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Sample records for california water year

  1. Water use in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Justin; Sneed, Michelle; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Metzger, Loren F.; Rewis, Diane; House, Sally F.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the USGS National Water Use Compilation, the California Water Science Center works in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies as well as academic and private organizations to collect and report total water withdrawals for California. The 2010 California water use data are aggregated here, in this website, for the first time. The California Water Science Center released these data ahead of the online USGS National Water Use Compilation circular report, in response to increased interest associated with current drought conditions. The national report is expected to be released late in 2014. The data on this website represents the most current California water use data available in the USGS National Water Use Compilation. It contains a section on water use in California for 2010. Water-use estimates are compiled by withdrawal source type, use category, and county. Withdrawal source types include groundwater, both fresh and saline,

  2. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1985. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.; Markham, K.L.; Trujillo, L.F.; Shelton, W.F.; Grillo, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1985 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 133 gaging stations; stage and contents for 9 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 34 stations. Also included are 3 low-flow partial-record stations and 1 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  3. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line Except Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.; Markham, K.L.; Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water. quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 123 gaging stations; stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 29 stations. Also included are 1 partial-record station and 24 water-quality partial-record stations, These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  4. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line Except Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, K.L.; Palmer, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 123 gaging stations; stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 38 stations. Also included is l low-flow partial-record station and 22 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  5. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1986. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.; Markham, K.L.; Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Grillo, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1986 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage and contents for 11 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 32 stations. Also included are 4 partial-record stations and 24 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  6. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water. quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 127 gaging stations, stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoir and water quality for 32 stations. Also included is 1 low-flow partial-record station and 22 waterquality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the u.s. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  7. Water resources data for California, water year 1975; Volume 4: Northern Central Valley basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake basin to Oregon state line

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1977-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1975 water year for California consist of records of streamflow and contents of reservoirs at gaging stations, partial-record stations, and miscellaneous sites; records of water quality including the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water; and records of water levels in selected observation wells. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Lee R. Peterson, district chief; Winchell Smith, assistant district chief for hydrologic data; and Leonard N. Jorgensen, chief of the basic data section. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  8. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1991. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.; Palmer, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 130 streamflow-gaging stations, 1 low-flow partial-record station, and 6 miscellaneous measurement sites; stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 3 stations; and water-quality records for 41 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  9. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1990. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.; Palmer, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1990 water year for. California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 125 streamflow-gaging stations and 1 low-flow partial-record station; stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 4 stations; and water-quality records for 29 streamflow-gaging stations and 10 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  10. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1993. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 119 streamflow-gaging stations, 1 low-flow partial-record streamflow station, and 6 miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents records for 6 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 3 stations; and water-quality records for 31 streamflow-gaging stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and with other agencies.

  11. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1995. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebel, M.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1995 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 111 streamflow-gaging stations, 1 low-flow partial-record streamflow station; and 2 miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents for 6 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 1 station; and water-quality records for 22 streamflow-gaging stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and with other agencies.

  12. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1992. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, K.L.; Palmer, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Trujillo, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 124 streamflow-gaging stations, 1 low-flow partial-record streamflow station, and 6 miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 3 stations; and water-quality records for 32 stream flow-gaging stations and 1 water-quality partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and with other agencies.

  13. Precipitation-runoff processes in the Feather River basin, northeastern California, and streamflow predictability, water years 1971-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczot, Kathryn M.; Jeton, Anne E.; McGurk, Bruce; Dettinger, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    -shadowed basins of the northeastern Sierra Nevada than the uplands of most western Sierra Nevada river basins. The climate is mediterranean, with most of the annual precipitation occurring in winter. Because the basin includes large areas that are near the average snowline, rainfall and rain-snow mixtures are common during winter storms. Consequently, the overall timing and rates of runoff from the basin are highly sensitive to winter temperature fluctuations. The models were developed to simulate runoff-generating processes in eight drainages of the Feather River Basin. Together, these models simulate streamflow from 98 percent of the basin above Lake Oroville. The models simulate daily water and heat balances, snowpack evolution and snowmelt, evaporation and transpiration, subsurface water storage and outflows, and streamflow to key streamflow gage sites. The drainages are modeled as 324 hydrologic-response units, each of which is assumed homogeneous in physical characteristics and response to precipitation and runoff. The models were calibrated with emphasis on reproducing monthly streamflow rates, and model simulations were compared to the total natural inflows into Lake Oroville as reconstructed by the California Department of Water Resources for April-July snowmelt seasons from 1971 to 1997. The models are most sensitive to input values and patterns of precipitation and soil characteristics. The input precipitation values were allowed to vary on a daily basis to reflect available observations by making daily transformations to an existing map of long-term mean monthly precipitation rates that account for altitude and rain-shadow effects. The models effectively simulate streamflow into Lake Oroville during water years (October through September) 1971-97, which is demonstrated in hydrographs and statistical results presented in this report. The Butt Creek model yields the most accurate historical April-July simulations, whereas the West Branch

  14. Water resources data for California, water year 1979; Volume 1: Colorado River basin, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1979 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. These data, a contribution to the National Water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  15. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.; Polinoski, K.G.; Smith, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 134 gaging stations; stage and contents for 16 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 16 streams. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, 3 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 10 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  16. Water Resources Data, California Water Year 1982, Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; Butcher, M.T.; Lamb, C.E.; Singer, J.A.; Smith, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1982 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 160 gaging stations; stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 20 streams and 20 wells; water levels for 174 observation wells. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  17. Water resources data for California, water year 1978; Volume 1: Colorado River basin, southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1979-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1978 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. These data, a contribution to the National water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  18. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinoski, K.G.; Hoffman, E.B.; Smith, G.B.; Bowers, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 134 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 24 streams. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, 5 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 16 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  19. Water Resources Data for California, water year 1981: Vol. 1. Colorado River basin, Southern Great basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1982-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1981 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 169 gaging stations; stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 42 streams and 21 wells; water levels for 169 observation wells. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  20. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  1. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1985. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.; Polinoski, K.G.; Smith, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1985 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 150 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 23 streams. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, three miscellaneous measurement sites, and one waterquality partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Water resources data for California, water year 1980; Volume 1, Colorado River basin, Southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Volume 1 of water resources data for the 1980 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lake and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report contains discharge records for 174 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 51 stations; water levels for 165 observation wells. Also included are 9 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  3. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1986. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.; Polinoski, K.G.; Smith, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1986 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 144 gaging stations; stage and contents for 15 lakes and reservoirs; watet quality for 21 streams. Also included are crest-stage partial-record stations, 3 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 5 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  4. California Water Resources Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    overbank flows Study efforts during calendar year 1977 will focus on occur an average of once every three years, especially the stormwater runoff...of disposing of waterborne wastes, includ- trol, navigation, salinity control, water supply, tidelands ing reclamation and reuse where appropriate...studies for Wilson and Wildwood Creeks streams in the South Coastal Basins have been com- Keys Canyon pleted: Moose Canyon Agua Hedionda Creek Otay

  5. 21st Century California Water Storage Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Nelson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss4art1The goal of this paper is to analyze storage projects constructed and planned in California since 1980, in contrast with storage constructed before that date. As a result of California’s highly variable climate, storage is an essential tool for agricultural and urban water users. Today, the state regulates approximately 1,250 reservoirs, with a combined storage of 42 million acre-feet. Federal agencies regulate approximately 200 additional reservoirs. The vast majority of this surface storage was constructed before 1978, when New Melones Dam, the last large on-stream water supply reservoir in California, was completed. The role of storage in meeting future needs remains a high-profile issue in the California water debate. For example, funding for new storage was the largest item in Proposition 1, the most recent water bond voters approved. This analysis included a review of existing literature, such as the California Department of Water Resources Division of Dam Safety database, California Water Commission documents about new storage proposals, water agency documents, and interviews with water agency staff and others. Water managers face dramatically different conditions today, in comparison to conditions before 1980. These conditions have led to new approaches to water storage that represent a dramatic departure from past storage projects. During the past 37 years, a wide range of new water storage strategies have been planned and implemented. These facilities have created a combined new storage capacity greater than that of Lake Shasta, California’s largest reservoir. These new storage strategies suggest the need to revisit the fundamental definition of water storage. With limited potential for new storage drawing from the state’s rivers, California must choose storage projects wisely. By learning from successful strategies in recent decades, decision-makers can make better storage investment

  6. Water resources data for California, water year 1976; Volume 1: Colorado River basin, southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1977-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1976 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Lee R. Peterson, district chief; Winchell Smith, assistant district chief for hydrologic data; and Leonard N. Jorgensen, chief of the basic-data section. These data, a contribution to the National Water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  7. Water resources data for California, water year 1977; Volume 1: Colorado River Basin, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1978-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1977 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Winchell Smith, Assistant District Chief for Hydrologic Data and Leonard N. Jorgensen, Chief of the Basic-Data Section. These data, a contribution to the National Water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  8. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, E.B.; Bowers, J.C.; Jensen, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 137 gaging stations; stage and contents for 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 25 streams; and precipitation for 8 gaging stations. Also included are 15 crest-stage partial-record stations, 7 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 5 water-quality partial record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  9. Water resources data for California, water year 1975; Volume 1: Colorado River basin, southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1977-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1975 water year for California consist of records of streamflow and contents of reservoirs at gaging stations, partial-record stations, and miscellaneous sites; records of water quality including the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water; and records of water levels in selected observation wells. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Lee R. Peterson, district chief; Winchell Smith, assistant district chief for hydrologic data; and Leonard N. Jorgensen, chief of the basic data section. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  10. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2000, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.W.; Agajanian, J.; Rockwell, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 175 gaging stations and 13 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 20 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 27 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 4 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  11. Water Resources Data -- California, Water Year 2003, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, G.L.; Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.; Rockwell, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 193 gaging stations and 11 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 22 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 47 streamflow-gaging stations and 12 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  12. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2001, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.; Rockwell, G.L.; Anderson, S.W.; Pope, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 180 gaging stations and 13 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 20 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 37 streamflow-gaging stations and 2 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 3 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  13. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1994. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.; Rockwell, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1994 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 143 streamflow-gaging stations, 15 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage and contents records for 20 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water quality records for 19 streamflow-gaging stations and 2 partial-record stations; and ( 4) precipitation records for 8 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  14. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1991. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R.M.; Hoffman, E.B.; Bowers, J.C.; Mullen, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains dischrage records for 171 streamflow-gaging stations, 16 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 3 miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents records for 24 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 23 streamflow-gaging stations, 4 partial-record stations; and precipitation records for 16 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U,S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  15. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2002, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, G.L.; Pope, G.L.; Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 188 gaging stations and 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 39 streamflow-gaging stations and 11 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  16. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1990. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; Jensen, R.M.; Hoffman, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1990 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 157 streamflow-gaging stations, 16 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 2miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents records for 16 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 19 streamflow-gaging stations, 2 partial-record stations; and precipitation records for 13 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  17. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1998. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.; Rockwell, G.L.; Hayes, P.D.; Anderson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 157 gaging stations and 13 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 21 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, water quality for 22 streamflow-gaging stations and 14 partialrecord stations, and precipitation data for 3 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  18. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1996. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, G.L.; Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1996 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 149 gaging stations and 6 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 21 lakes and reservoirs, gage height records for 1 station, water quality for 19 streamflow-gaging stations and 17 partial record stations, and precipitation data for 4 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  19. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, E.B.; Bowers, J.C.; Mullen, J.R.; Hayes, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 161 streamflow-gaging stations, 15 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 5 miscellaneous measurement stations; (2) stage and contents records for 26 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 23 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 partialrecord stations; and ( 4) precipitation records for 11 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  20. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1993. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, J.R.; Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 156 streamflow-gaging stations, 12 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 5 miscellaneous measurement stations; (2) stage and contents records for 26 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations and 6 partial-record stations; and (4) precipitation records for 10 stations . These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  1. Water resources data, California, water year 2004, volume 1. southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.; Rockwell, G.L.; Pope, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 195 gaging stations and 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 25 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 47 streamflow-gaging stations and 7 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 5 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1995. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.A.; Rockwell, G.L.; Hayes, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1995 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 141 streamflow-gaging stations, 6 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage and contents records for 20 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water quality records for 21 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 partial-record stations; and (4) precipitation records for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  3. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in

  4. Trap-efficiency study, Highland Creek flood-retarding reservoir near Kelseyville, California, water years 1966-77

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation is part of a nationwide study of trap efficiency of detention reservoirs. In this report, trap efficiency was computed from reservoir inflow and outflow sediment data and from reservoir survey and outflow data. Highland Creek Reservoir is a flood-retarding reservoir located in Lake County, near Kelseyville, California. This reservoir has a maximum storage capacity of 3,199 acre-feet and permanent pool storage of 921 acre-feet. Mean annual rainfall for the 14.1 square-mile drainage area above Highland Creek Dam was 29 inches during the December 1965 to September 1977 study period. Resultant mean annual runoff was 17,100 acre-feet. Total reservoir inflow for the 11.8 yea r study period was 202,000 acre-feet, transporting an estimated 126,000 tons (10,700 tons per year) of suspended sediment. Total reservoir outflow for the same period was 188,700 acre-feet, including 15 ,230 tons (1,290 tons per year) of sediment. Estimated trap efficiency for the study period was 88 percent, based on estimated sediment inflow and measured sediment outflow.

  5. Trap-efficiency study, Highland Creek flood retarding reservoir near Kelseyville, California, water years 1966-77

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation is part of a nationwide study of trap efficiency of detention reservoirs. In this report, trap efficiency was computed from reservoir inflow and outflow sediment data and from reservoir survey and outflow data. Highland Creek Reservoir is a flood retarding reservoir located in Lake County, near Kelseyville, California. This reservoir has a maximum storage capacity of 3,199 acre-feet and permanent pool storage of 921 acre-feet. Mean annual rainfall for the 14.1-square-mile drainage area above Highland Creek Dam was 29 inches during the December 1965 to September 1977 study period. Resultant mean annual runoff was 17,100 acre-feet. Total reservoir inflow for the 11.8-year study period was 202,000 acre-feet, transporting an estimated 126,000 tons (10,700 tons per year) of suspended sediment. Total reservoir outflow for the same period was 188,700 acre-feet, including 15,230 tons (1,290 tons per year) of sediment. Estimated trap efficiency for the study period was 88%, based on estimated sediment inflow and measured sediment outflow. Reservoir surveys made in December 1965 and April 1972 revealed a storage capacity loss of 35.8 acre-feet during the 6.3-year period. Computed by using an estimated specific weight, this loss represents 54,600 tons of deposited sediment. Sediment outflow during the same period was 8,890 tons. Trap efficiency for the survey period was 86%. (USGS)

  6. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1997. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.; Rockwell, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1997 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 151 gaging stations and 16 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 21 lakes and reservoirs, gage height records for 1 station, water quality for 23 streamflow-gaging stations and 10 partialrecord stations, and precipitation data for 5 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Califomia.

  7. Total- and monomethyl-mercury and major ions in coastal California fog water: Results from two years of sampling on land and at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Weiss-Penzias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine fog water samples were collected over two summers (2014–2015 with active strand collectors (CASCC at eight coastal sites from Humboldt to Monterey counties in California, USA, and on four ocean cruises along the California coastline in order to investigate mercury (Hg cycling at the ocean-atmosphere-land interface. The mean concentration of monomethylmercury (MMHg in fog water across terrestrial sites for both years was 1.6 ± 1.9 ng L-1 (<0.01–10.4 ng L-1, N = 149, which corresponds to 5.7% (2.0–10.8% of total Hg (HgT in fog. Rain water samples from three sites had mean MMHg concentrations of 0.20 ± 0.12 ng L-1 (N = 5 corresponding to 1.4% of HgT. Fog water samples collected at sea had MMHg concentrations of 0.08 ± 0.15 ng L-1 (N = 14 corresponding to 0.4% of HgT. Significantly higher MMHg concentrations in fog were observed at terrestrial sites next to the ocean relative to a site 40 kilometers inland, and the mean difference was 1.6 ng L-1. Using a rate constant for photo-demethylation of MMHg of -0.022 h-1 based on previous demethylation experiments and a coastal-inland fog transport time of 12 hours, a mean difference of only 0.5 ng L-1 of MMHg was predicted between coastal and inland sites, indicating other unknown source and/or sink pathways are important for MMHg in fog. Fog water deposition to a standard passive 1.00 m2 fog collector at six terrestrial sites averaged 0.10 ± 0.07 L m-2 d-1, which was ∼2% of typical rainwater deposition in this area. Mean air-surface fog water fluxes of MMHg and HgT were then calculated to be 34 ± 40 ng m-2 y-1 and 546 ± 581 ng m-2 y-1, respectively. These correspond to 33% and 13% of the rain fluxes, respectively.

  8. California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) - Impaired Waterbodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset contains California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list which is submitted by the California State Water Resources Control Board. The layer has...

  9. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    , and the region is characterized by urban and agricultural development. Ventura Harbor sits just north of the mouth of the Santa Clara River, in an area formerly occupied by lagoons and marshes. The Offshore of Ventura map area lies in the eastern part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, whose littoral drift is to the east-southeast. Drift rates of about 700,000 to 1,150,000 tons/yr have been reported at Ventura Harbor. At the east end of the littoral cell, eastward-moving sediment is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported into the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The largest sediment source to this littoral cell (and the largest in all of southern California) is the Santa Clara River, which has an estimated annual sediment flux of 3.1 million tons. In addition, the Ventura River yields about 270,000 tons of sediment annually. Despite the large local sediment supply, coastal erosion problems are ongoing in the map area. Riprap, revetments, and seawalls variably protect the coast within and north of Ventura. The offshore part of the map area mainly consists of relatively flat, shallow continental shelf, which dips so gently (about 0.2° to 0.4°) that water depths at the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters are just 20 to 40 m. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north and west by Point Conception and the Channel Islands; long-period swells affecting the area are mainly from the south-southwest. Fair-weather wave base is typically shallower than 20-m water depth, but winter storms are capable of resuspending fine-grained sediments in 30 m of water, and so shelf sediments in the map area probably are remobilized on an annual basis. The shelf is underlain by tens of meters of interbedded upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated up and down in the last several hundred thousand years. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa

  10. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 200 m) subsurface geology.

  11. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Salt Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Greene, H. Gary; Cochrane, Guy R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  12. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Pacifica, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Bretz, Carrie K.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Chinn, John L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Cochran, Susan A.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. 

  13. California State Waters Map Series: Drakes Bay and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet T.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Watt, Janet T.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  14. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  15. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  16. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    , a secondary fault within the distributed plate boundary, cuts through (and is roughly aligned with) Carmel Canyon, a submarine canyon in the southwest corner of the map area that is part of the Monterey Canyon system. The San Gregorio Fault Zone is part of a fault system that is present predominantly in the offshore for about 400 km, from Point Conception in the south (where it is known as the Hosgri Fault) to Bolinas and Point Reyes in the north.The offshore part of the map area primarily consists of relatively flat continental shelf, bounded on the west by the steep flanks of Carmel Canyon. Shelf width varies from 2 to 3 km in the southern part of the map area, near the mouth of Carmel Canyon, to 14 km in Monterey Bay. Bedrock beneath the shelf is overlain in many areas by variable amounts (0 to 16 m) of upper Quaternary shelf and nearshore sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated in the late Pleistocene. “Soft-induration,” unconsolidated sediment is the dominant (about 63 percent) habitat type on the continental shelf, followed by “hard-induration” rock and boulders (about 34 percent) and “mixed-induration” substrate (about 3 percent). At water depths of about 100 to 130 m, the shelf break approximates the shoreline during the sea-level lowstand of the Last Glacial Maximum, about 21,000 years ago.Carmel Canyon and other parts of the Monterey Canyon system in the map area extend from the shelf break to water depths that reach 1,600 m. Most of the extensive incision of the shelf break and canyon flanks probably occurred during repeated Quaternary sea-level lowstands. The relatively straight floor of Carmel Canyon notably is aligned with the San Gregorio Fault Zone. Mixed hard-soft substrate is the most common (about 51 percent) habitat type in Carmel Canyon; hard bedrock and soft, unconsolidated sediment cover about 40 percent and 9 percent of canyon habitat, respectively.This part of the central California coast is exposed to large North Pacific

  17. Water resources data for California, water year 1996. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria river. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwell, G.L.; Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.

    1997-07-01

    Water-resources data for the 1996 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 149 gaging stations and 6 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 21 lakes and reservoirs, gage height records for 1 station, water quality for 19 streamflow-gaging stations and 17 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 4 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  18. Water resources data for california, water year 1992. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono lake basin, and pacific slope basins from Tijuana river to Santa Maria river. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E.B.; Bowers, J.C.; Mullen, J.R.; Hayes, P.D.

    1993-09-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 161 streamflow-gaging stations, 15 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 5 miscellaneous measurement stations; (2) stage and contents records for 26 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 23 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 partial-record stations; and (4) precipitation records for 11 stations.

  19. Water resources data for California, water year 1993. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, J.R.; Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 156 streamflow-gaging stations, 12 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 5 miscellaneous measurement stations; (2) stage and contents records for 26 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations and 6 partial-record stations; and (4) precipitation records for 10 stations.

  20. Water resources data for California water year 1994. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria river. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1993-30 September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.; Rockwell, G.L.

    1995-03-01

    Water resources data for the 1994 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 143 streamflow-gaging stations, 15 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage and contents records for 20 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water quality records for 19 streamflow-gaging stations and 2 partial-record stations; and (4) precipitation records for 8 stations.

  1. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of acid mine drainage in ground water in the vicinity of Penn Mine and Camanche Reservoir, Calaveras County, California; first-year summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.; Alpers, C.N.

    1995-01-01

    Acid drainage from the Penn Mine in Calaveras County, California, has caused contamination of ground water between Mine Run Dam and Camanche Reservoir. The Penn Mine was first developed in the 1860's primarily for copper and later produced lesser amounts of zinc, lead, silver, and gold from steeply dipping massive sulfide lenses in metamorphic rocks. Surface disposal of sulfidic waste rock and tailings from mine operations has produced acidic drainage with pH values between 2.3 and 2.7 and elevated concentrations of sulfate and metals, including copper, zinc, cadmium, iron, and aluminum. During the mine's operation and after its subsequent abandonment in the late 1950's, acid mine drainage flowed down Mine Run into the Mokelumne River. Construction of Camanche Dam in 1963 flooded part of the Mokelumne River adjacent to Penn Mine. Surface-water diversions and unlined impoundments were constructed at Penn Mine in 1979 to reduce runoff from the mine, collect contaminated surface water, and enhance evaporation. Some of the contaminated surface water infiltrates the ground water and flows toward Camanche Reservoir. Ground- water flow in the study area is controlled by the local hydraulic gradient and the hydraulic characteristics of two principal rock types, a Jurassic metavolcanic unit and the underlying Salt Spring slate. The hydraulic gradient is west from Mine Run impoundment toward Camanche Reservoir. The median hydraulic conductivity was about 10 to 50 times higher in the metavolcanic rock (0.1 foot per day) than in the slate (0.002 to 0.01 foot per day); most flow occurs in the metavolcanic rock where hydraulic conductivity is as high as 50 feet per day in two locations. The contact between the two rock units is a fault plane that strikes N20?W, dips 20?NE, and is a likely conduit for ground-water flow, based on down-hole measurements with a heatpulse flowmeter. Analyses of water samples collected during April 1992 provide a comprehensive characterization of

  2. Storing Water in California's Hidden Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, D.; Rohde, M. M.; Szeptycki, L.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    California is experiencing one of its worst droughts in history; in early 2014, the Governor released the Water Action Plan outlining opportunities to secure reliable water supplies. Groundwater recharge and storage is suggested as an alternative to surface storage, but little research has been conducted to see if groundwater recharge is a competitive alternative to other water-supply infrastructure projects. Although groundwater recharge and storage data are not readily available, several voter-approved bonds have helped finance groundwater recharge and storage projects and can be used as a proxy for costs, geographic distribution, and interest in such projects. We mined and analyzed available grant applications submitted to the Department of Water Resources that include groundwater recharge and storage elements. We found that artificial recharge can be cheaper than other water-supply infrastructure, but the cost was dependent on the source of water, the availability and accessibility of infrastructure used to capture and convey water, and the method of recharge. Bond applications and funding awards were concentrated in the Central Valley and southern California - both are regions of high water demand. With less than 60% of proposals funded, there are opportunities for groundwater recharge and storage to play a bigger role in securing California's water supplies.

  3. California community water systems quarterly indicators dataset, 1999-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains quarterly measures of arsenic and nitrates in public drinking water supplies. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW)...

  4. California community water systems annual indicators dataset, 1999-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains annual measures of arsenic and nitrates in public drinking water supplies. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW)...

  5. California State Waters Map Series Data Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Nadine E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps and associated data layers through the collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. CSMP has divided coastal California into 110 map blocks (fig. 1), each to be published individually as USGS Scientific Investigations Maps (SIMs) at a scale of 1:24,000. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. This CSMP data catalog contains much of the data used to prepare the SIMs in the California State Waters Map Series. Other data that were used to prepare the maps were compiled from previously published sources (for example, onshore geology) and, thus, are not included herein.

  6. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Phase I studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM file for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Phase II studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  7. California Tribal Nations Technical Water Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, C; Coty, J

    2005-08-15

    This research focused on identifying the key technical water issues of federally recognized California Native American tribes, the context within which these water issues arise for the tribes, and an appropriate format for potentially opening further dialogue on water research issues between the tribes and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists. At LLNL, a Water Quality and Resource Management Issues Workshop held in January of 2003 resulted in multiple recommendations, one proposing a LLNL dialogue with California tribes to further inform LLNL's prioritization of water issues based on identified needs across national sectors. The focus of this aforementioned Water Quality and Resource Management Issues Workshop was to identify national and international priority water research issues with which LLNL may align their research efforts and contribute to resolving these needs. LLNL staff researched various sectors to delineate the key water issues associated with each. This preliminary water issue research included diverse entities such as international water agencies, federal and state agencies, industry, non-governmental agencies, and private organizations. The key (identified) water issues across these sectors were presented to workshop attendees and used during workshop debates and sessions. However, the key water issues of federally recognized Native American tribes remained less understood, resulting in a workshop proposal for additional research and LLNL potentially hosting a dialog with representatives of these tribes. Federally recognized Native American tribes have a unique government-to-government relationship with the United States (U.S.) government, in contrast to other sectors researched for the workshop. Within the U.S., the number of federally recognized tribes currently stands at 562 and, in addition to this large number of tribes, much diversity across these tribes exists. For the purposes of this preliminary research and report

  8. Water Management Policy in California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Christina; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    the politicians do not want to impose tax, and they would like to have short-term development and economic growth during their term in order to gain a positive reputation from the public or to get re-elected. The developers would like more work and prestige and the water bureaucrats have little incentive to limit...

  9. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979 to 1980 of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for reservoir assessment and confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Statewide assessment studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM File for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Site specific assessment studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  10. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Carpinteria map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The small city of Carpinteria is the most significant onshore cultural center in the map area; the smaller town of Summerland lies west of Carpinteria. These communities rest on a relatively flat coastal piedmont that is surrounded on the north, east, and west by hilly relief on the flanks of the Santa Ynez Mountains. El Estero, a salt marsh on the coast west of Carpinteria, is an ecologically important coastal estuary. Southeast of Carpinteria, the coastal zone is narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors

  11. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively

  12. Seasonal water storage, stress modulation, and California seismicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher W; Fu, Yuning; Bürgmann, Roland

    2017-06-16

    Establishing what controls the timing of earthquakes is fundamental to understanding the nature of the earthquake cycle and critical to determining time-dependent earthquake hazard. Seasonal loading provides a natural laboratory to explore the crustal response to a quantifiable transient force. In California, water storage deforms the crust as snow and water accumulates during the wet winter months. We used 9 years of global positioning system (GPS) vertical deformation time series to constrain models of monthly hydrospheric loading and the resulting stress changes on fault planes of small earthquakes. The seasonal loading analysis reveals earthquakes occurring more frequently during stress conditions that favor earthquake rupture. We infer that California seismicity rates are modestly modulated by natural hydrological loading cycles. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Health assessment of toluene in California drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, N.; Reed, W.; Beltran, L.; Li, R.; Encomienda, I.

    1989-03-08

    This report reviews existing literature pertinent to the health risk posed by the use of toluene-contaminated drinking water. Also included in the study is an estimate of the toluene exposure of California residents based on the most recent data on toluene concentrations in California drinking water supplies. The concentration of toluene in drinking water that may cause adverse health effects is delineated.

  14. Water Bodies and Vegetation in the California-Baja California Border Region a Remote Sensors Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, A.; Mexicano-Vargas, M. L.; Serrato, B. A.

    2007-05-01

    The California-Baja California border region although they share watersheds, similar climate and landscape, there is a big contrast in the vegetation cover and water bodies between the two countries as seen from remote sensors. There is a stronger signature of vegetation and larger number of water bodies in the California side. To do a quantitative estimate of these differences, a comparative analysis of vegetation and water bodies was perfomerd along a strip of 100 km from both sides of the border with remote sensing techniques using Landsat TM images from 1984 to 2006. The strong absorption of water to short wave infrared radiation captured by band 5 of TM Landsat sensor (1.55- 1.75 micrometers) is use to detect water bodies. The histogram segmentation technique was used with TM 5/1 band ratios reinforced with a shades prediction technique using the sun position and a digital elevation model. The aerial extent of detected water bodies is estimated. Also an analysis from 1972 trough 2002 of the Mexican portion of Colorado river delta will be presented, with emphasis on flood events induced by abnormal snowmelts and higher precipitations in the high basin; 250 Landsat image previews were collected , from which 157 were selected to integrate 63 scenes that provide a dynamic picture of the Colorado delta river over 30 years. A regression with the annual averages of inundated areas and annual water flow data from E.U. to Mexico was made with a correlation coefficient of 0.912. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to estimate the vegetation greenness in the agricultural valleys and in natural vegetated areas along the mountains on both sides of the border. The spatial distribution of the NDVI and the differences between zones with the same land use regime on both sides of the border is presented.

