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Sample records for californium 236

  1. Magnetism in californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SQUID-based magnetic susceptometer has been constructed for studying small radioactive samples at temperatures below 350 K and in magnetic fields up to 50 kilogauss. The device has been used to study californium (element 98) in a number of solid-state forms: the dhcp metal, several oxides (Cf2O3 in both the bcc and monoclinic structures, Cf7O12, CfO2 and BaCfO3), several monopnictides (CfN, CfAs and CfSb) and the trichloride (in both the hexagonal and orthorhombic structures). All of these materials were studied in polycrystalline form, and hexagonal CfCl3 was studied in single-crystal form as well. The susceptometer has the sensitivity to measure samples containing less than 10 micrograms of californium. The magnetic susceptibilities of all of the californium materials at temperatures above about 100 K are described well by the Curie-Weiss relationship. This behavior is consistent with the assumption that the magnetic 5f electrons are localized and that the paramagnetic behavior can be interpreted in terms of the properties of the free ion. The measured values of the effective paramagnetic moment, μ/sub eff/, for all the californium materials that were studied are reasonably consistent with theoretical values based on intermediate coupling models. All of the californium materials showed some indications of cooperative magnetic effects. The dhcp metal was observed to order ferromagnetically at 52 K, and all of the californium compounds studied showed signs of antiferromagnetic ordering, mostly at temperatures below 25 K. 91 refs., 50 figs., 19 tabs

  2. Californium Multiplier (CFX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of 252Cf as an economical high-intensity neutron source has made it possible to construct compact neutron irradiation devices with widespread applications. The simplest such device consists of a single 252Cf source within a moderating and shielding medium. Higher neutron flux levels can be attained either through the use of more 252Cf or through source multiplication by means of a subcritical uranium assembly. Although the use of larger 252Cf sources to achieve higher neutron flux is technically straightforward, an economic penalty is paid as the source strength is increased. Larger californium sources imply larger initial investments to cover the cost of source material and larger operating costs resulting from the decay of the 252Cf source. A Californium Multiplier, the CFX, which produces a flux enhancement of 30 when compared to a conventional moderated 252Cf system has been designed, licensed, built, and tested by IRT Corporation. Such systems are now available on a commercial basis for both neutron radiography and neutron activation analysis. The first commercial CFX system was installed at the Research Laboratories of Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, NY, in March 1975. This device, using 1 mg of 252Cf, is very stable and the neutron flux generated by the CFX is very reproducible. The performance characteristics of this system are summarized

  3. Californium--palladium metal neutron source material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, B.L.; Mosly, W.C. Jr.; Smith, P.K.; Albenesius, E.L.

    1974-01-22

    Californium, as metal or oxide, is uniformly dispersed throughout a noble metal matrix, provided in compact, rod or wire form. A solution of californium values is added to palladium metal powder, dried, blended and pressed into a compact having a uni-form distribution of californium. The californium values are decomposed to californium oxide or metal by heating in an inert or reducing atmosphere. Sintering the compact to a high density closes the matrix around the dispersed californium. The sintered compact is then mechanically shaped into an elongated rod or wire form. (4 claims, no drawings) (Official Gazette)

  4. Californium-252 progress, report No. 7, April 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-12-31

    This report contains discusses of the following topics on Californium-252: First sales of californium-252; encapsulation services discussed; three new participants in market evaluation program; summer training programs to use californium; Californium-252 shipping casks available; Californium-252 questions and answers, radiotherapy; neutron radiography; natural resources exploration; nuclear safeguards; process control; dosimetry; neutron radiography; neutron shielding; and nuclear safeguards.

  5. Californium Electrodepositions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, Rose Ann [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Electrodepositions of californium isotopes were successfully performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the past year involving two different types of deposition solutions, ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) and isobutanol ((CH3)2CHCH2OH). A californium product that was decay enriched in 251Cf was recovered for use in super-heavy element (SHE) research. This neutron-rich isotope, 251Cf, provides target material for SHE research for the potential discovery of heavier isotopes of Z=118. The californium material was recovered from aged 252Cf neutron sources in storage at ORNL. These sources have decayed for over 30 years, thus providing material with a very high 251Cf-to-252Cf ratio. After the source capsules were opened, the californium was purified and then electrodeposited using the isobutanol method onto thin titanium foils for use in an accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Another deposition method, ammonium acetate, was used to produce a deposition containing 1.7 0.1 Ci of 252Cf onto a stainless steel substrate. This was the largest single electrodeposition of 252Cf ever prepared. The 252Cf material was initially purified using traditional ion exchange media, such as AG50-AHIB and AG50-HCl, and further purified using a TEVA-NH4SCN system to remove any lanthanides, resulting in the recovery of 3.6 0.1 mg of purified 252Cf. The ammonium acetate deposition was run with a current of 1.0 amp, resulting in a 91.5% deposition yield. Purification and handling of the highly radioactive californium material created additional challenges in the production of these sources.

  6. Historical Review of Californium-252 Discovery and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed. (PLG)

  7. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  8. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  9. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 (252Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, 252Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of 252Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the 252Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, 252Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of 252Cf from ORNL is summarized herein

  10. Californium-252 Neutron Therapy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 brachytherapy, believed to be the most successful source for neutron therapy, gives most of the cures as well as long-term and complication-free survivals. Chinese radiation oncologists were interested in californium neutron therapy (Cf-NT) in the early 1980s, but 252Cf sources for medical use were not available in China until 1992 when a californium joint venture was established by the China Institute of Atomic Energy (Beijing) and the Research Institute for Nuclear Reactors (Dimitrovgrad) of Russia. In 1995, 25 seeds of 252Cf with a strength of 3 μg each were sent to China for preclinical investigation. Three years later, a high dose rate (HDR) 252Cf source was imported and transferred into a home-made remote after-loader for intracavitary treatment in Chongqing, and a clinical trail was started in February 1999. This is the first time that Cf-NT was performed for cancer patients in China. Since then, Cf-NT in China has developed rapidly. It is estimated that one-tenth of those radiation oncology centers with brachytherapy practice will be equipped with californium units in 5 yr. That means more than 30 units will be in use in hospitals. That is significant compared with other countries, but it is just one, on average, for each province or one per 40 million people in China. Progress also has been achieved in the 252Cf treatment delivery equipment. Preliminary clinical trails showed complete response observed in all cases treated, with a rapid clearance of tumors and mild reactions in normal tissues. The short-term results are quite encouraging. To deal with problems due to the demand for Cf-NT in China, attention should be paid to the following particulars: (1) A high-strength miniature source is needed for HDR/MDR interstitial therapy to extend the Cf-NT coverage. (2) Basic work on radiophysics and radiobiology needs to be done, including source calibration, clinical dosimetry, clinical RBE determination, and Cf-NT quality assurance

  11. Californium-252 sales and loans at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and distribution in the United States of 252Cf has recently been consolidated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 252Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program and the 252Cf University Load Program, which were formerly located at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), have been combined with the californium production and distribution activities of the Transuranium Element Production Program at ORNL. Californium-252 is sold to commercial users in the form of bulk californium oxide, palladium-californium alloy pellets, or alloy wires. Neutron source capsules, which are fabricated for loans to DOE or other US government agencies, are still available in all forms previously available. The consolidation of all 252Cf distribution activities at the production site is expected to result in better service to users. In particular, customers for neutrons sources will be ale to select from a wider range of neutron source forms, including custom designs, through a single contact point

  12. Californium-252 encapsulation at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1 g of the neutron-emitting isotope californium-252 has been encapsulated at SRL for worldwide medical, industrial, and research uses. Bulk sales packages have been prepared for the USDOE sales program since 1971. Doubly-encapsulated sources have been prepared for USDOE's market evaluation program since 1968. Californium-252 sources for loan and sales packages satisfy the criteria for Special Form Radioactive Material. Encapsulation is performed in special neutron-shielded containment facilities at SRL. Development of improved source and shipping package designs and processes is continuing. 17 figures

  13. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 1011 neutrons s-1. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  14. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R C; Knauer, J B; Balo, P A

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10(11) neutrons s(-1). Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordinance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations. PMID:11003521

  15. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial

  16. Production of extra pure curium and californium preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations of curium-244,245,248 and californium-249,252 are used for the production of ionizing radiation sources for different applications and fundamental nuclear-physical investigations, placing high requirements on the radiochemical and chemical purity of the preparations. Extraction chromatography using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as extractant was chosen to prepare extra pure curium and californium preparations. In order to identify the optimal conditions of Cm-Cf separation and to remove impurities from them (reagent and other impurities), investigations were performed into the effect of impurities (Na+, Ca2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+ taken as example), extractant and eluent concentration and solution flow rate on the efficiency of mutual purification of Cm and Cf. Both theoretical and experimental estimations were made of the maximum concentration at which the impurities do not affect the process. The conditions chosen allow mutual purification of milligram amounts of Cm and Cf from impurity elements at E(pur) =102 - 103 during a single chromatographic cycle (E(pur) =>103) using a column with 5 - 10 cm3 volume. In this case the production yield exceeds 98%. The purification of milligram amounts of curium and californium from fission products (lanthanides in general, cerium in particular) was performed in D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 and D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3-Cit extraction chromatography systems. In order to establish the optimal conditions, the effect of [D2EHPA] and eluent on the mutual purification of Cm and Cf and on their purification from cerium and impurity elements was studied in the D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 system. During a single chromatographic cycle the mutual purification factors of TPE and of their purification from impurity cations achieve 102-103, from cerium - E(pur) > 10. In the D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3Cit system, the effect of concentration of extractant and eluent pH on the efficiency of Cm and Cf purification from lanthanides was

  17. 49 CFR 236.558-236.559 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives §§ 236.558-236.559...

  18. Prompt neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum was measured in the energy range of 0.01 to 10 MeV by the time-of-flight technique using various neutron detectors. The measurements of 252Cf neutron spectrum at energies of 0.01 to 5 MeV were performed as a function of fission fragment kinetic energy. The mean neutron spectrum energy in the range of 0.7 to 10 MeV was found from the results of measurements. The irregularity in the 252Cf neutron spectrum in the neutron energy range of less than 0.7 MeV compared to theoretical values is discussed. The mechanism of 252Cf neutron emission is also discussed on the basis of neutron yield angle measurements. 12 references

  19. Separation of californium from actinides and lanthanides in aqueous solution by electrochemical formation of amalgams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical reduction of transneptunium elements (Pu to Cf) and rare earths (Eu, Tm) from aqueous complexing solutions to amalgams was studied over a wide range of cathodic potentials in order to achieve optimal separation of californium. The reduction in acetate media (pH 4.5-4.6) at potentials around -1.7 to -1.9 V1 leads to a quantitative extraction of californium into the mercury phase, while more negative potentials are required for the reduction of the lighter transuranium elements and of the lanthanides. Hence, the optimal conditions for the separation of californium from the investigated actinides and lanthanides were determined. Separation factors α between 25 and 90 were found except in the case of Cf/Eu, where poor values (α varying from 7 to 12) were observed. More negative cathodic potentials decrease the selectivity of the reduction process. A similar study with lithium citrate solutions (pH ∝6) shows that satisfactory separation of californium from lighter and heavier actinides is achievable. A separation factor of 88 is obtained for Cf/Am at -1.98 V. The anodic stripping of mixed amalgams (Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Tm and Cf) Hg in nitric and acetic acid soultions at potentials ranging from +0.1 to -0.7 V proceeds slowly and proved to be ineffective for the separation of californium from light actinides under conditions described. (orig.)

  20. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy

  1. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Byrne, T.E. [Roane State Community College, Harriman, TN (United States); Miller, L.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with {sup 252}Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of {sup 252}Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a {sup 252}Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded {sup 252}Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy.

  2. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Samantha K; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E; Stritzinger, Jared T; Green, Thomas D; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N; Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A; DePrince, A Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J; Van Cleve, Shelley M; House, Jane H; Kikugawa, Naoki; Gallagher, Andrew; Arico, Alexandra A; Dixon, David A; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resultant complex with respect to that predicted for the free ion. We expand on this by characterizing the americium and curium analogues for comparison, and show that these pronounced effects result from a second transition in periodicity in the actinide series that occurs, in part, because of the stabilization of the divalent oxidation state. The metastability of californium(II) is responsible for many of the unusual properties of californium including the green photoluminescence. PMID:25880116

  3. Fissile analysis of Hanford waste using Californium Multiplier/Delayed Neutron Counter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of low-level (10 ng/g or lower) fissile material (mainly plutonium) in Hanford waste and process samples is becoming increasingly important. A system has been designed consisting of a Californium Multiplier (CFX) and a Delayed Neutron Counter (DNC) to characterize these samples. This report describes hardware and analytical capability of the CFX/DNC system

  4. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  5. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  6. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series

    OpenAIRE

    Cary, Samantha K.; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; GREEN, THOMAS D.; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A.; DePrince, A. Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J.; Van Cleve, Shelley M.; House, Jane H.; Kikugawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resu...

  7. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A...

  8. 49 CFR 236.771 - Machine, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machine, control. 236.771 Section 236.771..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.771 Machine, control. An assemblage of manually operated devices for controlling the functions of a...

  9. 49 CFR 236.721 - Circuit, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, control. 236.721 Section 236.721..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.721 Circuit, control. An electrical circuit between a source of electric energy and a device which it operates....

  10. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

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    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located....

  11. 49 CFR 236.777 - Operator, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator, control. 236.777 Section 236.777..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.777 Operator, control. An employee assigned to operate the control machine of a traffic control system....

  12. 36 CFR 2.36 - Gambling.

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    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gambling. 2.36 Section 2.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.36 Gambling. (a) Gambling in any form, or the operation of...

  13. 49 CFR 236.564 - Acknowledging time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acknowledging time. 236.564 Section 236.564..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.564 Acknowledging time. Acknowledging time of intermittent automatic train-stop device shall be not more than 30 seconds....

  14. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  15. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  16. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  17. 49 CFR 236.376 - Mechanical locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical locking. 236.376 Section 236.376 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.376 Mechanical locking. Mechanical locking in interlocking machine shall be...

  18. 49 CFR 236.587 - Departure test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Departure test. 236.587 Section 236.587..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.587 Departure test. (a) The...: (1) Operation over track elements; (2) Operation over test circuit; (3) Use of portable...

  19. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet...

  20. 49 CFR 236.770 - Locomotive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.770 Locomotive. A self... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive. 236.770 Section 236.770 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  1. 15 CFR 23.6 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... International Trade Administration Minority Business Development Agency National Bureau of Standards National... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 23.6 Section 23.6... RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 23.6 Definitions. (a) Operating units. Bureaus and other...

  2. 49 CFR 236.105 - Electric lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock. 236.105 Section 236.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.105 Electric lock. Electric lock, except...

  3. 46 CFR 153.236 - Prohibited materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited materials. 153.236 Section 153.236 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.236 Prohibited materials. When one of the following paragraphs of this section...

  4. 33 CFR 236.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 236.3 Section 236.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... QUALITY § 236.3 References. (a) PL 89-72 (b) ER 1105-2-10 (c) ER 1105-2-200...

  5. 24 CFR 236.901 - Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with HUD audit requirements at 24 CFR part 44. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit. 236.901 Section 236.901... AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Audits § 236.901 Audit. Where a State or...

  6. Spontaneous Partitioning of Californium from Curium: Curious Cases from the Crystallization of Curium Coordination Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Samantha K.; Silver, Mark A.; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Jamie C.; Bogart, Justin A.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Arico, Alexandra A.; Hanson, Kenneth; Schelter, Eric J.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2015-12-07

    The reaction of 248CmCl3 with excess 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) under mild solvothermal conditions results in crystallization of the tris-chelate complex Cm(HDPA)3·H2O. Approximately half of the curium remains in solution at the end of this process, and evaporation of the mother liquor results in crystallization of the bis-chelate complex [Cm(HDPA)- (H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O. 248Cm is the daughter of the α decay of 252Cf and is extracted in high purity from this parent. However, trace amounts of 249,250,251Cf are still present in all samples of 248Cm. During the crystallization of Cm(HDPA)3·H2O and [Cm(HDPA)(H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O, californium(III) spontaneously separates itself from the curium complexes and is found doped within crystals of DPA in the form of Cf(HDPA)3. These results add to the growing body of evidence that the chemistry of californium is fundamentally different from that of earlier actinides.

  7. 236U and Its Measurement With Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>236U natural occurring isotopic abundance, 236U/238U atom number ratio, is about 10-14. Therefore, 236U is potentially useful as a ‘fingerprint’ for the presence in the environment or nuclear waste of

  8. 49 CFR 236.811 - Speed, medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed, medium. 236.811 Section 236.811 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, medium. A speed not exceeding 40 miles per hour....

  9. 49 CFR 236.813 - Speed, slow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed, slow. 236.813 Section 236.813 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, slow. A speed not exceeding 20 miles per hour....

  10. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  11. 49 CFR 236.790 - Release, time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release, time. 236.790 Section 236.790... Release, time. A device used to prevent the operation of an operative unit until after the expiration of a predetermined time interval after the device has been actuated....

  12. 49 CFR 236.768 - Locking, time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, time. 236.768 Section 236.768... Locking, time. A method of locking, either mechanical or electrical, which, after a signal has been caused to display an aspect to proceed, prevents, until after the expiration of a predetermined...

  13. 49 CFR 236.806 - Signal, home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, home. 236.806 Section 236.806 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Signal, home. A roadway signal at the entrance to a route or block to govern trains in entering and...

  14. 48 CFR 552.236-80 - Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat. 552.236-80 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.236-80 Heat. As prescribed in 536.570-11, insert the following clause: Heat (APR 1984) Unless otherwise specified or unless...

  15. 49 CFR 236.751 - Interlocking, manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interlocking, manual. 236.751 Section 236.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Interlocking, manual. An arrangement of signals and signal appliances operated from an interlocking machine...

  16. 49 CFR 236.769 - Locking, traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, traffic. 236.769 Section 236.769... Locking, traffic. Electric locking which prevents the manipulation of levers or other devices for changing the direction of traffic on a section of track while that section is occupied or while a...

  17. 49 CFR 236.730 - Coil, receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coil, receiver. 236.730 Section 236.730 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Coil, receiver. Concentric layers of insulated wire wound around the core of a receiver of an...

  18. 49 CFR 236.733 - Current, foreign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current, foreign. 236.733 Section 236.733 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Current, foreign. A term applied to stray electric currents which may affect a signaling system, but...

  19. 49 CFR 236.761 - Locking, electric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, electric. 236.761 Section 236.761 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, electric. The combination of one or more electric locks and controlling circuits by means...

  20. 49 CFR 236.757 - Lock, electric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lock, electric. 236.757 Section 236.757... Lock, electric. A device to prevent or restrict the movement of a lever, a switch or a movable bridge, unless the locking member is withdrawn by an electrical device, such as an electromagnet, solenoid...

  1. 49 CFR 236.731 - Controller, circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controller, circuit. 236.731 Section 236.731 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Controller, circuit. A device for opening and closing electric circuits....

  2. 49 CFR 236.728 - Circuit, trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, trap. 236.728 Section 236.728... Circuit, trap. A term applied to a circuit used where it is desirable to provide a track circuit but where it is impracticable to maintain a track circuit....

  3. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part....

  4. 49 CFR 236.765 - Locking, mechanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, mechanical. 236.765 Section 236.765 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, mechanical. An arrangement of locking bars, dogs, tappets, cross locking and other apparatus...

  5. 48 CFR 53.236-1 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 53.236-1... AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.236-1 Construction. The following forms are prescribed, as stated below, for use in contracting for construction, alteration, or repair, or dismantling,...

  6. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.744... signal system, such as electric circuit, inductor, or trip arm to which the locomotive apparatus of...

  7. 49 CFR 236.788 - Receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.788 Receiver. A device on a locomotive, so placed that it is in position to be influenced inductively or actuated by...

  8. 49 CFR 236.589 - Relays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.589 Relays. (a) Each relay shall be...

  9. Measurement of 236U in environmental media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-lived uranium isotope 236U (T1/2=23.4 Ma) is produced by 235U neutron capture and builds up to high levels in nuclear fuel. It has been distributed in the environment as a result of nuclear activities including nuclear explosions, accidents at nuclear plants, dumping of nuclear waste and releases from nuclear facilities. 236U is a potentially useful tracer of irradiated uranium for nuclear safeguards or other applications, due to its virtual absence in natural samples (236U:238U ratio ∼10-10 in uranium ore). We have measured 236U in soil and sediment reference materials (IAEA 375, 135 and 300) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The AMS system on the ANTARES accelerator has been upgraded to make such measurements possible. The system, including sample preparation procedures, is described and the results discussed

  10. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction 55Mn (n.gamma)56 Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of 56Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions 56Fe(n,p)56Mn and 59 Co (n, α)56 were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  11. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252Cf and 7000 rad from 226Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252Cf and 5000 rad from 226Ra

  12. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever....

  13. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Rekas, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  14. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  15. Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and therapeutic gain factor (GF) for californium-252 at low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential benefit of the introduction of californium-252 in interstitial and intracavitary therapy is related to the greater efficiency of its neutron emission against anoxic cancer cells. In that respect, the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of the 252Cf emission has been determined for a continuous low dose rate irradiation. The biological system is growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. A new Vicia faba ''BelB'' strain has been used, which better tolerates long periods (up to about 10 hours) of anoxia. In a first series of experiments, for a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.11 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.4+-0.1 was observed (the γ contribution Dγ to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) was 0.35 at the position of the root tips). In a second series of experiments, in somewhat different geometrical conditions with a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.13 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.5+-0.1 was observed (Dγ/Dsub(n+γ)=0.42). The OER values observed for similar irradiation times, with iridium-192 γ-rays, were 2.3+-0.2 and 2.6+-0.1 respectively, which leads to therapeutic gain factors (GF) of 1.6 and 1.7 respectively. These GF values are slightly lower than those previously obtained (GF=1.8) on the same system, with d(50)-Be p(75)-Be and 15 MeV neutron beams

  16. Clinical Report on Californium-252 Neutron Intraluminal Brachytherapy Combined with External Irradiation for Cervical Carcinoma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanyu Zhao; Keming Wang; Jian Sun; Xin Geng; Weiming Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the curative effects and complications of californium-252 (252Cf) neutron intraluminal brachytherapy (IBT) combined with external irradiation (El) for treatment of cervical carcinoma.METHODS From December 2000 to December 2004, 128 cases of cervical carcinoma staged into ⅡA~ⅢB according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) standards were treated with 252Cf neutron IBT using 8~10 Gy per fraction, once a week. The total dose at reference A point was 36~40 Gy in 4~5 fractions. From the second day after 252Cf neutron IBT treatment, the whole pelvic cavity was treated with 60Co γ-ray El, applying 2 Gy per fraction, 4 times per week. After 20~25 Gy of El, the center of the whole pelvic field was blocked with 4 cm of lead in width. The total dose of El was 45~50 Gy.RESULTS The short-term therapeutic effects were CR 95.3% and PR 4.7%. The 3 and 5-year local control rates were 93.5% and 87.9%. The overall 3-year survival rate was 87.5% and for Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ , 90.9%and 81.5% respectively; the overall 5-year survival rate was 70% and for Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ, 76.2% and 61% respectively. The rate of radiation complications was 4.7% for radiation cystitis, 7.8% for radiation proctitis, 6.3%for vagina contracture and adhesion and 5.5% for protracted radiation proctitis.CONCLUSION An combination of 252Cf neutron IBT with El for treatment of cervical carcinoma can be well-tolerated by cervical carcinoma patients. The rate of local tumor control is high and radiation complications are few.

  17. 48 CFR 236.604 - Performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance evaluation... Architect-Engineer Services 236.604 Performance evaluation. (a) Preparation of performance reports. Use DD Form 2631, Performance Evaluation (Architect-Engineer), instead of SF 1421. (2) Prepare a...

  18. 9 CFR 2.36 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.36 Annual report. (a) The reporting facility shall be that..., and use of animals, including appropriate use of anesthetic, analgesic, and tranquilizing drugs, prior to, during, and following actual research, teaching, testing, surgery, or experimentation...

  19. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus... results of such inspection recorded as provided by § 229.29(a). When a locomotive with automatic...

  20. 49 CFR 236.739 - Device, acknowledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.739... locomotive equipped with an automatic train stop or train control device, an automatic brake application can be forestalled, or by means of which, on a locomotive equipped with an automatic cab signal...

  1. 49 CFR 236.834 - Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.834 Trip. A movement of a locomotive over all or any portion of automatic train stop, train control or cab signal territory between the terminals for that locomotive; a movement in one direction. Cross Reference:...

  2. Resolved resonance parameters for 236Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters were obtained for fission cross-section representation in the 0.01-33 eV energy region from evaluation of a 236Np experimental fission cross-section in the resolved resonance region. (author)

  3. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a circuit... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  4. 48 CFR 852.236-80 - Subcontracts and work coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... coordination. 852.236-80 Section 852.236-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS....236-80 Subcontracts and work coordination. As prescribed in 836.574, insert the following clause: Subcontracts and Work Coordination (APR 1984) (a) Nothing contained in this contract shall be construed...

  5. 48 CFR 236.275 - Construction of industrial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction of industrial resources. 236.275 Section 236.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.275 Construction of industrial resources....

  6. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236-94 Section 86.236-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting...

  7. 7 CFR 23.6 - Plan of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plan of Work. 23.6 Section 23.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture STATE AND REGIONAL ANNUAL PLANS OF WORK State Program § 23.6 Plan of Work. (a) A State Annual Plan of Work for carrying out the programs authorized under title V shall...

  8. 27 CFR 46.236 - Articles in a warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles in a warehouse. 46.236 Section 46.236 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.236 Articles in a warehouse. (a)...

  9. 49 CFR 236.732 - Controller, circuit; switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controller, circuit; switch. 236.732 Section 236.732 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.732 Controller, circuit; switch. A device for opening and closing electric circuits, operated by...

  10. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling...

  11. 29 CFR 2.36 - Status of nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Status of nonprofit organizations. 2.36 Section 2.36 Labor... Beneficiaries § 2.36 Status of nonprofit organizations. (a) In general, DOL does not require that an... programs. Many such programs, however, do require an organization to be a “nonprofit organization” in...

  12. 49 CFR 236.809 - Signal, slotted mechanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, slotted mechanical. 236.809 Section 236.809 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.809 Signal, slotted mechanical. A mechanically operated signal with an electromagnetic...

  13. Divalent and trivalent gas-phase coordination complexes of californium: evaluating the stability of Cf(ii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Phuong D; Shuh, David K; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Abergel, Rebecca J; Gibson, John K

    2016-08-01

    The divalent oxidation state is increasingly stable relative to the trivalent state for the later actinide elements, with californium the first actinide to exhibit divalent chemistry under moderate conditions. Although there is evidence for divalent Cf in solution and solid compounds, there are no reports of discrete complexes in which Cf(II) is coordinated by anionic ligands. Described here is the divalent Cf methanesulfinate coordination complex, Cf(II)(CH3SO2)3(-), prepared in the gas phase by reductive elimination of CH3SO2 from Cf(III)(CH3SO2)4(-). Comparison with synthesis of the corresponding Sm and Cm complexes reveals reduction of Cf(III) and Sm(III), and no evidence for reduction of Cm(III). This reflects the comparative 3+/2+ reduction potentials: Cf(3+) (-1.60 V) ≈ Sm(3+) (-1.55 V) ≫ Cm(3+) (-3.7 V). Association of O2 to the divalent complexes is attributed to formation of superoxides, with recovery of the trivalent oxidation state. The new gas-phase chemistry of californium, now the heaviest element to have been studied in this manner, provides evidence for Cf(II) coordination complexes and similar chemistry of Cf and Sm. PMID:27424652

  14. Solving the Hydration Structure of the Heaviest Actinide Aqua Ion Known: The Californium(III) Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Auwer, Ch.; Guillaumont, D. [CEA Marcoule, Nucl Energy Div, Radiochem Proc Dept, SCPS LILA, 30 (France); Galbis, E.; Pappalardo, Rafael R.; Marcos Sanchez, E. [Univ Seville, Dept Quim Fis, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Hernandez-Cobos, J. [Inst Ciencias Fis, Cuernavaca 62251, Morelos (Mexico); Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E. [Univ Paris Sud, Inst Phys Nucl Orsay, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    In summary, the first MC simulation of the trivalent cation of californium, based on an exchangeable hydrated ion-water intermolecular potential, has been shown to extend and improve the hydrated ion model. Likewise, the CfL{sub III}-edge EXAFS spectrum of an acidic 1 mm Cf(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3} aqueous solution recorded under optimized experimental conditions has greatly improved the signal/noise ratio of the only previously recorded spectrum. The comparison of the experimental EXAFS spectrum with the two computed ones, obtained from two different intermolecular potentials that predict eight (BP86) or nine (MP2) water molecules in the first coordination shell, leads to the conclusion that the lowest hydration number is preferred. Then, as Cf{sup III} is the heaviest actinide aqua ion for which there is experimental information, the actinide contraction is supported by the present study. (For U{sup III}, R{sub U-O}=2.56 Angstroms, and CN=9{+-}1; for Pu{sup III}, R{sub Pu-O}=2.51 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1; for Cm{sup III}, R{sub Cm-O}=2.47 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1). The role of the second hydration shell is important in defining the structure and dynamics of the Cf{sup III} aqua ion, but the contribution of second-shell water molecules to the EXAFS signal as back-scatters is marginal. Finally, this work gives an illustrative example of the benefits which can be achieved from the combination of experimental X-ray absorption spectroscopy and computer simulations. The usefulness of the simultaneous analysis of the results as well as the importance of the structural statistical average has been clearly demonstrated herein. Each technique independently was not adequate. We believe that this study traces out a still poorly explored combined methodology which may be extremely useful for many other complexes and chemical problems. A systematic theoretical and experimental examination of the other known actinide cations on the same basis should be undertaken to confirm the

  15. First 236U data from the Arctic Ocean and use of 236U/238U and 129I/236U as a new dual tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masqué, P.; Henderson, G.; Rutgers van-der-Loeff, M.; Bauch, D.; Vockenhuber, C.; Daraoui, A.; Walther, C.; Synal, H.-A.; Christl, M.

    2016-04-01

    The first dataset of 236U/238U in the water column of the Arctic Ocean (AO) is presented and shows the widest range of ratios reported so far in the open ocean, from (5 ± 5) to (3840 ± 260) ×10-12. Surface samples and depth profiles were collected during two GEOTRACES expeditions in 2011-2012 and analyzed for the concentrations of 236U and 129I, with the aim of investigating whether the combination of 236U/238U and 129I/236U can be used as a new oceanographic tool in the AO. Results show that the distributions of the 236U/238U and 129I/236U atomic ratios are consistent with the different water masses in the AO. High 236U/238U and 129I/236U ratios in the upper water column (> 2000 ×10-12 and >200, respectively) illustrate the penetration of Atlantic waters (AW) into the AO. Lower values were found in Pacific waters (PW) and deep waters of the AO. Rivers seem to represent a temporally and spatially-constrained third anthropogenic source of 236U but more data are needed to confirm this. In a simple mixing model, the combination of 236U/238U and 129I/236U reveals a high contribution (>99%) of natural background waters (pre-nuclear era) in the deep and bottom waters of the Amerasian basin, indicating an apparent water mass renewal time of >1000 years. Despite the relatively high apparent age of the Amerasian Basin deep waters, this work shows the potential of using the dual-tracer approach as a new oceanographic tool in the Arctic Ocean.

  16. First results on 236U levels in global fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, A; Kawai, K; Steier, P; Quinto, F; Mino, K; Tomita, J; Hoshi, M; Whitehead, N; Yamamoto, M

    2009-07-01

    The global fallout (236)U level in soil was deduced from measurements of (236)U, (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs in surface soils which are solely influenced by global fallout. A total of 12 soil cores from the depths of 0-10, 0-20 and 0-30 cm were collected at a flat forest area in Japan. Concentrations of (239+240)Pu and (238)U were determined by alpha-particle spectrometry, while the (236)U/(238)U ratio was measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Consistent (236)U/(239)Pu ratios between 0.212 and 0.253 were found. Using this ratio, the total global fallout of (236)U on the earth is estimated to be as much as ca. 900 kg. This knowledge will contribute to the promotion of research on U isotopes, including (236)U, for the fields of geo-resources, waste management and geochemistry. PMID:19406452

  17. 48 CFR 852.236-84 - Schedule of work progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule of work progress. 852.236-84 Section 852.236-84 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...., “Excavation”, “Floor Tile”, “Finish Carpentry”, etc., should be plotted along the vertical axis and...

  18. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airfield safety precautions. 252.236-7005 Section 252.236-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... to contract performance might result in vertical projections at or above the...

  19. 49 CFR 236.794 - Rod, up-and-down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rod, up-and-down. 236.794 Section 236.794 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., up-and-down. A rod used for connecting the semaphore arm to the operating mechanism of a signal....

  20. 49 CFR 236.17 - Pipe for operating connections, requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe for operating connections, requirements. 236... Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.17 Pipe for operating connections, requirements. (a) Steel or wrought-iron pipe one inch or larger, or members of equal strength, shall be used for...

  1. 48 CFR 52.236-8 - Other Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other Contracts. 52.236-8... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.236-8 Other Contracts. As prescribed in 36.508, insert the following clause: Other Contracts (APR 1984) The...

  2. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  3. 48 CFR 852.236-78 - Government supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government supervision. 852.236-78 Section 852.236-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Government supervision. As prescribed in 836.572, insert the following clause: Government Supervision...

