali extraction experiments with 0.1 M NaOH solution showed that the percentage activities of the fallout radionuclides found in the organic acid fractions were in the order 239,240Pu>90Sr>137Cs. The concentrations of 137Cs and 239,240Pu reacted with humic fractions were higher than those with fulvic fractions. In contrast to 137Cs and 239,240Pu,90Sr reacted more with fulvic fractions than with humic fractions. These results provide information about the effects of organic substances on the retention and migration of 137Cs,90Sr and 239,240Pu in soils under natural conditions

  16. The coagulation of dissolved sup(239,240)Pu in estuaries as determined from a mixing experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixing experiment, using large volumes (100 l) of filtered (240Pu during estuarine mixing. An organic-rich freshwater with a relatively high concentration (0.8 dpm/100 l) of dissolved sup(239,) 240Pu was used as one end-member; Buzzards Bay seawater (dissolved sup(239,) 240Pu=0.04 dpm/100 l) was the other. The results demonstrate that dissolved sup(239,) 240Pu in the freshwater undergoes extensive and rapid coagulation under simulated estuarine conditions. There is a strong correlation between the amount of coagulation of dissolved sup(239,) 240Pu, humic acids (HA), and Fe. The extent of coagulation of all three constituents increases with increasing salinity and the net extent of their removal is 53%, 57%, and 100% for Pu, HA, and Fe respectively. As has been domented for Fe in freshwater, dissolved sup(239,) 240Pu appears to be stabilized by naturally occurring humic substances to form negatively charged colloids which are then coagulated by seawater cations. The extrapolation of these experimental results to real estuaries will require additonal research. (orig.)

  17. 重症脑瘫240例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 240 children with severe cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫鹏; 屈素清; 栾佐

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] In terms of clinical features as a comprehensive observation and analysis of children with severe cerebral palsy(CP),to determine the efficacy of the results and better prevention.[Methods] A total of 240 severe CP children were examined by perinatal history,history of growth and development,symptom,signs,imaging studies,electroencephalogram,and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM),Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Fine Scale (PDMSFM),to detect the clinical features.[Result] Among the 240 cases of CP,103 cases (42.9%) with spastic type CP,81 cases (33.8%) with dyskinetic type,49 cases(20.4%) with mixed type,7 cases (2.9%) with hypotonia type,gross motor function classification were than grade Ⅳ;the main risk factors for preterm delivery (37.9 %),intrauterine hypoxia (20.4%),neonatal jaundice (15.8%);90% cases with mental retardation,44% cases with visual impairment,8.3% cases with hearing impairment,27.1% cases with symptomatic epilepsy,42.9 % patients with swallowing dysfunction lead to malnutrition;brain morphological damage reduced to white matter volume,myelination delay,periventricular leukomalacia,multiple brain softening,cerebral dysplasia,basal ganglia lesions.[Conclusion] The pathogenic factors of severe cerebral palsy are complex and diversiform;severe CP patients' motor function is severely restricted;with even multiple concurrent disorders.To know these disease risk factors and complications of damage could help us to prevent and treat severe CP better.%[目的]通过对住院康复治疗240例重症脑瘫(cerebral palsy,CP)患儿临床特点进行分析,提高对重症CP的认识,并尽早防治. [方法]对资料完善的240例重症CP患儿围产史、生长发育史、症状、体征、影像学检查、电生理学检查、粗大运动功能评估量表和Peabody精细运动量表评估检查,进行回顾性研究分析. [结果]240例CP患儿中痉挛型103例(42.9%),不随意运动型81例(33.8

  18. Clinicopathological significance of D2-40 expression in craniopharyngioma%颅咽管瘤中D2-40的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪咏; 朱琼; 陈余朋; 张声; 王行富; 吴晶晶; 李国平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨D2-40在颅咽管瘤中的表达及与临床病理学特征的关系及意义。方法采用免疫组化法检测D2-40在126例颅咽管瘤中的表达,并复习相关文献。结果 D2-40在颅咽管瘤中的总阳性率为87.30%(110/126),其中(+)、()、()阳性率分别为44.44%(56/126)、37.30%(47/126)和5.56%(7/126)。造釉细胞型主要表达在中间层细胞,乳头瘤样型主要表达在基底层细胞,两型表达模式不同。随着肿瘤伴发炎症程度的加重,D2-40表达程度上调。在肿瘤浸润灶及侵袭前沿, D2-40常常高表达,表现为基底层细胞及中间层细胞同时弥漫表达,侵袭性颅咽管瘤中D2-40的表达程度高于非侵袭性颅咽管瘤。复发性颅咽管瘤中D2-40的表达程度高于非复发性颅咽管瘤。D2-40表达与患者性别、肿瘤组织学分型无明显相关性。结论 D2-40表达上调与颅咽管瘤的发生、发展相关,可能导致肿瘤细胞的侵袭能力增强,并可能与炎症相关机制有关。D2-40高表达可能是颅咽管瘤患者易复发的因素之一。%Purpose To investigate the expression pattern and c1inicopatho1ogica1 significance of D2-40 in craniopharyngioma( CP). Methods Immunohistochemica1 method was used to assess D2-40 expression in 126 cases of craniopharyngioma. Statistic software was used to ana1yze the corre1ation between D2-40 expression and c1inicopatho1ogica1 features. Results The overa11 positive rate of D2-40 expression in 126 craniopharyngioma was 87. 30%. The rate of +, and  were 44. 44%( 56/126 ),37. 30%( 47/126 )and 5. 56%(7/126)respective1y. In adamantinomatous CPs,D2-40 expression was observed in epithe1ia1 components corresponding to the stratum intermedium,whi1e in papi11ary CPs,it was immuno-positive in basa1 ce11s. With the increasing of the existence of inf1amma-tion in tumor,D2-40 expression was up-regu1ated. Tumor ce11s were over-expressed for D2-40 in basa1

  19. Application possibilities of Acqiris digital card DP240 for positron lifetime measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriska, M; Slugen, V [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 81219 Bratislava (Slovakia); Krsjak, V [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, PO Box 2, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Zeman, A, E-mail: martin.petriska@stuba.sk [International Atomic Energy Agency, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-01-10

    Based on existing knowledge, a software for the digital positron lifetime (LT) spectrometer has been designed at the Slovak University of Technology. As a digitizer, Acqiris DP240 card was used. Start and stop timing signals have been digitised separately with sampling rate 1GS/s in 8 bit resolution. This sampling rate was not sufficient; therefore a joined delayed channel mode with 2GS/s sampling rate was used. Next applications for the study of advanced materials for nuclear industry are foreseen.

  20. Highly accurate measurements of the spontaneous fission half-life of 240,242Pu

    OpenAIRE

    SALVADOR CASTINEIRA PAULA; BRYS TOMASZ; EYKENS ROGER; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; MOENS Andre; Oberstedt, Stephan; SIBBENS Goedele; VANLEEUW DAVID; Vidali, Marzio; Pretel, C.

    2013-01-01

    Fast spectrum neutron-induced fission cross-section data for transuranic isotopes are of special demand from the nuclear data community. In particular highly accurate data are needed for the new generation IV nuclear applications. The aim is to obtain precise neutron-induced fission cross sections for 240Pu and 242Pu. To do so, accurate data on spontaneous fission half-lives must be available. Also, minimizing uncertainties in the detector efficiency is a key point. We studied both isotopes b...

  1. Neutron-induced fission cross section of 240,242Pu

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Castiñeira, Paula

    2014-01-01

    A recent sensitivity analysis done for the new generation of fast reactors [1] has shown the importance of improved cross section data for several actinides. Among them, the neutron-induced fission cross section of 240,242Pu requires a level of accuracy of 1-3% and 3-5%, respectively, from the current status of 6% and 20%. Moreover, nearly all the measurements in the literature have been done relative to 235U(n,f). Therefore, using other references samples such as 237Np or 238U will provide t...

  2. {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents Sea Regions. Sources and radioecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The radioecological assessment for {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents sea regions was made using the compartment modelling approach. The following sources of radioactive contamination were under consideration: global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, transport of {sup 239+240}Pu from the Sellafield and La Hauge nuclear plants and underwater testing of nuclear weapons in Chernaya Bay, Novaya Zemlya. The box model developed at NRPA uses a modified approach for compartmental modeling, which takes into account the dispersion of radionuclides over time. The box structures for surface, mid-depth and deep water layers have been developed based on the description of polar, Atlantic and deep waters in the Arctic Ocean and the Northern Seas, as well as site-specific information for the boxes. The volume of the three water layers in each box has been calculated using detailed bathymetry together with Geographical Information Systems. The box model includes the processes of advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediments, resuspension, mixing due to bioturbation, particle mixing and a burial process for radionuclides in deep sediment layers. Radioactive decay is calculated for all compartments. The contamination of biota is further calculated from the known radionuclide concentrations in filtered seawater in the different water regions. Doses to man are calculated on the basis of seafood consumptions, in accordance with available data for seafood catches and assumptions about human diet in the respective areas. Dose to biota are determined on the basis of calculated radionuclide concentrations in marine organisms, water and sediment, using dose conversion factors. Results of the calculations show that atmospheric deposition is the dominant source for the Barents Sea, except for the Chernaya Bay region. It is also demonstrated that the impact of the Sellafield nuclear facilities has

  3. Metamaterial composite bandpass filter with an ultra-broadband rejection bandwidth of up to 240 terahertz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Lorenzen, Dennis Lund;

    2014-01-01

    central frequency (f) that is scalable from 0.86–8.51 THz, that highly extinguishes other frequencies up to >240 THz. The performance of these filters is demonstrated in experiment, using both air biased coherent detection and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), as well as in simulation. We...... present equations—and discuss their scaling laws—which detail the f and full width at half max (Δf) of the pass band, as well as the required geometric dimensions for their fabrication using standard UV photolithography and easily achievable fabrication linewidths. With these equations, the geometric...

  4. 64 Gbit/s Transmission over 850 m Fixed Wireless Link at 240 GHz Carrier Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallfass, Ingmar; Boes, Florian; Messinger, Tobias; Antes, Jochen; Inam, Anns; Lewark, Ulrich; Tessmann, Axel; Henneberger, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    A directive fixed wireless link operating at a center frequency of 240 GHz achieves a data rate of 64 Gbit/s over a transmission distance of 850 m using QPSK and 8PSK modulation, in a single-channel approach without the use of spatial diversity concepts. The analog transmit and receive frontend consists of active monolithic integrated circuits including broadband RF amplification and quadrature subharmonic mixer channels. The analog frontend is addressed by 64 GSa/s ADC and DAC boards, which are amenable to real-time data transmission. A link budget calculation allows for the estimation of the performance under adverse weather conditions.

  5. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    CERN Document Server

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Schunck, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we outline a methodology to calculate microscopically mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multi-dimensional minimization of collective action for fission with stochastic Langevin dynamics to track the relevant fission paths from the ground-state configuration up to scission. The nuclear potential energy and collective inertia governing the tunneling motion are obtained with nuclear density functional theory in the collective space of shape deformations and pairing. We obtain a quantitative agreement with experimental data and find that both the charge and mass distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu are sensitive both to the dissipation in collective motion and to adiabatic characteristics.

  6. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We propose a methodology to calculate microscopically the mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multidimensional minimization of collective action for fission with stochastic Langevin dynamics to track the relevant fission paths from the ground-state configuration up to scission. The nuclear potential energy and collective inertia governing the tunneling motion are obtained with nuclear density functional theory in the collective space of shape deformations and pairing. We obtain a quantitative agreement with experimental data and find that both the charge and mass distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu are sensitive both to the dissipation in collective motion and to adiabatic fission characteristics.

  7. Induced Fission of 240Plutonium within a Real-Time Microscopic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth J.; Stetcu, Ionel

    2016-03-25

    We describe the fissioning dynamics of 240Pu from a configuration in the proximity of the outer fission barrier to full scission and the formation of the fragments within an implementation of the Density Functional theory extended to superfluid systems and real-time dynamics. While the fission products emerge with properties very similar to those determined experimentally, the fission dynamics appears to be quite complex, with various shape and pairing modes being excited during the evolution. Consequently the time scale of the evolution turned out to be much slower than previously expected.

  8. Annular cylinders experimental programme containing plutonium solutions at different 240Pu contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1963 to 1976, 730 critical experiments dealing with annular cylinders containing plutonium nitrate solutions were conducted on Valduc critical facility, called 'Apparatus B'. They aimed at validating critical configurations encountered in the fuel cycle, especially in storage and also at validating the 240Pu cross-sections in thermal neutron spectrum. It is to be noticed that these experiments validate criticality codes either in configurations with reactor-grade plutonium coming from the reprocessing cycle or with weapon-grade plutonium coming from the decommissioning of nuclear weapons. (authors)

  9. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of (239+240)Pu as soil erosion tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael; Park, Ji-Hyung; Sandor, Tarjan; Porto, Paolo; Alewell, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as (137)Cs and (210)Pbex. As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (>25tha(-1)yr(-1)). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratios and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of (239+240)Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of (137)Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of (137)Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of (239+240)Pu through less preferential transport compared to (137)Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, (239+240)Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the soil and lateral transport during water erosion was shown to differ from that of (137)Cs, there is a clear

  10. Neutron-induced Fission Cross Section of 240,242Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Eykens, R.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Göök, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Pretel, C.; Sibbens, G.; Vanleeuw, D.; Vidali, M.

    A sensitivity analysis for the new generation of fast reactors [Salvatores (2008)] has shown the importance of improved cross section data for several actinides. Among them, the 240,242Pu(n,f) cross sections require an accuracy improvement to 1-3% and 3-5%, respectively, from the current level of 6% and 20%. At the Van de Graaff facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (JRC-IRMM) the fission cross section of the two isotopes was measured relative to two secondary standard reactions, 237Np(n,f) and 238U(n,f), using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber. The secondary standard reactions were benchmarked through measurements against the primary standard reaction 235U(n,f) in the same geometry. Sample masses were determined by means of low-geometry alpha counting or/and a 2π Frisch-grid ionization chamber, with an uncertainty lower than 2%. The neutron flux and the impact of scattering from material between source and target was examined, the largest effect having been found in cross section ratio measurements between a fissile and a fertile isotope. Our 240,242Pu(n,f) cross sections are in agreement with previous experimental results and slightly lower than present evaluations. In case of the 242Pu(n,f) reaction no evidence for a resonance at En=1.1 MeV was found.

  11. Alpha-particle emission probabilities in the decay of {sup 240}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibbens, G., E-mail: goedele.sibbens@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Pomme, S.; Altzitzoglou, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Garcia-Torano, E. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Janssen, H.; Dersch, R.; Ott, O. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Martin Sanchez, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, E-06071 (Spain); Rubio Montero, M.P. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Merida, Badajoz, E-06800 (Spain); Loidl, M. [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, LNE/CEA-LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coron, N.; Marcillac, P. de [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Semkow, T.M. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Sources of enriched {sup 240}Pu were prepared by vacuum evaporation on quartz substrates. High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry of {sup 240}Pu was performed with high statistical accuracy using silicon detectors and with low statistical accuracy using a bolometer. The alpha-particle emission probabilities of six transitions were derived from the spectra and compared with literature values. Additionally, some alpha-particle emission probabilities were derived from {gamma}-ray intensity measurements with a high-purity germanium detector. The alpha-particle emission probabilities of the three main transitions at 5168.1, 5123.6 and 5021.2 keV were derived from seven aggregate spectra analysed with five different fit functions and the results were compatible with evaluated data. Two additional weak peaks at 4863.5 and 4492.0 keV were fitted separately, using the exponential of a polynomial function to represent the underlying tailing of the larger peaks. The peak at 4655 keV could not be detected by alpha-particle spectrometry, while {gamma}-ray spectrometry confirms that its intensity is much lower than expected from literature.

  12. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands. [/sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known.

  13. Evaluation of 239+240Pu, 137Cs and natural 210Pb fallout in agricultural upland fields in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background distributions of 239+240Pu and 137Cs fallout in agricultural soil were investigated in Rokkasho where Japan's first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is now being constructed. The mean inventories of 239+240Pu and 137Cs in three fields with non-yam-cultivation history were 116 Bq x m-2 and 3.4 kBq x m-2, respectively. The mean atomic ratio of 240Pu/239Pu for all studied fields was 0.18±0.04, and was similar to that of global fallout. The 239+240Pu concentrations correlated very well with 137Cs (r = 0.97) in spite of heavy disturbance of the soil, and the activity ratio of 239+240Pu/137Cs was 0.037 ± 0.007, which is a typical value for global fallout. These results showed that the nuclides had similar behavior in agricultural upland fields in Rokkasho. Since 210Pb is steadily deposited from the atmosphere to the land, this nuclide could be an index for the degree of disturbance of a field and of soil lost from the field. The ratio of excess 210Pb inventory in the soil to the equivalent inventory of atmospheric 210Pb deposition was 96%, and indicated that soil was not lost from the cultivated fields. (author)

  14. The pore water chemistry of sup(239,240)Pu and 137Cs on sediments of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection of large volumes of pore water and low level radiochemical measurements of sup(239,240)Pu and 137Cs have been combined to produce the first study of these fallout artificial radionuclides in marine pore waters. Profiles from box cores taken in June and September 1982 from Buzzards Bay, Mass., are reported along with profiles of many diagenetic constituents (i.e. SO42-, alkalinity, Fe, Mn, DOC, and nutrients). The sup(239,240)Pu pore water profile is characterized by a subsurface maximum of about 0.28 dpm/100 kg lying between 3 to 11 cm. Overlying seawater, in contrast, has an activity of 0.01 +- 0.02 dpm/100 kg. Below about 11 cm, the pore water sup(239,240)Pu distribution follows that of the solid phase which decreases rapidly with depth. The pore water profiles of 137Cs are characterized by a broad and deeply penetrating maximum where activities of about 35 to 40 dpm/100 kg extend from 3 to 20 cm. Overlying seawater, in contrast, has an activity of 17 to 24 dpm/100 kg. The 137Cs and sup(239,240)Pu pore water data show that there is preferential downward transport of 137Cs and that sup(239,240)Pu does not have an active diagenetic chemistry and is not significantly mobile in these coastal sediments. (author)

  15. 17 CFR 240.10b5-1 - Trading “on the basis of” material nonpublic information in insider trading cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trading âon the basis ofâ material nonpublic information in insider trading cases. 240.10b5-1 Section 240.10b5-1 Commodity and... Deceptive Devices and Contrivances § 240.10b5-1 Trading “on the basis of” material nonpublic information...

  16. Precision of gamma-ray measurements of the effective specific power and effective {sup 240}Pu fraction of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, T.E.

    1992-05-01

    This paper uses gamma-ray spectrometry data from replicate measurements on 40 plutonium-bearing samples to examine the repeatability of the effective {sup 240}Pu fraction ({sup 240}Pu{sub eff}) and the effective specific power (P{sub eff}) calculated from the isotopic distribution analyzed with gamma-ray spectrometry codes. The measurements were used to identify the error component arising from repeatability in the determination of the isotopic composition of plutonium in the sample and the contribution of the error component to the uncertainty in total plutonium mass measurements from neutron coincidence counting ({sup 240}Pu{sub eff}) and calorimetry (P{sub eff}). The 40 samples had {sup 240}Pu{sub eff} percentages ranging from 2 to 39% and P{sub eff} values ranging from 2 to 16 mW/g Pu. Four different gamma-ray spectrometry codes (FRAM, MGA, Blue Box, and PUJRC) were used to analyze the data (not all samples were analyzed with each code). All analyses showed that the % relative standard deviation of P{sub eff} was smaller than that of {sup 240}Pu{sub eff}. This result coupled with a cursory examination of uncertainties in coincidence counting of well-characterized samples and water-bath calorimetry errors for the same types of samples lead to the conclusion that smaller uncertainties will be present in the total plutonium mass determined by the combination of calorimetry/gamma-ray spectrometry than in the mass determined by coincidence counting/gamma-ray spectrometry. An additional examination of the biases arising from the {sup 240}Pu correlation used in the gamma-ray spectrometry codes also supported this conclusion. 17 refs.

  17. Measurement of the 240,242Pu Neutron-induced Fission Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Bryś, T.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Pretel, C.; Vidali, M.

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 240,242Pu has been measured at the Van de Graaff facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (JRC-IRMM). A Twin-Frisch Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC) has been used in a back-to-back geometry with the secondary standards 237Np and 238U to normalize the cross section. The energy range measured is from 0.2 keV up to 3 MeV. Preliminary results show some discrepancies around 1 MeV for the 242Pu with the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation. The spontaneous fission half-life has been measured for both isotopes, too. Preliminary results show reasonable agreement with the recommended values.

  18. Wolf River at Memphis, Tennessee: floodflow characteristics along proposed Interstate Highway 240, Shelby County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, William J.; Gamble, Charles R.

    1973-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey at the request of Mr. Henry Derthick, Engineer of Structures of the Tennessee Department of Transportation, under the authority of a cooperative agreement between the two agencies. It supplements information contained in a report with the same title dated September 1966. The Department of Transportation proposes to construct a segment of Interstate Highway 240 and several bridges across the Wolf River on the northern side off Memphis, Shelby Count. Mt. Derthick has requested an analysis of the 50-year flood or the maximum flood of record to determine the possible effect of the proposed construction on flood profiles along the Wolf River.

  19. 238Pu and 239+240Pu activities in lower Rhone valley in cultivated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured 238Pu and 239+240Pu activities in French soils can be explained by the fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests and the disintegration of a US nuclear reactor satellite in 1964. However, some soil samples from the lower Rhone valley show higher mass activities, due to the Marcoule nuclear fuel reprocessing plant discharges. Soil samples from the Camargue, flooded in 1993 and 1994, where Rhone River sediments have been deposited, contain Pu from liquid effluents released by the nuclear plant. Seven samples taken near the nuclear facility show a direct influence by its atmospheric releases. Samples from soils irrigated with Rhone River water for 30 years do not show any activity significantly higher than regional means. (authors)

  20. Wide – Ranging Influence of Mischmetal on Properties of GP240GH Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kasińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents influence of rare earth metals (REM on the properties of GP240GH cast carbon steel. The research has beenperformed on successive industrial melts. Each time ca 2000 kg of liquid metal was modified. The rare earth metals were put into the ladle during tapping of heat melt from the furnace. Because of this the amount of sulphur in the cast steel was decreased and the non-metallic inclusion morphology was significantly changed. It was found that non metallic inclusions the cracking mechanism of Charpy specimens and the impact strength were all changed. The following properties were tested: mechanical properties (y, UTS, plastic properties (necking, elongation and impact strength (SCI. In the three-point bend test the KJC stress intensity factor was evaluated.

  1. Measurement of the neutron-induced fission cross-section of 240,242Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast spectrum neutron-induced fission cross-section data for transuranic isotopes are in high demand in the nuclear data community. In particular, highly accurate data are needed for the new Generation-IV nuclear applications. The aim is to obtain precise neutron-induced fission cross-sections for 240Pu and 242Pu. In this context accurate data on spontaneous fission half-lives have also been measured. To minimise the total uncertainty on the fission cross-sections the detector efficiency has been studied in detail. Both isotopes have been measured using a twin Frisch-grid ionisation chamber (TFGIC) due to its superiority compared to other detector systems in view of radiation hardness, 2 x 2π solid angle coverage and very good energy resolution. (authors)

  2. Induced Fission of 240Pu within a Real-Time Microscopic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth J.; Stetcu, Ionel

    2016-03-01

    We describe the fissioning dynamics of 240Pu from a configuration in the proximity of the outer fission barrier to full scission and the formation of the fragments within an implementation of density functional theory extended to superfluid systems and real-time dynamics. The fission fragments emerge with properties similar to those determined experimentally, while the fission dynamics appears to be quite complex, with many excited shape and pairing modes. The evolution is found to be much slower than previously expected, and the ultimate role of the collective inertia is found to be negligible in this fully nonadiabatic treatment of nuclear dynamics, where all collective degrees of freedom (CDOF) are included (unlike adiabatic treatments with a small number of CDOF).

  3. 320×240 Pixels CMOS Digital Image Sensor with Wide Dynamic Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jie; WANG Jing-guang; HONG Zhi-liang

    2004-01-01

    A 320×240 CMOS image sensor is demonstrated,which is implemented by a standard 0.6 μm 2P2M CMOS process.For reducing the chip area,each 2×2-pixel block shares a sample/hold circuit,analog-to-digital converter and 1-b memory.The 2×2 pixel pitch has an area of 40 μm×40 μm and the fill factor is about 16%.While operating at a low frame rate,the sensor dissipates a very low power by power-management circuit making pixel-level comparators in an idle state.A digital correlated double sampling,which eliminates fixed pattern noise,improves SNR of the sensor, and multiple sampling operations make the sensor have a wide dynamic range.

  4. Induced Fission of $^{240}$Plutonium within a Real-Time Microscopic Framework}

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgac, Aurel; Roche, Kenneth J; Stetcu, Ionel

    2015-01-01

    We describe the fissioning dynamics of $^{240}$Pu from a configuration in the proximity of the outer fission barrier to full scission and the formation of the fragments within an implementation of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) extended to superfluid systems and real-time dynamics. We predict the total kinetic energy released, the average proton and neutron numbers, and the excitation energies of the fission fragments. The fission fragments emerge with properties similar to those determined experimentally, while the fission dynamics appears to be quite complex, with various shape and pairing modes being excited during the evolution. The time scales of the evolution are found to be much slower than previously expected and the role of the collective inertia in the dynamics is found to be negligible.

  5. 320x240 GaAs pixel detectors with improved X-ray imaging quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irsigler, R.; Andersson, J.; Alverbro, J.; Fakoor-Biniaz, Z.; Froejdh, C.; Helander, P.; Martijn, H.; Meikle, D.; Oestlund, M.; O' Shea, V.; Smith, K

    2001-03-11

    We report on gain and offset corrections for GaAs X-ray pixel detectors, which were hybridised to silicon CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs). The whole detector array contains 320x240 square-shaped pixels with a pitch of 38 {mu}m. The GaAs pixel detectors are based on semi-insulating and VPE grown substrates. The ROIC operates in the charge integration mode and provides snapshot as well as real time video images. Previously we have reported that the image quality of semi-insulating GaAs pixel detectors suffer from local variations in X-ray sensitivity. We have now developed a method to compensate for the sensitivity variations by applying suitable offset and gain corrections. The improvement in image quality is demonstrated in the measured signal-to-noise ratio of flood exposure images.

  6. 320x240 GaAs pixel detectors with improved X-ray imaging quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on gain and offset corrections for GaAs X-ray pixel detectors, which were hybridised to silicon CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs). The whole detector array contains 320x240 square-shaped pixels with a pitch of 38 μm. The GaAs pixel detectors are based on semi-insulating and VPE grown substrates. The ROIC operates in the charge integration mode and provides snapshot as well as real time video images. Previously we have reported that the image quality of semi-insulating GaAs pixel detectors suffer from local variations in X-ray sensitivity. We have now developed a method to compensate for the sensitivity variations by applying suitable offset and gain corrections. The improvement in image quality is demonstrated in the measured signal-to-noise ratio of flood exposure images

  7. Assesment of Plutonium 238 and Plutonium 239+240 in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report an assesment and measurement of PLUTONIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, and PLUTONIUM 240 are made. Samples of cultivated soils in 15 provinces of Guatemala were taken. To separate plutonium isotopes a radiochemical method was made using extraction, precipitation and ionic interchange. By electrodeposition the plutonium was measured using an alpha spectroscopy by PIPS method. The radioactivity ranges from 2.84 mBq/Kg to 36.38 mBq/Kg for plutonium 238, and 8.46 mBq/Kg to 26.61 mBq/Kg for plutonium 239+240

  8. High-power subpicosecond harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser with pulse repetition rate up to 240 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the operation of a high-power diode-pumped Yb:YAG self-mode-locked microchip laser with a pulse repetition rate of up to 240 GHz. The gain medium is coated to form a cavity mirror and to act as an etalon for achieving harmonic mode locking. A diamond heat spreader is employed to reduce the thermal effects for power scale-up. At an absorbed pump power of 8.3 W, an average output power of 4.6 W is achieved with a pulse duration of 630 fs and a repetition rate of 240 GHz. (letter)

  9. Radioecologycal study of {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of {sup 239/240}Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia); Wisnubroto, Djarot S. [The Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on {sup 239/240}Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope {sup 239/240}Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg{sup −1} and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg{sup −1} respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m{sup −3} and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m{sup −3}.

  10. ZPR-6 assembly 7 high {sup 240}Pu core experiments : a fast reactor core with mixed (Pu,U)-oxide fuel and a centeral high{sup 240}Pu zone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, R. M.; Morman, J. A.; Schaefer, R.W.; McKnight, R.D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-02-23

    ZPR-6 Assembly 7 (ZPR-6/7) encompasses a series of experiments performed at the ZPR-6 facility at Argonne National Laboratory in 1970 and 1971 as part of the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program (Reference 1). Assembly 7 simulated a large sodium-cooled LMFBR with mixed oxide fuel, depleted uranium radial and axial blankets, and a core H/D near unity. ZPR-6/7 was designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, so configurations in the Assembly 7 program were as simple as possible in terms of geometry and composition. ZPR-6/7 had a very uniform core assembled from small plates of depleted uranium, sodium, iron oxide, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Pu-U-Mo alloy loaded into stainless steel drawers. The steel drawers were placed in square stainless steel tubes in the two halves of a split table machine. ZPR-6/7 had a simple, symmetric core unit cell whose neutronic characteristics were dominated by plutonium and {sup 238}U. The core was surrounded by thick radial and axial regions of depleted uranium to simulate radial and axial blankets and to isolate the core from the surrounding room. The ZPR-6/7 program encompassed 139 separate core loadings which include the initial approach to critical and all subsequent core loading changes required to perform specific experiments and measurements. In this context a loading refers to a particular configuration of fueled drawers, radial blanket drawers and experimental equipment (if present) in the matrix of steel tubes. Two principal core configurations were established. The uniform core (Loadings 1-84) had a relatively uniform core composition. The high {sup 240}Pu core (Loadings 85-139) was a variant on the uniform core. The plutonium in the Pu-U-Mo fuel plates in the uniform core contains 11% {sup 240}Pu. In the high {sup 240}Pu core, all Pu-U-Mo plates in the inner core region (central 61 matrix locations per half of the split table machine) were replaced by Pu-U-Mo plates containing 27% {sup 240}Pu in the plutonium

  11. Determination Of Concentrations Of Cs-137 And Pu-239/240 In Sediment From Muria Peninsula And Surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of concentration of Cs-137 and Pu-239/240 on sediment from Muria Peninsula and Surrounding has been done. The samples were collected from 10 locations. The aim of this research is to get status data of concentrations of Cs-137 and Pu-239/240 in sediment at those locations. Concentration of Cs-137 was determined after drying the sediment, then was measured directly by using Gamma Spectrometer with high pure. Germanium Detector (HPGe), mean while concentration Pu-239/240 was determined by leaching using HNO sub.3 solution, and then separated from other materials by anion exchanger and measured with alpha spectrometer Silicon Surface Barrier Detector. The results show that the concentration of Cs-137 in sediment is in the range of between under lower limit detection (< MDC) value to (0,71 n 0,15) Bq/kg, and the concentrations of Pu-239/240 is in the range of between (< MDC) and (26,47 n 2,98) mBq/kg

  12. Ribosomal protein s6-ps240 is expressed in lesional skin from patients with autoimmune skin blistering diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The in situ signaling transduction within skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases is not well-characterized. Aim : In autoimmune skin blistering diseases, autoantibodies seem to trigger several intracellular signaling pathways and we investigated the presence of the phosphorylated form of ribosomal protein S6-pS240 within autoimmune skin blistering diseases biopsies. Materials and Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate the presence of S6-pS240 in lesional skin biopsies of patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases including patients with an endemic and nonendemic pemphigus foliaceus (non EPF, with bullous pemphigoid (BP, pemphigus vulgaris (PV, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH, and the respective controls. Results: Most autoimmune bullous skin diseases biopsies stained positive for S6-pS240 around lesional blisters, including adjacent areas of the epidermis; and within upper dermal inflammatory infiltrates, and/or mesenchymal-endothelial cell junctions within the dermis. Conclusions: We document that S6-pS240 is expressed in lesional areas of skin biopsies from patients with autoimmune skin blistering diseases, as well as on eccrine glands and piloerector muscles. Thus, the role of this molecule in autoimmune skin blistering diseases warrants further study.