  15. California's Water Management Response in the Wake of an Underwhelming El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, M.

    2016-12-01

    The 2015-16 El Niño led to record high temperatures in the Eastern Pacific and enormous expectations for elevated precipitation in drought plagued California. By some estimates, the 2012 to 2015 time period was the largest drought in California in nearly 500 years, and the drought continues in southern California where Los Angeles County has now received an average of less than 200 mm of rain annually for the last five years. Although the 2015-16 El Niño delivered an average year of precipitation in northern California and a near average snow pack in the Sierra Nevada mountains, it was not the hoped for panacea to California's record drought. The state's response to drought in 2015 was unprecedented with the first statewide mandatory conservation requirement (an average of 25% in urban areas) in U.S. history. In addition, water agencies were required to track and report water use monthly, were fined in the event of large exceedances of their conservation targets, and specific uses such as irrigating median strips on streets were prohibited. Water allocations from the State Water Project were also severely curtailed resulting in an estimated 400,000 acres of fallowed agricultural lands and the loss of approximately 17,000 agricultural jobs. Regulatory requirements for new water recycling facilities were reduced and large scale water conservation economic incentives, such as turf removal rebate programs, became commonplace. California's modification of these unprecedented conservation efforts will be examined in the face of an El Niño that largely refilled reservoirs in northern and central California, but provided little relief to southern California irrigation needs and overdrafted aquifers central and southern California. An evaluation of California's regulatory and policy actions and the efficacy and consequences of these efforts for short and medium term sustainable water management will be discussed.

  16. Tulelake, California: The last 3 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D.P.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Rieck, H.J.; Bradbury, J.P.; Dean, W.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Tulelake basin, formed by east-west extension and faulting during the past several million years, contains at least 550 m of lacustrine sediment. Interdisciplinary studies of a 334 m-long cored section from the town of Tulelake, California, near the center of the basin, document a 3-m.y. record of environmental changes. The core consists of a thick sequence of diatomaceous clayey, silty, and marly lacustrine sediments interbedded with numerous tephra layers. Paleomagnetic study puts the base of the core at about 3.0 Ma. Twelve widespread silicic tephra units provide correlations with other areas and complement age control provided by magnetostratigraphy; mafic and silicic tephra units erupted from local sources are also common in the core. Widespread tephra units include the Llao Rock pumice (=Tsoyawata, 7 ka), the Trego Hot Springs Bed (23 ka), and the Rockland (0.40 Ma), Lava Creek (0.62 Ma), and Rio Dell (1.5 Ma) ash beds, as well as several ash beds also found at Summer Lake, Oregon, and an ash bed originally recognized in DSDP hole 173 in the northeastern Pacific. Several tephra layers found in the core also occur in lacustrine beds exposed around the margins of the basin and elsewhere in the ancestral lacustrine system. Diatoms are present throughout the section. Pollen is present in most of the section, but some barren zones are found in the interval between 50 and 140 m; the greatest change in behavior of the pollen record takes place just above the top of the Olduvai Normal-Polarity Subchronozone. Ostracodes are present only in high-carbonate (>10% CaCO3) intervals. Evolutionary changes are found in the diatom and ostracode records. Bulk geochemical analyses show significant changes in elemental composition of the sediment through time. ?? 1989.

  17. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  18. Water resources of the Descanso Area, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrologic information was collected during water year 1988 (October 1987 to September 1988) to evaluate the effects of current pumping on groundwater levels in the Descanso area in south-central San Diego County. Water year 1988 was a period of near-normal precipitation and runoff. The groundwater system in the area consists of aquifers in the metamorphic and granitic bedrock and in the overlying regolith (weathered bedrock). Most wells penetrate both aquifers, but the regolith is the source of most water pumped from wells. Groundwater storage in 1988 was estimated to be 800 to 2,000 acre-ft in the regolith and 300 to 3,000 acre-ft in bedrock. Recharge to the groundwater system from infiltration of precipitation and streamflow was estimated to be about 1,000 acre-ft. Pumpage, which was estimated to be 170 acre-ft, had little effect on groundwater storage. Water levels in wells were nearly the same at the end of the water year as at the beginning. Groundwater quality generally was suitable for domestic uses. Concentrations of iron and manganese , although nontoxic, exceeded California maximum contaminant levels for domestic drinking water in some wells. (USGS)

  19. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Half Moon Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Watt, Janet T.; Endris, Charles A.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Chin, John L.; Bretz, Carrie K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 40 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The city of Half Moon Bay, which is situated on the east side of the Half Moon Bay embayment, is the nearest significant onshore cultural center in the map area, with a population of about 11,000. The Pillar Point Harbor at the north edge of Half Moon Bay offers a protected landing for boats and provides other marine infrastructure. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The flat coastal area, which is the most recent of numerous marine terraces, was formed by wave erosion about 105 thousand years ago. The higher elevation of this same terrace west of the Half Moon Bay Airport is caused by uplift on the Seal Cove Fault, a splay of the San Gregorio Fault Zone. Although originally incised into the rising terrain horizontally, the ancient terrace surface has been gently folded into a northwest-plunging syncline by

  20. California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) - Impaired Streams and Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset contains California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list which is submitted by the California State Water Resources Control Board. The layer has...

  1. Fluctuations in Anoxia and the Depth of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Thermocline Inferred from a 2000 Year Sediment Record of Water-Column Denitrification Off Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geen, A.; Mey, J. L., IV; Thunell, R.; Berelson, W.; Deutsch, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution records of sediment 15N at three sites along the western margin of North America were recently shown to indicate a gradual weakening of water-column denitrification and therefore anoxia from 1860 to 1990 followed by two decades of intensifying denitrification and anoxia (Deutsch et al., Science August 8, 2014). An ocean general circulation model driven by wind and buoyancy fluxes reproduces these variations for the last 50 years and mechanistically links them to changes in the depth of the thermocline in the eastern Pacific. The data-model comparison shows that strong denitrification and anoxia are associated with a shallow thermocline in the eastern equatorial Pacific and vice-versa. We present here a longer record of sediment 15N from one of the previously studied sites, Soledad basin, indicating that the period of particularly weak denitrification and anoxia in the eastern Pacific reached in the early 1990s was unprecedented for the past 2000 years. This supports the notion that a concomitant deepening of the thermocline during the 20th century simulated by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change models may have been driven by the anthropogenic buildup of greenhouse gases. At the other end of the spectrum, the extended sediment 15N record indicates a period of particularly strong denitrification and anoxia extending from about 800 to 1200 AD. This coincides with the Medieval Warm Period of prolonged droughts indicated by tree-ring studies in the American West as well as reduced runoff recorded off coastal Peru. The particularly shallow thermocline inferred from the Soledad basin 15N record for this interval is consistent with the prolonged La Nina-like conditions in the equatorial Pacific that have been proposed to explain the Medieval droughts.

  2. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of many communities for increasing supplies. We find that using water bags to transport fresh water between northern and southern California is in some instances a low-cost alternative to desalination. The choice is constrained, however, by concerns about reliability and, thus, risk. Case-study results demonstrate the challenges of water supply augmentation in water-constrained regions.

  3. Lead-contaminated drinking water in bulk-water storage tanks--Arizona and California, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-21

    Lead poisoning is a major environmental health problem for children in the United States (1,2): during 1988-1991, approximately 1.7 million U.S. children aged 1-5 years had elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) (> or = 10 micrograms/dL) (3). To determine the source of lead exposure for children with BLLs > or = 20 micrograms/dL, the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) conducts environmental investigations. In 1993, as a result of investigations of increased BLLs in two children in southwestern Arizona, ADHS detected lead levels approximately 30 times the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) action level of 15 parts per billion (ppb) in bulk-delivered drinking water in the homes of these children. Because two of the three companies that supplied bulk water to southwestern Arizona were based in California, ADHS notified the California State Department of Health Services (CSDHS) about the problem. As a result, CSDHS conducted a separate investigation and identified one child with an elevated BLL whose drinking water sources included bulk-delivered water with lead levels exceeding EPA standards. This report summarizes the investigations of elevated BLLs in these three children and high lead levels in bulk-delivered drinking water in Arizona and California.

  4. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 1-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  5. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 1-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  6. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 100-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The Coastal Storm...

  7. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 20-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The Coastal Storm...

  8. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 100-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The Coastal Storm Modeling...

  9. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 20-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The Coastal Storm Modeling...

  10. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 1-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The Coastal Storm...

  11. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 20-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  12. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 100-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  13. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 20-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  14. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 100-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  15. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 20-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  16. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 1-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The Coastal Storm Modeling...

  17. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated in the late Pleistocene. The inner shelf is characterized by bedrock outcrops that have local thin sediment cover, the result of regional uplift, high wave energy, and limited sediment supply. The midshelf occupies part of an extensive, shore-parallel mud belt. The thickest sediment deposits, inferred to consist mainly of lowstand nearshore deposits, are found in the southeastern and northwestern parts of the map area.Coastal sediment transport in the map area is characterized by northwest-to-southeast littoral transport of sediment that is derived mainly from ephemeral streams in the Santa Cruz Mountains and also from local coastal-bluff erosion. During the last approximately 300 years, as much as 18 million cubic yards (14 million cubic meters) of sand-sized sediment has been eroded from the area between Año Nuevo Island and Point Año Nuevo and transported south; this mass of eroded sand is now enriching beaches in the map area. Sediment transport is within the Santa Cruz littoral cell, which terminates in the submarine Monterey Canyon.Benthic species observed in the Offshore of Santa Cruz map area are natives of the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the “Oregonian province” or the “northern California ecoregion.” This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, the eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from southern British Columbia to Baja California. At its midpoint off central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 300 km south of the map area), although its associated

  18. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  19. Intensification of hydrological drought in California by human water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Xiaogang; Wada, Yoshihide|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Wanders, Niko|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364253940; Sheffield, Justin

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the contribution of human water management to the intensification or mitigation of hydrological drought over California using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological model at 0.5° resolution for the period 1979–2014. We demonstrate that including water management in the modeling framework results in

  20. Ecology of coliphages in southern California coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, V C; Jiang, S C

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the ecology of coliphages, an important microbial pollution indicator. Specifically, our experiments address (i) the ability of environmental Escherichia coli (E. coli) to serve as hosts for coliphage replication, and (ii) the temporal and spatial distribution of coliphages in coastal waters. Water samples from three locations in California's Newport Bay watershed were tested for the presence of coliphages every 2 weeks for an entire year. A total of nine E. coli strains isolated from various sources served as hosts for coliphage detection. Coliphage occurrence was significantly different between freshwater, estuarine and coastal locations and correlated with water temperature, salinity and rainfall in the watershed. The coliphages isolated on the environmental hosts had a broad host-range relative to the coliphages isolated on an E. coli strain from sewage and a US EPA recommended strain for coliphage detection. Coliphage occurrence was related to the temperature, rainfall and salinity within the bay. The adaptation to a broad host-range may enable the proliferation of coliphages in the aquatic environment. Understanding the seasonal variation of phages is useful for establishing a background level of coliphage presence in coastal waters. The broad host-range of coliphages isolated on the environmental E. coli host calls for investigation of coliphage replication in the aquatic environment.

  1. California State Waters Map Series--Hueneme Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Clahan, Kevin B.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Normark, William R.

    2012-01-01

    of three smaller, unnamed headless canyons incised into the shelf southeast of Hueneme Canyon. The shelf is underlain by tens of meters of interbedded upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial deposits that formed as sea level fluctuated in the last several hundred thousand years. Hueneme Canyon extends about 15 km offshore from its canyon head near the dredged navigation channel of the Port of Hueneme. The canyon is relatively deep (about 150 m at the California's State Waters limit) and steep (canyon flanks as steep as 25° to 30°). Historically, Hueneme Canyon functioned as the eastern termination of the Santa Barbara littoral cell by trapping all eastward littoral drift, not only feeding the large Hueneme submarine fan but acting as the major conduit of sediment to the deep Santa Monica Basin; however, recent dredging programs needed to maintain Channel Islands Harbor and the Port of Hueneme have moved the nearshore sediment trapped by jetties and breakwaters to an area southeast of the Hueneme Canyon head. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft sediment and isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Hueneme Canyon and vicinity map area are related directly to the geomorphology and sedimentary processes that are the result of its Quaternary geologic history. The two basic megahabitats in the map area are Shelf (continental shelf) and Flank (continental slope). The flat seafloor of the continental shelf in the Hueneme Canyon and vicinity map area is dynamic, as indicated by mobile sand sheets and coarser grained scour depressions. The active Hueneme Canyon provides considerable relief to the continental shelf in the map area, and its irregular morphology of eroded walls, landslide scarps, and deposits and gullies provide promising habitat for groundfish, crabs

  2. Demand Response Availability Profiles for California in the Year 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Demand response (DR) is being considered as a valuable resource for keeping the electrical grid stable and efficient, and deferring upgrades to generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, simulations to determine how much infrastructure upgrades can be deferred are necessary in order to plan optimally. Production cost modeling is a technique, which simulates the dispatch of generators to meet demand and reserves in each hour of the year, at minimal cost. By integrating demand response resources into a production cost model (PCM), their value to the grid can be estimated and used to inform operations and infrastructure planning. DR availability profiles and constraints for 13 end-uses in California for the year 2020 were developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and integrated into a production cost model by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), for the California Energy Commission’s Value of Energy Storage and Demand Response for Renewable Integration in California Study. This report summarizes the process for developing the DR availability profiles for California, and their aggregate capabilities. While LBNL provided potential DR hourly profiles for regulation product in the ancillary services market and five-minute load following product in the energy market for LLNL’s study, additional results in contingency reserves and an assumed flexible product are also defined. These additional products are included in the analysis for managing high ramps associated with renewable generation and capacity products and they are also presented in this report.

  3. Remote sensing applications in water resources management by the California Department of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of applying imagery from high altitude aircraft and satellites sensors to water management in California was evaluated. Results from seven applications studies comparing the costs of using high altitude imagery for various purposes to the costs of using conventional data sources, reveal the high altitude imagery to be more cost effective in six cases and equal to conventional data sources in one case. These results also reveal that the imagery provides a level of quality not generally achievable with uncorrected conventional imagery. Although satellite application studies are not yet complete, preliminary results indicate that some definite possibilities exist for employing satellite imagery on an operational basis within the next few years.

  4. Management experiences and trends for water reuse implementation in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischel, Heather N; Simon, Gregory L; Frisby, Tammy M; Luthy, Richard G

    2012-01-03

    In 2010, California fell nearly 300,000 acre-ft per year (AFY) short of its goal to recycle 1,000,000 AFY of municipal wastewater. Growth of recycled water in the 48 Northern California counties represented only 20% of the statewide increase in reuse between 2001 and 2009. To evaluate these trends and experiences, major drivers and challenges that influenced the implementation of recycled water programs in Northern California are presented based on a survey of 71 program managers conducted in 2010. Regulatory requirements limiting discharge, cited by 65% of respondents as a driver for program implementation, historically played an important role in motivating many water reuse programs in the region. More recently, pressures from limited water supplies and needs for system reliability are prevalent drivers. Almost half of respondents (49%) cited ecological protection or enhancement goals as drivers for implementation. However, water reuse for direct benefit of natural systems and wildlife habitat represents just 6-7% of total recycling in Northern California and few financial incentives exist for such projects. Economic challenges are the greatest barrier to successful project implementation. In particular, high costs of distribution systems (pipelines) are especially challenging, with $1 to 3 million/mile costs experienced. Negative perceptions of water reuse were cited by only 26% of respondents as major hindrances to implementation of surveyed programs.

  5. Integrating Water Supply Constraints into Irrigated Agricultural Simulations of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Young, Charles A.; Mehta, Vishal K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Davitt, Aaron; McDonald, Kyle; Haden, Van R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water demand from plants and water supply from irrigation systems. We coupled the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to link regional water supplies and management with field-level water demand and crop growth. WEAP-DSSAT was deployed and evaluated over Yolo County in California for corn, rice, and wheat. WEAP-DSSAT is able to reproduce the results of DSSAT under well-watered conditions and reasonably simulate observed mean yields, but has difficulty capturing yield interannual variability. Constraining irrigation supply to surface water alone reduces yields for all three crops during the 1987-1992 drought. Corn yields are reduced proportionally with water allocation, rice yield reductions are more binary based on sufficient water for flooding, and wheat yields are least sensitive to irrigation constraints as winter wheat is grown during the wet season.

  6. 76 FR 56427 - California Department of Water Resources; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission California Department of Water Resources; Notice of Application Accepted for...: California Department of Water Resources (CDWR). e. Name of Project: Feather River Hydroelectric Project. f... recommendations filed. k. Description of Request: The California Department of Water Resources (CDWR), licensee...

  7. Ground-water resources in Mendocino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    Mendocino County includes about 3,500 sq mi of coastal northern California. Groundwater is the main source for municipal and individual domestic water systems and contributes significantly to irrigation. Consolidated rocks of the Franciscan Complex are exposed over most of the county. The consolidated rocks are commonly dry and generally supply drought. Chemical quality of water in basement rocks and valley fill is generally acceptable for most uses. Some areas along fault zones yield water with high boron concentrations ( <2 mg/L). Sodium chloride water with dissolved solids concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/L is found in deeper parts of Little Lake Valley. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Drought Impacts to Water Footprints and Virtual Water Transfers of the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, L.; Konar, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the most productive agricultural locations in the world, which is made possible by a complex and vast irrigation system. Beginning in 2012, California endured one of the worst droughts in its history. Local impacts of the drought have been evaluated, but it is not yet well understood how the drought reverberated through the global food system. Here, we quantify drought impacts to the water footprint (WF) of agricultural production and virtual water transfers (VWT) of the Central Valley of California. To do this, we utilize high spatial, temporal, and water source resolution datasets and a crop model from pre-drought conditions (2011) through three years of exceptional drought (2012-2014). Over the course of the drought, there was a 0.6% increase (0.128 x 109 m3) in total WF. In particular, the groundwater WF increased from 6.00 x 109 m3 in 2011 to 11.61 x 109 m3 in 2014, predominantly in the Tulare Basin. However, production and food transfer declines led total VWT to decrease by 0.7% (0.097 x 109 m3). From 2011 to 2014, groundwater VWT increased by 3.19 x 109 m3, partially offsetting the 0.71 x 109 m3 reduction in green VWT and the 2.58 x 109 m3 decrease in surface VWT. During the drought, global consumers increased their reliance on the already over-exploited Central Valley Aquifer by 93.4% (5.61 x 109 m3). These results indicate that drought shocks may strengthen the telecoupling between unsustainable groundwater withdrawals and distant consumers of groundwater-intensive agricultural commodities.

  9. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  10. Potential impacts of global warming on water resources in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuhler, M

    2003-01-01

    Global warming will have a significant impact on water resources within the 20 to 90-year planning period of many water projects. Arid and semi-arid regions such as Southern California are especially vulnerable to anticipated negative impacts of global warming on water resources. Long-range water facility planning must consider global climate change in the recommended mix of new facilities needed to meet future water requirements. The generally accepted impacts of global warming include temperature, rising sea levels, more frequent and severe floods and droughts, and a shift from snowfall to rain. Precipitation changes are more difficult to predict. For Southern California, these impacts will be especially severe on surface water supplies. Additionally, rising sea levels will exacerbate salt-water intrusion into freshwater and impact the quality of surface water supplies. Integrated water resources planning is emerging as a tool to develop water supplies and demand management strategies that are less vulnerable to the impacts of global warming. These tools include water conservation, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater and desalination of brackish water and possibly seawater. Additionally, planning for future water needs should include explicit consideration of the potential range of global warming impacts through techniques such as scenario planning.

  11. Applying Climate Science to Urban Water Infrastructure Planning in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, K. O.; Khimsara, P.; Brown, K.

    2013-12-01

    Operators of urban water systems in California routinely develop long-range infrastructure plans to keep the communities they serve informed and to facilitate financing of planned projects. These plans compare baseline water supplies and demands to future projections, and they assess the adequacy of existing infrastructure for delivering water from raw water sources to customer connections under a variety of scenarios. In spite of these planning efforts, urban infrastructure projects are vulnerable to extreme climate and socioeconomic events. This paper examines the challenges facing infrastructure planners seeking to adapt urban water infrastructure to climate change using the current generation of climate predictions. A case study of small urban water systems in Lompoc Valley in California highlights the gap between climate variables available from global climate model predictions and decision parameters used in water infrastructure planning. Solutions are proposed for addressing some of the challenges encountered during climate impact analysis and vulnerability assessment. The paper also highlights outstanding gaps in our understanding of climate change and societal responses which could have profound impacts on urban water use and infrastructure needs.

  12. 3000 years of environmental change at Zaca Lake, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore eDingemans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climatic variations of the last few millennia can reveal patterns of variability beyond that recorded by the instrumental record. In this study we use pollen and sediments to generate a high resolution 3000 year record of vegetation and climate along the southern California coast. An increase in Pinus and Quercus pollen found in the top 100 years of the record is a result of known planting and fire suppression by the forest service. In the pre-historic record, a period of high Salix percentages and high pollen concentration from 500-250 cal yr BP represents the wettest period of the record and coincides with the Little Ice Age. We also find evidence for 3 warm periods between 1350 and 650 cal yr BP which are identified in the record by the presence of Pediastrum boryanum var. boryanum. The latter two of these periods, dating from 1070-900 and 700–650 cal yr BP correspond to Medieval Climatic Anomaly droughts identified in other records. In addition to these events, we identify a multi-centennial scale drought between 2700 and 2000 cal yr BP in Zaca Lake, corroborating evidence from across the Great Basin and extending the regional spread of this multi-centennial drought to southern California. Corresponding wetter conditions in the northwest indicate that the modern ENSO precipitation dipole also occurred during this persistent drought. Today this dipole is associated with La Niña conditions and we note a coincidence with intriguing evidence for a change in ENSO dynamics from marine records in the tropical Pacific. This dry period is remarkably persistent and has important implications for understanding the possible durations of drought conditions in the past in California.

  13. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Finlayson, David P.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Leifer, Ira; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fong, Grace; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.0 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The cities of Goleta and Isla Vista, the main population centers in the map area, are in the western part of a contiguous urban area that extends eastward through Santa Barbara to Carpinteria. This urban area is on the south flank of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains, on coalescing alluvial fans and uplifted marine terraces underlain by folded and

  14. Availability of Drinking Water in California Public Schools. Testimony Presented before the California State Assembly Subcommittee on Education on April 2, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    A senior researcher and hospital Chief of General Pediatrics, testifies about his work with a California school district to prevent obesity by developing a middle school program to promote healthy eating and physical activity. A two-year study has found that students have limited access to drinking water, especially at meals. In the schools being…

  15. Drought Water Rationing Necessitates an Equitable and Multidimensional Approach: Evidence from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de Leon Barido, D.; Fildier, B.; Cucchi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2011 many areas across California have experienced their driest years on record, with conditions barely improving since then. Reservoirs and snowpack water content have recorded some of the lowest measurements ever, with users (individuals, towns and cities) using groundwater to buffer the potentially devastating effects of the drought. Among other strategies, rationing has been one of they key interventions that the state has adopted to better manage its water resources. April 1st 2015 marked the first day in California's history when mandatory water reductions were instated statewide. By executive order, Governor Brown directed the State Water Resources Control Board to impose a 25% reduction on California's 400 local water supply agencies, which serve 90% of California residents. Since then, local agencies have been responsible for allocating restrictions to reduce water consumption and monitor compliance. A variety of research organizations and media outlets have begun exploring the equity considerations of the drought, but their analyses are often one-dimensional (water consumption per capita). Here we explore the multi-dimensional dynamics of rationing and drought in California using Census and California Water Resources Board data for over 300 communities in the state. We use data mining, parallel coordinates, and a nearest neighbors clustering algorithm to explore relationships between rationing and community spatial distribution, weather, drought related climate variables, economic sector employment, race, localized income inequality, household size, and income. The data suggests that there are nine distinct rationing groups across the state, that rationing was performed without taking into account the localized effects of the drought (hard hit communities rationing as much as less affected communities), that severely drought affected low-income communities (using SPI and SPEI 3 year indices) were asked to ration as much (and sometimes more) than

  16. Nearshore marine fish diversity in southern California using trawl information from the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of mean fish diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water Research...

  17. Optimal residential water conservation strategies considering related energy in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lund, Jay R.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, residential water use is a much more energy intensive user. Based on this, we analyze the increased willingness to adopt water conservation strategies if energy cost is included in the customers' utility function. Using a Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses and probability distribution functions for parameters affecting water and water-related energy use in 10 different locations in California, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills and costs given both water and energy price shocks. Results can provide an upper bound of household savings for customers with well-behaved preferences, and show greater adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances when energy is accounted, resulting in an overall 24% reduction in indoor water use that represents a 30% reduction in water-related energy use and a 53% reduction in household water-related CO2 emissions. Previous use patterns and water and energy rate structures can affect greatly the potential benefits for customers and so their behavior. Given that water and energy are somewhat complementary goods for customers, we use results of the optimization to obtain own-price and cross-price elasticities of residential water use by simulating increases in water and energy prices. While the results are highly influenced by assumptions due to lack of empirical data, the method presented has no precedent in the literature and hopefully will stimulate the collection of additional relevant data.

  18. Preliminary Investigation into the Water Usage from Fracking in Drought Ridden California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, S.; Wu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracking is a common method used to obtain natural gas as well as oil from the ground. The process begins with drilling the ground, which is then followed by thousands of gallons of fluid being pumped into the ground to break the shale rock and release natural gas. The job requires thousands of gallons of water, and chemicals are added to the water, often making it unusable for other purposes. The amount of water being used for fracking in California has been recently brought to attention because the state is currently facing a drought. Currently California is experiencing the worst drought since the 1920's. In the time frame of 2013-2014 California rainfall has been 50% below the average with 2013 being the driest year. The lack of rain is attributed to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation which occurs every 20-30 years and causes the Pacific Ocean to cool, leading to less rain because storms are diverted to the north. As a result of the drought, food prices are expected to rise and farmers are pumping 75% of their water need from reserved aquifers.

  19. Effects of human water management on California drought risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaogang; Wada, Yoshihide; Wanders, Niko; Sheffield, Justin

    2017-04-01

    Contribution of human water management to the intensification or mitigation of hydrological drought over California is investigated using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological model at 0.5˚ resolution for the period 1979-2014. We demonstrate that including water management in the modeling framework results in more accurate discharge representation. During the severe 2014 drought, water management alleviated the drought deficit by ˜50% in Southern California through reservoir operation during low flow periods. However, human water consumption (mostly irrigation) in the Central Valley increased drought duration and deficit by 50% and 50-100%, respectively. Return level analysis indicates that there is more than 50% chance that the probability of occurrence of an extreme 2014-magnitude drought event was at least doubled under the influence of human activities compared to natural variability. This impact is most significant over the San Joaquin Drainage basin with a 50% and 75% likelihood that the return period is more than 3.5 and 1.5 times larger, respectively, because of the human impact on drought. A detailed study of the relative attribution of different types of human activities (e.g., groundwater pumping, reservoir operation and irrigation) on changes in drought risk over California is conducted through a higher 10 km resolution simulation. This hydrological modeling, attribution and risk assessment framework is further extended to other drought-prone areas and major drought events in the contiguous U.S., including the 2006/2007 southeastern U.S. drought, the 2011 Texas-northern Mexico drought over the southern plains and the 2012 drought over the central Great Plains.

  20. Evapotranspiration of applied water, Central Valley, California, 1957-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Alex K.

    1982-01-01

    In the Central Valley, Calif., where 57% of the 20,000 square miles of land is irrigated, ground-water recharge from agricultural lands is an important input to digital simulation models of ground-water flow. Several methods of calculating recharge were explored for the Central Valley Aquifer Project and a simplified water budget was designed where net recharge (recharge minus pumpage) equals net surface water diverted minus evapotranspiration of applied water (ETAW). This equation eliminates the need to determine pumpage from the water-table aquifer, assuming that the time lag for infiltration is not longer than the time intervals of interest for modeling. This study evaluates only the evapotranspiration of applied water. Future reports will describe the other components of the water budget. ETAW was calculated by summing the products of ETAW coefficients and respective crop areas for each 7 1/2-minute quadrangle area in the valley, for each of three land-use surveys between 1957 and 1978. In 1975 total ETAW was 15.2 million acre-feet, a 43% increase since 1959. The largest increases were in the south, especially Kern County, which had a sixfold increase, which was caused by the import of surface water in the California Aqueduct. (USGS)

  1. Water-resources of the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloyd, R.M.

    1967-01-01

    The Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency (AVEK) area, most of which is within the Mojave Desert region of southern California, lacks adequate water resources to sustain the existing rate of ground-water pumpage for irrigation, industrial, and domestic use. However, by 1972 the California Aqueduct, a part of the California Water Plan, will be completed and will begin to convey water from northern California into the area. The chief economic pursuits in the area are irrigated agriculture and poultry production. At present, the major industries are related to national defense and mining. In the future, industry will increase and probably become the major economic activity. The Mojave Desert region, part of which lies within the AVEK area, is characterized by fault-block mountains and fault-block basins. The Tehachapi and San Gabriel Mountains are the major bordering fault blocks. The adjacent lowland areas of Antelope and Fremont Valleys have been depressed by movements along major faults. There are two major ground-water basins in the AVEK area: Antelope Valley and Fremont Valley basins. Each large basin is divided by faults or bodies of consolidated rock into several groundwater subunits.

  2. 76 FR 8722 - California Department of Water Resources; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission California Department of Water Resources; Notice of Application Accepted for.... Applicant: California Department of Water Resources (DWR). e. Name of Project: Feather River Hydroelectric... of Water Resources, licensee for the Feather River Hydroelectric Project, has filed a request for...