  4. 8 CFR 236.16 - Travel outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel outside the United States. 236.16... Program § 236.16 Travel outside the United States. An alien granted Family Unity Program benefits who intends to travel outside the United States temporarily must apply for advance authorization using Form...

  5. 49 CFR 236.775 - Movement, switch-and-lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, switch-and-lock. 236.775 Section 236.775 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions §...

  6. 49 CFR 236.919 - Operations and Maintenance Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operations and Maintenance Manual. 236.919 Section... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.919 Operations and Maintenance Manual. (a... Maintenance Manual, readily available to persons required to perform such tasks and for inspection by FRA...

  7. 49 CFR 236.1039 - Operations and Maintenance Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operations and Maintenance Manual. 236.1039... Train Control Systems § 236.1039 Operations and Maintenance Manual. (a) The railroad shall catalog and..., modification, inspection, and testing of the PTC system and have them in one Operations and Maintenance...

  8. 49 CFR 236.734 - Current of traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current of traffic. 236.734 Section 236.734 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Current of traffic. The movement of trains on a specified track in a designated direction....

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 236 - Civil Penalties 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. A Appendix... device that functions as track relay not in its most restrictive state when train, locomotive, or car...,000 2,000 236.312Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices: (a)...

  10. 49 CFR 236.509 - Two or more locomotives coupled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two or more locomotives coupled. 236.509 Section..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.509 Two or more locomotives...

  11. 49 CFR 236.18 - Software management control plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Software management control plan. 236.18 Section... Instructions: All Systems General § 236.18 Software management control plan. (a) Within 6 months of June 6, 2005, each railroad shall develop and adopt a software management control plan for its signal and...

  12. 24 CFR 236.750 - Form of lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of lease. 236.750 Section 236... lease. (a) Lease form. Eligible tenants shall be required to execute a lease in a form approved by the Commissioner. (b) Prohibited lease provisions. Lease clauses of the nature described below shall not...

  13. 48 CFR 236.203 - Government estimate of construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government estimate of...-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.203 Government estimate of construction costs. Follow the procedures at PGI 236.203 for handling the Government estimate of...

  14. 49 CFR 236.786 - Principle, closed circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principle, closed circuit. 236.786 Section 236.786 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Principle, closed circuit. The principle of circuit design where a normally energized electric circuit...

  15. 48 CFR 52.236-12 - Cleaning Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning Up. 52.236-12 Section 52.236-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... Cleaning Up. As prescribed in 36.512, insert the following clause: Cleaning Up (APR 1984) The...

  16. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  17. Excess of (236)U in the northwest Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, E; López-Lora, M; Bressac, M; Levy, I; Pham, M K

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we present first (236)U results in the northwestern Mediterranean. (236)U is studied in a seawater column sampled at DYFAMED (Dynamics of Atmospheric Fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea) station (Ligurian Sea, 43°25'N, 07°52'E). The obtained (236)U/(238)U atom ratios in the dissolved phase, ranging from about 2×10(-9) at 100m depth to about 1.5×10(-9) at 2350m depth, indicate that anthropogenic (236)U dominates the whole seawater column. The corresponding deep-water column inventory (12.6ng/m(2) or 32.1×10(12) atoms/m(2)) exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the expected one for global fallout at similar latitudes (5ng/m(2) or 13×10(12) atoms/m(2)), evidencing the influence of local or regional (236)U sources in the western Mediterranean basin. On the other hand, the input of (236)U associated to Saharan dust outbreaks is evaluated. An additional (236)U annual deposition of about 0.2pg/m(2) based on the study of atmospheric particles collected in Monaco during different Saharan dust intrusions is estimated. The obtained results in the corresponding suspended solids collected at DYFAMED station indicate that about 64% of that (236)U stays in solution in seawater. Overall, this source accounts for about 0.1% of the (236)U inventory excess observed at DYFAMED station. The influence of the so-called Chernobyl fallout and the radioactive effluents produced by the different nuclear installations allocated to the Mediterranean basin, might explain the inventory gap, however, further studies are necessary to come to a conclusion about its origin. PMID:27262827

  18. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  19. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev S.; Alessi J.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pardo, R.C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A.

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  20. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  1. 7 CFR 205.236 - Origin of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.236 Origin...

  2. 49 CFR 236.720 - Circuit, common return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Circuit, common return. A term applied where one wire is used for the return of more than one electric circuit. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, common return. 236.720 Section...

  3. 49 CFR 236.551 - Power supply voltage; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.551...

  4. 49 CFR 236.722 - Circuit, cut-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.722... territory by means of which locomotive equipment of the continuous inductive type is actuated so as to be...

  5. 49 CFR 236.555 - Repaired or rewound receiver coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.555...

  6. 49 CFR 236.556 - Adjustment of relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.556 Adjustment of...

  7. 49 CFR 236.553 - Seal, where required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.553 Seal, where...

  8. 49 CFR 236.923 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.923 Task analysis and basic requirements... structured training designed to impart the knowledge, skills, and abilities identified as necessary...

  9. 3C236 Radio Source, Interrupted?

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dea, C P; Baum, S A; Sparks, W B; Martel, A R; Allen, M G; Macchetto, F D; Miley, G K; Dea, Christopher P. O'; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Baum, Stefi A.; Sparks, William B.; Martel, Andre R.; Allen, Mark G.; Macchetto, Ferdinando D.; Miley, George K.

    2001-01-01

    We present new HST STIS/MAMA near-UV images and archival WFPC2 V and R band images which reveal the presence of four star forming regions in an arc along the edge of the dust lane in the giant (4 Mpc) radio galaxy 3C236. Two of the star forming regions are relatively young with ages of order 1E7 yr, while the other two are older with ages of order 1E8 - 1E9 yr which is comparable to the estimated age of the giant radio source. Based on dynamical and spectral aging arguments, we suggest that the fuel supply to the AGN was interrupted for 1E7 yr and has now been restored, resulting in the formation of the inner 2 kpc scale radio source. This time scale is similar to that of the age of the youngest of the star forming regions. We suggest that the transport of gas in the disk is non-steady and that this produces both the multiple episodes of star formation in the disk as well as the multiple epochs of radio source activity. If the inner radio source and the youngest star forming region are related by the same eve...

  10. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Bouhafs, B.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young's modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  11. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect....

  12. 49 CFR 236.917 - Retention of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (i) For the life-cycle of the product, adequate documentation to demonstrate that the PSP meets the...-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.917 Retention of records. (a) What life-cycle and... safety-relevant hazard? After the product is placed in service, the railroad shall maintain a database...

  13. 48 CFR 236.201 - Evaluation of contractor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.201 Evaluation of contractor performance. (a) Preparation of performance evaluation reports. Use DD Form 2626, Performance Evaluation (Construction... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of...

  14. 27 CFR 40.236 - Release from customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release from customs... on Tobacco Products § 40.236 Release from customs custody. The release of tobacco products from customs custody, in bond, for transfer to the premises of a tobacco products factory, shall be...

  15. 49 CFR 236.562 - Minimum rail current required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.562 Minimum rail current required. The minimum rail current required to restore the locomotive equipment...

  16. 49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.586 Daily or after trip test..., each locomotive equipped with an automatic cab signal or train stop or train control device...

  17. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  18. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention... the Secretary of Labor at 29 CFR part 1926 and 29 CFR part 1910; and (3) Ensure that any...

  19. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.236-70 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 636.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (APR 2004) (a) General....

  20. 49 CFR 236.913 - Filing and approval of PSPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.913 Filing and approval of PSPs. (a) Under... architectural concepts; the PSP describes a product that uses design or safety assurance concepts considered... the end of the system design review phase of product development and 180 days prior to...

  1. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). (a...; and (iv) The identification of the safety assessment process. (2) Design for verification and... RSPP must require that references to any non-published standards be included in the PSP. (3) Design...

  2. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work...

  3. 49 CFR 236.554 - Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or brake pipe. 236.554 Section 236.554 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...; Locomotives § 236.554 Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe. The equalizing-reservoir pressure or brake-pipe pressure reduction during an automatic brake application shall be at a rate not...

  4. 48 CFR 52.236-14 - Availability and Use of Utility Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Utility Services. 52.236-14 Section 52.236-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.236-14 Availability and Use of Utility Services. As prescribed in 36.514, insert the following... on Government sites when the contracting officer decides (a) that the existing utility system...

  5. 49 CFR 236.330 - Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. 236.330 Section 236.330 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.330 Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. Locking dog of...

  6. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Sedimentation, and Pollution. 452.236-74 Section 452.236-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall...

  7. 49 CFR 236.505 - Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... roadway and parts on locomotive. 236.505 Section 236.505 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.505 Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive....

  8. 49 CFR 236.337 - Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. 236.337 Section 236.337 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.337 Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. Locking faces shall...

  9. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1252.236-70 Special precautions for work at operating airports. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... work at operating airports. 1252.236-70 Section 1252.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  10. Anatomy of a controversy: Application of the Langevin technique to the analysis of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis method for subcriticality determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expressions for the power spectral density of the noise equivalent sources have been calculated explicitly for the (a) stochastic transport equation, (b) the one-speed transport equaton, (c) the one-speed P1 equations, (d) the one-speed diffusion equation and (e) the point kinetic equation. The stochastic nature of Fick's law in (d) has been emphasized. The Langevin technique has been applied at various levels of approximation to the interpretation of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis (CSDNA) experiment for determining the reactivity in subcritical media. The origin of the controversy surrounding this method has been explained. The foundations of the CSDNA method as a viable experimental technique to infer subcriticality from a measured ratio of power spectral densities of the outputs of two neutron detectors and a third external source detector has been examined by solving the one-speed stochastic diffusion equation for a point external Californium-252 source and two detectors in an infinite medium. The expression relating reactivity to the measured ratio of PSDs was found to depend implicitly on k itself. Through a numerical analysis fo this expression, the authors have demonstrated that for a colinear detector-source-detector configuration for neutron detectors far from the source, the expression for the subcritical multiplication factor becomes essentially insensitive to k, hence, demonstrating some possibility for the viability of this technique. However, under more realistic experimental conditions, i.e., for finite systems in which diffusion theroy is not applicable, the measurement of the subcritical multiplication factor from a single measured ratio of PSDs, without extensive transport calculations, remains doubtful

  11. Californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major production programs for the Savannah River reactors and the High Flux Isotopes Reactor at Oak Ridge have made 252Cf one of the most available and, at the USAEC's sales price of $10/μg, one of the least-expensive isotopic neutron sources. Reactor production has totaled approximately 2 g, and, based on expected demand, an additional 10 g will be produced in the next decade. The approximately 800 mg chemically separated to date has been used to prepare over 600 neutron sources. Most, about 500, have been medical sources containing 1 to 5 μg of 252Cf plated in needles for experimental cancer therapy studies. The remainder have generally been point sources containing 10 μg to 12 mg of oxide for activation, well logging, or radiography uses. Bulk sources have also been supplied to the commercial encapsulators. The latest development has been the production of 252Cf cermet wire which can be cut into almost contamination-free lengths of the desired 252Cf content. Casks are available for transport of sources up to 50 mg. Subcritical assemblies have been developed to multiply the source neutrons by a factor of 10 to 40, and collimators and thermalizers have also been extensively developed to shape the neutron flux and energy distributions for special applications. (U.S.)

  12. Value of 236U to actinide-only burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) submitted a topical report to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1995 in order to gain approval of a method for criticality analysis of transport packages that takes account for the change in actinide isotopes with burnup [pressurized water reactors (PWRs) only]. Historically, the NRC has conservatively assumed that the fuel was in its initial conditions (without any burnable absorbers). In order to permit credit for the changes in actinide content, the NRC has required validation of the depletion and criticality codes for spent nuclear fuel, justification of conservative depletion modeling, and finally confirmation measurements before loading. The NRC requested additional information on March 22, 1996. The DOE responded by a revision of the topical report in May 1997. The NRC again responded with another set of requests of additional information in April 1998. In that set of questions, the NRC challenged the use of 236U in burnup credit. Uranium-236 is not found in any significant amount in any available critical experiments. The authors explore the value of 236U to actinide-only burnup credit

  13. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel-Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Trellue, H. R.; Tobin, S. J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be orientation in the instrument.

  14. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, VISCOSITY, AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236EA WITH FOUR DIFFERENT EXXON LUBRICANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density data for the refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea (or R-236ea) and four lubricants supplied by Exxon Corporation. Such data are needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for ...

  15. 49 CFR 236.16 - Electric lock, main track releasing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock, main track releasing circuit. 236... Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.16 Electric lock, main track releasing circuit. When an electric lock releasing circuit is provided on the main track to permit a train or an engine...

  16. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  17. Key Issue of Ultra-trace Environmental Samples by ~(236)U/~(238)U-AMS Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The accurate determination of uranium-236 in samples at ultra-low level is critical. Combined with AMS , reducing the background effects throughout the experiment is quite necessary. Therefore, some advances on the determination of 236U by accelerator mass spectrometry

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes C Appendix... Pt. 236, App. C Appendix C to Part 236—Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes (a) What is the purpose of this appendix? This appendix provides safety criteria and processes that the designer must...

  19. 48 CFR 53.236-2 - Architect-engineer services (SF's 252 and 330).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services (SF's 252 and 330). 53.236-2 Section 53.236-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... services (SF's 252 and 330). The following forms are prescribed for use in contracting for architect-engineer and related services: (a) SF 252 (Rev. 10/83), Architect-Engineer Contract. SF 252 is...

  20. 24 CFR 236.260 - Request by Commissioner for assignment of mortgage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assignment of mortgage. 236.260 Section 236.260 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL...

  1. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340 Transportation Other Regulations... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

  2. MODELING AND DESIGN STUDY USING HFC-236EA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT IN A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...

  3. 48 CFR 236.274 - Restriction on acquisition of steel for use in military construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Division E), do not acquire, or allow a contractor to acquire, steel for any construction project or... of steel for use in military construction projects. 236.274 Section 236.274 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction...

  4. Feeding of the {sup 232}Th levels from the decay of {sup 236}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J. E-mail: rjg@inel.gov; Baker, J.D.; Riddle, C.L

    2002-03-01

    Population of the 6{sup +} 332 keV level in {sup 232}Th from the decay of {sup 236}U was observed for the first time. The 49, 112, and 171 keV {gamma}-ray energies and relative intensities from the decay of {sup 236}U were measured.

  5. 49 CFR 236.383 - Valve locks, valves, and valve magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve locks, valves, and valve magnets. 236.383... Inspection and Tests § 236.383 Valve locks, valves, and valve magnets. Valve locks on valves of the non-cut-off type shall be tested at least once every three months, and valves and valve magnets shall...

  6. 49 CFR 236.53 - Track circuit feed at grade crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track circuit feed at grade crossing. 236.53... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.53 Track circuit feed at grade crossing. At grade crossing with... current track circuit shall feed away from the crossing....

  7. 49 CFR 236.514 - Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. 236.514 Section 236.514 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. The automatic cab signal system shall...

  8. 49 CFR 236.1029 - PTC system use and en route failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PTC system use and en route failures. 236.1029..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1029 PTC system use and en route failures. (a) When any safety-critical...

  9. 49 CFR 236.13 - Spring switch; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... circuits through circuit controller. 236.13 Section 236.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller. The control circuits of signals governing... circuit controller, or through the contacts of relay repeating the position of such circuit...

  10. 48 CFR 3052.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... work at operating airports. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3036.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (DEC 2003) (a) When work is to be performed at an... work at operating airports. 3052.236-70 Section 3052.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  11. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 236U and 234U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundberg, R. S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hunt, L. F.; Kronenberg, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2006-03-01

    Accurate neutron capture cross sections of the actinide elements at neutron energies up to 1 MeV are needed to better interpret archived nuclear test data, for post-detonation nuclear attribution, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments, DANCE, has unique capabilities that allow the differentiation of capture gamma rays from fission gamma rays and background gamma rays from scattered neutrons captured by barium isotopes in the barium fluoride scintillators. The DANCE array has a high granularity, 160 scintillators, high efficiency, and nearly 4-π solid angle. Through the use of cuts in cluster multiplicity and calorimetric energy the capture gamma-rays are differentiated from other sources of gamma rays. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections of 236U are in agreement with the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The preliminary results for 234U lower are than ENDF/B-VI evaluation and are closer to older evaluations.

  12. 42 CFR 23.6 - What are the criteria for determining the entities to which National Health Service Corps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to which National Health Service Corps personnel will be assigned? 23.6 Section 23.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE CORPS Assignment of National Health Service Corps Personnel § 23.6 What are the criteria for......

  13. 49 CFR 236.567 - Restrictions imposed when device fails and/or is cut out en route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions imposed when device fails and/or is cut out en route. 236.567 Section 236.567 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...; Locomotives § 236.567 Restrictions imposed when device fails and/or is cut out en route. Where an...

  14. Biological Efficiency of Californium-252 Source Evaluated by Comet Assay, Classical Cytogenetics and FISH in Human Lymphocytes Irradiated without and with BSH Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological effectiveness of californium-252 source was evaluated after irradiations in vitro of normal or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells. DNA and chromosomal damage were studied to compare biological effectiveness of irradiation. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with the isotopic source of 252Cf, at the Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques at the University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in ''infinite'' polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with Na210B12H11SH (BSH) was performed to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Single cell gel electrophoresis also known as the Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetic analysis was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics, rings and a centric fragments). To evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of the whole genome) was performed. Linear (or close to linear) increase with radiation dose were observed for the DNA damage and aberration frequencies in lymphocytes both untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Levels of translocations evaluated for the whole genome were comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. No significant differences were detected due to radiation dose in the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) detected in the second mitosis. No statistically significant differences were observed in various biological end-points between normal or boron pre-treated cells. (author)

  15. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, AND VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236EA WITH POTENTIAL LUBRICANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of miscibility, solubility, and viscosity measurements of refrigerant R-236ea with three potential lubricants. (NOTE: The data were needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for use in refrigeration systems.) The lubricants...

  16. Measurement of the natural 36Cl and 236U uranium mineral with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of the natural ultra-trace radionuclides 36Cl and 236U in the uranium depended on the neutron flux. In this article, a method for measuring 36Cl and 236U in the same uranium mineral with accelerator mass spectrometry was developed in China Institute of Atomic Energy, providing a protocol of the potential application of 236U in uranium mining, environmental, and geological research. The two samples were from Guangxi and Shanxi province, China, and their ratios 36Cl/Cl and 236U/238U were measured. More experimental data conduced to understand the natural nuclides in the uranium mineral. We plan to conduct more efforts on the research. (authors)

  17. 49 CFR 236.328 - Plunger of facing-point lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Rules and Instructions § 236.328 Plunger of facing-point lock. Plunger of lever operated facing-point lock shall have at least 8-inch stroke. When lock lever is in unlocked position the end of the...

  18. 17 CFR 230.236 - Exemption of shares offered in connection with certain transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stock dividend, stock split, reverse stock split, conversion, merger or similar transaction, shall be... Exemptions § 230.236 Exemption of shares offered in connection with certain transactions. Shares of stock...

  19. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.203 Hand operated crossover between main... crossover is occupied by a train, locomotive or car in such a manner as to foul the main track. It shall...

  20. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to...

  1. Fission barriers of 237 to 240 plutonium isotopes with the 236U(α,xn) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation functions for the reactions 236U(α,xn)sup(240-x)Pu have been measured for x=2, 3, 4. The production of 236U targets as well as the chemical separation of Pu from the irradied targets are given. Experimental results have been analysed using the preequilibrium mechanism (PREEQ code) and the statistical model description of fission through a double humped barrier (GIVAB code)

  2. A comparison of fallout (236)U and (239)Pu uptake by Australian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Dietze, M M A; Tims, S G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U and (239)Pu, both produced during nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950s and 1960s, are present in the environment and may be used as tracers for soil erosion studies. Although these radionuclides occur only at ultra-trace levels in nature, they can be readily measured by accelerator mass spectrometry with the 14UD heavy ion accelerator at the Australian National University. We have analysed a series of vegetation samples for their (236)U and (239)Pu concentration and compared the results with those found in the surrounding soil. (236)U could be measured in all collected samples whereas (239)Pu could not be detected in several vegetation samples due to its very low concentration, although it was readily detectable in the soil. We find that, relative to plutonium, (236)U is preferentially taken up by plants with enrichment factors ((236)U/(239)Pu)veg/((236)U/(239)Pu)soil that range between 7 and 52 in the present study. PMID:26141188

  3. First measurements of (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratios in a Southern Hemisphere soil far from nuclear test or reactor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srncik, M; Tims, S G; De Cesare, M; Fifield, L K

    2014-06-01

    The variation of the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations as a function of depth has been studied in a soil profile at a site in the Southern Hemisphere well removed from nuclear weapon test sites. Total inventories of (236)U and (239)Pu as well as the (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio were derived. For this investigation a soil core from an undisturbed forest area in the Herbert River catchment (17°30' - 19°S) which is located in north-eastern Queensland (Australia) was chosen. The chemical separation of U and Pu was carried out with a double column which has the advantage of the extraction of both elements from a relatively large soil sample (∼20 g) within a day. The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry using the 14UD pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. The highest atom concentrations of both (236)U and (239)Pu were found at a depth of 2-3 cm. The (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio in fallout at this site, as deduced from the ratio of the (236)U and (239)Pu inventories, is 0.085 ± 0.003 which is clearly lower than the Northern Hemisphere value of ∼0.2. The (236)U inventory of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 10(11) at/m(2) was more than an order of magnitude lower than values reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The (239)Pu activity concentrations are in excellent agreement with a previous study and the (239+240)Pu inventory was (13.85 ± 0.29) Bq/m(2). The weighted mean (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio of 0.142 ± 0.005 is slightly lower than the value for global fallout, but our results are consistent with the average ratio of 0.173 ± 0.027 for the southern equatorial region (0-30°S).

  4. Chronology of Pu isotopes and 236U in an Arctic ice core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, C C; Oughton, D H; Lind, O C; Skipperud, L; Fifield, L K; Isaksson, E; Tims, S G; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, state of the art isotopic fingerprinting techniques are applied to an Arctic ice core in order to quantify deposition of U and Pu, and to identify possible tropospheric transport of debris from former Soviet Union test sites Semipalatinsk (Central Asia) and Novaya Zemlya (Arctic Ocean). An ice core chronology of (236)U, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu concentrations, and atom ratios, measured by accelerator mass spectrometry in a 28.6m deep ice core from the Austfonna glacier at Nordaustlandet, Svalbard is presented. The ice core chronology corresponds to the period 1949 to 1999. The main sources of Pu and (236)U contamination in the Arctic were the atmospheric nuclear detonations in the period 1945 to 1980, as global fallout, and tropospheric fallout from the former Soviet Union test sites Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk. Activity concentrations of (239+240)Pu ranged from 0.008 to 0.254 mBq cm(-2) and (236)U from 0.0039 to 0.053 μBq cm(-2). Concentrations varied in concordance with (137)Cs concentrations in the same ice core. In contrast to previous published results, the concentrations of Pu and (236)U were found to be higher at depths corresponding to the pre-moratorium period (1949 to 1959) than to the post-moratorium period (1961 and 1962). The (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratio ranged from 0.15 to 0.19, and (236)U/(239)Pu ranged from 0.18 to 1.4. The Pu atom ratios ranged within the limits of global fallout in the most intensive period of nuclear atmospheric testing (1952 to 1962). To the best knowledge of the authors the present work is the first publication on biogeochemical cycles with respect to (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu atom ratios in the Arctic and in ice cores.

  5. Deposition of 236U from atmospheric nuclear testing in Washington state (USA) and the Pechora region (Russian Arctic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratospheric fallout-derived 236U has been detected by sector field ICPMS at two field locations for which our laboratory possessed available archived samples: A) four soil cores from Washington state (northwestern USA) and B) sediment cores from three small lakes in the Pechora region (Russian Arctic). Four Washington state soil cores exhibit 236U inventories of 8.1 ± 1.3, 11.1 ± 0.9, 18 ± 2, and 30.2 ± 3.9 Tatoms/m2; the respective 239Pu contents are 52.9 ± 3.5, 67 ± 3, 71 ± 2, and 151 ± 2 Tatoms/m2. A 236U/239Pu atom ratio of 0.19 ± 0.04 (1 SD) has been determined from the Washington state soil cores. The three Pechora region lake cores each exhibit coincident maxima in their 236U and 239Pu atom concentration profiles. The 236U/238U atom ratios are controlled by two independent factors; 236U is from fallout deposition and 238U concentrations are a property of the geochemical distribution of naturally occurring U. A 236U/238U atom ratio as high as 8.9 × 10−6 has been observed for acid-leached soils containing Pu solely derived from bomb-test fallout. Accordingly, a non-zero 236U background from stratospheric fallout must be recognized and taken into account when detectable 236U is used to infer specific local or regional influences of reactor-irradiated U. -- Highlights: ► The isotope 236U, originating from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, has been identified at two locations in the Northern Hemisphere. ► Peak 236U concentrations match peak 239Pu concentrations in sediment cores. ► The 236U/239Pu atom ratio is 0.19 ± 0.04

  6. {sup 236}U and {sup 129}I as tracers of water masses in the Arctic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casacuberta, Nuria; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Synal, Hans-Arno [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH-Zurich (Switzerland); Walther, Clemens [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Loeff, Michiel van der [AWI-Geochemistry, Alfred Wegener Institut Fuer Polar und Meeresforshung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Masque, Pere [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Recently {sup 236}U attested to be a new transient oceanographic tracer: it is conservative in seawater and far from having reached steady state in the oceans. Its main sources in the North Atlantic are global fallout and European reprocessing plants. In this study, concentrations of {sup 236}U and {sup 129}I of eight deep profiles in the Arctic Ocean collected in 2011-2012 were determined with a compact ETH Zurich AMS system (TANDY). Results on {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U show a steep gradient, from the lowest ever-reported {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atomic ratio in open ocean water (5±5) x 10{sup -12} up to (3700±80) x 10{sup -12}. Whereas the very low ratios are indicative for deep old waters, high ratios in shallow and surface waters show a clear signature of Atlantic Waters (AW) penetrating to the Arctic Ocean. The combination of {sup 236}U with {sup 129}I, both being released by the nuclear reprocessing plants of Sellafield and La Hague, with a distinct temporal input function, is used to estimate transit time of AW distributions in the Arctic Ocean.

  7. Production of {sup 234,235}Np and {sup 236}Pu in bombardment of {sup 236}U with protons in the energy range from 17 to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, J.; Helariutta, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Lab. of Radiochemistry, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Gromova, E.A.; Jakovlev, V.A. [V. G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Lab. of Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Trzaska, W.H.; Huikari, J.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Rinta-Antila, S. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae, Accelerator Lab., Dept. of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The production of {sup 235}Np and {sup 236}Pu by the reactions {sup 236}U(p, 2n){sup 235}Np and {sup 236}U(p, n{beta}{sup -}){sup 236}Pu using the K-130 cyclotron of the University of Jyvaeskylaewas investigated. The cross sections for the reactions were determined. Thick-target yield curves were derived based on the cross sections. The results are discussed and compared with previous data on other reactions leading to the formation of the same end products. The thick-target yield of {sup 235}Np in the {sup 236}U(p, 2n) reaction is about 50 percent higher than the yield obtained in the {sup 238}U(p, 4n) reaction leading to this nuclide at comparable particle energies. The purity of {sup 236}Pu produced in the {sup 236}U(p, n{beta}{sup -}) reaction is more than ten times better than for earlier known as the purest reaction {sup 237}Np(p, 2n + pn{beta}{sup -}){sup 236}Pu. (orig.)

  8. Chronology of Pu isotopes and {sup 236}U in an Arctic ice core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, C.C., E-mail: cato.wendel@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Oughton, D.H., E-mail: deborah.oughton@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Lind, O.C., E-mail: ole-christian.lind@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Skipperud, L., E-mail: lindis.skipperud@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Fifield, L.K., E-mail: keith.fifield@anu.edu.au [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Isaksson, E., E-mail: elisabeth.isaksson@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Hjalmar Johansens Gate 14, N9296 Tromsø (Norway); Tims, S.G., E-mail: steve.tims@anu.edu.au [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Salbu, B., E-mail: brit.salbu@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, state of the art isotopic fingerprinting techniques are applied to an Arctic ice core in order to quantify deposition of U and Pu, and to identify possible tropospheric transport of debris from former Soviet Union test sites Semipalatinsk (Central Asia) and Novaya Zemlya (Arctic Ocean). An ice core chronology of {sup 236}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu concentrations, and atom ratios, measured by accelerator mass spectrometry in a 28.6 m deep ice core from the Austfonna glacier at Nordaustlandet, Svalbard is presented. The ice core chronology corresponds to the period 1949 to 1999. The main sources of Pu and {sup 236}U contamination in the Arctic were the atmospheric nuclear detonations in the period 1945 to 1980, as global fallout, and tropospheric fallout from the former Soviet Union test sites Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk. Activity concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu ranged from 0.008 to 0.254 mBq cm{sup −2} and {sup 236}U from 0.0039 to 0.053 μBq cm{sup −2}. Concentrations varied in concordance with {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the same ice core. In contrast to previous published results, the concentrations of Pu and {sup 236}U were found to be higher at depths corresponding to the pre-moratorium period (1949 to 1959) than to the post-moratorium period (1961 and 1962). The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio ranged from 0.15 to 0.19, and {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu ranged from 0.18 to 1.4. The Pu atom ratios ranged within the limits of global fallout in the most intensive period of nuclear atmospheric testing (1952 to 1962). To the best knowledge of the authors the present work is the first publication on biogeochemical cycles with respect to {sup 236}U concentrations and {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the Arctic and in ice cores. - Highlights: • Concentrations and atom ratios of Pu and {sup 236}U determined in an Arctic ice core. • Concentrations of U and Pu found to be higher pre- than post-moratorium. • U and Pu concentrations

  9. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  10. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, VISCOSITY, AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236FA WITH POTENTIAL LUBRICANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density measurements for refrigerant R-236fa and two potential lubricants . (The data are needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for use in refrigeration systems.) The tested oi...

  11. 49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical or electric locking or electric..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.308 Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits shall be installed to prevent signals...

  12. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...

  13. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236.18 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service may terminate benefits under the Family Unity Program whenever the necessity for...

  14. 49 CFR 236.206 - Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery or power supply with respect to relay..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.206 Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location. The battery or power supply for each signal control relay circuit, where an...

  15. Capture Cross Section of 236U: the n_TOF Results

    CERN Document Server

    Barbagallo, M; Vermeulen, M J; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Hernández-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Rubbia, C; Sabaté-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    Neutron induced capture cross section on U-236 has been measured with high accuracy and high resolution at n\\_TOF, in order to improve data libraries needed for the development of advanced nuclear reactors. Preliminary results obtained with two different detection systems are reported.

  16. VLBI, MERLIN and HST observations of the giant radio galaxy 3C 236

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilizzi, RT; Tian, WW; Conway, JE; Nan, R; Miley, GK; Barthel, PD; Normandeau, M; Dallacasa, D; Gurvits, LI

    2001-01-01

    We present VLBI and MERLIN data at 1.66 and 4.99 GHz on the central component coincident with the nucleus of the giant radio galaxy, 3C 236. The nuclear radio structure is composed of two complexes of emission which are resolved on scales from 1 milli-arcsec (mas) to 1 arcsec. Oscillations with an a

  17. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA AND CFC-114 IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a heat transfer evaluation of the refrigerants hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea) and 1,1,2,2-dichloro-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114). (NOTE: With the mandatory phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), as dictated by the Montreal Protocol and Clean Air Act Ame...

  18. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236FA IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the shell-side heat transfer performance of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236fa, which is considered to be a potential substitute for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 in Navy shipboard chillers, for both conventional finned [1024- and 1575-fpm (...

  19. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE ENHANCED TUBES IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the heat transfer performance of pure hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea for high performance enhanced tubes which had not been previously used in Navy shipboard chillers. Shell-side heat transfer coefficient data are presented for condensa...

  20. CMS Control Room during early morning collisions at 2.36 TeV.

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Breedon (CMS)

    2009-01-01

    CMS recorded around 15000 collisions at 2.36 TeV with the whole detector operational, including the inner silicon systems (strips and pixels). A relatively quiet control room was still witness to excitement during the first online event displays of the collisions.

  1. 49 CFR 236.557 - Receiver; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.557 Receiver... automatic cab signal, train stop, or train control device of locomotive equipped with onboard test...

  2. 49 CFR 236.512 - Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where restrictive conditions obtain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.512 Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where...

  3. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  4. 48 CFR 52.236-11 - Use and Possession Prior to Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use and Possession Prior... Clauses 52.236-11 Use and Possession Prior to Completion. As prescribed in 36.511, insert the following clause: Use and Possession Prior to Completion (APR 1984) (a) The Government shall have the right to...

  5. 49 CFR 236.5 - Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of control circuits on closed circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.5 Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle. All control circuits the functioning of which affects safety of train...

  6. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. PMID:26119579

  7. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment.

  8. Uranium-236 as a new oceanic tracer: A first depth profile in the Japan Sea and comparison with caesium-137

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Kadokura, Akinobu; Steier, Peter; Takahashi, Yoshio; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Nakakuki, Tomoeki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    We present a feasibility study for using 236U as an oceanic circulation tracer based on depth profiles of 236U and 137Cs in the Japan/East Sea. The concentration of the predominantly anthropogenic 236U, measured with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), decreased from (13±3)×106 atom/kg in surface water to (1.6±0.3)×106 atom/kg close to the sea floor (2800 m). The profile has a smooth trend with depth and concentration values are generally proportional to that of 137Cs for the same water samp...