  13. 17 CFR 240.17a-25 - Electronic submission of securities transaction information by exchange members, brokers, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic submission of... Preservation of Records and Reports of Certain Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-25 Electronic submission of... transaction was a purchase, sale, or short sale; and, if an options contract, whether open long or short...

  14. 17 CFR 240.17h-1T - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for associated persons of brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping... Statistical Rating Organizations § 240.17h-1T Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for associated... sheet risk and financial instruments with concentrations of credit risk (as those terms are used...

  15. 17 CFR 240.17i-4 - Internal risk management control system requirements for supervised investment bank holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal risk management... Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17i-4 Internal risk management control system...) As part of its internal risk management control system, a supervised investment bank holding...

  16. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-19 - Requirements for cancellation, processing, storage, transportation, and destruction or other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-19 Requirements... cancellation means the process in which a securities certificate: (i) Is physically marked to clearly indicate... transfer agent. (2) The term cancelled certificate facility means any location where...

  17. The inflow of 238Pu and 239+240Pu from the Vistula River catchment area to the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was to estimate plutonium inflow from the Vistula River's catchments area to the Baltic Sea. There were differences in plutonium activities depending on season and sampling site. The highest activities of 238Pu and 239+240Pu were transported from the Vistula River watershed to the Baltic Sea in spring and the lowest in summer. Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched via the Vistula River with 10.3 MBq of 238Pu and 89.0 MBq of 239+240Pu. The enhanced concentration of plutonium in water from the Vistula River is the result of its runoff from the Vistula drainage area, mostly from snowmelt, enhanced rainfalls and leached materials from river bed. - Highlights: → We estimated plutonium inflow from the Vistula River catchment area to the Baltic Sea. → We found differences in Pu activities depending on season and sampling site. → The highest amount of 239 + 240Pu was transported in spring and the lowest in summer. → Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched with 89.0 MBq of 239 + 240Pu. → Enhanced Pu amount in water came from snowmelt, rainfalls and leached materials.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Cyclic DP-240 Amylose Fragment in a Periodic Cell: Glass Transition Temperature and Water Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular dynamics simulations using AMB06C, an in-house carbohydrate force field, (NPT ensembles, 1atm) were carried out on a periodic cell that contained a cyclic-DP-240 amylose fragment and TIP3P water molecules. Molecular conformation and movement of the amylose fragment and water molecules at ...

  19. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sale for future delivery is trading on a designated contract market, registered derivatives transaction... registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Act; (B) 1 of 750 securities with the largest market capitalization... section: (1) Market capitalization has the same meaning as in § 240.3a55-1(d)(6). (2) Dollar value...

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  1. Measurement of fallout radionuclides, (239)(,240)Pu and (137)Cs, in soil and creek sediment: Sydney Basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B S; Child, D P; Fierro, D; Harrison, J J; Heijnis, H; Hotchkis, M A C; Johansen, M P; Marx, S; Payne, T E; Zawadzki, A

    2016-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples from the Sydney basin were measured to ascertain fallout radionuclide activity concentrations and atom ratios. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) was measured using gamma spectroscopy, and plutonium isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) were quantified using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Fallout radionuclide activity concentrations were variable ranging from 0.6 to 26.1 Bq/kg for (137)Cs and 0.02-0.52 Bq/kg for (239+240)Pu. Radionuclides in creek sediment samples were an order of magnitude lower than in soils. (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu activity concentration in soils were well correlated (r(2) = 0.80) although some deviation was observed in samples collected at higher elevations. Soil ratios of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu (decay corrected to 1/1/2014) ranged from 11.5 to 52.1 (average = 37.0 ± 12.4) and showed more variability than previous studies. (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.117 to 0.165 with an average of 0.146 (±0.013) and an error weighted mean of 0.138 (±0.001). These ratios are lower than a previously reported ratio for Sydney, and lower than the global average. However, these ratios are similar to those reported for other sites within Australia that are located away from former weapons testing sites and indicate that atom ratio measurements from other parts of the world are unlikely to be applicable to the Australian context. PMID:26344369

  2. Suitability of 239+240Pu and 137Cs as tracers for soil erosion assessment in mountain grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alewell, Christine; Meusburger, Katrin; Juretzko, Gregor; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides have been distributed globally due to nuclear weapons testing, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons fabrication, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. While the negative consequences of this radioactive contamination are self-evident, the ubiquitous fallout radionuclides (FRNs) distribution form the basis for the use as tracers in ecological studies, namely for soil erosion assessment. Soil erosion is a major threat to mountain ecosystems worldwide. We compare the suitability of the anthropogenic FRNs, 137Cs and 239+240Pu as soil erosion tracers in two alpine valleys of Switzerland (Urseren Valley, Canton Uri, Central Swiss Alps and Val Piora, Ticino, Southern Alps). We sampled reference and potentially erosive sites in transects along both valleys. 137Cs measurements of soil samples were performed with a Li-drifted Germanium detector and 239+240Pu with ICP-MS. Our data indicates a heterogeneous deposition of the 137Cs, since most of the fallout origins from the Chernobyl April/May 1986 accident, when large parts of the European Alps were still snow-covered. In contrast, 239+240Pu fallout originated mainly from 1950s to 1960s atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, resulting in a more homogenous distribution and thus seems to be a more suitable tracer in mountainous grasslands. Soil erosion assessment using 239+240Pu as a tracer pointed to a huge dynamic and high heterogeneity of erosive processes (between sedimentation of 1.9 and 7 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.2-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the Urseren Valley and sedimentation of 0.4-20.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.1-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) at Val Piora). Our study represents a novel and successful application of 239+240Pu as a tracer of soil erosion in a mountain environment. PMID:24374184

  3. 17 CFR 240.15g-3 - Broker or dealer disclosure of quotations and other information relating to the penny stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purchases. (C) If the dealer's bid or offer prices to the customer do not satisfy the criteria of paragraphs... CFR 240.10b-10 of this chapter. (2) A broker or dealer, at the time of making the disclosure pursuant... such disclosure for the period specified in 17 CFR 240.17a-4(b). (c) Definitions. For purposes of...

  4. SEGUE: A Spectroscopic Survey of 240,000 stars with g=14-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanny, Brian; /Fermilab; Rockosi, Constance; /UC, Santa Cruz; Newberg, Heidi Jo; /Rensselaer Poly.; Knapp, Gillian R.; /Princeton U.; Adelman-McCarthy, Jennifer K.; /Fermilab; Alcorn, Bonnie; /Fermilab; Allam, Sahar S.; /Fermilab; Prieto, Carlos Allende; /Texas U. /University Coll. London; An, Deokkeun; /Ohio State U.; Anderson, Kurt S.J.; /Apache Point Observ. /New Mexico State U.; Anderson, Scott; /Washington U., Seattle

    2009-02-01

    The Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Survey obtained {approx}240,000 moderate-resolution (R {approx} 1800) spectra from 3900 {angstrom} to 9000 {angstrom} of fainter Milky Way stars (14.0 < g < 20.3) of a wide variety of spectral types, both main-sequence and evolved objects, with the goal of studying the kinematics and populations of our Galaxy and its halo. The spectra are clustered in 212 regions spaced over three quarters of the sky. Radial velocity accuracies for stars are {sigma}(RV) {approx} 4 km s{sup -1} at g < 18, degrading to {sigma}(RV) {approx} 15 km s{sup -1} at g {approx} 20. For stars with signal-to-noise ratio >10 per resolution element, stellar atmospheric parameters are estimated, including metallicity, surface gravity, and effective temperature. SEGUE obtained 3500 deg{sup 2} of additional ugriz imaging (primarily at low Galactic latitudes) providing precise multicolor photometry ({sigma}(g, r, i) {approx} 2%), ({sigma}(u, z) {approx} 3%) and astrometry ({approx}0.1) for spectroscopic target selection. The stellar spectra, imaging data, and derived parameter catalogs for this survey are publicly available as part of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7.

  5. Application of fast-digitizer card Acqiris DP-240 in positron lifetime spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriska, Martin; Slugen, Vladimir; Krsjak, Vladimir; Sojak, Stanislav [Slovak University of Technology, FEI, Bratislava (Slovakia); Zeman, Andrej; Debarberis, Luigi [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    Based on the available knowledge base in positron annihilation measurements, new software for digital positron lifetime spectrometry has been designed within the frame of joint activity between STU Bratislava and JRC Petten. The tests of the new positron digital-life time setup have been carried out. Detectors with BaF{sub 2} scintillators and fast-dynode outputs were chosen for such studies. As the digitiser unit, the card Acqiris DP240 was fully tested. Originally, start and stop timing signals were sampled to digital waveforms separately at a rate of 1 GS/s in 8 bit resolution. However, due to limited quality of collected waveforms which significantly affected post-processing of data, the joined delayed channel mode with 2 GS/s sampling rate was applied for further studies. The full setup was benchmarked by a series of calibration measurements of two high purity materials, specifically Si and Ni. The inter-comparison of conventional analogue- and digital-based processing are discussed in detail. Further, the optimisation of main parameters for waveform-processing are analysed too. Such a new approach in the digital life-time spectroscopy will help to improve the resolution of existing methodology which might enhance the capabilities of this technique for further applications, especially in materials science. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Fission dynamics of 240Cf* formed in 34,36S induced reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the entrance channel effects in the decay of Compound nucleus 240Cf* formed in 34S+206Pb and 36S+204Pb reactions by using energy density dependent nuclear proximity potential in the framework of dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM. At different excitation energies, the fragmentation potential and preformation probability of decaying fragments are almost identical for both the entrance channels, which seem to suggest that decay is independent of its formation and entrance channel excitation energy. It is also observed that, with inclusion of deformation effects upto quadrupole within the optimum orientation approach, the fragmentation path governing potential energy surfaces gets modified significantly. Beside this, the fission mass distribution of Cf* isotopes is also investigated. The calculated fission cross-sections using SIII force for both the channels find nice agreement with the available experimental data for deformed choice of fragments, except at higher energies. In addition to this, the comparative analysis with Blocki based nuclear attraction is also worked out. It is observed that Blocki proximity potential accounts well for the CN decay at all energies whereas the use of EDF based nuclear potential suggests the presence of some non-compound nucleus process (such as quasi-fission (qf at higher energies.

  7. Radio AGN in 13,240 galaxy clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S; de Vries, W; Becker, R

    2007-05-30

    We correlate the positions of 13,240 Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) with 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3 from the maxBCG catalog with radio sources from the FIRST survey to study the sizes and distributions of radio AGN in galaxy clusters. We find that 19.7% of our BCGs are radio-loud, and this fraction depends on the stellar mass of the BCG, and to a lesser extent on the richness of the parent cluster (in the sense of increasing radio loudness with increasing mass). The intrinsic size of the radio emission associated with the BCGs peaks at 55 kpc, with a tail extending to 200 kpc. The radio power of the extended sources places them on the divide between FR I and FR II type sources, while sources compact in the radio tend to be somewhat less radio-luminous. We also detect an excess of radio sources associated with the cluster, instead of with the BCG itself, extending out to {approx} 1.4 kpc.

  8. Enhancement of Real-Time THz Imaging System Based on 320 × 240 Uncooled Microbolometer Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xing; Wu, Zhiming; Gou, Jun; Liu, Ziji; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Jie; Luo, Zhenfei; Chen, Weiqing; Que, Longcheng; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-05-01

    A real-time terahertz (THz) imaging system was demonstrated based on a 320 × 240 uncooled microbolometer detector combined with a 2.52 THz far-infrared CO2 laser. On the top of micro-bridge structure (35 × 35 μm2), a 10 nm nickel-chromium (NiCr) thin film was deposited to enhance THz absorption, which was fabricated by a combined process of magnetron sputtering and reactive ion etching (RIE). By mechanical simulation using design of experiment (DOE) method, the minimum deformation was optimized to 0.0385 μm, and a measured deformation of 0.097 μm was achieved in the fabrication. The fabricated micro-bridge pixel was used for THz detection, and a responsivity of 1235 V/W was achieved with a noise equivalent power (NEP) of 87.4 pW/Hz1/2. THz imaging of metal gasket covered by label paper, paper clip in an envelope, and watermark of a banknote was demonstrated by a combination of histogram equalization (HE) and linear enhancement algorithm.

  9. A microrod-resonator Brillouin laser with 240 Hz absolute linewidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, William; Becker, Joe; Cole, Daniel C.; Coillet, Aurelien; Baynes, Fred N.; Papp, Scott B.; Diddams, Scott A.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate an ultralow-noise microrod-resonator based laser that oscillates on the gain supplied by the stimulated Brillouin scattering optical nonlinearity. Microresonator Brillouin lasers are known to offer an outstanding frequency noise floor, which is limited by fundamental thermal fluctuations. Here, we show experimental evidence that thermal effects also dominate the close-to-carrier frequency fluctuations. The 6 mm diameter microrod resonator used in our experiments has a large optical mode area of ∼100 μm2, and hence its 10 ms thermal time constant filters the close-to-carrier optical frequency noise. The result is an absolute laser linewidth of 240 Hz with a corresponding white-frequency noise floor of 0.1 Hz2 Hz‑1. We explain the steady-state performance of this laser by measurements of its operation state and of its mode detuning and lineshape. Our results highlight a mechanism for noise that is common to many microresonator devices due to the inherent coupling between intracavity power and mode frequency. We demonstrate the ability to reduce this noise through a feedback loop that stabilizes the intracavity power.

  10. Analysis of 6Li Scattering at 240 MeV Using Different Nuclear Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, A. H.; Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-06-01

    Angular distributions of the elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections of 6Li projectile on different heavy ion target nuclei including the 24Mg, 28Si, 48Ca, 58Ni, 90Zr, and 116Sn at energy of 240 MeV have been analyzed by using two different folded potentials based on the CDM3Y6 and São Paulo potentials for the real part of the optical potential, while the imaginary parts have a phenomenological Woods-Saxon shape. Coupled channel calculations for the low-lying 2+ state at 1.369, 1.779, 3.832, 1.454, 2.186, and 1.29 MeV for 24Mg, 28Si, 48Ca, 58Ni, 90Zr, and 116Sn, respectively, have been carried out, and the best fit values for B(EL) with the above models have been extracted by fitting the inelastic scattering cross section and compared with the values of previous works. The total reaction cross section and real and imaginary volume integrals have also been investigated.

  11. Deep Broadband Observations of the Distant Gamma-ray Blazar PKS 1424+240

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, S; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berger, K; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Dumm, J; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Federici, S; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hughes, G; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Madhavan, A S; Maier, G; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; de Bhroithe, A O'Faolain; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Prokoph, H; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Rajotte, J; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weinstein, A; Welsing, R; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Albert, A; Baldini, L; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Bregeon, J; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Charles, E; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Franckowiak, A; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Jogler, T; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Murgia, S; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Ormes, J F; Perkins, J S; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Raino, S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Schaal, M; Sgro, C; Siskind, E J; Spinelli, P; Takahashi, H; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Vianello, G; Werner, M; Wood, M

    2014-01-01

    We present deep VERITAS observations of the blazar PKS 1424+240, along with contemporaneous Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope and Swift UV Optical Telescope data between 2009 February 19 and 2013 June 8. This blazar resides at a redshift of $z\\ge0.6035$, displaying a significantly attenuated gamma-ray flux above 100 GeV due to photon absorption via pair-production with the extragalactic background light. We present more than 100 hours of VERITAS observations from three years, a multiwavelength light curve and the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions. The source shows a higher flux of (2.1$\\pm0.3$)$\\times10^{-7}$ ph m$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ above 120 GeV in 2009 and 2011 as compared to the flux measured in 2013, corresponding to (1.02$\\pm0.08$)$\\times10^{-7}$ ph m$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ above 120 GeV. The measured differential very high energy (VHE; $E\\ge100$ GeV) spectral indices are $\\Gamma=$3.8$\\pm$0.3, 4.3$\\pm$0.6 and 4.5$\\pm$0.2 in 2009, 2011 and 2013, respectively. No significant spectral change...

  12. A 240-channel thick film multi-chip module for readout of silicon drift detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, D.; Bellwied, R.; Beuttenmueller, R.; Caines, H.; Chen, W.; DiMassimo, D.; Dyke, H.; Elliott, D.; Grau, M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Humanic, T.; Jensen, P.; Kleinfelder, S. A.; Kotov, I.; Kraner, H. W.; Kuczewski, P.; Leonhardt, B.; Li, Z.; Liaw, C. J.; LoCurto, G.; Middelkamp, P.; Minor, R.; Mazeh, N.; Nehmeh, S.; O'Conner, P.; Ott, G.; Pandey, S. U.; Pruneau, C.; Pinelli, D.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Rykov, V.; Schambach, J.; Sedlmeir, J.; Sheen, J.; Soja, B.; Stephani, D.; Sugarbaker, E.; Takahashi, J.; Wilson, K.; STAR-SVT Collaboration

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a thick film multi-chip module for readout of silicon drift (or low capacitance ˜200 fF) detectors. Main elements of the module include a custom 16-channel NPN-BJT preamplifier-shaper (PASA) and a custom 16-channel CMOS Switched Capacitor Array (SCA). The primary design criteria of the module were the minimizations of the power (12 mW/channel), noise (ENC=490 e - rms), size (20.5 mm×63 mm), and radiation length (1.4%). We will discuss various aspects of the PASA design, with emphasis on the preamplifier feedback network. The SCA is a modification of an integrated circuit that has been previously described [1]; its design features specific to its application in the SVT (Silicon Vertex Tracker in the STAR experiment at RHIC) will be discussed. The 240-channel multi-chip module is a circuit with five metal layers fabricated in thick film technology on a beryllia substrate and contains 35 custom and commercial integrated circuits. It has been recently integrated with silicon drift detectors in both a prototype system assembly for the SVT and a silicon drift array for the E896 experiment at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. We will discuss features of the module's design and fabrication, report the test results, and emphasize its performance both on the bench and under experimental conditions.

  13. A 240-channel thick film multi-chip module for readout of silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a thick film multi-chip module for readout of silicon drift (or low capacitance ∼200 fF) detectors. Main elements of the module include a custom 16-channel NPN-BJT preamplifier-shaper (PASA) and a custom 16-channel CMOS Switched Capacitor Array (SCA). The primary design criteria of the module were the minimizations of the power (12 mW/channel), noise (ENC=490 e- rms), size (20.5 mmx63 mm), and radiation length (1.4%). We will discuss various aspects of the PASA design, with emphasis on the preamplifier feedback network. The SCA is a modification of an integrated circuit that has been previously described [1]; its design features specific to its application in the SVT (Silicon Vertex Tracker in the STAR experiment at RHIC) will be discussed. The 240-channel multi-chip module is a circuit with five metal layers fabricated in thick film technology on a beryllia substrate and contains 35 custom and commercial integrated circuits. It has been recently integrated with silicon drift detectors in both a prototype system assembly for the SVT and a silicon drift array for the E896 experiment at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. We will discuss features of the module's design and fabrication, report the test results, and emphasize its performance both on the bench and under experimental conditions

  14. Assessment of 238Pu and 239+240Pu, in marine sediments of the oceans Atlantic and Pacific of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation samples of marine sediments were taken from 14 places representatives of the oceans coast of Guatemala. For the assesment of 238Pu and 239+240Pu in sediments a radiochemical method was used to mineralize sediments and by ionic interchange it was separated from other elements, after that an electrodeposition of plutonium was made in metallic discs. The radioactivity of plutonium was measured by alpha spectrometry system and the alpha spectrums were obtained. The levels of plutonium are not higher than other countries that shown contamination. The contamination of isotope of 239+240Pu is higher than 238Pu and the contamination by two isotopes of plutonium is higher in the Atlantic than the Pacific ocean

  15. Residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour at the 240-m level of the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two subhorizontal, orthogonal boreholes were monitored continuously during concentric overcoring at the 240-m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The magnitude and orientation of principal residual strain components in the near-field stress regime were determined assuming linear elastic behaviour of the rock mass and isotropic conditions. In terms of magnitude, results compared favourably with those from previous tests at the 240-m level. However, orientation results were inconclusive. The effects of scale and borehole orientation relative to the principal stress direction on the results from a modified CSIR triaxial cell overcore test were also investigated; no scale effects were apparent in the experiment, but borehole orientation did affect results. Finally, time-dependent behaviour was detected in the Lac du Bonnet granite, and was monitored between successive overcore tests in one of the boreholes. Results on residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour are presented, along with limitations and possible modifications to the testing procedure

  16. Complete genome sequence of the complex carbohydrate-degrading marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Weiner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 (Sde 2-40 is emerging as a vanguard of a recently discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycles complex polysaccharides. We report its complete genome sequence, analysis of which identifies an unusually large number of enzymes that degrade >10 complex polysaccharides. Not only is this an extraordinary range of catabolic capability, many of the enzymes exhibit unusual architecture including novel combinations of catalytic and substrate-binding modules. We hypothesize that many of these features are adaptations that facilitate depolymerization of complex polysaccharides in the marine environment. This is the first sequenced genome of a marine bacterium that can degrade plant cell walls, an important component of the carbon cycle that is not well-characterized in the marine environment.

  17. Evaluation of the fission and capture cross sections of 240Pu and 241Pu for ENDF/B-V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since there were appreciable new data which were not available for ENDF/B-IV, new evaluations for 240Pu and 241Pu were carried out for ENDF/B-V. The evaluation of the fission and capture cross sections is reviewed and problem areas are discussed. The neutron energy range of concern was from 10-5 eV to 20 MeV. Significant changes were made over the entire neutron energy region because of the new experimental data available. The problems in the evaluations due to discrepancies in the nuclear data are emphasized, particularly the 1-eV resonance in 240Pu and the 0.3-eV resonance in 241Pu. The evaluation of the fission and capture cross sections for ENDF/B-V represents an improvement over the previous evaluation; however, there continues to be a need for accurate experimental data. 7 figures

  18. HECTOR: A 240kV micro-CT setup optimized for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masschaele, Bert; Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Boone, Matthieu N.; Brabant, Loes; Pauwels, Elin; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2013-10-01

    X-ray micro-CT has become a very powerful and common tool for non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization and analysis of objects. Many systems are commercially available, but they are typically limited in terms of operational freedom both from a mechanical point of view as well as for acquisition routines. HECTOR is the latest system developed by the Ghent University Centre for X-ray Tomography (http://www.ugct.ugent.be) in collaboration with X-Ray Engineering (XRE bvba, Ghent, Belgium). It consists of a mechanical setup with nine motorized axes and a modular acquisition software package and combines a microfocus directional target X-ray source up to 240 kV with a large flat-panel detector. Provisions are made to install a line-detector for a maximal operational range. The system can accommodate samples up to 80 kg, 1 m long and 80 cm in diameter while it is also suited for high resolution (down to 4 μm) tomography. The bi-directional detector tiling is suited for large samples while the variable source-detector distance optimizes the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for every type of sample, even with peripheral equipment such as compression stages or climate chambers. The large vertical travel of 1 m can be used for helical scanning and a vertical detector rotation axis allows laminography experiments. The setup is installed in a large concrete bunker to allow accommodation of peripheral equipment such as pumps, chillers, etc., which can be integrated in the modular acquisition software to obtain a maximal correlation between the environmental control and the CT data taken. The acquisition software does not only allow good coupling with the peripheral equipment but its scripting feature is also particularly interesting for testing new and exotic acquisition routines.

  19. HECTOR: A 240kV micro-CT setup optimized for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray micro-CT has become a very powerful and common tool for non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization and analysis of objects. Many systems are commercially available, but they are typically limited in terms of operational freedom both from a mechanical point of view as well as for acquisition routines. HECTOR is the latest system developed by the Ghent University Centre for X-ray Tomography (http://www.ugct.ugent.be) in collaboration with X-Ray Engineering (XRE bvba, Ghent, Belgium). It consists of a mechanical setup with nine motorized axes and a modular acquisition software package and combines a microfocus directional target X-ray source up to 240 kV with a large flat-panel detector. Provisions are made to install a line-detector for a maximal operational range. The system can accommodate samples up to 80 kg, 1 m long and 80 cm in diameter while it is also suited for high resolution (down to 4 μm) tomography. The bi-directional detector tiling is suited for large samples while the variable source-detector distance optimizes the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for every type of sample, even with peripheral equipment such as compression stages or climate chambers. The large vertical travel of 1 m can be used for helical scanning and a vertical detector rotation axis allows laminography experiments. The setup is installed in a large concrete bunker to allow accommodation of peripheral equipment such as pumps, chillers, etc., which can be integrated in the modular acquisition software to obtain a maximal correlation between the environmental control and the CT data taken. The acquisition software does not only allow good coupling with the peripheral equipment but its scripting feature is also particularly interesting for testing new and exotic acquisition routines

  20. DEEP BROADBAND OBSERVATIONS OF THE DISTANT GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR PKS 1424+240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Federici, S. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Biteau, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: amy.furniss@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; Fermi LAT Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-10

    We present deep VERITAS observations of the blazar PKS 1424+240, along with contemporaneous Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope, and Swift UV Optical Telescope data between 2009 February 19 and 2013 June 8. This blazar resides at a redshift of z ≥ 0.6035, displaying a significantly attenuated gamma-ray flux above 100 GeV due to photon absorption via pair-production with the extragalactic background light. We present more than 100 hr of VERITAS observations over three years, a multiwavelength light curve, and the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions. The source shows a higher flux of (2.1 ± 0.3) × 10{sup –7} photons m{sup –2} s{sup –1} above 120 GeV in 2009 and 2011 as compared to the flux measured in 2013, corresponding to (1.02 ± 0.08) × 10{sup –7} photons m{sup –2} s{sup –1} above 120 GeV. The measured differential very high energy (VHE; E ≥ 100 GeV) spectral indices are Γ = 3.8 ± 0.3, 4.3 ± 0.6 and 4.5 ± 0.2 in 2009, 2011, and 2013, respectively. No significant spectral change across the observation epochs is detected. We find no evidence for variability at gamma-ray opacities of greater than τ = 2, where it is postulated that any variability would be small and occur on timescales longer than a year if hadronic cosmic-ray interactions with extragalactic photon fields provide a secondary VHE photon flux. The data cannot rule out such variability due to low statistics.

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-03-01

    The Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240, was clean-closed following the approved Corrective Action Decision Document closure alternative and in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU consists of thee Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01 - Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02 - Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03 - Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). Characterization activities indicated that only CAS 25-07-02 (F and J Roads Pad) contained constituents of concern (COCs) above action levels and required remediation. The COCs detected were Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel, cesium-137, and strontium-90. The F and J Roads Pad may have been used for the decontamination of vehicles and possibly disassembled engine and reactor parts from Test Cell C. Activities occurred there during the 1960s through early 1970s. The F and J Roads Pad consisted of a 9- by 5-meter (m) (30- by 15-foot [ft]) concrete pad and a 14- by 13-m (46-by 43-ft) gravel sump. The clean-closure corrective action consisted of excavation, disposal, verification sampling, backfilling, and regrading. Closure activities began on August 21, 2000, and ended on September 19, 2000. Waste disposal activities were completed on December 12, 2000. A total of 172 cubic meters (223 cubic yards) of impacted soil was excavated and disposed. The concrete pad was also removed and disposed. Verification samples were collected from the bottom and sidewalls of the excavation and analyzed for TPH diesel and 20-minute gamma spectroscopy. The sample results indicated that all impacted soil above remediation standards was removed. The closure was completed following the approved Corrective Action Plan. All impacted waste was disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill. All non-impacted debris was disposed in the Area 9 Construction Landfill and the Area 23 Sanitary Landfill.

  2. Pb-210 and Pu-239,240 in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pb-210, Ra-226, and Pu-239,240 activities were measured in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments. Sediment cores were collected from the Mississippi delta, and the western Gulf of Mexico shelf. Mississippi delta cores which exhibit significantly higher sedimentation rates show larger inventories of Pb-210. The measured Pu levels from the western shelf are lower than from the delta at comparable depths. In three of the western shelf cores, the observed Pu inventory is considerably less than predicted from atmospheric flux. Therefore, Pu is not being removed to the sediment, or is being released following deposition. A key difference between these isotopes is that Pu exists in a less particle-reactive state. The ratio of excess Pb-210 to Pu levels increases with water depth in the delta and the western shelf. Water depth acts as an integrator of depth-sensitive processes. Pu scavenging is more sensitive to these processes. A sub-surface Pu maximum has been observed. Excess Pb-210 and Pu levels correlate well with sedimentation rates. This suggests that particle flux is important in removal of Pb-210 and Pu to the sediment. The flux of Mn out of the sediment is correlated with inventory data, suggesting that redox cycling of Mn may play a role in increasing Pb-210 and Pu sediment inventories. It is unclear whether the effects of increased sedimentation rates and increased Mn fluxes can be evaluated independently. Mixing of surface sediment correlates with inventory data. Increased sediment mixing allows for additional scavenging of Pb-210 and Pu from overlying waters. Mixing of sediment at depths below the mixed surface layer may play a role in increasing sediment inventories of Pb-210 and Pu

  3. 17 CFR 240.13k-1 - Foreign bank exemption from the insider lending prohibition under section 13(k).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under 17 CFR 240.12b-2. (b) An issuer that is a foreign bank or the parent or other affiliate of a... consolidated basis by the bank supervisor in its home jurisdiction under 12 CFR 211.24(c); and (2) The loan by... bank supervisor under 12 CFR 211.24(c) as long as the foreign bank is under substantially the...