  3. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H.E.; Phoenix, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Most people in the California Region live in a semiarid or arid climate, with precipitation less than the potential evapotranspiration- environments of perennial water deficiency. The deficiency becomes most onerous during the characteristically rainless summers and during recurrent droughts that may continue for 10--20 years. However, water from winter rain and snow can be stored for use during the dry summer months, and water stored during a wet climatic period can be used in a succeeding dry period; moreover, perennial deficiency can be overcome by bringing water from areas of perennial surplus. Ground-water reservoirs have especial significance in arid and semiarid regions as repositories where water is stored or can be stored with minimum loss by evaporation.

  4. Reference springs in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in California that were used for the regional ground-water potential map...

  5. Health risk assessment of pentachlorophenol (pcp) in California drinking water. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, N.R.; Reed, W.A.; Encomienda, I.; Beltran, L.; Araba-Owoyele, L.

    1990-03-08

    The purpose of the document is to review the toxicology of PCP and to estimate the exposure of California residents to PCP found in drinking water. The information provided will help the California Dept. of Health Services develop drinking water standards for PCP.

  6. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a...

  7. Adapting California Water Management to Climate Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, E.; Lund, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    California faces the prospect of significant water management challenges from climate change. The most certain changes are accelerated sea level rise and increased temperatures, which will reduce the Sierra Nevada snowpack and shift more runoff to winter months. These changes will likely cause major problems for flood control, for water supply reservoir operations, and for the maintenance of the present system of water exports through the fragile levee system of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Rising water temperatures also are likely to compromise habitat for some native aquatic species and pose challenges for reservoir operations, which must release cool water to support fish downstream. Although there is as yet little scientific consensus on the effects of climate change on overall precipitation levels, many expect precipitation variability to increase, with more extreme drought and flood events posing additional challenges to water managers. Fortunately, California also possesses numerous assets - including adaptation tools and institutional capabilities - which can limit vulnerability of the state’s residents to changing conditions. Water supply managers have already begun using underground storage, water transfers, conservation, recycling, and desalination to expand their capacity to meet changing demands, and these same tools present cost-effective options for responding to a wide range of climate change scenarios. Many staples of flood management - including reservoir operations, levees, bypasses, insurance, and land-use regulation - are appropriate for the challenges posed by increasing flood flows. Yet actions are also needed to improve response capacity in some areas. For water supply, a central issue is the management of the Delta, where new conveyance and habitat investments and regulations are needed to sustain water supply reliability and ecosystem conditions. For flood management, studies to anticipate required changes have only begun, and

  8. Spring 1961 water table of California's Central Valley (from Williamson and others, 1989)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the spring 1961 water-table altitude for the California's Central Valley. It was used to initiate the water-level altitudes for the...

  9. Under Water within Thirty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2016-01-01

    in the shadow of a catastrophe to come. This prophetic mode, I contend, has important consequences for the show's treatment of the question of justice. Like the prophetic books of the Old testament, True Detective shifts the perspective from the content of law to the force of law. Thus, focusing......"Place is going to be under water within thirty years," detective Rustin Cohle says while driving through a disaster-stricken landscape in south Louisiana in the mid 90's. The first season of True Detective, a HBO crime series authored by Nic Pizzolatto and directed by Cary Fukunaga, is tensed...... on the verge of disaster. In grammatical terms, it depicts a social life in future perfect, a life that will have been above the surface. In this paper, I explore the prophetic as an aesthetic mode of True Detective. According to Maurice Blanchot, prophetic speech "is not just a future language...

  10. Water supply studies. [management and planning of water supplies in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Churchman, C. W.; Thomas, R. W.; Lauer, D. T.; Hoos, I.; Krumpe, P. F.; Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The primary test site for water supply investigations continues to be the Feather River watershed in northeastern California. This test site includes all of the area draining into and including the Oroville Reservoir. The principal effort is to determine the extent to which remote sensing techniques, when properly employed, can provide information useful to those persons concerned with the management and planning of lands and facilities for the production of water, using the Oroville Reservoir and the California Water Project as the focus for the study. In particular, emphasis is being placed on determining the cost effectiveness of information derived through remote sensing as compared with that currently being derived through more conventional means.

  11. California State Waters Map Series--Hueneme Canyon Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  12. California State Waters Map Series--Drakes Bay Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  13. Dynamic of aragonite saturation horizon in waters of Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia Gasti, J. A.; Oliva, N. L.; Martin Hernandez-Ayon, J. M.; Durazo, R.; Santamaria-del-Angel, E.; Alin, S. R.; Feely, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    The status of the ocean acidification can be estimated by hydrographic calibrated data with carbon system variables. Recently empirical models for the coast of southern California and northern Baja California were developed. These models can be applied mainly in places where hydrographic data exist but also with measurements of the carbon system available for calibrations. The aim of this study was to analyze the hydrographic data of a transect in front of Ensenada's coast, corresponding to the line 100 of IMECOCAL's program during the period 1998-2014. Such data was used to apply an empirical model to estimate the aragonite saturation state (Ωa) in order to identify oceanographic conditions that could influence the variability of the depth of saturation horizon that might be in the last 17 years in habitats of shellfish and oyster production areas adjacent to the coast of Ensenada. It was found that the temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon and Ωa showed a seasonal variation with different oceanographic scenarios: (a) during spring-summer the California Current flow to the Ecuador and upwelling events are presented; (b) in autumn-winter the influence the Southern California Bight Eddy can transport water from the subarctic to Ecuador in the oceanic portion of the transect and towards the pole at the coastal side. These oceanographic characteristics encourage that coastal stations present seasonal variability, reflected in the depth of the horizon Ωa shallower ( 66m + 21m) in spring and deeper into the winter ( 122m + 35). It has been reported that the upwelling off the coast of BC transport water from a depth between 80 and 90m in spring and summer; therefore under saturated water (Ωa coast of BC

  14. Water-resources optimization model for Santa Barbara, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    A simulation-optimization model has been developed for the optimal management of the city of Santa Barbara's water resources during a drought. The model, which links groundwater simulation with linear programming, has a planning horizon of 5 years. The objective is to minimize the cost of water supply subject to: water demand constraints, hydraulic head constraints to control seawater intrusion, and water capacity constraints. The decision variables are montly water deliveries from surface water and groundwater. The state variables are hydraulic heads. The drought of 1947-51 is the city's worst drought on record, and simulated surface-water supplies for this period were used as a basis for testing optimal management of current water resources under drought conditions. The simulation-optimization model was applied using three reservoir operation rules. In addition, the model's sensitivity to demand, carry over [the storage of water in one year for use in the later year(s)], head constraints, and capacity constraints was tested.

  15. Characterization of the Deep Water Surface Wave Variability in the California Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Bôas, Ana B.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2017-11-01

    Surface waves are crucial for the dynamics of the upper ocean not only because they mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, but also because they determine the sea state. The surface wave field in a given region is set by the combination of local and remote forcing. The present work characterizes the seasonal variability of the deep water surface wave field in the California Current region, as retrieved from over two decades of satellite altimetry data combined with wave buoys and wave model hindcast (WaveWatch III). In particular, the extent to which the local wind modulates the variability of the significant wave height, peak period, and peak direction is assessed. During spring/summer, regional-scale wind events of up to 10 m/s are the dominant forcing for waves off the California coast, leading to relatively short-period waves (8-10 s) that come predominantly from the north-northwest. The wave climatology throughout the California Current region shows average significant wave heights exceeding 2 m during most of the year, which may have implications for the planning and retrieval methods of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.

  16. Using Water Footprints to Identify Alternatives for Conserving Local Water Resources in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Marrin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a management tool for addressing water consumption issues, footprints have become increasingly utilized on scales ranging from global to personal. A question posed by this paper is whether water footprint data that are routinely compiled for particular regions may be used to assess the effectiveness of actions taken by local residents to conserve local water resources. The current California drought has affected an agriculturally productive region with large population centers that consume a portion of the locally produced food, and the state’s arid climate demands a large volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports most of its food products, enough is consumed within the state so that residents shifting their food choices and/or habits could save as much or more local blue water as their reduction of household or office water use. One of those shifts is reducing the intake of animal-based products that require the most water of any food group on both a gravimetric and caloric basis. Another shift is reducing food waste, which represents a shared responsibility among consumers and retailers, however, consumer preferences ultimately drive much of this waste.

  17. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-15

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored. May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored.

  18. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area lies within Monterey Bay in central California. Monterey Bay is one of the largest embayments along the west coast of the United States, spanning 36 km from its northern to southern tips (in Santa Cruz and Monterey, respectively) and 20 km along its central axis. Not only does it contain one of the broadest sections of continental shelf along California’s coast, it also contains Monterey Canyon, one of the largest and deepest submarine canyons in the world. Note that the California’s State Waters limit extends farther offshore between Santa Cruz and Monterey so that it encompasses all of Monterey Bay.The coastal area within the map area is lightly populated. The community of Moss Landing (population, 204) hosts the largest commercial fishing fleet in Monterey Bay in its harbor. The map area also includes parts of the cities of Marina (population, about 20,000) and Castroville (population, about 6,500). Fertile lowlands of the Salinas River and Pajaro River valleys largely occupy the inland part of the map area, and land use is primarily agricultural.The offshore part of the map area lies completely within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The

  19. Pleistocene water cycle and eastern boundary current processes along the California continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Mitchell; Heusser, Linda; Ravelo, Christina; Andreasen, Dyke; Olivarez Lyle, Annette; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2010-11-01

    Coastal marine sediments contain mixtures of terrestrial and marine paleoclimate proxies that record how the coastal water cycle has behaved over long time frames. We explore a 600 kyr marine record from ODP Site 1018, located due west of Santa Cruz, California, to identify coastal wet and dry periods and to associate them with oceanographic processes. Wet periods in central California, identified by increased tree pollen relative to pollen from grasslands and scrublands, are found on every major deglaciation in the last 600 kyr. Sea surface temperature (SST) data were collected for the last two deglaciations. Wet periods are associated with a rapid rise in SST off central California. SST gradients along the California margin and changes in biogenic deposition show that wet periods in central California are associated with a weakening of the California Current and weakened coastal upwelling. High carbonate production suggests that there was significant curl-of-wind stress upwelling offshore. We propose that wet periods in central California are associated with a meteorological connection to the tropical Pacific and weakened southward flow in the California Current that shunted temperate Pacific water northward into the Alaska gyre. We do not observe evidence for a south-shifted westerly storm track at the last glacial maximum but find that wet periods are diachronous along the California margin. The wettest period around the Santa Barbara Basin peaked at 16 ka, preceding the wet peak in central and northern California by 4 kyr.

  20. Rocky Mountain Arsenal surface water management plan : water year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the 2001 Surface Water Management Plan is to quantify consumption rates of potable/nonpotable water projected for the 2001 water year (October 1, 2000...

  1. Rocky Mountain Arsenal surface water management plan : water year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Surface Water Management Plan (SWMP) for Water Year 2003 (WY 2003) (October I, 2002 to September 30, 2003) is an assessment of the nonpotable water demands at...

  2. Water resources development in Santa Clara Valley, California: insights into the human-hydrologic relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Jesse L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Groundwater irrigation is critical to food production and, in turn, to humankind's relationship with its environment. The development of groundwater in Santa Clara Valley, California during the early twentieth century is instructive because (1) responses to unsustainable resource use were largely successful; (2) the proposals for the physical management of the water, although not entirely novel, incorporated new approaches which reveal an evolving relationship between humans and the hydrologic cycle; and (3) the valley serves as a natural laboratory where natural (groundwater basin, surface watershed) and human (county, water district) boundaries generally coincide. Here, I investigate how water resources development and management in Santa Clara Valley was influenced by, and reflective of, a broad understanding of water as a natural resource, including scientific and technological innovations, new management approaches, and changing perceptions of the hydrologic cycle. Market demands and technological advances engendered reliance on groundwater. This, coupled with a series of dry years and laissez faire government policies, led to overdraft. Faith in centralized management and objective engineering offered a solution to concerns over resource depletion, and a group dominated by orchardists soon organized, fought for a water conservation district, and funded an investigation to halt the decline of well levels. Engineer Fred Tibbetts authored an elaborate water salvage and recharge plan that optimized the local water resources by integrating multiple components of the hydrologic cycle. Informed by government investigations, groundwater development in Southern California, and local water law cases, it recognized the limited surface storage possibilities, the spatial and temporal variability, the relatively closed local hydrology, the interconnection of surface and subsurface waters, and the value of the groundwater basin for its storage, transportation, and

  3. Transport of Ocean Waters between the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis; Castro-Valdez, Ruben; Mascarenhas, Affonso; Margolina, Tetyana

    2014-05-01

    Ocean transports between the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California contribute to the seasonal heating and cooling of the Gulf and add high salinity waters to the surface and upper thermocline waters of the Pacific. These transports have been measured by 1) moored arrays of temperature, salinity and pressure instruments on either side of the entrance to the Gulf in water 130 m deep and 2) shipboard hydrographic measurements across the Gulf along a section between Sinaloa and Baja California. The moored measurements extended from November 2003 to May 2006 and the hydrographic section was occupied eighteen times between 1992 and 2013. Results of these measurements are described in this presentation. The moored measurements resolved baroclinic transport at 40 and 80 dbar referenced to 120 dbar. Geostrophic flow was into (out) the Gulf from May to October (November to April). Mean transport into (out) of the Gulf at 40 dbar was 5.6 x 103 m3/s (4.2 x 103 m3/s) and at 80 dbar was 1.3 x 103 m3/s (1.8 x 103 m3/s). Maximum and minimum geostrophic velocities were observed about July 1 and December 1, respectively, and were about three times as large as the mean values. Steric heights at the mooring locations were compared to satellite sea level height anomalies. Agreement was good and provided a more robust measure of the annual cycle of the mean surface geostrophic flow and transport because 9 years of continuous observations were available. The hydrographic measurements indicated predominately cyclonic flow patterns with inflow along Sinaloa and outflow along Baja California. During periods of strong exchange, narrow deep jets were observed to develop over the continental slopes of Sinaloa and Baja California. Overturning circulation within the Gulf is clearly indicated by the patterns of salinity along the hydrographic sections in which inflows of fresher Pacific waters (S34.8 for densities between 25 and 26 kg/m3) along Baja California. Geostrophic velocities for these

  4. Paleoceanographic changes on the Farallon Escarpment off central California during the last 16,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.

    2011-01-01

    New benthic and planktic foraminiferal assemblage census data and Benthic Foraminiferal Oxygen Index (BFOI) values, previously published marine climate proxy data (stable isotopes and Ca/Cd), and unpublished results of total carbon, organic carbon, and calcium carbonate analyses of sediments recovered off central California on the Farallon Escarpment (1605m water depth; 37??13.4???N, 123??14.6???W; core F-8-90-G21) document paleoceanographic changes during the latest Quaternary which reflect the intensity and source of North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) and surface productivity. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates of both benthic and planktic species provide an excellent age-depth model for the last 16,000 years, covering the latest glacial, B??lling-Aller??d, Younger Dryas, and early, middle, and late Holocene intervals. A Q-mode cluster analysis separated the benthic fauna into three clusters, one Pleistocene and two Holocene, whereas the planktic fauna was divided only into Pleistocene and Holocene clusters. Stable oxygen isotope values show an increase in water temperature of ~1??C from the late glacial to late Holocene and a change in faunal composition of the planktic assemblage implies surface waters warmed as well. A general trend of decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration from the Pleistocene (high oxic; 3.0-6.0+ ml/l O2) to the Holocene (low oxic; 1.5-3.0ml/l O2) suggested by the BFOI and Cd/Ca data reflect decreased ventilation as the source of the NPIW shifted from the Sea of Okhotsk to the tropical east Pacific at ~11,000 cal BP. The middle Holocene cooling reported in other central and northern California margin studies is not apparent in F-8-90-G21, which compares more favorably with studies from southern California and British Columbia. Total carbon and organic carbon values are highest in the B??lling-Aller??d, early Holocene, and late Holocene. Similarly, calcium carbonate values are high in the B??lling-Aller??d and peak in the

  5. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Owens Valley, a long, narrow valley located along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada in east-central California, is the main source of water for the city of Los Angeles. The city diverts most of the surface water in the valley into the Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct system, which transports the water more than 200 miles south to areas of distribution and use. Additionally, ground water is pumped or flows from wells to supplement the surface-water diversions to the river-aqueduct system. Pumpage from wells needed to supplement water export has increased since 1970, when a second aqueduct was put into service, and local concerns have been expressed that the increased pumpage may have had a detrimental effect on the environment and the indigenous alkaline scrub and meadow plant communities in the valley. The scrub and meadow communities depend on soil moisture derived from precipitation and the unconfined part of a multilayered aquifer system. This report, which describes the hydrogeology of the aquifer system and the water resources of the valley, is one in a series designed to (1) evaluate the effects that groundwater pumping has on scrub and meadow communities and (2) appraise alternative strategies to mitigate any adverse effects caused by, pumping. Two principal topographic features are the surface expression of the geologic framework--the high, prominent mountains on the east and west sides of the valley and the long, narrow intermountain valley floor. The mountains are composed of sedimentary, granitic, and metamorphic rocks, mantled in part by volcanic rocks as well as by glacial, talus, and fluvial deposits. The valley floor is underlain by valley fill that consists of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated alluvial fan, transition-zone, glacial and talus, and fluvial and lacustrine deposits. The valley fill also includes interlayered recent volcanic flows and pyroclastic rocks. The bedrock surface beneath the valley fill is a narrow, steep-sided graben

  6. Progressive forest canopy water loss during the 2012–2015 California drought

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gregory P. Asner; Philip G. Brodrick; Christopher B. Anderson; Nicholas Vaughn; David E. Knapp; Roberta E. Martin

    2016-01-01

    The 2012-2015 drought has left California with severely reduced snowpack, soil moisture, ground water, and reservoir stocks, but the impact of this estimated millennial-scale event on forest health is unknown...

  7. Physical, Nutrient, and Biological Measurements of Coastal Waters off Central California in November 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rago, Thomas A; Michisaki, Reiko; Marinovic, Baldo; Blum, Marguerite; Whitaker, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    The results of analyses of hydrographic, nutrient, and biological data collected in coastal ocean waters off Central California in November 2007 aboard the NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan are presented...

  8. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle; Martin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  9. A shallow-diving seabird predator as an indicator of prey availability in southern California waters: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, M. H.; Whitcombe, C. D.

    2015-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the Elegant Tern (Thalasseus elegans), a plunge-diving predator, is an indicator of changes in the prey community in southern California coastal waters. Shannon diversity (H‧) of the tern's diet determined from dropped fish collected variously at the three nesting sites for 18 years over a 21-year interval (1993-2013) showed no significant change in diet diversity. Based on a species-accumulation curve, total diet species represented about 70% of an extrapolated asymptotic richness. Abundance patterns of five prey species making up > 75% of prey numbers for all years were compared with abundance patterns of the same species in independent surveys obtained from zooplankton tows, bottom trawls and power-plant entrapments. Three of the five species - northern anchovy, kelp pipefish and California lizardfish - showed significant, positive correlations between diet and survey abundances. Even though the tern's diet has been dominated by anchovy and pipefish, its diet is still broad, with prey taxa representing > 75% of the 42 species groups making up the California shelf fish fauna. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that the Elegant Tern, with its flexible diet, is a qualitative indicator, a sentinel, of changes in the prey communities in southern California coastal waters.

  10. Physical measurements including temperature profiles of coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006 (NODC Accession 0019214)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical measurements of Coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, Technical Report NPS-OC-07-002. This...

  11. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  12. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Water Demands and Crop Yields in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, M. K.; Flores-Lopez, F.; Young, C. A.; Huntington, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Long term planning for the management of California's water resources requires assessment of the effects of future climate changes on both water supply and demand. Considerable progress has been made on the evaluation of the effects of future climate changes on water supplies but less information is available with regard to water demands. Uncertainty in future climate projections increases the difficulty of assessing climate impacts and evaluating long range adaptation strategies. Compounding the uncertainty in the future climate projections is the fact that most readily available downscaled climate projections lack sufficient meteorological information to compute evapotranspiration (ET) by the widely accepted ASCE Penman-Monteith (PM) method. This study addresses potential changes in future Central Valley water demands and crop yields by examining the effects of climate change on soil evaporation, plant transpiration, growth and yield for major types of crops grown in the Central Valley of California. Five representative climate scenarios based on 112 bias corrected spatially downscaled CMIP 3 GCM climate simulations were developed using the hybrid delta ensemble method to span a wide range future climate uncertainty. Analysis of historical California Irrigation Management Information System meteorological data was combined with several meteorological estimation methods to compute future solar radiation, wind speed and dew point temperatures corresponding to the GCM projected temperatures and precipitation. Future atmospheric CO2 concentrations corresponding to the 5 representative climate projections were developed based on weighting IPCC SRES emissions scenarios. The Land, Atmosphere, and Water Simulator (LAWS) model was used to compute ET and yield changes in the early, middle and late 21st century for 24 representative agricultural crops grown in the Sacramento, San Joaquin and Tulare Lake basins. Study results indicate that changes in ET and yield vary

  13. Association of urban runoff with coastal water quality in Orange County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight, Ryan H; Semenza, Jan C; Baker, Dean B; Olson, Betty H

    2002-01-01

    The associations between storm events, urban runoff, and coastal water quality have not been well investigated. A temporal and spatial analysis of 2 years of data was conducted to determine associations between urban river discharge and indicator bacteria levels for Southern California beaches and evaluate the contribution of anomalous precipitation to the association. Data show beaches next to rivers had the highest bacterial levels in both wet and dry seasons. Bacterial levels rose substantially across all sites during wet months, and river discharge and bacterial levels were all highest during the winter with the most rainfall. Precipitation was significantly associated (Spearman rank bivariate correlation, P swimming at beaches near rivers may pose a significant public health risk. The strong association found between precipitation and water pollution may be relevant to studies of potential health effects associated with climate change.

  14. Geohydrological characterization, water-chemistry, and ground-water flow simulation model of the Sonoma Valley area, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    changes by region. In recent years, pumping depressions have developed southeast of Sonoma and southwest of El Verano. Water-chemistry data for samples collected from 75 wells during 2002-04 indicate that the ground-water quality in the study area generally is acceptable for potable use. The water from some wells, however, contains one or more constituents in excess of the recommended standards for drinking water. The chemical composition of water from creeks, springs, and wells sampled for major ions plot within three groups on a trilinear diagram: mixed-bicarbonate, sodium-mixed anion, and sodium-bicarbonate. An area of saline ground water in the southern part of the Sonoma Valley appears to have shifted since the late 1940s and early 1950s, expanding in one area, but receding in another. Sparse temperature data from wells southwest of the known occurrence of thermal water suggest that thermal water may be present beneath a larger part of the valley than previously thought. Thermal water contains higher concentrations of dissolved minerals than nonthermal waters because mineral solubilities generally increase with temperature. Geohydrologic Characterization, Water-Chemistry, and Ground-Water Flow Simulation Model of the Sonoma Valley Area, Sonoma County, California Oxygen-18 (d18 O) and deuterium (dD) values for water from most wells plot along the global meteoric water line, indicating that recharge primarily is derived from the direct infiltration of precipitation or the infiltration of seepage from creeks. Samples from shallow- and intermediate-depth wells located near Sonoma Creek and (or) in the vicinity of Shellville plot to the right of the global meteoric water line, indicating that these waters are partly evaporated. The d18 O and dD composition of water from sampled wells indicates that water from wells deeper than 200 feet is isotopically lighter (more negative) than water from wells less than 200 feet deep, possibly indicating that older ground wate

  15. The California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program – Providing science and geospatial data for California's State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen; Cochran, Susan; Watt, Janet

    2017-01-01

    The California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program (CSCMP) is a collaborative effort to develop comprehensive bathymetric, geologic, and habitat maps and data for California's State Waters. CSCMP began in 2007 when the California Ocean Protection Council (OPC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) allocated funding for high-resolution bathymetric mapping, largely to support the California Marine Life Protection Act and to update nautical charts. Collaboration and support from the U.S. Geological Survey and other partners has led to development and dissemination of one of the world's largest seafloor-mapping datasets. CSCMP provides essential science and data for ocean and coastal management, stimulates and enables research, and raises public education and awareness of coastal and ocean issues. Specific applications include:•Delineation and designation of marine protected areas•Characterization and modeling of benthic habitats and ecosystems•Updating nautical charts•Earthquake hazard assessments•Tsunami hazard assessments•Planning offshore infrastructure•Providing baselines for monitoring change•Input to models of sediment transport, coastal erosion, and coastal flooding•Regional sediment management•Understanding coastal aquifers•Providing geospatial data for emergency response

  16. Internal waves and surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H.; Santoro, A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Hench, J. L.; Boehm, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterized diurnal, semi-diurnal, and high-frequency internal wave field at Huntington Beach, California, USA and the connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 meter depths offshore of the beach to observe internal waves and cross-shore exchange. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) with measurements of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria, and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. Spectral analysis of water temperature shows well-defined spectral peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of observed currents reveals that the baroclinic component (summation of second to fifth principal components) accounted for 30% of the total variance in the currents in both years, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. The major axis of the first principal component was oriented alongshore, whereas that of the second and third principal components made an angle of 25 to 55 degree with the cross-shore direction. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very near shore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, indicative of shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the

  17. Water Resources Data, New Mexico, Water Year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, J.P.; Ong, Kim

    1995-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1994 water year for New Mexico consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells and springs. This report contains discharge records for 184 gaging stations; stage and contents for 26 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 51 gaging stations and 72 wells; and water levels at 132 observation wells. Also included are 109 crest-stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not involved in the systematic data collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in New Mexico.

  18. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    recently developed urban areas. Five arsenic sample concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) primary maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter adopted in 2001. Measurements that exceeded USEPA or California Department of Health Services recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels include manganese, iron, chloride, total dissolved solids, and specific conductance. These exceedances are probably a result of natural processes. Variations in stable isotope ratios of hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O) may indicate different sources or a mixing of recharge waters to the urban ground water. These variations also may indicate recharge directly from surface water in one well adjacent to the Sacramento River. Tritium concentrations indicate that most shallow ground water has been recharged since the mid-1950s, and tritium/helium-3 age dates suggest that recharge has occurred in the last 2 to 30 years in some areas. In areas where water table depths exceed 20 meters and wells are deeper, ground-water recharge may have occurred prior to 1950, but low concentrations of pesticides and VOCs detected in these deeper wells indicate a mixing of younger and older waters. Overall, the recently urbanized areas can be divided into two groups. One group contains wells where few VOCs and pesticides were detected, nitrate mostly was not detected, and National and State maximum contaminant levels, including the USEPA MCL for arsenic, were exceeded; these wells are adjacent to rivers and generally are characterized by younger water, shallow (1 to 4 meters) water table, chemically reducing conditions, finer grained sediments, and higher organics in the soils. In contrast, the other group contains wells where more VOCs, pesticides, and elevated nitrate concentrations were detected; these wells are farther from rivers and are generally characterized by a mixture of young and old waters, intermediate to deep (7 to 35 meters) wate

  19. Water Quality of "Tritium-Dead" Drinking Water Wells in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, A.; Moran, J. E.; Singleton, M. J.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Belitz, K.; Fram, M. S.; Esser, B. K.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding ambient levels of regulated constituents with predominantly natural sources, such as arsenic and uranium, or with both natural and anthropogenic sources, such as nitrate, salinity and perchlorate, is important for attributing source, assessing susceptibility, and for groundwater basin management. For California, the large database of tritium-helium, noble gas and stable isotope measurements acquired at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the State of California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program provides a unique opportunity to assess pre-development groundwater quality. GAMA is administered by the State Water Resources Control Board with USGS and LLNL as technical leads. These data were acquired for the GAMA California Aquifer Susceptibility and Priority Basin projects (http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/gama/; Belitz, 2003, USGS WRIR 03-4166). Groundwater pumped from long-screened wells will have a mixed distribution of travel times since recharge. Model calculations of mixing between tritium-dead recharge water and younger recharge water assuming simple binary, exponential or dispersive age distributions show that, given the historical levels of tritium in precipitation in the pacific coastal region, a threshold of less than 1 pCi/L of tritium is required to ensure that less than 25% of the pumped groundwater recharged after 1950. The low detection limit is necessary because water recharged between 1980 and 1995 contains only 3-4 pCi/L of tritium at present. The use of groundwater for irrigation in agricultural areas can result in recent recharge of tritium-dead water and complicates the identification of pre-development groundwater. Additional parameters including radiogenic helium, stable isotopes, and recharge temperature were studied to confirm the absence of a modern component. Initial results show that pre-development groundwater reflects the various hydrogeochemical settings found in California

  20. Application of ERTS-1 Data to Aid in Solving Water Resources Management Problems in the State of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Investigations within the State of California have emphasized the direct utilization of the supplemental data source afforded by the Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 (ERTS-1) imagery. A user-oriented study has been underway for several years to identify and develop application methodology for remotely sensed information available from several platform levels, including low and high flights by NASA's U2 aircraft, and other manned and unmanned devices. The University of California has pursued both basic and applied research in remote sensing, through ongoing studies supported by NASA, and in cooperation with state agencies responsible for water resources and related fields. This report reviews the applications of ERTS-1 and supplementary imagery sources applicable to water resources planning, operations, and management.