  9. C-2-Aryl O-substituted HI-236 derivatives as non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Roger; Younis, Yassir; Muhanji, Clare I; Curtin, Tanith-lea; Naidoo, Kevin J.; Petersen, Melissa; Bailey, Christopher M.; Basavapathruni, Aravind; Anderson, Karen S.

    2008-01-01

    Several novel thiourea derivatives of the NNRTI HI-236 substituted at the C-2 oxygen of the phenyl ring have been synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against HIV-1 (IIIB) replication in MT-2 cell cultures. The compounds were synthesized in order to fine-tune the activity of HI-236 as well as to gain insight into spatial characteristics in the pocket pertaining to the positional choice of tether in the design of [NRTI]-tether-[HI-236] bifunctional inhibitors. Two of the thi...

  10. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  11. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.565 Provision made...

  12. Depth profile of 236U/238U in soil samples in La Palma, Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Srncik, M.; P. Steier; Wallner, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical distribution of the 236U/238U isotopic ratio was investigated in soil samples from three different locations on La Palma (one of the seven Canary Islands, Spain). Additionally the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio, as it is a well establish tool for the source identification, was determined. The radiochemical procedure consisted of a U separation step by extraction chromatography using UTEVA® Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Inc.). Afterwards Pu was separated from Th and Np by anion exchange ...

  13. The SOFIA experiment: Measurement of 236U fission fragment yields in inverse kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grente L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The SOFIA (Studies On FIssion with Aladin experiment aims at measuring fission-fragments isotopic yields with high accuracy using inverse kinematics at relativistic energies. This experimental technique allows to fully identify the fission fragments in nuclear charge and mass number, thus providing very accurate isotopic yields for low energy fission of a large variety of fissioning systems. This report focuses on the latest results obtained with this set-up concerning electromagnetic-induced fission of 236U.

  14. 小儿热性惊厥236例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 236 Cases With Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛慧敏; 卢宪梅; 李文

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨小儿热性惊厥(febrile convulsion,FC)的临床特点,为该病的防治提供依据.方法 回顾性分析2006年1月至2008年2月山东省济南市第三人民医院收治的236例小儿热性惊厥患儿的临床资料.结果 本组236例热性惊厥患儿经治疗后,未再次出现惊厥症状,其中86例惊厥难以完全控制患儿,给予地西泮+苯巴比妥钠联合治疗,疗效满意.患儿平均住院时间为5 d.出院后随访1年,复发为45例,其中复发1次为32例,2次以上为13例,共6例(2.5%)确诊为癫痫.结论 小儿热性惊厥的发作与高热密切相关,感染性疾病为主要基础疾病.对该病进行积极的综合治疗,预后一般较好.对于极少数有发展为癫痫的高危热性惊厥患儿,可采取适当干预措施,但不能随意对其长期预防性使用抗癫痫药物.

  15. Anthropogenic 236U at Rocky Flats, Ashtabula river harbor, and Mersey estuary: three case studies by sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    236U (t1/2=2.3x107 y) is formed as a result of thermal neutron capture by 235U. In naturally occurring U ores, where a high neutron flux is present from spontaneous fission of 238U, 236U/238U atom ratios are ∼10-4 ppm. In the natural Earth's crust, unaffected by nuclear fallout, these ratios are expected to be on the order of 10-8 ppm. Reactor-irradiated U, however, exhibits high 236U/238U atom ratios approaching 104 ppm. As a result, the presence of very small quantities of reactor-irradiated U will significantly enhance the 'background' 236U/238U atom ratio. When sufficiently elevated 236U/238U ratios are present, the determination of 236U/238U by rapid inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) methods is attractive. We have used sector ICPMS at medium resolving power (R=3440) to measure 236U/238U atom ratios with a determination limit of 0.2 ppm. The limiting factors in the measurement are the 235U1H+ isobar and background signal at m/z 236 arising from the 238U+ peak tail. Based upon the analysis of replicates and considerations of possible systematic errors, uncertainties of ±5% are found for 236U/238U atom ratios of 1-100 ppm. This procedure has been demonstrated in studies of anthropogenic 236U in the environment at three locations: (a) offsite soils from the vicinity of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site (Golden, Colorado, USA); (b) sediments from the Ashtabula River (Ohio, USA); and (c) sediments from the Mersey estuary (Liverpool, UK). In each of these three locations, definite plumes of elevated 236U/238U are identified and characterized. Maximum 236U/238U atom ratios observed in RFETS-vicinity soils, the Ashtabula River, and the Mersey Estuary are 2.8, 140, and 4.4 ppm, respectively

  16. Detection of UH3+ and ThH3+ molecules and 236U background studies with low-energy AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the TANDY AMS facility (0.6 MV) at ETH Zurich has been significantly improved for actinides with the installation of an additional 130° magnet on the high-energy side. The background originating from neighboring masses is reduced by three orders of magnitude in the new setup, leading to an abundance sensitivity of 10−10. This now allows 236U/238U measurements down to the 10−12 level. Systematic studies of the possible background for 236U3+ at the compact TANDY system show that actinide–hydride molecules in charge state 3+ do exist. (232Th1H)3+, (235U1H)3+ and (238U1H)3+ can cause a severe background at masses 233, 236, and 239, respectively. The existence of the (232Th1H)3+ molecule was verified unambiguously by analyzing its breakup. The actinide–hydride molecules can be destroyed efficiently using higher stripper pressures. At an ion energy of 1.2 MeV an overall efficiency of more than 10−4 can be achieved using a gas ionization detector. The high efficiency in combination with the low background opens the spectrum of possible applications to both anthropogenic (236U/238U = 10−7 to 10−9) and natural samples (236U/238U −10).

  17. AMS measurements of global fallout U-236 and Pu in an ombrotrophic peat profile: evidence for their post depositional migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-236, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 were analysed in an ombrotrophic peat core representing the last 80 years of atmospheric deposition. The determination of these isotopes at femtogram and attogram levels was possible by using ultra-clean laboratory procedures and accelerator mass spectrometry. Since the Pu isotopic composition characteristic for global fallout, as well as anthropogenic U-236, were identified in peat samples pre-dating the period of atmospheric atom bomb testing, migration of Pu and U within the peat profile is clearly indicated. The vertical profile of the U-236/U-238 isotopic ratio represents the first observation of the U-236 bomb peak in a terrestrial environment. Comparing the abundances of the global fallout derived U-236 and Pu-239 along the peat core, the post depositional migration of plutonium exceeds that of uranium. These results highlight, for the first time, the mobility of Pu and U in a peat bog with implications for their migration in other acidic, organic rich environments.

  18. Measurement of {sup 236}U on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Christl, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto Stern Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present the first comprehensive analysis of the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA, Seville, Spain) for {sup 236}U studies in environmental samples. In the last years, this radionuclide has become key in the AMS community, due to the very demanding {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U abundance sensitivities required for general applications. As we demonstrate, the AMS system at the CNA is able to achieve sensitivity for the {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratio of about 3 × 10{sup −11} despite its compact design. The use of “{sup 239}Pu”/{sup 238}U ratio as a proxy for “{sup 236}U”/{sup 235}U background correction is proposed and tested with natural samples that were also studied on the 600 kV Tandy AMS system at the ETH Zürich. This correction is significant in the CNA case, due to the low mass resolving power of the low-energy spectrometer and to the lack of a third filter on the high-energy side. With the measurement of reference solutions supplied by the Institute for Reference Materials and Methods (IRMM-075), and reference natural matrixes provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-Soil-6, IAEA-375; 384; 386 and IAEA-RGU), we show that the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA can be routinely used for determinations of anthropogenic {sup 236}U at environmental levels.

  19. Fueling the central engine of radio galaxies. II. The footprints of AGN feedback on the ISM of 3C 236

    CERN Document Server

    Labiano, A; Combes, F; Usero, A; Soria-Ruiz, R; Tremblay, G; Neri, R; Fuente, A; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We study the emission of molecular gas in 3C236, a FR II radio source at z~0.1, and search for the footprints of AGN feedback. 3C236 shows signs of a reactivation of its AGN triggered by a recent minor merger episode. Observations have also previously identified an extreme HI outflow in this source. Methods: The IRAM PdBI has been used to study the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in 3C236 by imaging with high spatial resolution the emission of the 12CO(2-1) line in the nucleus of the galaxy. We have searched for outflow signatures in the CO map. We have also derived the SFR in 3C236 using data available from the literature at UV, optical and IR wavelengths, to determine the star-formation efficiency of molecular gas. Results: The CO emission in 3C236 comes from a spatially resolved 2.6 kpc disk with a regular rotating pattern. Within the limits imposed by the sensitivity and velocity coverage of the CO data, we do not detect any outflow signatures in the cold molecular gas. The disk has a c...

  20. AMS measurements of global fallout U-236 and Pu in an ombrotrophic peat profile: evidence for their post depositional migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca; Hrnecek, Erich; Krachler, Michael [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Shotyk, William [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 839 General Services Building, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Steier, Peter; Winkler, Stephan; Golser, Robin [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    U-236, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 were analysed in an ombrotrophic peat core representing the last 80 years of atmospheric deposition. The determination of these isotopes at femtogram and attogram levels was possible by using ultra-clean laboratory procedures and accelerator mass spectrometry. Since the Pu isotopic composition characteristic for global fallout, as well as anthropogenic U-236, were identified in peat samples pre-dating the period of atmospheric atom bomb testing, migration of Pu and U within the peat profile is clearly indicated. The vertical profile of the U-236/U-238 isotopic ratio represents the first observation of the U-236 bomb peak in a terrestrial environment. Comparing the abundances of the global fallout derived U-236 and Pu-239 along the peat core, the post depositional migration of plutonium exceeds that of uranium. These results highlight, for the first time, the mobility of Pu and U in a peat bog with implications for their migration in other acidic, organic rich environments.

  1. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE 236U DETECTION LIMIT IN THE SURFACE AIR USING RADIOCHEMICAL SEPARATION AND ALPHA-SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gedeonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to nuclear weapon testing, nuclear reactor accidents, uranium mining and nuclear fuel reprocessing, additional uranium has been introduced into the environment. 236U isotope is produced from 235U by capture of a thermal neutron and it can be used as an indicator for artificial uranium in the environment. In this paper the sensitive method for236U determination in the surface air is described. This method includes a total dissolution of the air dust in a mixture of mineral acids, uranium concentration and purification by anion-exchange chromatography. Long time measurements of the separated uranium fraction are made with the use of alpha-spectrometer based on PIPS-detector. The lower limit of detection for 236U in the surface air is determined as 5 • 10-9 Bq/m3 (2 ng/m3.

  2. Sequential Injection Method for Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of 236U, 237Np, and Pu Isotopes in Seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    An automated analytical method implemented in a novel dual-column tandem sequential injection (SI) system was developed for simultaneous determination of 236U, 237Np, 239Pu, and 240Pu in seawater samples. A combination of TEVA and UTEVA extraction chromatography was exploited to separate and purify...... target analytes, whereupon plutonium and neptunium were simultaneously isolated and purified on TEVA, while uranium was collected on UTEVA. The separation behavior of U, Np, and Pu on TEVA–UTEVA columns was investigated in detail in order to achieve high chemical yields and complete purification...... for the radionuclides of interest. 242Pu was used as a chemical yield tracer for both plutonium and neptunium. 238U was quantified in the sample before the separation for deducing the 236U concentration from the measured 236U/238U atomic ratio in the separated uranium target using accelerator mass spectrometry...

  3. Evaluation of the US Army DT-236 battlefield personnel dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance characteristics of the US Army DT-236 battlefield personnel dosimetry system were evaluated using the Health Physics Research Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DT-236 dosimeter is designed to measure total (neutron plus gamma) radiation dose using a radiophotoluminescent (RPL) detector for gamma rays and a silicon diode for fast neutrons. Areas considered in this evaluation included preirradiation dose indication; accuracy and precision of total, gamma, and neutron dose measurements; fading; angular response; temperature dependence; and relative dosimeter response in air and on various body locations. Experimental results for a variety of radiation fields and dose levels indicate that the existing system overestimates total, neutron, and gamma radiation doses in air by about 20 to 60% relative to reference values. Associated measurement precisions were about +-5% of the means for doses above approximately 0.5 Gy. Fading characteristics, angular dependence, and temperature dependence of the RPL and diode systems were consistent with results expected based on detector characteristics and previous performance studies. Recommendations to improve existing reader performance and measurement accuracy are also presented

  4. In-beam spectroscopy of the Kπ = 0- bands in 230-236U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kπ = 0- bands in even uranium nuclei were studied in the compound reactions 231Pa(p,2n)230U, 230,232Th(α,2n)232,234U and 236U(d,pn)236U. In-beam γ-rays were measured in coincidence with conversion-electrons, which were detected with an iron-free orange spectrometer. The negative-parity levels are observed up to intermediate spins (I-). In addition, the 1- and 3- levels in 230U were confirmed by a decay study with an isotope separated 230Pa source. For the heavier isotopes (A > or approx. 232) the properties of the Kπ = 0- bands (energies and γ-branchings) are consistent with a vibrational character of these bands. For 230U the Kπ = 0- band lies at rather low energy (E(1-) = 367 keV), and the level spacings within this band are very similar to those of the isotones 228Th and 226Ra, which might indicate the onset of a stable octupole deformation. (orig.)

  5. Method for 236U Determination in Seawater Using Flow Injection Extraction Chromatography and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    an effective iron hydroxide coprecipitation. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied for quantifying the 236U/238U ratio,and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was used to determine the absolute concentration of 238U; thus, the concentration of 236U can be calculated. The key......, on the basis of studying the coprecipitation behavior of uranium with iron hydroxide. The analytical results indicate that the developed method is simple and robust, providing satisfactory chemical yields (80−100%) and high analysis speed (4 h/sample), which could be an appealing alternative to conventional...

  6. 以R236fa为制冷剂的太阳能喷射制冷系统研究%STUDY OF SOLAR EJECTOR COOLING SYSTEM USING R236fa AS REFRIGERANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博; 左计学; 钟福春; 吕金升

    2012-01-01

    With analysis on the solar ejector cooling system and comparison with the common refrigerants, a new refrigerant of R236fa to the solar ejector cooling system was suggested. The operation of the ejector cooling system was simulated with a mathematical model. In order to verify the theoretical simulation, an experimental study of the system using refrigerant R236fa, R141b and R123 was carried out with the evaporator temperature (5-10℃) , condenser temperature (30-36℃) and generator temperature (82-94℃). It was found that the optimum COP ( =0.413) of the ejector cooling system, the optimum COPsc ( =0.243) and cooling capacity ( =11.90kW) of the overall solar ejector cooling system could be obtained in the system using refrigerant R236fa.%对太阳能喷射制冷系统进行理论分析,并通过与常用工质的比较,提出以R236fa作为太阳能喷射制冷系统的制冷剂.建立计算模型,模拟以R236fa作为制冷剂太阳能喷射制冷系统的运行性能.结合理论分析,蒸发温度在5 ~ 10℃,冷凝温度在30~36℃,发生温度在82 ~ 94℃之间变化时,分别对以R236fa、R141b和R123为制冷剂的太阳能喷射制冷系统进行实验研究.结果表明,典型空调工况条件下,R236fa作为制冷剂的喷射制冷系统COP为0.413;太阳能喷射制冷系统的性能系数COPsc可达0.243,系统的制冷量为11.90kW.

  7. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.566 Locomotive of each train operating...

  8. Investigation of the {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotope abundance ratio in uranium ores and yellow cake samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srncik, M. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute for Transuranium Elements; Mayer, K.; Hrnecek, E.; Wallenius, M.; Varga, Z. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute for Transuranium Elements; Steier, P. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). VERA Lab.; Wallner, G. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Uranium ores and yellow cake samples of known geographic origin were investigated for their n({sup 236}U)/n({sup 238}U) isotope abundance ratio. Samples from four different uranium mines in Australia, Brazil and Canada were selected. Uranium was separated by UTEVA {sup registered} Resin and was measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). The measurement of the isotope abundance ratio n({sup 236}U)/n({sup 238}U) will be used to investigate possible correlations between the original mineral (uranium ore) and the intermediate product (yellow cake). Such correlations are useful indicators for nuclear forensic or for non-proliferation purposes. (orig.)

  9. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions in the $^{234}$U(n,f) and $^{236}$U(n,f) reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the fission fragment angular distribution (FFAD) of the $^{234}$U(n,f) and $^{236}$U (n,f) reactions with the PPAC detection setup used in previous n_TOF-14 experiment. This experiment would take advantage of the high resolution of the n_TOF facility to investigate the FFAD behaviour in the pronounced vibrational resonances that have been observed between 0.1 and 2 MeV for the thorium cycle isotopes. In addition, the angular distribution of these isotopes will be measured for the first time beyond 14 MeV. Furthermore, the experiment will also provide the fission cross section with reduced statistical uncertainty, extending the $^{236}$U(n,f) data up to 1 GeV

  10. Efficacy and safety of the HAA regimen as induction chemotherapy in 236 de novo acute myeloid leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶佩佩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the HAA regimen (homoharringtonine,cytarabine and aclarubicin) as induction chemotherapy in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) .Methods The efficacy and safety of 236 de novo AML patients who received the HAA regimen as induction chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed.The complete remission (CR) rate was assayed.Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and relapse free survival (RFS) ,and the differ-

  11. He stripping for AMS of 236U and other actinides using a 3 MV tandem accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stephan R.; Steier, Peter; Buchriegler, Josef; Lachner, Johannes; Pitters, Johanna; Priller, Alfred; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Interest in the long-lived radioisotope 236U (t1/2 = 23.4 million years) has significantly increased recently, due to the emergence of environmental and earth science applications. Presently, only a few (AMS) accelerator mass spectrometry instruments are suited for this measurement. One major limitation is the relatively low total detection efficiency (on the order of 10-4), which is partly caused by a low stripping yield of the positive ion charge state selected after the tandem accelerator. It has been shown that high yield can be achieved using helium as stripper gas for uranium ion energies below 0.35 MeV. Here we investigate the potential of He stripping of U at the 3-MV tandem accelerator VERA. Phenomenological charge state distributions for U and Th are presented for terminal voltages from 1.0 to 1.7 MV. These terminal voltages provide better background rejection than possible below 1 MeV, and are suited to the widely used 1-3 MV workhorses of many accelerator mass spectrometry laboratories. The methods can be applied to other actinides also.

  12. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer.

  13. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer. PMID:26141189

  14. Depth distributions of uranium-236 and cesium-137 in the Japan/East Sea; toward the potential use as a new oceanic circulation tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, A.; Kadokura, A.; Steier, P.; Takahashi, Y.; Shizuma, K.; Yamamoto, M.

    2012-04-01

    137Cs (T1/2=30.2 y) has been spread all over the world as a fission product of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s. This nuclide has been used as a powerful tool for oceanography due to the well-defined origin and conservative behaviour in water . However, the number of atoms has decayed already to one thirds compared with its initial levels, and it will become more difficult to measure. In this situation, we focus on 236U (T1/2=2.342-107 y) as a candidate for a new isotopic tracer for oceanography. The detection of 236U in the environment has become possible only recently, by the development of measuring techniques with high sensitivity based on AMS. Our group showed that global fallout from bomb tests contains 236U, which might be produced as nuclear reactions of 235U(n,γ) and/or 238U(n,3n). So 236U has been therefore globally distributed in the surface environment. Thus, 236U has a similar potential as a tracer for environmental dynamics as 137Cs, especially for oceanography. In this study, a comprehensive attempt was made to measure the concentration of 236U in marine samples such as water, suspended solid and bottom sediments to clarify the environmental behaviour of this isotope. Furthermore, the discussion of the circulation of deep and bottom water in "Miniature Ocean", the Japan Sea, has been attempted. Bottom sediments (4 sites) and seawater samples (7 sites) were collected from the Japan Sea. The sediment core was cut into 1 cm segments from the surface to 5 cm in depth within a few hours after the sampling. About 20 L of seawater samples were collected from some depths in each site, and immediately after the sampling, the water was filtered with 0.45 μm pore-size membrane-filters. After the appropriate pre-treatment for each sample, uranium isotope and 137Cs were measured with AMS and Ge-detector, respectively. 236U was successfully detected for all seawater samples, and 236U/238U atom ratios in seawater were in the range of (0

  15. Neutron Capture Cross Sections and Gamma Emission Spectra from Neutron Capture on 234,236,238U Measured with DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Mosby, S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wu, C.-Y.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Krticka, M.

    2014-05-01

    A new measurement of the 238U(n, γ) cross section using a thin 48 mg/cm2 target was made using the DANCE detector at LANSCE over the energy range from 10 eV to 500 keV. The results confirm earlier measurements. Measurements of the gamma-ray emission spectra were also made for 238U(n, γ) as well as 234,236U(n, γ). These measurements help to constrain the radiative strength function used in the cross-section calculations.

  16. Gamma Emission Spectra from Neutron Resonances in 234,236,238U Measured Using the Dance Detector at Lansce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Keksis, A. L.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Krticka, M.

    2013-03-01

    An accurate knowledge of the radiative strength function and level density is needed to calculate of neutron-capture cross sections. An additional constraint on these quantities is provided by measurements of γ-ray emission spectra following capture. We present γ-emission spectra from several neutron resonances in 234,236,238U, measured using the DANCE detector at LANSCE. The measurements are compared to preliminary calculations of the cascade. It is observed that the generalized Lorentzian form of the E1 strength function cannot reproduce the shape of the emission spectra, but a better description is made by adding low-lying M1 Lorentzian strength.

  17. The c.-237_236GA>TT THAP1 Sequence Variant Does Not Increase Risk for Primary Dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jianfeng; Zhao, Yu; Robert W. Bastian; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Racette, Brad A.; Tabbal, Samer D.; Karimi, Morvarid; Paniello, Randal C.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Uitti, Ryan J; Van Gerpen, Jay A; Simon, David K; Tarsy, Daniel; Hedera, Peter; Truong, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence variants in coding and non-coding regions of THAP1 have been associated with primary dystonia. In this study, 1446 Caucasian subjects with mainly adult-onset primary dystonia and 1520 controls were genotyped for a variant located in the 5’-untranslated region of THAP1 (c.-237_236GA>TT). Minor allele frequencies were 62/2892 (2.14%) and 55/3040 (1.81%) in subjects with dystonia and controls, respectively (P = 0.202). Subgroup analyses by gender and anatomical distribution also failed ...

  18. Deep-UV 236.5 nm laser by fourth-harmonic generation of a single-crystal fiber Nd:YAG oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Deyra, Loïc; Martial, Igor; Didierjean, Julien; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    International audience We demonstrate a deep-UV laser at 236.5 nm based on extracavity fourth-harmonic generation of a Q-switched Nd: YAG single-crystal fiber laser at 946 nm. We first compare two nonlinear crystals available for second-harmonic generation: LBO and BiBO. The best results at 473 nm are obtained with a BiBO crystal, with an average output power of 3.4 W at 20 kHz, corresponding to a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 38%. This blue laser is frequency-converted to 236.5...

  19. Observation of the Therapeutic Effect of Perindopril on 236 Cases of Acute Myocardial Infarction%培哚普利治疗急性心肌梗塞236例的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄震华; 朱雅琴; 朱文敏; 许左隽; 顾燕

    2002-01-01

    目的:观察培哚普利治疗急性心肌梗塞的疗效.方法:治疗组患者入院后给予口服培哚普利4mg,qd,连用4wk.结果:治疗组236例患者中33例死亡,占1398%;未用培哚普利的对照组160例患者中55例死亡,占3438%(X2=22.94,P<0.01);培哚普利尚有改善左室射血分数、小轴缩短率,减少左室内径的作用.结论:培哚普利对治疗急性心肌梗塞有利.

  20. Clinical analysis of gynecopathia among female college students:report of 236 cases%女大学生妇科疾病236例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭虹

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨女大学生这一特殊群体生殖健康状态,为高校构建全面、系统的性与生殖健康服务体系及制定保健干预措施提供理论依据.方法:整理近3年来诊治的236例女大学生妇科疾病的临床资料,并进行统计学分析.结果:女大学生妇科疾病的发病率最高为月经失调(39.8%),其次为痛经(20.3%),妇科炎症为17.79%占第3位,闭经发病率最低.结论:月经失调、痛经、妇科炎症、闭经是困扰女大学生的主要妇科疾病,加强生殖健康知识教育,有助于提高女大学生生理健康.%Objective:To investigate the state of reproductive health in frmale college students, and to provide the theory evidence about building a sexual and reproductive health service system and health care interventions. Methods : Retrospective analysis the clinic data of female college students (n= 236) in recent three years. Results: The incidence rate of menstruation disorder was 39. 8%, dysmenorrheal was 20. 3%,gynecological inflammation was 17. 79% and amenorrhea was rare in the study. Conclusion: The common gynecologic disease in female college students were menstruation disorder, dysmenorrheal, gynecological inflammation and amenorrhea. The education about reproductive knowledge was helpful in promote reproductive health in college students.

  1. First 2.36 TeV Collision Events recorded by the ATLAS experiment, December 8th and 14th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    On Tuesday evening, December 8th, 2009, the LHC achieved for the first time 2.36 TeV collisions and ATLAS recorded their first events at this record energy. More events at this energy were taken on December 14th in the early morning.

  2. Effects of flooding stress in 'Micro-Tom' tomato plants transformed with different levels of mitochondrial sHSP23.6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüther, C M; Martinazzo, E G; Rombaldi, C V; Bacarin, M A

    2016-07-11

    Soil flooding is an environmental stressor for crops that can affect physiological performance and reduce crop yields. Abiotic stressors cause changes in protein synthesis, modifying the levels of a series of proteins, especially the heat shock proteins (HSP), and these proteins can help protect the plants against abiotic stress. The objective of this study was to verify if tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom from different genotypes with varying expression levels of MT-sHSP23.6 (mitochondrial small heat shock proteins) have different responses physiological to flooding. Plants from three genotypes (untransformed, MT-sHSP23.6 sense expression levels and MT-sHSP23.6 antisense expression levels) were cultivated under controlled conditions. After 50 days, the plants were flooded for 14 days. After this period half of the plants from each genotype were allowed to recover. Chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, chlorophyll index, leaf area and dry matter were evaluated. Flood stress affected the photosynthetic electron transport chain, which is related to inactivation of the oxygen-evolving complex, loss of connectivity among units in photosystem II, oxidation-reduction of the plastoquinone pool and activity of photosystem I. The genotype with MT-sHSP23.6 sense expression levels was less sensitive to stress from flooding. PMID:27409224

  3. Detection of UH{sup 3+} and ThH{sup 3+} molecules and {sup 236}U background studies with low-energy AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachner, Johannes, E-mail: lachner@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Synal, Hans-Arno [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    The performance of the TANDY AMS facility (0.6 MV) at ETH Zurich has been significantly improved for actinides with the installation of an additional 130 Degree-Sign magnet on the high-energy side. The background originating from neighboring masses is reduced by three orders of magnitude in the new setup, leading to an abundance sensitivity of 10{sup -10}. This now allows {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U measurements down to the 10{sup -12} level. Systematic studies of the possible background for {sup 236}U{sup 3+} at the compact TANDY system show that actinide-hydride molecules in charge state 3+ do exist. ({sup 232}Th{sup 1}H){sup 3+}, ({sup 235}U{sup 1}H){sup 3+} and ({sup 238}U{sup 1}H){sup 3+} can cause a severe background at masses 233, 236, and 239, respectively. The existence of the ({sup 232}Th{sup 1}H){sup 3+} molecule was verified unambiguously by analyzing its breakup. The actinide-hydride molecules can be destroyed efficiently using higher stripper pressures. At an ion energy of 1.2 MeV an overall efficiency of more than 10{sup -4} can be achieved using a gas ionization detector. The high efficiency in combination with the low background opens the spectrum of possible applications to both anthropogenic ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U = 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -9}) and natural samples ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U < 10{sup -10}).

  4. 特克斯河流域近236a降水变化及其趋势预测%Variation and Prediction Trend of Precipitation Series for the Tekes River Basin during the Last 236 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰; 袁玉江; 魏文寿; 喻树龙; 范子昂; 张瑞波; 张同文; 尚华明

    2010-01-01

    根据2006年采自特克斯河流域6个采样点的树轮样本研制的树轮宽度年表与气象资料,通过相关普查发现,特克斯河流域树轮标准化年表与上年7月至当年6月的降水存在显著的正相关,最高单相关系数为0.727.用库尔克尔也灭,小白代的树轮宽度标准化年表序列,可较好地重建该地区最近236 a的降水序列,方差解释量达54%,并通过交叉检验表明重建结果是稳定可靠的.近236 a,特克斯河流域上年7月至当年6月降水经历了8个偏湿阶段和8个偏干阶段,同时重建降水序列具有10.3 a、7.5 a、6.0 a、3.0 a、2.1 a的变化准周期,并在1790年,1911年,1929年,1974年发生过降水突变.采用毛毛虫-奇异谱分析法(Caterpillar-ssa)对该地区未来20 a的降水的自然变化进行预测.结果表明,21世纪的最初几年降水量将延续20世纪90年代以来增加的趋势,之后出现下降,并在2013~2016年前后最低值出现.

  5. Determination of 236U and transuranium elements in depleted uranium ammunition by α-spectrometry and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that ammunition containing depleted uranium (DU) was used by NATO during the Balkan conflict. To evaluate the origin of DU (the enrichment of natural uranium or the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel) it is necessary to directly detect the presence of activation products (236U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am, and 237Np) in the ammunition. In this work the analysis of actinides by α-spectrometry was compared with that by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after selective separation of ultratraces of transuranium elements from the uranium matrix. 242Pu and 243Am were added to calculate the chemical yield. Plutonium was separated from uranium by extraction chromatography, using tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), with a decontamination factor higher than 106; after elution plutonium was determined by ICP-MS (239Pu and 240Pu) and α-spectrometry (239+240Pu) after electroplating. The concentration of Pu in two DU penetrator samples was 7 x 10-12 g g-1 and 2 x 10-11 g g-1. The 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in one penetrator sample (0.12±0.04) was significantly lower than the 240Pu/239Pu ratios found in two soil samples from Kosovo (0.35±0.10 and 0.27±0.07). 241Am was separated by extraction chromatography, using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), with a decontamination factor as high as 107. The concentration of 241Am in the penetrator samples was 2.7 x 10-14 g g-1 and -15 g g-1. In addition 237Np was detected at ultratrace levels. In general, ICP-MS and α-spectrometry results were in good agreement.The presence of anthropogenic radionuclides (236U, 239Pu,240Pu, 241Am, and 237Np) in the penetrators indicates that at least part of the uranium originated from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Because the concentrations of radionuclides are very low, their radiotoxicological effect is negligible. (orig.)

  6. Biological, chemical and other data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN236 in the South Pacific Ocean from 2009-06-12 to 2009-07-08 (NODC Accession 0104353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104353 includes biological, chemical, optical, physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN236 in the South...

  7. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234 , 236 , 238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Krticka, M.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.

    2015-10-01

    Calculations of the neutron-capture cross section at low neutron energies (10 eV through 100's of keV) are very sensitive to the nuclear level density and radiative strength function. These quantities are often poorly known, especially for radioactive targets, and actual measurements of the capture cross section are usually required. An additional constraint on the calculation of the capture cross section is provided by measurements of the cascade gamma spectrum following neutron capture. Recent measurements of 234 , 236 , 238U(n, γ) emission spectra made using the DANCE 4 π BaF2 array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will be presented. Calculations of gamma-ray spectra made using the DICEBOX code and of the capture cross section made using the CoH3 code will also be presented. These techniques may be also useful for calculations of more unstable nuclides. This work was performed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734).

  8. Deducing the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via the surrogate ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; McCleskey, M.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K. B.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.

    2013-10-01

    The short half-lives associated with certain minor actinide nuclei that are relevant to stockpile stewardship pursuits and the development of next-generation nuclear reactors make direct neutron measurements very challenging. In certain cases, a stable beam and target ``surrogate reaction'' can be used in lieu of the neutron-induced reaction, and the (n,f) cross section can then be deduced indirectly. Agreement between surrogate and direct measurements for (n,f) cross sections in actinide nuclei is usually within 10%. The present work reports on the measurement of the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via 239Pu(p,tf) and 239Pu(p,df) surrogate reactions, respectively. The experiment was performed at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Facility using a 28.5 MeV proton beam to bombard 239Pu and 235U targets. Outgoing light ions were detected in coincidence with fission fragments using the STAR-LiTe detector array. Results of the analysis will be presented. This work was supported by DoE Grant Numbers: DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05ER41379 (Richmond), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-FG52-09NA29467 (TAMU).