  4. Numerical simulation of 137Cs and 239,240Pu concentrations by an ocean general circulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We simulated the spatial distributions and the temporal variations of 137Cs and 239,240Pu concentrations in the ocean by using the ocean general circulation model which was developed by National Center of Atmospheric Research. These nuclides are introduced into seawaters from global fallout due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The distribution of radioactive deposition on the world ocean is estimated from global precipitation data and observed values of annual deposition of radionuclides at the Meteorological Research Institute in Japan and several observed points in New Zealand. Radionuclides from global fallout have been transported by advection, diffusion and scavenging, and this concentration reduces by radioactive decay in the ocean. We verified the results of the model calculations by comparing simulated values of 137Cs and 239,240Pu in seawater with the observed values included in the Historical Artificial Radionuclides in the HAM database, which has been constructed by the Meteorological Research Institute. The vertical distributions of the calculated 137Cs concentrations were in good agreement and are in good agreement with the observed profiles in the 1960s up to 250 m, in the 1970s up to 500 m, in the 1980s up to 750 m and in the 1990s up to 750 m. However, the calculated 137Cs concentrations were underestimated compared with the observed 137Cs at the deeper layer. This may suggest other transport processes of 137Cs to deep waters. The horizontal distributions of 137Cs concentrations in surface water could be simulated. A numerical tracer release experiment was performed to explain the horizontal distribution pattern. A maximum 239,240Pu concentration layer occurs at an intermediate depth for both observed and calculated values, which is formed by particle scavenging. The horizontal distributions of the calculated 239,240Pu concentrations in surface water could be simulated by considering the scavenging effect

  5. Estimation of uncertainties in resonance parameters of {sup 56}Fe, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 238}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-05-01

    Uncertainties have been estimated for the resonance parameters of {sup 56}Fe, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 238}U contained in JENDL-3.2. Errors of the parameters were determined from the measurements which the evaluation was based on. The estimated errors have been compiled in the MF32 of the ENDF format. The numerical results are given in tables. (author)

  6. Comparison of evaluations for 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu with integral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluations for 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu are considered. Intercomparison is made of the neutron cross section data from INDL/A, ENDL-84, ENDF/B-5 and ENDF/B-6 (where applicable). Integral measurements of the spectrum averaged cross sections are compared to the values derived from evaluated data libraries. (author). 40 refs, 49 figs, 11 tabs

  7. L655,240, acting as a competitive BACE1 inhibitor,efficiently decreases β-amyloid peptide production in HEK293-APPswe cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin LU; Wu-yan CHEN; Zhi-yuan ZHU; Jing CHEN; Ye-chun XU; Morakot KAEWPET; Vatcharin RUKACHAISIRIKUL; Li-li CHEN; Xu SHEN

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To identify a small molecule L655,240 as a novel β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitor and to investigate its effects on β-amyloid (Aβ)generation in vitro.Methods: Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was used to characterize the inhibitory effect of L655,240 on BACE1.Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology-based assay was performed to study the binding affinity of L655,240 for BACE1.The selectivity of L655,240 toward BACE1 over other aspartic proteases was determined with enzymatic assay.The effects of L655,240 on Aβ40,Aβ42,and sAPPβ production were studied in HEK293 cells stably expressing APP695 Swedish mutantK595N/M596L (HEK293-APPswe cells).The activities of BACE1,ν-secretase and α-secretase were assayed,and both the mRNA and protein levels of APP and BACE1 were evaluated using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis.Results: L655,240 was determined to be a competitive,selective BACE1 inhibitor (IC50=4.47±1.37 μmol/L),which bound to BACE1 directly (KD=17.9±0.72 μmol/L).L655,240 effectively reduced Aβ40,Aβ42,and sAPPβ production by inhibiting BACE1 without affecting the activities of y-secretase and α-secretase in HEK293-APPswe cells.L655,240 has no effect on APP and BACE1 mRNA or protein levels in HEK293-APPswe cells.Conclusion: The small molecule L655,240 is a novel BACE1 inhibitor that can effectively decreases Aβ production in vitro,thereby highlighting its therapeutic potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Estimation of 240Pu Mass in a Waste Tank Using Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Radioactive Xenon Isotopes from Spontaneous Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, Ted W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gesh, Christopher J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahoney, Lenna A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meacham, Joseph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olsen, Khris B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Prinke, Amanda M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Reid, Bruce D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woods, Vincent T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We report on a technique to detect and quantify the amount of 240Pu in a large tank used to store nuclear waste from plutonium production at the Hanford nuclear site. While the contents of this waste tank are known from previous grab sample measurements, our technique could allow for determination of the amount of 240Pu in the tank without costly sample retrieval and analysis of this highly radioactive material. This technique makes an assumption, which was confirmed, that 240Pu dominates the spontaneous fissions occurring in the tank.

  9. Estimation of 240Pu Mass in a Waste Tank Using Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Radioactive Xenon Isotopes from Spontaneous Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a technique to detect and quantify the amount of 240Pu in a large tank used to store nuclear waste from plutonium production at the Hanford nuclear site. While the contents of this waste tank are known from previous grab sample measurements, our technique could allow for determination of the amount of 240Pu in the tank without costly sample retrieval and analysis of this highly radioactive material. This technique makes an assumption, which was confirmed, that 240Pu dominates the spontaneous fissions occurring in the tank.

  10. I. Nuclear Production Reaction and Chemical Isolation Procedure for 240Am II. New Superheavy Element Isotopes: 242Pu(48Ca,5n)285-114

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Paul Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Part I discusses the study of a new nuclear reaction and chemical separation procedure for the production of 240Am. Thin 242Pu, natTi, and natNi targets were coincidently activated with protons from the 88-Inch Cyclotron, producing 240Am, 48V, and 57Ni, respectively. The radioactive decay of these isotopes was monitored using high-purity Ge gamma ray detectors in the weeks following irradiation. The excitation function for the 242Pu(p, 3n)240Am nuclear reaction was measured to be lower than t...

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-16

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  12. 240kA普通平底电解槽低电压生产探索%Low-pressure Production of 240 kA Common Flat Base Electrolytic Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫飞; 程世凯; 李炬

    2011-01-01

    强化电流是提高铝电解槽产量和经济效益的有效手段,广西投资集团银海铝业有限责任公司240 kA普通平底电解槽通过强化电流和降低电压,实现平均电压在4.0 V以下平稳运行,降低直流电耗约200 kW· h/t-Al.

  13. Transport of low 240:239 atom ratio plutonium in the Ob and Yenisey rivers to the Kara sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear installations (Tomsk-7, Mayak PA; Krasnoyarsk) are situated in the drainage areas of the Ob and Yenisey. The low-level Pu contamination in the two estuaries has been mainly attributed to transport of global fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests deposited in the drainage areas. The future concern for the Arctic is, however, that a sudden large release may occur due to accidents at the nuclear sites etc. Such incidents could lead to the eventual transport of released radionuclides to the Kara Sea. Therefore, information on Pu speciation and processes controlling the behaviour of plutonium in estuarine systems is a prerequisite for predicting the transfer and subsequent environmental impact to Arctic Seas. To obtain information on estuarine processes in the Ob and Yenisey River influencing the size distribution pattern Pu was studied by at site size fractionation in the river estuary systems. Large samples collected from varying depths at stations along a transect from fresh riverine water through the estuary zone and into high salinity sea water were filtered (0.45 μm), and ultra-filtered (8 kDa). Filters and filtrates were analyzed by means of AMS obtaining Pu concentrations and 240Pu /239Pu atom ratios. Most of the Pu in the surface water samples collected in the freshwater end member of the two rivers appears to be associated with particulate material while a majority of the Pu in both estuaries is in a dissolved form. The colloidal fraction ranged from 29 48% (Yenisey), 29 73% (Ob) and 50% (Kara Sea). 240Pu /239Pu atom ratios vary within the fractions, being rather low for the dissolved phases and significantly higher for the particulate fraction. 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios show that particulate Pu is fallout related and that Pu in dissolved form originates from other, low atom ratio sources. (author)

  14. Study of neutron-deficient isotopes of Fl in the 239Pu, 240Pu + 48Ca reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A. A.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Brewer, N. T.; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Abdullin, F. Sh; Dmitriev, S. N.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Itkis, M. G.; Miernik, K.; Polyakov, A. N.; Roberto, J. B.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeiko, M. V.; Tsyganov, Yu S.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Sabelnikov, A. V.; Vostokin, G. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Stoyer, M. A.; Strauss, S. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The results of the experiments aimed at the synthesis of Fl isotopes in the 239Pu + 48Ca and 240Pu + 48Ca reactions are presented. The experiment was performed using the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator at the U400 cyclotron. In the 239Pu+48Ca experiment one decay of spontaneously fissioning 284Fl was detected at 245-MeV beam energy. In the 240Pu+48Ca experiment three decay chains of 285Fl were detected at 245 MeV and four decays were assigned to 284Fl at the higher 48Ca beam energy of 250 MeV. The α-decay energy of 285Fl was measured for the first time and decay properties of its descendants 281Cn, 277Ds, 273Hs, 269Sg, and 265Rf were determined more precisely. The cross section of the 239Pu(48Ca,3n)284Fl reaction was observed to be about 20 times lower than those predicted by theoretical models and 50 times less than the value measured in the 244Pu+48Ca reaction. The cross sections of the 240Pu(48Ca,4-3n)284,285Fl at both 48Ca energies are similar and exceed that observed in the reaction with lighter isotope 239Pu by a factor of 10. The decay properties of the synthesized nuclei and their production cross sections indicate rapid decrease of stability of superheavy nuclei with departing from the neutron number N=184 predicted to be the next magic number.

  15. Determination of the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in low activity environmental samples by alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a simple technique, based on commercially-available software developed for gamma spectra analysis (MicroSAMPO trademark), is described by which this complex multiplet can be resolved at the much lower activities typical of many environmental samples. In our approach, it is not necessary to make any alterations to the normal alpha spectrometric set-up (including energy dispersion), other than to improve collimation. The instrumental function is defined for each spectrum by fitting a modified gaussian with exponential tails to the comparatively well-resolved 242Pu ''doublet'' (used as tracer) and, if present, the 238Pu ''doublet''. The fitted peaks are used to create an energy calibration file with which, using published energy data, the positions (in channels) of the component peaks of the multiplet are predicted. These positions are not altered subsequently when MicroSAMPO's interactive multiplet analysis facility is used to quantify the relative spectral intensities of the components. Before calculating the 240Pu/239Pu ratio, it is advisable to correct for coincidence summing of alpha particles and conversion electrons. The technique has been applied to the determination of the 240Pu/239Pu ratio in a set of environmental samples, most of which were supplied by IAEA-MEL under their laboratory intercomparison programme. Subsequently, replicate samples were analysed independently using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. The agreement between the two sets of data was most satisfactory. Further validation of this deconvolution technique was provided by the good agreement between the measured alpha-emission probabilities for the component peaks in the 239,240Pu multiplet and published values. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of the iodogen and the microelectrochemical techniques for the radioiodination of monoclonal antibody 140.240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Iodogen technique was compared with the microelectrochemical technique for the radioiodination of submilligram quantities of monoclonal antibody 140.240. The titre of the antibody against cultured melanoma cells was decreased five-fold after iodination with 0.80-0.85 atoms of iodine per molecule of antibody with both techniques. The Iodogen technique resulted in 82.1% incorporation of iodine into the antibody, somewhat higher than the 78.0% obtained with the microchemical technique. Therefore, the Iodogen technique is the preferred method based on efficiency and convenience. (author)

  17. 240 kW peak power at 266 nm in nonlinear YAl3(BO3)4 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilas, Simon; Loiseau, Pascal; Aka, Gérard; Taira, Takunori

    2014-12-01

    We report the fourth harmonic generation at 266 nm using a type I YAl3(BO3)4 (YAB) single crystal from a Q-switch microchip laser Nd:YAG/Cr⁴⁺:YAG frequency doubled with a LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal. 240 kW peak power at 266 nm corresponding to a mean conversion efficiency of 12.2% from 532 to 266 nm has been obtained with a 2.94 mm thick YAB crystal. The influences of optical homogeneity and absorption on the conversion efficiency are discussed. PMID:25606961

  18. Improved absorption cross-sections of oxygen in the wavelength region 205-240 nm of the Herzberg continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, K.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Esmond, J. R.; Parkinson, W. H.; Freeman, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    The laboratory values of the Herzberg continuum absorption cross-section of oxygen at room temperature from Cheung et al. (1986) and Jenouvrier et al. (1986) are compared and analyzed. It is found that there is no discrepancy between the absolute values of these two sets of independent measurements. The values are combined in a linear least-squares fit to obtain improved values of the Herzberg continuum cross-section of oxygen at room temperature throughout the wavelength region 205-240 nm. The results are compared with in situ and other laboratory measurements.

  19. Determination of 238Pu and 239+240Pu in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study allowed to determine the concentration of radioactivity alpha, due to contamination for plutonium in cultivated soils of different regions of Guatemala. They were carried out samplings for convenience in cultivated soils of 15 departments of the republic, determined in each soils sample, the activity concentration for plutonium 238Plutonium and 239+240Plutonium expressed in mili-becquerel by kilogram (mBq/Kg), which has been caused from all over the world by the different provoked liberations or accidents of radioactive particles to the atmosphere

  20. Impact of soil humus material on the behaviour of 239+240Pu in the terrestrial environment in tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When long-lived radionuclides deposited by fallout come in contact with soil, most are bound so tightly to soil particles that they are nearly immobile. Many fallout radionuclides are held either by adsorption on reactive sites on clay mineral soil particles, or by ion exchange and precipitation as hydroxide or sulfide. Thus, the radionuclides are distributed in organic and inorganic constituents of soil. Natural organic matter of soil consists of the dead plant and animal material and partially decomposed and resynthesized organic compounds present in soils and sediments. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of 239,240Pu with natural organic substances in soils

  1. Measurement of the $^{240,242}$Pu(n,f) cross section at the CERN n_TOF facility

    CERN Document Server

    Tsinganis, A; Guerrero, C; Colonna, N; Calviani, M; Vlastou, R; Andriamonje, S; Vlachoudis, V; Gunsing, F; Massimi, C; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Becvár, F; Belloni, F; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gurusamy, P; Hernández-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtiˇcka, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sabaté-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiss, C; Wright, T; Zugec, P

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of neutron cross sections of various plutonium isotopes and other minor actinides is crucial for the design of advanced nuclear systems. The $^{240 , 242}$Pu(n,f) cross sections were measured at the CERN n_TOF facility, taking advantage of the wide energy range (from thermal to GeV) and the high instantaneous f ux of the neutron beam. In this work, preliminary results for $^{242}$Pu are presented along with a theoretical cross section calculation performed with the EMPIRE code.

  2. DESIGN OF 320×240 LONG WAVE UNCOOLED MICROBOLOMETER INFRARED THERMAL CAMERA%320×240长波非致冷微测辐射热计红外热象仪的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令彬; 易新建; 王典洪; 陈四海

    2002-01-01

    介绍了基于微测辐射热计320×240长波非致冷红外热象仪的研制,详细说明了其电气系统的设计方法及技术关键,并对其光学系统进行了简要说明.采用高象质的双反射光学系统以减少象差;红外探测器采用320×240长波非致冷集成微测辐射热计红外焦平面阵列(FPA);电气系统采用复杂可编程逻辑器件(CPLD)完成红外焦平面阵列的驱动,应用数字信号处理(DSP)技术实现红外焦平面阵列的非均匀性校正、图象增强及红外图象实时显示等.

  3. Nursing Experience Based on Combination of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for 240 Cases of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease%240例小儿手足口病中西医结合的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹春菊

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the nursing interventions of hand-food-and-mouth disease. Methods:The clinical data of 240 cases was retrospectively analyzed. Results: After treatment and nursing,the prognosis was good. The mild cases were cured within one week. The average course was 7-8 days. There was no death case. Conclusion:The hand foot and mouth disease is an acute infectious disease caused by a variety of intestinal virus. Through intensive nursing based on combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine can make speedy recovery.%目的:通过对手足口病患儿的护理,探讨小儿手足口病的护理措施.方法:回顾分析240例患儿的临床资料.结果:经过治疗和护理本组预后良好,轻症在1周内痊愈,平均疗程7~8天左右,未出现1例死亡病例.结论:小儿手足口病是一种由多种肠道病毒引起的急性传染病,通过中西医结合等精心护理,可使患儿早日康复.

  4. P63、Calponin和D2-40在涎腺肿瘤肌上皮细胞中的表达及意义%Expressions and clinical significance of P63,Calponin and D2-40 in myoepithelial cells of salivary gland tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文军; 周静萍

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expressions of P63, Calponin and D2-40 in myoepithelial cells of salivary gland tumors and to investigate the value of D2-40 in identification of myoepithelial cells in salivary gland tumor.METHODS: Various types of salivary gland tumor specimens were collected during surgeries in affiliated Yijishan Hospital from January 2004 to January 2010. We used immunohistochemical technique (S-P) to examine the expressions of P63, Calponin and D2-40 in each salivary gland tumor organization. RESULTS: P63, Calponin, D2-40 were expressed in myoepithelial cells, and the expressions of P63, Calponin,D2-40 were 82.14%, 76.79% and 66.07%, respectively. D2-40was expressed in polymorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma and the expressions were 94.12%, 61.90% and 66.67%, respectively. D2-40 was not expressed in malignant polymorphic adenomas. The expression of D2-40 in polymorphic adenomas, tissues adjacent to the salivary gland malignancy and the cancerous tissues showed decreasing expressions that were significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: D2-40 could be one kind of ideal salivary gland tumor myoepithelial cell marker. Low expression of D2-40 is probably an indicator of malignant progresion of salivary gland tumor.%目的:分析P63、Calponin、D2-40在各型涎腺肿瘤肌上皮细胞中的表达情况,探讨D2-40标记涎腺肿瘤肌上皮细胞的价值.方法:收集附属弋矶山医院2004年1月至2010年1月的6年间,手术切除的各型涎腺肿瘤标本切片作为研究材料.采用免疫组化SP法检测各型涎腺肿瘤组织中P63、Calponin、D2-40的表达.结果:P63、Calponin、D2-40均表达于肌上皮细胞,在各型涎腺肿瘤中总的表达率分别为82.14%、76.79%、66.07%.D2-40在多形性腺瘤、腺样囊性癌、上皮-肌上皮癌均有表达,表达率分别为94.12%、61.90%、66.67%,在恶性多形性腺瘤中未见表达.D2-40在多形性腺瘤、涎腺恶性肿瘤的

  5. Model testing of radioactive contamination by 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for 90Sr in water for all considered models, 137Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and 239,240Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of 137Cs and 239,240Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE (239,240Pu) and CASSANDRA (137Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For 90Sr and 137Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of 239,240Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of 239,240Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to 137Cs and 90Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium

  6. Plutonium concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in biota collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska: recent measurements using ICP-SFMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three underground nuclear tests, including the Unites States' largest, were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Monitoring of the radiological environment around the island is challenging because of its remote location. In 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) became responsible for the long term maintenance and surveillance of the Amchitka site. The first DOE LM environmental survey occurred in 2011 and is part of a cycle of activities that will occur every 5 years. The University of Alaska Fairbanks, a participant in the 2011 study, provided the lichen (Cladonia spp.), freshwater moss (Fontinalis neomexicanus), kelp (Eualaria fistulosa) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) samples from Amchitka Island and Adak Island (a control site). These samples were analyzed for 239Pu and 240Pu concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were generally consistent with previous terrestrial and marine studies in the region. The 239+240Pu levels (mBq kg−1, dry weight) ranged from 3.79 to 57.1 for lichen, 167–700 for kelp, 27.9–148 for horse mussel, and 560–573 for moss. Lichen from Adak Island had higher Pu concentrations than Amchitka Island, the difference was likely the result of the higher precipitation at Adak compared to Amchitka. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were significantly higher in marine samples compared to terrestrial and freshwater samples (t-test, p 240Pu/239Pu ratios in terrestrial samples are within the range of global fallout. • Elevated 240Pu/239Pu in marine samples was characteristic of North Pacific Ocean. • Potential sources of enriched Pu to the marine environment regionally are suggested. • Pu ratios cannot by themselves explain the enriched Pu in seawater around Amchitka

  7. On the origin of the soft photons of the high synchrotron peaked blazar : PKS 1424+240

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Shiju; Wu, Qingwen; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a distant very high energy gamma-ray BL Lac object with redshift $z=0.601$. It was found that pure synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process normally need extreme input parameters (e.g., very low magnetic field intensity and extraordinarily large Doppler factor) to explain its multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions (SEDs). To avoid the extreme model parameters, different models have been proposed (e.g., two-zone SSC model or lepto-hadronic model). In this work, we employ the traditional one-zone leptonic model after including a weak external Compton component to re-explore the simultaneous multi-wavelength SEDs of PKS 1424+240 in both high (2009) and low (2013) states. We find that the input parameters of magnetic field and Doppler factor are roughly consistent with those of other BL Lacs if a weak external photon field from either broad line region (BLR) or the dust torus. However, the required energy density of seed photons from BLR or torus is about 3 orders of magnitude less than that...

  8. Measurement of trace uranium-235 and plutonium-239, 240 in waste tank material at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahannah, F.N.; Maxwell, S.L. III.

    1992-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), large quantities of radioactive liquid waste are evaporated to reduce volume before eventual processing through the In-Tank Precipitation process. Actinides in the liquid waste are only slightly soluble in the highly alkaline waste solution. Since some of the actinide isotopes are fissionable, the quantities being processed through the evaporator system are of interest. To better quantify the concentration and mass of fissionable material entering the evaporator system and eventually deposited as salt, analysis of the actinide elements were necessary. The predominant fissionable actinide isotopes of interest are U{sup 235} and Pu{sup 239}. To enable the reliable measurement of these radionuclides, the Central Laboratory has developed high speed separation techniques to measure U{sup 235} content by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and Pu{sup 239,240} by alpha spectrometry. Due to the high radioactivity levels in the samples all separations are performed in shielded analytical cells. Uranium is purified and concentrated using a high speed extraction chromatography technique that employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethylene) phosphate solvent coated on a small particle inert support. The uranium method enables measurement of U{sup 235} concentrations to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} g/L. Plutonium is purified and concentrated using a high speed anion exchange technique. The Pu method enables measurements of Pu{sup 239,240} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} g/L.

  9. Measurement of trace uranium-235 and plutonium-239, 240 in waste tank material at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahannah, F.N.; Maxwell, S.L. III

    1992-08-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), large quantities of radioactive liquid waste are evaporated to reduce volume before eventual processing through the In-Tank Precipitation process. Actinides in the liquid waste are only slightly soluble in the highly alkaline waste solution. Since some of the actinide isotopes are fissionable, the quantities being processed through the evaporator system are of interest. To better quantify the concentration and mass of fissionable material entering the evaporator system and eventually deposited as salt, analysis of the actinide elements were necessary. The predominant fissionable actinide isotopes of interest are U{sup 235} and Pu{sup 239}. To enable the reliable measurement of these radionuclides, the Central Laboratory has developed high speed separation techniques to measure U{sup 235} content by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and Pu{sup 239,240} by alpha spectrometry. Due to the high radioactivity levels in the samples all separations are performed in shielded analytical cells. Uranium is purified and concentrated using a high speed extraction chromatography technique that employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethylene) phosphate solvent coated on a small particle inert support. The uranium method enables measurement of U{sup 235} concentrations to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} g/L. Plutonium is purified and concentrated using a high speed anion exchange technique. The Pu method enables measurements of Pu{sup 239,240} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} g/L.

  10. Measurement of trace uranium-235 and plutonium-239, 240 in waste tank material at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), large quantities of radioactive liquid waste are evaporated to reduce volume before eventual processing through the In-Tank Precipitation process. Actinides in the liquid waste are only slightly soluble in the highly alkaline waste solution. Since some of the actinide isotopes are fissionable, the quantities being processed through the evaporator system are of interest. To better quantify the concentration and mass of fissionable material entering the evaporator system and eventually deposited as salt, analysis of the actinide elements were necessary. The predominant fissionable actinide isotopes of interest are U235 and Pu239. To enable the reliable measurement of these radionuclides, the Central Laboratory has developed high speed separation techniques to measure U235 content by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and Pu239,240 by alpha spectrometry. Due to the high radioactivity levels in the samples all separations are performed in shielded analytical cells. Uranium is purified and concentrated using a high speed extraction chromatography technique that employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethylene) phosphate solvent coated on a small particle inert support. The uranium method enables measurement of U235 concentrations to 1 x 10-4 g/L. Plutonium is purified and concentrated using a high speed anion exchange technique. The Pu method enables measurements of Pu239,240 to 2 x 10-6 g/L

  11. The Tanita SC-240 to Assess Body Composition in Pre-School Children: An Evaluation against the Three Component Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quick, easy-to-use, and valid body composition measurement options for young children are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of the bioelectrical impedance (BIA device, Tanita SC-240, to measure fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM and body fatness (BF% in 40 healthy, Swedish 5.5 years old children against the three component model (3C model. Average BF%, FM, and FFM for BIA were: 19.4% ± 3.9%, 4.1 ± 1.9 kg, and 16.4 ± 2.4 kg and were all significantly different (p < 0.001 from corresponding values for the 3C model (25.1% ± 5.5%, 5.3 ± 2.5 kg, and 15.2 ± 2.0 kg. Bland and Altman plots had wide limits of agreement for all body composition variables. Significant correlations ranging from 0.81 to 0.96 (p < 0.001 were found for BF%, FM, and FFM between BIA and the 3C model. When dividing the children into tertiles for BF%, 60% of children were classified correctly by means of BIA. In conclusion, the Tanita SC-240 underestimated BF% in comparison to the 3C model and had wide limits of agreement. Further work is needed in order to find accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing body composition in pre-school children.

  12. Determination of 90Sr, 137Cs and (239+240)Pu in waters with use of preliminary concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the simultaneous determination of artificial radionuclides (90Sr, 137Cs and (239+240)Pu) in water samples is described. The following preconcentration steps are used: co-precipitation of cesium on copper ferrocyanide; co-precipitation of plutonium on iron hydroxide; and precipitation of strontium in the carbonate form. The chemical yield is determined by using the tracers: 88Y, 85Sr, 134Cs and 236Pu or 242Pu. The method was applied to the determination of artificial radionuclides in water sources at nuclear test sites - the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and the 'Azgir' and 'Lira' test sites. The volume of water samples was 0.5 - 30.0 l, and the mineralization ranged from 0.1g/l to 100 g/l. The determination limits were: < 1 mBq/l for cesium-137; 0.02 mBq/l for plutonium-(239+240); and 1.5 mBq/l for strontium-90. The chemical yield was 60 - 90%

  13. The Tanita SC-240 to Assess Body Composition in Pre-School Children: An Evaluation against the Three Component Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Pontus; Alexandrou, Christina; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Quick, easy-to-use, and valid body composition measurement options for young children are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of the bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device, Tanita SC-240, to measure fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and body fatness (BF%) in 40 healthy, Swedish 5.5 years old children against the three component model (3C model). Average BF%, FM, and FFM for BIA were: 19.4% ± 3.9%, 4.1 ± 1.9 kg, and 16.4 ± 2.4 kg and were all significantly different (p < 0.001) from corresponding values for the 3C model (25.1% ± 5.5%, 5.3 ± 2.5 kg, and 15.2 ± 2.0 kg). Bland and Altman plots had wide limits of agreement for all body composition variables. Significant correlations ranging from 0.81 to 0.96 (p < 0.001) were found for BF%, FM, and FFM between BIA and the 3C model. When dividing the children into tertiles for BF%, 60% of children were classified correctly by means of BIA. In conclusion, the Tanita SC-240 underestimated BF% in comparison to the 3C model and had wide limits of agreement. Further work is needed in order to find accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing body composition in pre-school children. PMID:27322313

  14. Distribution and source of (129)I, (239)(,240)Pu, (137)Cs in the environment of Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ežerinskis, Ž; Hou, X L; Druteikienė, R; Puzas, A; Šapolaitė, J; Gvozdaitė, R; Gudelis, A; Buivydas, Š; Remeikis, V

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for (129)I, (137)Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of (238)Pu/((239,24)0)Pu, (129)I/(127)I and (131)I/(137)Cs were used to identify the origin of these radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu and (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios in the soil samples analyzed varied in the range of 0.02-0.18 and 0.18-0.24, respectively, suggesting the global fallout as the major source of Pu in Lithuania. The values of 10(-9) to 10(-6) for (129)I/(127)I atomic ratio revealed that the source of (129)I in Lithuania is global fallout in most cases though several sampling sites shows a possible impact of reprocessing releases. Estimated (129)I/(131)I ratio in soil samples from the southern part of Lithuania shows negligible input of the Chernobyl fallout. No correlation of the (137)Cs and Pu isotopes with (129)I was observed, indicating their different sources terms. Results demonstrate uneven distribution of these radionuclides in the Lithuanian territory and several sources of contamination i.e. Chernobyl accident, reprocessing releases and global fallout. PMID:26476410

  15. On the origin of the soft photons of the high synchrotron peaked blazar : PKS 1424+240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shi-Ju; Zheng, Yong-Gang; Wu, Qingwen; Chen, Liang

    2016-06-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a distant very high energy gamma-ray BL Lac object with redshift z = 0.601. It was found that pure synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process normally need extreme input parameters (e.g., very low magnetic field intensity and extraordinarily large Doppler factor) to explain its multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions (SEDs). To avoid the extreme model parameters, different models have been proposed (e.g., two-zone SSC model or lepto-hadronic model). In this work, we employ the traditional one-zone leptonic model after including a weak external Compton component to re-explore the simultaneous multi-wavelength SEDs of PKS 1424+240 in both high (2009) and low (2013) states. We find that the input parameters of magnetic field and Doppler factor are roughly consistent with those of other BL Lacs if a weak external photon field from either broad line region (BLR) or the dust torus. However, the required energy density of seed photons from BLR or torus is about 3 orders of magnitude less than that constrained in luminous quasars (e.g., flat-spectrum radio quasars, FSRQs). This result suggests that the BLR/torus in BL Lacs is much weaker than that of luminous FSRQs (but not fully disappear), and the inverse-Compton of external photons from BLR/torus may still play a role even in high synchrotron peaked blazars.

  16. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from PKS 1424+240 and Multiwavelength Constraints on its Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciari, V.A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Aliu, E.; /Delaware U., Bartol Inst.; Arlen, T.; /UCLA; Aune, T.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bautista, M.; /McGill U.; Beilicke, M. /Washington U., St. Louis; Benbow, W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Bottcher, M.; /Ohio U.; Boltuch, D.; /Delaware U., Bartol Inst.; Bradbury, S.M.; /Leeds U.; Buckley, J.H.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Bugaev, V.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Byrum, K.; /Argonne; Cannon, A.; /University Coll., Dublin; Cesarini, A.; /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway; Chow, Y.C.; /UCLA; Ciupik, L.; /Roosevelt U., Chicago; Cogan, P.; /McGill U.; Cui, W.; /Purdue U.; Duke, C.; /Grinnell Coll.; Falcone, A.; /Penn State U. /Purdue U. /Utah U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Purdue U. /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway /Utah U. /University Coll., Dublin /McGill U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /McGill U. /Delaware U., Bartol Inst. /Utah U. /Chicago U., EFI /Iowa State U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /DePauw U. /Utah U. /Pittsburg State U. /Washington U., St. Louis /Iowa State U. /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway /Utah U. /McGill U. /Washington U., St. Louis /McGill U. /McGill U. /Purdue U. /Anderson U. /Galway-Mayo Inst. of Tech. /Iowa State U. /UCLA; /more authors..

    2012-04-05

    We report the first detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 140GeV from PKS 1424+240, a BL Lac object with an unknown redshift. The photon spectrum above 140GeV measured by VERITAS is well described by a power law with a photon index of 3.8 {+-}0.5{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub syst} and a flux normalization at 200 GeV of (5.1 {+-} 0.9{sub stat} {+-} 0.5{sub syst}) x 10{sup -11} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, where stat and syst denote the statistical and systematical uncertainty, respectively. The VHE flux is steady over the observation period between MJD 54881 and 55003 (2009 February 19 to June 21). Flux variability is also not observed in contemporaneous high energy observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Contemporaneous X-ray and optical data were also obtained from the Swift XRT and MDM observatory, respectively. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) is well described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model favoring a redshift of less than 0.1. Using the photon index measured with Fermi in combination with recent extragalactic background light (EBL) absorption models it can be concluded from the VERITAS data that the redshift of PKS 1424+240 is less than 0.66.

  17. The Tanita SC-240 to Assess Body Composition in Pre-School Children: An Evaluation against the Three Component Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Pontus; Alexandrou, Christina; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Quick, easy-to-use, and valid body composition measurement options for young children are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of the bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device, Tanita SC-240, to measure fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and body fatness (BF%) in 40 healthy, Swedish 5.5 years old children against the three component model (3C model). Average BF%, FM, and FFM for BIA were: 19.4% ± 3.9%, 4.1 ± 1.9 kg, and 16.4 ± 2.4 kg and were all significantly different (p FFM between BIA and the 3C model. When dividing the children into tertiles for BF%, 60% of children were classified correctly by means of BIA. In conclusion, the Tanita SC-240 underestimated BF% in comparison to the 3C model and had wide limits of agreement. Further work is needed in order to find accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing body composition in pre-school children. PMID:27322313

  18. Determination of Pu-239, 240 tissue concentrations in non-occupationally exposed residents of New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.

    1977-03-01

    The study reports on the Pu-239, 240 concentrations in various tissues obtained from individuals residing in New York City. Twenty-six tissue samples have been analyzed for their Pu-239, 240 content, which include sections from the right lung, the liver, bone (4th and 5th vertebrae) and the kidney. The tissues were obtained at autopsy from a selected population not occupationally exposed to plutonium and whose deaths were the result of causes other than metabolic disorders. A detailed description is presented of the radiochemical procedures employed to separate Pu and electrochemically deposit plutonium isotopes prior to alpha spectrometry with Si surface-barrier detectors. Results of these measurements are given as activity per gram wet weight and activity per gram of calcium in the individual tissue. All results have been compared to similar measurements made at other laboratories and with estimates of concentration based on metabolic models. To date, the magnitudes and the distribution of the measured values are consistent with the values inferred from the ICRP lung model and measured concentrations of air.