  1. The role of carrion supply in the abundance of deep-water fish off California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Drazen

    Full Text Available Few time series of deep-sea systems exist from which the factors affecting abyssal fish populations can be evaluated. Previous analysis showed an increase in grenadier abundance, in the eastern North Pacific, which lagged epibenthic megafaunal abundance, mostly echinoderms, by 9-20 months. Subsequent diet studies suggested that carrion is the grenadier's most important food. Our goal was to evaluate if changes in carrion supply might drive the temporal changes in grenadier abundance. We analyzed a unique 17 year time series of abyssal grenadier abundance and size, collected at Station M (4100 m, 220 km offshore of Pt. Conception, California, and reaffirmed the increase in abundance and also showed an increase in mean size resulting in a ∼6 fold change in grenadier biomass. We compared this data with abundance estimates for surface living nekton (pacific hake and jack mackerel eaten by the grenadiers as carrion. A significant positive correlation between Pacific hake (but not jack mackerel and grenadiers was found. Hake seasonally migrate to the waters offshore of California to spawn. They are the most abundant nekton species in the region and the target of the largest commercial fishery off the west coast. The correlation to grenadier abundance was strongest when using hake abundance metrics from the area within 100 nmi of Station M. No significant correlation between grenadier abundance and hake biomass for the entire California current region was found. Given the results and grenadier longevity, migration is likely responsible for the results and the location of hake spawning probably is more important than the size of the spawning stock in understanding the dynamics of abyssal grenadier populations. Our results suggest that some abyssal fishes' population dynamics are controlled by the flux of large particles of carrion. Climate and fishing pressures affecting epipelagic fish stocks could readily modulate deep-sea fish dynamics.

  2. 234U/238U as a ground-water tracer, SW Nevada-SE California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Gutentag, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    The 234U/238U ratio of uranium in oxidizing ground waters is potentially an excellent ground-water tracer because of its high solubility and insensitivity to chemical reactions. Moreover, recent advances in analytical capability have made possible very precise uranium-isotopic analyses on modest (approx.100 ml) amounts of normal ground water. Preliminary results on waters from SW Nevada/Se California indicate two main mixing trends, but in detail indicate significant complexity requiring three or more main components.

  3. Water Resources Data for California, 1983. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; Butcher, M.T.; Lamb, C.E.; Singer, J.A.; Smith, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1983 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 154 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 20 streams and 18 wells; water levels for 165 observation wells. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and federal agencies in California.

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  5. Circulation, Water Temperature, and Larval Settlement Over the Inner Continental Shelves of the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewings, M. R.; Washburn, L.; Ohlmann, C.; Blanchette, C.; Caselle, J.; Gotschalk, C.

    2008-12-01

    We use seven-year time series of wind stress, water velocity, and temperature in 15-18 m water depth to describe the circulation and water temperature over the inner continental shelves of the Channel Islands and California mainland in the Santa Barbara Basin. This area is strongly influenced by the California Current upwelling system. In turn, the water circulation in the Santa Barbara Basin influences the local marine ecosystem by affecting the water temperature and the supply of nutrients and larval fish and invertebrates. Larvae and nutrients traveling from the coast to the open ocean and back again must somehow pass through the inner shelf. The water circulation over the inner continental shelf of the Northern Channel Islands has not been described. Due to the shallowness of the water, an inner shelf has different physical dynamics than either the surfzone or the middle and outer continental shelf. We discuss the relative importance of upwelling- favorable along-shelf winds and of cross-shelf winds as forcing mechanisms for coastal upwelling circulations over the inner shelf; test whether the cross-shelf wind stress and surface gravity waves are important for cross-shelf circulation in the Santa Barbara Basin; and describe the subtidal patterns of water temperature, stratification, and velocity around the Channel Islands and their relation to observed larval settlement patterns. Cross-shelf circulation and the movement of water masses into and out of the Basin have implications for settlement and recruitment of many coastal species, including the economically important kelp rockfish, kelp bass, and sea urchin. Understanding the circulation of the Santa Barbara Basin and its inner shelves is a precursor to determining the source locations of the planktonic larvae. That information on source locations is essential for the design, siting, and assessment of existing and future marine protected areas in California and elsewhere.

  6. Whole-transcriptome response to water stress in a California endemic oak, Quercus lobata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Gugger; Juan Manuel Peñaloza-Ramírez; Jessica W. Wright; Victoria L. Sork; Jörg-Peter Schnitzler

    2016-01-01

    Reduced water availability during drought can create major stress for many plant species. Within a species, populations with a history of seasonal drought may have evolved the ability to tolerate drought more than those in areas of high precipitation and low seasonality. In this study, we assessed response to water stress in a California oak species, Quercus lobata Née...

  7. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, growing demand for energy and water and the need to address climate change will create huge challenges for energy policy and natural resource management. Synergistic strategies must be developed to conserve and use both resources more efficiently. California (CA) is a prime example of a region where policymakers have began to incorporate water planning in energy infrastructure development. But more must be done as CA transforms its energy system to meet its climate target. We analyze lifecycle water use of current and future transport fuel consumption to evaluate impacts & formulate mitigation strategies for the state at the watershed scale. Four 'bounding cases' for CA's future transportation demand to year 2030 are projected for analysis: two scenarios that only meet the 2020 climate target (business-as-usual, BAU) with high / low water use intensity, and two that meet long-term climate target with high / low water use intensity (Fig 1). Our study focuses on the following energy supply chains: (a) liquid fuels from conventional/unconventional oil & gas, (b) thermoelectric and renewable generation technologies, and (c) biofuels (Fig 2-3). We develop plausible siting scenarios that bound the range of possible water sources, impacts, and dispositions to provide insights into how to best allocate water and limit water impacts of energy development. We further identify constraints & opportunities to improve water use efficiency and highlight salient policy relevant lessons. For biofuels we extend our scope to the entire US as most of the biofuels consumed in California are and will be produced from outside of the state. We analyze policy impacts that capture both direct & indirect land use effects across scenarios, thus addressing the major shortcomings of existing studies, which ignore spatial heterogeneity as well as economic effects of crop displacement and the effects of crop intensification and extensification. We use the agronomic

  8. Lessons from 15 years of monitoring sudden oak death and forest dynamics in California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Metz; J. Morgan Varner; Ross Meentemeyer; Kerri Frangioso; David Rizzo

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring host composition and disease impacts began 15 years ago in what would become a network of permanent forest monitoring plots throughout the known and predicted range of Phytophthora ramorum in California coastal forests. Stretching ~500 miles from Big Sur to the Oregon border, the network captures variation in interactions among...

  9. Therapeutic Community in a California Prison: Treatment Outcomes after 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheldon X.; Roberts, Robert E. L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic communities have become increasingly popular among correctional agencies with drug-involved offenders. This quasi-experimental study followed a group of inmates who participated in a prison-based therapeutic community in a California state prison, with a comparison group of matched offenders, for more than 5 years after their initial…

  10. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  11. California State Waters Map Series-Offshore of Point Reyes, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet T.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Lowe, Erik; Chinn, John L.; Watt, Janet T.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    This publication about the Offshore of Point Reyes map area includes ten map sheets that contain explanatory text, in addition to this descriptive pamphlet and a data catalog of geographic information system (GIS) files. Sheets 1, 2, and 3 combine data from four different sonar surveys to generate comprehensive high-resolution bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter coverage of the map area. These data reveal a range of physiographic features (highlighted in the perspective views on sheet 4) such as the flat, sediment-covered seafloor in Drakes Bay, as well as abundant “scour depressions” on the Bodega Head–Tomales Point shelf (see sheet 9) and local, tectonically controlled bedrock uplifts. To validate geological and biological interpretations of the sonar data shown in sheets 1, 2, and 3, the U.S. Geological Survey towed a camera sled over specific offshore locations, collecting both video and photographic imagery; these “ground-truth” surveying data are summarized on sheet 6. Sheet 5 is a “seafloor character” map, which classifies the seafloor on the basis of depth, slope, rugosity (ruggedness), and backscatter intensity and which is further informed by the ground-truth-survey imagery. Sheet 7 is a map of “potential habitats,” which are delineated on the basis of substrate type, geomorphology, seafloor process, or other attributes that may provide a habitat for a specific species or assemblage of organisms. Sheet 8 compiles representative seismic-reflection profiles from the map area, providing information on the subsurface stratigraphy and structure of the map area. Sheet 9 shows the distribution and thickness of young sediment (deposited over the last about 21,000 years, during the most recent sea-level rise) in both the map area and the larger Salt Point to Drakes Bay region, interpreted on the basis of the seismic-reflection data, and it identifies the Offshore of Point Reyes map area as lying within the Bodega Head–Tomales Point shelf, Point

  12. Integrating water use into Southern California's power dispatch: an evaluation of the potential for cost-effective water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolorinos, J.; Ajami, N.; Yu, Y.; Rajagopal, R.

    2016-12-01

    Urban water supply and energy systems in the arid Southwestern United States are closely linked. Freshwater use by the electricity sector in particular represents a sizable portion of total water consumption in the region. Nonetheless, the dispatch of water and energy resources is managed separately, and no research to-date has examined the water conservation potential presented by the electricity sector. This study gauges the potential water savings that could be achieved including water use in the power dispatch process in Southern California by simulating a DC Optimal Power Flow for a simplified model of the region's power network. The simulation uses historical power consumption data, historical power production data and water use data from the US Geological Survey, the California Energy Commission and the US Energy Information Administration to estimate freshwater consumption by the region's thermoelectric power generation fleet. Preliminary results indicate that power system freshwater consumption could be reduced by as much as 20% at a minimal cost penalty, with potential for even greater savings. Model results show that Southern California's power system has the ability to competitively shift the use of some of the region's water resources from electricity to urban consumption, and suggests that water use should be incorporated into the policy-making process to enhance the efficient use of the state's interconnected water and energy resources.

  13. Groundwater Age in Multi-Level Water Quality Monitor Wells on California Central Valley Dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, B. K.; Visser, A.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Dairy farming in California's Central Valley is a significant source of nitrate to underlying aquifers. One approach to mitigation is to implement farm-scale management plans that reduce nutrient loading to groundwater while sustaining crop yield. While the effect of different management practices on crop yield is easily measured, their effect on groundwater quality has only infrequently been evaluated. Documenting and predicting the impact of management on water quality requires a quantitative assessment of transport (including timescale and mixing) through the vadose and saturated zones. In this study, we measured tritium, helium isotopic composition, and noble gas concentrations in groundwater drawn from monitor wells on several dairies in the Lower San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California's Central Valley in order to predict the timescales on which changes in management may produce observable changes in groundwater quality. These dairies differ in age (from 100 years old), thickness of the vadose zone (from irrigation water (surface or groundwater). All of the dairies use manure wastewater for irrigation and fertilization. Three of the dairies have implemented management changes designed to reduce nutrient loading and/or water usage. Monitor wells in the southern Tulare Lake Basin dairies were installed by UC-Davis as multi-level nested wells allowing depth profiling of tritium and noble gases at these sites. Tritium/helium-3 groundwater ages, calculated using a simple piston-flow model, range from 50 years. Initial tritium (the sum of measured tritium and tritiogenic helium-3) is close to or slightly above precipitation in the calculated recharge year for young samples; and significantly above the precipitation curve for older samples. This pattern is consistent with the use of 20-30 year old groundwater recharged before 1980 for irrigation, and illustrates how irrigation with groundwater can complicate the use of tritium alone for age dating

  14. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [planning and management of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.; Churchman, C. W.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, R.; Coulson, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The University of California has been conducting an investigation which seeks to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Most of the work has concentrated on California's water resources, but with some attention being given to other earth resources as well and to the interplay between them and California's water resources.

  15. Irrigated lands assessment for water management: Technique test. [California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, S. L.; Brown, C. E.; Eriksson, M.; Grigg, C. A.; Thomas, R. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.; Tinney, L. R.; Baggett, J. O.; Sawyer, G.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for estimating irrigated land using full frame LANDSAT imagery was demonstrated. Relatively inexpensive interpretation of multidate LANDSAT photographic enlargements was used to produce a map of irrigated land in California. The LANDSAT and ground maps were then linked by regression equations to enable precise estimation of irrigated land area by county, basin, and statewide. Land irrigated at least once in California in 1979 was estimated to be 9.86 million acres, with an expected error of less than 1.75% at the 99% level of confidence. To achieve the same level of error with a ground-only sample would have required 3 to 5 times as many ground sample units statewide. A procedure for relatively inexpensive computer classification of LANDSAT digital data to irrigated land categories was also developed. This procedure is based on ratios of MSS band 7 and 5, and gave good results for several counties in the Central Valley.

  16. Adaptive Management Methods to Protect the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Water Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  17. Investigating Causes and Consequences of 150 Years of Channel Morphology Evolution in San Pablo Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegen, M. V.; Roelvink, J.; Jaffe, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Delta is an area where rivers draining the Central Valley and Sierras of California, including the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, meet before discharging into the northeastern end of the San Francisco Estuary. San Pablo Bay, a sub-embayment in the northern Estuary, is circular with an area of about 250 km2 and an average tidal range of about 1.5 m. It is rather shallow (depths generally less than 4 m, average depth San Pablo Bay has changed markedly since the Gold Rush. Deposition of more than a quarter billion cubic meters of hydraulic gold mining debris reduced the average depth of San Pablo Bay by 85 cm in the middle and late 1800s. In the late 1900s the intertidal flats narrowed and the major channel in the Bay deepened as more sediment was lost to the sea than entered from rivers. Processes of sediment redistribution caused the main channel to become narrower as well, a trend observed over the last 150 years. It is not clear what is causing the change in channel geometry and the implications of the change in geometry on the seaward transport of sediment through San Pablo Bay. This study investigates the cause of this channel geometry development and its impact on the conveyance of sediment through and distribution within San Pablo Bay using a process-based, numerical model (Delft3D). The Delft3D model developed for this study is a 3D model that includes the k-ɛ turbulence model, wind, waves, multiple mud and sand fractions and salt-fresh water density differences, as well as schematized tidal and river flow boundary conditions. The approach is to perform different runs with equal forcing on different historic bathymetries. By keeping the bed in a fixed, non-erodible state, we can analyze the impact of the evolving San Pablo Bay morphology on the conveyance efficiency of water and sediments. Model results show what happens with sediment supplied by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River as well as the behavior of different sediment classes on

  18. Topographic reference points in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set is a compilation of reference points representing surface-water features, ground-water levels, and topographic settings in California that were...

  19. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  20. Impacts of Urban Water Conservation Strategies on Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Health: Southern California as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Sharona; Godwin, Hilary; Cole, Brian L

    2016-05-01

    To determine how urban water conservation strategies in California cities can affect water and energy conservation efforts, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and benefit public health. We expanded upon our 2014 health impact assessment of California's urban water conservation strategies by comparing the status quo to 2 options with the greatest potential impact on the interrelated issues of water and energy in California: (1) banning landscape irrigation and (2) expanding alternative water sources (e.g., desalination, recycled water). Among the water conservation strategies evaluated, expanded use of recycled water stood out as the water conservation strategy with potential to reduce water use, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions, with relatively small negative impacts for the public's health. Although the suitability of recycled water for urban uses depends on local climate, geography, current infrastructure, and finances, analyses similar to that presented here can help guide water policy decisions in cities across the globe facing challenges of supplying clean, sustainable water to urban populations.

  1. Multi-year strongest California drought from 500 m SNPP/VIIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W.; Kogan, F.

    2016-12-01

    Starting in 2006, the western United States was affected by a 10-year long mega-drought. Among 17 western states, California was the most severely drought-affected, especially in 2012-2015, when the area of stronger than moderate vegetation stress reached 70%. This drought had considerable impacts on California's environmental, economy and society. Currently, drought in the USA is monitored by the US Drought Monitor (USDM), which estimates drought area and intensity on an area with an effective resolution of around 30-by-30 km. California produces more than 90% of US fruits, vegetables, berries and nuts, which are grown on relatively small areas (200-500 acres, or 0.5 to 2 km²). Since most of these crops are irrigated, it is important to estimate crop conditions on the area comparable to the size of the planted crop. This paper demonstrates how the new 0.5-by-0.5 km Vegetation health (VH) technology (VH-500) developed from the data collected by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite launched in 2011, monitors the current mega-drought in California, distinguishing drought-affected area with and without irrigation and estimating drought start/end, intensity, duration and impacts. The VH-500 method and data showed that California's vegetation was under medium-to-exceptional stress, especially in 2013 and 2014. However, in the middle of such intensive stress, in some of the 500-m areas of the Central Valley where principal crops are growing, vegetation experienced favorable conditions because some of these crops were irrigated. The VH-500 drought estimates showed general similarities with the assessed economic drought impacts (crop fallowing, employment loss and crop revenue change) in California.

  2. Municipal Water in Drought-Stricken California: Thinking Outside the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiciga, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Our work reviews the key climatic and cultural factors behind water scarcity in drought-stricken regions of the world, in general, and California in particular. Long-term climatic data, instrumental and tree ring-based, are analyzed to ascertain patterns of drought recurrence, length, and severity in California. Municipal water delivery is examined to identify essential and unessential water uses, showing how water use is governed by unsustainable cultural practices, and how it responds to conservation initiatives and pricing. Lastly, unconventional means to increase municipal are investigated, mainly the recycling of municipal sewage. The supply-side and economic implications of using recycled sewage as a potable water source are compared with those pertinent to seawater desalination.

  3. Water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 2, northern and coastal areas of Monterey County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, W.E.; Smith, P.E.; DeBortoli, M.L.; Schluter, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Control and Water Conservation District maintained three networks in the study areas to measure ground-water levels: (1) the summer network, (2) the monthly network, and (3) the annual autumn network. The California American Water Company also did some ground-water-level monitoring in these areas. Well coverage for ground-water monitoring was dense in the seawater-intrusion area north of Moss Landing (possibly because of multiple overlying aquifers), but sparse in other parts of the study areas. During the study, 44 sections were identified as not monitored for ground-water levels. In an ideal ground-water-level network, wells would be evenly spaced, except where local conditions or correlations of wells make monitoring unnecessary. A total of 384 wells that monitor ground-water levels and/or ground-water quality were identified during this study. The Monterey County Flood Control and Water Conservation District sampled ground-water quality monthly during the irrigation season to monitor seawater intrusion. Once each year (during the summer), the wells in this network were monitored for chlorides, specific conductance, and nitrates. Additional samples were collected from each well once every 5 years for complete mineral analysis. The California Department of Health Services, the California American Water Company, the U.S. Army Health Service at Ford Ord, and the Monterey Peninsula Water Management District also monitored ground-water quality in wells in the study areas. Well coverage for the ground-water- quality networks was dense in the seawater- intrusion area north of Moss Landing, but sparse in the rest of the study areas. During this study, 54 sections were identified as not monitored for water quality.

  4. Sources of emergency water supplies in San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    San Mateo County has several densely populated urban areas that get most of their water supplies from surface-water sources that could by damaged by a major earthquake or other general disaster. In the event of such a disaster, limited supplies of potable water may be obtained from selected wells, springs, and perennial streams. This report outlines the principal sources of existing water supplies, gives information on the need for emergency water-supply procedures, presents general criteria needed for selecting emergency water-supply wells, summarizes information for 60 selected water wells, numerous springs, and perennial streams that can be used as sources of water, and describes emergency water-purification procedures that can be used by individuals or small groups of people.

  5. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  6. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-08

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  7. WAVE DIRECTION and Other Data from FIXED STATIONS From Coastal Waters of California from 19750313 to 19750525 (NODC Accession 9400044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains Wave Surface Data collected in Coastal Waters of California between March 13, 1975 and May 25, 1975. Water surface elevation data was...

  8. Potential impacts of climate warming on water supply reliability in the Tuolumne and Merced River Basins, California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kiparsky

    Full Text Available We present an integrated hydrology/water operations simulation model of the Tuolumne and Merced River Basins, California, using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP platform. The model represents hydrology as well as water operations, which together influence water supplied for agricultural, urban, and environmental uses. The model is developed for impacts assessment using scenarios for climate change and other drivers of water system behavior. In this paper, we describe the model structure, its representation of historical streamflow, agricultural and urban water demands, and water operations. We describe projected impacts of climate change on hydrology and water supply to the major irrigation districts in the area, using uniform 2 °C, 4 °C, and 6 °C increases applied to climate inputs from the calibration period. Consistent with other studies, we find that the timing of hydrology shifts earlier in the water year in response to temperature warming (5-21 days. The integrated agricultural model responds with increased water demands 2 °C (1.4-2.0%, 4 °C (2.8-3.9%, and 6 °C (4.2-5.8%. In this sensitivity analysis, the combination of altered hydrology and increased demands results in decreased reliability of surface water supplied for agricultural purposes, with modeled quantity-based reliability metrics decreasing from a range of 0.84-0.90 under historical conditions to 0.75-0.79 under 6 °C warming scenario.

  9. Data measured on water collected from eastern Mojave Desert, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Tim P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-17

    In March of 2000 field collection of water from the Eastern Mojave Desert resulted in the measurement of stable isotope, radiocarbon, tritium, and limited dissolved noble gases. This work was follow-on to previous studies on similar systems in southern Nevada associated with the Nevada Test Site (Davisson et al., 1999; Rose and Davisson, 2003). The data for groundwater from wells and springs was never formally published and is therefore tabulated in Table 1 in order to be recorded in public record. In addition 4 years of remote precipitation data was collected for stable isotopes and is included in Table 2. These studies, along with many parallel and subsequent ones using isotopes and elemental concentrations, are all related to the general research area of tracing sources and quantifying transport times of natural and man-made materials in the environment. This type of research has direct relevance in characterizing environmental contamination, understanding resource development and protection, designing early detection in WMD related terrorism, and application in forensics analysis.

  10. Recharging California's Groundwater: Crop Suitability and Surface Water Availability for Agricultural Groundwater Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, H. E.; Kocis, T. N.; Brown, A.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater banking, the intentional recharge of groundwater from surface water for storage and recovery, is an important conjunctive use strategy for water management in California (CA). A largely unexplored approach to groundwater banking, agricultural groundwater banking (ag-GB), utilizes flood flows and agricultural lands (alfalfa/pasture) for recharging groundwater. Understanding soil suitability for ag-GB, crop health and flooding tolerance, leaching of soil nitrate and salts, the availability of surface water for recharge, and the economic costs and benefits of ag-GB is fundamental to assessing the feasibility of local-scale implementation of ag-GB. The study presented here considers both the availability of excess streamflow (e.g., the magnitude, frequency, timing, and duration of winter flood flow) for ag-GB and the risks and benefits associated with using alfalfa fields as spreading grounds for ag-GB. The availability of surface water for winter (Nov to Apr) ag-GB were estimated based on daily streamflow records for 93 stream gauges within the Central Valley, CA. Analysis focused on high-magnitude (>90thpercentile) flows because most lower flows are likely legally allocated in CA. Results based >50 years of data indicate that an average winter/spring (Nov. - Apr.) in the Sacramento River Basin could provide 7 million acre-feet (AF) (8.6 km3) of water for ag-GB from flows above the 90th percentile. These flows originate from few storm events (5-7 events) and occur on average for 25-30 days between November and April. Wintertime on-farm recharge experiments were conducted on a 9-yr old, 15-acre alfalfa field in the Scott Valley, CA, where 135 AF and 107 AF of water were recharged during the winters of 2015 and 2016, respectively. Biomass data collected indicates that pulsed application of 6-10 ft of water on dormant alfalfa results in minimal yield loss (0.5 ton/acre reduction), short-duration saturated conditions in the root-zone, and high recharge

  11. Preliminary design of four aircraft to service the California Corridor in the year 2010: The California Condor, California Sky-Hopper, high capacity short range transport tilt rotor aircraft needed to simplify intercity transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to design an aircraft for use in the California Corridor in the year 2010. The design process, completed by students in a senior design class at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, used a Class 1 airplane design analysis from Jan Roskam's Airplane Design. The California Condor (CC-38), a 38 passenger, 400 mph aircraft, was designed to meet the needs of tomorrow's passengers while conforming to the California Corridor's restrictions. Assumptions were made using today's technology with forecasts into 21st Century technology. Doubling today's commuter aircraft passenger capacity, travelling at Mach .57 with improved cruise efficiencies of over 10 percent, with the ability to land within field lengths of 4000 feet, are the CC-38's strongest points. The California Condor has a very promising future in helping to relieve the air traffic and airport congestion in the 21st Century.

  12. Eighty years of cooperative water science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.

    2017-05-09

    The Equus Beds aquifer in south-central Kansas is a primary water source for the city of Wichita. The Equus Beds aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project was developed to help the city of Wichita meet increasing current and future demands. The Equus Beds ASR project is a recent part of an 80-year cooperative water science effort with the city of Wichita. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Kansas Water Science Center characterizes river and aquifer water-quality and quantity and evaluates changes that may or may not be related to ASR. The USGS data are used by the city of Wichita to make informed management decisions, satisfy regulatory requirements, and serve as a baseline to detect any subsequent changes that may be related to ASR.

  13. Beyond User Acceptance: A Legitimacy Framework for Potable Water Reuse in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Lovett, Sasha R; Binz, Christian; Sedlak, David L; Kiparsky, Michael; Truffer, Bernhard

    2015-07-07

    Water resource managers often tout the potential of potable water reuse to provide a reliable, local source of drinking water in water-scarce regions. Despite data documenting the ability of advanced treatment technologies to treat municipal wastewater effluent to meet existing drinking water quality standards, many utilities face skepticism from the public about potable water reuse. Prior research on this topic has mainly focused on marketing strategies for garnering public acceptance of the process. This study takes a broader perspective on the adoption of potable water reuse based on concepts of societal legitimacy, which is the generalized perception or assumption that a technology is desirable or appropriate within its social context. To assess why some potable reuse projects were successfully implemented while others faced fierce public opposition, we performed a series of 20 expert interviews and reviewed in-depth case studies from potable reuse projects in California. Results show that proponents of a legitimated potable water reuse project in Orange County, California engaged in a portfolio of strategies that addressed three main dimensions of legitimacy. In contrast, other proposed projects that faced extensive public opposition relied on a smaller set of legitimation strategies that focused near-exclusively on the development of robust water treatment technology. Widespread legitimation of potable water reuse projects, including direct potable water reuse, may require the establishment of a portfolio of standards, procedures, and possibly new institutions.

  14. An open source hydroeconomic model for California's water supply system: PyVIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M. S.; White, E.; Herman, J. D.; Hart, Q.; Merz, J.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Models help operators and decision makers explore and compare different management and policy alternatives, better allocate scarce resources, and predict the future behavior of existing or proposed water systems. Hydroeconomic models are useful tools to increase benefits or decrease costs of managing water. Bringing hydrology and economics together, these models provide a framework for different disciplines that share similar objectives. This work proposes a new model to evaluate operation and adaptation strategies under existing and future hydrologic conditions for California's interconnected water system. This model combines the network structure of CALVIN, a statewide optimization model for California's water infrastructure, along with an open source solver written in the Python programming language. With the flexibilities of the model, reservoir operations, including water supply and hydropower, groundwater pumping, and the Delta water operations and requirements can now be better represented. Given time series of hydrologic inputs to the model, typical outputs include urban, agricultural and wildlife refuge water deliveries and shortage costs, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater systems, and insights into policy and management decisions, such as capacity expansion and groundwater management policies. Water market operations also represented in the model, allocating water from lower-valued users to higher-valued users. PyVIN serves as a cross-platform, extensible model to evaluate systemwide water operations. PyVIN separates data from the model structure, enabling model to be easily applied to other parts of the world where water is a scarce resource.

  15. A 6 year longitudinal study of post-fire woody carbon dynamics in California's forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca N.I. Eskelson; Vicente J. Monleon; Jeremy S. Fried

    2016-01-01

    We examined the dynamics of aboveground forest woody carbon pools — live trees, standing dead trees, and down wood—during the first 6 years following wildfire across a wide range of conditions, which are characteristic of California forest fires. From repeated measurements of the same plots, we estimated change in woody carbon pools as a function of crown fire severity...

  16. High-resolution climatic evolution of coastal northern California during the past 16,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, J.A.; Heusser, L.; Herbert, T.; Lyle, M.

    2003-01-01

    Holocene and latest Pleistocene oceanographic conditions and the coastal climate of northern California have varied greatly, based upon high-resolution studies (ca. every 100 years) of diatoms, alkenones, pollen, CaCO3%, and total organic carbon at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1019 (41.682??N, 124.930??W, 980 m water depth . Marine climate proxies (alkenone sea surface temperatures [SSTs] and CaCO3%) behaved remarkably like the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP)-2 oxygen isotope record during the B??lling-Allerod, Younger Dryas (YD), and early part of the Holocene. During the YD, alkenone SSTs decreased by >3??C below mean B??lling-Allerod and Holocene SSTs. The early Holocene (ca. 11.6 to 8.2 ka) was a time of generally warm conditions and moderate CaCO3 content (generally >4%). The middle part of the Holocene (ca. 8.2 to 3.2 ka) was marked by alkenone SSTs that were consistently 1-2??C cooler than either the earlier or later parts of the Holocene, by greatly reduced numbers of the gyre-diatom Pseudoeunotia doliolus (<10%), and by a permanent drop in CaCO3% to <3%. Starting at ca. 5.2 ka, coastal redwood and alder began a steady rise, arguing for increasing effective moisture and the development of the north coast temperate rain forest. At ca. 3.2 ka, a permanent ca. 1??C increase in alkenone SST and a threefold increase in P. doliolus signaled a warming of fall and winter SSTs. Intensified (higher amplitude and more frequent) cycles of pine pollen alternating with increased alder and redwood pollen are evidence that rapid changes in effective moisture and seasonal temperature (enhanced El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation [ENSO] cycles) have characterized the Site 1019 record since about 3.5 ka.