  9. Numerical methods to analyze alpha spectra and application to the study of neptunium 237 and neptunium 236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of numerical methods to analize alpha spectra measured with semiconductor detectors are presented. The methods can be divided in two groups, the first being based in the X2 minimization ands the second in the use of the Fourier Transform. The methods based in the minimization of X2 can, in turn, be divided according to the model used to fit the spectra. Some of them use a monoenergetic line for the intercomparison with the other peaks in the same spectrum. The others take into account the analytical function developed to represent an alpha line. Both allow the determination of positions and areas of the components, as well as the uncertainties of the results. The Fast Fourier Transform is applied to the second group of methods, which include the smoothing of experimental data, and the deconvolution of spectra. Examples are given of the application of these methods to real spectra. The alpha spectra of 237Np and 236Np are studied by using some of the methods described in this work. (Author)

  10. Determination of plutonium isotopes in urine samples from radiation workers using 236Pu tracer, anion exchange resin and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioassay technique is used for the estimation of actinides present in the body based on their excretion rate through body fluids. For occupational radiation workers urine assay is the preferred method for monitoring of chronic internal exposure. Determination of low concentrations of actinides such as plutonium, americium and uranium at low level of mBq in urine by alpha spectrometry requires pre-concentration of large volumes of urine. This paper deals with standardization of analytical method for the determination of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using anion exchange resin and 236Pu tracer for radiochemical recovery. The method involves oxidation of urine followed by co-precipitation of plutonium along with calcium phosphate. Separation of Pu was carried out by Amberlite, IRA-400, anion exchange resin. Pu-fraction was electrodeposited and activity estimated using tracer recovery by alpha spectrometer. Twenty routine urine samples of radiation workers were analyzed and consistent radiochemical tracer recovery was obtained in the range 74-96% with a mean and standard deviation of 85 and 6% respectively. (author)

  11. Molecular Hydrogen in the Damped Lyman-alpha System towards GRB 120815A at z=2.36

    CERN Document Server

    Krühler, T; Fynbo, J P U; Vreeswijk, P M; Schmidl, S; Malesani, D; Christensen, L; De Cia, A; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Kann, D A; Kaper, L; Vergani, S D; Afonso, P M J; Covino, S; Postigo, A de Ugarte; D'Elia, V; Filgas, R; Goldoni, P; Greiner, J; Hartoog, O E; Milvang-Jensen, B; Nardini, M; Piranomonte, S; Rossi, A; Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Schady, P; Schulze, S; Sudilovsky, V; Tanvir, N R; Tagliaferri, G; Watson, D J; Wiersema, K; Wijers, R A M J; Xu, D

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] Molecular hydrogen H_2 is a key requirement for star-formation, frequently observed along sightlines in the Galaxy and to the Magellanic Clouds, but notoriously hard to detect directly beyond z ~ 0. In the DLAs associated with long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are tightly linked to vigorous star-formation, H_2 has remained largely elusive, and has been unequivocally detected only towards GRB 080607 and possibly towards GRB 060206. Here, we present the discovery of H_2-rich gas, including the presence of vibrationally-excited H_2^* in the optical spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 120815A at z=2.36 obtained with X-shooter at the VLT. The galactic environment of GRB 120815A is characterized by a strong DLA with log(N(H)/cm^-2) = 21.95 +/- 0.10, prominent H_2 absorption in the Lyman-Werner bands (log(N(H_2)/cm^-2) = 20.53 +/- 0.04) and thus a molecular gas fraction log f(H_2)=-1.14 +/- 0.10. The distance d between the absorbing neutral gas and GRB 120815A is constrained via photo-excitation modeling o...

  12. Detection of RtN236T Mutation Associated with Adefovir Dipivoxil Resistance in Hepatitis B Infected Patients with YMDD Mutations in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamid Reza Monavari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Objectives: The risk of adefovir dipivoxil resistance emergence has increased in lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B infected patients. The mutations known as causing adefovir resistance, rtN236T and rtA181V/T, are detected within the D and B functional domain of the HBV polymerase, respectively. In this study, we intended to determine the pre-existing adefovir-resistance mutations in patients infected with LAM resistant mutants prior to starting adefovir therapy.Material and Methods: The study included 30 patients with chronic hepatitis B with lamivudine resistance mutations in the YMDD motif that experienced viral breakthrough.Results: After alignment of protein coding sequences, the rtN236T mutation was observed in two (6.6 % patients, while twenty-eight others had neither rtN236T, nor rtA181V/T mutation. All 30 patients were infected with genotype D of hepatitis B virus.Conclusions: The early detection of LAM-resistance mutations may allow a timely chance of therapy to avoid hepatitis flare-up. This data suggests that monitoring of ADV-resistance mutations in ADV naive patients can be considered in selecting the appropriate anti-viral regimen.

  13. Transverse momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Hashemi, Majid; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Chabert, Eric Christian; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Elgammal, Sherif; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Jingying; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Herquet, Philippe; Alves, Gilvan; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Oguri, Vitor; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Damgov, Jordan; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Papadakis, Antonakis; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Zinonos, Zinonas; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Descamps, Julien; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Rousseau, Delphine; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Paganini, Pascal; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Speck, Joaquim; Van Hove, Pierre; Baty, Clement; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Actis, Oxana; Bender, Walter; Biallass, Philipp; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Kirsch, Matthias; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sowa, Michael; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Zeidler, Clemens; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrens, Ulf; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Wissing, Christoph; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Autermann, Christian; Draeger, Jula; Eckstein, Doris; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Sander, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Blüm, Peter; Buege, Volker; Cakir, Altan; Chwalek, Thorsten; Daeuwel, Daniel; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Frey, Martin; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Renz, Manuel; Sabellek, Andreas; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Karafasoulis, Konstantinos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Zachariadou, Aikaterini; Agapitos, Antonis; Gouskos, Loukas; Katsas, Panagiotis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saganis, Konstantinos; Xaxiris, Evangelos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Kapusi, Anita; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Sharma, Richa; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Nayak, Aruna; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Moshaii, Ahmad; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Capiluppi, Paolo; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Lanaro, Armando; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Menasce, Dario; Miccio, Vincenzo; Moroni, Luigi; Negri, Pietro; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pullia, Antonino; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Salerno, Roberto; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Taroni, Silvia; Cimmino, Anna; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Lomidze, David; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Biasotto, Massimo; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gulmini, Michele; Lacaprara, Stefano; Maron, Gaetano; Mattiazzo, Serena; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Passaseo, Marina; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Pagano, Davide; Ratti, Sergio P.; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Bocci, Andrea; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Dutta, Suchandra; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Gennai, Simone; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; Costa, Marco; Dellacasa, Giulio; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Penzo, Aldo; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jung, Seung Yong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Sim, Kwang Souk; Kim, Jangho; Choi, Minkyoo; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Suyong; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Jo, Youngkwon; Kwon, Jeongteak; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Aumeyr, Thomas; Butler, Philip H.; Signal, Tony; Williams, Jennifer C.; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Altsybeev, Igor; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Obrant, Gennady; Shcheglov, Yury; Shchetkovskiy, Alexander; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Ilina, Natalia; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Oulianov, Alexei; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Vardanyan, Irina; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Konovalova, Nina; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Datsko, Kirill; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Sytine, Alexandre; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Maletic, Dimitrije; Puzovic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Diaz Merino, Irma; Diez Gonzalez, Carlos; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Beaudette, Florian; Beccati, Barbara; Bellan, Riccardo; Benedetti, Daniele; Benelli, Gabriele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cattai, Ariella; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Curé, Benoît; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Gutleber, Johannes; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Holzner, André; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meridiani, Paolo; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mulders, Martijn; Noy, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ryjov, Vladimir; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schlatter, Wolf-Dieter; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Traczyk, Piotr; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zanetti, Marco; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Betev, Botjo; Caminada, Lea; Casella, Maria Chiara; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dambach, Sarah; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eggel, Christina; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Schinzel, Dietrich; Sordini, Viola; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Trüb, Peter; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Tsirigkas, Dimitrios; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, E Augustine; Chen, Wan-Ting; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Wu, Jing-Han; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lin, Sheng-Wen; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Ueno, Koji; Wang, Chin-chi; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Ayhan, Aydin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demir, Zahide; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gurpinar, Emine; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kurt, Pelin; Önengüt, Gülsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatöz, Ayse; Sahin, Ozge; Sengul, Ozden; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Hansen, Maria; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Hill, Christopher; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Foudas, Costas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; MacEvoy, Barry C.; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Bose, Tulika; Clough, Andrew; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Andrea, Jeremy; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Wallny, Rainer; Babb, John; Chandra, Avdhesh; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Norman, Matthew; Padhi, Sanjay; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Blume, Michael; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Garberson, Jeffrey; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lamb, James; Lowette, Steven; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Witherell, Michael; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Gataullin, Marat; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Blekman, Freya; Cassel, David; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Binkley, Morris; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lueking, Lee; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Smith, Richard P.; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prescott, Craig; Rapsevicius, Valdas; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Chen, Jie; Dharmaratna, Welathantri G.D.; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatian, Samvel; Mironov, Camelia; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Smoron, Agata; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Chung, Kwangzoo; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bandurin, Dmitry; Barfuss, Anne-fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Kunori, Shuichi; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; D'Enterria, David; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Petyt, David; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Sonnek, Peter; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Strang, Michael; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; McCauley, Thomas; Musienko, Yuri; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Taylor, Lucas; Wood, Darien; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Killewald, Phillip; Ling, Ta-Yung; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatzerklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Sedov, Alexey; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Matveev, Mikhail; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Gershtein, Yuri; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Jeong, Chiyoung; Lee, Sung Won; Popescu, Sorina; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Johns, Willard; Sheldon, Paul; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Gunthoti, Kranti; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Flood, Kevin; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Polese, Giovanni; Reeder, Don; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of inclusive charged-hadron transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions are presented for proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector during the LHC commissioning in December 2009. For non-single-diffractive interactions, the average charged-hadron transverse momentum is measured to be 0.46 +/- 0.01 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (syst.) GeV/c at 0.9 TeV and 0.50 +/- 0.01 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (syst.) GeV/c at 2.36 TeV, for pseudorapidities between -2.4 and +2.4. At these energies, the measured pseudorapidity densities in the central region, dN(charged)/d(eta) for |eta| < 0.5, are 3.48 +/- 0.02 (stat.) +/- 0.13 (syst.) and 4.47 +/- 0.04 (stat.) +/- 0.16 (syst.), respectively. The results at 0.9 TeV are in agreement with previous measurements and confirm the expectation of near equal hadron production in p-pbar and pp collisions. The results at 2.36 TeV represent the highest-energy measurements at a particle collider to date.

  14. Deep-UV 236.5  nm laser by fourth-harmonic generation of a single-crystal fiber Nd:YAG oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyra, Loïc; Martial, Igor; Didierjean, Julien; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate a deep-UV laser at 236.5 nm based on extracavity fourth-harmonic generation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG single-crystal fiber laser at 946 nm. We first compare two nonlinear crystals available for second-harmonic generation: LBO and BiBO. The best results at 473 nm are obtained with a BiBO crystal, with an average output power of 3.4 W at 20 kHz, corresponding to a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 38%. This blue laser is frequency-converted to 236.5 nm in a BBO crystal with an overall fourth-harmonic generation yield of 6.5%, corresponding to an average output power of 600 mW at 20 kHz. This represents an order of magnitude increase in average power and energy compared to previously reported pulsed lasers at 236.5 nm. This work opens the possibility of LIDAR detection of dangerous compounds for military or civilian applications.

  15. Deep-UV 236.5  nm laser by fourth-harmonic generation of a single-crystal fiber Nd:YAG oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyra, Loïc; Martial, Igor; Didierjean, Julien; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate a deep-UV laser at 236.5 nm based on extracavity fourth-harmonic generation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG single-crystal fiber laser at 946 nm. We first compare two nonlinear crystals available for second-harmonic generation: LBO and BiBO. The best results at 473 nm are obtained with a BiBO crystal, with an average output power of 3.4 W at 20 kHz, corresponding to a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 38%. This blue laser is frequency-converted to 236.5 nm in a BBO crystal with an overall fourth-harmonic generation yield of 6.5%, corresponding to an average output power of 600 mW at 20 kHz. This represents an order of magnitude increase in average power and energy compared to previously reported pulsed lasers at 236.5 nm. This work opens the possibility of LIDAR detection of dangerous compounds for military or civilian applications. PMID:24978960

  16. Stopping of 236 keV - 3.019 MeV protons in mylar and polypropylene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damache, S.; Ouichaoui, S.; Belhout, A.; Medouni, A.; Toumert, I.

    2004-10-01

    The stopping powers of polypropylene and mylar polymers for protons have been accurately measured over the energy intervals Ep=(0.352-3.009) MeV and Ep=(0.236-3.019) MeV, respectively. Ab initio calculations using the Sigmund-Schinner binary collision theory for electronic stopping yielded S( E) values fairly consistent with the measured data that show no noticeable deviations from the Bragg-Kleeman additivity rule. The data have also been analyzed in the framework of the modified Bethe-Bloch theory assuming additivity. Values of the mean excitation and ionization potential, I, and of the Barkas parameter, b, have been deduced for the two polymers and for their (C, O) atomic constituents by adopting values of these parameters recommended in the ICRU-49 report for the H element. Thus, the respective I-values {(56.90 ± 0.72) eV, (79.92 ± 1.30) eV} for the two polymers and the same b-value 1.39 for their (C, O) atomic constituents have been determined by adopting for H the value b=1.8, while the I-values {(81.73 ± 1.38) eV, (109.46 ± 6.55) eV} have been deduced for the (C, O) constituents by adopting for H the value I=19.2 eV. Priorily, the shell, Barkas and Bloch corrections to the calculated S( E) values have been evaluated for both polymers over the explored respective energy ranges. The obtained results are discussed in comparison with previous ones when reported in the literature to our knowledge.

  17. Isotopic compositions of (236)U and Pu isotopes in "black substances" collected from roadsides in Fukushima prefecture: fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Steier, Peter; Takahashi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-04-01

    Black-colored road dusts were collected in high-radiation areas in Fukushima Prefecture. Measurement of (236)U and Pu isotopes and (134,137)Cs in samples was performed to confirm whether refractory elements, such as U and Pu, from the fuel core were discharged and to ascertain the extent of fractionation between volatile and refractory elements. The concentrations of (134,137)Cs in all samples were exceptionally high, ranging from 0.43 to 17.7 MBq/kg, respectively. (239+240)Pu was detected at low levels, ranging from 0.15 to 1.14 Bq/kg, and with high (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios of 1.64-2.64. (236)U was successfully determined in the range of (0.28 to 6.74) × 10(-4) Bq/kg. The observed activity ratios for (236)U/(239+240)Pu were in reasonable agreement with those calculated for the fuel core inventories, indicating that trace amounts of U from the fuel cores were released together with Pu isotopes but without large fractionation. The quantities of U and (239+240)Pu emitted to the atmosphere were estimated as 3.9 × 10(6) Bq (150 g) and 2.3 × 10(9) Bq (580 mg), respectively. With regard to U, this is the first report to give a quantitative estimation of the amount discharged. Appreciable fractionation between volatile and refractory radionuclides associated with the dispersal/deposition processes with distance from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant was found.

  18. Accurate measurements of fission-fragment yields in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f with the SOFIA set-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatillon A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SOFIA (Studies On Fission with Aladin is a new experimental set-up dedicated to accurate measurement of fission-fragments isotopic yields. It is located at GSI, the only place to use inverse kinematics at relativistic energies in order to study the (γ,f electromagnetic-induced fission. The SOFIA set-up is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer, which allows to fully identify both fission fragments in coincidence on the whole fission-fragment range. This paper will report on fission yields obtained in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f reactions.

  19. X-ray measurement of electron and magnetic-field energy densities in the west lobe of the giant radio galaxy 3C 236

    CERN Document Server

    Isobe, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    X-ray emission associated with the west lobe of the giant radio galaxy, 3C 236, was investigated with the Suzaku observatory, to evaluate the energetics in the lobe. After removing contamination from X-ray sources detected with Chandra and subtracting the X-ray and non-X-ray backgrounds, the Suzaku spectrum from the lobe was reproduced by a power-low model with a photon index of $\\Gamma = 2.23_{-0.38-0.12}^{+0.44+0.14}$ where the first and second errors represent the statistical and systematic ones, respectively. Within the errors, the X-ray index was consistent with the radio synchrotron one, $\\Gamma_{\\rm R} = 1.74 \\pm 0.07$, estimated in the 326 -- 2695 MHz range. This agreement supports that the X-ray emission is attributed to the inverse-Compton (IC) radiation from the synchrotron electrons filling the lobe, where the cosmic microwave background photons are up-scattered. This result made 3C 236 the largest radio galaxy, of which the lobe has ever been probed through the IC X-ray photons. When the photon i...

  20. Charged-particle multiplicity measurement in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV with ALICE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

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Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dialinas, M; Díaz, L; Díaz, R; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobretsov, V; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domínguez, I; Don, D M M; Don 46 O Dordic, D M M; Dönigus, B; Dubey, A K; Dubuisson, J; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Enokizono, A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fateev, O; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Fodor, Z; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Formenti, F; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Frolov, A; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Ganoti, P; Ganti, M S; Garabatos, C; García Trapaga, C; Gebelein, J; Gemme, R; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glasow, R; Glässel, P; Glenn, A; Gomez Jiménez, R; González Santos, H; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gorbunov, Y; Gotovac, S; Gottschlag, H; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gustafsson, H A; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamblen, J; Han, B H; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Harutyunyan, A; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernández, C; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hiei, A; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hrivnácová, I; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hu, S; Huang, M; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Iwasaki, T; Jacholkowski, A; Jacobs, P; Jancurová, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kalinák, P; Kalisky, M; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamal, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kapitan, J; Kaplin, V; Kapusta, S; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kikola, D; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J H; Kim, J; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, S; Kim, Y; Kirsch, S; Kiselev, S; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein-Bösing, C; Klein, J; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Kniege, S; Koch, K; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornas, E; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Kozlov, K; Králik, I; Kral, J; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Kravcáková, A; Krawutschke, T; Krivda, M; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, L; Kumar, N; Kupczak, R; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A N; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kutouski, M; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Rocca, P; Lackner, F; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lal, C; Lara, C; La Rocca, P; Larsen, D T; Laurenti, G; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Le Bris, N; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Li, X; Li, Y; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Listratenko, O; Liu, L; Li, Y; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; López Noriega, M; López-Ramírez, R; López Torres, E; Lopez, X; Løvhøiden, G; Lozea Feijo Soares, A; Lu, S; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Lutz, J R; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Makhlyueva, I; Mal'Kevich, D; Malaev, M; Malagalage, K J; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malek, M; Malkiewicz, T; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mares, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez Hernandez, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martínez, M I; Maruyama, Y; Ma, R; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masetti, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mendez Lorenzo, P; Meoni, M; Mercado Pérez, J; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Michalon, A; Miftakhov, N; Milosevic, J; Minafra, F; Mischke, A; Miskowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizoguchi, K; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Mondal, M M; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Moukhanova, T; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Navach, F; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nendaz, F; Newby, J; Nianine, A; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nyiri, A; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Odyniec, G; Oeschler, H; Oinonen, M; Okada, K; Okada, Y; Oldenburg, M; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Orsini, F; Ortíz Velázquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskamp, C J; Oskarsson, A; Osmic, F; Österman, L; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Øvrebekk, G; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paic, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Pal, S; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Panse, R; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Pastircák, B; Pastore, C; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pepato, A; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D; Pérez, C; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Peschek, J; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Peters, A J; Petrácek, V; Petridis, A; Petris, M; Petrovici, M; Petrov, P; Petta, C; Peyré, J; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Platt, R; Ploskon, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta Lerma, P L M; Poggio, F; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Polozov, P; Polyakov, V; Pommeresch, B; Pop, A; Posa, F; Pospísil, V; Potukuchi, B; Pouthas, J; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, A; Punin, V; Putis, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Radomski, S; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Rammler, M; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S; Rashevskaya, I; Rath, S; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M; Røed, K; Röhrich, D; Román López, S; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinský, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio-Montero, A J; Rui, R; Rusanov, I; Russo, G; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safarík, K; Sahoo, R; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salgueiro Dominques da Silva, R; Salur, S; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schindler, H; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schossmaier, K; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Segato, G; Semenov, D; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serkin, L; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharkov, G; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddi, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simili, E; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singhal, V; Singh, R; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Snow, H; Søgaard, C; Soloviev, A; Soltveit, H K; Soltz, R; Sommer, W; Son, C W; Son, H; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Soyk, D; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Staley, F; Stan, E; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, P; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, J; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Szuba, M; Tadel, M; Tagridis, C; Takahara, A; Takahashi, J; Tanabe, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Taureg, H; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Tieulent, R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Tolyhy, T; Torcato de Matos, C; Torii, H; Torralba, G; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Tournaire, A; Traczyk, T; Tribedy, P; Tröger, G; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsiledakis, G; Tsilis, E; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A; Tveter, T S; Tydesjö, H; Tywoniuk, K; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van den Brink, A; van der Kolk, N; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A; Vassiliev, I; Vasileiou, M; Vechernin, V; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vetlitskiy, I; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopianov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wallet, L; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wan, R; Watanabe, K; Wen, Q; Wessels, J; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Willis, N; Windelband, B; Xu, C; Yang, C; Yang, H; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yermia, F; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yuan, X; Yurevich, V; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zagreev, B; Zalite, A; Zampolli, C; Zanevsky, Yu; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zepeda, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, S; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zinchenko, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zychácek, V; Zynovyev, M

    2010-01-01

    Charged-particle production was studied in proton-proton collisions collected at the LHC with the ALICE detector at centre-of-mass energies 0.9 TeV and 2.36 TeV in the pseudorapidity range |eta| < 1.4. In the central region (|eta| < 0.5), at 0.9 TeV, we measure charged-particle pseudorapidity density dNch/deta = 3.02 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.08 -0.05 (syst.) for inelastic interactions, and dNch/deta = 3.58 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.12 -0.12 (syst.) for non-single-diffractive interactions. At 2.36 TeV, we find dNch/deta = 3.77 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.25 -0.12 (syst.) for inelastic, and dNch/deta = 4.43 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.17 -0.12 (syst.) for non-single-diffractive collisions. The relative increase in charged-particle multiplicity from the lower to higher energy is 24.7% +- 0.5% (stat.) +5.7% -2.8% (syst.) for inelastic and 23.7% +- 0.5% (stat.) +4.6% -1.1% (syst.) for non-single-diffractive interactions. This increase is consistent with that reported by the CMS collaboration for non-single-diffractive events and larger th...

  1. Measurement of the (236)U(n,f) cross section from 170 MeV to 2 MeV at the CERN n_TOF Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, R. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Goncalves, I. F. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Vaz, P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Carrapico, C. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Carrillo de Albornoz, A. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Marques, L. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Salgado, J. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Tavora, L. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Calviani, M. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Andriamonje, S. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Chiaveri, E. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Guerrero, C. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Vlachoudis, V. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Colonna, N. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari, Italy; Barbagallo, M. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari, Italy; Marrone, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari, Italy; Tagliente, G. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari, Italy; Terlizzi, R. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari, Italy; Belloni, F. [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Trieste, Italy; Fuji, K. [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Trieste, Italy; Milazzo, P. M. [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Trieste, Italy; Moreau, C. [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Trieste, Italy; Alvarez-Velarde, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Cano-Ott, D. [CIEMAT, Madrid; Gonzalez-Romero, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid; Guerrero, C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Martinez, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Mendoza, E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Villamarin, D. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Vicente, M. C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Andrzejewski, Jozef [ORNL; Karamanis, D. [University of Ioannina, Greece; Marganiec, J. [University of Lodz; Assimakopoulos, P. A. [University of Ioannina, Greece; Karadimos, D. [University of Ioannina, Greece; Papachristodoulou, C. [University of Ioannina, Greece; Patronis, N. [University of Ioannina, Greece; Audouin, L. [Universite Paris XI, Orsay, France; David, S. [CNRS, Orsay, France; Ferrant, L. [Universite Paris XI, Orsay, France; Isaev, S. [CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay, France; Stephan, C. [CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay, France; Tassan-Got, L. [CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay, France; Badurek, G. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Jericha, E. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Leeb, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Oberhummer, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Pigni, M. T. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Baumann, P. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Kerveno, M. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Lukic, S. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Rudolf, G. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Becvar, F. [Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; Krticka, M. [Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; Calvino, F. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain; Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Frais-Koelbl, H. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Griesmayer, E. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Mengoni, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Praena, J. [University of Seville; Capote, R. [University of Seville; Lozano, M. [University of Seville; Quesada, J. [University of Seville; Cennini (et al.), P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Chapel, V. [University of Ciombra, Portugal; Ferreira-Marques, R. [University of Ciombra, Portugal; Lindote, A. [University of Ciombra, Portugal; Lopes, I. [University of Ciombra, Portugal; Neves, F. [University of Ciombra, Portugal; et al.

    2011-01-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 236}U was measured at the neutron Time-of-Flight (n-TOF) facility at CERN relative to the standard {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section for neutron energies ranging from above thermal to several MeV. The measurement, covering the full range simultaneously, was performed with a fast ionization chamber, taking advantage of the high resolution of the n-TOF spectrometer. The n-TOF results confirm that the first resonance at 5.45 eV is largely overestimated in some nuclear data libraries. The resonance triplet around 1.2 keV was measured with high resolution and resonance parameters were determined with good accuracy. Resonances at high energy have also been observed and characterized and different values for the cross section are provided for the region between 10 keV and the fission threshold. The present work indicates various shortcomings of the current nuclear data libraries in the subthreshold region and provides the basis for an accurate re-evaluation of the {sup 236}U(n,f) cross section, which is of great relevance for the development of emerging or innovative nuclear reactor technologies.

  2. Thermodynamic performance of an auto-cascade ejector refrigeration cycle with mixed refrigerant R32 + R236fa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an auto-cascade ejector refrigeration cycle (ACERC) is proposed to obtain lower refrigeration temperature based on conventional ejector refrigeration and auto-cascade refrigeration principle. The thermodynamic performance of ACERC is investigated theoretically. The zeotropic refrigerant mixture R32 + R236fa is used as its working fluid. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of some thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance. The study shows that refrigerant mixture composition, condenser outlet temperature and evaporation pressure have effects on performance of ACERC. The theoretical results also indicate that the ACERC can achieve the lowest refrigeration temperature at the temperature level of −30 °C. The application of zeotropic refrigerant mixture auto-cascade refrigeration in the ejector refrigeration cycle can provide a new way to obtain lower refrigeration temperature utilizing low-grade thermal energy. - Highlights: • An auto-cascade ejector refrigerator with R32 + R236fa mixed refrigerant is proposed. • The cycle can obtain a refrigeration temperature at −30 °C temperature range. • The effects of some thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance are evaluated

  3. Kommentarer til opdateret risikovurdering og ansøgning. Gossypium hirsutum (281-24-236/3006-210-23), Insect resistance by Bt-toxin (lepidoptera) X Insect resistance by Bt-toxin (coleoptera); herbicide tolerance to glyphosate. Modtaget 03-04-2006, deadline 02-05-2006, svar 07-04-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Christensen, Christian Dam

    2006-01-01

    "DMUs konklusioner vedr. den økologiske risikovurdering af den genmodificerede, insektresistente bomuldshybrid mellem event 281-24-236 og 3006-210-23. Den genmodificerede bomuldskrydsning 281-24-236/3006-210-23, adskiller sig fra konventionel bomuld ved at have indsat gener der gør planterne tole...

  4. Fiscal Year 2009 Phased Construction Completion Report for EU Z2-36 in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-10

    The purpose of this Phased Construction Completion Report (PCCR) is to present fiscal year (FY) 2009 results of Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS) characterization activities for exposure unit (EU) Z2-36 in Zone 2 at the East Tennessee technology Park (ETTP). The ETTP is located in the northwest corner of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and encompasses approximately 5000 acres that have been subdivided into three zones--Zone 1 ({approx} 1400 acres), Zone 2 ({approx} 800 acres), and the Boundary Area ({approx} 2800 acres). Zone 2 comprises the highly industrial portion of ETTP and consists of all formerly secured areas of the facility, including the large processing buildings and direct support facilities; experimental laboratories and chemical and materials handling facilities; materials storage and waste disposal facilities; secure document records libraries; and shipping and receiving warehouses. The Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2005) (Zone 2 ROD) specifies the future end use for Zone 2 acreage as uncontrolled industrial for the upper 10 ft of soils. Characterization activities in these areas were conducted in compliance with the Zone 2 ROD and the DVS and data quality objectives (DQOs) presented in the Main Plant Group DQO Scoping Package (July 2006) and the Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2007a) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP). The purpose of this PCCR is to address the following: (1) Document EU Z2-36 DVS characterization results; (2) Describe and document the risk evaluation and determine if the EU meets the Zone 2 ROD requirements for unrestricted industrial use to 10 ft bgs, and (3) Identify additional areas not defined in the Zone 2 ROD that require remediation based on the DVS

  5. Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential applications for devices or systems containing 252Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on 252Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of 252Cf devices should increase from 1.5 million dollars in 1975 to 10.8 million dollars in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of 252Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US

  6. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  7. Californium-252 neutron activation facility at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron irradiation facility has been established to develop new analytical methods and for the support of research programs. A major component of this facility is a 252Cf source which provides both fission spectrum and thermal neutrons. (U.S.)

  8. Charged particle multiplicities in pp interactions at sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, V. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Aremenia); et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of primary charged hadron multiplicity distributions are presented for non-single-diffractive events in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV, in five pseudorapidity ranges from |eta|<0.5 to |eta|<2.4. The data were collected with the minimum-bias trigger of the CMS experiment during the LHC commissioning runs in 2009 and the 7 TeV run in 2010. The multiplicity distribution at sqrt(s) = 0.9 TeV is in agreement with previous measurements. At higher energies the increase of the mean multiplicity with sqrt(s) is underestimated by most event generators. The average transverse momentum as a function of the multiplicity is also presented. The measurement of higher-order moments of the multiplicity distribution confirms the violation of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling that has been observed at lower energies.

  9. Charged particle multiplicities in pp interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hartl, Christian; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Ceard, Ludivine; Cerny, Karel; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Rykaczewski, Hans; Assran, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Porteboeuf, Sarah; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Masetti, Gianni; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Srivastava, Ajay Kumar; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Conti, Enrico; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Giubilato, Piero; Gresele, Ambra; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H.; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Sá Martins, Pedro; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Duarte Ramos, Fernando; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Tsyganov, Andrey; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gökbulut, Gül; Güler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Önengüt, Gülsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatöz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Clough, Andrew; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Kaadze, Ketino; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Parker, William; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of primary charged hadron multiplicity distributions are presented for non-single-diffractive events in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV, in five pseudorapidity ranges from |eta|<0.5 to |eta|<2.4. The data were collected with the minimum-bias trigger of the CMS experiment during the LHC commissioning runs in 2009 and the 7 TeV run in 2010. The multiplicity distribution at sqrt(s) = 0.9 TeV is in agreement with previous measurements. At higher energies the increase of the mean multiplicity with sqrt(s) is underestimated by most event generators. The average transverse momentum as a function of the multiplicity is also presented. The measurement of higher-order moments of the multiplicity distribution confirms the violation of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling that has been observed at lower energies.

  10. Determination of protolytic equilibria for methyl 3-azido-6-iodo-2,3,6-trideoxy-α- D- arabino-hexopyranoside by ab initio and spectrophotometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Aleksandra; Makowski, Mariusz; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Chylewska, Agnieszka; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2008-12-01

    UV absorption spectra of methyl 3-azido-6-iodo-2,3,6-trideoxy-α- D- arabino-hexopyranoside were recorded over a wide pH range. On this basis, a relationship between absorbance and pH was plotted, from which deprotonation equilibrium constants of this compound were determined. Further, quantum-mechanical calculations were performed at the ab initio level both in the gas phase by using the Restricted Hartree Fock (RHF), Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods and under consideration of solvation effects within the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM), which enabled location of preferred protonation and deprotonation centers of this compound. The results provided the basis for discussion of the influence of substituents in the sugar ring on protolytic equilibria occurring in aqueous solutions of 3-azido-2,3-dideoxy sugars.

  11. Actinides AMS at CIRCE and 236U and Pu measurements of structural and environmental samples from in and around a mothballed nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is presently the most sensitive technique for the measurement of long-lived actinides, e.g. 236U and 239Pu. A new actinide line is in operation at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) in Caserta, Italy. Using the actinide line a uranium mass sensitivity of around 4 μg has been reached measuring with a 16-strip silicon detector, and a 239Pu background level of below 0.1 fg has been obtained. In this work we also discuss preliminary results for environmental and structural samples from in and around the Garigliano nuclear power plant (GNPP), presently in the decommissioning phase. Measurements on environmental samples from the vicinity of the plant allow the assessment of contamination, if any, over the years. Measurements of structural samples from the plant are relevant to the optimization of the decommissioning program for the GNPP.

  12. The use of 59Ni, 99Tc, and 236U to monitor the release of radionuclides from objects containing spent nuclear fuel dumped in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1965 and 1981, five objects and six naval reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) from four former Soviet Union submarines and a special container from the icebreaker Lenin, all containing damaged spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were dumped in a variety of containments, at four sites in the Kara Sea. The International Atomic Energy Agency initiated the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) to study the possible health and environmental effects from disposal of these objects. One outcome of the IASAP was an estimation of the radionuclide inventory and their release rates from these objects. A follow-on concern is the ability to detect the radionuclides released into the water column. The work reported here is the feasibility of using the long-lived radionuclides 59Ni, 99Tc, and 236U encased within these objects, to monitor the breakdown of the containments due to corrosion

  13. Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f), and Pu238(n,f) cross sections deduced from (p,t), (p,d), and (p,p') surrogate reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; McCleskey, M.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.; Thompson, I. J.