  19. A modelling study on {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu behaviour in the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perianez, R. [Departamento Fisica Aplicada I, E.U. Ingenieria Tecnica Agricola, Universidad de Sevilla, Ctra., Utrera km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: rperianez@us.es

    2008-04-15

    A model for simulating the dispersion processes of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in the Alboran Sea is described. The model consists of two hydrodynamic models: a 2D depth-averaged model and a two-layer model which provide tidal and geostrophic currents, respectively; a sediment transport model which provides suspended particle concentrations and sedimentation rates over the domain; and the radionuclide dispersion model including interactions of dissolved radionuclides with suspended particles and bed sediments. These processes are formulated using kinetic transfer coefficients. The hydrodynamic and sediment models are run and validated in advance, and their results are then used to simulate the dispersion of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu, which are introduced from atmospheric fallout. Radionuclide concentrations in the water column and distributions in bed sediments have been compared with measurements in the sea. Both set of data are, in general, in agreement. The model has also been applied to calculate radionuclide fluxes through the Strait of Gibraltar. These computed fluxes have been compared with previous estimations as well.

  20. Determination of plutonium-239/240 in fish in Low-Level Radioactive Ocean Waste dump sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was concern that radioactivity might find its way into the food chain, namely fish, via low-level radioactive waste Ocean Dump Sites. This led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in collaboration with other Federal Agencies, to the monitoring and determination of radioactivity in fish samples from these Ocean Dump Sites. The radionuclide thought to be of major concern was plutonium-239/240. These sites were monitored at various periods from 1980. The sites were located off the coasts of New Jersey, California (near San Francisco) and Massachusetts Bay. The fish samples selected were shellfish that inhabited the ocean floor and bottom-feeders. The levels of activities required sophisticated measuring techniques since for plutonium-239/240, they were below the range. After a radiochemical procedure is used to separate the plutonium, it was measured using solid-state silicon detectors. These are coupled to a computer based multi-channel analyzer system. A plutonium-236 tracer is used to measure the recovery. The levels were found to be at background or in the 10 mBq range. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Laboratory studies of the diagenesis and mobility of sup(239,240)Pu and 137Cs in nearshore sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled laboratory experiments have been used to study the diagenetic chemistry of sup(239,240)Pu, 137Cs and 55Fe. Experiments using Buzzards Bay sediments in small tanks show that sulfate reduction is accompanied by the production of large pore water concentration gradients of alkalinity, phosphate, ammonia and dissolved organic carbon and the formation of subsurface maxima in Fe and Mn. These pore water profiles demonstrate that bacterially-mediated processes of organic matter degradation and redox reactions can be simulated in the laboratory. A vertical profile of 55Fe in pore waters is reported for the first time: it follows the profile of stable Fe and as such has a large subsurface maximum between 2 to 4 cm depth. Comparison of 55Fe/Fe ratios in sediments and pore waters shows that there is preferential solubilization of 55Fe over stable Fe. The pore water activities of sup(239,240)Pu show no gradients within the large uncertainties of the counting statistics, but are two to four times higher than Buzzards Bay seawater. The activity of 137Cs in the pore water profile is constant within the large counting uncertainties and is twice that of Buzzards Bay seawater. Cs-137 does not appear to be involved in diagenetic chemistry but may increase in pore waters as a result of ion exchange reactions. (author)

  2. Migration of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239+240Pu in Mediterranean forests: influence of bioavailability and association with organic acids in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of downward migration of anthropogenic radionuclides in soil is a key factor in the assessment of their environmental behavior. There are several factors that can affect this process, such as the radionuclide source, their chemical form, soil and environmental characteristics, etc. Two Mediterranean pinewood ecosystems in Spain, which were affected mainly by global fallout, were selected to assess the migration of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239+240Pu. Using auxiliary modeling (diffusion–convection equation and compartmental model), it followed from field observations that the migration velocities of 90Sr and 239+240Pu were similar and higher than that of 137Cs. The downward migration of radionuclides can be considered a consequence of their association with soil particles. A sequential speciation procedure also confirmed that 90Sr was the most bioavailable radionuclide followed by 239+240Pu and 137Cs. Although this can explain the different velocity of 90Sr and 137Cs, bioavailability could not explain by itself the similar velocities of 239+240Pu and 90Sr. The presence of organic acids in the soil can also influence the migration of radionuclides attached to them, which decreased in the order: 239+240Pu > 90Sr > 137Cs. Thus, the joint consideration of bioavailable and humic + fulvic acid fractions can explain the observed differences in the downward velocities. - Highlights: • Downward migration velocities of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in two Mediterranean forests were determined. • Downward migration velocities: 90Sr ≈ 239+240Pu > 137Cs. • Bioavailability by itself (90Sr > 239+240Pu > 137Cs) does not explain differences in migration velocities. • Humic + Fulvic acids: 239+240Pu > 90Sr > 137Cs. • Humic + Fulvic acids and bioavailable fraction can explain the downward migration velocities

  3. Application of milling machine control system based on TMS320C240 DSP and single chip micro processor%基于TMS320C240 DSP的龙门铣床控制系统应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祖林; 周冬芳

    2003-01-01

    TMS320C24X是专为电机数字控制和其它控制应用系统而设计的系列DSP芯片,针对龙门铣床直流拖动控制系统,设计了以TMS320C240 DSP为控制核心与单片机相结合的数字控制系统,介绍了系统的硬件组成和软件设计算法,实际运行结果表明该系统具有良好的动态性能和较高的速度控制精度.

  4. Comparative study of scattered radiation levels from 80-kVp and 240-kVp x rays in the surgical intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of scattered radiation from 80-kVp and 240-kVp mobile x-ray units were measured in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU). The intensity of scatter of the 240-kVp x rays does not decrease with distance as rapidly as with the 80-kVp beam. In an ICU with four beds, the weekly radiation exposure at the nurses's station approximated 0.05 mR (0.13 x 10-7 C/kg) for the 80-kVp beam and 0.2 mR (0.52 x 10-7 C/kg) for the 240-kVp beam. Thus, the annual exposure from either unit would be well below the Maximum Permissible Exposure for nonoccupational workers

  5. Low energy transmission measurements of 240,242Pu at Galina and their impact on the capture width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an approach to account for sample inhomogeneities as observed in thin powder samples. To test this model a series of transmission measurements on enriched 240Pu and 242Pu oxide samples was carried out. These measurements were performed at GELINA, the pulsed, white neutron source at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements in Geel. For all samples a mixture of PuO2 and graphite powder was used. To reduce the influence of the models for Doppler broadening on the extracted resonance parameters, measurements were performed with sample temperatures of approximately 12 K, 77 K and 300 K. To describe the variation in the sample thickness, caused by the particle distribution in a thin powder sample, a Monte Carlo and an analytical description were used in the resonance shape analysis. The values and uncertainties of the extracted resonance parameters are discussed, and suggestion for future measurements are given. (authors)

  6. Towards high accurate neutron-induced fission cross sections of 240,242Pu: Spontaneous fission half-lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Eykens, R.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Moens, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Pretel, C.; Sibbens, G.; Vanleeuw, D.; Vidali, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fast spectrum neutron-induced fission cross sections of transuranic isotopes are being of special demand in order to provide accurate data for the new GEN-IV nuclear power plants. To minimize the uncertainties on these measurements accurate data on spontaneous fission half-lives and detector efficiencies are a key point. High α-active actinides need special attention since the misinterpretation of detector signals can lead to low efficiency values or underestimation in fission fragment detection. In that context, 240,242Pu isotopes have been studied by means of a Twin Frisch-Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC) for measurements of their neutron-induced fission cross section. Gases with different drift velocities have been used, namely P10 and CH4. The detector efficiencies for both samples have been determined and improved spontaneous fission half-life values were obtained.

  7. Research of the pre-launch powered lubrication device of major parts of the engine D-240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchuganova, M.; Syrbakov, A.; Tkachev, A.; Zorina, T.

    2015-09-01

    In the publication, the issues have been considered concerning combustion engine start wear of mobile machines in case of outside storage in the conditions of low environmental temperature. Based on the analysis of existing methods and constructions of powered lubrication devices for contact surfaces of engines, a design of a combined device has been suggested which unites the functions of hydraulic and heat accumulators. On the basis of the elaborated design, preparatory tests have been conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of pre-start oil circulation in the engine D-240, as well as the effectiveness rate of thermoinsulation and the heating device of the hydraulic accumulator. The findings of the survey have shown that the pre-start powered lubrication device for major parts of the engine is effective.

  8. Measurement of the fission cross-section of $^{240}$Pu and $^{242}$Pu at CERN's n_TOF Facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Pavlik, A F; Gonzalez romero, E M

    The n_TOF Collaboration proposes to continue the fission program, already started in 2002-2004, taking advantage of the newly constructed Work Sector Type A, with the measurement of the two isotopes : $^{240}$ Pu and $^{242}$ Pu. They are both of major importance for reactor physics applications and are included in the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) High Priority List [1], in the NEA WPEC Subgroup 26 Report on the accuracy of nuclear data for advanced reactor designe [2] and in the EU 6$^{th}$ Framework Programme IP-EUROTRANS/NUDATRA reports [3]. Based on those requests, the measurement of the fission cross-section of the two Pu isotopes is one of the objectives of the project ANDES of the FP7 EURATOM program [4].

  9. Polonium 210Po, uranium (234U, 238U and plutonium (238Pu, 239+240Pu bioaccumulation in marine birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the determination of 210Po, 234U, 238U, 238Pu and 239+240Pu concentration in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the southern Baltic Sea coast. We chose 11 species of seabirds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that analyzed radionuclides are non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver. The highest uranium content was found in liver, rest of viscera and feathers, while plutonium in the digestion organs and feathers. Omnivore seabirds accumulated more polonium, plutonium than species that feed on fish, while herbivore seabirds accumulated more uranium than carnivore.

  10. Towards high accurate neutron-induced fission cross sections of 240,242Pu: Spontaneous fission half-lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador-Castiñeira P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast spectrum neutron-induced fission cross sections of transuranic isotopes are being of special demand in order to provide accurate data for the new GEN-IV nuclear power plants. To minimize the uncertainties on these measurements accurate data on spontaneous fission half-lives and detector efficiencies are a key point. High α-active actinides need special attention since the misinterpretation of detector signals can lead to low efficiency values or underestimation in fission fragment detection. In that context, 240,242Pu isotopes have been studied by means of a Twin Frisch-Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC for measurements of their neutron-induced fission cross section. Gases with different drift velocities have been used, namely P10 and CH4. The detector efficiencies for both samples have been determined and improved spontaneous fission half-life values were obtained.

  11. sup(239/240)Pu, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 40K in different types of honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the concentration of radionuclides in honey is of interest because this foodstuff consumed worldwide could be a source of radionuclides to man. Besides that, honey is used as a bioindicator for several radionuclides because the bees forage for nectar, pollen or honeydew over a large area of landscape. In this connection, it is of special interest to know when, and, if so, to what extent the concentrations of radionuclides in the honey depend on the type of honey sampled by the bees. For this reason, we determined sup(239/240)Pu, 137Cs, 90Sr and 40K in three important types of honey produced in the F.R.G., namely in honey from flowers, from honeydew and from heather. The data obtained in this way was used also to investigate whether significant correlations exist between these radionuclides in the various honey samples. (author)

  12. References to Studies of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in the Pacific Ocean a Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.

    2001-02-01

    This report contains a listing of publications known to this author on reported concentrations, reviews and discussions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu in seawater, sediment and the biota from parts of the North and South Pacific Ocean. Each reference has been assigned an accession number consisting of the first three letters of the first author's last name followed by the first letter of the first name, the year of the publication and an assigned number. Studies in both the coastal areas and the open ocean are included as well as those providing data within lagoons of coral atolls. Some references to the radionuclides in the Indian Ocean are also provided.

  13. Neutron-induced fission cross section of Pu-240 from 0.5 MeV to 3 MeV

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Castiñeira, Paula Genoveva; Brys, Tomasz; Eykens, Roger; Hambsch, Franz Josef; Gook, A.; Moens, André; Oberstedt, Stephan; Sibbens, Geodele; Vanleeuw, David; Vidali, Marzio; Pretel Sánchez, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Pu-240 has recently been pointed out by a sensitivity study of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) to be one of the isotopes whose fission cross section lacks accuracy to meet the upcoming needs for the future generation of nuclear power plants (GEN-IV). In the High Priority Request List (HPRL) of the OECD, it is suggested that the knowledge of the Pu-240(n, f) cross section should be improved to an accuracy within 1-3 %, compared to th...

  14. Behaviors and transfers of anthropogenic radionuclides (137Cs, 239+240Pu and 241Am) in a protected alpine wetland (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to confirm and increase the knowledge on anthropogenic radionuclide (RN) behavior (137Cs, 239+240Pu, 241Am) in natural compartments (artificial pool in a protected upland area). The novelty lies on comparisons of the three main compartments (pool water, soil, sediments) of this original mountainous site. Migration processes and transfers were particularly detailed in the light of two processes: lixiviation and leaching. Regarding 238U, anthropogenic RNs, lithology, organic matter contents, sedimentation rates (210Pb) and isotopic mass balances, RNs are mainly transported by leaching processes with higher 241Am in-depth mobility compared to 137Cs (intermediate for 239+240Pu). (author)

  15. Genotype by environment interaction in different birth seasons for weight at 240, 365 and 450 days of age in Tabapuã cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Severino Cavalcante de Sousa Júnior; Iara Del Pilar Solar Diaz; Karina Rodrigues dos Santos; José Ernandes Rufino de Sousa; José Lindenberg Rocha Sarmento; Raimundo Martins Filho

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of genotype by environment interaction (GEI) on the weight of Tabapuã cattle at 240 (W240), 365 (W365) and 450 (W450) days of age. In total, 35,732 records of 8,458 Tabapuã animals which were born in the state of Bahia, Brazil, from 1975 to 2001, from 167 sires and 3,707 dams, were used. Two birth seasons were tested as for the environment effect: the dry (D) and rainy (R) ones. The covariance components were obtained by a multiple-trait ...

  16. Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential applications for devices or systems containing 252Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on 252Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of 252Cf devices should increase from 1.5 million dollars in 1975 to 10.8 million dollars in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of 252Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US

  17. The protective cell petrus for the production of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha, beta, gamma, neutron cell which is described in the present paper is devoted to the transplutonium element production and study. It is located at the CEN in Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). The 4 feet ordinary concrete shielding made of stacked blocs allows the manipulation of radioactive sources as high as 1000 curies of 1 MeV gamma rays and with a fast neutrons flux of 109 n.cm-2.s-1. The airtight alpha containment box is equipped with two transfer systems, one consists of a parallelepiped shaped airtight box located in a turntable, the other uses standard cylindrical containers made of polyethylene. The general equipment and the main setting up are also described. (authors)

  18. Californium-252 neutron activation facility at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron irradiation facility has been established to develop new analytical methods and for the support of research programs. A major component of this facility is a 252Cf source which provides both fission spectrum and thermal neutrons. (U.S.)

  19. Californium-252 brachytherapy for anal and ano-rectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery has historically been the standard treatment for anal, ano-rectal and rectal carcinoma but is prone to local or regional failure. Over the past 15 years there has been increasing interest in and success with radiation therapy and combined chemoradiotherapy for treatment of anal and ano-rectal cancers. Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with external beam teletherapy has been investigated for anal and ano-rectal lesions at the Univ. of Kentucky with encouraging results

  20. Mobile equipment for neutron radiography using a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirements for successful neutron radiography are first summarised and the use of 252Cf is placed in perspective by comparing its properties with those of sources based on the Be (γ, n) and Be (α, n) reactions which have a broadly similar range of applications. The more essential design features of mobile neutron radiography equipment are next examined in some detail, to show how the often conflicting requirements of optimum beam production and adequate shielding may be reconciled. An assembly with a maximum dimension around 1 m with a source of 1 mg is used as an example. The design data used are reproduced in graphical form to permit designs to be scaled to suit the source available and the requirements. The selection of suitable image recorders for 252Cf radiography is discussed with the conclusion that the gadolinium foil-film combinations are likely to remain the normal choice. Demonstration radiographs are presented with particular reference to the location of residual casting sand in gas-cooled turbine blades. Finally, it is suggested that other applications for mobile 252Cf-based neutron radiography equipment will be found in the ordnance, aero-space, chemical and nuclear fuel manufacturing industries. (author)

  1. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  2. Californium-based neutron radiography for corrosion detection in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of an overall program aimed at minimizing disassembly and reducing inspection time during aircraft maintenance, a series of projects has been carried out to determine the feasibility of applying neutron radiographic techniques to the nondestructive (NDT) inspection of aircraft and aircraft components. These investigations have clearly demonstrated the superiority of neutron radiography over all other NDT techniques in its ability to detect surface and subsurface corrosion in aircraft structure. This capability is particularly significant where the corrosion is hidden behind thick metallic structural members. The neutron radiographic technique has been applied successfully to detect corrosion in the wing tank of E-2C, C-130, and DC-9 aircraft; rear stabilators of F-4 and F-111 aircraft; aft spar, starboard and port wing, and rudder of the F-8; fuselage skin of the 727; rotary blades of AH-1 and SH-3 helicopters; rotary tail flaps of the UH-2 helicopter; and nose landing gear of A-7 aircraft

  3. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 100-mg 252Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17O. Detection sensitivities of 239Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  4. Bioturbation depths, rates and processes in Massachusetts Bay sediments inferred from modeling of 210Pb and 239 + 240Pu profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, John; Bothner, Michael H.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    2004-01-01

    Profiles of 210Pb and 239 + Pu from sediment cores collected throughout Massachusetts Bay (water depths of 36-192 m) are interpreted with the aid of a numerical sediment-mixing model to infer bioturbation depths, rates and processes. The nuclide data suggest extensive bioturbation to depths of 25-35 cm. Roughly half the cores have 210Pb and 239 + 240Pu profiles that decrease monotonically from the surface and are consistent with biodiffusive mixing. Bioturbation rates are reasonably well constrained by these profiles and vary from ~0.7 to ~40 cm2 yr-1. As a result of this extensive reworking, however, sediment ages cannot be accurately determined from these radionuclides and only upper limits on sedimentation rates (of ~0.3 cm yr-1) can be inferred. The other half of the radionuclide profiles are characterized by subsurface maxima in each nuclide, which cannot be reproduced by biodiffusive mixing models. A numerical model is used to demonstrate that mixing caused by organisms that feed at the sediment surface and defecate below the surface can cause the subsurface maxima, as suggested by previous work. The deep penetration depths of excess 210Pb and 239 + 240Pu suggest either that the organisms release material over a range of >15 cm depth or that biodiffusive mixing mediated by other organisms is occurring at depth. Additional constraints from surficial sediment 234Th data suggest that in this half of the cores, the vast majority of the present-day flux of recent, nuclide-bearing material to these core sites is transported over a timescale of a month or more to a depth of a few centimeters below the sediment surface. As a consequence of the complex mixing processes, surface sediments include material spanning a range of ages and will not accurately record recent changes in contaminant deposition.

  5. On the origin of the soft photons of the high-synchrotron-peaked blazar PKS 1424+240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shi-Ju; Zheng, Yong-Gang; Wu, Qingwen; Chen, Liang

    2016-09-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a distant very-high-energy gamma-ray BL Lac object with redshift z = 0.601. It has been found that models utilizing pure synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) processes normally need extreme input parameters (e.g. a very low magnetic field intensity and an extraordinarily high Doppler factor) to explain this particular object spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In order to avoid these extreme model parameters, various other models have been proposed (e.g. the two-zone SSC model or lepto-hadronic model). In this work, we employ the traditional one-zone leptonic model after including a weak external Compton component in order to explore the simultaneous multiwavelength SEDs of PKS 1424+240 in both the high (2009) and the low (2013) state. We find that the input parameters of the magnetic field and Doppler factor are roughly consistent with those of other BL Lacs if a weak external photon field from either the broad line region (BLR) or the dust torus is assumed. However, the required energy density of seed photons from the BLR or torus is about three orders of magnitude lower than that the energy density estimated from the observations in luminous quasars (e.g. flat-spectrum radio quasars, FSRQs). This result suggests that the BLR/torus in BL Lacs is much weaker than that of luminous FSRQs (but has not fully disappeared), and that the inverse-Compton process of external photons from the BLR/torus may still play a role even in high-synchrotron-peaked blazars.

  6. A comparative study of 239,240Pu in soil near the former Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Facility, Golden, CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant near Golden, CO released plutonium into the environment during almost 40 years of operation. Continuing concern over possible health impacts of these releases has been heightened by lack of public disclosure of the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. A dose reconstruction study for the Rocky Flats facilities, begun in 1990, provided a unique opportunity for concerned citizens to design and implement field studies without participation of the DOE, its contractors, or other government agencies. The Citizens Environmental Sampling Committee was formed in late 1992 and conducted a field sampling program in 1994. Over 60 soil samples, including both surface and core samples, were collected from 28 locations where past human activities would have minimal influence on contaminant distributions in soil. Cesium-137 activity was used as a means to assess whether samples were collected in undisturbed locations. The distribution of plutonium (as 239,240Pu) in soil was consistent with past sampling conducted by DOE, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, and others. Elevated levels of 239,240Pu were found immediately east of the Rocky Flats Plant, with concentrations falling rapidly with distance from the plant to levels consistent with background from fallout. Samples collected in areas south, west, and north of the plant were generally consistent with background from fallout. No biases in past sampling due to choice of sampling locations or sampling methodology were evident. The study shows that local citizens, when provided sufficient resources, can design and implement technical studies that directly address community concerns where trust in the regulated community and/or regulators is low

  7. 17 CFR 240.12f-2 - Extending unlisted trading privileges to a security that is the subject of an initial public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extending unlisted trading... Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-2 Extending unlisted trading privileges to a security that is the subject of an initial public offering. (a) General provision. A national securities exchange may extend unlisted...

  8. 8 CFR 240.21 - Suspension of deportation and adjustment of status under section 244(a) of the Act (as in effect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provided in 8 CFR 240.21 (as in effect prior to September 30, 1998). (b) Conditional grants of suspension... before the Board as of September 30, 1998 or, if the right to appeal to the Board has not been waived... moral character on a ground not specifically noted in section 101(f) of the Act, a failure to...

  9. Distribution and source of 129I, 239,240Pu, 137Cs in the environment of Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezerinskis, Z.; Hou, Xiaolin; Druteikiene, R.;

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for 129I, 137Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu, 129I/127I and 131I/137Cs were u...

  10. 240Pu(n,f), 242Pu(n,f), 237Np(n,f), neutron fission cross sections, Esub(n) = 2.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the absolute neutron fission cross section of 240Pu, 242Pu and 237Np have been made at 2.5 MeV using a hybrid detector. The fission events were detected in an ionization chamber (2π) and the neutron flux was determined by a proton recoil telescope and a directional long counter. Our values are compared to previous data

  11. The value of positive Oct3/4 and D2-40 immunohistochemical expression in prediction of germ cell neoplasia in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen-Linde, Erik; Kvist, Kolja; Cortes, Dina;

    2016-01-01

    14 years, 6 months operated on for cryptorchidism were incubated with primary antibodies including anti-placental-like alkaline phosphatase, anti-Oct3/4, anti-C-kit and anti-D2-40 receptor. RESULTS: One 3-year, 8-month-old boy with 45X/46XY disorder of sexual development had ITGCN and all positive...

  12. Perturbation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediment following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marine sediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of ∼0.18. Measurements of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing, has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the 240Pu/239Pu ratio has been examined in samples of sediment collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The 240Pu/239Pu ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution. The analytical results showed that at Thule the mean 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio was 0.033±0.004, while at Palomares the equivalent ratio appeared to be significantly higher at 0.056±0.003. Both ratios are consistent with those reported for soils samples at the Nevada site and Nagasaki, and are clearly indicative of weapons-grade plutonium. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. 20 CFR 661.240 - How do the unified planning requirements apply to the five-year strategic WIA and Wagner-Peyser...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do the unified planning requirements apply to the five-year strategic WIA and Wagner-Peyser plan and to other Department of Labor plans? 661... ACT State Governance Provisions § 661.240 How do the unified planning requirements apply to the...

  14. 17 CFR 240.12a-7 - Exemption of stock contained in standardized market baskets from section 12(a) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Exempted from Registration § 240.12a-7 Exemption of stock contained in standardized market baskets from section 12(a) of the Act. (a) Any component stock of a standardized market basket shall be exempt from the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of stock...

  15. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-11 - Reports regarding aged record differences, buy-ins and failure to post certificate detail to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-11 Reports... and subsidiary files. (a) Definitions. (1) Issuer capitalization means the market value of the issuer... differences, buy-ins and failure to post certificate detail to master securityholder and subsidiary files....

  16. Deposition of [sup 210]Pb, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 239+240]Pu, [sup 238]Pu, and [sup 241]Am in the Antarctic peninsula area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P.; Holm, E.; Persson, R.B.R. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics); Aarkrog, A.; Nielsen, S.P. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark))

    1994-01-01

    [sup 210]Pb, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 239+240]Pu, [sup 238]Pu, and [sup 241]Am were analysed in lichen, moss, grass and soil samples, as well as in lake sediments, from the South Shetland Islands, the Antarctic, in order to evaluate the flux and deposition of these elements. Average inventories of the analysed radionuclides in 1988 are given. The ratios [sup 238]Pu/[sup 239+240]Pu and [sup 241]Am/[sup 239+240]Pu of 0.21 [+-] 0.04 and 0.35 [+-] 0.08 respectively agree well with expected values in this area. A significant difference in [sup 137]Cs/[sup 239+240]Pu ratios between lichens and moss/grass/soil is observed which may be an effect of submerging and melt water altering radionuclide ratios. From one of three lakes studied it is possible to perform [sup 210]Pb dating with reasonable accuracy showing an average annual sediment accumulation in this lake of about 45 g m[sup -2]. (author).

  17. Genotype by environment interaction in different birth seasons for weight at 240, 365 and 450 days of age in Tabapuã cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Cavalcante de Sousa Júnior

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of genotype by environment interaction (GEI on the weight of Tabapuã cattle at 240 (W240, 365 (W365 and 450 (W450 days of age. In total, 35,732 records of 8,458 Tabapuã animals which were born in the state of Bahia, Brazil, from 1975 to 2001, from 167 sires and 3,707 dams, were used. Two birth seasons were tested as for the environment effect: the dry (D and rainy (R ones. The covariance components were obtained by a multiple-trait analysis using Bayesian inference, in which each trait was considered as being different in each season. Covariance components were estimated by software gibbs2f90. As for W240, the model was comprised of contemporary groups and cow age (in classes as fixed effects; animal and maternal genetic additive, maternal permanent environmental and residual were considered as random effects. Concerning W365 and W450, the model included only the contemporary aged cow groups as fixed effects and the genetic additive and residual effects of the animal as the random ones. The GEI was assessed considering the genetic correlation, in which values below 0.80 indicated the presence of GEI. Regarding W365 and W450, the GEI was found in both seasons. As for post-weaning weight (W240, the effect of such interaction was not observed.

  18. Latitudinal distribution and sedimentation of 90Sr, 137Cs, 241Am and 239,240Pu in bottom sediment of the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies (WOMARS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco, bottom sediment samples were collected along with water column samples in 1997 from the Northwest Pacific Ocean, and were analysed for 90Sr, 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am contents in order to identify current distribution patterns and inventories, and to elucidate sources of these radionuclides in the region where the past US nuclear weapons tests were carried out. This study complements a previous reports on bottom sediments and water column. All the reported sediment data including data from 1997 cruise revealed that sedimentary 239+240Pu and 241Am concentrations peaked both in the latitudinal bands between 10-20 deg. N and 30-40 deg. N, and 137Cs and 90Sr in the latitudinal band between 30-40 deg. N. The latitudinal bands between 10-20 deg. N and 30-40 deg. N correspond to the major areas affected by close-in fallout and global fallout, respectively. Sediment inventories of 239,240Pu and 241Am exceeded or nearly equalled their overlying water inventories near the Bikini Atoll, however, in mid latitudes, more than 70% of 239,240Pu still remains in the water column. Sediment inventories of 137Cs and 90Sr account for about ten and less than five percent of the water column inventories, respectively. 241Am inventories in sediments exceeded those of the water column. The activity ratios of 137Cs/90Sr and 241Am/239,240Pu in sediments were higher than of the global fallout ratios. 90Sr content in the bottom sediments also appears to be controlled by the carbonate contents of the sea floor. The relative contribution of global and close-in fallouts to the total 239,240Pu was estimated using a two end-member mixing model based on the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu. The contribution of close-in fallout in sediment appears to be about 56 % for the latitudinal belt 10-20 deg. N. It is not unexpected that close-in fallout Pu

  19. Latitudinal distribution and sedimentation of 90Sr, 137Cs, 241Am and 239,240Pu in bottom sediment of the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies (WOMARS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco, bottom sediment samples were collected along with water column samples in 1997 from the Northwest Pacific Ocean, and were analysed for 90Sr, 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am contents in order to identify current distribution patterns and inventories, and to elucidate sources of these radionuclides in the region where the past US nuclear weapons tests were carried out. This study complements a previous reports on bottom sediments and water column. All the reported sediment data including data from 1997 cruise revealed that sedimentary 239+240Pu and 241Am concentrations peaked both in the latitudinal bands between 10-20 deg. N and 30-40 deg. N, and 137Cs and 90Sr in the latitudinal band between 30-40 deg. N. The latitudinal bands between 10-20 deg N and 30-40 deg. N correspond to the major areas affected by close-in fallout and global fallout, respectively. Sediment inventories of 239+240Pu and 241Am exceeded or nearly equalled their overlying water inventories near the Bikini Atoll, however, in mid latitudes, more than 70% of 239+240Pu still remains in the water column. Sediment inventories of 137Cs and 90Sr account for about ten and less than five percent of the water column inventories, respectively. 241Am inventories in sediments exceeded those of the water column. The activity ratios of 137Cs/90Sr and 241Am/239,240Pu in sediments were higher than of the global fallout ratios. 90Sr content in the bottom sediments also appears to be controlled by the carbonate contents of the sea floor. The relative contribution of global and close-in fallouts to the total 239,240Pu was estimated using a two end-member mixing model based on the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu. The contribution of close-in fallout in sediment appears to be about 56 % for the latitudinal belt 10-20 deg. N. It is not unexpected that close-in fallout Pu

  20. 239+240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, and algae collected around the Japanese coast in the early 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine organisms, i.e. fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, and algae, were collected in the early 1990s along the Sea of Japan coast and the Japanese Pacific coast and analyzed for their 239+240Pu and 137Cs concentrations. The 239+240Pu concentrations in muscle of fish were below 0.4 mBq/kg wet wt. and the lowest among the analyzed marine organisms. Most 137Cs concentrations in muscle of fish ranged from 100 to 300 mBq/kg wet wt. Higher concentrations of 239+240Pu, ranging from 1.6 to 5.7 mBq/kg wet wt., were observed in viscera of cephalopods than in their muscle. The 239+240Pu concentrations in whole soft tissues of bivalves varied approximately one order of magnitude from 0.8 to 6.1 mBq/kg wet wt., while 137Cs concentrations had little variation, being approximately 60 mBq/kg wet wt. The 239+240Pu concentrations in algae had a wide variation, ranging from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt., and were higher than those of the other marine organisms. No statistically significant difference in mean concentrations of 239+240Pu was detected among the whole soft tissues of bivalves, viscera of cephalopods and crustaceans, and whole bodies of cephalopods and crustaceans within the 95% confidence limit. The mean concentrations of 137Cs became higher in the order, cephalopods and crustaceans and bivalves, algae, viscera of fish, muscles of fish. The mean concentrations of 239+240Pu were comparable for algae collected along the Japan Sea coast and the Pacific coast. Furthermore, the difference in mean concentrations of 137Cs in algae between the Japan Sea coast and the Pacific coast was not statistically significant within the 95% confidence limit. These results can be considered to indicate no definite influence from radioactive dumping into the Japan Sea by the former USSR and Russia with respect to radioactive pollution of marine organisms collected along the Japanese coast

  1. 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am in boreal forest soil and their transfer into wild mushrooms and berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profiles of podzolic soil from boreal forests were sampled from eight sites in Finland and the distribution of 137Cs in the soil layers was determined. In addition, 239,240Pu and 241Am were determined from two soil profiles taken at one sampling site. Inventories of 137Cs in the soil profiles varied between 1.7 kBq/m2 and 42 kBq/m2, reflecting known variation in 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The highest proportions of the radionuclides were found in the organic layer at a depth of less than 5 cm, which on average contained 47% of 137Cs, 76% of 239,240Pu and 79% of 241Am. In the litter, clearly higher proportions of 137Cs were found compared to 239,240Pu and 241Am, probably indicating its more effective recycling from the organic layer back to the surface. Only very minor proportions of 137Cs were recorded below 20 cm. The concentration of 137Cs in the soil profiles could be approximated with a declining logarithmic trend. The activity concentrations of 137Cs were determined for six wild mushroom species and three wild berry species at two sites, as well as the aggregated transfer factors and the distribution of 137Cs between their various parts. In addition, 239,240Pu and 241Am were determined in one mushroom and three berry species at one site. Very high concentrations of 137Cs, up to 20 kBq/kg (d.w.), were found in mushrooms, and their transfer factors were between 0.1 m2/kg and 1.0 m2/kg. In berries, the transfer factors were an order of magnitude lower. 137Cs accumulated more in the caps of mushrooms and in the fruits of berries than in other parts. Transfer factors for 239,240Pu and 241Am were two to three orders of magnitude lower than those of 137Cs. - Highlights: ► 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am mainly concentrated in organic layer in podzolic soil. ► Distribution of 137Cs in the upper 20 cm soil follows exponential declining trend. ► 137Cs concentrates into mushrooms but varies considerably between species. ► 137Cs concentrates in mushroom

  2. Clinical observation of 3 antifungal creams in treating the 240 patients with superficial mycoses%3种抗真菌药物治疗浅部真菌病240例临床探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德华; 刘群英; 黄熙; 程培华; 黄苹

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨复方硝酸益康唑乳膏、特比奈芬乳膏、联苯苄唑乳膏外用治疗浅部皮肤真菌病的疗效.方法:共观察浅部皮肤真菌病240例,随机分为A、B、C 3组,每组各80例.A组外用复方硝酸益康唑乳膏;B组外用特比奈芬乳膏;C组外用联苯苄唑乳膏;均外涂2次/d,3组疗程均为2周,比较其临床疗效.结果:A组治愈率65.0%,总有效率为82.5%;B组治愈率60.0%,总有效率为80.0%;C组治愈率61.3%,总有效率为81.3%,3组临床疗效经统计学处理无显著差异(P>0.05).结论:3种抗真菌药物乳膏外用治疗浅部皮肤真菌病疗效肯定,安全性好,价格适中,可作为临床常规用药.