  17. High-resolution climatic evolution of coastal northern California during the past 16,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Heusser, Linda; Herbert, Timothy; Lyle, Mitch

    2003-03-01

    Holocene and latest Pleistocene oceanographic conditions and the coastal climate of northern California have varied greatly, based upon high-resolution studies (ca. every 100 years) of diatoms, alkenones, pollen, CaCO3%, and total organic carbon at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1019 (41.682°N, 124.930°W, 980 m water depth). Marine climate proxies (alkenone sea surface temperatures [SSTs] and CaCO3%) behaved remarkably like the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP)-2 oxygen isotope record during the Bølling-Allerod, Younger Dryas (YD), and early part of the Holocene. During the YD, alkenone SSTs decreased by >3°C below mean Bølling-Allerod and Holocene SSTs. The early Holocene (ca. 11.6 to 8.2 ka) was a time of generally warm conditions and moderate CaCO3 content (generally >4%). The middle part of the Holocene (ca. 8.2 to 3.2 ka) was marked by alkenone SSTs that were consistently 1-2°C cooler than either the earlier or later parts of the Holocene, by greatly reduced numbers of the gyre-diatom Pseudoeunotia doliolus (<10%), and by a permanent drop in CaCO3% to <3%. Starting at ca. 5.2 ka, coastal redwood and alder began a steady rise, arguing for increasing effective moisture and the development of the north coast temperate rain forest. At ca. 3.2 ka, a permanent ca. 1°C increase in alkenone SST and a threefold increase in P. doliolus signaled a warming of fall and winter SSTs. Intensified (higher amplitude and more frequent) cycles of pine pollen alternating with increased alder and redwood pollen are evidence that rapid changes in effective moisture and seasonal temperature (enhanced El Niño-Southern Oscillation [ENSO] cycles) have characterized the Site 1019 record since about 3.5 ka.

  18. Water conservation scenario for the residential and industrial sectors in California: potential savings of water and related energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenson, P.

    1977-08-01

    A residential and industrial water-conservation scenario for California is constructed in which water consumption is disaggregated by residential end use, industrial sector, and hydrologic study area (HSA). The energy use associated with this water use was estimated for surface and groundwater delivery, distribution, heating, and waste-water treatment. For each end use and sector, water-conservation measures were delineated and their potential savings in terms of both water and attendant energy use were estimated. This material is combined to estimate the total water and energy savings potential by end use, sector, and HSA. This potential is then compared with the reported water savings to date, and finally, some conclusions and policy implications are drawn from the results. The general findings are discussed first, followed by a listing of the more important detailed results.

  19. The Water Risks of Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking): Key Issues from the New California Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    A key component of the Water-Energy Nexus is the effort over the past decade or so to quantify the volumes and form of water required for the energy fuel cycle from extraction to generation to waste disposal. The vast majority of the effort in this area has focused on the water needs of electricity generation, but other fuel-cycle components also entail significant water demands and threats to water quality. Recent work for the State of California (managed by the California Council on Science and Technology - CCST) has produced a new state-of-the-art assessment of a range of potential water risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and related oil and gas extraction, including volumetric water demands, methods of disposal of produced water, and aquifer contamination. For example, this assessment produced new information on the disposal of produced water in surface percolation pits and the potential for contamination of local groundwater (see Figure). Understanding these risks raises questions about current production and future plans to expand production, as well as tools used by state and federal agencies to manage these risks. This talk will summarize the science behind the CCST assessment and related policy recommendations for both water and energy managers.

  20. Estimates of consumptive use and ground-water return flow using water budgets in Palo Verde Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Kimsey, Steven L.

    1987-01-01

    Palo Verde Valley, California, is an agricultural area in the flood plain of the Colorado River where irrigation water is diverted from the river and groundwater is discharged to a network of drainage ditches and (or) the river. Consumptive use by vegetation and groundwater return flow were calculated using water budgets. Consumptive use by vegetation was 484,000 acre-ft in 1981, 453,600 acre-ft in 1982, 364,400 acre-ft in 1983, and 374,300 acre-ft in 1984. The consumptive-use estimates are most sensitive to two measured components of the water budget, the diversion at Palo Verde Dam and the discharge from drainage ditches to the river. Groundwater return flow was 31,700 acre-ft in 1981, 24,000 acre-ft in 1982, 2,500 acre-ft in 1983, and 7 ,900 acre-ft in 1984. The return-flow estimates are most sensitive to discharge from drainage ditches; various irrigation requirements and crop areas, particularly alfalfa; the diversion at Palo Verde Dam; and the estimate of consumptive use. During increasing flows in the river, the estimate of groundwater return flow is sensitive also to change in groundwater storage. Change in groundwater storage was estimated to be -5,700 acre-ft in 1981, -12,600 acre-ft in 1982, 5,200 acre-ft in 1983, and 11 ,600 acre-ft in 1984. Changes in storage can be a significant component in the water budget used to estimate groundwater return flow but is negligible in the water budget used to estimate consumptive use. Change in storage was 1 to 3% of annual consumptive use. Change in storage for the area drained by the river ranged from 7 to 96% of annual groundwater return flow during the 4 years studied. Consumptive use calculated as diversions minus return flows was consistently lower than consumptive use calculated in a water budget. Water-budget estimates of consumptive use account for variations in precipitation, tributary inflow, river stage, and groundwater storage. The calculations for diversions minus return flows do not account for these

  1. Managing Water to Protect Fish: A Review of California's Environmental Water Account, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; Kimmerer, Wim; Brown, Randall

    2009-02-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches.

  2. Managing water to protect fish: A review of California's environmental water account, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.R.; Kimmerer, W.; Brown, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. Streamflow of 2008--Water year summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaodong, Jian; Wolock, David M.; Lins, Harry F.; Brady, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The maps and graphs appearing in this summary describe streamflow conditions for water-year 2008 (October 1, 2007 to September 30, 2008) in the context of the 79-year period 1930-2008, unless otherwise noted. The illustrations are based on observed data from the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Streamflow Information Program. The period 1930-2008 was used because prior to 1930, the number of streamgages was too small to provide representative data for computing statistics for most regions of the country. In the summary, reference is made to the term "runoff," which is the depth to which a river basin, State, or other geographic area would be covered with water if all the streamflow within the area during a single year was uniformly distributed upon it. Runoff quantifies the magnitude of water flowing through the Nation's rivers and streams in measurement units that can be compared from one area to another. The runoff value for a geographic area is computed as the median runoff value for all streamgages in that geographic area. For example, the runoff value for a State is the median for all streamgages in that State, and the median for the Nation is the median value for all streamgages in the Nation. Each of the maps and graphs below can be expanded to a larger view by clicking on the image. In all the graphics, a rank of 1 indicates the highest flow of all years analyzed.

  4. Economic values for conjunctive use and water banking in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Jenkins, Marion W.; Lund, Jay R.

    2004-03-01

    The potential and limitations of conjunctive use of surface and groundwater are explored for southern California's water supply system. An economic-engineering network flow optimization model, CALVIN, is used to analyze the economic and reliability benefits from different conjunctive use alternatives. Flexible management of additional conjunctive use facilities and groundwater storage capacity under flexible water allocation can generate substantial economic benefits to the region. Conjunctive use adds operational flexibility to take better advantage of water market transfers, and transfers provide the allocation flexibility to take better advantage of conjunctive use. The value of conjunctive use programs along the Colorado River Aqueduct, in Coachella Valley, and north of the Tehachapi Mountains under economically optimized operation of the system is examined. Results reveal reductions of economic demand for increased imports into southern California, suggest changes in the system operations, and indicate significant economic benefits from expanding some conveyance and storage facilities.

  5. Irrigation in California's Central Valley strengthens the southwestern U.S. water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Characterizing climatological and hydrological responses to agricultural irrigation continues to be an important challenge to understanding the full impact of water management on the Earth's environment and hydrological cycle. In this study, we use a global climate model, combined with realistic estimates of regional agricultural water use, to simulate the local and remote impacts of irrigation in California's Central Valley. We demonstrate a clear mechanism that the resulting increase in evapotranspiration and water vapor export significantly impacts the atmospheric circulation in the southwestern United States, including strengthening the regional hydrological cycle. We also identify that irrigation in the Central Valley initiates a previously unknown, anthropogenic loop in the regional hydrological cycle, in which summer precipitation is increased by 15%, causing a corresponding increase in Colorado River streamflow of ~30%. Ultimately, some of this additional streamflow is returned to California via managed diversions through the Colorado River aqueduct and the All-American Canal.

  6. California's transition from conventional snowpack measurements to a developing remote sensing capability for water supply forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. J.; Peterson, N.

    1980-01-01

    California's Snow Survey Program and water supply forecasting procedures are described. A review is made of current activities and program direction on such matters as: the growing statewide network of automatic snow sensors; restrictions on the gathering hydrometeorological data in areas designated as wilderness; the use of satellite communications, which both provides a flexible network without mountaintop repeaters and satisfies the need for unobtrusiveness in wilderness areas; and the increasing operational use of snow covered area (SCA) obtained from satellite imagery, which, combined with water equivalent from snow sensors, provides a high correlation to the volumes and rates of snowmelt runoff. Also examined are the advantages of remote sensing; the anticipated effects of a new input of basin wide index of water equivalent, such as the obtained through microwave techniques, on future forecasting opportunities; and the future direction and goals of the California Snow Surveys Program.

  7. Lake Tahoe Generalized California Department of Water Resources Well Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data present a ground-water inventory of existing geospatial data and other information needed to determine the extent and characteristics of the aquifers in...

  8. Surface-water hydrology of Honey Lake Valley, Lassen County, California and Washoe County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    Honey Lake Valley straddles the State line of California and Nevada; it is about 35 mi north of Reno and about three-fourths of the area is in California. In this report, Honey Lake Valley (also referred to as “the basin") includes the entire area within the hydrographic boundary shown in figure 1. Susanville, Calif., in the northwestern part of the basin, is the largest town. Population is increasing rapidly in the Susanville area and in the Reno area of adjacent Washoe County, Nev. Lassen and Washoe Counties have identified water resources in Honey Lake Valley as a possible source to meet their needs for future development. An important component of an assessment of the availability of additional long-term supply is an appraisal of surface-water resources.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the California Department of Water Resources and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, began a hydrologic assessment of the area in 1987. The study was primarily an appraisal of ground-water resources, but it also included an assessment of surface-water resources. The purpose of this map report is to present the results of the surface-water assessment, including (1) a broad overview of surface-water conditions in the basin, (2) an estimate of mean annual streamflow to the valley floor, and (3) an evaluation of the characteristics of Honey lake. Results of the study related to ground-water resources of the basin are discussed in a separate report by Handman and others (1990) and are summarized in a short “Water Fact Sheet” by Handman (1990).

  9. Water resources data for California, water year 1995. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 SeptembeR 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agajanian, J.A.; Rockwell, G.L.; Hayes, P.D.

    1996-04-01

    Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 141 streamflow-gaging stations, 6 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage and contents records for 20 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water quality records for 21 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 partial-record stations; and (4) precipitation records for 1 station.

  10. Responding to the Drought: A Spatial Statistical Approach to Investigating Residential Water Consumption in Fresno, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the 2015 Residential Water Consumption Survey, this study examines residential water-use behavior and attitudes after the recent drought in Fresno, California. Spatial autoregressive models of residential water consumption were estimated, accounting for the effects of social interactions in communities (i.e., neighborhood effects, while controlling for indoor and outdoor house attributes, economic conditions, and attitudes toward water uses. The findings show that the spatial autocorrelations do exist. This suggests that the neighborhood effects can be a useful lever to facilitate initiatives aiming at promoting community engagement on water-saving practices. The results also indicate that a larger house tends to incur more water use, so does the presence of pools. Using a drip irrigation system for watering the backyard can help reduce water consumption. Medium income families turn out to use the least amount of water among different income groups, suggesting that water-saving policies may yield different results among residents of various income levels. Interestingly, respondents who considered themselves heavy water users actually used less water. This implies that the awareness of water importance can significantly influence residents’ water-use behavior and therefore the promotion of a water-saving culture can help reduce residential water consumption.

  11. Record-high specific conductance and water temperature in San Francisco Bay during water year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Paul; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Livsey, Daniel

    2017-02-22

    The San Francisco estuary is commonly defined to include San Francisco Bay (bay) and the adjacent Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta (delta). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated a high-frequency (15-minute sampling interval) water-quality monitoring network in San Francisco Bay since the late 1980s (Buchanan and others, 2014). This network includes 19 stations at which sustained measurements have been made in the bay; currently, 8 stations are in operation (fig. 1). All eight stations are equipped with specific conductance (which can be related to salinity) and water-temperature sensors. Water quality in the bay constantly changes as ocean tides force seawater in and out of the bay, and river inflows—the most significant coming from the delta—vary on time scales ranging from those associated with storms to multiyear droughts. This monitoring network was designed to observe and characterize some of these changes in the bay across space and over time. The data demonstrate a high degree of variability in both specific conductance and temperature at time scales from tidal to annual and also reveal longer-term changes that are likely to influence overall environmental health in the bay.In water year (WY) 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015), as in the preceding water year (Downing-Kunz and others, 2015), the high-frequency measurements revealed record-high values of specific conductance and water temperature at several stations during a period of reduced freshwater inflow from the delta and other tributaries because of persistent, severe drought conditions in California. This report briefly summarizes observations for WY 2015 and compares them to previous years that had different levels of freshwater inflow.

  12. Framework for a ground-water quality monitoring and assessment program for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Burow, Karen; Jurgens, Bryant C.; John, Tyler

    2003-01-01

    The State of California uses more ground water than any other State in the Nation. With a population of over 30 million people, an agricultural economy based on intensive irrigation, large urban industrial areas, and naturally elevated concentrations of some trace elements, there is a wide range of contaminant sources that have the potential to contaminate ground water and limit its beneficial uses. In response to the many-and different-potential sources of ground-water contamination, the State of California has evolved an extensive set of rules and programs to protect ground-water quality, and agencies to implement the rules and programs. These programs have in common a focus on compliance with regulations governing chemical use and (or) ground-water quality. Although appropriate for, and successful at, their specific missions, these programs do not at present provide a comprehensive view of ground-water quality in the State of California. In October 2001, The California Assembly passed a bill, AB 599, establishing the Ground-Water- Quality Monitoring Act of 2001.' The goal of AB 599 is to improve Statewide comprehensive ground-water monitoring and increase availability of information about ground-water quality to the public. AB 599 requires the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), in collaboration with an interagency task force (ITF) and a public advisory committee (PAC), to develop a plan for a comprehensive ground-water monitoring program. AB 599 specifies that the comprehensive program should be capable of assessing each ground-water basin in the State through direct and other statistically reliable sampling approaches, and that the program should integrate existing monitoring programs and design new program elements, as necessary. AB 599 also stresses the importance of prioritizing ground-water basins that provide drinking water. The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SWRCB, and in coordination with the ITF and PAC, has

  13. 100 years of California’s water rights system: patterns, trends and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Theodore E.; Viers, Joshua H.

    2014-08-01

    For 100 years, California’s State Water Resources Control Board and its predecessors have been responsible for allocating available water supplies to beneficial uses, but inaccurate and incomplete accounting of water rights has made the state ill-equipped to satisfy growing societal demands for water supply reliability and healthy ecosystems. Here, we present the first comprehensive evaluation of appropriative water rights to identify where, and to what extent, water has been dedicated to human uses relative to natural supplies. The results show that water right allocations total 400 billion cubic meters, approximately five times the state’s mean annual runoff. In the state’s major river basins, water rights account for up to 1000% of natural surface water supplies, with the greatest degree of appropriation observed in tributaries to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and in coastal streams in southern California. Comparisons with water supplies and estimates of actual use indicate substantial uncertainty in how water rights are exercised. In arid regions such as California, over-allocation of surface water coupled with trends of decreasing supply suggest that new water demands will be met by re-allocation from existing uses. Without improvements to the water rights system, growing human and environmental demands portend an intensification of regional water scarcity and social conflict. California’s legal framework for managing its water resources is largely compatible with needed reforms, but additional public investment is required to enhance the capacity of the state’s water management institutions to effectively track and regulate water rights.

  14. Distribution and mass inventory of total dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in the water column of the southern California bight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Eddy Y; Tsukada, David; Diehl, Dario W; Peng, Jian; Schiff, Kenneth; Noblet, James A; Maruya, Keith A

    2005-11-01

    A large-scale survey on the area and depth stratified distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT; mainly p,p'- and o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)) contamination in the water column of the Southern California Bight (SCB) was conducted in 2003-2004 using a solid-phase microextraction-based sampling technique. Dissolved-phase DDEs were clearly widespread, with the central SCB containing the highest levels, and the Palos Verdes Shelf sediments have remained the dominant source of DDT compounds to the SCB. The p,p'- and o,p'-DDE concentrations ranged from Verdes Shelf to other areas via a repeated process of sediment resuspension/deposition and short-range advection. Total mass inventories were estimated at 14 and 0.86 kg for p,p'- and o,p'-DDE, respectively, for the sampled area, resulting in p,p'- and o,p'-DDE mass inventories for the entire SCB of 230 and 14 kg, respectively. Furthermore, total fluxes of p,p'-DDE were estimated to be in the range of 0.8 to 2.3 metric tons per year. These results suggest that the SCB has been and continues to be a significant source of DDT contamination to the global oceans.

  15. Water Quality and Supply Issues of Irrigated Agricultural Regions - Lessons from the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, C. J.; Wang, D.

    2014-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley of California covers 4 million hectares of farmland and produces $25 billion of agricultural products annually, but its average annual rainfall ranges from only 130 mm in the south to 330 mm in the north and nearly all occur in the winter. On the east side of the valley, irrigation water is mostly derived from the Sierra snow melt. On the west side, water is imported from the northern part of the state through the Sacramento Delta and a network of canals and aqueducts. Ground water is also used for both east and west sides of the valley to supplement surface water sources, especially during droughts. After years of intense irrigation, a number of water supply and water quality issues have emerged. They include groundwater overdraft, land subsidence, water contamination by agricultural drainage laden with selenium, salinity buildup in soil and water, nutrients contamination from fertilizers and livestock production, competition for water with megalopolis and environmental use and restoration. All these problems are intensified by the effect of climate change that has already taken place and other geological hazards, such as earthquakes that can bring the water supply system to a complete halt. In addition to scientific and technical considerations, solutions for these complex issues necessarily involve management planning, public policy and actions. Currently, they include furloughing marginally productive lands, groundwater recharge and banking, water reuse and recycle, salinity and nutrient management, integrated regional water management planning, and public education and outreach. New laws have been enacted to better monitor groundwater elevations, and new bond measures to improve storage, infrastructures, and reliability, have been placed on the public ballot. The presentation will discuss these complex water issues.

  16. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: Water quantity, quality, and protection

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Mary; Jackson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater withdrawals are increasing across the United States, particularly in California, which faces a growing population and prolonged drought. Deep groundwater aquifers provide an alternative source of fresh and saline water that can be useable with desalination and/or treatment. In the Central Valley alone, fresh groundwater volumes can be increased almost threefold, and useable groundwater volumes can be increased fourfold if we extend depths to 3,000 m. However, some of these deep gr...

  17. Summary. [California activities in remote sensing and management of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    University of California activities in the development of remote sensing techniques and their application in the study of water resources within the state are summarized. It is pointed out that the summary is very lengthy due to fact that NASA had requested a dramatic reorientation of the study. For this reason it was felt that the co-investigators and other participants, need a rather detailed and systematic tabulation of the relevant facts that have been uncovered during the period since the reorientation.

  18. Changing patterns in water toxicity associated with current use pesticides in three California agriculture regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Deng, Xin; Geraci, Jeff; Worcester, Karen; Tjeerdema, Ron S

    2017-11-15

    Regulation of agriculture irrigation water discharges in California, USA, is assessed and controlled by its 9 Regional Water Quality Control Boards under the jurisdiction of the California State Water Resources Control Board. Each Regional Water Board has developed programs to control pesticides in runoff as part of the waste discharge requirements implemented through each region's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program. The present study assessed how pesticide use patterns differ in the Imperial (Imperial County) and the Salinas and Santa Maria (Monterey County) valleys, which host 3 of California's prime agriculture areas. Surface-water toxicity associated with current use pesticides was monitored at several sites in these areas in 2014 and 2015, and results were linked to changes in pesticide use patterns in these areas. Pesticide use patterns appeared to coincide with differences in the way agriculture programs were implemented by the 2 respective Regional Water Quality Control Boards, and these programs differed in the 2 Water Board Regions. Different pesticide use patterns affected the occurrence of pesticides in agriculture runoff, and this influenced toxicity test results. Greater detection frequency and higher concentrations of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos were detected in agriculture runoff in Imperial County compared to Monterey County, likely due to more rigorous monitoring requirements for growers using this pesticide in Monterey County. Monterey County agriculture runoff contained toxic concentrations of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid pesticides, which impacted amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus) in toxicity tests. Study results illustrate how monitoring strategies need to evolve as regulatory actions affect change in pesticide use and demonstrate the importance of using toxicity test indicator species appropriate for the suite of contaminants in runoff in order to accurately assess environmental risk. Integr

  19. SEDIMENT PROPERTIES and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORM From Coastal Waters of California from 19780411 to 19781203 (NODC Accession 8000315)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sediment properties and other data from FIXED PLATFORM From Coastal Waters of California from April 11 to December 3, 1978. This data set consists of the results of...

  20. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.; Heimann, David C.

    2016-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015), data were collected at 74 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Assessment Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 71 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak streamflows, monthly mean streamflows, and 7-day low flows is presented.

  1. Marine Coral and Sediment Records of Intermediate Water History from Decadal to Millennial Timescales on the California Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T. M.; Kennett, J. P.; Spero, H. J.

    2005-12-01

    Intermediate waters (300-2500m) are critically important to the earth's climate system for the transport of heat and salt around the globe, as well as influencing the carbon cycle via the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Results from the California margin indicate that intermediate waters are sensitive to climate change across multiple timescales. Sediment cores in Santa Barbara Basin (MD02-2503 and MD02-2504) provide high-resolution records of surface and intermediate water processes during the most recent deglaciation. Oxygen isotopic values of planktonic and benthic foraminifera indicate that surface and intermediate waters warmed synchronously,~2ka prior to Termination IA. These findings are consistent with previous studies that indicate intermediate waters responded prior to or synchronously with surface waters during major climatic transitions (Kennett et al., 2002; Hendy and Kennett, 2003). Studies from the Santa Barbara Basin also indicate dramatic changes in oxygenation during the Bolling-Allerod, associated with the combined influences of water column methane oxidation, intermediate water ventilation and surface productivity. These studies indicate that intermediate waters are highly sensitive to climate change on millennial timescales. However, it is poorly understood how intermediate waters will respond to climate change on short timescales, such as during ENSO episodes, Pacific Decadal Oscillation mode shifts, or anthropogenic forcing. Investigations of deep-sea bamboo corals collected along the California margin (250-2200m) are utilized to reconstruct the recent environmental history of intermediate waters in this region. Preliminary radiocarbon analyses of four coral specimens from south of Pt. Conception suggest that bamboo corals live for centuries with growth rates of 50-100 microns/year. Radiocarbon content of recently precipitated coral calcite reflects equilibrium with that of ambient seawater (Δ14Ccalcite = ¬ 249.7 ‰ Δ14CDIC = ¬ 242.2 ‰). A

  2. Save water or save wildlife? Water use and conservation in the central Sierran foothill oak woodlands of California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Huntsinger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available More frequent drought is projected for California. As water supplies constrict, and urban growth and out-migration spread to rural areas, trade-offs in water use for agriculture, biodiversity conservation, fire hazard reduction, residential development, and quality of life will be exacerbated. The California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus, state listed as "Threatened," depends on leaks from antiquated irrigation district irrigation systems for much of its remnant small wetland habitat in the north central Sierra Nevada foothills. Residents of the 1295 km² foothill habitat distribution of the Black Rail were surveyed about water use. Results show that the most Black Rail habitat is owned by those purchasing water to irrigate pasture, a use that commonly creates wetlands from leaks and tailwater. Promoting wildlife, agricultural production, and preventing wildfire are common resident goals that call for abundant and inexpensive water; social and economic pressures encourage reduction in water use and the repair of leaks that benefit wildlife and greenery. Broad inflexible state interventions to curtail water use are likely to create a multitude of unintended consequences, including loss of biodiversity and environmental quality, and alienation of residents as valued ecosystem services literally dry up. Adaptive and proactive policies are needed that consider the linkages in the social-ecological system, are sensitive to local conditions, prevent landscape dewatering, and recognize the beneficial use of water to support ecosystem services such as wildlife habitat. Much Black Rail habitat is anthropogenic, created at the nexus of local governance, plentiful water, agricultural practices, historical events, and changing land uses. This history should be recognized and leveraged rather than ignored in a rush to "save" water by unraveling the social-ecological system that created the landscape. Policy and governance needs to identify

  3. Status of metal contamination in surface waters of the coastal ocean off Los Angeles, California since the implementation of the Clean Water Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smail, Emily A; Webb, Eric A; Franks, Robert P; Bruland, Kenneth W; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

    2012-04-17

    In order to establish the status of metal contamination in surface waters in the coastal ocean off Los Angeles, California, we determined their dissolved and particulate pools and compared them with levels reported in the 1970s prior the implementation of the Clean Water Act. These measurements revealed a significant reduction in particulate toxic metal concentrations in the last 33 years with decreases of ∼100-fold for Pb and ∼400-fold for Cu and Cd. Despite these reductions, the source of particulate metals appears to be primarily anthropogenic as enrichment factors were orders of magnitude above what is considered background crustal levels. Overall, dissolved trace metal concentrations in the Los Angeles coastal waters were remarkably low with values in the same range as those measured in a pristine coastal environment off Mexico's Baja California peninsula. In order to estimate the impact of metal contamination on regional phytoplankton, the internalization rate of trace metals in a locally isolated phytoplankton model organism (Synechococcus sp. CC9311) was also determined showing a rapid internalization (in the order of a few hours) for many trace metals (e.g., Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb) suggesting that those metals could potentially be incorporated into the local food webs.

  4. Characteristics and management of flowback/produced water from hydraulically fractured wells in California - findings from the California SB 4 assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, C.; Cooley, H.; Heberger, M. G.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Domen, J. K.; Sandelin, W.; Camarillo, M. K.; Jordan, P. D.; Reagan, M. T.; Donnelly, K.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Long, J. C. S.

    2015-12-01

    As part of a recent assessment of well stimulation in California, we analyzed the hazards and potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing (the primary form of well stimulation in California) on water resources, which included an analysis of the quantity and quality of flowback/produced water generated, current management and disposal practices, associated potential release mechanisms and transport pathways that can lead to contaminants being released into the environment, and practices to mitigate or avoid impacts from produced water on water resources. The wastewater returned after stimulation includes "recovered fluids" (flowback fluids collected into tanks following stimulation, but before the start of production) and "produced water" (water extracted with oil and gas during production). In contrast to hydraulic fracturing in regions with primarily gas production, the quantities of recovered fluids from hydraulically fractured wells in California are small in comparison to the fluids injected (typically irrigation and discharge into sewer systems. Each of these disposal and reuse methods presents its own unique set of concerns that need to be considered together, in designing a produced water management plan.

  5. Economic and Water Supply Effects of Ending Groundwater Overdraft in California's Central Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Timothy; Chou, Heidi; Zikalala, Prudentia; Lund, Jay; Hui, Rui; Medellín–Azuara, Josué

    2016-01-01

    doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss1art7 Surface water and groundwater management are often tightly linked, even when linkage is not intended or expected. This link is especially common in semi-arid regions, such as California. This paper summarizes a modeling study on the effects of ending long-term overdraft in California’s Central Valley, the state’s largest aquifer system. The study focuses on economic and operational aspects, such as surface water pumping ...

  6. Information Management System for the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, T. C.; Redmann, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made to establish the requirements for an integrated state-wide information management system for water quality control and water quality rights for the State of California. The data sources and end requirements were analyzed for the data collected and used by the numerous agencies, both State and Federal, as well as the nine Regional Boards under the jurisdiction of the State Board. The report details the data interfaces and outlines the system design. A program plan and statement of work for implementation of the project is included.

  7. Ground-water development and the effects on ground-water levels and water quality in the town of Atherton, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.; Fio, John L.

    1997-01-01

    The installation of at least 100 residential wells in the town of Atherton, California, during the 198792 drought has raised concerns about the increased potential for land subsidence and salt water intrusion. Data were collected and monitor ing networks were established to assess current processes and to monitor future conditions affect ing these processes. Data include recorded pump age, recorded operation time, and measured pumpage rates from 38 wells; water levels from 49 wells; water chemistry samples from 20 wells, and land-surface elevation data from 22 survey sites, including one National Geodetic Survey estab lished bench mark. Geologic, lithologic, climato logic, well construction, well location, and historical information obtained from available reports and local, state, and Federal agencies were used in this assessment. Estimates of annual residential pumpage from 269 assumed active residential wells in the study area indicate that the average annual total pumping rate is between 395 and 570 acre-feet per year. The nine assumed active institutional wells are estimated to pump a total of about 200 acre- feet per year, or 35 to 50 percent of the total resi dential pumpage. Assuming that 510 acre-feet per year is the best estimate of annual residential pumpage, total pumpage of 710 acre-feet per year would represent about 19 percent of the study area's total water supply, as estimated. Depth-to-water-level measurements in wells during April 1993 through September 1995 typically ranged from less than 20 feet below land surface nearest to San Francisco Bay to more than 70 feet below land surface in upslope areas near exposed bedrock, depending on the season. This range, which is relatively high historically, is attributed to above normal rainfall between 1993 and 1995. Water levels expressed as hydraulic heads indicate the presence of three different hydrologic subareas on the basis of hydraulic-head contour configurations and flow direction. That all

  8. Modern Radiolarian (Polycystina) from Carmen Basin, Gulf of California, México: an ecological approach of the last 200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Ruiz, A. R.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Barbara, L.; Schmidt, S.