    2014-07-01

    The Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f) and Pu238(n,f) cross sections have been inferred by utilizing the surrogate ratio method. Targets of Pu239 and U235 were bombarded with 28.5-MeV protons, and the light ion recoils, as well as fission fragments, were detected using the STARS detector array at the K150 Cyclotron at the Texas A&M cyclotron facility. The (p, tf) reaction on Pu239 and U235 targets was used to deduce the σ (Pu236(n ,f))/σ(U232(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu236(n,f) cross section was subsequently determined for En=0.5-7.5 MeV. Similarly, the (p,df) reaction on the same two targets was used to deduce the σ(Pu237(n ,f))/σ(U233(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu237(n,f) cross section was extracted in the energy range En=0.5-7 MeV. The Pu238(n,f) cross section was also deduced by utilizing the (p,p') reaction channel on the same targets. There is good agreement with the recent ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated cross section data for Pu238(n,f) in the range En=0.5-10.5 MeV and for Pu237(n,f) in the range En=0.5-7 MeV; however, the Pu236(n,f) cross section deduced in the present work is higher than the evaluation between 2 and 7 MeV.

  14. Fission coincident neutrons from the reactions p + sup(235,236,238)U with protons between 12,7 and 25.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the proton beam of the Hamburg isochronous cyclotron (HAIZY) thin uranium targets with the mass numbers 235, 236, and 238 were bombarded. Both fragments from the fission of the Np reaction systems and the neutrons coincident with the fragments were detected in the plane perpendicular to the beam direction. Measured and stored event by event were for all particles the times of flight. The detection of the neutron succeeded in conventional time-of-flight technique with NE213 liquid scintillators. A fission detector system with plastic scintillator foils was developed. It permits high event rates over long measuring times and allows the choice of so long neutron flight paths that a neutron energy resolution between 2% and 4% could be reached. The determination of the fragment masses is in spite of the short flight paths of 15 respectively 21 cm possible to +-2 amu. The isotropic component das discussed under the assumption that it is composed of prefission and scission neutrons which were emitted befor fission respectively during the fragmentation. From the post fission results the distribution of the excitation energy to both fragments was determined in dependence of Esup(*) and the fragment mass. (orig./HSI)

  15. Fission Cross-Section Measurements of the Odd-Odd Isotopes 232Pa, 238Np, and 236Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danon, Y. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Moore, M. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Koehler, Paul Edward [ORNL; Littleton, P. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Miller, G. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ott, M. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rowton, L. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Taylor, W. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wilhelmy, J. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Yates, M. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Carlson, A. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Hill, Nathaniel [ORNL; Harper, R. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Los Alamos, NM; Hilko, R. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Los Alamos, NM

    1996-01-01

    Transmutation of actinide waste into fission products could be enhanced by using resonance fission of odd-odd target materials; those of interest are 232Pa, 238Np, and 242Am. Fission cross-section measurements of two of these short-lived materials were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Samples were produced by the (d,2n) reaction in the Los Alamos Ion Beam Facility followed by fast radiochemistry to separate the odd-odd target of interest. The fission cross section of the nanogram samples was measured in a high intensity pulsed neutron beam produced by 800-MeV proton spallation. Using this procedure, the fission cross sections of the 1.3-day 232Pa and 2.1-day 238Np were successfully measured in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 50 keV. The fission cross section of the relatively long-life isotope 236Np was also measured in the same system while the short half-life isotopes were being prepared. The results and resonance analysis are presented.

  16. Early observing HIE pathogenesis of 236 full -term neonates by S100B test combined with NSE test%236例S100B联合NSE检测用于足月新生儿HIE病程早期观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜伟超

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the value of S100B test combined with neuron - specific enolase ( NSE) test for early diagnosis and monitoring of hypoxic - ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in full - term neonates, and provide more complementary evidences for clinical diagnosis and treatment of HIE. Methods: A total of 236 full - term neonates with HIE who were treated in the hospital from July 2009 lo July 2011 were selected as study objects, and 236 healthy full -term neonates who were born during the same period were selected as control group, electrochemiluminescence was used to monitor the serum levels of S100B and NSE during early course of the disease (at one day, 3-5 days, and 7-10 days after grouping) . Results; The serum levels of S100B and NSE in HIE group were statistically significantly higher than those in control group at different time points ( P 0. 05) , but the serum levels of S100B and NSE in the other groups were still statistically significantly higher than those in control group (P0. 05) .Conclusion; Joint test of S100B and NSE is a reasonable mode for early monitoring and assistant diagnosis of full - term infants with HIE, which is helpful to supply more complementary evidences for clinical diagnosis and treatment.%目的:探讨血清学标志物S100B联合NSE检测在足月新生儿HIE疾病的早期诊断和监测中的价值,为临床诊治提供更多补充性依据.方法:以2009年7月~2011年7月收治的236例足月新生儿HIE患者为研究对象,选择同期出生的236例足月健康新生儿为对照组,应用电化学发光法监测HIE患者病程早期(入组后第1天、第3~5天,第7~ 10天)的血清S100B和NSE水平.结果:HIE组血清S100B和NSE水平显著高于对照组,各观察点P<0.05;第3~5天除轻度组外,S100B和NSE分别在重度组、中度组和重度组有显著性上升,均P<0.05.治疗前后(第7~10天对比第1天)S100B和NSE在各组均有显著性降低,P <0.05;轻度组在初步治疗后S100B

  17. Clinico-pathological correlation of digital rectal examination findings amongst Nigerian men with prostatic diseases: A prospective study of 236 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus W Ojewola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: This study aims at correlating different digital rectal examination (DRE abnormalities with histopathological results in patients with prostatic diseases. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 236 patients who underwent prostate needle biopsy (PNB. Inclusion criteria were presence of abnormal DRE findings or elevated prostate specific antigen above 4 ng/ml or both. They all had 10-core extended transrectal biopsy and specimens were sent for histopathological examination. Correlations were made between DRE findings and histopathology results. Two separate multivariate logistic regression models were created; the first evaluated the relationship of predictors (DRE findings to the likelihood of detecting cancer and the second explored predictors of high-grade cancer on PNB. Results: Two hundred and thirty-six patients were enrolled with a mean age of 66.9 years and range of 43-90 years. Histopathology results were malignant in 102 (43.2% and benign in 134 (56.8%. Ninety-one (38.6% and 145 (61.4% had normal DRE and abnormal DRE findings with cancer detection rates of 23.1% and 55.8% respectively. Nodular prostate is the most common abnormality in 63.4% patients with abnormal DRE. Each sign of DRE had different predictive value with enhanced positive predictive value when combinations of abnormalities are present. Abnormal DRE is an independent predictor of high-grade tumor. Mean Gleason scores were 4.7 and 7.1 in patients with normal and abnormal DRE respectively. Conclusion: DRE is a useful and important tool in assessing patients with suspected prostate diseases who need prostate biopsy. An abnormal DRE correlated well with prostate cancer and independently predicted high-grade disease in these men.

  18. 2.9, 2.36, and 1.96 Ga zircons in orthogneiss south of the Red River shear zone in Viet Nam: evidence from SHRIMP U-Pb dating and tectonothermal implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tran Ngoc; Toriumi, Mitsuhiro; Sano, Yuji; Terada, Kentaro; Thang, Ta Trong

    2003-05-01

    Orthogneissic rocks coexisting with migmatites and containing small amphibolite lenses are exposed in the center of the metamorphic belt which runs parallel to the Day Nui Con Voi-Red River shear zone in northern Viet Nam. The orthogneiss complex has given some radiogenic dates of Early Proterozoic and Late Archean, which are the oldest ages ever registered for the Southeast Asian continent. Zircon grains separated from three samples of the orthogneiss complex have been dated to establish the protolith age and the timing of high-grade tectonothermal events in the complex. Sixty-five SHRIMP U-Th-Pb analyses of these zircons define three age groups of 2.84-2.91, 2.36, and 1.96 Ga. The age groups correspond to three periods of zircon generation. The oldest ˜2.9 Ga cores indicate a minimum age for the protolith of the orthogneiss complex. Two younger generations (including ˜2.36 Ga outer-cores and ˜1.96 Ga rims) probably grew during later high-grade tectono-metamorphic events, which were previously suggested by K-Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar cooling ages of ˜2.0 Ga for synkinematic hornblendes. An early thermal history of the orthogneiss complex has been constrained, including a primary magma-crystallization stage starting at ˜2.9 Ga, followed by two Early Proterozoic (˜2.36 and ˜1.96 Ga) high-grade tectonothermal events. The ca. 2.9 Ga protolith age of the orthogneiss complex documented in this study provides new convincing evidence for the presence of Archean rocks in Indochina, and clearly indicates that the crustal evolution of northern Viet Nam started as early as Late Archean time.

  19. 三氯酚对小椎实螺急性毒性作用和过氧化物酶活性的影响%Effects of 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP on Acute Toxicity and POD Activity of Galba pervia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志慧; 杨鲁娜

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨2,3,5-三氯酚和2,3,6-三氯酚对小椎实螺的毒性指标.[方法]以小椎实螺为供试生物,采用半静态法对小椎实螺进行驯养和试验,测定2,3,5 -TCP和2,3,6-TCP对小椎实螺的半数致死浓度(LC50)、联合毒性作用类型和POD活性的影响.[结果]2,3,5 -TCP和2,3,6-TCP对小椎实螺的96 hLC30分别为0.525和1.925 mg/L,毒性顺序为:2,3,5-TCP >2,3,6-TCP;2,3,5-TCP和2,3,6-TCP的联合作用类型为协同作用;2,3,5-TCP和2,3,6-TCP暴露1d胁迫小椎实螺POD为诱导-抑制效应,暴露3和5d胁迫小椎实螺POD为抑制效应,且随暴露时间的延长,不同酶活性变化显著.[结论]为进一步探讨氧酚对腹足动物的毒性机理以及对氯酚化合物污染的早期诊所与生态风险评级提供了理论依据.%[Objective] To study the toxic effect of 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP on Galbapervia. [ Method] The G. pervia was cultured by semi-static method,the LC50 and joint action of 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP to G. pervia as well as the POD activity were discussed. [Result] The 96 h-LC50, of 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP were 0.525 mg/L and 1.925 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity order of them was 2,3,5-TCP > 2,3,6-TCP,the joint effect of 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP was synergistie; The POD in C.perma exposed to 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP stress was both induced and inhibited,while it was inhibited when the G. pervia was exposed to 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP stress for 3 d and 5 d,the enzyme activities were changed significantly with the extending days of exposure. [ Conclusion ] The study provides theoretical support for further discussing the toxic effect of TCP to G. penna as well as the early diagnosis and risk evaluation of TCP compounds.

  20. First Measurement of Bose-Einstein Correlations in proton-proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ =0.9 and 2.36 TeV at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Hashemi, Majid; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Chabert, Eric Christian; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Oguri, Vitor; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Papadakis, Antonakis; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Rykaczewski, Hans; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Zinonos, Zinonas; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Descamps, Julien; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Rousseau, Delphine; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Kalinowski, Artur; Miné, Philippe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Speck, Joaquim; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Actis, Oxana; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Biallass, Philipp; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Kirsch, Matthias; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Sowa, Michael; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Zeidler, Clemens; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Draeger, Jula; Eckstein, Doris; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Cakir, Altan; Chwalek, Thorsten; Daeuwel, Daniel; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Sabellek, Andreas; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Katsas, Panagiotis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Sharma, Richa; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Shilpi; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Miccio, Vincenzo; Moroni, Luigi; Negri, Pietro; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Salerno, Roberto; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Taroni, Silvia; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Conti, Enrico; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gresele, Ambra; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Dagnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Choi, Suyong; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villaseñor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H.; Signal, Tony; Williams, Jennifer C.; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Mini, Giuliano; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Raposo, Luis; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Soares, David; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Altsybeev, Igor; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Ilina, Natalia; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Oulianov, Alexei; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Datsko, Kirill; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Sytine, Alexandre; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Maletic, Dimitrije; Milosevic, Jovan; Puzovic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Diaz Merino, Irma; Diez Gonzalez, Carlos; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Beaudette, Florian; Bellan, Riccardo; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cattai, Ariella; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Curé, Benoît; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Traczyk, Piotr; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Schinzel, Dietrich; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Tsirigkas, Dimitrios; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lin, Sheng-Wen; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Ueno, Koji; Wang, Chin-chi; Wang, Minzu; Wei, Jui-Te; Adiguzel, Aytul; Ayhan, Aydin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demir, Zahide; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gökbulut, Gül; Güler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Önengüt, Gülsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatöz, Ayse; Sahin, Ozge; Sengul, Ozden; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Hansen, Maria; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Hill, Christopher; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Foudas, Costas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Bose, Tulika; Clough, Andrew; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Andrea, Jeremy; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Felcini, Marta; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Wallny, Rainer; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Blume, Michael; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Garberson, Jeffrey; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lamb, James; Lowette, Steven; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Witherell, Michael; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Blekman, Freya; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Smith, Richard P.; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Mesa, Dalgis; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatian, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; D'Enterria, David; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Sonnek, Peter; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Strang, Michael; Zennamo, Joseph; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Killewald, Phillip; Ling, Ta-Yung; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatzerklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Gunthoti, Kranti; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dutta, Suchandra; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Polese, Giovanni; Reeder, Don; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations have been measured using samples of proton-proton collisions at 0.9 and 2.36 TeV center-of-mass energies, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is observed in the form of an enhancement of pairs of same-sign charged particles with small relative four-momentum. The size of the correlated particle emission region is seen to increase significantly with the particle multiplicity of the event.

  1. First Measurement of Bose-Einstein Correlations in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=0.9$ and 2.36 TeV at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Er, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Vienna, OAW /CERN /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /Antwerp U., WISINF /Vrije U., Brussels /Brussels U. /Gent U. /Louvain U. /UMH, Mons /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /CERN /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /CHEP, Taegu /Chonnam Natl. U. /Korea U. /UCLA /CERN /UC, Riverside /Budapest, RMKI /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Caltech /Carnegie Mellon U. /Colorado U. /Cornell U. /Fairfield U.

    2010-05-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations have been measured using samples of proton-proton collisions at 0.9 and 2.36 TeV center-of-mass energies, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is observed in the form of an enhancement of pairs of same-sign charged particles with small relative four-momentum. The size of the correlated particle emission region is seen to increase significantly with the particle multiplicity of the event.

  2. Integral Fission Cross Section Ratios of Th232, U236 and U238 Relative to U235 in the Neutron Spectrum Produced by 23.2 MeV Deuterons Incident on a Thick Be Metal Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integral neutron fission cross section ratios have been measured for Th232 /U238 , U23S/U235 and U236/U235 in the neutron field produced by bombardment of a thick Be metal target with 23.2 MeV deuterons. Validation of Th232, U236, U23S fission cross sections in a high energy neutron continuum spectrum is the object of this work. The neutron spectrum in the irradiation site has been obtained by unfolding of the neutron induced activity of eleven selected reactions. The average standard deviation between calculated activities with SAND-II unfolding code and the experimental input activities was 2.5%. Calculated values of the fission cross section ratios were obtained from, the ENDF/B-y evaluated library of cross sections and the measured spectrum. These ratios were not sensitive (<0.7%) to quite different SAND-II input spectra assumed in the low energy spectrum range (0.5 to 2. MeV). Analysis of error sources, errors propagation and their correlations was made and the correlation matrix of the experimental results was calculated. The experimental and calculated values obtained are consistent within the errors. Examination of the fissile ratios measured in other continuum neutron spectra shows a similar consistency in the spectrum produced by 7 MeV deuterons on Be. However in Cf252 and thermal U235 fission neutron spectra, a large discrepancy is found for Th232. (author)

  3. SNS vil høre om det supplerende materiale giver anledning til ændringer i de tidligere fremsendte risikovurderinger. Gossypium hirsutum (281-24-236/3006-210-23). Supplerende materiale til sagen (Four questions: Molecular characterisation / Food-feed assessment). Modtaget 12-12-2005, deadline 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2004-01-01

    "DMU finder at det nye materiale om den molekulære karakterisering af 281-24-236x3006-210-23 bomulden, ikke giver anledning til at ændre den tidligere riskovurdering. Vedr. spørgsmål 1 er det i svaret fra anmelderen blevet tilfredsstillende redegjort for hvilket materiale der blev anvendt. Vedr s...

  4. Phylogenetic-Derived Insights into the Evolution of Sialylation in Eukaryotes: Comprehensive Analysis of Vertebrate β-Galactoside α2,3/6-Sialyltransferases (ST3Gal and ST6Gal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teppa, Roxana E.; Petit, Daniel; Plechakova, Olga; Cogez, Virginie; Harduin-Lepers, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Cell surface of eukaryotic cells is covered with a wide variety of sialylated molecules involved in diverse biological processes and taking part in cell–cell interactions. Although the physiological relevance of these sialylated glycoconjugates in vertebrates begins to be deciphered, the origin and evolution of the genetic machinery implicated in their biosynthetic pathway are poorly understood. Among the variety of actors involved in the sialylation machinery, sialyltransferases are key enzymes for the biosynthesis of sialylated molecules. This review focus on β-galactoside α2,3/6-sialyltransferases belonging to the ST3Gal and ST6Gal families. We propose here an outline of the evolutionary history of these two major ST families. Comparative genomics, molecular phylogeny and structural bioinformatics provided insights into the functional innovations in sialic acid metabolism and enabled to explore how ST-gene function evolved in vertebrates. PMID:27517905

  5. Co-evolution of monsoonal precipitation in East Asia and the tropical Pacific ENSO system since 2.36 Ma: New insights from high-resolution clay mineral records in the West Philippine Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaojie; Wan, Shiming; Colin, Christophe; Yan, Hong; Bonneau, Lucile; Liu, Zhifei; Song, Lina; Sun, Hanjie; Xu, Zhaokai; Jiang, Xuejun; Li, Anchun; Li, Tiegang

    2016-07-01

    Clay mineralogical analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were performed on deep-sea sediments cored on the Benham Rise (core MD06-3050) in order to reconstruct long-term evolution of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) rainfall in the period since 2.36 Ma. Clay mineralogical variations are due to changes in the ratios of smectite, which derive from weathering of volcanic rocks in Luzon Island during intervals of intensive monsoon rainfall, and illite- and chlorite-rich dusts, which are transported from East Asia by winds associated with the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM). Since Luzon is the main source of smectite to the Benham Rise, long-term consistent variations in the smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio in core MD06-3050 as well as ODP site 1146 in the Northern South China Sea suggest that minor contributions of eolian dust played a role in the variability of this mineralogical ratio and indicate strengthening EASM precipitation in SE Asia during time intervals from 2360 to 1900 kyr, 1200 to 600 kyr, and after 200 kyr. The EASM rainfall record displays a 30 kyr periodicity suggesting the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). These intervals of rainfall intensification on Luzon Island are coeval with a reduction in precipitation over central China and an increase in zonal SST gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, implying a reinforcement of La Niña-like conditions. In contrast, periods of reduced rainfall on Luzon Island are associated with higher precipitation in central China and a weakening zonal SST gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, thereby suggesting the development of dominant El Niño-like conditions. Our study, therefore, highlights for the first time a long-term temporal and spatial co-evolution of monsoonal precipitation in East Asia and of the tropical Pacific ENSO system over the past 2.36 Ma.

  6. Inclusion compounds of plant growth regulators in cyclodextrins. V. 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsorteki, Frantzeska; Bethanis, Kostas; Pinotsis, Nikos; Giastas, Petros; Mentzafos, Dimitris

    2005-04-01

    The crystal structures of 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4CPA) included in beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (TMbetaCD) have been studied by X-ray diffraction. The 4CPA/beta-CD complex crystallizes as a head-to-head dimer in the space group C2 in the Tetrad packing mode. The packing modes of some beta-CD dimeric complexes, having unique stackings, are also discussed. The 4CPA/TMbetaCD inclusion complex crystallizes in the space group P2(1) and its asymmetric unit contains two crystallographically independent complexes, complex A and complex B, exhibiting different conformations. The host molecule of complex A is significantly distorted, as a glucosidic residue rotated about the O4'-C1 and C4-O4 bonds forms an aperture where the guest molecule is accommodated. The phenyl moiety of the guest molecule of complex B is nearly perpendicular to the mean plane of the O4n atoms. The conformations of the guest molecules of the two complexes are similar. The crystal packing consists of antiparallel columns as in the majority of the TMbetaCD complexes published so far.

  7. Angular correlations of fission fragments from the reactions 232Th(p,p'f) and 236U(p,p'f) at a projectile energy of 26.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular correlations of fission fragments from the reactions 232Th(p,p'f) and 236U(p,p'f) have been measured at a projectile energy of Ep=26.5 MeV and excitation energies up to the second chance fission. The scattered protons have been detected by a semiconductor telescope positioned at two different angles (vTel=90 and vTel=60 ). The fission fragments have been measured by a parallel plate avalanche detector, which was position sensitive in two dimensions. The data continuously cover the angular ranges of about -15 up to +95 for vTel=90 and about -5 up to +50 for vTel=60 with respect to the kinematical recoil axis. It succeeded to describe the changes of the angular distribution with increasing excitation energy in terms of the Transition State Model by a uniform increase of the contributions with K≠0 for both compound systems and both excitation reactions. (orig./DG)

  8. Study of in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galla Chinensis Ethanol Extractant Against 236 Strains Staphylococcus Epidermidis(MRSE and MSSE)%五倍子乙醇提取物对表皮葡萄球菌的体外抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仲兴; 王秀华; 杨永昌; 孟晓洁; 杨敬芳; 时东彦

    2004-01-01

    目的观察五倍子乙醇提取物对表皮葡萄球菌的体外抗菌活性,为临床应用和新药研究提供依据.方法采用新的中药抑菌实验方法,对五倍子提取物进行236株表皮葡萄球菌的最低抑菌浓度测定,并与五倍子水煎剂进行抑菌效果对比.结果五倍子提取物对236株表皮葡萄球菌中的127株耐甲氧西林表皮葡萄球菌(methicillin-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis,MRSE)和109株甲氧西林敏感的表皮葡萄球菌(methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus epidermidis,MSSE)的MIC90分别为1.15和0.288mg·ml-1.结论五倍子乙醇提取物对236株表皮葡萄球菌具有较强的抑菌作用.

  9. OER of californium-252 at low dose rate for growth inhibition in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OER of 252Cf, at low dose rate, has been determined for growth inhibition in Vicia faba roots. A new strain ''BelB'' was used; it was found to be more resistant to prolonged anoxia. Two sets of linear 252Cf sources were used (linear activity 0.31 and 0.47 (μg.cm-1)) in somewhat different geometrical arrangements. The (n+γ) 252Cf dose rates at the level of the root tips were 0.11 and 0.13 Gy.h-1 respectively. The relative contribution of the γ component Dsub(γ) to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) at the level of the root tips was evaluated Dsub(γ)/Dsub(n+γ)=0.35 for the first source-geometry and 0.42 for the second source-geometry. The reference radiation was the γ emission of 192Ir, used in the same geometrical conditions and for similar irradiation times. Irradiations performed in aerobic and anoxic conditions were alternated. OER values of 1.4 +- 0.1 and 1.5 +- 0.1 were observed for the 252Cf emission with the first and second source-geometry respectively. The corresponding OER values for 192Ir were 2.3 +- 0.2 and 2.6 +- 0.1; the derived oxygen gain factors were then equal to 1.6 and 1.7 repectively

  10. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of sediment using a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a 252Cf source to the neutron activation analysis of several elements in small (approximately 1.5 in. in dia) cores was studied using high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy and manual data reduction. (U.S.)

  11. Estrogen and progesterone receptor status determined by the Ventana ES 320 automated immunohistochemical stainer and the CAS 200 image analyzer in 236 early-stage breast carcinomas: prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layfield, L J; Saria, E A; Conlon, D H; Kerns, B J

    1996-03-01

    The quantitation of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PgR) has become the standard of care in the evaluation of patients with primary breast carcinoma. It has been demonstrated that ER and PgR detected by immunohistochemical methods in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue can be quantified by computerized image analysis. In this study, ER and PgR levels were determined by using an automated immunochemistry stainer (Ventana ES 320) and an image analyzer (CAS 200) in a series of 236 patients with stage I/II carcinoma of the breast. The degree of correlation of the ER and PgR levels determined by the dextran-coated charcoal method (DCC) with image analysis quantitation was high (r=0.75). The agreement between both methods was 77% for ER and 73% for PgR. Hormone receptor levels were correlated with prognosis as determined by overall survival. An ER level of 30 fmol/mg as determined by image analysis was established to stratify the patient population most effectively into favorable and unfavorable prognostic groups (P=0.003). An ER level of 20 fmol/mg for prognostic stratification reached statistical significance (P=0.03). The DCC method was not able to stratify the patients into prognostic groups at the traditionally accepted cutpoint of 10 fmol/mg (P=0.52). We conclude that when used in combination, automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis offer a favorable alternative to the DCC method in assessment of ER and PgR status in human mammary carcinoma. In addition, quantitative immunocytochemistry techniques may prove superior to the DCC method in specimens in which there is limited tumor volume (including fine-needle aspirates), stroma-rich tumors, and early-stage lesions including intraductal carcinoma.

  12. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... approved under 24 CFR part 248 or in connection with an adjustment of contract rents under section 8 of the... HUD's Uniform Physical Condition Standards and Inspection Requirements in 24 CFR part 5, subpart G; (B... under 24 CFR part 50 for activities that are not excluded under 24 CFR 50.19(b). (g)...

  13. 17 CFR 256.236 - Taxes accrued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... be kept so as to show for each class of taxes the amount accrued, the basis for the accrual, the... credited with the amount of taxes accrued during the accounting period, corresponding debits being made...

  14. 28 CFR 2.36 - Rescission guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... time spent in custody on a new offense that has not been credited towards service of the original... unlawful possession of a firearm or explosives in a prison facility, other than a community corrections center, as Category Six. Grade unlawful possession of a firearm in a community corrections center...

  15. 48 CFR 236.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Engineering Command, or Air Force Directorate of Civil Engineering. (3) Marshallese firm is defined in the... any organizational level of the DoD that— (i) Is responsible for the architectural, engineering,...

  16. 49 CFR 236.1003 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control... the Surface Transportation Board (49 CFR part 1201.1-1 (2008)). Cleartext means the un-encrypted text... output of an decryption or decipher process. Controlling locomotive means Locomotive, controlling,...

  17. 49 CFR 236.408 - Route locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems... locking shall be effective when the first pair of wheels of a locomotive or car passes a point not...

  18. 8 CFR 236.12 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of the Act based on the same relationship. (b) Legalization application pending as of May 5, 1988 or December 1, 1988. An alien whose legalization application was filed on or before May 5, 1988 (in the...

  19. 49 CFR 236.903 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards for Processor... management control plan means a plan designed to ensure that the proper and intended product configuration... behavior and motivation, that must be considered in product design. Human-machine interface (HMI) means...

  20. 49 CFR 236.911 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards for Processor-Based Signal and... be handled? Products designed in accordance with subparts A through G of this part which are not...

  1. 8 CFR 236.11 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... In this subpart, the term: Eligible immigrant means a qualified immigrant who is the spouse or... Adjustment); or (3) Is a naturalized U.S. citizen who was a permanent resident under section 210 or 245A of the Act or section 202 of the Immigrant Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA)...

  2. 29 CFR 779.236 - In general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... service enterprises will be subject to different monetary standards than newly covered employment in such... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises §...

  3. 10 CFR 600.236 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations... the basis for the contract price. (10) Grantees and subgrantees will use time and material type... includes a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own risk. (11) Grantees and subgrantees...

  4. Raman and absorption spectrophotometric studies of selected lanthanide, californium-doped lanthanide, and actinide trihalides in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid-state absorption spectra of Cf(III) ions as a dopant in lanthanide trihalide hosts (LnCl3: Ln = Ce, Sm, and Y; LnBr3: Ln = Ce, Sm, Tb, and Y; LnI3: Ln = Ce and Y) have been recorded. The spectra of Cf(III) have been correlated with the various crystal structures. The phonon Raman spectra and solid-state absorption spectra of PmF3, PmCl3, PmBr3, and two crystal modifications of PmI3 have been recorded. Symmetry assignments have been made for the Raman-active bands for these trihalides and also the sesquioxide. The room-temperature absorption spectra have been correlated to crystal field effects. The symmetry assignments of the Raman-active phonon modes have been made based on polarized Raman spectra from single crystals of YF3-type orthorhombic TbF3 and PuBr3-type orthorhombic NdBr3. Raman spectra of other isostructural lanthanide compounds have been recorded and compared. Symmetry assignments for these compounds have been made by analogy to the single-crystal assignments. Raman spectra have been obtained and catalogued for a number of actinide compounds. Symmetry assignments have been made for the observed Raman-active phonon bands in this work based on the assignments made for isostructural lanthanide compounds. 29 figs., 22 tabs

  5. Oxidation-reduction properties of americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium, and thermodynamic consequences for the 5f series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amalgamation of 5f elements from Am to Fm has been studied by using 241Am, 244Cm, 249Bk, 249Cf, 252Cf, 253Es, 254Es, 252Fm and 255Fm with two electrochemical methods, radiocoulometry and radiopolarography, perfectly adapted to investigate extremely diluted solutions when the concentration of electroactive species is as low as 10-16M. The theory of radiocoulometry has been developed in the general cases of reversible and irreversible electrode process. It has been used to interpret the experimental data on the kinetic curves of amalgamation, and to estimate the standard rate constant of the electrode process in complexing medium (citric). On the other hand the radiopolarographic method has been applied to study the mechanism of reduction at the dropping mercury electrode of cations M3+ in aqueous medium to the metal M with formation of amalgam. The results are exploited into two directions: 1- Acquisition of some data concerning the oxidation-reduction properties of elements from Am to Fm. Therefore the standard electrode E0 [M(III-0)] potentials for Bk, Cf and Es, and the standard electrode E0 [M(II-0)] potential for Fm are estimated and the relative stability of each oxidation state (from II to VII) of 5f elements is discussed; 2- Acquisition of unknown thermodynamic data on transcalifornium elements. Correlations between 4f and 5f elements are precised and some divergences appear for the second half of 4f and 5f series (i.e. for 65<=Z<=71 and 97<=Z<=103)

  6. Determination of the optimum-size californium-252 neutron source for borehole capture gamma-ray analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senftle, F.E.; Macy, R.J.; Mikesell, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The fast- and thermal-neutron fluence rates from a 3.7 ??g 252Cf neutron source in a simulated borehole have been measured as a function of the source-to-detector distance using air, water, coal, iron ore-concrete mix, and dry sand as borehole media. Gamma-ray intensity measurements were made for specific spectral lines at low and high energies for the same range of source-to-detector distances in the iron ore-concrete mix and in coal. Integral gamma-ray counts across the entire spectrum were also made at each source-to-detector distance. From these data, the specific neutron-damage rate, and the critical count-rate criteria, we show that in an iron ore-concrete mix (low hydrogen concentration), 252Cf neutron sources of 2-40 ??g are suitable. The source size required for optimum gamma-ray sensitivity depends on the energy of the gamma ray being measured. In a hydrogeneous medium such as coal, similar measurements were made. The results show that sources from 2 to 20 ??g are suitable to obtain the highest gamma-ray sensitivity, again depending on the energy of the gamma ray being measured. In a hydrogeneous medium, significant improvement in sensitivity can be achieved by using faster electronics; in iron ore, it cannot. ?? 1979 North-Holland Publishing Co.

  7. Research and experimental work at Groote Schuur Hospital and the University of Cape Town using californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been undertaken to determine the high-LET and low-LET components of the absorbed dose from neutron beams. This is achieved by measuring the fluxes of the high-LET and low-LET radiations in a tissue-equivalent phantom individually and simultaneously using a scintillation probe fitted with a pulse shape discriminator. This system was successfully used with a 22 MeV neutron beam from the T(d,n) reaction and has been employed with 252Cf sources. Results obtained in the low-energy ranges (up to 3 MeV) indicate that the electron counts exceed the high-LET counts by a factor of 2 to 3. These results are related to the absorbed dose. Calculations have also been undertaken to establish whether the Paterson-Parker system could be used for the design of 252Cf treatments and the optimum needle activities to yield the desired dose. Experiments are under way to determine the variation of RBE and OER for 252Cf radiations around the source. The inhibition of root growth in Vicia Faba is being used to determine any such effects. Dose rates comparable to that employed in interstitial radiotherapy are being aimed at. A study of dose fractionation effects is also being undertaken. (author)

  8. Dicty_cDB: SHD236 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-242I19.F, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.004 ...1 DE092915 |DE092915.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-209J09.R, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.004 1 DE0862...52 |DE086252.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-188M19.F, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.004 1 DE078411 |DE07...8411.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-200D13.F, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.0...04 1 DE075571 |DE075571.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-178O04.F, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.004 1 DE0

  9. 49 CFR 236.1043 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of work, etc.), task(s), and desired success rate; (2) Based on a formal task analysis, identify the... performance necessary to perform each task; (5) Develop a training and evaluation curriculum that includes... curriculum and pass an examination that covers the PTC system and appropriate rules and tasks for which...

  10. 49 CFR 236.921 - Training and qualification program, general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mandatory directive that is executed or enforced, or is intended to be executed or enforced, by a train... they have the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively complete their duties related to...

  11. 49 CFR 236.1041 - Training and qualification program, general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; (2) Persons who dispatch train operations (issue or communicate any mandatory directive that is... skills to effectively complete their duties related to operation and maintenance of the PTC system....