  3. Quantification of gastrointestinal liquid volumes and distribution following a 240 mL dose of water in the fasted state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Deanna M; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Pritchard, Susan E; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Marciani, Luca

    2014-09-01

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent upon the volumes and distribution of gastric and small intestinal water. However, little is known about the time courses and distribution of water volumes in vivo in an undisturbed gut. Previous imaging studies offered a snapshot of water distribution in fasted humans and showed that water in the small intestine is distributed in small pockets. This study aimed to quantify the volume and number of water pockets in the upper gut of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of a glass of water (240 mL, as recommended for bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies), using recently validated noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent upper and lower abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water, they were scanned at intervals for 2 h. The drink volume, inclusion criteria, and fasting conditions matched the international standards for BA/BE testing in healthy volunteers. The images were processed for gastric and intestinal total water volumes and for the number and volume of separate intestinal water pockets larger than 0.5 mL. The fasted stomach contained 35 ± 7 mL (mean ± SEM) of resting water. Upon drinking, the gastric fluid rose to 242 ± 9 mL. The gastric water volume declined rapidly after that with a half emptying time (T50%) of 13 ± 1 min. The mean gastric volume returned back to baseline 45 min after the drink. The fasted small bowel contained a total volume of 43 ± 14 mL of resting water. Twelve minutes after ingestion of water, small bowel water content rose to a maximum value of 94 ± 24 mL contained within 15 ± 2 pockets of 6 ± 2 mL each. At 45 min, when the glass of water had emptied completely from the stomach, total intestinal water volume was 77 ± 15 mL distributed into 16 ± 3 pockets of 5 ± 1 mL each. MRI provided unprecedented insights into

  4. Using 239+240Pu atmospheric deposition and a simplified mass-balance model to re-estimate the soil erosion rate. A case study of Liaodong Bay in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the mass balance model of 137Cs and introducing 239+240Pu atmospheric deposition, a simplified mass balance model of 239+240Pu was developed and the soil erosion rate was re-estimated. The results indicated that the reference inventory of 239+240Pu was estimated to be 88.4 Bq/m2 in Liaodong Bay. In addition, the atomic ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in all core samples were approximately 0.18, which indicated that the major source of Pu was the global fallout. Statistical analysis of the erosion rates derived from the model demonstrates that the 239+240Pu atmospheric deposition is a feasible way to estimate the soil erosion rate and further improve tracer technique to assess the soil erosion rate. (author)

  5. Distribution of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in Caspian Sea water and biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Froehlich, Klaus; Gastaud, Janine; Oregioni, Beniamino; Pagava, Samson V.; Pham, Mai K.; Rusetski, Vladimir

    2003-09-01

    Two sampling expeditions were carried out in the Caspian Sea in 1995 and 1996. The aim was to investigate oceanographic conditions, water dynamics of the Sea and to measure radionuclide concentrations using 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu as tracers in the water column. Of the three basins comprising the Caspian Sea, the two deep basins (the central and southern basins) appear to be rapidly ventilated on a time scale of about 30 years, as shown by the penetration of radionuclides to bottom waters. The main source of radionuclides in the Sea has been global fallout and subsequent river run-off from catchment areas. At the stations visited, there were no signs of radioactive waste dumping, although the 90Sr levels found were higher than expected from global fallout, which may be due to remobilization of 90Sr from soil and its transport by rivers to the Sea. Radionuclide concentrations in fish and caviar are within the expected ranges and are not of radiological importance for consumption of fish and caviar from the Caspian Sea.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-01-25

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 240, Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, which is located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  7. 人工流产术后即时放置宫内节育器240例观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察比较人工流产术后即时放置爱母IUD和母体乐375 IUD的临床效果.方法 选择知情同意于人工流产术后放置IUD的育龄妇女240例,随机分成A、B 2组各120例,分别放置爱母IUD、母体乐375 IUD,并进行12个月的随访观察和比较.结果 爱母IUD和母体乐375 IUD在腰酸腹坠、白带增多、移位脱落、带器妊娠、因症取出率等方面差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 爱母IUD更适合人工流产术后即时放置.

  8. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer. PMID:26141189

  9. Decreasing monsoon precipitation in southwest China during the last 240 years associated with the warming of tropical ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liangcheng; Cai, Yanjun; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Hai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Gao, Yongli; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    Based on an absolutely dated stalagmite δ18O record from Yunnan province, China, we reconstructed monsoon precipitation variations in southwest China since 1760 AD with a resolution of about 2 years. Combining the speleothem δ18O and observed rainfall records, we find an overall decreasing trend in monsoon precipitation in this region and suggest that the recent drought in 2009-2012 AD has been the driest since 1760 AD. Our speleothem record is consistent with the monsoon precipitation records reconstructed from tree rings in the Nepal Himalaya and southeastern Tibetan Plateau. However, it is anti-correlated with a speleothem record from central India, which confirms the observed anti-phase variations of Indian monsoon precipitation with moistures from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea on multi-decadal to centennial timescales during historical time. The long-term warming of tropical ocean may have caused the decrease of the land-sea thermal gradient and the amount of moisture transported from the Bay of Bengal, which may reduce precipitations in southwest China during the last 240 years. On decadal scale, El Nińo-like conditions of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature may cause drought in this region. Climate model simulations suggest El Niño-like conditions exist in tropical Pacific under global warming scenarios. As a result, it is crucial to have adaptive strategies to overcome future declines in precipitation and/or drought events in southwest China.

  10. Coincident measurement of the reaction of 16O(πsup(+-),πsup(+-)'p) at 240 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a coincidence measurement the reactions 0-16(π+,π+'p) and 0-16(π-,π4p) were studied at an incident energy of the pions of 240 MeV. The scattered pion and the outknocked proton were thereby detected over a large angular and energy range, and the shell state of the interacting proton in 0-16 before the reaction was determined. With this it is possible to identify the direct quasi-free reaction of the pion and to study its behaviour. The experimental arrangement necessary for this as well as the main topics of the data analysis are described, and the results are presented and discussed in the form of differential cross sections. The experiments were performed at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research and used the SUSI spectrometer for the detection of the pions and large-area scintillator telescopes for the spectroscopy of the outknocked protons. A comparized of the differential cross sections for π+ with theoretical calculations in the DWIA formalism shows for the quasi-free reaction contributions the same qualitative behaviour. For the ratio of π+ to π- induced reactions large differences to the free πp scattering result. They are qualitatively described by calculations in the Δ-hole formalism by means of an isospin dependent Δ-nucleus interaction and permit with this a first determination of the single isospin component of the interaction. (orig./HSI)

  11. MM-MDS: a multidimensional scaling database with similarity ratings for 240 object categories from the Massive Memory picture database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Michael C; Goldinger, Stephen D; Brady, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive theories in visual attention and perception, categorization, and memory often critically rely on concepts of similarity among objects, and empirically require measures of "sameness" among their stimuli. For instance, a researcher may require similarity estimates among multiple exemplars of a target category in visual search, or targets and lures in recognition memory. Quantifying similarity, however, is challenging when everyday items are the desired stimulus set, particularly when researchers require several different pictures from the same category. In this article, we document a new multidimensional scaling database with similarity ratings for 240 categories, each containing color photographs of 16-17 exemplar objects. We collected similarity ratings using the spatial arrangement method. Reports include: the multidimensional scaling solutions for each category, up to five dimensions, stress and fit measures, coordinate locations for each stimulus, and two new classifications. For each picture, we categorized the item's prototypicality, indexed by its proximity to other items in the space. We also classified pairs of images along a continuum of similarity, by assessing the overall arrangement of each MDS space. These similarity ratings will be useful to any researcher that wishes to control the similarity of experimental stimuli according to an objective quantification of "sameness." PMID:25390369

  12. MM-MDS: a multidimensional scaling database with similarity ratings for 240 object categories from the Massive Memory picture database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Hout

    Full Text Available Cognitive theories in visual attention and perception, categorization, and memory often critically rely on concepts of similarity among objects, and empirically require measures of "sameness" among their stimuli. For instance, a researcher may require similarity estimates among multiple exemplars of a target category in visual search, or targets and lures in recognition memory. Quantifying similarity, however, is challenging when everyday items are the desired stimulus set, particularly when researchers require several different pictures from the same category. In this article, we document a new multidimensional scaling database with similarity ratings for 240 categories, each containing color photographs of 16-17 exemplar objects. We collected similarity ratings using the spatial arrangement method. Reports include: the multidimensional scaling solutions for each category, up to five dimensions, stress and fit measures, coordinate locations for each stimulus, and two new classifications. For each picture, we categorized the item's prototypicality, indexed by its proximity to other items in the space. We also classified pairs of images along a continuum of similarity, by assessing the overall arrangement of each MDS space. These similarity ratings will be useful to any researcher that wishes to control the similarity of experimental stimuli according to an objective quantification of "sameness."

  13. MAGIC long-term study of the distant TeV blazar PKS 1424+240 in a multiwavelength context

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Preziuso, S; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Cutini, S; Gasparrini, D; Furniss, A; Hovatta, T; Kangas, T; Kankare, E; Kotilainen, J; Lister, M; Lähteenmäki, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Pavlidou, V; Readhead, A; Richards, J

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We present a study of the very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emission of the blazar PKS 1424+240 observed with the MAGIC telescopes. The primary aim of this paper is the multiwavelength spectral characterization and modeling of this blazar, made particularly interesting by the recent discovery of a lower limit of its redshift of z>0.6, which makes it a promising candidate to be the most distant VHE source. Methods. The source has been observed with the MAGIC telescopes in VHE gamma rays for a total observation time of 33.6 h from 2009 to 2011. Results. The source was marginally detected in VHE gamma rays during 2009 and 2010 and later the detection was confirmed during an optical outburst in 2011. The combined significance of the stacked sample is 7.2 sigma. The differential spectra measured during the different campaigns can be described by steep power laws, with the indices ranging from 3.5+/-1.2 to 5.0+/-1.7. The MAGIC spectra corrected for the absorption due to the extragalactic background ...

  14. I. Nuclear Production Reaction and Chemical Isolation Procedure for Americium-240 II. New Superheavy Element Isotopes: Plutonium-242(Calcium-48,5n)(285)114

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Paul Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Part I discusses the study of a new nuclear reaction and chemical separation procedure for the production of 240Am. Thin 242Pu, natTi, and natNi targets were coincidently activated with protons from the 88-Inch Cyclotron, producing 240Am, 48V, and 57Ni, respectively. The radioactive decay of these isotopes was monitored using high-purity Ge gamma ray detectors in the weeks following irradiation. The excitation function for the 242 Pu(p, 3n)240Am nuclear reaction was measured to be lower than theoretical predictions, but high enough to be the most viable nuclear reaction for the large-scale production of 240 Am. Details of the development of a chemical separation procedure for isolating 240Am from proton-irradiated 242Pu are discussed. The separation procedure, which includes two anion exchange columns and two extraction chromatography columns, was experimentally investi- gated using tracer-level 241Am, 239Pu, and model proton-induced fission products 95Zr, 95Nb, 125Sb, and 152Eu. The separation procedure was shown to have an Am/Pu separation factor of >2x10 7 and an Am yield of ˜70%. The separation procedure was found to purify the Am sample from >99.9% of Eu, Zr, Nb, and Sb. The procedure is well suited for the processing of ˜1 gram of proton-irradiated 242Pu to produce a neutron-induced fission target consisting of tens of nanograms of 240Am. Part II describes the use of the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron for the study of the 242Pu(48Ca,5n)285114 nuclear re- action. The new, neutron-deficient, superheavy element isotope 285114 was produced in 48Ca irradiations of 242Pu targets at a center-of-target beam energy of 256 MeV ( E* = 50 MeV). The alpha decay of 285114 was followed by the sequential alpha decay of four daughter nuclides, 281Cn, 277Ds, 273Hs, and 269 Sg. 265Rf was observed to decay by spontaneous fission. The measured alpha-decay Q-values were compared with those from a macroscopic

  15. Effect of adjuvant S240 on atomization of water dispersible granule and emulsion solution%助剂S240对水分散性粒剂及乳油药液雾化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文君; 何雄奎; 宋坚利; 王昌陵; Andreas. Herbst

    2014-01-01

    为探究药液性质对喷头雾化的影响,该文应用粒子图像分析系统、高速摄影仪及粒径分析仪对ST110-03喷头与IDK120-03喷头进行试验研究,分析了水分散性粒剂Don-q、乳油Score及2种药剂条件下助剂Breakthru S240浓度对雾化区及雾滴谱的影响。未添加助剂时,农药剂型不同,2类喷头的雾化区及雾滴体积中径(volume medium diameter, VMD)均发生显著变化,水分散性粒剂溶液与自来水的雾化区结构、液膜长度和VMD相差不大;乳油溶液可以使2类喷头的雾化区结构发生显著变化,液膜长度分别减小35.2%和40.5%,VMD分别增大13.5%和28.9%;不同剂型农药条件下,随助剂浓度增大,2类喷头液膜区及破碎区结构均发生不同程度的变化,液膜长度均先减小后增大,VMD先增加后减小,即液膜长度变化与VMD变化呈现负相关性。结合药液理化性质研究发现表面张力是影响雾化的重要因素之一。该研究可为田间助剂浓度的添加范围及喷头雾化特性的模拟与模型建立提供参考。%In order to study effect liquid characteristic on nozzle atomization process, this article applied Particle Droplets Image Analysis, high speed camera, and Malvern particle sizer to carry out experiment which focused on how Don-q, Score and the concentration of Breakthru S240 affected spraying sheet and droplet spectrum with conventional fan nozzle ST110-03 and anti-drift nozzle IDK120-03. The concentration of Don-q, Score solution was 0.275 % and 0.1 % respectively and the concentration of Breakthru S240 added into Don-q and Score was 0, 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.07%, 0.1%. Whole images and Detail image of ST110-03 and IDK120-03 nozzles’ spraying sheet were taken at 0.3 MPa to observe its structure and to analyze the influence of type of formulation and adjuvant concentration using high speed camera and PDIA respectively. And VMD was obtained from Malvern particle sizer

  16. The relationship between interictal epileptic discharges and sleep cycle of 240 epilepsy patients%癫痫患者240例发作间期癫痫样放电与睡眠周期的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玉丹; 初凤娜; 孟红梅; 崔俐; 王赞

    2014-01-01

    目的 癫痫患者的癫痫样放电(EDs)常常引起较差的睡眠质量.我们通过观察癫痫患者不同睡眠分期中EDs情况,探讨EDs与睡眠周期的关系.方法 240例癫痫患者与213名健康志愿者参与此项研究,所有参与者均行24 h视频脑电监测及多导睡眠图检查,检测EDs及分析睡眠结构.结果 在88.7% (213/240)的癫痫患者中检测出EDs,但最常见于颞叶癫痫.不同睡眠分期中EDs的构成比不同,如:清醒期EDs的构成比为20.6% (44/213),睡眠期EDs的构成比为40.4%(86/213),清醒及睡眠期EDs构成比为38.9%(83/213).总睡眠时间及快速眼动期睡眠时间在癫痫患者及健康志愿者中无差异,但癫痫患者非快速眼动睡眠Ⅰ~Ⅱ期睡眠时间明显延长于健康人群[(304±39) min与(225±29) min,t=3.51,P=0.000],非快速眼动睡眠Ⅲ~Ⅳ期睡眠时间明显缩短[(49±7) min与(133±17) min,t=2.30,P=0.000],两组总睡眠时间及快速眼动睡眠时间差异无统计学意义.此外,睡眠纺锤波不对称性、高觉醒指数出现于癫痫组睡眠结构中.结论 长程视频脑电图及多导睡眠图联合应用,有助于分析EDs与睡眠周期之间的关系,有助于识别癫痫患者的睡眠障碍,进行早期的干预及治疗.%Objective The poor sleep quality of epileptic patients may be partly due to the occurrence epileptiform discharges (EDs).We observed the number of interictal discharges in each sleep stage and explored the associations between EDs and sleep phases in epilepsy patients.Methods Two hundred and forty epileptic patients and 213 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the current study.For all subjects,video-electroencephalogram monitoring and 24 h-night polysomnography were conducted to detect EDs and analyze the sleep structures.Results EDs were detected in 88.7% (213/240) of epilepsy patients with the most frequent cases from the temporal lobe.The EDs detected during waking,sleeping,or both waking and non-rapid eye

  17. Assinatura da deposição atmosférica de testes nucleares em sedimentos da costa brasileira (240+239Pu e 137Cs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Sanders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to take a look at Cold War era nuclear tests signatures found in Brazilian coastal sediments. Both137Cs and 240+239Pu signatures have been documented in mangrove, coastal mudflats and continental shelf sediments, associated with above ground nuclear tests beginning in the 1950's. The dates associated to the anthropogenic radionuclide signatures 137Cs and 240+239Pu along sediment columns are confirmed by 210Pb geochronology in many of the studies highlighted in this review. The results outlined in this review characterize the extent to which nuclear fallout products reach the Brazilian coast in quantities sufficient for detection, allowing the use of these radioisotopes as geochronometers.

  18. Using uncertainty analyses to test for differences in fractional transfers of 238Pu and 239+240Pu to cattle grazing a contaminated arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of Monte Carlo uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of the modeled fractional transfers of 238Pu and 239+240Pu from the gastrointestinal tract to the tissues of cattle that grazed a plutonium contaminated arid site near the Nevada Test Site. The analyses were conducted to assess the uncertainty in model parameters for the purpose of testing if the fractional transfer of 238Pu was greater than that of 239+240Pu to the tissues of the cattle. A sensitivity analysis of the fractional transfer model indicated that the Pu tissue concentration was the model parameter that had the highest correlation with computed fractional transfers. It was shown that accurate information on the variability of tissue concentrations is needed to obtain accurate estimates of the uncertainty of modeled fractional transfers. 34 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Feedback on 239Pu and 240Pu nuclear data and associated covariances through the CERES integral experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchmark measurements of irradiated and un-irradiated fuel samples were performed in the framework of the CERES collaborative program between AEA (UK Atomic Energy Agency) and CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission). These experiments provide relevant data for the validation of fuel burn-up and criticality-safety calculations for the whole fuel cycle. As part of this program, pile-oscillation measurements were carried out on a range of mixed-oxide samples with plutonium of various mass and isotopic contents, both in the MINERVE and DIMPLE reactors. Four core configurations, two over-thermalized situations and two pressurized water reactor (PWR)-type situations, were constituted with different forward and adjoint flux spectra, emphasizing fission and/or capture contributions. The experiments were analyzed using reference TRIPOLI4 calculations with the JEFF-3.1.1 library, using exact three-dimensional models of the core configurations. In a first step, calculations of each DIMPLE configuration were performed and compared with the experiment, showing very good agreements with a maximum C-E of -230 pcm. In the second step, reactivity worth experiments were analyzed, using recently developed exact-perturbation capabilities in TRIPOLI4. A consistent assimilation of calculation over experiment discrepancies was performed with the CONRAD code, using the integral data assimilation method. Covariance matrix on multigroup neutron cross sections and multiplicities were generated and significant trends were identified, especially on the 239Pu and 240Pu capture cross sections in the thermal energy range (E < 0.1 eV). Further investigations should be required to confirm these conclusions, due to the strong dependence of these trends and of posterior covariances to prior covariances. (author)

  20. Comparison of the ENDF/B-V and SOKRATOR evaluations of 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Pu at low neutron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US and USSR's most recent evaluationsof 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Pu are compared over the thermal region and over the first few resonances. The two evaluations rest on essentially the same experimental data base and the differences reflect different approaches to the representation of the cross sections or different weightings of the experimental results. It is found that over the thermal and resolved ranges the two evaluations are very similar. Some differences in approaches are briefly discussed

  1. Lymph vascular invasion in invasive mammary carcinomas identified by the endothelial lymphatic marker D2-40 is associated with other indicators of poor prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunohistochemical studies of lymphatic vessels have been limited by a lack of specific markers. Recently, the novel D2-40 antibody, which selectively marks endothelium of lymphatic vessels, was released. The aim of our study is to compare lymphatic and blood vessel invasion detected by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) versus that detected by immunohistochemistry, relating them with morphologic and molecular prognostic factors. We selected 123 cases of invasive mammary carcinomas stratified into three subgroups according to axillary lymph node status: macrometastases, micrometastases, and lymph node negative. Lymphatic (LVI) and blood (BVI) vessel invasion were evaluated by H&E and immunohistochemistry using the D2-40 and CD31 antibodies, and related to histologic tumor type and grade, estrogen and progesterone receptors, E-cadherin, Ki67, p53, and Her2/neu expression. LVI was detected in H&E-stained sections in 17/123 cases (13.8%), and in D2-40 sections in 35/123 cases (28.5%) (Kappa = 0.433). BVI was detected in H&E-stained sections in 5/123 cases (4.1%), and in CD31 stained sections in 19/123 cases (15.4%) (Kappa = 0.198). LVI is positively related to higher histologic grade (p = 0.013), higher Ki67 expression (p = 0.00013), and to the presence of macrometastases (p = 0.002), and inversely related to estrogen (p = 0.0016) and progesterone (p = 0.00017) receptors expression. D2-40 is a reliable marker of lymphatic vessels and is a useful tool for lymphatic emboli identification in immunostained sections of breast carcinomas with higher identification rates than H&E. Lymphatic vessel invasion was related to other features (high combined histologic grade, high Ki67 score, negative hormone receptors expression) associated with worse prognosis, probable reflecting a potential for lymphatic metastatic spread and aggressive behavior

  2. Neutron-induced fission cross section of 240Pu from 0.5 MeV to 3 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Eykens, R.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Göök, A.; Moens, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Sibbens, G.; Vanleeuw, D.; Vidali, M.; Pretel, C.

    2015-07-01

    240Pu has recently been pointed out by a sensitivity study of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) to be one of the isotopes whose fission cross section lacks accuracy to meet the upcoming needs for the future generation of nuclear power plants (GEN-IV). In the High Priority Request List (HPRL) of the OECD, it is suggested that the knowledge of the 240Pu(n ,f ) cross section should be improved to an accuracy within 1-3 %, compared to the present 5%. A measurement of the 240Pu cross section has been performed at the Van de Graaff accelerator of the Joint Research Center (JRC) Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) using quasi-monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range from 0.5 MeV to 3 MeV. A twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber (TFGIC) has been used in a back-to-back configuration as fission fragment detector. The 240Pu(n ,f ) cross section has been normalized to three different isotopes: 237Np(n ,f ) , 235U (n ,f ) , and 238U (n ,f ) . Additionally, the secondary standard reactions were benchmarked through measurements against the primary standard reaction 235U (n ,f ) in the same geometry. A comprehensive study of the corrections applied to the data and the associated uncertainties is given. The results obtained are in agreement with previous experimental data at the threshold region. For neutron energies higher than 1 MeV, the results of this experiment are slightly lower than the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, but in agreement with the experiments of Laptev et al. (2004) as well as Staples and Morley (1998).

  3. Discovery of a 240 million year old nematode parasite egg in a cynodont coprolite sheds light on the early origin of pinworms in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Scott L. Gardner; Borba, Victor; Araujo, Priscilla; Leles, Daniela; Stock Da-Rosa, Átila Augusto; Dutra, Juliana; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    Background We report the discovery of a nematode parasite egg (Nemata: Oxyurida) from a coprolite closely associated with the remains of several species of Cynodontia, dated to 240 million years old. This finding is particularly significant because this is the oldest record of an oxyurid nematode yet discovered, and because the cynodonts are considered a stem-group of the mammals. Methods We extracted material from a fully mineralized coprolite by both scraping the surface, and removing fragm...

  4. 1987 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to Section 7(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-240), this report summarizes the progress of states and low-level radioactive waste compacts in 1987 in establishing new low-level waste disposal facilities. It also reports the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1987 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities

  5. High-Level Resistance to Ceftazidime Conferred by a Novel Enzyme, CTX-M-32, Derived from CTX-M-1 through a Single Asp240-Gly Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Cartelle, Monica; del Mar Tomas, Maria; Molina, Francisca; Moure, Rita; Villanueva, Rosa; Bou, German

    2004-01-01

    A clinical strain of Escherichia coli isolated from pleural liquid with high levels of resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam harbors a novel CTX-M gene (blaCTX-M-32) whose amino acid sequence differs from that of CTX-M-1 by a single Asp240-Gly substitution. Moreover, by site-directed mutagenesis we demonstrated that this replacement is a key event in ceftazidime hydrolysis

  6. Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240: 1990 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress during 1990 of states and compact regions in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1990 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended by Public Law 99-240

  7. Analytical Method for Pu-239, Pu-240, Np-237 and Tc-99 using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient analytical method for Pu isotopes (Pu-239 and Pu-240), Np-237 and Tc-99 in environmental samples has been developed using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) detection. The chemical separation of Pu in terrestrial samples, soil, and sediment was carried out on two extraction resins, Sr-Spec and TEVA, which were sequentially combined in PrepLab, an integrated liquid handing device. By reducing the final eluent volume to 2.4 mL, directly injecting it to SF-ICPMS, and employing MCN-6000, a membrane desolvating sample introduction system, the analysis of Pu isotopes was found to be feasible in 1 g of soil. The detection limits of Pu-239, Pu-240, and Pu-242 were approximately 4 fg mL-1 (9.2 Bq mL-1), 3 fg mL-1 (25 Bq mL-1), and 6 fg mL-1 (0.87 Bq mL-1), which represent total amounts of 9.6, 7.2, and 14 fg, respectively, in the final eluent. Chemical separation and measurement were fully automated by a sequential injection (SI) program in an on-line system, and the analysis could thereby be completed within roughly 5 hours. The reliability of this method was confirmed by a validity test with several certified standard reference materials (NIST-4350b, IAEA-6, IAEA-300, IAEA-367, IAEA-368, IAEA-375). The analytical method for Pu in environmental seawater is different from that of terrestrial samples owing to the strong interference effect of U as well as ultra-low level Pu. Although the principle of chemical separation is nearly the same as in soil, seawater was co-precipitated with Fe(OH)2 in the pre-treatment step and a micro TEVA column (50 L) was used in the on-line system to improve precision and the lower detection limit. With this method, it was possible to analyze ultra-trace level Pu isotopes in only 5 L of surface seawater within 1 day, and the precision for Pu-239 and Pu-240 was less than 3.4% (n=7) and 5% (n=7), respectively. The accuracy of this method was verified by analysis of reference seawater (IAEA-381) as

  8. Analytical Method for Pu-239, Pu-240, Np-237 and Tc-99 using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Su

    2007-02-15

    An efficient analytical method for Pu isotopes (Pu-239 and Pu-240), Np-237 and Tc-99 in environmental samples has been developed using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) detection. The chemical separation of Pu in terrestrial samples, soil, and sediment was carried out on two extraction resins, Sr-Spec and TEVA, which were sequentially combined in PrepLab, an integrated liquid handing device. By reducing the final eluent volume to 2.4 mL, directly injecting it to SF-ICPMS, and employing MCN-6000, a membrane desolvating sample introduction system, the analysis of Pu isotopes was found to be feasible in 1 g of soil. The detection limits of Pu-239, Pu-240, and Pu-242 were approximately 4 fg mL-1 (9.2 Bq mL-1), 3 fg mL-1 (25 Bq mL-1), and 6 fg mL-1 (0.87 Bq mL-1), which represent total amounts of 9.6, 7.2, and 14 fg, respectively, in the final eluent. Chemical separation and measurement were fully automated by a sequential injection (SI) program in an on-line system, and the analysis could thereby be completed within roughly 5 hours. The reliability of this method was confirmed by a validity test with several certified standard reference materials (NIST-4350b, IAEA-6, IAEA-300, IAEA-367, IAEA-368, IAEA-375). The analytical method for Pu in environmental seawater is different from that of terrestrial samples owing to the strong interference effect of U as well as ultra-low level Pu. Although the principle of chemical separation is nearly the same as in soil, seawater was co-precipitated with Fe(OH)2 in the pre-treatment step and a micro TEVA column (50 L) was used in the on-line system to improve precision and the lower detection limit. With this method, it was possible to analyze ultra-trace level Pu isotopes in only 5 L of surface seawater within 1 day, and the precision for Pu-239 and Pu-240 was less than 3.4% (n=7) and 5% (n=7), respectively. The accuracy of this method was verified by analysis of reference seawater (IAEA-381) as

  9. Detection of D2-40 monoclonal antibody-labeled lymphatic vessel invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its clinicopathologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to investigate the clinicopathologic significance of lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) labeled by D2-40 monoclonal antibody in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of D2-40 and LVI in 107 ESCC patients. Then, the correlation between the clinicopathologic feature and the overall survival time of the patients was analyzed. The lymph node metastasis rates were 70% and 21% in the LVI-positive and LVI-negative groups, respectively. The nodal metastasis rate was higher in the LVI-positive group than in the LVI-negative group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that LVI was related to nodal metastasis (P<0.001). The median survival time of the patients was 26 and 43 months in the LVI-positive and LVI-negative groups, respectively. Although univariate regression analysis showed significant difference between the two groups (P=0.014), multivariate regression analysis revealed that LVI was not an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in the ESCC patients (P=0.062). Lymphatic node metastasis (P=0.031), clinical stage (P=0.019), and residual tumor (P=0.026) were the independent prognostic factors. LVI labeled by D2-40 monoclonal antibody is a risk factor predictive of lymph node metastasis in ESCC patients

  10. The concentration of 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 238Pu in the surface air of Prague in 1989 and 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, positive values were found twice for 90Sr, namely in monitoring periods January-February (0.6 μBq.m-3) and September-October (0.8 μBq.m-3). In other monitoring periods, the concentrations of 90Sr in the surface air in Prague were below 0.3 μBq.m-3. Presence of 239,240Pu was not proved in Prague surface air in 1989. In the individual monitoring periods the concentrations of 239,240Pu were less than 0.13 μBq.m-3. In 1990, 90Sr concentrations in January-February and September-October were 2.1 and 1.2 μBq.m-3, respectively. In other monitoring periods, the concentrations of 90Sr were less than 0.3 μBq.m-3. The presence of 239,240Pu was not proved in Prague surface air in 1990 either. In the individual monitoring periods the concentrations were below 0.04 μBq.m-3. (Z.S.) 2 tabs., 8 refs

  11. Gamma-emitters 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am in bones and liver of eagles from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study focused on analyzing samples of bones, livers and kidneys of European white-tailed eagles (Haliaetus albicilla) and lesserspotted eagle (Aquila pomarina). Bone samples were collected for both species, from 7 and 2 individuals, respectively, whereas liver and kidney samples for white-tailed eagle species only, 2 and 1 individuals, respectively. The samples were analyzed for the presence of gamma-emitters and then for 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The applied radiochemical method is presented. Activity concentration in ashen bones (600 deg C) for 90Sr ranged from 4.6±1.2 to 31.0±2.5 Bq/kg, for 239+240Pu from 238Pu from 241Am from 239+240Pu activity concentration of 78±9 mBq/kg (for fresh weight) was recorded in a single kidney sample. The liver samples showed activities of magnitude at least one order lower. No clear correlations were found between the activities of different radionuclides. (author)

  12. Spatial distributions of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Zaharudin, E-mail: zahar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.m [Radiochemistry and Environmental Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Mei-Wo, Yii; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi; Shahar, Hidayah [Radiochemistry and Environmental Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    The studies of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 242}Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60 {sup o}C for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62 keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89 Bq/m{sup 3} and 2.3-7.9 mBq/m{sup 3}, respectively. The {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area.