    2013-12-01

    Different taxa of radiolarians are adapted to different ocean conditions such as temperature and productivity, and specific assemblages characterize water masses and upwelling environments. Radiolarians are very common fossils in open marine sediments and in the Gulf of California are well preserved. In deep water deposits in slope sediments of the southern Gulf, up to 50 percent of the coarse fraction may consist of radiolarians, except in areas where dilution by terrigenous material is high. In the central part, diatoms are quantitative much more important in the sediments. However, south of latitude 26 degrees N, biogenous silica is almost exclusively radiolarians. Thus, in order to reconstruct the environmental conditions (i.g. water masses and ocean circulation patterns) a laminated sequence (core DIPAL V C-33, with 40 cm long) was collected in the eastern Carmen Basin in the gulf, at 600 m depth were the oxygen minimum impinges on the slope. Two hundred continuous samples along the core were prepared for radiolarian research. Rich and relatively well-preserved fauna is found and 160 taxa have been identified. A preliminary analysis shows that the orders Nasellaria and Spumellaria represent around 70% and 30%, respectively, indicating a more nearly oceanic conditions. Preliminary model age based on 210Pb dates indicates a sedimentation rate of 1.9 mm/yr, thus the core covers the past c. 200 years. Ecological diversity indices and statistical analysis are considered for the interpretation of radiolarian records and environmental reconstruction.

  9. Impacts of surface water diversions for marijuana cultivation on aquatic habitat in four northwestern California watersheds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bauer

    Full Text Available Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state- and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species.

  10. Plant water use affects competition for nitrogen: why drought favors invasive species in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Katherine; Seabloom, Eric W; Harpole, W Stanley; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Classic resource competition theory typically treats resource supply rates as independent; however, nutrient supplies can be affected by plants indirectly, with important consequences for model predictions. We demonstrate this general phenomenon by using a model in which competition for nitrogen is mediated by soil moisture, with competitive outcomes including coexistence and multiple stable states as well as competitive exclusion. In the model, soil moisture regulates nitrogen availability through soil moisture dependence of microbial processes, leaching, and plant uptake. By affecting water availability, plants also indirectly affect nitrogen availability and may therefore alter the competitive outcome. Exotic annual species from the Mediterranean have displaced much of the native perennial grasses in California. Nitrogen and water have been shown to be potentially limiting in this system. We parameterize the model for a Californian grassland and show that soil moisture-mediated competition for nitrogen can explain the annual species' dominance in drier areas, with coexistence expected in wetter regions. These results are concordant with larger biogeographic patterns of grassland invasion in the Pacific states of the United States, in which annual grasses have invaded most of the hot, dry grasslands in California but perennial grasses dominate the moister prairies of northern California, Oregon, and Washington.

  11. Prospective and retrospective evaluation of five-year earthquake forecast models for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Anne; Schneider, Max; Schorlemmer, Danijel

    2017-10-01

    The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability was developed to prospectively test earthquake forecasts through reproducible and transparent experiments within a controlled environment. From January 2006 to December 2010, the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) Working Group developed and evaluated thirteen time-invariant prospective earthquake mainshock forecasts. The number, spatial and magnitude components of the forecasts were compared to the observed seismicity distribution using a set of likelihood-based consistency tests. In this RELM experiment update, we assess the long-term forecasting potential of the RELM forecasts. Additionally, we evaluate RELM forecast performance against the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF2) and the National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NSHMP) forecasts, which are used for seismic hazard analysis for California. To test each forecast's long-term stability, we also evaluate each forecast from January 2006 to December 2015, which contains both five-year testing periods, and the 40-year period from January 1967 to December 2006. Multiple RELM forecasts, which passed the N-test during the retrospective (January 2006 to December 2010) period, overestimate the number of events from January 2011 to December 2015, although their forecasted spatial distributions are consistent with observed earthquakes. Both the UCERF2 and NSHMP forecasts pass all consistency tests for the two five-year periods; however, they tend to underestimate the number of observed earthquakes over the 40-year testing period. The smoothed seismicity model Helmstetter-et-al.Mainshock outperforms both United States Geological Survey (USGS) models during the second five-year experiment, and contains higher forecasted seismicity rates than the USGS models at multiple observed earthquake locations.

  12. Feasibility of geothermal space/water heating for Mammoth Lakes Village, California. Final report, September 1976--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.; Racine, W.C.

    1977-12-01

    Results of a study to determine the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of geothermal district heating for Mammoth Lakes Village, California are reported. The geothermal district heating system selected is technically feasible and will use existing technology in its design and operation. District heating can provide space and water heating energy for typical customers at lower cost than alternative sources of energy. If the district heating system is investor owned, lower costs are realized after five to six years of operation, and if owned by a nonprofit organization, after zero to three years. District heating offers lower costs than alternatives much sooner in time if co-generation and/or DOE participation in system construction are included in the analysis. During a preliminary environmental assessment, no potential adverse environmental impacts could be identified of sufficient consequence to preclude the construction and operation of the proposed district heating system. A follow-on program aimed at implementing district heating in Mammoth is outlined.

  13. Variability in surface water productivity in the central Gulf of California during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, V.; Barron, J. A.; Addison, J. A.; Bukry, D.

    2016-12-01

    The 1100-km-long Gulf of California (GOC) is separated from the cool waters of the eastern North Pacific by Baja California, and experiences both a temperate and sub-tropical climatology. In the eastern GOC, extensive diatom blooms are generated by strong northwest winds that upwell nutrient-rich waters during the winter. Slackening of these upwelling-favorable winds during the late spring allows for northward flow of tropical waters up the axis of the Gulf, prompting the flow of tropical moisture into northwestern Mexico and Arizona. Similar to the eastern bias during winter upwelling, northward flowing surface currents transporting tropical waters into the GOC during summer are also strongest on the eastern side of the Gulf. This study utilizes strew slide and biogenic silica (opal) analyses of diatoms and silicoflagellates to examine changes in primary productivity, over the past 2000 years from three marine sediment cores from Guaymas Basin in the central GOC. The cores include the eastern BAM80 E-17 (27.920° N, 111.610°W, 620 m water depth); the western MD02-2517c2 at 27.485° N, 112.074°W, water depth 887 m); and the southwestern DR373-VC-214 (26.879°N, 111.339°W, 1860 m water depth). This detailed productivity transect will test the hypothesis that the surface water productivity of the eastern and western portions of the Guaymas Basin responded differently to late Holocene climatic forcings. These records document distinct changes in the east-to-west productivity gradient during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) ( 850-1250 CE) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) ( 1300-1850 CE). Diatom and silicoflagellate assemblages suggest that the MCA was characterized by a reduced east- west productivity gradient and generally warm surface water conditions. The LIA appeared to be more similar to that of modern GOC surface water conditions, with a stronger east- west productivity gradient. The data also show that a warmer interval similar to that of the MCA occurred

  14. Public versus private: does it matter for water conservation? Insights from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallis, Giorgos; Ray, Isha; Fulton, Julian; McMahon, James E

    2010-01-01

    This article asks three connected questions: First, does the public view private and public utilities differently, and if so, does this affect attitudes to conservation? Second, do public and private utilities differ in their approaches to conservation? Finally, do differences in the approaches of the utilities, if any, relate to differences in public attitudes? We survey public attitudes in California toward (hypothetical but plausible) voluntary and mandated water conservation, as well as to price increases, during a recent period of shortage. We do this by interviewing households in three pairs of adjacent public and private utilities. We also survey managers of public and private urban water utilities to see if they differ in their approaches to conservation and to their customers. On the user side we do not find pronounced differences, though a minority of customers in all private companies would be more willing to conserve or pay higher prices under a public operator. No respondent in public utility said the reverse. Negative attitudes toward private operators were most pronounced in the pair marked by a controversial recent privatization and a price hike. Nonetheless, we find that California's history of recurrent droughts and the visible role of the state in water supply and drought management undermine the distinction between public and private. Private utilities themselves work to underplay the distinction by stressing the collective ownership of the water source and the collective value of conservation. Overall, California's public utilities appear more proactive and target-oriented in asking their customers to conserve than their private counterparts and the state continues to be important in legitimating and guiding conservation behavior, whether the utility is in public hands or private.

  15. California GAMA program: ground-water quality data in the San Diego drainages hydrogeologic province, California, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Burton, Carmen A.

    2005-01-01

    Because of concerns over ground-water quality, the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has implemented the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. A primary objective of the program is to provide a current assessment of ground-water quality in areas where public supply wells are an important source of drinking water. The San Diego GAMA study unit was the first region of the state where an assessment of ground-water quality was implemented under the GAMA program. The San Diego GAMA study unit covers the entire San Diego Drainages hydrogeologic province, and is broken down into four distinct hydrogeologic study areas: the Temecula Valley study area, the Warner Valley study area, the Alluvial Basins study area, and the Hard Rock study area. A total of 58 ground-water samples were collected from public supply wells in the San Diego GAMA study unit: 19 wells were sampled in the Temecula Valley study area, 9 in the Warner Valley study area, 17 in the Alluvial Basins study area, and 13 in the Hard Rock study area. Over 350 chemical and microbial constituents and water-quality indicators were analyzed for in this study. However, only select wells were measured for all constituents and water-quality indicators. Results of analyses were calculated as detection frequencies by constituent classification and by individual constituents for the entire San Diego GAMA study unit and for the individual study areas. Additionally, concentrations of constituents that are routinely monitored were compared to maximum contaminant levels (MCL) and secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL). Concentrations of constituents classified as 'unregulated chemicals for which monitoring is required' (UCMR) were compared to the 'detection level for the purposes of reporting' (DLR). Eighteen of the 88 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and gasoline oxygenates

  16. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Hu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.-H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000-2006 (present climate with present emissions) and 2047-2053 (future climate with present emissions). Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4-39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized. Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH), rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV) radiation was predicted to decrease

  17. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000–2006 (present climate with present emissions and 2047–2053 (future climate with present emissions. Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4–39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized.

    Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH, rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate

  18. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  19. Projected Impacts of Climate, Urbanization, Water Management, and Wetland Restoration on Waterbird Habitat in California's Central Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L; Fleskes, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006-2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the "existing" landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration and additional

  20. Projected Impacts of Climate, Urbanization, Water Management, and Wetland Restoration on Waterbird Habitat in California's Central Valley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott L Matchett

    Full Text Available The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006-2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the "existing" landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration

  1. Water quality of the Lexington Reservoir, Santa Clara County, California, 1978-80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsubo, R.T.; Sylvester, M.A.; Gloege, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of water samples from Lexington Reservoir and Los Gatos Creek upstream from the reservoir from June 1978 through September 1980 showed that water generally met water-quality objectives identified by California Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Francisco Bay Region. Water-temperature profiles show that Lexington Reservoir is a warm monomictic lake. During summer, dissolved-oxygen concentrations generally were not reduced below 5.0 mg/L in the hyplimnion; only once during the study did bottom waters become anoxic. Water transparency decreased with depth. The euphotic zone ranged from 1.0 to 5.4 m, depending on suspended solids and algae, and was greater in summer than in spring. Calcium and bicarbonate were dominant ions at all stations except during spring, following the rainy season, when waters were a mixed cation bicarbonate type. Nitrogen concentrations were greater in samples from reservoir stations than in those from Los Gatos Creek, with most of the nitrogen in ammonia and organic forms. The amount of dissolved nitrate appeared to be related to phytoplankton abundance. Phosphorus and trace-element concentrations were low at all stations. Estimates of net primary productivity and Carlson 's trophic-state index, based on chlorophyll-a concentrations, indicated that reservoir classification ranges from oligotrophic to mesotrophic. Blue-green algae generally were predominant in reservoir samples. (USGS)

  2. Seasonal Water Storage, the Resulting Deformation and Stress, and Occurrence of Earthquakes in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Burgmann, R.; Fu, Y.; Dutilleul, P.

    2015-12-01

    In California the accumulated winter snow pack in the Sierra Nevada, reservoirs and groundwater water storage in the Central Valley follow an annual periodic cycle and each contribute to the resulting surface deformation, which can be observed using GPS time series. The ongoing drought conditions in the western U.S. amplify the observed uplift signal as the Earth's crust responds to the mass changes associated with the water loss. The near surface hydrological mass loss can result in annual stress changes of ~1kPa at seismogenic depths. Similarly, small static stress perturbations have previously been associated with changes in earthquake activity. Periodicity analysis of earthquake catalog time series suggest that periods of 4-, 6-, 12-, and 14.24-months are statistically significant in regions of California, and provide documentation for the modulation of earthquake populations at periods of natural loading cycles. Knowledge of what governs the timing of earthquakes is essential to understanding the nature of the earthquake cycle. If small static stress changes influence the timing of earthquakes, then one could expect that events will occur more rapidly during periods of greater external load increases. To test this hypothesis we develop a loading model using GPS derived surface water storage for California and calculate the stress change at seismogenic depths for different faulting geometries. We then evaluate the degree of correlation between the stress models and the seismicity taking into consideration the variable amplitude of stress cycles, the orientation of transient load stress with respect to the background stress field, and the geometry of active faults revealed by focal mechanisms.

  3. High Resolution Climatic Evolution of Coastal Northern California During the Past 15,000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, J. A.; Herbert, T.; Heusser, L.; Lyle, M.

    2001-12-01

    Holocene oceanographic conditions and northern California coastal climate have varied greatly, based upon sedimentary records from ODP 1019 (41.682\\deg N, 124.930\\deg W, 980 m water depth), cored 70 km off Crescent City, California, near the present-day boundary between the subtropical and subpolar gyres of the NE Pacific. Holocene sediment at ODP 1019 accumulated at rates > 40 cm/kyr., allowing high resolution samples (roughly every 120 yrs.) to be studied jointly for diatoms, alkenones, pollen, calcium carbonate, and total organic carbon. During the Bolling-Allerod, alkenone SST's rose from a minimum glacial SST near 6\\deg C to average about 10-11\\deg C and reached a maximum of ca 13\\deg C at about 13,800 cal yr. B.P. A reduced contribution of pine pollen and modest increase in alder pollen may indicate a slightly warmer, wetter continental climate. At the beginning of the Younger Dryas, alkenone SST's decreased to > 8\\deg C, while both carbonate and diatom productivity declined sharply. The Younger Dryas was marked by a 0.5% decline in organic carbon content from the warm intervals on either side. Increased pine pollen during the early part of the Younger Dryas suggests cooler, drier climates, whereas increasing alder pollen during its later half signals the start of a trend toward warmer, wetter climates. The early Holocene (ca. 11,600 to ca. 8000 cal yr. B.P.) was a time of generally warm conditions and moderate carbonate values (usually >10%). Alkenone SST's were typically 12 to 13\\deg C or 4 to 5\\deg C warmer than during the Younger Dryas. Warming and increased precipitation are inferred from the abrupt increase in the successional alder to 50% of the total pollen. After ca. 10,000 cal. yr. B.P., modest rises in pine and oak pollen suggest warmer, dryer climates in the Pacific northwest. The gyre diatom Pseudoeunotia doliolus rose to prominence at 10,400 cal. yr. B.P., when surface waters became more conducive to diatom production. The middle

  4. Ten Years of Vegetation Change in Northern California Marshlands Detected using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) methodology was applied to detected changes in perennial vegetation cover at marshland sites in Northern California reported to have undergone restoration between 1999 and 2009. Results showed extensive contiguous areas of restored marshland plant cover at 10 of the 14 sites selected. Gains in either woody shrub cover and/or from recovery of herbaceous cover that remains productive and evergreen on a year-round basis could be mapped out from the image results. However, LEDAPS may not be highly sensitive changes in wetlands that have been restored mainly with seasonal herbaceous cover (e.g., vernal pools), due to the ephemeral nature of the plant greenness signal. Based on this evaluation, the LEDAPS methodology would be capable of fulfilling a pressing need for consistent, continual, low-cost monitoring of changes in marshland ecosystems of the Pacific Flyway.

  5. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, M. Seitzler

    2017-06-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners.

  6. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [water and forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    Progress and results of an integrated study of California's water resources are discussed. The investigation concerns itself primarily with the usefulness of remote sensing of relation to two categories of problems: (1) water supply; and (2) water demand. Also considered are its applicability to forest management and timber inventory. The cost effectiveness and utility of remote sensors such as the Earth Resources Technology Satellite for water and timber management are presented.

  7. Mining residential water and electricity demand data in Southern California to inform demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Spang, E. S.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Loge, F. J.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Demand side management strategies are key to meet future water and energy demands in urban contexts, promote water and energy efficiency in the residential sector, provide customized services and communications to consumers, and reduce utilities' costs. Smart metering technologies allow gathering high temporal and spatial resolution water and energy consumption data and support the development of data-driven models of consumers' behavior. Modelling and predicting resource consumption behavior is essential to inform demand management. Yet, analyzing big, smart metered, databases requires proper data mining and modelling techniques, in order to extract useful information supporting decision makers to spot end uses towards which water and energy efficiency or conservation efforts should be prioritized. In this study, we consider the following research questions: (i) how is it possible to extract representative consumers' personalities out of big smart metered water and energy data? (ii) are residential water and energy consumption profiles interconnected? (iii) Can we design customized water and energy demand management strategies based on the knowledge of water- energy demand profiles and other user-specific psychographic information? To address the above research questions, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify and model routines in water and energy consumers' behavior. We propose a novel customer segmentation procedure based on data-mining techniques. Our procedure consists of three steps: (i) extraction of typical water-energy consumption profiles for each household, (ii) profiles clustering based on their similarity, and (iii) evaluation of the influence of candidate explanatory variables on the identified clusters. The approach is tested onto a dataset of smart metered water and energy consumption data from over 1000 households in South California. Our methodology allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample, as well as

  8. Reuse/disposal of agricultural drainage water with high levels of salinity and toxic trace elements in central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural drainage waters in the western San Joaquin Valley of Central California contain high levels of salts, boron (B) and selenium (Se). Discharge of the drainage water directly into the Kesterson Reservoir in 1980's was hazardous to plants and wildlife. To investigate the plausibility of usi...

  9. First establishment of the planthopper Megamelus scutellaris Berg 1883 (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) released for biological control of water hyacinth in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach) is a non-native, invasive floating aquatic weed in the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta and associated river watersheds of northern California. Prior efforts to control water hyacinth biologically in this region have not led to sustained cont...

  10. Predicted pH at the domestic and public supply drinking water depths, Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Celia Z.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2017-03-08

    This scientific investigations map is a product of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project modeling and mapping team. The prediction grids depicted in this map are of continuous pH and are intended to provide an understanding of groundwater-quality conditions at the domestic and public supply drinking water zones in the groundwater of the Central Valley of California. The chemical quality of groundwater and the fate of many contaminants is often influenced by pH in all aquifers. These grids are of interest to water-resource managers, water-quality researchers, and groundwater modelers concerned with the occurrence of natural and anthropogenic contaminants related to pH. In this work, the median well depth categorized as domestic supply was 30 meters below land surface, and the median well depth categorized as public supply is 100 meters below land surface. Prediction grids were created using prediction modeling methods, specifically boosted regression trees (BRT) with a Gaussian error distribution within a statistical learning framework within the computing framework of R (http://www.r-project.org/). The statistical learning framework seeks to maximize the predictive performance of machine learning methods through model tuning by cross validation. The response variable was measured pH from 1,337 wells and was compiled from two sources: USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database (all data are publicly available from the USGS: http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ca/nwis/nwis) and the California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database (water quality data are publicly available from the SWRCB: http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/gama/geotracker_gama.shtml). Only wells with measured pH and well depth data were selected, and for wells with multiple records, only the most recent sample in the period 1993–2014 was used. A total of 1,003 wells (training dataset) were used to train the BRT

  11. Mental health and food consumption among California children 5-11 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Jim E; Khoie-Mayer, Roxanne N; Somaiya, Chintan K; McKinney, Ogbochi; Segovia-Siapco, Gina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine if poor mental health is associated with the intake of specific foods among California children. Secondary data analysis of the 2007 and 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) was conducted. Mental health was measured using a shortened version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Dietary measures were self-reported servings of fruit, vegetables, 100% fruit juice, high sugar foods, soda/sweetened drinks, and French fries/fried potatoes consumed the previous day, as well as frequency of fast food consumed during the past week. Phone interviews were conducted via the CHIS on households in California. Data belonging to children (n = 11,190) ages 5-11 years whose parents completed the CHIS 2007 and 2009 random-dial telephone surveys was investigated. Of an estimated annual population of 3.7 million children, 180,000 (4.9%) had poor mental health. Children with poor mental health consumed more soda/sweetened drinks (0.60 vs 0.45 servings per day, p = 0.024), French fries/fried potatoes (0.27 vs 0.14 servings per day, p = 0.003), and fast food (2.02 vs 1.38 servings per week, p = 0.009) compared to children with good mental health. Mental health was not associated with other dietary measures. Adjusting for relevant socio-demographic characteristics, logistic regression found poor mental health to be significantly associated with any consumption of French fries/fried potatoes (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, p = 0.001) or vegetables (OR 0.6, p = 0.005) on the previous day, and fast food two or more times in the past week (OR 1.7, p Children with poor mental health are more likely to consume calorie-dense but nutrient-poor foods compared to their counterparts. Intake of such foods may contribute to worse physical health as these children mature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Reclaiming agricultural drainage water with nanofiltration membranes: Imperial Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Schroeder, R.A.; Setmire, J.G.; ,

    2003-01-01

    We conducted pilot-scale field experiments using nanofiltration membranes to lower the salinity and remove Se, As and other toxic contaminants from saline agricultural wastewater in the Imperial Valley, California, USA. Farmlands in the desert climate (rainfall - 7.4 cm/a) of Imperial Valley cover -200,000 ha that are irrigated with water (-1.7 km3 annually) imported from the Colorado River. The salinity (-850 mg/L) and concentration of Se (-2.5 ??g/L) in the Colorado River water are high and evapotranpiration further concentrates salts in irrigation drainage water, reaching salinities of 3,000-15,000 mg/L TDS and a median Se value of -30 ??g/L. Experiments were conducted with two commercially available nanofiltration membranes, using drainage water of varying composition, and with or without the addition of organic precipitation inhibitors. Results show that these membranes selectively remove more than 95% of Se, SO4, Mo, U and DOC, and -30% of As from this wastewater. Low percentages of Cl, NO3 and HCO3, with enough cations to maintain electrical neutrality also were removed. The product water treated by these membranes comprised more than 90% of the wastewater tested. Results indicate that the treated product water from the Alamo River likely will have less than 0.2 ??g/L Se, salinity of 300-500 mg/L TDS and other chemical concentrations that meet the water quality criteria for irrigation and potable use. Because acceptability is a major issue for providing treated wastewater to urban centers, it may be prudent to use the reclaimed water for irrigation and creation of lower salinity wetlands near the Salton Sea; an equivalent volume of Colorado River water can then be diverted for the use of increasing populations of San Diego and other urban centers in southern California. Nanofiltration membranes yield greater reclaimed-water output and require lower pressure and less pretreatment, and therefore are generally more cost effective than traditional reverse

  13. A 30-year history of earthquake crisis communication in California and lessons for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.

    2015-12-01

    The first statement from the US Geological Survey to the California Office of Emergency Services quantifying the probability of a possible future earthquake was made in October 1985 about the probability (approximately 5%) that a M4.7 earthquake located directly beneath the Coronado Bay Bridge in San Diego would be a foreshock to a larger earthquake. In the next 30 years, publication of aftershock advisories have become routine and formal statements about the probability of a larger event have been developed in collaboration with the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) and sent to CalOES more than a dozen times. Most of these were subsequently released to the public. These communications have spanned a variety of approaches, with and without quantification of the probabilities, and using different ways to express the spatial extent and the magnitude distribution of possible future events. The USGS is re-examining its approach to aftershock probability statements and to operational earthquake forecasting with the goal of creating pre-vetted automated statements that can be released quickly after significant earthquakes. All of the previous formal advisories were written during the earthquake crisis. The time to create and release a statement became shorter with experience from the first public advisory (to the 1988 Lake Elsman earthquake) that was released 18 hours after the triggering event, but was never completed in less than 2 hours. As was done for the Parkfield experiment, the process will be reviewed by CEPEC and NEPEC (National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council) so the statements can be sent to the public automatically. This talk will review the advisories, the variations in wording and the public response and compare this with social science research about successful crisis communication, to create recommendations for future advisories

  14. Change in Total Water in California's Mountains and Groundwater in Central Valley During the 2011-2014 Drought From GPS, GRACE, and InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D. F.; Fu, Y.; Landerer, F. W.; Farr, T.; Watkins, M. M.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in total water thickness in most of California are being estimated using GPS measurements of vertical ground displacement. The Sierra Nevada each year subsides about 12 mm in the fall and winter due to the load of rain and snow, then rises about the same amount in the spring and summer when the snow melts, water runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. Earth's elastic response to a surface load is well known (except at thick sedimentary basins). Changes in equivalent water thickness can thus be inferred [Argus Fu Landerer 2014]. The average seasonal change in total water thickness is found to be 0.5 meters in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains and 0.1 meters in the Great Basin. The average seasonal change in the Sierra Nevada Mountains estimated with GPS is 35 Gigatons. GPS vertical ground displacements are furthermore being used to estimate changes in water in consecutive years of either drought or heavy precipitation. Changes in the sum of snow and soil moisture during California's drought from June 2011 to June 2014 are estimated from GPS in this study. Changes in water in California's massive reservoirs are well known and removed, yielding an estimate of change in the thickness of snow plus soil moisture. Water loss is found to be largest near the center of the southern Sierra Nevada (0.8 m equivalent water thickness) and smaller in the northern Sierra Nevada and southern Klamath Mountains (0.3 m). The GPS estimates of changes in the sum of snow and soil moisture complement GRACE observations of water change in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River basin. Whereas GPS provides estimates of water change at high spatial resolution in California's mountains, GRACE observes changes in groundwater in the Central Valley. We will further compare and contrast the GPS and GRACE measurements, and also evaluate the finding of Amos et al. [2014] that groundwater loss in the southern Central Valley (Tulare Basin) is causing the mountains on either side to rise at 1 to

  15. Hydrography of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California: Results of more than twenty five years of investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Serrano, H.; Canino-Herrera, S. R.; Morales-Chavez, R.; Martinez-Garcia, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The first study of Bahia Todos Santos (BTS) was reported by Walton in 1955. We conducted oceanographic studies in BTS since 1979. The BTS has a connection with a coastal lagoon named Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), two islands at the western portion and the Port of Ensenada. The general hydrographic characteristics are: In winter the water became homogeneous, less saline (California water mass with a relatively high salinity (>33.6) low temperature (13°C), low oxygen (~3mL L-1) and rich in nutrient concentration. The isothermal top layer has relatively high temperature (>17°C) and oxygen concentration (>6mL L-1). The intermediate transition layer (seasonal thermocline) has minimum salinity, maximum oxygen and high stability. During fall there is distribution of heat from the surface layer to the entire water column. The thermic waves propagate with decrease amplitude in ~3 months, from surface to bottom water. The California Current flow generally southward off the western United States and northern Mexico and is one of the major coastal upwelling of the word oceans. The upwelling events in BTS appear regularly at the SW portion and were typically characterized by an increase in pCO2, decrease of O2, increase of nutrients and a lower temperature. Upwelling activity increases surface nutrient availability causing rise in the primary productivity and hence increased zooplankton biomass. The annual upwelling event which had a maximum strength on May, the seasonal warming and cooling, and the water advection were the dominant modifying processes for the variability of seawater characteristics. Higher salinities are located close to the coastline and lower off the bay. The levels of oxygen, alkalinity, pH and chlorophyll indicate that the maximum concentration of phytoplankton is located at the center of the bay. The nitrification support the primary productivity and the NO3 levels were below detection limits; the N/P ratio in 2005 was from 10 to 25; and for 2006 was

  16. 1994 Water-Table Contours of the Morongo Ground-Water Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Morongo Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Morongo ground-water...

  17. Fourteen years of forage monitoring on the California Central Coast shows tremendous variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce Larsen; Karl Striby; Marc Horney

    2015-01-01

    To better understand forage production (above ground biomass) and precipitation patterns in the Central Coast region of California, the first in a growing network of primary production monitoring sites were established in 2001. The California Central Coast has a Mediterranean climate with cool, moist winters and hot, dry summers, and is dominated by annual grasslands...

  18. University of California, Irvine, Student Affirmative Action Five-Year Plan and Planning Process, 1984-1988. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligani, Dennis J.

    This second volume of the University of California, Irvine (UCI), Student Affirmative Action (SAA) Five-Year Plan contains the complete student affirmative action plans as submitted by 33 academic and administrative units at UCI. The volume is organized by type of unit: academic units, academic retention units, outreach units, and student life…

  19. University of California, Irvine, Student Affirmative Action Five-Year Plan and Planning Process, 1984-1988. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligani, Dennis J.

    This first volume of the University of California, Irvine, (UCI) Student Affirmative Action (SAA) Five-Year Plan provides an overview of the plan and the planning process, lists campus SAA goals and objectives, summarizes campus SAA activities, and describes the research and evaluation components of the plan. Topics include: the historical context…

  20. Water availability and land subsidence in the Central Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Sneed, Michelle; Traum, Jon; Brandt, Justin T.