  12. 48 CFR 852.236-88 - Contract changes-supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... next $30,000; 5 percent overhead and 5 percent profit on balance over $50,000. Profit shall be computed.../2 percent fee on the next $30,000; and 5 percent fee on balance over $50,000. (6) Not more than four... is subject to negotiation. (9) Cost of Federal Old Age Benefit (Social Security) tax and of...

  13. 49 CFR 236.909 - Minimum performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... physical or operating conditions on the railroad prior to or within the expected life cycle of the product... as the total residual risk in the system over its expected life-cycle after implementation of all... Administrator for Safety to be equally suitable. (2) For the previous condition and for the life-cycle of...

  14. Mathematics Enrichment: Grade 4. Curriculum Bulletin Number 236.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patsy

    Enrichment activities for fourth-grade mathematics are presented. Some of the activities reinforce principles taught in the regular program; others introduce new concepts to challenge students. The activities are divided into the following categories: number pictures; multiplying or dividing by 10, 100, or 1000; tic-tac-toe word problems; map…

  15. 24 CFR 236.254 - Termination of mortgage insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of mortgage insurance... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Contract Rights...

  16. 24 CFR 236.1001 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 24. A “displaced person” shall be advised of his or her rights under the Fair Housing Act (42... (b)(1) of this section. (c) Relocation assistance for displaced persons. A “displaced person... CFR part 24, subpart B. (e) Appeals. A person who disagrees with the mortgagor's...

  17. 48 CFR 1852.236-75 - Partnering for construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... “partnership” used herein shall mean a relationship of open communication and close cooperation that involves... contractor, if applicable. Sustained commitment to the process is essential to assure success of the..., it is anticipated that within 30 days of the Notice to Proceed the prime Contractor's key...

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHO236 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f*lnky**yylfflf*nkffffxf*kk--- ---ixnhhylylimvli*mimtimiiliiixiiiiiiiiiiiiiiviikiih*lvkqlk* mfyqiqimmkiii*yqifqlmiiillfkii*eiiiiiilai...iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimi iirimiii*iiiqti*msqsqrkqqli*fkwsykilglslihphskfkkrcqlersflcl *c

  19. 49 CFR 236.339 - Mechanical locking, maintenance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... connections shall be maintained so that, when a lever or latch is mechanically locked the following will be prevented: (a) Mechanical machine—(1) Latch-operated locking. Raising lever latch block so that bottom thereof is within three-eighths inch of top of quadrant. (2) Lever-operated locking. Moving lever...

  20. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  1. Crossflow Filtration: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  2. 18 CFR 367.2360 - Account 236, Taxes accrued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., the basis for the accrual, the accounts to which charged, and the amount of tax paid. ... accrued. (a) This account must be credited with the amount of taxes accrued during the accounting period... date of the balance sheet, must be shown under account 165, Prepayments (§ 367.1650). (b) If...

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHA236 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available **nsitttkknkkhiv*ifkxgessiykq*fkthinkykyik sylhik*HXKMGQLLSFINGNDHXEQIFIDFEHAQPSDDERXLXKTVNEVLIRGPAXIDK LLXY...kkkkklk Frame C: ptgkkkflygvtlrq*****nsitttkknkkhiv*ifkxgessiykq*fkthinkykyik sylhik*HXKMGQLLSFINGNDHXEQIFID

  4. 49 CFR 236.1033 - Communications and security requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall: (1) Use an algorithm approved by the National Institute of Standards (NIST) or a similarly...; or (ii) When the key algorithm reaches its lifespan as defined by the standards body responsible for approval of the algorithm. (c) The cleartext form of the cryptographic keys shall be protected...

  5. 40 CFR 180.236 - Triphenyltin hydroxide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....0 Cattle, fat 0.2 Cattle, kidney 2.0 Cattle, liver 4.0 Cattle, meat 0.5 Goat, fat 0.2 Goat, kidney 2... Horse, kidney 2.0 Horse, liver 4.0 Horse, meat 0.5 Milk 0.06 Pecan 0.05 Potato 0.05 Sheep, fat 0.2...

  6. 49 CFR 236.915 - Implementation and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards... measures to provide for safe movement of trains, locomotives, roadway workers and on-track equipment...

  7. 49 CFR 236.302 - Track circuits and route locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking... shall be effective when the first pair of wheels of a locomotive or a car passes a point not more...

  8. 49 CFR 236.552 - Insulation resistance; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives §...

  9. 49 CFR 236.51 - Track circuit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions..., appliance or other protective device, which provides a bypath for the electric current, or (2) As result of..., locomotive, or car occupies any part of a track circuit, including fouling section of turnout except...

  10. 49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and... feet, a special circuit shall be installed. Where shortest outer wheelbase of a locomotive operating... the length of the outer wheelbase of such locomotive unless special circuit is used....

  11. 49 CFR 236.54 - Minimum length of track circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and... than maximum inner wheelbase of any locomotive or car operated over such track circuit is used...

  12. 49 CFR 236.515 - Visibility of cab signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop... shall be plainly visible to member or members of the locomotive crew from their stations in the cab....

  13. 49 CFR 236.1027 - PTC system exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control... functionality. (c) Primary train control systems cannot be integrated with locomotive electronic systems unless... locomotive to be brought to a safe stop in the event of any loss of electronic control; and (4) Are...

  14. 49 CFR 236.205 - Signal control circuits; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic... when any of the following conditions obtain within the block: (a) Occupancy by a train, locomotive,...

  15. 49 CFR 236.58 - Turnout, fouling section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions... allowance for maximum car overhang and width will prevent interference with train, locomotive, or...

  16. 48 CFR 852.236-86 - Workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 852... Workers' compensation. As prescribed in 836.577, insert the following clause: Workers' Compensation (JAN... workers compensation laws to all lands and premises owned or held by the United States. (End of clause)...

  17. 7 CFR 2.36 - Director, Office of Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... formulation and development of policies, programs, plans, procedures, standards and organization structures... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority to Other General Officers and...

  18. 49 CFR 236.0 - Applicability, minimum requirements, and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of subpart H of this part apply to safety-critical processor-based signal and train control... preempts the field of locomotive safety, extending to the design, the construction, and the material...

  19. 49 CFR 236.907 - Product Safety Plan (PSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards for Processor... railroad operation or categories of operations on which the product is designed to be used, including train... comprehensive description of all hazards to be addressed in the system design and development,...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 236 - Risk Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... results of the application of safety design principles as noted in Appendix C to this part. The MTTHE is... subsystem or component in the risk assessment. (f) How are processor-based subsystems/components assessed? (1) An MTTHE value must be calculated for each processor-based subsystem or component, or...

  1. 48 CFR 1552.236-70 - Samples and certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts. Samples and Certificates (APR 1984) When required by the specifications or the Contracting... specified in the contract performance requirements. Samples shall be submitted in duplicate by the... CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  2. 49 CFR 236.1031 - Previously approved PTC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... railroad, and consistent with available safety data, be credited toward satisfaction of the safety case... implemented for control of train operations under an FRA order or waiver, after review of safety case documentation for the implementation. (g) Upon receipt of an REC, FRA will consider all safety case...

  3. 8 CFR 236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... warrant of arrest, a determination is made not to serve it, any officer authorized to issue such warrant may authorize its cancellation. (c) Custody issues and release procedures—(1) In general. (i) After...) of the Act (as in effect on April 1, 1997) or a crime or crimes involving moral turpitude related...

  4. Radiological Characterization Technical Report on Californium-252 Sealed Source Transuranic Debris Waste for the Off-Site Source Recovery Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-24

    This document describes the development and approach for the radiological characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The report combines information on the nuclear material content of each individual source (mass or activity and date of manufacture) with information and data on the radionuclide distributions within the originating nuclear material. This approach allows for complete and accurate characterization of the waste container without the need to take additional measurements. The radionuclide uncertainties, developed from acceptable knowledge (AK) information regarding the source material, are applied to the summed activities in the drum. The AK information used in the characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources has been qualified by the peer review process, which has been reviewed and accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  5. Accurate determination of Curium and Californium isotopic ratios by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 248Cm samples for transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments including the mini-INCA (INcineration of Actinides) project for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron fluxes, in view of proposing solutions to reduce the radiotoxicity of long-lived nuclear wastes. In this context, a Cm sample enriched in 248Cm (∼97 %) was irradiated in thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). This work describes a quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QMS) analytical procedure for precise and accurate isotopic composition determination of Cm before sample irradiation and of Cm and Cf after sample irradiation. The factors that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of isotopic ratio measurements by ICP-QMS, such as peak centre correction, detector dead time, mass bias, abundance sensitivity and hydrides formation, instrumental background, and memory blank were carefully evaluated and corrected. Uncertainties of the isotopic ratios, taking into account internal precision of isotope ratio measurements, peak tailing, and hydrides formations ranged from 0.3% to 1.3%. This uncertainties range is quite acceptable for the nuclear data to be used in transmutation studies.

  6. Pu236(n,f) , Pu237(n,f) , and Pu238(n,f) cross sections deduced from (p,t) , (p,d) , and (p,p') surrogate reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R. O. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States); Beausang, C. W. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States); Ross, T. J. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States); Burke, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Casperson, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cooper, N. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gell, K. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States); Good, E. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States); Humby, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); McCleskey, M. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Saastimoinen, A. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tarlow, T. D. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States); Thompson, I. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f) and Pu238(n,f) cross sections have been inferred by utilizing the surrogate ratio method. Targets of Pu239 and U235 were bombarded with 28.5-MeV protons, and the light ion recoils, as well as fission fragments, were detected using the STARS detector array at the K150 Cyclotron at the Texas A&M cyclotron facility. The (p, tf) reaction on Pu239 and U235 targets was used to deduce the σ (Pu236(n,f))/σ(U232(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu236(n,f) cross section was subsequently determined for En=0.5–7.5 MeV. Similarly, the (p,df) reaction on the same two targets was used to deduce the σ(Pu237(n,f))/σ(U233(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu237(n,f) cross section was extracted in the energy range En=0.5–7 MeV. The Pu238(n,f) cross section was also deduced by utilizing the (p,p') reaction channel on the same targets. There is good agreement with the recent ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated cross section data for Pu238(n,f) in the range En=0.5–10.5 MeV and for Pu237(n,f) in the range En=0.5–7 MeV; however, the Pu236(n,f) cross section deduced in the present work is higher than the evaluation between 2 and 7 MeV.

  7. Experimental model of ultrasound thermotherapy in rats inoculated with Walker-236 tumor Modelo experimental de termoterapia ultrassônica em ratos inoculados com tumor de Walker-236

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Carlos Otaviano David Morano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop a model to evaluate the effects of focal pulsed ultrasound (US waves as a source of heat for treatment of murine subcutaneous implanted Walker tumor. METHODS: An experimental, controlled, comparative study was conducted. Twenty male Wistar rats (160-300 g randomized in 2 equal groups (G-1: Control and G-2: Hyperthermia were inoculated with Walker-256 carcinosarcoma tumor. After 5 days G-2 rats were submitted to 45ºC hyperthermia. Heat was delivered directly to the tumor by an ultrasound (US equipment (3 MHz frequency, 1,5W/cm³. Tumor temperature reached 45º C in 3 minutes and was maintained at this level for 5 minutes. Tumor volume was measured on days 5, 8, 11, 14 e 17 post inoculation in both groups. Unpaired t-test was used for comparison. POBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo para avaliar os efeitos do ultra-som focal pulsado como fonte de calor para o tratamento de tumores de Walker subcutâneos implantados em ratos. MÉTODOS: Um estudo experimental, controlado, comparativo foi realizado. Vinte ratos Wistar machos (160-300 g divididos em dois grupos (G-1: Controle e G-2: hipertermia foram inoculados com tumor de Walker carcinossarcoma-256. Após cinco dias os ratos do grupo G-2 ratos foram submetidos a hipertermia (45ºC. O calor foi aplicado diretamente no tumor por um equipamento de ultrassonografia (3 MHz, 1,5 W/cm³. A temperatura no tumor atingiu 45ºC em 3 minutos e foi mantida nesse nível por 5 minutos. O volume do tumor foi medido nos dias 5, 8, 11, 14 e 17 após a inoculação, em ambos os grupos. Teste t não pareado foi utilizado para comparação. P <0,05 foi considerado significante. RESULTADOS: O volume do tumor foi significativamente maior no 5º dia e diminuiu nos dias 11, 14 e 17 nos ratos tratados. Animais submetidos à hipertermia sobreviveram mais tempo que os animais do grupo controle. No 29º dia após a inoculação do tumor, 40% dos ratos do grupo controle e 77,78% dos ratos tratados com hipertermia permaneceram vivos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos mostram que o modelo proposto é bastante simples e pode ser utilizado em laboratórios menos sofisticados para estudar os efeitos da hipertermia focal no tratamento dos tumores malignos implantados ou em estudos de sobrevida.

  8. Järve Keskus : Tallinn, Pärnu mnt. 236 = Järve Centre : 236 Pärnu Rd., Tallinn / Jaak Huimerind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Huimerind, Jaak, 1957-

    2003-01-01

    Projekteerija: Arhitektuuribüroo Studio Paralleel. Arhitektid Jaak Huimerind, Indrek Saarepera. Kaastöötajad Kristi Põldme, Indrek Laos, Reet Viigipuu. Avalike ruumide sisekujundus: Mari Kurismaa. Konstruktiivne osa: E-Inseneribüroo. Projekt 2000-2002, valmis 2002. Asendi-, I ja II korruse plaan, 6 vaadet

  9. Radiochemical method for the simultaneous determination of 233U, 236U, 237Np, 236Pu, 238Pu, and 239Pu in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochemical method has been developed for the determination of multiple isotopes of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium in biological materials. The elements are separated from the other sample constituents and from each other by anion exchange in halide media. Their recoveries are monitored by isotopic diluents. The amounts of the analyte and diluent isotopes of each element are measured alpha spectrometrically. The interelemental separation factors are generally greater than 102, and the recovery of each element ranges from 60% to 90%. 4 references, 1 table

  10. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YMR236W, YGL112C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available as prey Rows with this prey as prey (2) Rows with this prey as bait Rows with this prey as bait (1) Literature on bait (YPD) 40 Lite...rature on prey (YPD) 42 Literature shared by bait and prey 36 Literature sharing sc

  11. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YGL112C, YMR236W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available as prey Rows with this prey as prey (1) Rows with this prey as bait Rows with this prey as bait (2) Literature on bait (YPD) 42 Lite...rature on prey (YPD) 40 Literature shared by bait and prey 36 Literature sharing sc

  12. 49 CFR 236.1005 - Requirements for Positive Train Control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... next 5 years (e.g., as a result of planned rerouting, coordinations, or location of new business on the..., coordinations, or location of new business on the line). Where the request involves prior or planned rerouting... derailment, flood, fire, tornado, hurricane, earthquake, or other similar circumstance outside of...

  13. 48 CFR 552.236-83 - Requirement for a Project Labor Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract or provide for any pricing adjustment by the Government. (d) The Government shall not participate... from competing for contracts or subcontracts on this project without discrimination based on union or... cooperation to advance the Government's procurement interest in cost, efficiency, and quality. (b)...

  14. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other... line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts or... THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS,...

  15. 24 CFR 236.252 - First, second, and third mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First, second, and third mortgage... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL...

  16. 50 CFR 23.6 - What are the roles of the Management and Scientific Authorities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Scientific Authorities? Under Article IX of the Treaty, each Party must designate a Management and... designated the Scientific Authority and Management Authority, which for purposes of this section includes FWS... primarily with management and regulatory issues and the Scientific Authority is responsible for...

  17. Supplemental design requirements document, Multifunction Waste Tank Facility, Project W-236A. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) consists of four, nominal 1 million gallon, underground double-shell tanks, located in the 200-East area, and two tanks of the same capacity in the 200-West area. MWTF will provide environmentally safe storage capacity for wastes generated during remediation/retrieval activities of existing waste storage tanks. This document delineates in detail the information to be used for effective implementation of the Functional Design Criteria requirements

  18. Ethyl 2-{3-[(6-chloropyridin-3-ylmethyl]-2-(nitroiminoimidazolidin-1-yl}acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Kapoor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H16ClN5O4, the imidazole ring is in a slight envelope conformation. The dihedral angle between the pyridine ring and the four essentially planar atoms [maximum deviation 0.015 (2 Å] of the imidazole ring is 80.8 (1°. In, the crystal, weak C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds are present. In addition, there are weak π–π stacking interactions between symmetry-related pyridine rings with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.807 (1 Å.

  19. 49 CFR 236.1047 - Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Familiarization with train control equipment onboard the locomotive and the functioning of that equipment as part of the system and in relation to other onboard systems under that person's control; (2) Any actions required of the onboard personnel to enable, or enter data to, the system, such as consist data, and...

  20. 49 CFR 236.1006 - Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... segment equipped with a PTC system shall be controlled by a locomotive equipped with an onboard PTC... shall include in its PTCIP specific goals for progressive implementation of onboard systems and... operative PTC onboard equipment. The PTCIP shall include a brief but sufficient explanation of how...

  1. 49 CFR 236.927 - Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following elements must be addressed: (1) Familiarization with train control equipment onboard the locomotive and the functioning of that equipment as part of the system and in relation to other onboard systems under that person's control; (2) Any actions required of the onboard personnel to enable, or...

  2. 19 CFR 10.236 - Maintenance of records and submission of Certificate by importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED... knowledge of the relevant facts; (3) Must be completed either in the English language or in the language of... than English, the importer must provide to Customs upon request a written English translation of...

  3. Uranium-236 as an indicator of fuel-cycle uranium in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring on and around the Hanford Site includes regular sampling of onsite monitoring wells and offsite farm wells. Uranium has been identified in the ground water onsite and also in water from farm wells located on the east side of the Columbia River, across from the Hanford Site. Information on the hydrology of the area indicates that the source of the offsite uranium is not the Hanford Site. This study evaluated the isotopic composition of the uranium in water from the various wells to differentiate the onsite uranium contamination from natural uranium offsite. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Parental diabetes and birthweight in 236 030 individuals in the UK Biobank Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrrell, Jessica S; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Freathy, Rachel M.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Timothy M Frayling

    2013-01-01

    Background The UK Biobank study provides a unique opportunity to study the causes and consequences of disease. We aimed to use the UK Biobank data to study the well-established, but poorly understood, association between low birthweight and type 2 diabetes. Methods We used logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio for participants’ risk of type 2 diabetes given a one standard deviation increase in birthweight. To test for an association between parental diabetes and birthweight, we perf...

  5. 49 CFR 236.1015 - PTC Safety Plan content requirements and PTC System Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the safety case and analysis. (f) When determining whether the PTCSP fulfills the requirements under... proposed changes. In any case where the PTCSP lacks adequate data regarding safety impacts of the proposed... FRA's satisfaction; and (ii) Have a PTCSP establishing, with a high degree of confidence, that...

  6. Solubility parameter of poly(2-[3-(6-tetralino)-3-methyl-1-cyclobutyl]-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  7. Water vapour total columns from SCIAMACHY spectra in the 2.36 μm window

    OpenAIRE

    Schrijver, H.; Gloudemans, A. M. S.; Frankenberg, C.; Aben, I.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of the shortwave infrared channel of the atmospheric spectrometer SCIAMACHY on Envisat to provide accurate measurements of total atmospheric water vapour columns is explored. It is shown that good quality results can be obtained for cloud free scenes above the continents using the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method. In addition to the standard cloud filter employed in this method, further cloud screening is obtained by comparing simultaneously retrieved methane columns with val...

  8. 49 CFR 236.528 - Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and... automatic cab signal device on an approaching locomotive shall be maintained to within 300 feet of...

  9. 10 CFR 72.236 - Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... spent fuel (i.e., intact assembly or consolidated fuel rods), the inerting atmosphere requirements. (b... removal of the stored spent fuel from a reactor site, transportation, and ultimate disposition by...

  10. Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility Quality Assurance Program Plan, Project W-236A. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, L.R.

    1995-05-30

    This document describes the Quality Assurance (QA) program for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project. The purpose of this QA program is to control project activities in such a manner as to achieve the mission of the MWTF Project in a safe and reliable manner. The QA program for the MWTF Project is founded on DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and implemented through the use of ASME NQA-1, Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities (ASME 1989 with addenda la-1989, lb-1991 and lc-1992). This document describes the program and planned actions which the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) will implement to demonstrate and ensure that the project meets the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C through the interpretive guidance of ASME NQA-1.

  11. Can Higher Education Foster Economic Growth? A Conference Summary. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 236a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2007-01-01

    On October 30, 2006, the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and the Midwest Higher Education Compact held a conference on higher education and economic growth. Speakers included Michael Moskow, Richard Lester, Michael Luger, Sean Safford, Larry Isaak, Stefanie Lenway, Rod Shrader, Brian Fabes, Arthur Rothkopf, Randy Eberts, Gary Fethke, Victor…

  12. 48 CFR 52.236-21 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... writing. Any adjustment by the Contractor without such a determination shall be at its own risk and..., diagrams, layouts, schematics, descriptive literature, illustrations, schedules, performance and test data... Contractor shall coordinate all such drawings, and review them for accuracy, completeness, and...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 236 - Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... center of the operator's field of view by placing items that need to be found quickly in the upper left hand corner and items which are not time-critical in the lower right hand corner of the field of view... intended operators. (f) The designer shall also address information management. To that end, HMI...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 236 - Independent Review of Verification and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessment is to provide an independent evaluation of the product manufacturer's utilization of safety design... Product Safety Plan (PSP) for processor based systems developed under subpart H or, (2) PTC Product... (c) through (g) of this appendix. However, the reviewer shall not engage in any design...

  15. 48 CFR 52.236-23 - Responsibility of the Architect-Engineer Contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance of this contract, and the Contractor shall be and remain liable to the Government in accordance... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of... coordination of all designs, drawings, specifications, and other services furnished by the Contractor...

  16. 48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Retainage: (1) The contracting officer may retain funds: (i) Where performance under the contract has been... the contracting officer. (End of clause) Alternate I (JUL 2002). If the specifications include... contracting officer shall inform the contractor of the unsatisfactory performance, allowing the contractor...

  17. 48 CFR 852.236-83 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) The contracting officer may retain funds: (i) Where the performance under the contract has been... 2002). If the specifications include guarantee period services, the contracting officer shall include... the contracting officer shall inform the contractor of the unsatisfactory performance, allowing...

  18. 48 CFR 852.236-72 - Performance of work by the contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., mechanics, and foremen/forewomen on the contractor's payroll and under his/her direct supervision shall be... equipment installed by such labor may be included. The work by the contractor's executive, supervisory and... Construction Contracts clause of the contract, a statement designating the branch or branches of contract...

  19. Review of RBE and OER values for Cf-neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252, an isotope emitting neutrons, gamma photons and alpha particles, is being investigated for its practical use in intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy. A review of published RBE and OER values for californium neutrons as a function of dose rate for a variety of biological endpoints is given. (Auth.)

  20. 49 CFR 236.1020 - Exclusion of track segments for implementation due to cessation of PIH materials service or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures and using the same methodology as required for safety and security route analysis under 49 CFR 172.820, with appropriate quantitative weight given to risk reduction effected by installation of a PTC... risk evaluation methodology. Lines identified for removal subject to this provision will not...

  1. Historia magistra vitae (Cic. De or. 2.36). The Prime Objective of Radiosurgery in Acoustic Neurinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, V; Benassi, M; Strigari, L

    2006-11-30

    The central question of stereotaxic radiosurgery in acoustic neurinomas is how to pinpoint its main objective: is it a better alternative to neurosurgery or an option when surgery is unfeasible? This study is a continuation of the article published in 1995 in Acta Neurochirurgica, but benefits from greater experience, more complete analysis and longer supervision of results. The conclusions that can be drawn to date from our own findings and from others in the literature are the following: radiosurgery can be used not only to prevent neurinoma growth and at the same time to preserve the patient's neurological conditions without the risk of complications, but it can also be counted on to provide a cure. However, radiosurgery as an excising device is more insidious than the microsurgical scalpel, since the narrow beam of radiation, directed to a limited target without opening the skull, is invisible. The expression coined by Lars Leksell regarded precisely the innovation he himself conceived in the 'closed skull operation', with reference to its use in cases of acoustic neurinoma as an alternative to traditional surgery. Hence, whatever technique or instruments are involved, it is always a question of interventional neuroradiology or minimally invasive neurosurgery.

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-236-1725, San Francisco Opera Costume Shop, San Francisco, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belanger, P.L.; Okawa, M.T.

    1986-09-01

    An employee representative of the San Francisco Opera Costume Shop requested an investigation of possible exposure to chemical substances by crafts persons and textile artists. No overexposure to chemicals was found during cloth stripping and dying operations, boot deglazing, hat lacquering, fabric painting or casting operations. During boot spray painting, two personal air samples contained methylene chloride at 11.9 and 25 parts per million; both above the NIOSH recommended criteria for methylene-chloride exposure.

  3. Cryogenic gamma detectors enable direct detection of 236U and minor actinides for non-destructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the utility of a superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) γ-ray detector with high energy resolution and low Compton background for nondestructive assay (NDA) of a uranium sample from reprocessed nuclear fuel. We show that TES γ-detectors can separate low-energy actinide γ-emissions from the background and nearby lines, even from minor isotopes whose signals are often obscured in NDA with conventional Ge detectors. Superconducting γ-detectors may therefore bridge the gap between high-accuracy destructive assay (DA) and easier-to-use NDA. (author)

  4. 2008-09 Baccalaureate and beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09). First Look. NCES 2011-236

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Green, Caitlin; Henke, Robin; Lew, Terry; Woo, Jennie; Shepherd, Bryan; Siegel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the 2008-09 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09), which describes the enrollment and employment experiences, 1 year after they graduated, of a national sample of college graduates who completed a bachelor's degree in the 2007-08 academic year. The tables in this report provide a sampling…

  5. The Evaluation of Uranium-236 Isotopic Dilution with the Addition of Depleted Uranium to Supernatant Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes laboratory-scale results on experiments performed to examine the feasibility of isotopic dilution of uranium-235 in supernatant liquid storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The isotopic dilution tests were accomplished by adding an alkaline depleted uranium solution to small portions of simulated and actual storage tank waste solutions with enriched U-235 compositions. Based on the laboratory observations, recommendations were made, which involved the addition of significant quantities of uranyl carbonate solution to over four million liters of U-235 enriched waste stored in Tank 43H at SRS to reduce the risk for criticality. A post-uranyl carbonate addition analysis on the tank supernate confirmed the effectiveness of depleted uranium in isotopic dilution of U-235. The U-235 enrichment in the Tank 43H was isotopically diluted from an original high of over 4 wt percent down to less than 0.5 wt percent as predicted from the laboratory investigations

  6. Economic and Performance Analysis of Gear Box Failures. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, CO, USA is forming a collaborative within the wind energy industry to address reliability issues on wind turbines. The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), leading the collaborative effort, will allow gearbox manufacturers, bearing manufacturers, wind turbine owner/operators, and wind turbine manufacturers to team up for joint projects that address specific issues regarding design and reliability of wind turbine gearboxes. The primary means of investigation will be through full scale testing and analysis of actual gearboxes, both in the field and in the NREL 2.5 MW dynamometer test facility. These teams would contribute resources into a campaign that is intended to serve the mutual interests of a majority of the wind and gearbox industry stakeholders in addition to the specific project team objectives. that address specific issues regarding design and reliability of wind turbine gearboxes. The primary means of investigation will be through full scale testing and analysis of actual gearboxes, both in the field and in the NREL 2.5 MW dynamometer test facility. These teams would contribute resources into a campaign that is intended to serve the mutual interests of a majority of the wind and gearbox industry stakeholders in addition to the specific project team objectives.

  7. SU-E-J-236: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Breath-Hold Lung Tumor Position Reproducibility Measured with 4D MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Keall, P [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Greer, P [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Lapuz, C; Ludbrook, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Kim, T [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Audiovisual biofeedback breath-hold (AVBH) was employed to reproduce tumor position on inhale and exhale breath-holds for 4D tumor information. We hypothesize that lung tumor position will be more consistent using AVBH compared with conventional breath-hold (CBH). Methods: Lung tumor positions were determined for seven lung cancer patients (age: 25 – 74) during to two separate 3T MRI sessions. A breathhold training session was performed prior to the MRI sessions to allow patients to become comfortable with AVBH and their exhale and inhale target positions. CBH and AVBH 4D image datasets were obtained in the first MRI session (pre-treatment) and the second MRI session (midtreatment) within six weeks of the first session. Audio-instruction (MRI: Siemens Skyra) in CBH and verbal-instruction (radiographer) in AVBH were used. A radiation oncologist contoured the lung tumor using Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems); tumor position was quantified as the centroid of the contoured tumor after rigid registration based on vertebral anatomy across two MRI sessions. CBH and AVBH were compared in terms of the reproducibility assessed via (1) the difference between the two exhale positions for the two sessions and the two inhale positions for the sessions. (2) The difference in amplitude (exhale to inhale) between the two sessions. Results: Compared to CBH, AVBH improved the reproducibility of two exhale (or inhale) lung tumor positions relative to each other by 33%, from 6.4±5.3 mm to 4.3±3.0 mm (p=0.005). Compared to CBH, AVBH improved the reproducibility of exhale and inhale amplitude by 66%, from 5.6±5.9 mm to 1.9±1.4 mm (p=0.005). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback can be utilized for improving the reproducibility of breath-hold lung tumor position. These results are advantageous towards achieving more accurate emerging radiation treatment planning methods, in addition to imaging and treatment modalities utilizing breath-hold procedures.

  8. 48 CFR 652.236-72 - Statement of Qualifications for the Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hereby provided. For ease of reference, the statutory language is quoted immediately before the.... Years means calendar years measured from day of the month to day of the month. For example, January 1... officers of the corporation who are active in running its day-to-day operations. Members of...

  9. SU-E-J-236: Feasibility of Using Infrared Imaging to Verify the Accuracy of the Radiotherapy Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, X; Cullip, T; Dooley, J; Potter, L; Chera, B; Lian, J; Chang, S; Zhu, X [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess whether infrared imaging can be used to verify the accuracy of the radiation treatment delivery. Methods: Radiation treatment induced skin reactions include acute changes (erythema and pigmentation) and chronic changes (telangiectasia and ulceration). Thermal imaging can detect these reactions before they become visible. A thermal camera with infrared spectral band 7.5 μm to 14 μm, and temperature measurement range from −20 °C to +150 °C and accuracy of ±2 °C was used. Beams-eye-view images were taken by the end of each treatment for a head and neck patient. The temperature changes of three points were monitored throughout the treatment course, including two points in the field (canthus and vessel) and one point outside of the field. The thermal images were warped and registered to the corresponding planning CT skin rendering. Dose map was exported from the treatment planning system and warped and registered to the planning CT skin rendering as well. The correlation between these two warped and registered images was calculated. The time spent to take the images was recorded. Results: The temperatures of the two points inside the field were always higher than the temperature of the point outside of the field. The temperature inside the field tended to increase as more fractions delivered to the patient. A correlation of 0.90 was found between the registered thermal image and the 3D dose map. On average, half minute was needed to take the images after each treatment. Conclusion: Thermal imaging can monitor the temperature variations of the skin, and the temperatures were proportional to the dose map. It can therefore potentially be an inexpensive and non-ionization tool to verify the accuracy of the radiation treatment delivery.

  10. SU-E-J-236: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Breath-Hold Lung Tumor Position Reproducibility Measured with 4D MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Audiovisual biofeedback breath-hold (AVBH) was employed to reproduce tumor position on inhale and exhale breath-holds for 4D tumor information. We hypothesize that lung tumor position will be more consistent using AVBH compared with conventional breath-hold (CBH). Methods: Lung tumor positions were determined for seven lung cancer patients (age: 25 – 74) during to two separate 3T MRI sessions. A breathhold training session was performed prior to the MRI sessions to allow patients to become comfortable with AVBH and their exhale and inhale target positions. CBH and AVBH 4D image datasets were obtained in the first MRI session (pre-treatment) and the second MRI session (midtreatment) within six weeks of the first session. Audio-instruction (MRI: Siemens Skyra) in CBH and verbal-instruction (radiographer) in AVBH were used. A radiation oncologist contoured the lung tumor using Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems); tumor position was quantified as the centroid of the contoured tumor after rigid registration based on vertebral anatomy across two MRI sessions. CBH and AVBH were compared in terms of the reproducibility assessed via (1) the difference between the two exhale positions for the two sessions and the two inhale positions for the sessions. (2) The difference in amplitude (exhale to inhale) between the two sessions. Results: Compared to CBH, AVBH improved the reproducibility of two exhale (or inhale) lung tumor positions relative to each other by 33%, from 6.4±5.3 mm to 4.3±3.0 mm (p=0.005). Compared to CBH, AVBH improved the reproducibility of exhale and inhale amplitude by 66%, from 5.6±5.9 mm to 1.9±1.4 mm (p=0.005). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback can be utilized for improving the reproducibility of breath-hold lung tumor position. These results are advantageous towards achieving more accurate emerging radiation treatment planning methods, in addition to imaging and treatment modalities utilizing breath-hold procedures

  11. AB236. The effect of Xuanju compound capsule combined with bromocriptine on erectile dysfunction due to hyperprolactinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jun; Liu, Cundong; Sun, Xiangzhou; Deng, Chunhua; Huang, Yanping; Ye, Yunlin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Xuanju compound capsule combined with bromocriptine on erectile dysfunction due to hyperprolactinemia. Methods Forty-six patients with erectile dysfunction due to hyperprolactinemia were divided into a treatment group (n=23) and a control group (n=23), both treated by bromocriptine and the former given Xuanju compound capsule in addition. After treatment for 12 weeks, comparison were made in erectile function, serum prolactin level and serum testosterone in two groups. Results Compared with those before treatment, the erectile function after treatment was significantly improved in two groups (P0.05). Serum testosterone after treatment in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group (Phyperprolactinemia, and the effect was better than bromocriptine.