  13. Estimates of /sup 239-240/Pu + 241Am inventory, spatial pattern, and soil tonnage for removal at nuclear site-201, NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of /sup 239-240/Pu + 241Am inventory and spatial pattern in surface soil are given for Nuclear Site (NS)-201 in Area 18 on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These estimates were obtained using Kriging techniques and the estimated average /sup 239-240/Pu to 241Am ratio of 7.5. (Henceforth, Pu and Am refer to /sup 239-240/Pu and 241Am.) Estimated concentration contours, 68% confidence bands on contours, and estimated average concentrations in 100- x 100-foot blocks are given. The total Pu + Am inventory estimated to be in the top 5 cm of soil over the defined area is approximately 9.4 curies. Lower and upper limits on this inventory estimate are 4 and 30 curies. It is estimated that about 33 acres (approx. = 13 hectares) of land are contaminated at levels greater than 160 pCi/g and about 51 acres (approx. = 21 hectares) to levels greater than 40 pCi/g. Approximately 23,000 tons of soil would need to be removed (to 15-cm depth) to clean up all areas with estimated concentrations greater than or equal to 160 pCi/g. About 36,000 tons would require removal at the 40- pCi/g level. The above estimates will be updated when additional data become available early in Calender Year 1980. 10 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  14. Spatial distributions of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of 137Cs and 239+240Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of 134Cs and 242Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60 oC for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62 keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 137Cs and 239+240Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89 Bq/m3 and 2.3-7.9 mBq/m3, respectively. The 239+240Pu/137Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area.

  15. Bioaccumulation of 239+240Pu in benthic organisms crab (Scylla serrata) and arca (Anadara granosa) : a case study from Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study presents the concentration of (239+240)Pu in various size groups of crab (SCYLLA SERRATA) and arca (ANADARA GRANOSA). Around 96 crabs and 650 arcas were harvested from the Mumbai Harbour Bay. Crabs and arcas were grouped in different size groups as per their widths. The maximum concentration 239+240Pu is observed in case of crab for the lowest size group whereas for arca the same is observed in the highest size group. This difference in the uptake of (239+240)Pu is attributed to the difference in metabolic functions of the two species. Bio-accumulation factor (Bp) values in case of crab flesh ranged between 70 to 1140 kg-1 with a GM value of 180 and in arca the value ranged between 6 to 60 l kg-1 with a GM of 20. The values for shell were higher by factors of 2 to 9 in case of crab and 3 to 22 in case of arca. The smallest size group of crab shows maximum Bp value whereas for arca maximum Bp is observed for maximum size group. (author)

  16. Examining (239+240)Pu, (210)Pb and historical events to determine carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus burial in mangrove sediments of Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J; Santos, Isaac R; Maher, Damien T; Breithaupt, Joshua L; Smoak, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael; Call, Mitchell; Sanders, Luciana; Eyre, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Two sediment cores were collected in a mangrove forest to construct geochronologies for the previous century using natural and anthropogenic radionuclide tracers. Both sediment cores were dated using (239+240)Pu global fallout signatures as well as (210)Pb, applying both the Constant Initial Concentration (CIC) and the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) models. The (239+240)Pu and CIC model are interpreted as having comparable sediment accretion rates (SAR) below an apparent mixed region in the upper ∼5 to 10 cm. In contrast, the CRS dating method shows high sediment accretion rates in the uppermost intervals, which is substantially reduced over the lower intervals of the 100-year record. A local anthropogenic nutrient signal is reflected in the high total phosphorus (TP) concentration in younger sediments. The carbon/nitrogen molar ratios and δ(15)N values further support a local anthropogenic nutrient enrichment signal. The origin of these signals is likely the treated sewage discharge to Moreton Bay which began in the early 1970s. While the (239+240)Pu and CIC models can only produce rates averaged over the intervals of interest within the profile, the (210)Pb CRS model identifies elevated rates of sediment accretion, organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), and TP burial from 2000 to 2013. From 1920 to 2000, the three dating methods provide similar OC, N and TP burial rates, ∼150, 10 and 2 g m(-2) year(-1), respectively, which are comparable to global averages. PMID:26004816

  17. MAGIC long-term study of the distant TeV blazar PKS 1424+240 in a multiwavelength context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Furniss, A.; Hovatta, T.; Kangas, T.; Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Lister, M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Pavlidou, V.; Readhead, A.; Richards, J.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We present a study of the very high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) γ-ray emission of the blazar PKS 1424+240 observed with the MAGIC telescopes. The primary aim of this paper is the multiwavelength spectral characterization and modeling of this blazar, which is made particularly interesting by the recent discovery of a lower limit of its redshift of z ≥ 0.6 and makes it a promising candidate to be the most distant VHE source. Methods: The source has been observed with the MAGIC telescopes in VHE γ rays for a total observation time of ~33.6 h from 2009 to 2011. A detailed analysis of its γ-ray spectrum and time evolution has been carried out. Moreover, we have collected and analyzed simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous multiwavelength data. Results: The source was marginally detected in VHE γ rays during 2009 and 2010, and later, the detection was confirmed during an optical outburst in 2011. The combined significance of the stacked sample is ~7.2σ. The differential spectra measured during the different campaigns can be described by steep power laws with the indices ranging from 3.5 ± 1.2 to 5.0 ± 1.7. The MAGIC spectra corrected for the absorption due to the extragalactic background light connect smoothly, within systematic errors, with the mean spectrum in 2009-2011 observed at lower energies by the Fermi-LAT. The absorption-corrected MAGIC spectrum is flat with no apparent turn down up to 400 GeV. The multiwavelength light curve shows increasing flux in radio and optical bands that could point to a common origin from the same region of the jet. The large separation between the two peaks of the constructed non-simultaneous spectral energy distribution also requires an extremely high Doppler factor if an one zone synchrotron self-Compton model is applied. We find that a two-component synchrotron self-Compton model describes the spectral energy distribution of the source well, if the source is located at z ~ 0.6. Appendix is available in electronic form at

  18. Application of 210Pb geochronology by the reconstruction of historical radionuclides concentrations ( 137Cs et 239+240Pu ) in the columns of the Alboran Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The marine sediments are considered as a final reservoir of radioactive contaminants. The 210Pb from atmospheric fallouts deposits is stored in sediments with those from 226Ra original lithogenic. The activity of 210Pb excess in the accumulated sediment is an important tool to study the chronological process of sedimentation on recent time scales at over 100 years. However, this method should be validated using at least one independent tracer which provides an unequivocal temporal marker as 137Cs from nuclear testing. This work presents a method to rebuild historic concentrations of 137Cs and 230+240Pu in the water column Alboran Sea and their corresponding stream sediment. This is achieved by coupling the radiometric dating of the sediment column profiles using three independent levels: the excess 210Pb, 137Cs and 239 +240Pu. On the other hand, a simple model of the water column has been adapted to this end by making use of atmospheric flow, the measured values of distribution coefficient (Kd) and a first approximation of the rate of sedimentation. The timing model CM-CSR (diffusion coefficient of sedimentation rate constant) has been successfully applied to the three independent profiles, and was able to determine the parameters of diffusion and mass sedimentation rate. The results obtained give some ideas on the fate of atmospheric inputs to the marine environment and, particularly, that of the Chernobyl accident. The results of the models showed that direct and deferred contributions of Chernobyl accident are negligible in the Alboran Sea. The annual input of 210Pb to the sediment was estimated at 720±150 Bq.m-2. by year, while the rate of sedimentation is about 0092±0.003 g.cm-2 by year. On the other hand, the model could successfully reconstruct historic concentrations of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in the water column, and was able to reproduce the work of the same elements in the sediment column

  19. Protocol for an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectral product ion library: development and application for identification of 240 pesticides in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Yang, Paul; Hayward, Douglas G; Sakuma, Takeo; Zou, Yunyun; Schreiber, André; Borton, Christopher; Nguyen, Tung-Vi; Kaushik, Banerjee; Oulkar, Dasharath

    2012-07-01

    Modern determination techniques for pesticides must yield identification quickly with high confidence for timely enforcement of tolerances. A protocol for the collection of liquid chromatography (LC) electrospray ionization (ESI)-quadruple linear ion trap (Q-LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) library spectra was developed. Following the protocol, an enhanced product ion (EPI) library of 240 pesticides was developed by use of spectra collected from two laboratories. A LC-Q-LIT-MS workflow using scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) survey scan, information-dependent acquisition (IDA) triggered collection of EPI spectra, and library search was developed and tested to identify the 240 target pesticides in one single LC-Q-LIT MS analysis. By use of LC retention time, one sMRM survey scan transition, and a library search, 75-87% of the 240 pesticides were identified in a single LC/MS analysis at fortified concentrations of 10 ng/g in 18 different foods. A conventional approach with LC-MS/MS using two MRM transitions produced the same identifications and comparable quantitative results with the same incurred foods as the LC-Q-LIT using EPI library search, finding 1.2-49 ng/g of either carbaryl, carbendazim, fenbuconazole, propiconazole, or pyridaben in peaches; carbendazim, imazalil, terbutryn, and thiabendazole in oranges; terbutryn in salmon; and azoxystrobin in ginseng. Incurred broccoli, cabbage, and kale were screened with the same EPI library using three LC-Q-LIT and a LC-quadruple time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instruments. The library search identified azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, fludioxinil, imidacloprid, metalaxyl, spinosyn A, D, and J, amd spirotetramat with each instrument. The approach has a broad application in LC-MS/MS type targeted screening in food analysis. PMID:22686274

  20. Measurement at n-TOF of the 237Np(n, γ) and 240Pu(n, γ) cross sections for the transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final design, safety assessment and precise performance analysis of transmutation devices such as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) or Fast Critical Reactors, need accurate and reliable nuclear data. The cross sections of 237Np and 240Pu have been measured in 2004 at n-TOF with good accuracy due to a combination of features unique in the world: high instantaneous neutron fluence and excellent energy resolution of the n-TOF facility [1], innovative Data Acquisition System based on flash ADCs and the use of a high performance BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter as a detection device. (authors)

  1. 当武器“邂逅”艺术——大比例M240B机枪雕塑制作记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭东

    2010-01-01

    2010年4月24日~5月6日,《再关系——李晓伟2010》艺术作品展在上海多伦现代美术馆举办。其中展出了一个富有特色的玻璃钢浇铸实体模型——4米多长的M240B机枪和15米长的M13可散式弹链,还有2米多高的AK47弹夹等。

  2. Radiotoxicological analyses of 239+240Pu and 241Am in biological samples by anion-exchange and extraction chromatography: a preliminary study for internal contamination evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many biological samples (urines and faeces) have been analysed by means of chromatographic extraction columns, utilising two different resins (AG 1-X2 resin chloride and T.R.U.), in order to detect the possible internal contamination of 239+240Pu and 241Am, for some workers of a reprocessing nuclear plant in the decommissioning phase. The results obtained show on one hand the great suitability of the first resin for the determination of plutonium, and on the other the great selectivity of the second one for the determination of americium

  3. Evaluation of fission cross sections and covariances for {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Matsunobu, Hiroyuki [Data Engineering, Inc. (Japan); Murata, Toru [AITEL Corporation, Tokyo (JP)] [and others

    2000-02-01

    A simultaneous evaluation code SOK (Simultaneous evaluation on KALMAN) has been developed, which is a least-squares fitting program to absolute and relative measurements. The SOK code was employed to evaluate the fission cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu for the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.3. Procedures of the simultaneous evaluation and the experimental database of the fission cross sections are described. The fission cross sections obtained were compared with evaluated values given in JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. (author)

  4. Role of natural organic matter on iodine and (239)(,240)Pu distribution and mobility in environmental samples from the northwestern Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Sugiyama, Yuko; Ohte, Nobuhito; Ho, Yi-Fang; Fujitake, Nobuhide; Kaplan, Daniel I; Yeager, Chris M; Schwehr, Kathleen; Santschi, Peter H

    2016-03-01

    In order to assess how environmental factors are affecting the distribution and migration of radioiodine and plutonium that were emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, we quantified iodine and (239,240)Pu concentration changes in soil samples with different land uses (urban, paddy, deciduous forest and coniferous forest), as well as iodine speciation in surface water and rainwater. Sampling locations were 53-63 km northwest of the FDNPP within a 75-km radius, in close proximity of each other. A ranking of the land uses by their surface soil (forest > deciduous forest > urban > paddy, and (239,240)Pu concentrations ranked as deciduous forest > coniferous forest > paddy ≥ urban. Both were quite distinct from that of (134)Cs and (137)Cs: urban > coniferous forest > deciduous forest > paddy, indicating differences in their sources, deposition phases, and biogeochemical behavior in these soil systems. Although stable (127)I might not have fully equilibrated with Fukushima-derived (129)I, it likely still works as a proxy for the long-term fate of (129)I. Surficial soil (127)I content was well correlated to soil organic matter (SOM) content, regardless of land use type, suggesting that SOM might be an important factor affecting iodine biogeochemistry. Other soil chemical properties, such as Eh and pH, had strong correlations to soil (127)I content, but only within a given land use (e.g., within urban soils). Organic carbon (OC) concentrations and Eh were positively, and pH was negatively correlated to (127)I concentrations in surface water and rain samples. It is also noticeable that (127)I in the wet deposition was concentrated in both the deciduous and coniferous forest throughfall and stemfall water, respectively, comparing to the bulk rainwater. Further, both forest throughfall and stemflow water consisted exclusively of organo-iodine, suggesting all inorganic iodine in the original bulk deposition (∼ 28.6% of total iodine) have

  5. Plants as bio-monitors for Cs-137, Pu-238, Pu-239,240 and K-40 at the Savannah River Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Eric Frank; Duff, Martine C; Ferguson, Caitlin E; Coughlin, Daniel P

    2011-05-01

    The Savannah River Site was constructed in South Carolina to produce plutonium (Pu) in the 1950s. Discharges associated with these now-ceased operations have contaminated large areas within the site, particularly streams associated with reactor cooling basins. Evaluating the exposure risk of contamination to an ecosystem requires methodologies that can assess the bioavailability of contaminants. Plants, as primary producers, represent an important mode of transfer of contaminants from soils and sediments into the food chain. The objective of this study was to identify local area plants for their ability to act as bio-monitors of radionuclides. The concentrations of cesium-137 ((137)Cs), potassium-40 ((40)K), (238)Pu and (239,240)Pu in plants and their associated soils were determined using γ and α spectrometry. The ratio of contamination concentration found in the plant relative to the soil was calculated to assess a concentration ratio (CR). The highest CR for (137)Cs was found in Pinus palustris needles (CR of 2.18). The correlation of soil and plant (137)Cs concentration was strong (0.76) and the R(2) (0.58) from the regression was significant (p = 0.006). This suggests the ability to predict the degree of (137)Cs contamination of a soil through analysis of the pine needles. The (238)Pu and (239,240)Pu concentrations were most elevated within the plant roots. Extremely high CR values were found in Sparganium americanum (bur-reed) roots with a value of 5.86 for (238)Pu and 5.66 for (239,240)Pu. The concentration of (40)K was measured as a known congener of (137)C. Comparing (40)K and (137)C concentrations in each plant revealed an inverse relationship for these radioisotopes. Correlating (40)K and (137)Cs was most effective in identifying plants that have a high affinity for (137)Cs uptake. The P. palustris and S. americanum proved to be particularly strong accumulators of all K congeners from the soil. Some species that were measured, warrant further

  6. A systematic study of equilibrium and pre-equilibrium (p, n) reaction mechanisms cross-sections at intermediate energies for 25 < A < 240 target nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this present study, by using equilibrium and pre-equilibrium reaction mechanisms, the (p, n) cross-section values for some target (A = 25–240) nuclei were investigated in a range of 10–40 MeV incident energy. The excitation functions for pre-equilibrium calculations were newly calculated by using hybrid model, geometry dependent hybrid model, full-exciton model, and cascade exciton model. The reaction equilibrium component was calculated with a traditional compound nucleus model developed by Weisskopf–Ewing. Calculation results were compared with the available excitation functions measurements in literature. (author)

  7. Perturbation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediments following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P I; León Vintró, L; Dahlgaard, H; Gascó, C; Sánchez-Cabeza, J A

    1997-08-25

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marine sediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of approximately 0.18. Measurement of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing (e.g. Bikini Atoll, Nevada test site, Mururoa Atoll), has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the 240Pu/239Pu ratio has been examined in samples of sediment (and soil) collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The 240Pu/239Pu ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution, and confirmed in the case of the most active samples by high-resolution X-ray spectrometry. Only samples which displayed plutonium heterogeneities, i.e. hot particles or concentrations well in excess (at least two orders of magnitude) of those expected from global fallout, were selected for analysis. The analytical results showed that at Thule the mean 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio was 0.033 +/- 0.004 (n = 4), while at Palomares the equivalent ratio appeared to be significantly higher at 0.056 +/- 0.003 (n = 4). Both ratios are indicative of low burn-up plutonium and are consistent with those reported for weapons-grade plutonium. It is noteworthy that the mean 238Pu/239Pu activity ratio in the Thule samples, at 0.0150 +/- 0.0017 (n = 4), was also lower than that measured in the Palomares samples, namely, 0.0275 +/- 0.0012 (n = 4). The 241Pu/239Pu ratios were similarly different. Finally, the data show, in contrast to Palomares, that not all of the samples from the Thule accident site were contaminated with plutonium of identical isotopic composition. PMID:9241884

  8. Metalurgia de uniones soldadas de aceros disímiles (astm a240-a537) y comportamiento mecánico ante cargas monotónica y cíclica Metallurgy of dissimilar steels welded unions (astm a240-a537) and mechanical behavior under monotonic and cyclic loads

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés García; Rafael Salas; Leiry Centeno; Alberto Velázquez del Rosario

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se caracterizaron las propiedades mecánicas en uniones soldadas de aceros disímiles: un acero estructural (ASTM A537/A537M:95) soldado a tope con un acero inoxidable austenítico 304L (ASTM A240/A240M:01) mediante proceso por arco eléctrico con protección inerte de gas argón (GMAW) y un acero inoxidable austenítico ER- 308L como material aporte (ANSI/AWS A5.9/A5.9M:2006). Las muestras se ensayaron en condición sin soldadura, con el objeto de caracterizar los materiales i...

  9. The implementation of the Chongqing municipal government Decree 240 to strengthen operations and guidance of urban construction archives%落实重庆市政府240号令加强城建档案的业务指导工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭利

    2011-01-01

    重庆市人民政府令第240号从2010年11月1日起施行.如何从城建档案业务指导角度进行落实宣传,本文根据和工作实际就城建档案的重要性、业务指导的性质和具体内容进行了论述.

  10. Model testing of radioactive contamination by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ecomod@obninsk.com; Boyer, P.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Dzyuba, N.N.; Krylov, A.L.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nosov, A.V.; Sanina, K.D.; Zheleznyak, M.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for {sup 90}Sr in water for all considered models, {sup 137}Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and {sup 239,240}Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE ({sup 239,240}Pu) and CASSANDRA ({sup 137}Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of {sup 239,240}Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium.

  11. The neutron capture cross sections of 237Np(n,γ) and 240Pu(n,γ) and its relevance in the transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron capture cross sections of actinides are of great relevance for the Transmutation of Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and Generation-IV reactors. The neutron capture cross sections of 237Np and 240Pu in the range of 1 eV to 2 keV were measured at the n-TOF facility with a Total Absorption Calorimeter. The data have been analyzed with the SAMMY code. The corresponding covariance matrices have been generated. The final cross sections are presented and compared to the previously existing ones.The n-TOF 237Np σ(n,γ) is in agreement with the evaluated data files below 300 eV and its is lower by 10 to 15% up to 2 keV. This discrepancy with the evaluated data files is also observed in the capture cross section derived from the transmission measurements of Gressier et al. In the case of the 240Pu σ(n,γ), the n-TOF σ(n,γ) agrees within uncertainties with JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.1, except for a group of resonances around 800 eV. Endf/B-VII data are lower than n-TOF and the mentioned evaluations, with differences that increase with neutron energy up to 15-20 per cent

  12. The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 237}Np(n,{gamma}) and {sup 240}Pu(n,{gamma}) and its relevance in the transmutation of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, C.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calvino, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapico, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kappeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O' Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M.T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K

    2008-07-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of actinides are of great relevance for the Transmutation of Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and Generation-IV reactors. The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 237}Np and {sup 240}Pu in the range of 1 eV to 2 keV were measured at the n-TOF facility with a Total Absorption Calorimeter. The data have been analyzed with the SAMMY code. The corresponding covariance matrices have been generated. The final cross sections are presented and compared to the previously existing ones.The n-TOF {sup 237}Np {sigma}(n,{gamma}) is in agreement with the evaluated data files below 300 eV and its is lower by 10 to 15% up to 2 keV. This discrepancy with the evaluated data files is also observed in the capture cross section derived from the transmission measurements of Gressier et al. In the case of the {sup 240}Pu {sigma}(n,{gamma}), the n-TOF {sigma}(n,{gamma}) agrees within uncertainties with JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.1, except for a group of resonances around 800 eV. Endf/B-VII data are lower than n-TOF and the mentioned evaluations, with differences that increase with neutron energy up to 15-20 per cent.

  13. XMM-Newton Observations of the Nuclei of the Radio Galaxies 3C 305, DA 240, and 4C 73.08

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Daniel A; Lee, Julia C; Kraft, Ralph P; Worrall, Diana M; Birkinshaw, Mark; Croston, Judith H

    2008-01-01

    We present new XMM-Newton EPIC observations of the nuclei of the nearby radio galaxies 3C 305, DA 240, and 4C 73.08, and investigate the origin of their nuclear X-ray emission. The nuclei of the three sources appear to have different relative contributions of accretion- and jet-related X-ray emission, as expected based on earlier work. The X-ray spectrum of the FRII narrow-line radio galaxy (NLRG) 4C 73.08 is modeled with the sum of a heavily absorbed power law that we interpret to be associated with a luminous accretion disk and circumnuclear obscuring structure, and an unabsorbed power law that originates in an unresolved jet. This behavior is consistent with other narrow-line radio galaxies. The X-ray emission of the low-excitation FRII radio galaxy DA 240 is best modeled as an unabsorbed power law that we associate with a parsec-scale jet, similar to other low-excitation sources that we have studied previously. However, the X-ray nucleus of the narrow-line radio galaxy 3C 305 shows no evidence for the hea...

  14. Measurement of the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio using a transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter for total decay energy spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Andrew S; Bond, Evelyn M; Croce, Mark P; Holesinger, Terry G; Kunde, Gerd J; Rabin, Michael W; Wolfsberg, Laura E; Bennett, Douglas A; Hays-Wehle, James P; Schmidt, Dan R; Swetz, Daniel; Ullom, Joel N

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a new category of sensor for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu mass ratio from aqueous solution samples with advantages over existing methods. Aqueous solution plutonium samples were evaporated and encapsulated inside of a gold foil absorber, and a superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter detector was used to measure the total reaction energy (Q-value) of nuclear decays via heat generated when the energy is thermalized. Since all of the decay energy is contained in the absorber, we measure a single spectral peak for each isotope, resulting in a simple spectral analysis problem with minimal peak overlap. We found that mechanical kneading of the absorber dramatically improves spectral quality by reducing the size of radioactive inclusions within the absorber to scales below 50 nm such that decay products primarily interact with atoms of the host material. Due to the low noise performance of the microcalorimeter detector, energy resolution values of 1 keV fwhm (full width at half-maximum) at 5.5 MeV have been achieved, an order of magnitude improvement over α-spectroscopy with conventional silicon detectors. We measured the (240)Pu/(239)Pu mass ratio of two samples and confirmed the results by comparison to mass spectrometry values. These results have implications for future measurements of trace samples of nuclear material. PMID:25723106

  15. The BL-Lac gamma-ray blazar PKS 1424+240 associated with a group of galaxies at z=0.6010

    CERN Document Server

    Rovero, A C; Donzelli, C; Pichel, A

    2016-01-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a BL-Lac blazar with unknown redshift that was detected at high-energy gamma rays by Fermi-LAT with a hard spectrum. At VHE, it was first detected by VERITAS and later confirmed by MAGIC. Its spectral energy distribution is highly attenuated at VHE gamma rays, which is coherent with distant sources. Several estimations enabled the redshift to be constrained to the range 0.6 < z < 1.3. These results place PKS 1424+240 in the very interesting condition of being probably the most distant blazar that has been detected at VHE. The ambiguity in the redshift is still large enough to prevent precise studies of the EBL and the intrinsic blazar spectrum. Given the difficulty of measuring spectroscopic redshifts for BL-Lac objects directly, we aim to establish a reliable redshift value for this blazar by finding its host group of galaxies. Elliptical galaxies are associated with groups, and BL-Lac objects are typically hosted by them, so we decided to search for the host group of the blazar. For th...

  16. Distributions of long-lived anthropogenic radionuclides (14C, 129I and 239+240Pu) in coastal water columns off Sanriku, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first commercial facility for reprocessing nuclear spent fuel in Japan is going to run in July 2006 and routine release of radionuclides to marine environment off Rokkasho will begin. Off Rokkasho area is located in the boundary where subarctic (Oyashio) and subtropical (Kuroshio) gyre mixes. And the Tsugaru Warm Current (TWC) flows into this region through the Tsugaru Strait and originates in the Kuroshio flowing in the Sea of Japan/the East Sea. Those three water masses of different origins and coastal water mass coexist in the surface layer of this domain. So it is important to clarify the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides and their behaviors in the coastal seawater. Seawater samples were collected by use of CTD/Multi-Bottle Samplers (MBS) and large volume samplers (LVS) in October 2001 and June 2002. Carbon-14 and 129I were analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and 239,240Pu was determined by the method of radiochemical separation and alpha spectrometry. Th long- lived radionuclide concentrations for all samples were in the range -233 - 75 per mille for Δ14C, not detected (N.D.) - 2.5x107 atoms/l for 129I, and N.D. - 0.025 mBq/l for 239,240Pu, respectively. The other anthropogenic radionuclides have the same concentration as those reported by the other organization. The vertical profiles of 14C and 129I decreased monotonically with depths. On the other hand, 239,240Pu profile have maximum at a depth of 500 - 700 m. The plots of potential density versus the concentrations designate that 14C and 129I virtually occurred in the water column lighter than the density of 26.6 - 26.8 and slightly penetrate into dense deeper layer. The maximum of Pu concentration existed at a density of 26.8 - 27.2. There is no difference of 129I concentration between two water masses (Oyashio and TWC) classified according to water temperature and salinity. Δ14C concentrations in TWC are higher than those in Oyashio, because TWC flows in sea surface over

  17. Distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 230,232Th on the fractions of natural organic species soils of ChNPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental data determination of distribution 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am 'Chernobyl' releases and 230,232Th on the fraction of humic and fulvic acids sandy- podsolic, meadow and peaty soils taken in the exclusive zone ChNPP are presents. Soils organic matter was isolated by conventional alkali extraction (Turin's method). It was shown that, with depending of soils types 15-45 % 241Am associate with fulvic acids. In all investigated types of soils 30 - 40 % 239+240Pu connects with humic acids, as strong complexes. The distribution of environmental 230,232Th and artificial 239+240Pu on the fraction natural organic species is the same

  18. Simultaneous measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  19. Development Of VHF (240-270 MHz) Antennas For SoOp (Signal Of Opportunity) Receiver For 6u Cubesat Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, A. T.; Deshpande, M.; O'Neill, P. E.; Miles, L.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to design, fabricate, and test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a truly global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system (Figure 1) over a variety of land covers with limited density restrictions. In SoOp methodology, signals transmitted by already existing transmitters (known as transmitters of opportunity, in this case the Military Satellite Communication (MilSatCom) System's UHF Follow-On program) are utilized to measure properties of reflecting targets by recording reflected signals using a simple passive microwave receiver.

  20. Results of 90Sr and 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am measurements in some samples of mushrooms and forest soil from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90, plutonium and americium activity concentrations in a few samples of forest soils, some species of mushrooms and fern leaves were determined. These results are compared with caesium activity concentrations in the same materials obtained in a previous work. Radiochemical procedures are described. The origin of the contamination (Chernobyl accident or nuclear test explosion release) is discussed. The 90Sr activity concentration ranges from 0.6 Bq/kg (mushroom samples) to 48.4 Bq/kg (fern leaves). For 239+240Pu, it ranges from not detected above background (mushrooms, fern) to 10.8 Bq/kg (humus layer of forest soil). The maximum concentration of 241Am is found to be 2.4 Bq/kg (humus sample) and for 238Pu it is 0.85 Bq/kg (also in the humus sample). (author). 12 refs, 9 figs, 7 tabs

  1. Soil to plant transfer factors for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240 determined by field and glasshouse measurements in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further data on soil to plant transfer factors is provided for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240, as an extension of results presented at the previous IUR Workshop at Wageningen in December 1982. Field crops of grass, barley and oats produced in 1982 at 11 locations in Britain were analysed for radionuclides. Analysis of soils that produced these crops showed that they contained 'background' nuclear weapons fallout concentrations of Cs-137 and plutonium which were elevated in regions with high rainfall. Analysis of basic soil properties was also made. In separate experiments, transfer factors were derived for 10 crop plants grown in pot trials under glasshouse conditions. In one trial the soil used contained low concentrations of radionuclides derived from nuclear weapons fallout. In a second trial a brown earth was used, which contained additional radionuclides from long-term deposition by nuclear fuel reprocessing. (orig.)