    2016-05-01

    The Central Valley in California (USA) covers about 52,000 km2 and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. This agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage to meet irrigation water demand. Because the valley is semi-arid and surface-water availability varies substantially, agriculture relies heavily on local groundwater. In the southern two thirds of the valley, the San Joaquin Valley, historic and recent groundwater pumpage has caused significant and extensive drawdowns, aquifer-system compaction and subsidence. During recent drought periods (2007-2009 and 2012-present), groundwater pumping has increased owing to a combination of decreased surface-water availability and land-use changes. Declining groundwater levels, approaching or surpassing historical low levels, have caused accelerated and renewed compaction and subsidence that likely is mostly permanent. The subsidence has caused operational, maintenance, and construction-design problems for water-delivery and flood-control canals in the San Joaquin Valley. Planning for the effects of continued subsidence in the area is important for water agencies. As land use, managed aquifer recharge, and surface-water availability continue to vary, long-term groundwater-level and subsidence monitoring and modelling are critical to understanding the dynamics of historical and continued groundwater use resulting in additional water-level and groundwater storage declines, and associated subsidence. Modeling tools such as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model, can be used in the evaluation of management strategies to mitigate adverse impacts due to subsidence while also optimizing water availability. This knowledge will be critical for successful implementation of recent legislation aimed toward sustainable groundwater use.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative water supply processes in southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    Burgeoning population centers and declining hydrological resources have encouraged the development of alternative water treatment systems, including desalination and wastewater recycling. These processes currently provide potable water for millions of people and assist in satisfying agricultural and landscaping irrigation demands. There are a variety of alternative water production methods in place, and while they help to reduce the demands placed on aquifers, during their operation they are also significant sources of greenhouse gases. The environmental advantages of these alternative water production methods need to be carefully weighed against their energy footprints and greenhouse gas emissions profiles. This study measured the greenhouse gas emissions of a wastewater treatment and recycling facility in Orange County, California to get a more complete picture of the carbon footprint of the plant. We measured atmospheric emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O throughout the water recycling process and at various times of the day and week. This allowed us to assemble a thorough, cross-sectional profile of greenhouse gas emissions from the facility. We then compared the measured emissions of the treatment plant to the modeled emissions of desalination plants in order to assess the relative carbon footprints of the two water production methods. Other water supply alternatives, including regional water importation, were also included in the comparison in order to provide a more complete understanding of the potential greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we assessed the significance of wastewater treatment as an urban greenhouse gas source when compared to other known emissions in the region. This research offers a valuable tool for sustainable urban and regional development by providing planners with a quantified comparison of the carbon footprints of several water production options.

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Conservation Measures on Urban Water Fluxes in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    California is experiencing one of the most severe droughts on record. In response, the State Water Resources Control Board adopted emergency regulations in May, implementing a mandatory 25% statewide reduction in potable urban water use. Prior to this, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power had implemented mandatory restrictions and a pricing increase in 2009 and 2010, respectively to encourage reduced consumption. Understanding where conservation measures are having the greatest impact and how it is affecting water fluxes throughout the basin is critical, especially when considering the push for increased reliance on local water resources. Los Angeles is selected as the study area due to its high degree of urbanization, while the Ballona Creek watershed is used for runoff analysis due to the lack of dams and wastewater treatment plants altering flow in the channel. Utilizing a combination of runoff gages, groundwater monitoring well data, consumption data, and hydrologic models, we aim to evaluate how hydrologic processes have been influenced by water conservation measures. The work focuses on how changes in outdoor water use have influenced discharge patterns and groundwater recharge since most of the water conservation efforts have been focused on decreasing landscape irrigation. Previous work has shown that outdoor irrigation rates have decreased after the implementation of conservation measures, causing a decrease in vegetation greenness across the city. Runoff has also significantly decreased, especially dry season discharge. Further work is also being conducted to evaluate changes to evapotranspiration, using a combination of NLDAS model results and CIMIS reference ET data, as well as groundwater and recharge, utilizing a Bayesian Hierarchical model to fill missing groundwater monitoring well data. Results provide improved understanding of response to, and impacts of, conservation measures which ultimately allow for better water resources management

  3. Water availability and land subsidence in the Central Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia; Sneed, Michelle; Traum, Jonathan A.; Brandt, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The Central Valley in California (USA) covers about 52,000 km2 and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. This agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage to meet irrigation water demand. Because the valley is semi-arid and surface-water availability varies substantially, agriculture relies heavily on local groundwater. In the southern two thirds of the valley, the San Joaquin Valley, historic and recent groundwater pumpage has caused significant and extensive drawdowns, aquifer-system compaction and subsidence. During recent drought periods (2007–2009 and 2012-present), groundwater pumping has increased owing to a combination of decreased surface-water availability and land-use changes. Declining groundwater levels, approaching or surpassing historical low levels, have caused accelerated and renewed compaction and subsidence that likely is mostly permanent. The subsidence has caused operational, maintenance, and construction-design problems for water-delivery and flood-control canals in the San Joaquin Valley. Planning for the effects of continued subsidence in the area is important for water agencies. As land use, managed aquifer recharge, and surface-water availability continue to vary, long-term groundwater-level and subsidence monitoring and modelling are critical to understanding the dynamics of historical and continued groundwater use resulting in additional water-level and groundwater storage declines, and associated subsidence. Modeling tools such as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model, can be used in the evaluation of management strategies to mitigate adverse impacts due to subsidence while also optimizing water availability. This knowledge will be critical for successful implementation of recent legislation aimed toward sustainable groundwater use.

  4. Naval Petroleum Reserves in California site environmental report for calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This summary for Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) is divided into NPR-1 and NPR-2. Monitoring efforts at NPR-1 include handling and disposal of oilfield wastes; environmental preactivity surveys for the protection of endangered species and archaeological resources; inspections of topsoil stockpiling; monitoring of revegetated sites; surveillance of production facilities for hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions; monitoring of oil spill prevention and cleanup; and monitoring of wastewater injection. No major compliance issues existed for NPR-1 during 1989. Oil spills are recorded, reviewed for corrective action, and reported. Environmental preactivity surveys for proposed projects which may disturb or contaminate the land are conducted to prevent damage to the federally protected San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Tipton kangaroo rat and the giant kangaroo rat. Projects are adjusted or relocated as necessary to avoid impact to dens, burrows, or flat-bottomed drainages. A major revegetation program was accomplished in 1989 for erosion control enhancement of endangered species habitat. The main compliance issue on NPR-2 was oil and produced water discharges into drainages by lessees. An additional compliance issue on NPR-2 is surface refuse from past oilfield operations. 17 refs.

  5. Social Disparities in Drinking Water Quality in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, I.; Balazs, C.; Hubbard, A.; Morello-Frosch, R.

    2011-12-01

    Social Disparities in Drinking Water Quality in California's San Joaquin Valley Carolina Balazs, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Alan Hubbard and Isha Ray Little attention has been given to research on social disparities and environmental justice in access to safe drinking water in the USA. We examine the relationship between nitrate and arsenic concentrations in community water systems (CWS) and the ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of their customers. We hypothesized that systems in the San Joaquin Valley that serve a higher proportion of minority (especially Latino) residents, and/or lower socioeconomic status (proxied by rates of home ownership) residents, have higher nitrate levels and higher arsenic levels. We used water quality monitoring datasets (1999-2001) to estimate nitrate as well as arsenic levels in CWS, and source location and Census block group data to estimate customer demographics. We found that percent Latino was associated with a .04 mg NO3/L increase in a CWS' estimated nitrate ion concentration (95% CI, -.08, .16) and rate of home ownership was associated with a .16 mg NO3/L decrease (95% CI, -.32, .002). We also found that each percent increase in home ownership rate was associated with a .30 ug As/L decrease in arsenic concentrations (pjustice and enforcement of the safe drinking water act: The arizona arsenic experience. Ecological Economics 68: 1825-1837. Krieger N, Williams DR, Moss NE. 1997. Measuring social class in us public health research: Concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annual Review of Public Health 18(341-378). Moore E, Matalon E, Balazs C, Clary J, Firestone L, De Anda S, Guzman, M. 2011. The human costs of nitrate-contaminated drinking water in the San Joaquin Valley. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute. Morello-Frosch R, Pastor M, Sadd J. 2001. Environmental justice and southern california's 'riskscape': The distribution of air toxics exposures and health risks among diverse communities. Urban Affairs Review 36(4): 551

  6. UHF RiverSonde observations of water surface velocity at Threemile Slough, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, C.C.; Barrick, D.E.; Lilleboe, P.M.; Cheng, R.T.; Ruhl, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    A UHF RiverSonde system, operating near 350 MHz, has been in operation at Threemile Slough in central California, USA since September 2004. The water in the slough is dominated by tidal effects, with flow reversals four times a day and a peak velocity of about 0.8 m/s in each direction. Water level and water velocity are continually measured by the U. S. Geological Survey at the experiment site. The velocity is measured every 15 minutes by an ultrasonic velocity meter (UVM) which determines the water velocity from two-way acoustic propagation time-difference measurements made across the channel. The RiverSonde also measures surface velocity every 15 minutes using radar resonant backscatter techniques. Velocity and water level data are retrieved through a radio data link and a wideband internet connection. Over a period of several months, the radar-derived mean surface velocity has been very highly correlated with the UVM index velocity several meters below the surface, with a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.976 and an RMS difference of less than 10 cm/s. The wind has a small but measurable effect on the velocities measured by both instruments. In addition to the mean surface velocity across the channel, the RiverSonde system provides an estimate of the cross-channel variation of the surface velocity. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  7. Economic and Policy Drivers of Agricultural Water Desalination in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, P.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Viers, J. H.; Mauter, M.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture in arid regions is threatened by the twin stresses of soil salinity and uncertain water availability. Recently, water desalination has been a proposed solution for mitigating the effects of drought, soil salinization, and the ecological impacts of agricultural drainage. In this study, we combine data from earth observing systems with auxiliary information on prices, yields, and farmer behavior in order to create a decision framework which assesses the public and private costs and benefits of distributed desalination in the Central Valley (CV) of California. The use of remotely sensed crop classifiers allows us to resolve our analysis at the 30m pixel scale across the CV, a feature that allows us to characterize regional differences in technology effectiveness. We employ environmental and economic modeling to estimate the value of lower salinity irrigation water; the value of augmented water supply under present and future climate scenarios; and the human health, environmental, and climate change damages associated with generating power to desalinate water. We find that water desalination is only likely to be profitable in 4% of the CV during periods of severe drought, and that current costs would need to decrease by 70-90% for adoption to occur on the median acre. Fossil-fuel powered desalination technologies also generate air emissions that impose significant public costs in the form of human health and climate change damages, although these damages vary greatly depending on technology. The ecosystem service benefits of reduced agricultural drainage would need to be valued between 800 and 1200 per acre-foot, or nearly the full capital and operational costs of water desalination, for the net benefits of water desalination to be positive from a societal perspective.

  8. Social disparities in nitrate-contaminated drinking water in California's San Joaquin Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Carolina; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Hubbard, Alan; Ray, Isha

    2011-09-01

    Research on drinking water in the United States has rarely examined disproportionate exposures to contaminants faced by low-income and minority communities. This study analyzes the relationship between nitrate concentrations in community water systems (CWSs) and the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of customers. We hypothesized that CWSs in California's San Joaquin Valley that serve a higher proportion of minority or residents of lower socioeconomic status have higher nitrate levels and that these disparities are greater among smaller drinking water systems. We used water quality monitoring data sets (1999-2001) to estimate nitrate levels in CWSs, and source location and census block group data to estimate customer demographics. Our linear regression model included 327 CWSs and reported robust standard errors clustered at the CWS level. Our adjusted model controlled for demographics and water system characteristics and stratified by CWS size. Percent Latino was associated with a 0.04-mg nitrate-ion (NO3)/L increase in a CWS's estimated NO3 concentration [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.08 to 0.16], and rate of home ownership was associated with a 0.16-mg NO3/L decrease (95% CI, -0.32 to 0.002). Among smaller systems, the percentage of Latinos and of homeownership was associated with an estimated increase of 0.44 mg NO3/L (95% CI, 0.03-0.84) and a decrease of 0.15 mg NO3/L (95% CI, -0.64 to 0.33), respectively. Our findings suggest that in smaller water systems, CWSs serving larger percentages of Latinos and renters receive drinking water with higher nitrate levels. This suggests an environmental inequity in drinking water quality.

  9. Water-Urban Land Use: Neglected Link in the Climate Change Triadic Relationship among Water-Energy-Land Use in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Efforts to reduce the magnitude of climate change due to GHG emissions has focused attention on how different sectors contribute to GHG emitting energy use. California has been a leader in climate change mitigation policy across the nation with its passage of the Global Warming Act of 2006, with a major focus on the energy sector. Directly linked to climate change, the Energy-Travel-Urban Land Use Nexus in California is well recognized and the density/compactness of land use is subject of 2008 state policy (Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act, SB 375). The Water-Energy Nexus is also well-recognized, given that about 19% of electricity use in State is water-related, and water scarcity in the State has led to increasing policy guidelines, e.g., the 2009 water conservation plan, with a target of reducing urban water use by 20% by 2020. Since 40-50% of urban water in California is consumed by outdoor water use, the character of urban land use, its compactness and density, have important effects on water use and resulting energy impacts. However, direct policy attention to the water-urban land use nexus has focused primarily on water-conserving outdoor watering devices, and landscapes. Direct policy on the character of development itself has yet to emerge, and adequate recognition of the interrelationships among energy, water use and the character of urban development has yet to occur. This paper reviews the research and policies on the water-urban land use link, as well as on the larger triadic relation. It identifies research questions, and policy issues that this neglected link poses to California and the nation.

  10. Regional nitrate and pesticide trends in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R; Shelton, Jennifer L; Dubrovsky, Neil M

    2008-01-01

    Protection of ground water for present and future use requires monitoring and understanding of the mechanisms controlling long-term quality of ground water. In this study, spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, were evaluated to determine the long-term effects of agricultural and urban development on regional ground-water quality. Trends in concentrations of nitrate, the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and the herbicide simazine during the last two decades are generally consistent with known nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide use and with the position of the well networks in the regional ground-water flow system. Concentrations of nitrate and pesticides are higher in the shallow part of the aquifer system where domestic wells are typically screened, whereas concentrations are lower in the deep part of the aquifer system where public-supply wells are typically screened. Attenuation processes do not seem to significantly affect concentrations. Historical data indicate that concentrations of nitrate have increased since the 1950s in the shallow and deep parts of the aquifer system. Concentrations of nitrate and detection of pesticides in the deep part of the aquifer system will likely increase as the proportion of highly affected water contributed to these wells increases with time. Because of the time of travel between the water table and the deep part of the aquifer system, current concentrations in public-supply wells likely reflect the effects of 40- to 50-yr-old management practices.

  11. Air Pollution Distribution Patterns in the San Bernardino Mountains of Southern California: a 40-Year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1950s, native pines in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM in southern California have shown symptoms of decline. Initial studies in 1963 showed that ozone (O3 generated in the upwind Los Angeles Basin was responsible for the injury and decline of sensitive trees. Ambient O3 decreased significantly by the mid-1990s, resulting in decreased O3 injury and improved tree growth. Increased growth of trees may also be attributed to elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition. Since most of the N deposition to mixed conifer forest stands in the SBM results from dry deposition of nitric acid vapor (HNO3 and ammonia (NH3, characterization of spatial and temporal distribution of these two pollutants has become essential. Although maximum daytime O3 concentrations over last 40 years have significantly decreased (~3-fold, seasonal means have been reduced much less (~1.5-fold, with 2-week long means occasionally exceeding 100 ppb in the western part of the range. In the same area, significantly elevated concentrations of HNO3 and NH3, up to 17.5 and 18.5 μg/m3 as 2-week averages, respectively, have been determined. Elevated levels of O3 and increased N deposition together with long-term drought predispose the SBM forests to massive bark beetle attacks making them susceptible to catastrophic fires.

  12. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Aptos Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  13. California State Waters Map Series--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  14. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Half Moon Bay Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  15. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  16. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Bolinas Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  17. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Refugio Beach Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  18. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Scott Creek Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  19. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of San Francisco Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  20. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of San Gregorio Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  1. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Fort Ross Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  2. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Santa Barbara Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  3. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Point Reyes Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  4. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Tomales Point Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  5. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Bodega Head Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  6. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Carpinteria Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  7. California State Waters Map Series--Santa Barbara Channel Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  8. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Pigeon Point Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  9. California State Waters Map Series--Salt Point to Drakes Bay Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  10. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Salt Point Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  11. California State Waters Map Series--Bolinas to Pescadero Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  12. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Coal Oil Point Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  13. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Pacifica Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  14. Physical subdivision and description of the water-bearing sediments of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Carl M.; Jachens, Robert C.; Williams, Robert A.; Tinsley, John C.; Hanson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    A thick Quaternary alluvial section fills a sedimentary basin beneath the Santa Clara Valley, California, located within the San Andreas Fault system at the south end of San Francisco Bay. This section consists of an upper sequence about 1,000 feet thick containing eight sedimentary cycles and a lower fine-grained unit as thick as several hundred feet. Together these constitute the Quaternary Santa Clara Basin. The section overlies an irregular unconformity with more than 1,200 feet of relief cut into the underlying bedrock. This stratigraphy is determined through study of new wells and seismic reflection profiles, together with a sample of the many thousands of water wells in the valley. It represents a major change and improvement in understanding of the basin, particularly with regard to the upper cyclic sequence, which forms a large groundwater system that is an important resource in the San Francisco Bay region.

  15. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared to the concentrations of the conventional fuel oxygenate Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE). In t...

  16. NREPS Applications for Water Supply and Management in California and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, P.; Scott, M.; Carery, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.

    2011-01-01

    Management of water resources is a balancing act between temporally and spatially limited sources and competitive needs which can often exceed the supply. In order to manage water resources over a region such as the San Joaquin Valley or the Tennessee River Valley, it is pertinent to know the amount of water that has fallen in the watershed and where the water is going within it. Since rain gauge networks are typically sparsely spaced, it is typical that the majority of rainfall on the region may not be measured. To mitigate this under-sampling of rainfall, weather radar has long been employed to provide areal rainfall estimates. The Next-Generation Weather Radars (NEXRAD) make it possible to estimate rainfall over the majority of the conterminous United States. The NEXRAD Rainfall Estimation Processing System (NREPS) was developed specifically for the purpose of using weather radar to estimate rainfall for water resources management. The NREPS is tailored to meet customer needs on spatial and temporal scales relevant to the hydrologic or land-surface models of the end-user. It utilizes several techniques to mitigate artifacts in the NEXRAD data from contaminating the rainfall field. These techniques include clutter filtering, correction for occultation by topography as well as accounting for the vertical profile of reflectivity. This presentation will focus on improvements made to the NREPS system to map rainfall in the San Joaquin Valley for NASA s Water Supply and Management Project in California, but also ongoing rainfall mapping work in the Tennessee River watershed for the Tennessee Valley Authority and possible future applications in other areas of the continent.

  17. Geohydrology and water quality of Marine Corps Logistics Base, Nebo and Yermo annexes, near Barstow, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Cox, Brett F.; Crawford, Steven M.

    1997-01-01

    Because ground water is the only dependable source of water in the Barstow area, a thorough understanding of the relationship between the geology and hydrology of this area is needed to make informed ground-water management andremediation decisions. This report summarizes geologic and hydrologic studies done during 1992-95 at the Marine Corps Logistics Base, Nebo and Yermo Annexes, near Barstow, California. The geologic investigation dealt with the stratigraphy and geologic history of the area and determined the location of faults that cross the Marine Corps Logistics Base, Nebo Annex. Two of these faultscoincide with significant ground-water barriers. Geologic and hydrologic data collected for this study were used to define two main aquifer systems in this area. The Mojave River aquifer is contained within the sand and gravel of the Mojave River alluvium, and the regional aquifer lies in the bordering alluvial-fan deposits and older alluvium. Water-level data showed that recharge occurs exten sively in the Mojave River aquifer but occurs only in small areas of the regional aquifer. Dissolved- solids concentrations showed that ground-water degradation exists in the Mojave River aquifer near the Nebo Annex and extends at least 1 mile downgradient of the Nebo golf course in the younger Mojave River alluvium. Nitrogen concentrations show that more than one source is causing the observed degradation in the Mojave River aquifer. Oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, andcarbon-14 data indicate that the Mojave River and regional aquifers have different sources of recharge and that recent recharge occurs in the Mojave River aquifer but is more limited in the regional aquifer.

  18. Waterbird habitat in California's Central Valley basins under climate, urbanization, and water management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    California's Central Valley provides critical, but threatened habitat and food resources for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other waterbirds. The Central Valley is comprised of nine basins that were defined by the Central Valley Joint Venture (CVJV) to assist in conservation planning. Basins vary in composition and extent of habitats, which primarily include croplands and wetlands that rely on water supplies shared with other competing human and environmental uses. Changes in climate, urban development, and water supply management are uncertain and could reduce future availability of water supplies supporting waterbird habitats and limit effectiveness of wetland restoration planned by the CVJV to support wintering waterbirds. We modeled 17 plausible scenarios including combinations of three climate projections, three urbanization rates, and five water supply management options to promote agricultural and urban water uses, with and without wetland restoration. Our research examines the reduction in quantity and quality of habitats during the fall migration-wintering period by basin under each scenario, and the efficacy of planned wetland restoration to compensate reductions in flooded areas of wetland habitats. Scenario combinations of projected climate, urbanization, and water supply management options reduced availability of flooded cropland and wetland habitats during fall-winter and degraded the quality of seasonal wetlands (i.e., summer-irrigation for improved forage production), though the extent and frequency of impacts varied by basin. Planned wetland restoration may substantially compensate for scenario-related effects on wetland habitats in each basin. However, results indicate that Colusa, Butte, Sutter, San Joaquin, and Tulare Basins may require additional conservation to support summer-irrigation of seasonal wetlands and winter-flooding of cropland habitats. Still further conservation may be required to provide sufficient areas of

  19. Simulation-optimization aids in resolving water conflict: Temecula Basin, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Lear, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The productive agricultural areas of Pajaro Valley, California have exclusively relied on ground water from coastal aquifers in central Monterey Bay. As part of the Basin Management Plan (BMP), the Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency (PVWMA) is developing additional local supplies to replace coastal pumpage, which is causing seawater intrusion. The BMP includes an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) system, which captures and stores local winter runoff, and supplies it to growers later in the growing season in lieu of ground-water pumpage. A Coastal Distribution System (CDS) distributes water from the ASR and other supplemental sources. A detailed model of the Pajaro Valley is being used to simulate the coupled supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture from 1963 to 2006. Recent upgrades to the Farm Process in MODFLOW (MF2K-FMP) allow simulating the effects of ASR deliveries and reduced pumping for farms in subregions connected to the CDS. The BMP includes a hierarchy of monthly supply alternatives, including a recovery well field around the ASR system, a supplemental wellfield, and onsite farm supply wells. The hierarchy of delivery requirements is used by MF2K-FMP to estimate the effects of these deliveries on coastal ground-water pumpage and recovery of water levels. This integrated approach can be used to assess the effectiveness of the BMP under variable climatic conditions, and to test the impacts of more complete subscription by coastal farmers to the CDS deliveries. The model will help managers assess the effects of new BMP components to further reduce pumpage and seawater intrusion.

  20. Correlation between seismicity and the distribution of thermal and carbonate water in southern and Baja California, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastil, Gordon; Bertine, Kathe

    1986-04-01

    A comparison of the distribution of thermal and thermal-related springs and wells in southern California, United States, and Baja California, Mexico, with the abundance of earthquakes of magnitude 4 or greater shows as close a relationship between thermal waters and the distribution of seismicity as to the distribution of active faults. It appears that the distribution of thermal water variations in the geothermal gradient in turn influences the stress accumulation capability of the rocks at depth. Thus, areas with abundant thermal waters (and hence steep geothermal gradients) release stress by frequent moderate earthquakes; areas lacking thermal waters, such as the central Transverse Ranges, accumulate stresses that are released by infrequent large earthquakes.

  1. Multiprobe Water Quality Data from the Tracy Fish Collection Facility (TFCF), Byron, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — Currently Available Period of Record: April 1, 2000 through February 15, 2007. This program has produced seven years of water quality multiprobe data at the TFCF...

  2. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  3. Observations of Drinking Water Access in School Food Service Areas Before Implementation of Federal and State School Water Policy, California, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Kumar; Hampton, Karla E.; Hecht, Kenneth; Grumbach, Jacob M.; Kimura, Amanda T.; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Recent legislation requires schools to provide free drinking water in food service areas (FSAs). Our objective was to describe access to water at baseline and student water intake in school FSAs and to examine barriers to and strategies for implementation of drinking water requirements. Methods We randomly sampled 24 California Bay Area public schools. We interviewed 1 administrator per school to assess knowledge of water legislation and barriers to and ideas for policy implementation. We observed water access and students’ intake of free water in school FSAs. Wellness policies were examined for language about water in FSAs. Results Fourteen of 24 schools offered free water in FSAs; 10 offered water via fountains, and 4 provided water through a nonfountain source. Four percent of students drank free water at lunch; intake at elementary schools (11%) was higher than at middle or junior high schools (6%) and high schools (1%). In secondary schools when water was provided by a nonfountain source, the percentage of students who drank free water doubled. Barriers to implementation of water requirements included lack of knowledge of legislation, cost, and other pressing academic concerns. No wellness policies included language about water in FSAs. Conclusion Approximately half of schools offered free water in FSAs before implementation of drinking water requirements, and most met requirements through a fountain. Only 1 in 25 students drank free water in FSAs. Although schools can meet regulations through installation of fountains, more appealing water delivery systems may be necessary to increase students’ water intake at mealtimes. PMID:22765930

  4. Application of nitrate and water isotopes to assessment of groundwater quality beneath dairy farms in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. B.; Harter, T.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    In California’s Central Valley, nitrate contamination of drinking water wells is a significant concern, and there are multiple potential sources of nitrate in this area including septic discharge, synthetic and manure fertilizers, and concentrated animal feeding operations. Dairies represent the majority of animal feeding operations in California, and have been shown to be potential sources of nitrate, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, and pathogens to groundwater. Within individual dairies, different land use areas including barns and freestalls, corrals, liquid waste lagoons, and fields for forage crops (often fertilized with animal waste, synthetic fertilizer, or both), each of which may have different impacts on the groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from two dairies in the San Joaquin Valley, where the water table is fairly shallow, and from five dairies in the Tulare Lake Basin, where the water table is much deeper. In each dairy, nitrate isotopes, water isotopes, nutrient concentrations, and other chemical and physical parameters were measured in monitoring wells located within different land use areas of the dairies. Across all sampled dairy wells, δ15N-NO3 ranged from +3.2 to +49.4‰, and δ18O-NO3 ranged from -3.1 to +19.2‰. Mean nitrate concentrations, δ15N-NO3, and δ18O-NO3 were significantly higher in the northern (San Joaquin Valley) dairy wells in comparison to the southern (Tulare Lake Basin) dairy wells. No consistent differences in nitrate isotopic compositions were found between the different land use areas, and large spatial variability in both nitrate concentrations and nitrate isotopic composition was observed within most of the individual dairies. These results emphasize the challenges associated with monitoring groundwater beneath dairies due to high spatial heterogeneity in the aquifer and groundwater constituents. At four of the seven dairies, δ18O and δ2H of the ground water in wells located

  5. Co-creating Understanding in Water Use & Agricultural Resilience in a Multi-scale Natural-human System: Sacramento River Valley--California's Water Heartland in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, D. H.; Brimlowe, J.; Chaudry, A.; Gray, K.; Greene, T.; Guzley, R.; Hatfield, C.; Houk, E.; Le Page, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Sacramento River Valley (SRV), valued for its $2.5 billion agricultural production and its biodiversity, is the main supplier of California's water, servicing 25 million people. . Despite rapid changes to the region, little is known about the collective motivations and consequences of land and water use decisions, or the social and environmental vulnerability and resilience of the SRV. The overarching research goal is to examine whether the SRV can continue to supply clean water for California and accommodate agricultural production and biodiversity while coping with climate change and population growth. Without understanding these issues, the resources of the SRV face an uncertain future. The defining goal is to construct a framework that integrates cross-disciplinary and diverse stakeholder perspectives in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how SRV stakeholders make land and water use decisions. Traditional approaches for modeling have failed to take into consideration multi-scale stakeholder input. Currently there is no effective method to facilitate producers and government agencies in developing a shared representation to address the issues that face the region. To address this gap, researchers and stakeholders are working together to collect and consolidate disconnected knowledge held by stakeholder groups (agencies, irrigation districts, and producers) into a holistic conceptual model of how stakeholders view and make decisions with land and water use under various management systems. Our approach integrates a top-down approach (agency stakeholders) for larger scale management decisions with a conceptual co-creation and data gathering bottom-up approach with local agricultural producer stakeholders for input water and landuse decisions. Land use change models that combine a top-down approach with a bottom-up stakeholder approach are rare and yet essential to understanding how the social process of land use change and ecosystem function are

  6. Applications of long-term watershed research to forest management in California: 50 Years of Learning from the Caspar Creek Watershed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafferata Peter; Leslie Reid

    2013-01-01

    For over 50 years, the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds, located in western Mendocino County, California, have been the site of long-term cooperative watershed research carried out by the U.S. Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station (PSW) and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE). Preliminary stream flow, suspended...

  7. Water-quality data for the Russian River Basin, Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert; Davidek, Karl; Stoeckel, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency, has been collecting chemical, microbiological, and isotopic data from surface-water and groundwater sites in Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. The investigation is being conducted to determine water-quality baseline conditions for the Russian River during the summer months and to characterize the water-quality in the area of the Sonoma County Water Agency's water-supply facility where Russian River water is diverted and treated by riverbank filtration. This report is a compilation of the hydrologic and water-quality data collected from 14 Russian River sites, 8 tributary sites, 1 gravel-terrace pit site, 14 groundwater wells, and a wastewater treatment plant between the city of Ukiah and the town of Duncans Mills for the period August 2005 through October 2010.