  12. Acha, Omar y Quiroga, Nicolás, El Hecho Maldito… conversaciones para otra historia del peronismo, Rosario, Argentina, Prohistoria, 2012, 236 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Aldao, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Uno de los puntos fuertes de El hecho maldito… radica en la actualidad de los trabajos que analiza, un recorrido desde los autores clásicos hasta las ponencias presentadas en los Congresos de Estudios sobre Peronismo y en las Jornadas Interescuelas de Historia. Otro punto fuerte es el énfasis en una escritura heterodoxa, trabajando no sólo lo argumentativo, sino también lo estético como elemento de subversión significante, nuevas prosas para nuevos sentidos. Por último, el libro apuesta a lo ...

  13. 贝尔麻痹236例疗效及影响预后的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗霄鹏; 曾国华; 包正军

    2010-01-01

    @@ 贝尔麻痹(Bell palsy)是神经内科的常见病、多发病,以急性进展的面部表情肌麻痹为主要临床特点,一般预后较好,但仍有部分患者恢复差,留有后遗症,严重影响面部外观,给患者造成生理与心理的伤害.为此,我们对贝尔麻痹的临床特点、疗效及影响预后的相关因素进行分析,旨在为临床治疗提供依据.

  14. Costing of severe pneumonia in hospitalized infants and children aged 2-36 months, at a secondary and tertiary level hospital of a not-for-profit organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Ostergaard; Hanehøj, Malin; Das, Ashima Rani;

    2009-01-01

    of the costs was estimated. Unit cost estimates for bed days, treatment and investigation inputs were calculated. RESULTS: Total cost to health care provider for one episode of hospitalized childhood pneumonia treated at secondary level was US$ 83.89 (INR 3524) and US$ 146.59 (INR 6158) at tertiary level......OBJECTIVES: To determine health care provider cost and household cost of the treatment of severe pneumonia in infants and young children admitted to secondary and tertiary level health care facilities. METHODS: The study was done in a private, not-for-profit medical college hospital, in Vellore...... comprised travel, accommodation and special food during the period of illness, and indirect costs of productivity loss for family members. Patient specific resource consumption and related charges were recorded from charts, nursing records, pharmacy lists and hospital bills, and the providers view point...

  15. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234,236,238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haight, Robert Cameron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jandel, Marian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Donnell, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vieira, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilhelmy, Jerry B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Becker, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wu, Ching-Yen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Krticka, Milan [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-28

    Neutron capture cross sections in the “continuum” region (>≈1 keV) and gamma-emission spectra are of importance to basic science and many applied fields. Careful measurements have been made on most common stable nuclides, but physicists must rely on calculations (or “surrogate” reactions) for rare or unstable nuclides. Calculations must be benchmarked against measurements (cross sections, gamma-ray spectra, and <Γγ>). Gamma-ray spectrum measurements from resolved resonances were made with 1 - 2 mg/cm2 thick targets; cross sections at >1 keV were measured using thicker targets. The results show that the shape of capture cross section vs neutron energy is not sensitive to the form of the strength function (although the magnitude is); the generalized Lorentzian E1 strength function is not sufficient to describe the shape of observed gamma-ray spectra; MGLO + “Oslo M1” parameters produces quantitative agreement with the measured 238U(n,γ) cross section; additional strength at low energies (~ 3 MeV) -- likely M1-- is required; and careful study of complementary results on low-lying giant resonance strength is needed to consistently describe observations.

  16. Thulium laser enucleation of the prostate is a safe and a highly effective modality for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia - Our experience of 236 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ketan P Vartak; Prashant H Salvi

    2016-01-01

    Context: Thulium LASER is fast emerging as a safe and effective modality for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Still, compared to holmium laser transurethral enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) the number of institutes all over the world using Thulium LASER are limited. This is our effort to bring the statistical facts about the safety and effectivity of Thulium LASER. Aims: To study the efficacy of thulium laser enucleation of the prostate (ThuLEP). Settings and Design: All patients ...

  17. In 2012 Qinghai Newly Discovered 2.36 Million Tonnes of Copper, Lead and Zinc and 440,000 tonnes of Nickel in 14 ore fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The reporter learned from the Land and Resource Department of Qinghai Province that in 2012, by revolving around the target of acquiring new progress and new achievements in three years, making significant breakthroughs in five years, and developing new patterns in prospecting and development in eight years, Qinghai Province allocated large-scale investment and massive labor force, and actively

  18. The sensitivity of calculated critical masses of small fast systems to changes in the U236 and U238 neutron-scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of the calculated critical masses of a number of simple systems, to changes in the basic neutron scattering data, have been investigated. The systems considered are spheres of 29% U235 and 93.5% U235, both bare, and reflected by thick natural uranium. The calculations have been carried out using the Carlson Sn method with 4 energy groups, and the percentage changes in the calculated critical masses of the different systems, due to specified changes in the various aspects of the neutron scattering data, have been obtained. The results are presented and discussed with particular reference to the adjustment of the basic data to give good agreement with experimental critical sizes. The basic data on which these calculations have been based are those given in AWRE Report 0-28/60. (author)

  19. Synthesis and in vitro cytotoxic evaluation of 2-hydrazinylpyrido[2,3-6]pyrazin-3(4H)-one derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Gang Zhang; Ya Jing Liu; Xiao Guang Ma; Hao Dong; Ju Li; Ping Gong

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel 2-hydrazinylpyrido[2,3-b]pyrazin-3(4H)-one derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against A549, MDA-MB-231 and HT-29 cell lines in vitro. Pharmacological data indicated that compounds 5b, 5c, 10a and 10g possessed marked cytotoxicity, especially 10a (with IC50 values of 0.81, 2.56 and 1.63 μmol/L against A549, MDA-MB-231 and HT29 cell lines, respectively), which had emerged as a lead compound.

  20. Retraction notice to: Artificial intelligence in pharmaceutical product formulation: Neural computing [Chem. Ind. Chem. Eng. Q. 15(4 (2009 227-236

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has been retracted at the request of the authors. The retraction has been made because the authors admitted that they took the text and rawings from the review article written by R. Rowe and E. Colbourn, Future Medicinal Chemistry 1(4 (2009 713-726, without their permission and even did not include this article in the list of references. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication are that authors confirm that their work is entirely originally written, someone else’s data and/or text are appropriately cited or quoted and permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources. Therefore, the retracted article represents a severe improperly usage of the scientific publishing system. Apologies are offered to readers of the Chem. Ind. Chem. Eng. Q. that this abuse was not detected during the submission process.

    Link to the retracted article 10.2298/CICEQ0904227I

  1. Crystal structure of (2',3,6'-tri-chloro-biphenyl-2-yl)boronic acid tetra-hydro-furan monosolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durka, Krzysztof; Kliś, Tomasz; Serwatowski, Janusz

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C12H8BCl3O2·C4H8O, crystallizes as a tetra-hydro-furan monosolvate. The boronic acid group adopts a syn-anti conformation and is significantly twisted along the carbon-boron bond by 69.2 (1)°, due to considerable steric hindrance from the 2',6'-di-chloro-phenyl group that is located ortho to the boronic acid substituent. The phenyl rings of the biphenyl are almost perpendicular to one another, with a dihedral angle of 87.9 (1)° between them. In the crystal, adjacent mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯O inter-actions to form centrosymmetric dimers with R 2 (2)(8) motifs, which have recently been shown to be energetically very favourable. The hy-droxy groups are in an anti conformation and are also engaged in hydrogen-bonding inter-actions with the O atom of the tetra-hydro-furan solvent mol-ecule. Cl⋯Cl halogen-bonding inter-actions [Cl⋯Cl = 3.464 (1) Å] link neigbouring dimers into chains running along [010]. Further aggregation occurs due to an additional Cl⋯Cl halogen bond [Cl⋯Cl = 3.387 (1) Å]. PMID:26870407

  2. A new shipping container for an intense neutron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter (2.34 x 1012 n/s·g) used in medicine, research, and industry. The western world's sole source of this rare radioisotope is the Californium Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). A project has been initiated at the REDC to design a new Type B Californium Shipping Container. This effort is essential for future transportation of californium to meet the needs of users all over the world. The shipping container must meet all requirements for transport by motor freight, air, vessel, and rail, both domestic and foreign. There are unique problems in the design, fabrication, and licensing of a new Type B shipping container that will accommodate up to 60 milligrams of californium-252. One of the first challenges in the design phase of the project is the selection of a material to shield the high neutron flux. The more stringent safety precautions of today's world impel us to consider more exotic materials for such a purpose. The candidate materials must be examined not just for their neutron shielding properties, but also in conjunction with other properties such as thermal and structural requirements to withstand the hypothetical accident conditions. The design and building of such a container is a formidable task requiring much planning. The licensing process, with the complex, interactive federal codes, is a special challenge and may be the biggest on the project in terms of time and money

  3. Application of Cf for the quantitative measurement of nuclear reactor fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitive and rapid measurements of the quantity and geometric distribution of nuclear reactor fuel materials can be made using neutrons from californium. The neutron-induced fission rate in these materials may be measured by detection of either prompt radiations from fission or delayed radiations from radioactive fission products. A number of californium-based instruments are presently in use by the nuclear industry for purposes of process control, quality control, nuclear materials safeguards, and environmentl assessment. An Automated Fuel Rod Scanner (AFRS) is used for high-speed measurement of the uniformity of loading and total fissile content of reactor fuel rods. The fuel rods are moved first through an irradiator containing about 1 mg of californium, and subsequently through high-efficiency detectors for the measurement of fission-product gamma-rays. Multiple detectors on each of two irradiation channels are used to reduce the californium source strength requirement. The fuel loading of each 15-mm-long pellet is tested to +-10% on 100% of the plant throughput. By summing the response over length, the total fissile material content of the fuel rod is measured to better than 0.5%. An on-line computer for data processing allows the instrument to measure about 150 rods per hour with a single operator. The same activation concept is used with a 25-μg californium source in a Small Sample Assay System (SSAS) which measures the fissile content of fuel pellet sized samples with a precision of 0.5%

  4. Magnetic measurements of the transuranium elements. Progress report, January 1, 1984-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the magnetic properties of dhcp californium-249 metal indicated the presence of three regions of differing magnetic character. Additional measurements are also reported. Magnetic moments and valence states of terbium in TbF3, BaTbO3, and TbO18 are discussed. Progress on high-field operation of the micro-magnetic susceptometer is reported

  5. Application of PGNAA to preincineration assay of combustible waste for chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Pawelko, R.J.; Greenwood, R.C. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis method is being developed for on-stream pre-incineration assay of low level radioactive combustible waste for it`s chlorine content. The assay system consists of three californium 252 sources and a germanium or scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer.

  6. Discovery of Isotopes of the Transuranium Elements with 93 <= Z <= 98

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and five isotopes of the transuranium elements neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium and californium have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Source storage and transfer cask: Users Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage and shield cask for the dual californium source is designed to shield and transport up to 3.7 mg (2 Ci) of 252Cf. the cask meets Department of Transportation (DOT) license requirements for Type A materials (DOT-7A). The cask is designed to transfer sources to and from the Flourinel and Fuel Storage (FAST) facility delayed-neutron interrogator. Californium sources placed in the cask must be encapsulated in the SR-CF-100 package and attached to Teleflex cables. The cask contains two source locations. Each location contains a gear box that allows a Teleflex cable to be remotely moved by a hand crank into and out of the cask. This transfer procedure permits sources to be easily removed and inserted into the delayed-neutron interrogator and reduces personnel radiation exposure during transfer. The radiation dose rate with the maximum allowable quantity of californium (3.7 mg) in the cask is 30 mR/h at the surface and less than 2 mR/h 1 m from the cask surface. This manual contains information about the cask, californium sources, describes the method to ship the cask, and how to insert and remove sources from the cask. 28 figs

  8. 49 CFR 234.275 - Processor-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... made subject to 49 CFR part 236, subpart H, by submitting a Product Safety Plan as prescribed in § 236... justifications. The Product Safety Plan in accordance with 49 CFR 236.907—or a PTC Development Plan and PTC Safety Plan required to be filed in accordance with 49 CFR 236.1013 and 236.1015—must explain how...

  9. Confluences Méditerranée, n° 81, 2012/2, 236 p.Dossier : Algérie, 50 ans après

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammedi, Sidi Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    « L’Algérie fête cette année les 50 ans de son indépendance, une occasion pour revenir sur son parcours à la fois politique, économique et culturel. C’est l’objectif recherché par la revue Confluences Méditerranée à travers ce numéro consacré à « L’Algérie, 50 ans après » (p. 09). C’est ainsi qu’a ouvert Sid-Ahmed Souiah sa présentation en attirant l’attention que l’exhaustivité n’était pas recherchée pour choisir les thématiques retenues mais, plutôt, de présenter une variété de contribution...

  10. Faculty Knowledge of Information Literacy Standards Has an Impact in the Classroom. A Review of: Saunders, L. (2012. Faculty perspectives on information literacy as a student learning outcome. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(4, 226-236.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Badia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To discover how faculty perceives information literacy and examine whether professors in different disciplines view and approach information literacy differently. Particularly, the study seeks to address the following questions:• “How do faculty members define or understand information literacy?o Are they familiar with existing standards such as [those from the Association of College and Research Libraries] ACRL?o Does the development of a local definition of information literacy impact faculty understanding?• How important do instructors believe information literacy to be for their students? How do they addressinformation literacy, or expect it to be addressed within the curriculum?• Are there disciplinary differences in faculty attitudes toward and approaches to information literacy?” (p. 227Design – Survey, i.e., an online questionnaire followed by interviews. Setting – Colleges and universities in the United States. Subjects – 834 faculty members in anthropology, the natural sciences, computer science, English literature, psychology, and political science from a sample of 50 American colleges and universities with undergraduate degree programs. Methods – An email, containing a link to a brief online survey, was sent to 834 professors from academic institutions across the United States. Three faculty members from each department in six different disciplines from each institution were contacted. The survey contained a mix of closed and open-ended questions and could be completed in less than 10 minutes. Respondents were asked to supply their contact information if they agreed to be phoned for a follow-up interview. The interview consisted of six questions that were posed to all participants, with some changes depending on the answers given.Main Results – Regardless of discipline, the majority of faculty members who responded to the survey thought that information literacy competencies were important for their students to master. The majority also rated their students as only “somewhat strong” in “identifying scholarly materials, identifying reliable/authoritative information, finding relevant information, citing sources properly, synthesizing information, and searching databases” (p. 229. Professors’ answers differed within different disciplines when it came to showing their own knowledge of information literacy standards, such as those of ACRL, and assessing the abilities of their students. For example, biology students’ web searching skills were rated higher than students in English literature and anthropology. When faculty were asked their opinions about who should be responsible for information literacy instruction, there was no straight answer. Many professors agreed that it is the responsibility of both faculty and librarians. Those faculty members who were knowledgeable about information literacy standards were also among the ones who included information literacy instruction in their courses and thought it was important for their students to learn.Conclusion – According to the author, the study results show that possibilities continue to exist for librarians to be part of information literacy endeavours, but it is still up to the librarians to start and maintain conversations with faculty on this topic. Because faculty members have not yet found systematic methods for integrating information literacy into the curriculum, they might be open to librarians’ suggestions and ideas on this topic. “Perhaps the most important finding of this study is that knowledge of and familiarity with information literacy standards is more closely associated with whether faculty address information literacy in their courses than any other variable including disciplinary area” (p. 232. Therefore, it is the librarian’s responsibility to engage in discussions with faculty about information literacy.

  11. Information, communication and control systems for vehicle, road and traffic management. Contribution OECD Seminar on Micro-electronics for Road and Traffic Management. Tokyo, October 29 - November 2, 1984, Session V, p. 236-241.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1984-01-01

    The application of micro-electronics for vehicle, road and traffic management has increased rapidly in the past 10 to 15 years. The approach, however, is very often rather isolated, resulting in problems regarding consistency, continuity, uniformity and compatibility. The whole field of possible a

  12. Postoperative consumption of opioid analgesics following correction of pectus excavatum is influenced by pectus severity: a single-centre study of 236 patients undergoing minimally invasive correction of pectus excavatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Kasper; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Pilegaard, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE) is primarily performed to achieve cosmetic and psychological benefits for the patient. Minimally invasive repair of PE is often associated with severe postoperative pain. This study estimates the effect of the severity of PE...

  13. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR EXPOSURE UNITS Z2-24, Z2-31, Z2-32, AND Z2-36 IN ZONE 2 OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management selected Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to perform independent verification (IV) at Zone 2 of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ORAU has concluded IV surveys, per the project-specific plan (PSP) (ORAU 2013a) covering exposure units (EUs) Z2-24, -31, -32, and -36. The objective of this effort was to verify the following. • Target EUs comply with requirements in the Zone 2 Record of Decision (ROD) (DOE 2005), as implemented by using the dynamic verification strategy presented in the dynamic work plan (DWP) (BJC 2007) • Commitments in the DWP were adequately implemented, as verified via IV surveys and soil sampling The Zone 2 ROD establishes maximum remediation level (RLmax) values and average RL (RLavg) values for the primary contaminants of concern (COCs) U-234, U-235, U-238, Cs-137, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-232, arsenic, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Table 1.1 lists Zone 2 COCs with associated RLs. Additional radiological and chemical contaminants were also identified during past characterization and monitoring actions, though the ROD does not present RLs for these potential contaminants. IV activities focused on the identification and quantification of ROD-specific COCs in surface soils, but also generated data for other analytes to support future decisions. ORAU personnel also reviewed EU-specific phased construction completion reports (PCCRs) to focus IV activities and identify potential judgmental sample locations, if any.

  14. Characterization of berkelium(III) dipicolinate and borate compounds in solution and the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Mark A; Cary, Samantha K; Johnson, Jason A; Baumbach, Ryan E; Arico, Alexandra A; Luckey, Morgan; Urban, Matthew; Wang, Jamie C; Polinski, Matthew J; Chemey, Alexander; Liu, Guokui; Chen, Kuan-Wen; Van Cleve, Shelley M; Marsh, Matthew L; Eaton, Teresa M; van de Burgt, Lambertus J; Gray, Ashley L; Hobart, David E; Hanson, Kenneth; Maron, Laurent; Gendron, Frédéric; Autschbach, Jochen; Speldrich, Manfred; Kögerler, Paul; Yang, Ping; Braley, Jenifer; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2016-08-26

    Berkelium is positioned at a crucial location in the actinide series between the inherently stable half-filled 5f(7) configuration of curium and the abrupt transition in chemical behavior created by the onset of a metastable divalent state that starts at californium. However, the mere 320-day half-life of berkelium's only available isotope, (249)Bk, has hindered in-depth studies of the element's coordination chemistry. Herein, we report the synthesis and detailed solid-state and solution-phase characterization of a berkelium coordination complex, Bk(III)tris(dipicolinate), as well as a chemically distinct Bk(III) borate material for comparison. We demonstrate that berkelium's complexation is analogous to that of californium. However, from a range of spectroscopic techniques and quantum mechanical calculations, it is clear that spin-orbit coupling contributes significantly to berkelium's multiconfigurational ground state. PMID:27563098

  15. Measurement of the energy spectra of fission fragments using nuclear track detectors and digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy spectra of fission fragments were determined using a Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM) supported by digital image analysis and numerical data processing using a standard personal computer. The analysis of a californium (252Cf) spectrum with this approach shows improvement compared with the values reported previously using the standard procedure, in terms of resolution and accuracy. This new method adds full automation to the technical advantages and cost effectiveness of an NTM.

  16. Neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper continues, with respect to the transplutonium nuclides, earlier efforts to collate and evaluate data from the scientific literature on the prompt neutron multiplicity distribution from fission and its first moment = ΣnuPnu. The isotopes considered here for which P/sub nu/ and or data (or both) were found in the literature are of americium (Am), curium (Cm), berkelium (Bk), californium (Cf), einsteinium (Es), fermium (Fm), and nobelium (No)

  17. Study of heavy particle decay from superheavy elements by SK model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy nuclei usually decay by alpha decay or spontaneous fission. These two decay modes are generally the most probable competing processes. Another less probable decay process is cluster radioactivity in which nuclei from carbon to silicon are emitted from Radium to Californium leading to the most stable daughter nucleus, lead. This work reports such a study using the cubic plus Yukawa plus exponential model of Shanmugam and Kamalaharan (SK)

  18. Properties of neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conference presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: white neutron sources, primarily pulsed (6 papers); fast neutron fields (5 papers); Californium-252 prompt fission neutron spectra (14 papers); monoenergetic sources and filtered beams (11 papers); 14 MeV neutron sources (10 papers); selected special application (one paper); and a general interest session (4 papers). Individual abstracts were prepared separately for the papers

  19. Neutron nondestructive essay of the plutonium metal parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the principle of neutron multiplicity and data unfolding mathematics, this paper developed the software which can execute the neutron multiplicity analysis, neutron attenuation analysis, parameter calibration, Pu mass solution with the neutron pulse sequence acquisition method. The measurement system consisted of detector,nuclear electronic apparatus, pulsed sequence acquisition and analysis software was tested and calibrated by californium source. Three mental plutonium components with different mass were used for experimental assay and validation, which showed that the assay bias was within 15% against the nominal value of the samples. (authors)

  20. Physical-chemical studies of transuranium elements. Progress report, April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following topics: electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of less-stable higher oxidation states of transuranium elements in complexing aqueous media; spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of selected lanthanides and actinides in molten dimethyl sulfone; spectroelectronchemical studies of the Ce(IV)/Ce(III) couple in aqueous carbonate solutions; characterization of actinide orthophosphates by Raman and absorption spectrophotometries and by x-ray diffraction; relativistic multiple scattering calculations on transuranium element compounds; Raman spectroscopic studies of natural minerals containing the uranyl ion; and solution calorimetry of californium metal

  1. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustig, D.

    1996-04-18

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author).

  2. TOWARD AN IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF STRUCTURE AND MAGNETISM IN NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM PHOSPHONATES AND SULFONATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This grant supported the exploratory synthesis of new actinide materials with all of the actinides from thorium to californium with the exceptions of protactinium and berkelium. We developed detailed structure-property relationships that allowed for the identification of novel materials with selective ion-exchange, selective oxidation, and long-range magnetic ordering. We found novel bonding motifs and identified periodic trends across the actinide series. We identified structural building units that would lead to desired structural features and novel topologies. We also characterized many different spectroscopic trends across the actinide series. The grant support the preparation of approximately 1200 new compounds all of which were structurally characterized.

  3. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  4. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  5. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author)

  6. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator

  7. Use of trioctylphosphine oxide for transplutonium element extraction and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigated was extraction of tri-valent curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium as well as cerium and europium with trioctylphosphin oxide from lactic acid solutions, containing DTPA and aluminium nitrate depending on the aluminium nitrate and TOPO concentrations and nitric acid solutions of variable concentration as well. Under optimum conditions of extraction chromatography of berkelium studied was the distribution of cobalt, nickel, chromium, iron, aluminium, titanium, zirconium and niobium ions, and the coefficients of berkelium purification from cations investigated were determined. The effect of weight quantities of cation impurities on extraction chromatographic yield of berkelium has been investigated. Examples of practice application of the extraction chromatography with the use of TOPO are given

  8. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SYMPOSIUM COMMEMORATING THE 25th ANNIVERSARY OF ELEMENTS 97 and 98 HELD ON JAN. 20, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.; Street Jr., Kenneth; Thompson, Stanley G.; Ghiorso, Albert

    1976-07-01

    This volume includes the talks given on January 20, 1975, at a symposium in Berkeley on the occasion of the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the discovery of berkelium and californium. Talks were given at this symposium by the four people involved in the discovery of these elements and by a number of people who have made significant contributions in the intervening years to the investigation of their nuclear and chemical properties. The papers are being published here, without editing, in the form in which they were submitted by the authors in the months following the anniversary symposium, and they reflect rather faithfully the remarks made on that occasion.

  9. Neutron crosstalk between liquid scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeke, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method to quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between liquid scintillators. Using a spontaneous fission source, this method can be utilized to quickly characterize an array of liquid scintillators in terms of crosstalk. The point model theory due to Feynman is corrected to account for these multiple scatterings. Using spectral information measured by the liquid scintillators, fractions of multiple scattering can be estimated, and mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation can be improved. Monte Carlo simulations of mono-energetic neutron sources were performed to estimate neutron crosstalk. A californium source in an array of liquid scintillators was modeled to illustrate the improvement of the mass reconstruction.

  10. Study by thermochromatography of fluorides of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermochromatography was made suitable for fluoride study. So, an investigation of actinide tetrafluorides was accomplished from uranium to californium. Pentavalent and hexavalent fluorospecies of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and ruthenium were studied. Some new compounds have been identified in gaseous phase, whose: PuF5, PuOF3 and PaOF3. Furthermore, some presomptions as for the existence in gaseous phase of EsF4 and of an heptavalent fluorospecies of plutonium have been established. An important analogy between plutonium and ruthenium behaviour with fluorine have been shown, these results could explain the difficulties encountered in the fluoride-volatility processes

  11. Method for measuring multiple scattering corrections between liquid scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, J. M.; Glenn, A. M.; Keefer, G. J.; Wurtz, R. E.

    2016-07-01

    A time-of-flight method is proposed to experimentally quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between scintillators. An array of scintillators is characterized in terms of crosstalk with this method by measuring a californium source, for different neutron energy thresholds. The spectral information recorded by the scintillators can be used to estimate the fractions of neutrons multiple scattering. With the help of a correction to Feynman's point model theory to account for multiple scattering, these fractions can in turn improve the mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation.

  12. 8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by former section 242 of the Act prior to amendment by the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant... deferral of removal pursuant to 8 CFR 208.16 or 208.17, shall remain subject to the provisions of this section unless the motion to reopen is granted. Section 236 of the Act and 8 CFR 236.1 govern...

  13. 15-lipoxygenase-1 mediates cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor induced apoptosis in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It has been found that expression of 15-lipoxygenasc-1(15-LOX-1) and its main product,13-C-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-S-HODE),are decreased in human colorectal and esophageal cancers and that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) can therspeutically induce 15-LOC-1 expression to trigger apoptosis in those cancer cells independently COX-2.We found that a specific COX-2 inhibitor SC-236 similarly induce apoptosis in gastric cancer cells,although the mechanisms of these effects remain to be defined.In the present study,we tested whether SC-236 induced apoptosis through up-regulation of 15-LOX-1 in gastric cancer cells.We found that,(a) SC-236 inhibited growth of gastric cancer cells mainly by apoptosis induced;(b) SC-236 induced 15-LOX-1 expression and increased endogenous 13-S-HODE product,instead of 15-S-HETE during apoptosis in gastric cancer cells without 15-LOX-1 expression before treatment by SC-236;(c)sc-236 didn't effect expression of COX-1,COX-2,5-LOX and 12-LOX;and (d)15-LOX-1 inhibition suppressed SC-236 induced apoptosis.These findings demonstrated that SC-236 induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells via up-regulation of 25-LOX-1.They also support the concept that the loss of the proapopotic role of 15-LOX-1 in epithelial cancers is not limited to human colorectal and esophageal cancers.

  14. 75 FR 54219 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Locking, 236.380 Indication Locking, and 236.381 Traffic Locking, on vital microprocessor-based systems. NJT proposes to verify and test signal locking systems controlled by microprocessor- based equipment... points and other locations are controlled by solid-state vital microprocessor-based systems....

  15. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1405 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1405 ref|NP_477758.1| wsv236 [Shrimp white spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL...33240.1| wsv236 [shrimp white spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89160.1| WSSV292 [shrimp white spot syndrome virus] NP_477758.1 2.4 29% ...

  17. Gclust Server: 200427 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 200427 OSA_@236 Cluster Sequences - 81 no annotation 1 1.00e-40 14.29 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Show 2004...27 Cluster ID 200427 Sequence ID OSA_@236 Link to cluster sequences Cluster Sequences Link t

  18. AcEST: BP914703 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ition sp|Q6H236|PEG3_BOVIN Paternally-expressed gene 3 protein OS=Bos taurus Align length 57 Score (bit) 30....alue sp|Q6H236|PEG3_BOVIN Paternally-expressed gene 3 protein OS=Bos ... 31 4.4 sp|A4TC02|FMT_MYCGI Methiony...l-tRNA formyltransferase OS=Mycobact... 30 9.8 >sp|Q6H236|PEG3_BOVIN Paternally-expressed gene 3 protein OS=

  19. Kolm võimalust, kolm kontrasti / Tiiu Levald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levald, Tiiu, 1940-

    2009-01-01

    Saaremaa ooperipäevadel Soome Kammerooperi ja Läti Rahvusooperi poolt esitatud kolmest ooperist - Ilkka Kuusisto "Vabaduse vang - Ryti, Risto, nr 236/46", R. Wagneri "Lendav Hollandlane" ja C. Puccini "Turandot"

  20. AcEST: BP919147 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ---------------GLLAFLSS- 281 N V V + H PVSY+V T A +G PL G S Sbjct: 184 NAVMVDIHDQLHQGTVPVSYTVTTVA----PHGLPLCTGQHIPAC...t: 181 NAVMVDIHDQLHQGTVPVSYTVTTVA----PHGIPLCTGQHIPACSTQQVPGCSVVFSGQ 236 Query: 282 --PLGSVDDPLLELCS*FPFGVLPL

  1. Progress report 1989: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  2. Progress report 1987: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  3. Progress Report 1986 : Predator Control to Enhance the Production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  4. Progress Report 1990: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  5. Environmental Assessment: Alternatives to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the past 14 years the sandhill crane nesting population on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) has decreased by 21% (down from 236 pairs in 1971 to 186...

  6. The inherent purpose of ontology in ecology: The immutable use of Hans Jonas’s works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Deleanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Theresa Morris, Hans Jonas’s Ethic of Responsibility: From Ontology to Ecology, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, SUNY Series in Environmental Philosophy and Ethics, 2013, 236 p.

  7. Coen Wilders, Patronage in de provincie. Het Utrechtse netwerk van stadhouder Willem III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Raeymaekers

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coen Wilders, Patronage in de provincie. Het Utrechtse netwerk van stadhouder Willem III (Dissertatie Universiteit van Amsterdam 2010; Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2015, 236 pp., isbn 978 90 8964 738 2.

  8. 78 FR 77789 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ..., Maintenance, and Repair of Signal and Train Control Systems, Devices, and Appliances. FRA assigned the... requirements found in 49 CFR 236.566, Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control, or...

  9. Disease: H01139 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available crobiol Infect Dis 72:214-8 (2012) PMID:17114714 Bakken JS, Dumler JS Clinical diagnosis and treatment of human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078:236-47 (2006) ...

  10. Factors Associated with Aggressive Care and Mortality of Pediatric Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2011-01-01

    Researchers at University of Utah, Salt Lake City, performed a retrospective study of 10,236 children hospitalized and discharged with a diagnosis of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke in the USA during years 2000 and 2003.

  11. Progress report 1991: predator control to enhance the production of greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  12. 42 CFR 435.1005 - Recipients in institutions eligible under a special income standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Limitations on Ffp § 435.1005 Recipients in institutions eligible under a special income standard. For... § 435.236, FFP is available in expenditures for services provided to those individuals only if...

  13. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1977-11-08

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references.

  14. Robotics and remote systems applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a review of numerous remote inspection techniques in use at the Savannah River (and other) facilities. These include: (1) reactor tank inspection robot, (2) californium waste removal robot, (3) fuel rod lubrication robot, (4) cesium source manipulation robot, (5) tank 13 survey and decontamination robots, (6) hot gang valve corridor decontamination and junction box removal robots, (7) lead removal from deionizer vessels robot, (8) HB line cleanup robot, (9) remote operation of a front end loader at WIPP, (10) remote overhead video extendible robot, (11) semi-intelligent mobile observing navigator, (12) remote camera systems in the SRS canyons, (13) cameras and borescope for the DWPF, (14) Hanford waste tank camera system, (15) in-tank precipitation camera system, (16) F-area retention basin pipe crawler, (17) waste tank wall crawler and annulus camera, (18) duct inspection, and (19) deionizer resin sampling

  15. Preparation of actinide targets by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N.; Folger, H.

    1989-10-01

    Actinide targets with varying thicknesses on different substrates have been prepared by electrodeposition either from aqueous solutions or from solutions of their nitrates in isopropyl alcohol. With these techniques the actinides can be deposited almost quantitatively on various backing materials within 15 to 30 min. Targets of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and californium with areal densities from almost carrier-free up to 1.4 mg/cm 2 on thin beryllium, carbon, titanium, tantalum and platinum foils have been prepared. In most cases, prior to the deposition, the actinides had to be purified chemically and for some of them, due to the limited amount of material available, recycling procedures were required. Applications of actinide targets in heavy-ion reactions are briefly discussed.