  2. On the dependence of the efficiency of a 240 GHz high-power gyrotron on the displacement of the electron beam and on the azimuthal index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumbrajs, O. [Institute of Solid State Physics (ISSP), Association EUROATOM-University of Latvia, Kengaraga iela 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Avramidis, K. A.; Franck, J.; Jelonnek, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Association EURATOM-KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Two issues in the cavity design for a Megawatt-class, 240 GHz gyrotron are addressed. Those are first, the effect of a misaligned electron beam on the gyrotron efficiency and second, a possible azimuthal instability of the gyrotron. The aforementioned effects are important for any gyrotron operation, but could be more critical in the operation of Megawatt-class gyrotrons at frequencies above 200 GHz, which will be the anticipated requirement of DEMO. The target is to provide some basic trends to be considered during the refinement and optimization of the design. Self-consistent calculations are the base for simulations wherever possible. However, in cases for which self-consistent models were not available, fixed-field results are presented. In those cases, the conservative nature of the results should be kept in mind.

  3. On the dependence of the efficiency of a 240 GHz high-power gyrotron on the displacement of the electron beam and on the azimuthal index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two issues in the cavity design for a Megawatt-class, 240 GHz gyrotron are addressed. Those are first, the effect of a misaligned electron beam on the gyrotron efficiency and second, a possible azimuthal instability of the gyrotron. The aforementioned effects are important for any gyrotron operation, but could be more critical in the operation of Megawatt-class gyrotrons at frequencies above 200 GHz, which will be the anticipated requirement of DEMO. The target is to provide some basic trends to be considered during the refinement and optimization of the design. Self-consistent calculations are the base for simulations wherever possible. However, in cases for which self-consistent models were not available, fixed-field results are presented. In those cases, the conservative nature of the results should be kept in mind

  4. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation...... counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5×105 for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature......, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference...

  5. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4π-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4π-α spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4π -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  6. Spatial distribution of 241Am, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 241Pu over 17 year periods in the Ravenglass saltmarsh, Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety five surface scrape samples were collected at the Ravenglass saltmarsh and analysed for radionuclides by alpha spectrometry (238Pu and 239,240Pu), gamma spectrometry (241Am and 137Cs) and liquid scintillation counting (241Pu). Both 241Am and 137Cs activities are compared with those reported by Horrill [1983. Concentrations and spatial distribution of radioactivity in an ungrazed saltmarsh. In: Coughtrey, P.J. (Ed.), Ecological Aspects of Radionuclide Release. British Ecological Society Special Publication No. 3. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 119-215.] Significant decreases in activities for both radionuclides were observed which is caused by the declining levels of discharges from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant since the 1980s. It has been concluded that the spatial distribution of these radionuclides are controlled by the tidal currents and the clay contents in the sediments. There is evidence of surface erosion of the saltmarsh and redistribution of radionuclides in the saltmarsh using isotopic ratios of measured Pu.

  7. Rare earth metals influence on mechanical properties and crack resistance of GP240GH and G17CrMo5-5 cast steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gajewski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on modification influence of REM on mechanical properties and crack resistance of GP240GH cast carbon steel and G17CrMo5-5 high-temperature cast steel. The tests have been performed on successive industrial melts. The rare earth metals were put into the ladle during tapping of heat melt from the furnace. Each time ca 2000 kg of liquid metals were modified. Because of this the amount of sulphur in the cast steel was decreased and the non-metallic inclusion morphology was significantly changed. There were tested mechanical properties (Re,Rm, plastic properties (A5,Z and impact strength (KV, and on the basis of the three-point bend test the KJC stress intensity factor was evaluated. It was noticed that the REM modification brings essential increase of impact strength as well as fracture toughness determined by KJC factor.

  8. Recommendations for management of greater-than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report sets forth the Department's findings and recommendations for ensuring the safe management and disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with concentrations of radionuclides that exceed the limits established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for Class C LLW. Chapters are devoted to: Identification of Greater-Than Class-C Low-Level Waste; Regulatory Needs and Legislative Authorities; Proposed Actions to Ensure the Safe Management of Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Waste; System Considerations for Waste Disposal; Funding Options; Requirements for Implementation; and Schedule and Cost. Three Appendices are included: Public Law 99-240, Section 3(b); Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Waste Types and Quantities; and Descriptions of Systems Considerations for Waste Disposal. (LM)

  9. Studying of distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm according to the organic acids fractions of the alienation zone soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with data of research on the distribution of the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm of ''the Chornobyl rains'' by the fractions of the organic matters of derno-podzolic sandy, derno-meadow and peat soils sampled in the alienation zone of the Chornobyl NPP. Functioning of organic matters was carried according to Tyurin's method. It is stressed that, independently on soil type, 137Cs is connected with the mineral contituent by 80-95%. It is found out that, independently on the soil type, 50-70% 137Sr and 15-45% 241Am are associated with fulvic acid fractions. The 241Am and 244Cm distribution according to organic acids taking into account deviations while carrying out determinations is unambiguous. It is found out that in all the soils tested the main quality of 239+24Pu is connected with humic acids

  10. 90Sr and 239+240Pu 238Pu 241Am in some samples of mushrooms and forest soil from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90, plutonium and americium activity concentrations in a few samples of forest soils, some species of mushrooms and fern leaves have been determined. These results are compared with cesium activity concentrations in the same materials obtained in a previous work. Radiochemical procedures are described. The origin of the contamination (Chernobyl accident or nuclear test explosion release) is discussed. The 90Sr activity concentration ranges from 0.6 Bq/kg (mushroom samples) to 48.4 Bq/kg (fern leaves). For 239+240Pu, it ranges from not detected above background (mushrooms, fern) to 10.8 Bq/kg (humus layer of forest soil). The maximum concentration of 241Am is found to be 2.4 Bq/kg (humus sample) and for 238Pu it is 0.85 Bq/kg (also in the humus sample). (author) 16 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Induction of DNA strand breaks in normal human fibroblasts exposed to monochromatic ultraviolet and visible wavelengths in the 240-546 nm range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of DNA single-strand breaks in normal human fibroblasts exposed to monochromatic wavelengths from 240-546 nm was measured by the alkaline elution assay. The cells were irradiated at 1%C to prevent both repair of induced breaks and formation of enzymatically induced breaks through excision repair. The cultures were also washed with and irradiated while suspended in phosphate buffered saline to prevent the formation of DNA damaging photoproducts from medium components. The action spectrum for DNA strand breakage was found to exhibit one peak at 265 nm, consistent with DNA absorption, and a second peak at 450 nm. The normalized action spectrum in the visible is similar to the normalized absorption spectrum for riboflavin, a known photosensitizing agent, implicating this molecule as the absorbing chromophore. (author)

  12. Evaluation of 320x240 pixel LEC GaAs Schottky barrier X-ray imaging arrays, hybridized to CMOS readout circuit based on charge integration

    CERN Document Server

    Irsigler, R; Alverbro, J; Borglind, J; Froejdh, C; Helander, P; Manolopoulos, S; O'Shea, V; Smith, K

    1999-01-01

    320x240 pixels GaAs Schottky barrier detector arrays were fabricated, hybridized to silicon readout circuits, and subsequently evaluated. The detector chip was based on semi-insulating LEC GaAs material. The square shaped pixel detector elements were of the Schottky barrier type and had a pitch of 38 mu m. The GaAs wafers were thinned down prior to the fabrication of the ohmic back contact. After dicing, the chips were indium bump, flip-chip bonded to CMOS readout circuits based on charge integration, and finally evaluated. A bias voltage between 50 and 100 V was sufficient to operate the detector. Results on I-V characteristics, noise behaviour and response to X-ray radiation are presented. Images of various objects and slit patterns were acquired by using a standard dental imaging X-ray source. The work done was a part of the XIMAGE project financed by the European Community (Brite-Euram). (author)

  13. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of CTX-M-131, a Natural Asp240Gly Variant Derived from CTX-M-2, Produced by a Providencia rettgeri Clinical Strain in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dropa, Milena; Ghiglione, Barbara; MATTÉ, Maria Helena; Balsalobre, Livia Carminato; Lincopan, Nilton; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Gutkind, Gabriel; Power, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    CTX-M-131 is a natural Asp240Gly variant from the CTX-M-2 group detected in a Providencia rettgeri clinical strain from Brazil. Molecular analysis showed that blaCTX-M-131 was inserted in a complex class 1 integron harbored by a 112-kb plasmid, which has not been previously described as a platform for CTX-M-encoding genes with the Asp240Gly mutation. Steady-state kinetic parameters showed that the enzyme has a typical cefotaximase catalytic profile and an enhanced activity against ceftazidime.

  14. C22:0- and C24:0-dihydroceramides confer mixed cytotoxicity in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Holliday

    Full Text Available We previously reported that fenretinide (4-HPR was cytotoxic to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL cell lines in vitro in association with increased levels of de novo synthesized dihydroceramides, the immediate precursors of ceramides. However, the cytotoxic potentials of native dihydroceramides have not been defined. Therefore, we determined the cytotoxic effects of increasing dihydroceramide levels via de novo synthesis in T-cell ALL cell lines and whether such cytotoxicity was dependent on an absolute increase in total dihydroceramide mass versus an increase of certain specific dihydroceramides. A novel method employing supplementation of individual fatty acids, sphinganine, and the dihydroceramide desaturase-1 (DES inhibitor, GT-11, was used to increase de novo dihydroceramide synthesis and absolute levels of specific dihydroceramides and ceramides. Sphingolipidomic analyses of four T-cell ALL cell lines revealed strong positive correlations between cytotoxicity and levels of C22:0-dihydroceramide (ρ = 0.74-0.81, P ≤ 0.04 and C24:0-dihydroceramide (ρ = 0.84-0.90, P ≤ 0.004, but not between total or other individual dihydroceramides, ceramides, or sphingoid bases or phosphorylated derivatives. Selective increase of C22:0- and C24:0-dihydroceramide increased level and flux of autophagy marker, LC3B-II, and increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay in the absence of an increase of reactive oxygen species; pan-caspase inhibition blocked DNA fragmentation but not cell death. C22:0-fatty acid supplemented to 4-HPR treated cells further increased C22:0-dihydroceramide levels (P ≤ 0.001 and cytotoxicity (P ≤ 0.001. These data demonstrate that increases of specific dihydroceramides are cytotoxic to T-cell ALL cells by a caspase-independent, mixed cell death mechanism associated with increased autophagy and suggest that dihydroceramides may contribute to 4-HPR-induced cytotoxicity. The targeted increase of specific acyl chain dihydroceramides

  15. SEARCHING FOR THE DRIVING SOURCE OF THE CO MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN THE HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGION G240.31+0.07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present low and high angular resolution observations at 1.3, 3.6, and 6 cm obtained from the Very Large Array archive toward the high-mass star formation region G240.31+0.07. We detected, at least, two continuum sources toward G240.31+0.07 at 1.3 cm, which are spatially associated with the millimeter sources MM1 and MM3 reported in the region. Two continuum sources are also detected in the region at 3.6 and 6 cm, spatially coinciding with the millimeter sources MM1 and MM2. We find that the sources MM2 and MM3 seem to be consistent with ultracompact H II regions, harboring B1-0.5 spectral-type zero-age main-sequence stars. Based on the flux density at 1.3, 3.6, and 6 cm, we also find that the spectral index of MM1 is about -0.4, suggesting a combination of thermal and nonthermal emission. In order to search the nature of MM1, we present a detailed comparison of the high angular resolution 6 cm observations of the epochs 1990.3 and 1995.5. The difference image of the two epochs shows variability toward MM1; its flux density and morphology are changing with time. Moreover, a condensation, possibly ejected by MM1 and oriented in the same direction of the CO outflow observed in the region, is also detected. We propose that MM1 is a radio jet and the best candidate to be the driving source of the CO outflow observed in the region.

  16. Dissolved forms of 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am in the Sahan river waters from the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolved forms of 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am were studied for river water samples from the Chernobyl area in Ukraine on the basis of molecular size distribution. The river waters were collected at a station from Sahan River, which is a tributary of Pripyat River and located in the so-called Exclusion Zone (30-km zone), near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in April and August 1996. The water samples had a pH of 7, conductivity of 190-210 mS m-1 and DOC concentration of 8-11 mg l-1. An ultrafiltration technique was used for the size-fractionation of the radionuclides in the river waters. Percentage of 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am in the size fraction over 10,000 daltons was 2-20%, 68-79% and 57-62%, respectively. On the other hand, percentage of DOC and Si was 25-36% and 3%, respectively, for the size fraction over 10,000 daltons. These results indicate that 90Sr is present as cationic ions, but Pu and Am may be associated with organics of high molecular size and not with inorganic colloids such as aluminosilicate. In order to understand the association properties, laboratory experiments were performed for Am using humic substances isolated from the Sahan River water in April 1999 because of a significant fraction of dissolved organic materials and high complexation ability for actinides. The molecular size of 241Am in the presence of humic substances were studied for 0.01M NaClO4 solution at pH7 and the humic concentration of 10 mg l-1. The size patterns of 241Am were in good agreement with those of the river water samples. These results suggest that the dissolved forms of actinides in the Sahan River water are controlled by the presence of aquatic humic substances. (author)

  17. Separation and activity determination of 239+240Pu, 241Am and Curium (242and244Cm) in evaporator concentrate by Alpha Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha spectrometry analysis was used for activity determinations of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in evaporator concentrate samples from nuclear power plants. Using a sequential procedure the first step was Pu isolation by an anion exchange column followed by an Am and Cm separation of U and Fe by a co-precipitation with oxalic acid. The precipitate was used for americium and curium separation of strontium by using a TRU resin extraction chromatography column. Due to their chemical similarities and energy difference it was seen that the simultaneous determination of 241Am, 242Cm and 243,244Cm isotopes is possible using the 243Am as tracer, once they have peaks in different region of interest (ROI) in the alpha spectrum. In this work it was used tracers, 238Pu, 243Am, 244Cm and 232U, for determination and quantification of theirs isotopes, respectively. The standard deviations for replicate analysis were calculated and for 241Am it was (1,040 ± 160 mBqKg-1), relative standard deviation 15.38%, and for 239+240Pu it was (551 +- 44 mBqKg-1), relative standard deviation 7.98%. In addition, for the 242Cm isotope the standard deviation for determinations was(75 ± 23 mBqKg-1), with the relative standard deviation 30.67% higher than for 241Am and 239+240Pu. The radiometric yields ranged from 90% to 105% and the lower limit of detection was estimated as being 2.05 mBqKg-1. (author)

  18. Chandra X-ray observations of the HII region G5.89-0.39 and TeV Source HESSJ1800-240B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, G.; Horns, D.; Uchiyama, Y.; Funk, S.; Wagner, S.; Nicholas, B.; H.E.S.S. Collaboration

    The TeV gamma-ray sources in the field of the old age (> 10000 yr) supernova remnant (SNR) W28 present a unique opportunity to probe for a new type of multi-TeV particle accelerator, namely, HII regions. One such example is the TeV source HESS J1800-240B which is found towards the highly unusual HII region complex G5.89-0.39. In this context X-rays studies are highly valuable in probing the particle acceleration potential of such HII regions and their subsequent contribution to the gamma-ray emission. Previous high resolution XMM-Newton X-ray observations despite being affected by stray light from a nearby X-ray binary, revealed several sources co-located with the two star forming components of G5.89-0.39, namely G5.89-0.39A, a HII region, as well as G5.89-0.39B, an ultracompact or UCHII region. Here we describe preliminary analysis and results from our Chandra observations towards G5.89-0.39 and HESS J1800-240B (∼80 ks) which are not affected by stray light. With Chandra, we reveal over 200 X-ray sources which appear to cluster somewhat towards G5.89-0.39A and B respectively. This includes possibly extended emission towards a massive O5 or earlier spectral type star (known as Feldt's star) thought to provide much of the ionisation and energetics in G5.89-0.39B. Some of the X-ray sources exhibit energetics typical of young moderate to high mass stars. Our Chandra observations reveal for the first time the extent of star formation in the two HII components. Ongoing work centres on detailed spectral studies, cross-correlation with stellar catalogues, and the search for extended X-ray emission.

  19. 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am in mammals' skulls from owls' pellets and owl skeletons in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skulls of small mammals belonging to two species of rodents and three species of insectivores collected in Eastern Poland were the subject of the present investigation. The skulls were separated from owl pellets. Activities of 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am were determined by means of gamma spectrometry as well as liquid scintillation spectrometry or alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. A detailed description of the procedures is provided. The research was supplied with the analysis of three skeletons of owls. No measurable difference between the skulls of rodents and insectivorous animals with regard to activity of any of the examined radionuclides was found. No accumulation effect in the owl skeletons was detected. Though measured activities of 137Cs and 40K for the skulls were of the same magnitude as those found previously for large wild herbivorous animals from typical locations in Poland, those for 90Sr were even lower than previously determined. A big difference was found for activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. Their mean activities were higher by an order of magnitude when compared to the examined previously values. The maximum 239+240Pu activity was equal to 97.5±7.7 mBq/kg, with 65% of it originating from global fallout. Relatively high content of transuranic elements found for rodents and insectivorous mammals seems to be unrelated to their feeding habits and should rather be attributed to the living conditions. It is suggested that small mammals, together with tiny soil particles present in mid-soil living tunnels, can inhale the transuranic elements

  20. The marginal efficiency of utilization of all ileal digestible indispensable amino acids for protein gain is lower than 30% in preruminant calves between 80 and 240 kg live weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Tamminga, S.

    1998-01-01

    A previous study showed that the marginal efficiency of utilization of digestible nitrogen for deposition in the body in preruminant calves is only ~30%. The study consisted of two similar experiments that were performed in two live weight ranges: 80-160 and 160-240 kg. In each experiment, 36 calves

  1. 137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am and 239+240Pu radionuclides speciation in soils of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results of studies into 137Cs and 90Sr, 241Am and 239+240Pu techno-genic radionuclides speciation in soils of ecosystems at different topography of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), exposed to different nuclear testing. The data were obtained for radionuclides speciation in soils of the following STS ecosystems: - grassland ecosystems within near-portal areas of tunnels - horizontal adits constructed for nuclear testing, affected by radioactive-contaminated water flows from the tunnels of Degelen Site; - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination resulted from above-ground and aerial nuclear testing of different yield, as well as simulation (hydrodynamic and hydro-nuclear) experiments at 'Experimental Field' testing site. - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination caused by testing of liquid and powdery radiological warfare weapon (RWW) at Site '4 a'; - 'Northern' and 'Western' areas of STS, where concentration level of artificial radionuclides in soil is comparable with the level of global fall-outs ('background' areas). To study the radionuclides speciation, method of sequential extraction was applied, and water-soluble, exchange, organic mobile and tightly bound forms were separated. Feature of the studied grassland ecosystems is that they are developed solely along the bed of water streams flowing from tunnels and are located at small area of 1-2 m2. Radioactive contamination of soil is caused by radioactive contaminant sorption by sediments. Despite the significant space limitation of the ecosystems content of radionuclides speciation in soil greatly varies, particularly readily-soluble and mobile forms. The variation may be explained by high humidity which makes possible both sorption and desorption processes. If basic radionuclides contributing to radioactive contamination of grassland soils at Degelen Site are 137Cs and 90Sr, then at Experimental Field site these are transuranic radionuclides

  2. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu radionuclides speciation in soils of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabdyrakova, A.M.; Kunduzbaeva, A.Y.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Magasheva, R.Y. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results of studies into {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu techno-genic radionuclides speciation in soils of ecosystems at different topography of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), exposed to different nuclear testing. The data were obtained for radionuclides speciation in soils of the following STS ecosystems: - grassland ecosystems within near-portal areas of tunnels - horizontal adits constructed for nuclear testing, affected by radioactive-contaminated water flows from the tunnels of Degelen Site; - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination resulted from above-ground and aerial nuclear testing of different yield, as well as simulation (hydrodynamic and hydro-nuclear) experiments at 'Experimental Field' testing site. - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination caused by testing of liquid and powdery radiological warfare weapon (RWW) at Site '4 a'; - 'Northern' and 'Western' areas of STS, where concentration level of artificial radionuclides in soil is comparable with the level of global fall-outs ('background' areas). To study the radionuclides speciation, method of sequential extraction was applied, and water-soluble, exchange, organic mobile and tightly bound forms were separated. Feature of the studied grassland ecosystems is that they are developed solely along the bed of water streams flowing from tunnels and are located at small area of 1-2 m{sup 2}. Radioactive contamination of soil is caused by radioactive contaminant sorption by sediments. Despite the significant space limitation of the ecosystems content of radionuclides speciation in soil greatly varies, particularly readily-soluble and mobile forms. The variation may be explained by high humidity which makes possible both sorption and desorption processes. If basic radionuclides contributing to radioactive contamination of grassland soils at Degelen Site are {sup

  3. Chandra observations of the HII complex G5.89-0.39 and TeV gamma-ray source HESSJ1800-240B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, E. J.; Rowell, G.; Hofmann, W.; Horns, D.; Uchiyama, Y.; Wagner, S.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of our investigation, using a Chandra X-ray observation, into the stellar population of the massive star formation region G5.89-0.39, and its potential connection to the coincident TeV gamma-ray source HESSJ1800-240B. G5.89-0.39 comprises two separate HII regions G5.89-0.39A and G5.89-0.39B (an ultra-compact HII region). We identified 159 individual X-ray point sources in our observation using the source detection algorithm wavdetect. 35 X-ray sources are associated with the HII complex G5.89-0.39. The 35 X-ray sources represent an average unabsorbed luminosity (0.3-10 keV) of ∼1030.5erg /s, typical of B7-B5 type stars. The potential ionising source of G5.89-0.39B known as Feldt's star is possibly identified in our observation with an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity suggestive of a B7-B5 star. The stacked energy spectra of these sources is well-fitted with a single thermal plasma APEC model with kT ∼ 5 keV, and column density NH = 2.6 ×1022cm-2 (AV ∼ 10). The residual (source-subtracted) X-ray emission towards G5.89-0.39A and B is about 30% and 25% larger than their respective stacked source luminosities. Assuming this residual emission is from unresolved stellar sources, the total B-type-equivalent stellar content in G5.89-0.39A and B would be 75 stars, consistent with an earlier estimate of the total stellar mass of hot stars in G5.89-0.39. We have also looked at the variability of the 35 X-ray sources in G5.89-0.39. Ten of these sources are flagged as being variable. Further studies are needed to determine the exact causes of the variability, however the variability could point towards pre-main sequence stars. Such a stellar population could provide sufficient kinetic energy to account for a part of the GeV to TeV gamma-ray emission in the source HESSJ1800-240B. However, future arc-minute angular resolution gamma-ray imaging will be needed to disentangle the potential gamma-ray components powered by G5.89-0.39 from those powered by the

  4. Radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am and 239+240Pu in vegetation cover of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) is one of the largest testing grounds for nuclear weapons. Diverse nuclear explosions were carried out on its territory: 340 underground tests (sites 'Degelen', 'Balapan' and 'Sary-Uzen'), 30 surface and 86 nuclear air explosions (site for radioactive warfare agent (RWA) and 'Experimental Field'). Since the STS was shutdown a large amount of information about current radiological situation in its territory has been collected. In recent years, one of the main problems is gradual transfer of its lands for national economy. Under these conditions, an essential element for prediction of radioactive contamination levels of food products is radionuclides redistribution parameters in soil-plant system used in calculation of doses to the population living within STS territory. Until recently, matter of radionuclides migration from soil to plants has been poorly studied. Individual researches, more or less devoted to this issue occurred in the past, but have virtually no information about accumulation of transuranic radionuclides in plants. More regular studies in this direction have been initiated recently. Between 2007 and 2013 features of artificial radionuclides accumulation in certain plant species under radioactive tunnel watercourses at 'Degelen' site were studied. We've obtained statistically reliable data characterizing accumulation of radionuclides, including 239+240Pu and 241Am, in steppe plants at 'Experimental field' site. The content of radionuclides in plants was researched at the RWA site. Comprehensive ecological survey in order to release the lands to the national economic turnover investigated parameters of radionuclides accumulation in steppe grasses at conditionally 'background' areas of STS and some parts of radioactive trace plume caused by the explosion in 1953. To date, all the findings have been generalized. We present an integrated picture about accumulation of artificial radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and

  5. The dwarf phenotype in GH240B mice, haploinsufficient for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin, is caused by ectopic expression of recombinant human growth hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nuytens

    Full Text Available Two knockout mouse models for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin (Nbea have been generated independently. Although both models have similar phenotypes, one striking difference is the dwarf phenotype observed in the heterozygous configuration of the GH240B model that is generated by the serendipitous insertion of a promoterless human growth hormone (hGH genomic fragment in the Nbea gene. In order to elucidate this discrepancy, the dwarfism present in this Nbea mouse model was investigated in detail. The growth deficiency in Nbea+/- mice coincided with an increased percentage of fat mass and a decrease in bone mineral density. Low but detectable levels of hGH were detected in the pituitary and hypothalamus of Nbea+/- mice but not in liver, hippocampus nor in serum. As a consequence, several members of the mouse growth hormone (mGH signaling cascade showed altered mRNA levels, including a reduction in growth hormone-releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamus. Moreover, somatotrope cells were less numerous in the pituitary of Nbea+/- mice and both contained and secreted significantly less mGH resulting in reduced levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1. These findings demonstrate that the random integration of the hGH transgene in this mouse model has not only inactivated Nbea but has also resulted in the tissue-specific expression of hGH causing a negative feedback loop, mGH hyposecretion and dwarfism.

  6. Statistical activities during 1976 and the design and initial analysis of nuclear site studies. [/sup 241/Am, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R O; Essington, E H; Brady, D N; Doctor, P G; Eberhardt, L L

    1977-05-01

    Statistical design and analysis activities for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) during 1976 are briefly outlined. This is followed by a description of soil data collected thus far at nuclear study sites. Radionuclide concentrations in surface soil collected along a transect from ground zero (GZ) along the main fallout pattern are given for Nuclear Site (NS) 201. Concentrations in soil collected at 315 locations on a grid system at 200 foot spacings are also given for this site. The /sup 241/Am to /sup 137/Cs ratios change over NS 201 depending on location relative to GZ. They range from less than one where /sup 241/Am is at low levels, to more than fifty where /sup 241/Am levels are high (near GZ). The estimated median /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu to /sup 241/Am ratio is 11 and appears to be relatively constant over the area (the 95 percent lower and upper limits on the true median ratio are about 8 and 14).

  7. Routine radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine analytical procedures have been developed for the reliable simultaneous determination of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 242-244Cm, Chernobyl derived radioisotopes and fallout after nuclear weapon tests in a wide range of environmental samples: soil (100-200 g), sediments, aerosols, water and vegetation. This procedure has been applied to thousands of soil and sediment samples and hundreds of biological and water samples taken in the exclusive zone of Chernobyl NPP and different regions of Ukraine from 1989 to the present. After the sample has been properly prepared and isotopic tracers added, plutonium, americium and curium are precipitated with calcium oxalate and then lanthanum fluoride. Plutonium is separated from americium and curium by anion-exchange. Americium and curium are separated from rare earths by cation-exchange with gradient elute α-hydroxy-iso-butyric acid. During projects by AQCS IAEA 'Evaluation of Methods for 90Sr in a Mineral Matrix' and 'Proficiency Test for 239Pu, 241Pu and 241Am Measurement in a Mineral Matrix' accuracy and precision for 90Sr, 239Pu and 241Am by present procedure was evaluated. Advantages, difficulties and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  8. Search for dynamical effects in the fission decay in the 240 MeV sup 3 sup 2 S+ sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Mo reaction

    CERN Document Server

    La Rana, G; Moro, R; Vardaci, E; Ordine, A; Boiano, A; Di Meo, M A; Scherillo, A; Fabris, D; Lunardon, M; Nebbia, G; Viesti, G; Cinausero, M; Fioretto, E; Prete, G; Gelli, N; Lucarelli, F

    2003-01-01

    Light particles in coincidence with evaporation residues and heavy fragments have been measured by a 4 pi charged-particle detector at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Padua) for the 240 MeV sup 3 sup 2 S+ sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Mo reaction leading to the sup 1 sup 3 sup 2 Ce composite system at 152 MeV of excitation energy. Energy spectra of the alpha-particles in coincidence with fission fragments were extracted for many correlation angles both in plane and out of plane. A prominent out-of-plane emission was observed, consistent with the pattern for the near-scission emission. From the fit to the spectra, the pre-scission alpha-particle multiplicity of 0.040+-0.006 was obtained. This value is reproduced by the code PACE2 without the inclusion of a delay time for fission. The presence of fast fission, which could be responsible for this result, is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Updated estimates of /sup 239-240/Pu + 241Am inventory, spatial pattern, and soil tonnage for removal at nuclear site-201, NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These new estimates are based on 712 241Am soil concentrations including 185 data values not previously available. Estimates were obtained using essentially the same kriging techniques and the estimated average /sup 239-240/Pu to 241Am ratio of 7.5 used to obtain previous results. The total Pu + Am inventory estimated to be in the top 5 cm of soil over the 109 hectare study is approximately 16.3 curies. Lower and upper limits on this inventory estimate are about 6.7 and 45.6 curies, respectively. It is estimated that about 58 acres (approx. = 23 hectares) of land in the study are contaminated at levels greater than 40 pCi/g which includes about 40 acres (approx. = 16 hectares) at levels greater than 160 pCi/g. Approximately 28,000 tons of soil would need to be removed (to 15-cm depth) to clean up all areas with estimated concentrates greater than or equal to 160 pCi/g. About 41,000 tons would require removal at the 40 pCi/g level. 5 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  10. [Evaluation of the effect of Knox-Out microencapsulated V.O. 240 and K-othrine powder on rat lice in two villages in the Betafo region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratovonjato, J; Duchemin, J B

    2001-01-01

    The effect of two different insecticides on flea control was tested from January to March 2000 in the Ivory village and the Ambatolahy village: Knox-Out, a microcapsulated formulation of diazinon, organophosphorous compound (240 gr/L) and the deltamethrin powder (2 g/kg ai), respectively. The villages are located 2.5 km apart in the Betafo region in Madagascar. Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid and is still used in the National Plague Control Program, whereas diazinon has not previously been applied in plague control in Madagascar. The flea index and the prevalence of rats carrying fleas in the two villages before and after (at one and two months follow-up, respectively) were measured to evaluate the effect of each insecticide. Flea index decreased significantly in both villages by at the first month follow-up. However, at the second month follow-up no significant differences in comparison to pre-treatment index values were observed in any of the villages. This study has demonstrated a similar immediate effect of deltamethrin and of diazinon, and confirmed the absence of remanent action of the two insecticides. PMID:12471748

  11. Chandra observations of the HII complex G5.89-0.39 and TeV gamma-ray source HESSJ1800-240B

    CERN Document Server

    Hampton, E J; Hofmann, W; Horns, D; Uchiyama, Y; Wagner, S

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of our investigation, using a Chandra X-ray observation, into the stellar population of the massive star formation region G5.89-0.39, and its potential connection to the coincident TeV gamma-ray source HESSJ1800-240B. G5.89-0.39 comprises two separate HII regions G5.89-0.39A and G5.89-0.39B (an ultra-compact HII region). We identified 159 individual X-ray point sources in our observation using the source detection algorithm \\texttt{wavdetect}. 35 X-ray sources are associated with the HII complex G5.89-0.39. The 35 X-ray sources represent an average unabsorbed luminosity (0.3-10\\,keV) of $\\sim10^{30.5}$\\,erg/s, typical of B7-B5 type stars. The potential ionising source of G5.89-0.39B known as Feldt's star is possibly identified in our observation with an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity suggestive of a B7-B5 star. The stacked energy spectra of these sources is well-fitted with a single thermal plasma APEC model with kT$\\sim$5\\,keV, and column density N$_{\\rm H}=2.6\\times10^{22}$\\,cm$^{-2}$ (A...