  16. An atomic beam source for actinide elements: concept and realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For ultratrace analysis of actinide elements and studies of their atomic properties with resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS), efficient and stable sources of actinide atomic beams are required. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the evaporation of actinide elements and oxides from a variety of metals were considered, including diffusion, desorption, and associative desorption. On this basis various sandwich-type filaments were studied. The most promising system was found to consist of tantalum as the backing material, an electrolytically deposited actinide hydroxide as the source of the element, and a titanium covering layer for its reduction to the metal. Such sandwich sources were experimentally proven to be well suited for the production of atomic beams of plutonium, curium, berkelium and californium at relatively low operating temperatures and with high and reproducible yields. (orig.)

  17. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs

  18. Experimental survey of the potential energy surfaces associated with fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in the experimental determination of the properties of the potential energy surface associated with fission is reviewed. The importance of nuclear symmetry effects on the calculation of fission widths is demonstrated. Evidence is presented for the fragmentation of the mass-asymmetric second barrier in the thorium region and the axial asymmetric first barrier in the californium region. Detailed analyses of experimental data suggest the presence of two parallel second barriers; the normal mass-asymmetric, axial-symmetric barrier and a slightly higher mass-symmetric, axial-asymmetric barrier. Experimental barrier parameters are determined systematically and compared with calculations from various theoretical models. Techniques for expanding fission probability measurements to higher energies are discussed. (author)

  19. Populations of selected microbial and fungal species growing on the surface of rape seeds following treatment with desiccants or plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frac, Magdalena; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Tys, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desiccants and plant growth regulators on selected microbial species affecting rape seeds, with special emphasis on the growth of fungi and identification of the genus and species composition. The experimental material in the study was seeds of winter rape cv. Californium that were collected from the field during combine harvest. The chemical agents applied, both desiccants and growth regulators, generally decreased the populations of bacteria occurring on the surface of rape seeds. The responses of fungi depended upon the type of agent applied and were manifested as either stimulation or inhibition of the growth of the fungal species. The fungi isolated from the surface of rape seeds were characteristic of those found in the field environment (Cladosporium and Penicillium) and typical for those present on the surface of rape seeds (Alternaria).

  20. Effects of 252Cf neutrons, transmitted through an iron block on human lymphocyte chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberration of human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to californium-252 (252Cf) neutrons transmitted through a 15 cm thick iron block was analysed. The spectrum of the filtered neutrons ranged from 0.1 to 2MeV with a peak at 0.7 MeV, simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb neutron spectrum as shown in the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). Chromosome aberration frequencies after exposure to filtered and unfiltered 252Cf radiation were compared. Acentric ring chromosomes were significantly increased (p 0.1). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the neutrons with respect to the formation of dicentrics and centric rings was 10.9 and 12.3 in the filtered and unfiltered conditions respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. These results provide useful information for the re-evaluation of the biological effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb radiations. (Author)

  1. Reliability of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for over-voltage protection exposed to ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Koviljka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread use of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for non-linear over-voltage protection results in a variety of possible working conditions. It is therefore essential to have a thorough insight into their reliability in exploitation environments which imply exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of irradiation on over-voltage diode characteristics by exposing the diodes to californium-252 combined neutron/gamma radiation field. The irradiation of semiconductor over-voltage diodes causes severe degradation of their protection characteristics. On the other hand, gas-filled over-voltage diodes exhibit a temporal improvement of performance. The results are presented with the accompanying theoretical interpretations of the observed changes in over-voltage diode behaviour, based on the interaction of radiation with materials constituting the diodes.

  2. Potential nuclear safeguards applications for neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many nuclear safeguards inspection instruments use neutron sources to interrogate the fissile material (commonly 235U and 239Pu) to be measured. The neutron sources currently used in these instruments are isotopics such as Californium-252, Americium-Lithium, etc. It is becoming increasingly more difficult to transport isotopic sources from one measurement location to another. This represents a significant problem for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards inspectors because they must take their safeguards instruments with them to each nuclear installation to make an independent measurement. Purpose of this paper is to review the possibility of replacing isotopic neutron sources now used in IAEA safeguards instruments with electric neutron sources such as deuterium-tritium (D-T, 14-MeV neutrons) or deuterium-deuterium (D-D, 2-MeV neutrons). The potential for neutron generators to interrogate spent-light water reactor fuel assemblies in storage pools is also reviewed

  3. Off-line commissioning of EBIS and plans for its integration into ATLAS and CARIBU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P N; Barcikowski, A; Dickerson, C A; Mustapha, B; Perry, A; Sharamentov, S I; Vondrasek, R C; Zinkann, G

    2016-02-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed at Argonne to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and significantly improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The CARIBU EBIS-CB has been successfully commissioned offline with an external singly charged cesium ion source. The performance of the EBIS fully meets the specifications to breed rare isotope beams delivered from CARIBU. The EBIS is being relocated and integrated into ATLAS and CARIBU. A long electrostatic beam transport system including two 180° bends in the vertical plane has been designed. The commissioning of the EBIS and the beam transport system in their permanent location will start at the end of this year. PMID:26932059

  4. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of 241Am and 237Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the 241Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  5. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Triton and alpha-particle contribution from LiF converter for neutron dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, M E; Balcazar, M

    1999-01-01

    A personnel neutron dosimeter prototype based on chemical and electrochemical etched CR-39 detector, combined with LiF converter, has been calibrated using an ICRP-like phantom, under a heavy-water moderated Californium source neutron spectra; A conversion factor of 1.052+-126 spots cm sup - sup 2 mSv sup - sup 1 was obtained. The sealing properties of the detector holder showed a ten-fold reduction in radon background when it was tested in a high radon atmosphere. A convenient mechanical shock resistance was achieved in LiF converters by sintering to 11 tons pressure LiF powder at 650 deg. C, during one hour.

  7. Nuclear fission and the transuranium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1989-02-01

    Many of the transuranium elements are produced and isolated in large quantities through the use of neutrons furnished by nuclear fission reactions: plutonium (atomic number 94) in ton quantities; neptunium (93), americium (95), and curium (96) in kilogram quantities; berkelium (97) in 100 milligram quantities; californium (98) in gram quantities; and einsteinium (99) in milligram quantities. Transuranium isotopes have found many practical applications---as nuclear fuel for the large-scale generation of electricity, as compact, long-lived power sources for use in space exploration, as means for diagnosis and treatment in the medical area, and as tools in numerous industrial processes. Of particular interest is the unusual chemistry and impact of these heaviest elements on the periodic table. This account will feature these aspects. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes; Mesures des sections efficaces de capture et potentiels d'incineration des actinides mineurs dans les hauts flux de neutrons: Impact sur la transmutation des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O

    2007-10-15

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of {sup 241}Am and {sup 237}Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the {sup 241}Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  9. Total and spontaneous fission half-lives of the uranium and plutonium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total half-life and the half-life for spontaneous fission are evaluated for the various long-lived nuclides of interest. Recommended values are presented for 232U, 233U, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U, 236Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, and 244Pu. The uncertainties are provided at the 95% confidence limit for each of the recommended values

  10. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor ameliorates cholecystokinin-octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang-Wan Seo; Won-Seok Jung; Tai-Guang Piao; Seung-Heon Hong; Ki-Jung Yun; Rae-Kil Park; Min-Kyo Shin; Ho-Joon Song; Sung-Joo Park

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of selective Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor 4-[5-(4-Chloro-phenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl] benzenesulfonamide (SC-236), on the cholecystokinin (CCK)-octapeptideinduced acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats.METHODS: Wistar rat weighing 240 g to 260 g were divided into three groups. (1) Normal DNISO treated group, (2) SC-236 at 4 mg/kg treated group; SC-236 systemically administered via the intravenous (i.v.) catheter, followed by 75 μg/kg CCK octapeptide subcutaneously three times, after 1,3 and 5 h. This whole procedure was repeated for 5 d. (3) Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treated group: an identical protocol was used in this group as in the SC-236 cohort (see 2. above). Repeated CCK octapeptide treatment resulted in a typical experimentally induced pancreatitis in the Wistar rats.RESULTS: SC-236 improved the severity of CCK-octapeptide-induced AP as measured by laboratory criteria [the pancreatic weight/body weight (p.w/ b.w) ratio, the level of serum amylase and lipase]. The SC-236 treated group showed minimal histologic evidence of pancreatitis and a significant reduction in myeloperoxidase activity. SC-236 also increased heat shock protein (HSP)-60 and HSP72 compared with the DMSO-treated group in the CCK-octapeptide-induced AP and also reduced the pancreatic levels of COX-2. Furthermore, SC-236 reduced proinflammatory cytokine synthesis and inhibited NF-κB activation compared with the DMSO-treated group in the CCK-octapeptide-induced AP.CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that COX-2 plays pivotal role in the development of AP and COX-2 inhibitors may play a beneficial role in preventing AP.

  11. Study of reproducibility of measurements with the spectrometer of Bonner multispheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, G.A.; Pereira, W.W.; Patrao, K.C.S.; Fonseca, E.S., E-mail: geisadeazevedo@gmail.com, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br, E-mail: karla@ird.gov.br, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radionprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to study the metrological behavior of the Bonner Multisphere Spectrometer (BMS) of the LN / LNMRI / IRD - Laboratorio Metrologia de Neutrons / Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia e Radiacao Ionizante / Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, for measurements in repeatability and reproducibility conditions. Initially, a simulation was done by applying the Monte Carlo method, using the MCNP code and respecting the ISO 8529-1 (2001), using the sources of Californium ({sup 252} Cf), Americium-Beryllium ({sup 241} AmBe) and californium in heavy water (Cf + D{sub 2}O), all located at a distance of 100 cm from the neutron detector ({sup 6}Li (Eu) - crystal scintillator). In this program, the counting of neutrons that are captured by the detector was made. The source is located in the center of a sphere of radius 300 cm. Analyzes the impact of these neutrons in a point of the sphere wall, which in this case acted as a neutron detector and from there, it is estimated the number of neutrons that collide in the whole sphere. The purpose is to obtain the neutron count for different energy bands in a solid field of neutrons, since they have a spectrum ranging from a low to a high energy that can also vary within a particular environment. Wishes to obtain new fields with different sources and moderators materials to be used as new reference fields. Measurements are being conducted for these fields, with the aim of analyzing the variability conditions of the measurement (repeatability and reproducibility) in LEN - Laboratorio de Espectrometria de Neutrons of the LN/LMNRI/IRD. Thus, the spectrometer will be used to improve both the knowledge of the spectrum as the standard of neutrons of the lab, proving that a spectrometry is essential for correct measurement.

  12. Investigating uranium isotopic distributions in environmental samples using AMS and MC-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, minor and trace uranium isotopes were measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in environmentally acquired samples using different instruments to span large variations in concentrations. Multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) can be used to measure major and minor isotopes: 238U, 235U, 234U and 236U. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) can be used to measure minor and trace isotopes: 234U, 236U and 233U. The main limit of quantification for minor or trace uranium isotopes is the abundance sensitivity of the measurement technique; i.e. the ability to measure a minor or trace isotope of mass M in the presence of a major isotope at M ± 1 mass units. The abundance sensitivity for 236U/235U isotope ratio measurements using MC-ICPMS is around ∼2 x 10-6. This compares with a 236U/235U abundance sensitivity of ∼1 x 10-7 for the current AMS system, with the expectation of 2-3 orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity with the addition of another high energy filter. Comparing 236U/234U from MC-ICPMS and AMS produced agreement within ∼10% for samples at 236U levels high enough to be measurable by both techniques

  13. Use of uranium isotopes as a temporal and spatial tracer of nuclear contamination in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center (FFMPC) was established in 1951 to process natural uranium (U) ore, enriched uranium (EU) and depleted uranium (DU). This study tests the utility of U isotopic ratios in sediment cores and lichens as indicators of the aerial extent, degree and timing of anthropogenic U contamination, using the FFMPC as a test case. An 80-cm-long sediment core was extracted from an impoundment located approximately 6.7 km southwest of the FFMPC. Elemental concentrations of thorium (2.7–6.2 μg g−1) and U (0.33–1.33 μg g−1) as well as major and minor U isotopes were analyzed in the core. The lack of measurable 137Cs in the deepest sample as well as a natural 235U/238U signature and no measurable 236U, are consistent with pre-FFMPC activity. Anomalously elevated U with respect to Th concentrations occur in seven consecutive samples immediately above the base of the core (62–76 cm depth). Samples with elevated U concentrations also show variable 235U/238U (0.00645–0.00748), and all contain measurable 236U (236U/238U = 2.1 × 10−6–3.6 × 10−5). Correspondence between the known releases of U dust from the FFMPC through time and variations in sediment core U concentrations, 235U/238U and 236U/238U ratios provide evidence for distinct releases of both DU and EU. Furthermore, these relationships demonstrate that the sediment core serves as a robust archive of past environmental U contamination events. Samples in the upper 40 cm display natural 235U/238U, but measurable 236U/238U (236U/238U = 5.68 × 10−6–1.43 × 10−5), further indicating the continued presence of anthropogenic U in present-day sediment. Three local lichen samples were also analyzed, and all display either EU or DU signatures coupled with elevated 236U/238U, recording airborne U contamination from the FFMPC. -- Highlights: • Sediment core near Fernald Feed Materials Production Center has non-natural U isotopic ratios. • DU and EU signatures and highest

  14. 青年急性心肌梗死患者临床特点及冠状动脉病变特征分析%The feature of clinic and coronary angiography in young patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童随阳; 夏豪; 曾彬; 王欣; 李磊; 黄丹; 王慧

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析青年急性心肌梗死(AMI)患者的临床特点及冠状动脉病变特征.方法 从2010年1月至2014年7月在武汉大学人民医院心内科住院诊断为AMI的患者中,选取年龄<40岁且有完整冠状动脉造影资料的AMI患者64例作为青年组,选取同期年龄>60岁且有完整冠状动脉造影资料的AMI患者236例作为老年组.统计患者基本临床资料及入院24 h内实验室检查结果、超声心动图及心电图检查,并记录患者住院期间心律失常、心力衰竭、心源性休克及心源性猝死等主要不良反应发生率.分析2组患者临床资料、危险因素(吸烟史、饮酒史、高胆固醇血症、高血压、糖尿病、家族史)以及冠状动脉造影结果.结果 ①青年组中男性、吸烟史、饮酒史及冠心病家族史患者比例高于老年组[87.5% (56/64)比71.2% (168/236)、65.6% (42/64)比36.0%(85/236)、39.1% (25/64)比25.8%(61/236)、35.9%(23/64)比11.0%(26/236)];高血压病史、糖尿病病史及肥胖比例低于老年组[17.2% (11/64)比34.8% (82/236)、12.5%(8/64)比27.1%(64/236)、14.1% (9/64)比35.2%(83/236)](P<0.05);②青年组总胆固醇和三酰甘油水平高于老年组[(5.4 ± 1.8) mmol/L比(4.4 ±2.7) mmol/L、(2.6±1.7) mmol/L比(1.4±1.3) mmol/L];青年组中1种危险因素者比例高于老年组[32.8% (21/64)比19.5%(46/236)];无危险因素者和4种及以上危险因素者低于老年组[6.2%(4/64)比11.9%(28/236)、4.7% (3/64)比9.3%(22/236)](P<0.05);④青年组冠状动脉造影正常和单支血管病变所占比例高于老年组[9.4% (6/64)比4.2%(10/236)、70.3% (45/64)比40.7%(96/236)];罪犯血管位于左回旋支和右冠状动脉所占比例低于老年组[15.6% (10/64)比29.7%(70/236)、31.2%(20/64)比40.2%(95/236)];冠状动脉狭窄程度积分低于老年组[(9±5)分比(17±7)分](P<0.05).⑤青年患者亚组分析单支血管病变组心血管危险因

  15. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for low-energetic heavy ions and their application in accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy-sensitive detection of heavy ions with calorimetric low temperature detectors was investigated in the energy range of E=0.1-1 MeV/amu, commonly used for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The detectors used consist of sapphire absorbers and superconducting aluminum transition edge thermometers operated at T∼1.5 K. They were irradiated with various ion beams (13C,197Au,238U) provided by the VERA tandem accelerator in Vienna, Austria. The relative energy resolution obtained was ΔE/E=(5-9)x10-3, even for the heaviest ions such as 238U. In addition, no evidence for a pulse height defect was observed. This performance allowed for the first time to apply a calorimetric low temperature detector in an AMS experiment. The aim was to precisely determine the isotope ratio of 236U/238U for several samples of natural uranium, 236U being known as a sensitive monitor for neutron fluxes. Replacing a conventionally used detection system at VERA by the calorimetric detector enabled to substantially reduce background from neighboring isotopes and to increase the detection efficiency. Due to the high sensitivity achieved, a value of 236U/238U=6.1x10-12 could be obtained, representing the smallest 236U/238U ratio measured at the time. In addition, we contributed to establishing an improved material standard of 236U/238U, which can be used as a reference for future AMS measurements.

  16. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for low-energetic heavy ions and their application in accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V. A.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Kiseleva, A.; Kiselev, O.; Meier, H. J.; Meier, J. P.; Shrivastava, A.; Weber, M.; Golser, R.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Vockenhuber, C.

    2009-10-01

    The energy-sensitive detection of heavy ions with calorimetric low temperature detectors was investigated in the energy range of E =0.1-1 MeV/amu, commonly used for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The detectors used consist of sapphire absorbers and superconducting aluminum transition edge thermometers operated at T ˜1.5 K. They were irradiated with various ion beams (C13,A197u,U238) provided by the VERA tandem accelerator in Vienna, Austria. The relative energy resolution obtained was ΔE /E=(5-9)×10-3, even for the heaviest ions such as U238. In addition, no evidence for a pulse height defect was observed. This performance allowed for the first time to apply a calorimetric low temperature detector in an AMS experiment. The aim was to precisely determine the isotope ratio of U236/U238 for several samples of natural uranium, U236 being known as a sensitive monitor for neutron fluxes. Replacing a conventionally used detection system at VERA by the calorimetric detector enabled to substantially reduce background from neighboring isotopes and to increase the detection efficiency. Due to the high sensitivity achieved, a value of U236/U238=6.1×10-12 could be obtained, representing the smallest U236/U238 ratio measured at the time. In addition, we contributed to establishing an improved material standard of U236/U238, which can be used as a reference for future AMS measurements.

  17. Isotopic composition and origin of uranium and plutonium in selected soil samples collected in Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danesi, P.R. E-mail: P.R.Danesi@iaea.org; Bleise, A.; Burkart, W.; Cabianca, T.; Campbell, M.J.; Makarewicz, M.; Moreno, J.; Tuniz, C.; Hotchkis, M

    2003-07-01

    Soil samples collected from locations in Kosovo where depleted uranium (DU) ammunition was expended during the 1999 Balkan conflict were analysed for uranium and plutonium isotopes content ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu). The analyses were conducted using gamma spectrometry ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U), alpha spectrometry ({sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) ({sup 236}U). The results indicated that whenever the U concentration exceeded the normal environmental values ({approx}2 to 3 mg/kg) the increase was due to DU contamination. {sup 236}U was also present in the released DU at a constant ratio of {sup 236}U (mg/kg)/{sup 238}U (mg/kg)=2.6x10{sup -5}, indicating that the DU used in the ammunition was from a batch that had been irradiated and then reprocessed. The plutonium concentration in the soil (undisturbed) was about 1 Bq/kg and, on the basis of the measured {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu, could be entirely attributed to the fallout of the nuclear weapon tests of the 1960s (no appreciable contribution from DU)

  18. How Long Will I Be Blue? Prolonged Skin Staining Following Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Using Intradermal Patent Blue Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Metehan; Gumus, Hatice; Jones, Sue E; Jones, Peter A; Sever, Ali R; Weeks, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Blue dye used for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients may cause prolonged skin discoloration at the site of injection. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of such skin discoloration. Patients and Methods 236 consecutive patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery and SLNB for breast cancer were reviewed prospectively from January 2007 to December 2009. Results Of the 236 patients, 2 had undergone bilateral surgery, and 41 had been examined in consecutive yearly reviews. Blue discoloration remained visible at the injection site after 12, 24, and > 36 months in 36.5, 23.6, and 8.6% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion The use of patent blue for identification of the sentinel lymph node in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery may result in prolonged discoloration of the skin at the injection site. PMID:24415970

  19. Man o' War Mutation in UDP-α-D-Xylose Synthase Favors the Abortive Catalytic Cycle and Uncovers a Latent Potential for Hexamer Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Jr., Richard M.; Polizzi, Samuel J.; Kadirvelraj, Renuka; Howard, Wesley W.; Wood, Zachary A. [Georgia

    2015-03-17

    The man o’ war (mow) phenotype in zebrafish is characterized by severe craniofacial defects due to a missense mutation in UDP-α-D-xylose synthase (UXS), an essential enzyme in proteoglycan biosynthesis. The mow mutation is located in the UXS dimer interface ~16 Å away from the active site, suggesting an indirect effect on the enzyme mechanism. We have examined the structural and catalytic consequences of the mow mutation (R236H) in the soluble fragment of human UXS (hUXS), which shares 93% sequence identity with the zebrafish enzyme. In solution, hUXS dimers undergo a concentration-dependent association to form a tetramer. Sedimentation velocity studies show that the R236H substitution induces the formation of a new hexameric species. Using two new crystal structures of the hexamer, we show that R236H and R236A substitutions cause a local unfolding of the active site that allows for a rotation of the dimer interface necessary to form the hexamer. The disordered active sites in the R236H and R236A mutant constructs displace Y231, the essential acid/base catalyst in the UXS reaction mechanism. The loss of Y231 favors an abortive catalytic cycle in which the reaction intermediate, UDP-α-D-4-keto-xylose, is not reduced to the final product, UDP-α-D-xylose. Surprisingly, the mow-induced hexamer is almost identical to the hexamers formed by the deeply divergent UXS homologues from Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori (21% and 16% sequence identity, respectively). The persistence of a latent hexamer-building interface in the human enzyme suggests that the ancestral UXS may have been a hexamer.

  20. Radiochemical separation methods for preparation of biomedical cyclotron radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short review of the radiochemical methods for preparation of widely used or promising cyclotron-produced radionuclides for nuclear medicine and biomedical or environmental studies is given. The presented data include the current status of the production of some gamma-emitters (97Ru, 111In, 123I, 201Tl), generator-pairs (68Ge/68Ga, 82 Sr/82Rb, 128Ba/128Cs, 178W/178Ta), radioisotopes for metabolism studies (26Al, 67Cu, 237Pu) and actinides tracers for environmental researches (235Np, 236Np, 236Pu). The conditions for preparation of high-purity isotopes have been investigated and procedures including target chemistry design were developed. (author)

  1. Drug: D03030 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03030 Drug Azarole (USAN) C14H12N4 236.1062 236.2719 D03030.gif Immunoregulator CA...S: 55872-82-7 PubChem: 17397185 LigandBox: D03030 NIKKAJI: J11.054J ATOM 18 1 C2x C 26.1879 -17.5191 2 C2y C... 26.1879 -18.9149 3 C2x C 27.3967 -19.6129 4 C2x C 28.6056 -18.9149 5 C2y C 28.6056 -17.5191 6 C2x C 27.3967

  2. Drug: D08422 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08422 Drug Procaine (INN); Solution of novocain (TN) C13H20N2O2 236.1525 236.3101 ...R TREATMENT OF HEMORRHOIDS AND ANAL FISSURES FOR TOPICAL USE C05AD Local anesthetics C05AD05 Procaine D08422 Procai...ne (INN) N NERVOUS SYSTEM N01 ANESTHETICS N01B ANESTHETICS, LOCAL N01BA Esters of aminobenzoic acid N01BA02 Procai...ne D08422 Procaine (INN) S SENSORY ORGANS S01 OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S01H... LOCAL ANESTHETICS S01HA Local anesthetics S01HA05 Procaine D08422 Procaine (INN) Target-based classificatio

  3. Enantiomeric Separation of Meptazinol Hydrochloride by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUYun-qiu; CHENYan; LINi; QIUZhui-bai

    2004-01-01

    Aim To establish a capillary electrophoresis method for enantiomerie separation of meptazinol hydrochloride. Methods The separation conditions such as cyclodextrin(CD)type, buffer pH, concentration of 2,3,6-O-triInethyl-β-cyclodextrin and organic additives were optimized. An optimum concentration was 30 mmol·L-1 phosphate (pH 7.02)with 10% (W/V) TM-β-CD and 2% acetonitrile. Results Basehne resolution of the enantiomer was readily achieved using 2,3,6-O-trimethyl-β-cyclodextrin. Conclusion This is a convenient method for fast enantiomeric resolution of meptazinol hydrochloride.

  4. Neutron Nuclear Data Evaluation of Actinoid Nuclei for CENDL-3.1

    CERN Document Server

    Guo-Chang, Chen; Bao-Sheng, Yu; Guo-You, Tang; Zhao-Min, Shi; Xi, Tao

    2011-01-01

    New evaluations for several actinoids of the third version of China Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (CENDL-3.1) have been completed during the period between 2000 and 2005. The evaluations are for all neutron induced reactions with Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium in the mass range A=232-241, 236-239, 236-246 and 240-244, respectively, and cover the incident neutron energy up to 20 MeV. In present evaluation, much more efforts were devoted to improve reliability of nuclide for available new measured data, especially scarce experimental data. A general description for the evaluation of several actinoids data were presented.

  5. The Development of Neutron Radiography and Tomography on a SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L. G. I.; Lewis, W. J.; Hungler, P. C.

    Development of neutron radiography at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) started by trying to interest the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in this new non-destructive testing (NDT) technique. A Californium-252 based device was ordered and then installed at RMC for development of applicable techniques for aircraft by the first author. A second and transportable device was then designed, modified and used in trials at RCAF Bases and other locations for one year. This activity was the only foreign loan of the U.S. Californium Loan Program. Around this time, SLOWPOKE-2 reactors were being installed at four Canadian universities, while a new science and engineering building was being built at RMC. A reactor pool was incorporated and efforts to procure a reactor succeeded a decade later with a SLOWPOKE-2 reactor being installed at RMC. The only modification by the vendor for RMC was a thermal column replacing an irradiation site inside the reactor container for a later installation of a neutron beam tube (NBT). Development of a working NBT took several years, starting with the second author. A demonstration of the actual worth of neutron radiography took place with a CF-18 Hornet aircraft being neutron and X-radiographed at McClellan Air Force Base, Sacramento, CA. This inspection was followed by one of the rudders that had indications of water ingress being radiographed successfully at RMC just after the NBT became functional. The next step was to develop a neutron radioscopy system (NRS), initially employing film and then digital imaging, and is in use today for all flight control surfaces (FCS). With the third author, a technique capable of removing water from affected FCS was developed at RMC. Heating equipment and a vacuum system were utilized to carefully remove the water. This technique was proven using a sequence of near real time neutron images obtained during the drying process. The results of the drying process were correlated with a relative humidity

  6. 碘酊加高渗葡萄糖水外敷联合CO2激光照射治愈慢性溃疡3例%Three Cases of Chronic Ulcer Cured by the Application of Povidone Iodine in Addition to 25% Glucose Solution and the Irradiation with Carbon-dioxide Laser Rays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉凤

    2003-01-01

    We report three cases ofchronic ulcer on the legs,cured by the application of povidone iodine in addition to25% glucose solution and the irradiation with carbon - dioxide laser rays.These three patients cured after the treatment of 2,3,6 months respectively. We think the method safe and effective as well as the cheap price.

  7. Attachment and Internalizing Behavior in Early Childhood: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sheri; Atkinson, Leslie; Laurin, Kristin; Benoit, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research supporting the contention that insecure attachment is related to internalizing behaviors has been inconsistent. Across 60 studies including 5,236 families, we found a significant, small to medium effect size linking insecure attachment and internalizing behavior (observed d = 0.37, 95% CI [0.27, 0.46]; adjusted d = 0.19, 95% CI…

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Vibrio splendidus Strains, Isolated from Seagrass Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ruth D; Jospin, Guillaume; Lang, Jenna M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Coil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Vibrio splendidus UCD-SED7 and UCD-SED10 (phylum Proteobacteria). These strains were isolated from sediment surrounding Zostera marina roots near the UC Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory (Bodega, Bay, California). These assemblies contain 5,334,236 bp and 5,904,824 bp, respectively. PMID:26893436

  9. Unterstützung der beruflichen Entwicklung Jugendlicher : der Beitrag von Lehrer/innen und Eltern

    OpenAIRE

    Mayhack, Kerstin; Kracke, Bärbel

    2010-01-01

    "Kinder und Jugendliche entwickeln sich optimal, wenn ihre wichtigsten Sozialisationskontexte konstruktiv zusammenarbeiten. Diese Studie untersucht inwieweit im Bereich Berufsorientierung neben der Unterstützung, die einzeln von Elternhaus und Lehrern geleistet wird, zusätzlich der explizite Elterneinbezug durch Lehrer/innen positiv mit der Berufswahlbereitschaft Jugendlicher einhergeht. 236 Jugendliche siebter bis neunter Regelschulklassen wurden per Fragebogen dazu befragt, inwiefern sie si...

  10. Does This Make Me Look Fat? Peer Crowd and Peer Contributions to Adolescent Girls' Weight Control Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; La Greca, Annette M.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, this study evaluated a "socialization" model linking girls' peer crowd affiliations (e.g., Jocks, Populars) with their own weight concern, perceived peer weight norms, and weight control behaviors. An alternative "selection" model was also evaluated. Girls (N = 236; M age = 15.95 years) from diverse ethnic…

  11. 33 CFR 160.310 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration under 49 CFR part 1572; or (6) Seafarer's Identification Document (SID) issued by or under the.... Navigable waters of the United States means the same as this term is defined in 33 CFR 2.36(a). This...' Identity Documents Convention (Revised), 2003 (ILO 185), meeting all the requirements of ILO...

  12. Foreign Language Achievement in Relation to Student-Teacher Cognitive Styles: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jacqueline; Stansfield, Charles

    Research has shown student field-independent cognitive style (FI), as opposed to field-dependent cognitive style (FD), to be correlated moderately with success on selected second language tasks. A trait-treatment interaction approach was utilized in this study to examine the role of FD/I among 236 college students enrolled in six sections of an…

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Asian Subjects with Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Infection: A Sub-Analysis of Phase 3 Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Sax, Paul; DeJesus, Edwin; Edelstein, Howard; Nelson, Mark; DeMorin, Jennifer; Liu, Hui C.; Swamy, Raji; Bahn, Joonwoo; Hwang, SunJin; Yang, SangYoun; Ng, Christopher; Piontkowsky, David

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of a single tablet regimen (STR) of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) were analyzed in Phase 3 clinical trials in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve and ART-experienced Asian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. Studies GS-US-236-102 and GS-US-236-103 were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 144-week studies conducted in ART-naïve subjects, comparing E/C/F/TDF versus efavirenz (EFV)/F/TDF or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV+RTV) plus emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (F/TDF), respectively. Studies GS-US-236-115 and GS-US-236-121 were randomized, open-label, 96-week long conducted in ART-experienced subjects, who switched to E/C/F/TDF from ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI+RTV)+F/TDF, or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)+F/TDF regimens. The E/C/F/TDF appeared to have sustained efficacy and safety and was well tolerated in the small number of ART-naïve and ART-experienced Asian subjects. PMID:27704731

  14. 33 CFR 154.1216 - Facility classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waters near the facility. Navigable waters is defined in 33 CFR part 2.36. (6) The fish, wildlife, and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Facility classification. 154.1216... Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1216 Facility classification. (a) The Coast Guard classifies facilities...

  15. 48 CFR 836.574 - Subcontracts and work coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... coordination. 836.574 Section 836.574 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Subcontracts and work coordination. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-80, Subcontracts and work coordination, in solicitations and contracts for construction expected to exceed the...

  16. 48 CFR 36.514 - Availability and use of utility services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... utility services. 36.514 Section 36.514 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... 36.514 Availability and use of utility services. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-14, Availability and Use of Utility Services, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  17. Establishing streptomycin epidemiological cut-off values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Microbial Drug Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Migura, L.; Sunde, M.; Karlsmose, S.; Veldman, K.T.; Schroeter, A.; Guerra, B.; Granier, S.A.; Perrin-Guyomard, A.; Gicquel-Bruneau, M.; Franco, A.; Englund, S.; Teale, C.; Heiska, H.; Clemente, L.; Boerlin, P.; Moreno, M.A.; Daignault, D.; Mevius, D.J.; Hendriksen, R.S.; Aarestrup, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32¿mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates we

  18. A Study of University Students' Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits. Part 2: Batteries, Ohm's Law, Power Dissipated, Resistors in Parallel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciarelli, V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Results of a systematic investigation into university students' (n=236) misunderstandings of d.c. simple circuit operations are reported. These results provide evidence of various misconceptions present before and after teaching the following topics: a battery as a source of constant current; the functional relation expressed by Ohm's law; power…

  19. The Compassion Fatigue Scale: Its Use with Social Workers Following Urban Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study has two goals: to assess the difference between secondary trauma and job burnout and to examine the utility of secondary trauma in predicting psychological distress. Method: The data come from a survey of social workers (N = 236) living in New York City 20 months following the September 11 terrorist attacks on the…

  20. QTL Information Table: 823 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Resistance or Tolerance Other soil stress tolerance Plant height (Low N level, Soil... QTL × N-level interaction for plant height in rice (Oriza Sativa L.). Plant and Soil 236, 237-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1012787510201 ...