  12. Speciation analysis of 129I, 137Cs, 232Th, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu in environmental soil and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are related to their physicochemical forms, namely species. We here present a speciation analysis of important radionuclides including 129I (also 127I), 137Cs, 232Th, 238U and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) in soil (IAEA-375) and sediment (NIST-4354) standard reference materials and two fresh sediment samples from Øvre Heimdalsvatnet Lake, Norway. A modified sequential extraction protocol was used for the speciation analysis of these samples to obtain fractionation information of target radionuclides. Analytical results reveal that the partitioning behaviour, and thus the potential mobility and bioavailability, are exclusively featured for the individual radionuclide. Iodine is relatively mobile and readily binds to organic matter, while plutonium is mainly bound to both organic matter and nitric acid leachable fractions. Thorium is predominated in nitric acid leachable fraction and caesium is primarily observed in nitric acid and aqua regia leachable fractions and residue. Our analytical results reveal that around 50% of uranium might still remain in the residue which could not be extracted with aggressive acid, namely, aqua regia.

  13. Submillimeter Array Observations of Magnetic Fields in G240.31+0.07: an Hourglass in a Massive Cluster-forming Core

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Keping; Menten, Karl M; Liu, Hauyu B; Tang, Ya-Wen; Girart, Josep M

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of an hourglass magnetic field aligned with a well-defined outflow-rotation system in a high-mass star-forming region. The observations were performed with Submillimeter Array toward G240.31+0.07, which harbors a massive, flattened, and fragmenting molecular cloud core and a wide-angle bipolar outflow. The polarized dust emission at 0.88 mm reveals a clear hourglass-shaped magnetic field aligned within 20 degree of the outflow axis. Maps of high-density tracing spectral lines, e.g., H13CO+ (4-3), show that the core is rotating about its minor axis, which is also aligned with the magnetic field axis. Therefore, both the magnetic field and kinematic properties observed in this region are surprisingly consistent with the theoretical predictions of the classic paradigm of isolated low-mass star formation. The strength of the magnetic field in the plane of sky is estimated to be about 1.1 mG, resulting in a mass-to-magnetic flux ratio of 1.4 times the critical value and a turbulent to...

  14. The Experience of Pilot Studies of Lymph Capillaries Pathomorphology of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma According to the Data from the Images Stained by D2-40 Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprindzhuk M.V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to study the growth and development regularities of lymph vascular bed of thyroid papillary carcinomas according to the results of image processing of pathohistological specimens. Materials and Methods. The objects of the research were microslides (n=40 stained by D2-40 marker, prepared from surgically removed tumours (thyroid papillary carcinoma of patients with sporadic thyroid carcinoma. The tumour specimens were stored frozen. The majority of patients were female (82.5%, age varying from 9 to 18 years. An average tumour size was 10 mm. There was used special software that processed images and calculated 5 parameters: relative area of vessels; relative fraction of small objects of vessels (noise; relative fraction of great vessels; average colority of distinguished vessels. Results. There was revealed the relationship between the infiltration growth of thyroid papillary carcinomas and the relative area of capillary lymph bed measured on digital images (Pearson correlation — 0.32; 2-tailed — 0.43; p<0.05.

  15. Precision and accuracy in the determination of sup(238)Pu/(sup(239)Pu + sup(240)Pu) alpha activity ratio by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out for the evaluation of precision and accuracy in determining sup(238)Pu/(sup(239)Pu + sup(240)Pu) activity ratio by α spectrometry from the point of view of determining sup(238)Pu accurately in plutonium samples and in exploiting Isotope Dilution Alpha Spectrometry (IDAS) for determining the concentration of plutonium in the irradiated fuel dissolver solutions. Synthetic mixtures with α activity ratios ranging from 0.01 to 10 were prepared using sup(238)Pu and sup(239)Pu isotopes. Different methods which can be routinely used were tried to calculate the α activity ratio from the α spectrum taken on electrodeposited sources prepared from these mixtures. An accuracy of better than 0.5% and a precision of +- 0.2% (1 sigma) is demonstrated in the determination of α activity ratios ranging from 0.01 to 10 using electrodeposited sources and the evaluation method based on the geometric progression decrease (G.P.) for the far tail of the spectrum. (auth.)

  16. Statistical investigation of the crack initiation lives of piping structural welded joint in low cycle fatigue test of 240 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical investigation into the fitting of four possible fatigue assumed distributions (three parameter Weibull, two parameter Weibull, lognormal and extreme maximum value distributions) for the crack initiation lives of piping structural welded joint in low cycle fatigue test of 240 degree C is performed by linear regression and least squares methods. The results reveal that the three parameters Weibull distribution may give misleading results in fatigue reliability analysis because the shape parameter is often less than 1. This means that the failure rate decreases with fatigue cycling which is contrary to the general understanding of the behaviour of welded joint. Reliability analyses may also affected by the slightly nonconservative evaluations in tail regions of this distribution. The other three distributions are slightly poor in the total fit effects, but they can be safety assumed in reliability analyses due to the non-conservative evaluations in tail regions mostly and the consistency with the fatigue physics of the structural behaviour of welded joint in the range of engineering practice. In addition, the extreme maximum value distribution is in good consists with the general physical understanding of the structural behaviour of welded joint

  17. Sequential leaching extraction of 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 241Pu and 241Am from a mud sample: An intercomparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The determination of the association percentages of transuranics to different sediment phases could define their fate once they have been deposited onto the marine floor and their possible reactivity at the sediment/sea water interphase. Nowadays, there is a wide variety of leaching methods to extract transuranics from the different geochemical compounds conforming the sediments. Nevertheless, a general controversy is extended in the scientific world due to the extreme difficulty in testing their reliability, since the standards of transuranics linked to a certain sedimentary phase are not commercially available. Two mud subsamples taken from a storage container were analysed employing the same sequential extraction method, but with small handling differences.The following fractions were isolated: (1) Readily available (2) Carbonate bound and specifically adsorbed (3) Organically bound (4) Oxide and hydroxides bound and (5) residual. The 239,240Pu, 238Pu and 241Am extracted in each phase were analysed using standard radiochemical procedures. 241Pu was determined by both direct scintillation counting and through the 241Am in-growth up on the old disks containing Plutonium. The procedure for uncertainty calculations has been also included. (author)

  18. Sequential leaching extraction of 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 241Pu, 237Np and 241Am from a mud sample: An intercomparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transuranics content of a mud sample taken from a nuclear waste storage container was analysed employing two different sequential extraction methods. The following fractions were isolated: (1)Water soluble (2) Readily available (3) Carbonate bound and specifically adsorbed (4) Organically bound (5) Oxide and hydroxides bound and (6) residual. Both methods differ in the reagents employed, the extraction sequence applied as well as the temperature and means of extraction. The 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 237Np and 241Am extracted in each phase were determined using standard radiochemical procedures. 241Pu was analysed through the 241Am in-growth on just one old disk of the residual fraction containing plutonium. Plutonium was mainly associated to organic-oxides fractions (89-92 %). The percentage extracted in each fraction depended on the method and the extraction sequence used. The soluble fraction of plutonium was less than 13%. Neptunium seemed to be the more soluble than the other transuranics (27%) and the americium showed a tendency to be associated to carbonates (30%). (author)

  19. Estimation of covariances of 10B, 11B, 55Mn, 240Pu and 241Pu neutron nuclear data in JENDL-3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covariances of nuclear data have been estimated for 5 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.2. The nuclides considered are 10B, 11B, 55Mn, 240Pu, and 241Pu, which are regarded as important for the nuclear design study of fast reactors. The physical quantities for which covariances are deduced are cross sections, resolved and unresolved resonance parameters, and the first order Legendre-polynomial coefficient for the angular distribution of elastically scattered neutrons. The covariances were estimated by using the same methodology that had been used in the JENDL-3.2 evaluation in order to keep a consistency between mean values and their covariances. The least-squares fitting code GMA was used in estimating covariances for reactions of which JENDL-3.2 cross sections had been evaluated by taking account of measurements. Covariances of nuclear model calculations were deduced by the KALMAN system. The covariance data obtained were compiled in the ENDF-6 format, and will be put into the JENDL-3.2 Covariance File which is one of JENDL special purpose files. (author)

  20. Sequential determination of natural (232Th, 238U) and anthropogenic (137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am, 239+240Pu) radionuclides in environmental matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new sequential method for the determination of both natural (U, Th) and anthropogenic (Sr, Cs, Pu, Am) radionuclides has been developed for application to soil and sediment samples. The procedure was optimised using a reference sediment (IAEA-368) and reference soils (IAEA-375 and IAEA-326). Reference materials were first digested using acids (leaching), 'total' acids on hot plate, and acids in microwave in order to compare the different digestion technique. Then, the separation and purification were made by anion exchange resin and selective extraction chromatography: Transuranic (TRU) and Strontium (SR) resins. Natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides were separated by Uranium and Tetravalent Actinide (UTEVA) resin, considering different acid elution medium. Finally, alpha and gamma semiconductor spectrometer and liquid scintillation spectrometer were used to measure radionuclide activities. The results obtained for strontium-90, cesium-137, thorium-232, uranium- 238, plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 isotopes by the proposed method for the reference materials provided excellent agreement with the recommended values and good chemical recoveries. (authors)

  1. Estimation of covariances of {sup 10}B, {sup 11}B, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Pu neutron nuclear data in JENDL-3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakajima, Yutaka; Murata, Toru

    1998-08-01

    Covariances of nuclear data have been estimated for 5 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.2. The nuclides considered are {sup 10}B, {sup 11}B, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu, which are regarded as important for the nuclear design study of fast reactors. The physical quantities for which covariances are deduced are cross sections, resolved and unresolved resonance parameters, and the first order Legendre-polynomial coefficient for the angular distribution of elastically scattered neutrons. The covariances were estimated by using the same methodology that had been used in the JENDL-3.2 evaluation in order to keep a consistency between mean values and their covariances. The least-squares fitting code GMA was used in estimating covariances for reactions of which JENDL-3.2 cross sections had been evaluated by taking account of measurements. Covariances of nuclear model calculations were deduced by the KALMAN system. The covariance data obtained were compiled in the ENDF-6 format, and will be put into the JENDL-3.2 Covariance File which is one of JENDL special purpose files. (author)

  2. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4{pi}-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples; Spectrometrie alpha 4{pi} de sources d'actinides realisees par electronebulisation. Developpement et optimisation d'un protocole applique au mesurage des isotopes 238 et 239+240 du plutonium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement (DPRE), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4{pi}-{alpha} spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4{pi} -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  3. SELECTION OF RUSSIAN STEAM TURBINES FOR THE VIETNAMESE COMBINED GASSTEAM PLANT. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EFFICIENCY OF HIGH-PRESSURE CYLINDER OF STEAM TURBINE K-300-240-2 ON THE POWER OF A GAS-STEAM PLANT IN VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham A. H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the current state of energy in Vietnam and the selection of new Russian steam turbines for operation in combined gas-steam plant in Vietnam. The calculated results of thermal performance scheme 3x1 with combined gas-steam plant 1090 MW based on the Russian steam turbines K-330-240-2 and on the steam turbines TS2A40 Mitsubishi (station PhuMy-1, Vietnam. It also looks at the influence of the efficiency of high-pressure cylinders of Russian steam turbine K-330-240-2 on the efficiency and power of a gas-steam plant 3x1 with 1090 MW, increasing the efficiency of high-pressure cylinder of steam turbine through the use of honeycomb seals in flow part

  4. 240 elephants in a tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of 2007 will see particle physicists setting protons on a collision course through the Large Hadron Collider with more energy than ever before. Their intention is to track down the Higgs boson and solve the problem of why the universe contains almost no antimatter. Physicists from the MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR PHYSICS and the MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR PHYSICS are playing a crucial role in the experiments and their preparation. (orig.)

  5. Retention and translocation of foliar applied {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, as compared to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr, into bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: pascale.henner@irsn.fr; Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morello, M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Foliar transfer of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr was evaluated after contamination of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) at the flowering development stage, by soaking their first two trifoliate leaves into contaminated solutions. Initial retentions of {sup 241}Am (27%) and {sup 239,240}Pu (37%) were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr (10-15%). Mean fraction of retained activity redistributed among bean organs was higher for {sup 137}Cs (20.3%) than for {sup 239,240}Pu (2.2%), {sup 241}Am (1%) or {sup 85}Sr (0.1%). Mean leaf-to-pod translocation factors (Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight pod/Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight contaminated leaves) were 5.0 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 241}Am, 2.7 x 10{sup -6} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 5.4 x 10{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 85}Sr. Caesium was mainly recovered in pods (12.8%). Americium and strontium were uniformly redistributed among leaves, stems and pods. Plutonium showed preferential redistribution in oldest bean organs, leaves and stems, and very little redistribution in forming pods. Results for americium and plutonium were compared to those of strontium and caesium to evaluate the consistency of the attribution of behaviour of strontium to transuranium elements towards foliar transfer, based on translocation factors, as stated in two radioecological models, ECOSYS-87 and ASTRAL.

  6. Retrospective determination of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr activities in the outer bark of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) collected at various sites in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr were determined in 25 archived spruce outer bark samples collected in coniferous forests across the Czech Republic in 1995. At three sampling sites the radionuclide activity concentrations were determined in forest soil. Data was provided on the cumulative deposition and vertical distribution of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr in forest soil. The median activity concentration of 238Pu in the spruce bark samples was 0.009 Bq kg-1. The median activity concentration of 239,240Pu was 0.212 Bq kg-1, and the median activity concentration of 90Sr was 10.6 Bq kg-1. The radionuclide activity concentration distribution was not significantly explained by the local long-term (1961-2000) mean annual precipitation totals, by site elevation, by bark acidity, by soil moisture and soil texture. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides in bark were found to be higher than or comparable with the published and measured figures for radionuclide activity concentrations in cultivated and uncultivated soils (0-20 cm layer) in the Czech Republic and abroad. The activity concentration ratio of 90Sr/239,240Pu in the investigated spruce bark samples was higher than in the relevant soil samples. We assume that the crucial radioactive contamination loads in bark occurred in the first half of the 1960s, when the concentration of the investigated radionuclides in the air was highest. Spruce trunk bark has preserved relatively high activity concentrations of these radionuclides. The mechanism governing the long-term radionuclide activity concentrations in outer bark proportional to the local radioactive fallout rates is not correctly known. Our results indicate the suitability of spruce bark for use as an effective monitor of radioactive plume fallout loads even several decades after the contamination episode. (author)

  7. Research on UNS S32101 Duplex Stainless Steel SMAW Welding Process%ASTM A240UNS S32101双相不锈钢SMAW焊接工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金胜; 廖素萍

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the properties and welding characteristics of ASTM A240 UNS S32101 duplex stainless steel were introduced. By using SMAW process, selecting appropriate welding material, adjusting welding process and technical measures, and strictly controlling the interlayer temperature and heat input, the ferrite with proper proportions and austenite dual-phase structure in weld and HAZ were obtained, and the welded joint is with good mechanical properties. Through welding procedure qualification test, the feasibility and effectiveness of SMAW were verified, and the reasonable SMAW welding process for ASTM A240 UNS S32101 duplex stainless steel was determined, thus it will provide instruction to site welding.%针对ASTM A240 UNS S32101双相不锈钢的性能特点和焊接特性,采用手工电弧焊接(SMAW),选用合理的焊接材料,调整焊接工艺和技术措施,严格控制层间温度和焊接热输入,焊接后焊缝及热影响区获得了与母材较为相近、比例适当的铁素体和奥氏体双相组织,焊接接头具有良好的力学性能.并通过焊接工艺评定试验,验证了SMAW焊接方法的可行性和有效性,确定了ASTM A240 UNS S32101双相不锈钢合理的SMAW焊接工艺,为现场焊接提供了指导.

  8. Induction of Mitochondrial Changes Associated with Oxidative Stress on Very Long Chain Fatty Acids (C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0-Treated Human Neuronal Cells (SK-NB-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Zarrouk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease, lipid alterations point towards peroxisomal dysfunctions. Indeed, a cortical accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs: C22:0, C24:0, C26:0, substrates for peroxisomal β-oxidation, has been found in Alzheimer patients. This study was realized to investigate the effects of VLCFAs at the mitochondrial level since mitochondrial dysfunctions play crucial roles in neurodegeneration. On human neuronal SK-NB-E cells treated with C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0 (0.1–20 μM; 48 h, an inhibition of cell growth and mitochondrial dysfunctions were observed by cell counting with trypan blue, MTT assay, and measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm with DiOC6(3. A stimulation of oxidative stress was observed with DHE and MitoSOX used to quantify superoxide anion production on whole cells and at the mitochondrial level, respectively. With C24:0 and C26:0, by Western blotting, lower levels of mitochondrial complexes III and IV were detected. After staining with MitoTracker and by transmission electron microscopy used to study mitochondrial topography, mass and morphology, major changes were detected in VLCFAs treated-cells: modification of the cytoplasmic distribution of mitochondria, presence of large mitochondria, enhancement of the mitochondrial mass. Thus, VLCFAs can be potential risk factors contributing to neurodegeneration by inducing neuronal damages via mitochondrial dysfunctions.

  9. Simultaneous determination of radiocesium ((135)Cs, (137)Cs) and plutonium ((239)Pu, (240)Pu) isotopes in river suspended particles by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liguo; Zheng, Jian; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Pan, Shaoming; Wang, Zhongtang; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-10-01

    Due to radioisotope releases in the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, long-term monitoring of radiocesium ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) and Pu isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in river suspended particles is necessary to study the transport and fate of these long-lived radioisotopes in the land-ocean system. However, it is expensive and technically difficult to collect samples of suspended particles from river and ocean. Thus, simultaneous determination of multi-radionuclides remains as a challenging topic. In this study, for the first time, we report an analytical method for simultaneous determination of radiocesium and Pu isotopes in suspended particles with small sample size (1-2g). Radiocesium and Pu were sequentially pre-concentrated using ammonium molybdophosphate and ferric hydroxide co-precipitation, respectively. After the two-stage ion-exchange chromatography separation from the matrix elements, radiocesium and Pu isotopes were finally determined by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS, respectively. The interfering elements of U ((238)U(1)H(+) and (238)U(2)H(+) for (239)Pu and (240)Pu, respectively) and Ba ((135)Ba(+) and (137)Ba(+) for (135)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively) were sufficiently removed with the decontamination factors of 1-8×10(6) and 1×10(4), respectively, with the developed method. Soil reference materials were utilized for method validation, and the obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios, and (239+240)Pu activities showed a good agreement with the certified/information values. In addition, the developed method was applied to analyze radiocesium and Pu in the suspended particles of land water samples collected from Fukushima Prefecture after the FDNPP accident. The (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios (0.329-0.391) and (137)Cs activities (23.4-152Bq/g) suggested radiocesium contamination of the suspended particles mainly originated from the accident-released radioactive contaminates, while similar Pu contamination of suspended

  10. J{sub R}-curves of the low-alloy steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5 with two different sulphur contents in oxygen containing high temperature water at 240 C; J{sub R}-Kurven fuer den niedriglegierten Stahl 20 MnMoNi 5 5 mit zwei unterschiedlichen Schwefelgehalten in sauerstoffhaltigem Hochtemperaturwasser von 240 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, R. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Deimel, P. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt

    1992-12-31

    J{sub R} experiments at 240 C on fracture mechanics samples (CT 50, side notches) in high temperature water containing oxygen (8 ppm, 7 MPa, quasi-stagnant) and in air were carried out on low alloy heat treatable steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5 (0.003% and 0.011% S). The J{sub R} curves were determined by the single sample technique by the part unloading method at different speeds of displacement on the load attack line (1 x 10{sup -4} mm/sec to 1 x 10{sup -6} mm/sec). The J{sub R} curves obtained were appreciably lower in the case of the test in water at high temperature than in air, for the same withdrawal speed (1 x 10{sup -4} mm/sec). In the presence of high temperature water a reduction in the withdrawal speed COD produced a lowering of the J{sub R} curves. There is a similar trend for the increase in the sulphur content from 0.003 to 0.011%. (orig./DG) [Deutsch] Am niedriglegierten Verguetungsstahl 20 MnMoNi 5 5 (0,03% sowie 0,011% S) wurden J{sub R}-Versuche bei 240 C an Bruchmechanikproben (CT 50, seitengekerbt) im sauerstoffhaltigen Hochtemperaturwasser (8 ppm, 7 MPa, quasi-stagnierend) sowie an Luft durchgefuehrt. Die Ermittlung der J{sub R}-Kurven erfolgte in der Einprobentechnik nach der Teilentlastungsmethode bei verschiedenen Verschiebungsgeschwindigkeiten in der Lastangriffslinie (1.10{sup -4} mm/s bis 1.10{sup -6} mm/s). Die erhaltenen J{sub R}-Kurven lagen bei gleicher Abzugsgeschwindigkeit (1.10{sup -4} mm/s) im Falle der Pruefung im Hochtemperaturwasser deutlich niedriger als in Luft. Bei Anwesenheit des Hochtemperaturwassers bewirkte eine Abnahme der Abzugsgeschwindigkeit COD eine Erniedrigung der J{sub R}-Kurven. Eine aehnliche Tendenz zeigte sich bei Erhoehung des Schwefelgehaltes von 0,003 auf 0,011%. (orig./DG)

  11. Process parameters and changes in the microbial community patterns during the first 240 days of an agricultural energy crop digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weithmann, Nicolas; Weig, Alfons Rupert; Freitag, Ruth

    2016-12-01

    Commercial biogas production takes place by complex microbial communities enclosed in controlled "technical ecosystems". Once established, the communities tend to be resilient towards disturbances, although the relative abundance of their members may vary. The start-up phase, during which the community establishes itself, is therefore decisive for the later performance of the reactor. In this study, we followed the first 240 days of a standard agricultural energy crop digester consisting of a 400 m(3) plug flow fermenter and a 1000 m(3) agitated post digester, operated at 40-45 °C. The feed consisted of corn and later grass silage augmented by ground wheat. Changes in both the eubacterial and methanogenic archaeal communities were followed by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). In addition the copy number of the methyl-coenzyme reductase A (mcrA)-genes found in all known methanogens were followed by quantitative PCR, while selected samples from two phases-one early, one late-of the community structure development were subjected to high throughput sequencing. Biogas volume and composition (CH4, CO2, H2, H2S, O2), pH, ammonia-N, and volatile fatty acids (VFA), were measured as part of the routine process control. VFA/TIC values were calculated on this basis. Whereas the total gas production of the plant established itself at about 2500 m(3) biogas per day within the first months, the composition of the microbial communities showed distinct spatial and temporal differences over the investigated time period. Absolute values for DNA isolation procedures are difficult to certify, hence comparative results on community structures obtained using standardized ARISA with identical primers are of value. Moreover, ARISA patterns can be statistically analyzed to identify distinct subgroups and transitions between them as well as serial correlations. Thereby the microbial community and its structural development can be correlated with statistical

  12. Fission barrier determinations and fragment angular correlations for the 244Pu, 242Pu, 240U, 238U, 234Th, and 232Th compound nuclei from (t, pf) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission probabilities and the angular distribution of the fission fragments have been measured for six even-even compound nuclear systems using the (t, pf) reaction. Angular correlations of fission fragments obtained in these experiments provide information about the low-lying collective excitations or transition states at the fission barrier. The (t, p) reaction in particular leads to neutron-rich residual nuclei unobtainable by other methods. The absence of spin coupling for (t, p) reactions on even-even targets provides angular distributions with well defined structure in the region of the fission barrier. The experimental data were obtained using an 18-MeV triton beam on targets of 242Pu, 240Pu, 238U, 236U, 232Th and 230Th at Los Alamos Van-de-Graaff accelerator facility. Outgoing protons were detected at 140 deg relative to the incident triton beam. Excitation energies ranging from 3.0 to 9.0 MeV were obtained in these experiments. Fission fragment angular distributions were measured at 24 angles from 0 deg to 140 deg relative to the kinematic recoil angle. The data were fitted to a series of even Legendre polynomials W(θ) = A0 [1 + ΣL gL PL (cos θ)] and the coefficients g2 through g12 and A0 were determined as a function of excitation energy. The fission probability Pf was obtained from the ratio of A0 to the (t, p) cross-section for the target nucleus. The results exhibit well defined structure in the angular coefficients which correlates with structure in the fission probability for most of the nuclei studied. In an attempt to interpret this observed structure the experimentally determined fitting parameters Pf and g are compared with calculated results of a microscopic model. This model takes into consideration the penetrability and angular dependence of fission through each member of the various transition bands at the saddle point and appropriately sums the results for comparison with the data. The effects of barrier penetration through a two

  13. Capture cross section measurement analysis in the Californium-252 spectrum with the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute average capture cross sections of gold, thorium, tantalum, molybdenum, copper and strontium in 252Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were simulated for two types of experiment setups preformed by Z. Dezso and J. Csikai and by L. Green. The experiments were simulated with MCNP5 using cross section data from the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. The determination of neutron backscattering was calculated with the use of neutron flagging. Correction factors to experimentally measured values were determined to obtain average cross sections in a pure 252Cf spontaneous fission spectrum. Influence of concrete wall thickness, air moisture and room size on the average cross section was analyzed. Correction factors amounted to about 30%. Corrected values corresponding to average cross sections in a pure 252Cf spectrum were calculated for 197Au, 232Th, 181Ta, 98Mo, 65Cu and 84Sr. Average cross sections were also calculated with the RR-UNC software using IRDFF-v.1.05 and ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries. The revised average radiative capture cross sections are 75.5±0.1 mb for 197Au, 87.0±1.6 mb for 232Th , 98.0±4.5 mb for 181Ta, 21.2±0.5 mb for 98Mo, 10.3±0.3 mb for 63Cu, and 34.9±6.5 mb for 84Sr. - Highlights: • Average capture cross sections in 252Cf spontaneous fission spectrum were simulated. • Calculations were done using MCNP5 code and ENDF/B-VII.0 library. • Correction factors for self-shielding and room return effects were taken into account. • The revised average radiative capture cross sections for different materials are published

  14. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of sediment using a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a 252Cf source to the neutron activation analysis of several elements in small (approximately 1.5 in. in dia) cores was studied using high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy and manual data reduction. (U.S.)

  15. OER of californium-252 at low dose rate for growth inhibition in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OER of 252Cf, at low dose rate, has been determined for growth inhibition in Vicia faba roots. A new strain ''BelB'' was used; it was found to be more resistant to prolonged anoxia. Two sets of linear 252Cf sources were used (linear activity 0.31 and 0.47 (μg.cm-1)) in somewhat different geometrical arrangements. The (n+γ) 252Cf dose rates at the level of the root tips were 0.11 and 0.13 Gy.h-1 respectively. The relative contribution of the γ component Dsub(γ) to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) at the level of the root tips was evaluated Dsub(γ)/Dsub(n+γ)=0.35 for the first source-geometry and 0.42 for the second source-geometry. The reference radiation was the γ emission of 192Ir, used in the same geometrical conditions and for similar irradiation times. Irradiations performed in aerobic and anoxic conditions were alternated. OER values of 1.4 +- 0.1 and 1.5 +- 0.1 were observed for the 252Cf emission with the first and second source-geometry respectively. The corresponding OER values for 192Ir were 2.3 +- 0.2 and 2.6 +- 0.1; the derived oxygen gain factors were then equal to 1.6 and 1.7 repectively

  16. Complete genome analysis of Clostridium bornimense strain M2/40(T): A new acidogenic Clostridium species isolated from a mesophilic two-phase laboratory-scale biogas reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazetto, Geizecler; Hahnke, Sarah; Koeck, Daniela E; Wibberg, Daniel; Maus, Irena; Pühler, Alfred; Klocke, Michael; Schlüter, Andreas

    2016-08-20

    Taxonomic and functional profiling based on metagenome analyses frequently revealed that members of the class Clostridia dominate biogas reactor communities and perform different essential metabolic pathways in the biogas fermentation process. Clostridium bornimense strain M2/40(T) was recently isolated from a mesophilic two-phase lab-scale biogas reactor continuously fed with maize silage and wheat straw. The genome of the strain was completely sequenced and manually annotated to reconstruct its metabolic potential regarding carbohydrate active enzyme production and fermentation of organic compounds for consolidated biofuel production from biomass. The C. bornimense M2/40(T) genome consists of a chromosome (2,917,864bp in size) containing 2613 protein coding sequences, and a 699,161bp chromid (secondary replicon) harboring 680 coding sequences. Both replicons feature very similar GC-contents of approximately 29%. The complex genome comprises three prophage regions, two CRISPR-cas systems and a putative cellulosomal gene cluster that is located on the second replicon (chromid) of the strain. The overexpressed glycosyl hydrolases (GH) CelK (GH9) and CelA (GH48) encoded in the cellulosomal gene cluster were shown to be active on the substrates xylan and xyloglucan whereas XghA (GH74) is highly active on xyloglucan. Reconstruction of fermentation pathways from genome sequence data revealed that strain M2/40(T) encodes all enzymes for hydrogen, acetate, formate, lactate, butyrate, and ethanol production, leading to the classification of the isolate as acidogenic bacterium. Phylogenetic analyses uncovered that the closest characterized relative of C. bornimense is C. cellulovorans. Comparative analyses of the C. bornimense and C. cellulovorans genomes revealed considerable rearrangements within their chromosomes suggesting that both species evolved separately for a relatively long period of time and adapted to specific tasks within microbial consortia responsible for

  17. Speciation analysis of 129I, 137Cs, 232Th, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu in environmental soil and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hansen, Violeta; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2012-01-01

    The environmental mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are related to their physicochemical forms, namely species. We here present a speciation analysis of important radionuclides including 129I (also 127I), 137Cs, 232Th, 238U and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) in soil (IAEA-375...... that the partitioning behaviour, and thus the potential mobility and bioavailability, are exclusively featured for the individual radionuclide. Iodine is relatively mobile and readily binds to organic matter, while plutonium is mainly bound to both organic matter and nitric acid leachable fractions. Thorium...

  18. Plans and schedules for implementation of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-240)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to make available to the states and other interested parties, the plans and schedules for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) implementation of its responsibilities under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). This document identifies the provisions of the LLRWPAA which affect the programs of the NRC, identifies what the NRC must do to fulfill each of its requirements under the LLRWPAA, and establishes schedules for carrying out these requirements. The plans and schedules are current as of June 1986

  19. Strong founder effect of p.P240L in CDH23 in Koreans and its significant contribution to severe-to-profound nonsyndromic hearing loss in a Korean pediatric population

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Ah Reum; Nayoung K.D. Kim; Kim, Min Young; Jeon, Eun-Hee; Kim, Bong Jik; Han, Young Eun; Chang, Mun Young; Park, Woong-Yang; Choi, Byung Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the prevalence of CDH23 mutations in East Asians, its large size hinders investigation. The pathologic mutation p.P240L in CDH23 is common in East Asians. However, whether this mutation represents a common founder or a mutational hot spot is unclear. The prevalence of CDH23 mutations with prelingual severe-to-profound sporadic or autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing loss (arSNHL) is unknown in Koreans. Methods From September 2010 to October 2014, children with severe-t...

  20. Sequential determination of 239,240Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 90Sr in radioactive wastes using SPE sorbents Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 and TRU Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and rapid method of the sequential determination of radionuclides 239,240Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 90Sr in radioactive sludge from the NPP Bohunice A1 with high radiochemical yields and efficient removal of interfering components from a matrix was developed. Separation method combines SPE sorbents Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 made by IBC Advanced Technologies and TRU Resin (Eichrom Technologies) placed in tandem. Advantage of a single-stage column located on the vacuum box with a rapid flow is an effective pre-concentration and separation of radionuclides and minimization of sample separation time. (authors)