  8. Ground-water resources and water-supply alternatives in the Wawona area of Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Planning efforts to implement the 1980 General Management Plan, which recommends relocating park administrative facilities and employee housing from Yosemite Valley in Yosemite National Park, California, have focused on the availability of water at potential relocation sites within the park. Ground-water resources and water-supply alternatives in the Wawona area, one of several potential relocation sites, were evaluated between June 1991 and October 1993. Ground water flowing from Biledo Spring near the headwaters of Rainier Creek, about 5 miles southeast of Wawona, is probably the most reliable source of good quality ground water for Wawona. A dilute calcium bicarbonate ground water flows from the spring at about 250 gallons per minute. No Giardia was detected in a water sample collected from Biledo Spring in July 1992. The concentration of dissolved 222radon at Biledo Spring was 420 picoCuries per liter, exceeding the primary drinking-water standard of 300 picoCuries per liter proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This concentration, however, was considerably lower than the concentrations of dissolved 222radon measured in ground water at Wawona. The median value for 15 wells sampled at Wawona was 4,500 picoCuries per liter. Water- quality samples from 45 wells indicate that ground water in the South Fork Merced River valley at Wawona is segregated vertically. Shallow wells produce a dilute calcium sodium bicarbonate water that results from chemical dissolution of minerals as water flows through fractured granitic rock from hillside recharge areas toward the valley floor. Tritium concentrations indicate that ground water in the shallow wells originated as precipitation after the 1960's when testing of atmospheric nuclear devices stopped. Ground water from the deep flowing wells in the valley floor is older sodium calcium chloride water. This older water probably originated either as precipitation during a climatically cooler period or as

  9. 1995 annual water monitoring report, LEHR environmental restoration, University of California at Davis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D.L.; Smith, R.M.; Sauer, D.R. [and others

    1996-03-01

    This 1995 Annual Water Monitoring Report presents analytical data collected between January and December 1995 at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) located at the University of California (UC), Davis. This report has been prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in compliance with the Water Monitoring Plan for the LEHR site, which contains the sample collection, analysis, and quality assurance/quality control procedures and reporting requirements. Water monitoring during 1995 was conducted in conjunction with the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study currently being implemented at the LEHR site as part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored environmental restoration program. Based on a review of historical groundwater monitoring data compiled since the fall of 1990, the list of analytes included in the program was reduced and the schedule for analyzing the remaining analytes was revised. The revision was implemented for the first time in the summer monitoring period. Analytes eliminated from the program were those that were (1) important for establishing baseline groundwater chemistry (alkalinity, anions, Eh, total organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand); (2) important for establishing sources of contamination; (3) not detected in water samples or not from the LEHR site; and (4) duplicates of another measurement. Reductions in the analytical schedule were based on the monitoring history for each well; the resultant constituents of concern list was developed for individual wells. Depending on its importance in a well, each analyte was analyzed quarterly, semi-annually, or annually. Pollutants of major concern include organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides.

  10. Data for ground-water test hole near Zamora, Central Valley Aquifer Project, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented for the first of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 34, T. 12 N. , R. 1 E., Yolo County, California, about 3 miles northeast of the town of Zamora. Drilled to a depth of 2,500 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 190 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 947, 1,401, and 2,125 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Eighteen cores and 68 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, diatom identification, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  11. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Responses in Shallow Ground Water Receiving Stormwater Runoff and Potential Transport of Contaminants to Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jena M.; Thodal, Carl E.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2008-01-01

    Clarity of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada has been decreasing due to inflows of sediment and nutrients associated with stormwater runoff. Detention basins are considered effective best management practices for mitigation of suspended sediment and nutrients associated with runoff, but effects of infiltrated stormwater on shallow ground water are not known. This report documents 2005-07 hydrogeologic conditions in a shallow aquifer and associated interactions between a stormwater-control system with nearby Lake Tahoe. Selected chemical qualities of stormwater, bottom sediment from a stormwater detention basin, ground water, and nearshore lake and interstitial water are characterized and coupled with results of a three-dimensional, finite-difference, mathematical model to evaluate responses of ground-water flow to stormwater-runoff accumulation in the stormwater-control system. The results of the ground-water flow model indicate mean ground-water discharge of 256 acre feet per year, contributing 27 pounds of phosphorus and 765 pounds of nitrogen to Lake Tahoe within the modeled area. Only 0.24 percent of this volume and nutrient load is attributed to stormwater infiltration from the detention basin. Settling of suspended nutrients and sediment, biological assimilation of dissolved nutrients, and sorption and detention of chemicals of potential concern in bottom sediment are the primary stormwater treatments achieved by the detention basins. Mean concentrations of unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus in inflow stormwater samples compared to outflow samples show that 55 percent of nitrogen and 47 percent of phosphorus are trapped by the detention basin. Organic carbon, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc in the uppermost 0.2 foot of bottom sediment from the detention basin were all at least twice as concentrated compared to sediment collected from 1.5 feet deeper. Similarly, concentrations of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were

  12. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  13. A High Resolution Climatic Transect Across the Coastal Margin of Northernmost California During the Past 3,500 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, J. A.; Heusser, L.

    2003-12-01

    A diatom proxy for SST from two offshore cores, ODP 1019 (41.7 deg. N, 124.9 deg. W, 980 m water depth) and TN062 0550 (40.9 deg. N,124.6 deg. W, 570 m water depth), and a pollen proxy for summer moisture from terrestrial bog core SB70-1 (40.3 deg. N, 123.4 deg. W, 910 m altitude), together reveal a detailed record of climate change in the Eel River basin area of northernmost California during the past 3,500 years. Age models for all three cores are well constrained by AMS dates, with sample spacing varying from ca. 150 years at ODP 1019 to between 30 and 50 years in both TN062 0550 and SB70-1. As indicated by the diatom proxy for the warm waters of the Central Gyre, Pseudoeunotia doliolus, a late Holocene trend toward warmer fall SST's began approximately 1,000 years earlier at the more offshore (60 km offshore) ODP Site 1019 (ca. 3.4 ka), than it did in the more coastal (33 km offshore) piston core TN062 0550 (ca. 2.4 ka). This diatom proxy suggests that a pronounced offshore-coastal SST gradient existed during the fall between the two sites until ca. 1.4 ka (or AD 600), when this climatic gradient abruptly collapsed. During the past 1,400 years, diatom data at both sites argue for cooling of SST's between ca. AD 600 and AD 900, followed by pronounced warming between ca. AD 950 and AD 1200, and then followed by cooling between ca. AD 1350 and AD 1800. The ages of these intervals are suggestive of local expression of the Dark Ages Cold period, Medieval Warm period, and the Little Ice Age. Pollen in the core SB70-1 is derived from the local montane communities of mixed evergreen forest, forests that are dominated by Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and include hard-leafed oaks (Quercus chrysolepis), as well as incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and fir (Abies grandis). We interpret increased oak, which is associated with increased herbs, as indicative of warm dry conditions, whereas increased Douglas fir would suggest a more

  14. Resilience of California black oak experiencing frequent fire: regeneration following two large wildfires 12 years apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethan J. Hammett; Martin W. Ritchie; John-Pascal Berrill

    2017-01-01

    Historically, oak woodlands in western North America were maintained by frequent fire that killed competing conifers. Today, these woodlands are often in decline as competition from conifers intensifies. Among oak species affected is the ecologically important California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newberry). Within its range, large high-severity...

  15. Conditions 10 years after sudden oak death suppression treatments in Humboldt County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yana Valachovic; Richard Cobb; Brendan Twieg

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, three isolated sudden oak death- (SOD) infested locations within Humboldt County were selected for silvicultural treatments that targeted the removal and/or reduction of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus Hook. & Arn.) and California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica Hook. & Arn), the main hosts...

  16. California's forest resources, 2001-2005: five-year Forest Inventory and Analysis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn A. Christensen; Sally J. Campbell; Jeremy S. Fried

    2008-01-01

    This report highlights key findings from the most recent (2001-2005) data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program across all forest land in California. We summarize and interpret basic resource information such as forest area, ownership, volume, biomass, and carbon stocks; structure and function topics such as biodiversity, forest age, dead wood, and...

  17. Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Mokelumne area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, A.M.; Gale, H.S.; Thomas, H.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1939-01-01

    The Mokelumne River basin of central California comprises portions of the California Trough and the Sierra Nevada section of the Pacific Mountain system. The California Trough is divisible into four subsections-the Delta tidal plain, the Victor alluvial plain, tlie river flood plains and channels, and the Arroyo Seco dissected pediment. These four subsections comprise the land forms produced by the Mokelumne River and other streams since the Sierra Nevada attained its present height in the Pleistocene epoch. The Victor alluvial plain rises eastward from the Delta plain and abuts on the dissected Arroyo Seco pediment; in the Mokelumne area it is 12 to 16 miles wide and slopes between 5 and 8 feet in a mile. It includes relatively extensive tracts that are intensively cultivated and irrigated with water pumped from wells. The Victor plain has been compounded of overlapping alluvial fans along the western base of the Sierra Nevada. It is prolonged eastward into the pediment by tongues of alluvium along several of the present streams; thus it seems likely that the present stream pattern in the eastern part of the area has been fixed since dissection of the pediment began. Three of the four major streams-the Mokelumne and Cosumnes Rivers and Dry Creek-traverse the Victor plain in trenches which are 15 to 40 feet deep at the heads of their respective alluvial fans but which die out toward the west. The floors of these trenches, the historic flood plains, are from 100 yards to a mile wide. The exceptional major stream, which has not entrenched itself, is the Calaveras River. The Arroyo Seco pediment, which lies east of the Victor plain, was initially at least 8 to 15 miles wide and lay along the western foot of the Sierra Nevada entirely .across the Mokelumne area. Its numerous remnants decline 15 to 35 feet in a mile toward the west. The Sierra Nevada section adjoins and lies east of the California Trough. Its major ridge crests define a volcanic plain whose westward

  18. Producing Scientific and Strategic Guidance for California's Department of Water Resources: The Climate Change Technical Advisory Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyakum, J. R.; Austin, B. N.; Curtis, D. C.; Anderson, M.; Alpert, H.; Young, S.; Herson, A.; Schwarz, A.; Kavvas, M. L.; Langridge, R.; Lynn, E.; Anderson, J.; Redmond, K. T.; Dettinger, M. D.; Correa, M.; Franco, G.; Cayan, D.; Georgakakos, K.

    2015-12-01

    Diverse areas of expertise are needed to describe and assess a changing climate and provide guidance for the agency that runs the largest state-built, multi-purpose water project in the U.S. California's State Water Project provides: drinking water for more than 25 million people, flood control, power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife protection, and water quality improvements. Hydrologic impacts under a changing climate include rising seas, reduced ratio of snow to rain, earlier snowmelt and higher temperatures; all of which are being detected. To improve the scientific basis for decisions and enhance the consistency of climate change approaches, the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) empaneled a Climate Change Technical Advisory Group (CCTAG) for guidance on the scientific aspects of climate change, its impacts on water resources, the use and creation of planning approaches and analytical tools, and the development of adaptation responses. To carry out DWR's mission, incorporation of climate change into DWR's planning, projects, and other activities must be consistent, science-based, and continually improved through an iterative process. Hydrologists, academicians, modelers, planners, lawyers and practitioners convened regularly to tackle these complicated issues in water management policy, including climate change impacts on extreme events. Actions taken in response to the CCTAG recommendations will move California toward more sustainable management of water and related resources. DWR will release a technical report of CCTAG guidance and perspectives in 2015. The process to convene, collaborate and distribute the findings of this CCTAG will be the focus of this presentation. An academician and water resources practitioner will share their perspectives on the processes driving CCTAG's work.

  19. Iron, nutrient and phytoplankton biomass relationships in upwelled waters of the California coastal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwater, Steve E.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Elrod, Virginia A.; Ryan, John P.; Coletti, Luke J.; Tanner, Sara J.; Gordon, R. Michael; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2003-10-01

    We report measurements of dissolvable and particulate iron, particulate Al, nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in surface waters during the termination of one upwelling event and the initiation of a second event in August 2000. These events occurred in the area of the Año Nuevo upwelling center off the coast of central California. The first event was observed after ˜8 days of continuous upwelling favorable winds, while the second event was observed through the onset of upwelling favorable winds to wind reversals ˜3 days later. Coincident with the upwelling signatures of low temperature and high salinity were significantly elevated concentrations of nitrate and silicate with average concentrations greater than 15 and 20 μM, respectively, during both upwelling events. Dissolvable Fe concentrations (TD-Fe) were significantly higher in the second event, 6.5 versus 1.2 nM Fe found in the first event. Nitrate was reduced by ˜5 μM day -1 within this second upwelled plume as compared to a drawdown of ˜2 μM day -1 within the first plume. Silicate was reduced in a ratio of 1.2 mol Si:mol NO 3 in the high Fe waters of the second plume as compared to a ratio of 2.2 in the lower Fe waters of the first plume. The observed differences in nutrient utilization are consistent with some degree of iron limitation. The area of increased dissolvable Fe in the second upwelling event was coincident with elevated particulate Fe concentrations, indicating the particulate pool as a possible source of the observed increase in TD-Fe. The elevated particulate Fe in surface waters was a result of resuspended sediments in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) of the shallow shelf being transported to the surface during upwelling. Particulate (and dissolvable) iron concentrations were significantly reduced as upwelling continued. This was most probably due to a decoupling of the BBL from upwelled source waters as the upwelling front moved offshore and/or reduced turbulence in the BBL as

  20. Regional Systems Development for Geothermal Energy Resources Pacific Region (California and Hawaii). Task 3: water resources evaluation. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, J.L.

    1979-03-19

    The fundamental objective of the water resources analysis was to assess the availability of surface and ground water for potential use as power plant make-up water in the major geothermal areas of California. The analysis was concentrated on identifying the major sources of surface and ground water, potential limitations on the usage of this water, and the resulting constraints on potentially developable electrical power in each geothermal resource area. Analyses were completed for 11 major geothermal areas in California: four in the Imperial Valley, Coso, Mono-Long Valley, Geysers-Calistoga, Surprise Valley, Glass Mountain, Wendel Amedee, and Lassen. One area in Hawaii, the Puna district, was also included in the analysis. The water requirements for representative types of energy conversion processes were developed using a case study approach. Cooling water requirements for each type of energy conversion process were estimated based upon a specific existing or proposed type of geothermal power plant. The make-up water requirements for each type of conversion process at each resource location were then estimated as a basis for analyzing any constraints on the megawatts which potentially could be developed.

  1. Geology, water-quality, hydrology, and geomechanics of the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, California, 2008--12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Rhett; Gibbs, Dennis R.; Hanson, Randall T.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Brandt, Justin T.; Falk, Sarah E.; Harich, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the water resources of the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin in Santa Barbara County, California, a series of cooperative studies were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Barbara County Water Agency. Between 2008 and 2012, geologic, water-quality, hydrologic and geomechanical data were collected from selected sites throughout the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin. Geologic data were collected from three multiple-well groundwater monitoring sites and included lithologic descriptions of the drill cuttings, borehole geophysical logs, temperature logs, as well as bulk density and sonic velocity measurements of whole-core samples. Generalized lithologic characterization from the monitoring sites indicated the water-bearing units in the subsurface consist of unconsolidated to partly consolidated sand, gravel, silt, clay, and occasional cobbles within alluvial fan and stream deposits. Analysis of geophysical logs indicated alternating layers of finer- and coarser-grained material that range from less than 1 foot to more than 20 feet thick. On the basis of the geologic data collected, the principal water-bearing units beneath the monitoring-well sites were found to be composed of younger alluvium of Holocene age, older alluvium of Pleistocene age, and the Tertiary-Quaternary Morales Formation. At all three sites, the contact between the recent fill and younger alluvium is approximately 20 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from 12 monitoring wells, 27 domestic and supply wells, 2 springs, and 4 surface-water sites and were analyzed for a variety of constituents that differed by site, but, in general, included trace elements; nutrients; dissolved organic carbon; major and minor ions; silica; total dissolved solids; alkalinity; total arsenic and iron; arsenic, chromium, and iron species; and isotopic tracers, including the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance. Of the 39

  2. Substituting freshwater: Can ocean desalination and water recycling capacities substitute for groundwater depletion in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiuzzaman, Pierre; McLaughlin, Eoin; McCauley, Darren

    2017-12-01

    While the sustainability of resource depletion is a longstanding environmental concern, wider attention has recently been given to growing water scarcity and groundwater depletion. This study seeks to test the substitutability assumption embedded in weak sustainability indicators using a case study of Californian water supply. The volume of groundwater depletion is used as a proxy for unsustainable water consumption, and defined by synthesising existing research estimates into low, medium and high depletion baselines. These are compared against projected water supply increases from ocean desalination and water recycling by 2035, to determine whether new, drought-proof water sources can substitute for currently unsustainable groundwater consumption. Results show that the maximum projected supply of new water, 2.47 million acre-feet per year (MAF/yr), is sufficient to meet low depletion estimates of 2.02 MAF/yr, but fails to come near the high depletion estimate of 3.44 MAF/yr. This does not necessarily indicate physical limitations of substitutability, but more so socio-economic limitations influenced by high comparative costs. By including capacities in demand-substitutability via urban water conservation, maximum predicted capacities reach 5.57 MAF/yr, indicating wide room for substitution. Based on these results, investment in social and institutional capital is an important factor to enhance demand-side substitutability of water and other natural resources, which has been somewhat neglected by the literature on the substitutability of natural resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Precipitation and stream water stable isotope data from the Marys River, Oregon in water year 2015.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Water stable isotope data collected from a range of streams throughout the Marys River basin in water year 2015, and precipitation data collected within the basin at...

  4. Hydrologic models and analysis of water availability in Cuyama Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Gibbs, Dennis R.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    supplied by groundwater, which is augmented by precipitation during wet winter and spring seasons. In addition, the amount of groundwater used for irrigation varies from year to year in response to climate variation and can increase dramatically in dry years. Model simulation results, however, also indicated that irrigation may have been less efficient during wet years. Agricultural pumpage is a major component to simulated outflow that is often poorly recorded. Therefore, an integrated, coupled farm-process model is used to estimate historical pumpage for water-balance subregions that evolved with the development of groundwater in the Valley from 1949 through 2010. The integrated hydrologic model includes these water-balance subregions and delineates natural, municipal, and agricultural land use; streamflow networks; and groundwater flow systems. The redefinition of the geohydrologic framework (including the internal architecture of the sedimentary units) and incorporation of these units into the simulation of the regional groundwater flow system indicated that faults have compartmentalized the alluvial deposits into subregions, which have responded differently to regional groundwater flow, locations of recharge, and the effects of development. The Cuyama Valley comprises nine subregions grouped into three regional zones, the Main, Ventucopa Uplands, and Sierra Madre Foothills, which are fault bounded, represent different proportions of the three alluvial aquifers, and have different water quality. The CUVHM uses MF-OWHM to simulate and assess the use and movement of water, including the evolution of land use and related water-balance regions. The model is capable of being accurate at annual to interannual time frames and at subregional to valley-wide spatial scales, which allows for analysis of the groundwater hydrologic budget for the water years 1950–2010, as well as potential assessment of the sustainable use of groundwater. Simulated changes in storage over time

  5. Correlation of shallow marine, deep marine, and coastal terrestrial records of central California: asynchronous responses to paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic change during the past 19,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.

    2016-12-01

    Benthic and planktic foraminiferal census data combined with pollen data acquired from the continental margin off central California (core S3-15G, 3491 m depth from the western levy of the Monterey Fan; 36°23.53'N, 123°20.52'W) provide a unique opportunity to document concurrent paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes in the region during the late Quaternary. Radiocarbon dates and the ratio of the planktic foraminiferal species Neogloboquardrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg) to Neogloboquardrina incompta (Cifelli) provide a good age-depth model for the last 19,000 years. Q-mode cluster analysis of the benthic foraminifera grouped the fauna into two clusters reflecting faunal adaptation to changing climatic conditions during the Pleistocene and Holocene, whereas the R-mode cluster analysis identified glacial (Uvigerina senticosa and Globobulimina auriculata) and interglacial (Melonis pompilioides and Gyroidina planulata) faunas. A slight increase in oxygen concentration in the deep sea across the Pleistocene-Holocene transition is suggested by a reduction in abundance of G. auriculata and increased frequency of M. pompilioides. Q-mode cluster analysis of the planktic foraminifera indicates a change in the surface water from a glacial subpolar fauna in the Pleistocene to a transitional fauna in the Holocene. The pollen flora separated into three clusters by Q-mode cluster analysis, two of Pleistocene age (glacial and transitional) and one in the Holocene (interglacial), reflecting adaptation of the flora in the California Coast Ranges of central California to the warmer climate in the Holocene. Decoupling is evident between the benthic foraminiferal, planktic foraminiferal, and terrestrial floral responses to changing oceanographic and climatic conditions. The floral response leads the surface-dwelling planktic fauna by several millennia, and is followed by the deep-dwelling benthic fauna a millennium later.

  6. Analyses of Gas, Steam and Water Samples Collected in and Around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, 1975-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Cathy J.; Bergfeld, D.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains physical and chemical data from gas, steam, and water samples collected between July 1975 and September 2002 from locations in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. Data are compiled as tables in Excel spreadsheets and are organized by locale. Most data are keyed to 1 of 107 site codes that are shown on local- and regional-scale maps. Brief descriptions of terminology, sampling, and analytical methods are provided.

  7. Clean Water Act Section 303(d) Water Quality Limited Segments, California, 2006, State Water Resources Control Board

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 2006 303d List of Water Quality Limited Segments that: 1) Require Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLS), 2) Are being addressed by USEPA approved TMDLs 3) Are being...

  8. Physical, chemical, and other data collected using moored bottle casts at the Coastal waters of California from 01 August 1999 to 01 October 1999 (NODC Accession 0000220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, physical, chemical, and other data were collected using moored bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of California from the SAMPSON from August...

  9. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from Coastal Waters of California from 27 April 1988 to 01 June 1989 (NODC Accession 9000294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the Coastal Waters of California from 27 April 1988 to 01 June 1989. Data were collected by the...

  10. A Year in the Life of a Central California Kelp Forest: Physical and Biological Insights into Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, K. J.; Koweek, D.; Leary, P.; Litvin, S. Y.; Luthin, T.; Lummis, S.; Mucciarone, D. A.; Dunbar, R. B.; Bell, T. W.

    2016-02-01

    Kelp forests are among the most productive ecosystems, yet little is known about their biogeochemistry. The biogeochemical environment of kelp forests is influenced by regional processes (e.g., upwelling) that deliver offshore waters into the forest as well as local processes (e.g., production, respiration, and local hydrodynamics) that modify local water chemistry. We present a weekly-resolved 14-mo time-series (Jul 2013-Sep 2014) of water column properties (temperature, salinity, total alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) within and around a central California kelp forest at wave-exposed and protected sites in conjunction with water column velocity and satellite-derived estimates of kelp biomass. CTD hydrocasts and water samples revealed strong seasonal cycles in the chemical and physical water column structure. In the winter, the water column was well-mixed, kelp abundance was low, and vertical DIC gradients were typically absent. During the upwelling season kelp growth was high, the water column was stratified, and vertical DIC gradients sometimes exceeded 200 μmol/kg. Vertical gradients were strongest in the protected side of the forest and weaker on the wave-exposed side. DIC variability is the dominant control on pH, pCO2, and carbonate mineral saturation state variability. pCO2 was generally highest in the wave exposed side of the forest, especially during the upwelling season. This side experienced stronger cross-shore currents and a smaller cross-shore kelp forest extent than the protected side, promoting cross-shore exchange of kelp forest waters with offshore waters. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term, spatially distributed measurements for mechanistic descriptions of kelp forest biogeochemistry. Understanding the contributions of physical and biological processes to CO2 system chemistry is an essential step to predicting responses of temperate nearshore habitats to climate change and ocean acidification.

  11. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from WECOMA in the Coastal Waters of California from 1988-11-13 to 1989-05-14 (NODC Accession 9100051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) data were collected from Coastal Waters of California as part of Northern California Shelf Mixed Layer Experiment...

  12. Water Resources Data, New York, Water Year 1996; Volume 1. Eastern New York; Excluding Long Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butch, G.K.; Dalton, F.N.; Lent, H.G.; Murray, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    IntroductionWater-resources data for the 1996 water year for New York consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; ground-water levels; and precipitation quality. This volume contains records for water discharge at 122 gaging stations; stage only at 7 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 gaging stations, and 18 other lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 28 gaging stations and 1 precipitation-quality station; and water levels at 3 observation wells. Also included are data for 33 crest-stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses in this volume. These data together with the data in Volumes 2 and 3 represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, Municipal, and Federal agencies in New York.Records of discharge and stage of streams, and contents and stage of lakes and reservoirs, were first published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey water-supply papers entitled, “Surface Water Supply of the United States.” Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were in an annual series and then in a 5-year series for 1961-65 and 1966-70. Records of water quality, water temperatures, and suspended sediment were published from 1941 to 1970 in an annual series of water-supply papers entitled “Quality of Surface Waters of the United States.” Records of ground-water levels were published from 1935 to 1974 in a series of water-supply papers entitled “Ground-Water Levels in the United States.” Water-supply papers may be consulted in the libraries of the principal cities and universities in the United States or may be purchased from the U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Distribution, 604 South Pickett Street, Alexandria, VA 22304.Since the 1961

  13. Nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California : occurrence and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Stork, Sylvia V.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in California's eastern San Joaquin Valley may be greatly influenced by the long history of intensive farming and irrigation and the generally permeable sediments. This study, which is part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, was done to assess the quality of the ground water and to do a preliminary evaluation of the temporal trends in nitrate and pesticides in the alluvial fans of the eastern San Joaquin Valley. Ground-water samples were collected from 30 domestic wells in 1995 (each well was sampled once during 1995). The results of the analyses of these samples were related to various physical and chemical factors in an attempt to understand the processes that control the occurrence and the concentrations of nitrate and pesticides. A preliminary evaluation of the temporal trends in the occurrence and the concentration of nitrate and pesticides was done by comparing the results of the analyses of the 1995 ground-water samples with the results of the analyses of the samples collected in 1986-87 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program. Nitrate concentrations (dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, as nitrogen) in ground water sampled in 1995 ranged from less than 0.05 to 34 milligrams per liter, with a median concentration of 4.6 milligrams per liter. Nitrate concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter (as nitrogen) in 5 of the 30 ground-water samples (17 percent), whereas 12 of the 30 samples (40 percent) had nitrate concentrations less than 3.0 milligrams per liter. The high nitrate concentrations were associated with recently recharged, well-oxygenated ground water that has been affected by agriculture (indicated by the positive correlations between nitrate, dissolved-oxygen, tritium, and specific conductance). Twelve pesticides were detected in 21 of the 30 ground-water samples (70 percent) in 1995

  14. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  15. Geohydrology, water quality, and estimation of ground-water recharge in San Francisco, California, 1987-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S.P.; Hamlin, S.N.; Yates, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    The city of San Francisco is considering further development of local groundwater resources as a supplemental source of water for potable or nonpotable use. By the year 2010, further water demand is projected to exceed the delivery capacity of the existing supply system, which is fed by surface-water sources; thus supplies are susceptible to drought conditions and damage to conveyance lines by earthquakes. The primary purpose of this study is to describe local geohydrology and water quality and to estimate groundwater recharge in the area of the city of San Francisco. Seven groundwater basins were identified in San Francisco on the basis of geologic and geophysical data. Basins on the east side of the city are relatively thin and contain a greater percentage of fine-grained sediments than those on the west side. The relatively small capacity of the basins and greater potential for contamination from sewer sources may limit the potential for groundwater development on the east side. Basins on the west side of the city have a relatively large capacity and low density sewer network. Water-level data indicate that the southern part of the largest basin on the west side of the city (Westside basin) probably cannot accommodate additional groundwater development without adversely affecting water levels and water quality in Lake Merced; however, the remainder of the basin, which is largely undeveloped, could be developed further. A hydrologic routing model was developed for estimating groundwater recharge throughout San Francisco. The model takes into account climatic factors, land and water use, irrigation, leakage from underground pipes, rainfall runoff, evapotranspiration, and other factors associated with an urban environment. Results indicate that area recharge rates for water years 1987-88 for the 7 groundwater basins ranged from 0.32 to 0.78 feet per year. Recharge for the Westside basin was estimated at 0.51 feet per year. Average annual groundwater recharge

  16. Runoff conditions in Utah for water year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Angeroth, Cory E.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011, the snowpack conditions in the mountains of central and northern Utah had emergency planners and water managers preparing for levels of runoff similar to the record year of 1983. The SNOwpack TELemetry (SNOTEL) records from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) reported that the amount of water contained in the snowpack in May 2011 was greater than it was in either May of 1983 or 2005.Despite the above average snowpack,which lasted into the summer of 2011, runoff from snowmelt in 2011 did not create the widespread damage observed in 1983 and 2005. Cooler than normal temperatures resulted in slower snowmelt rates, which produced a prolonged and elevated runoff. Annual streamflow for water year 2011 was well above average, but few records of peak streamflow were set. The increase in water-surface elevation of Great Salt Lake was also above average. Ten streamgages in central and northern Utah, with records spanning greater than 20 years, have been selected to highlight the runoff conditions in Utah during water year 2011. Streamflow on the Duchesne River near Randlett, Utah, and on the Bear River near Utah-Wyoming state line is affected by several upstream diversions. These two streamgages were included in the analysis because their streamflow records have shown responses to spring snowmelt. The annual streamflow in all 10 of these streamgages was greater than 150 percent of average, and 3 streamgages set new records for total annual streamflow in water year 2011. One streamgage set a new peak streamflow record.

  17. Drought, Land-Use Change, and Water Availability in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, C. C.; Sneed, M.; Traum, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Valley is a broad alluvial-filled structural trough that covers about 52,000 square kilometers and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. Because the valley is semi-arid and the availability of surface water varies substantially from year to year, season to season, and from north to south, agriculture developed a reliance on groundwater for irrigation. During recent drought periods (2007-09 and 2012-present), groundwater pumping has increased due to a combination of factors including drought and land-use changes. In response, groundwater levels have declined to levels approaching or below historical low levels. In the San Joaquin Valley, the southern two thirds of the Central Valley, the extensive groundwater pumpage has caused aquifer system compaction, resulting in land subsidence and permanent loss of groundwater storage capacity. The magnitude and rate of subsidence varies based on geologic materials, consolidation history, and historical water levels. Spatially-variable subsidence has changed the land-surface slope, causing operational, maintenance, and construction-design problems for surface-water infrastructure. It is important for water agencies to plan for the effects of continued water-level declines, storage losses, and/or land subsidence. To combat these effects, excess surface water, when available, is artificially recharged. As surface-water availability, land use, and artificial recharge continue to vary, long-term groundwater-level and land-subsidence monitoring and modelling are critical to understanding the dynamics of the aquifer system. Modeling tools, such as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model, can be used in the analysis and evaluation of management strategies to mitigate adverse impacts due to subsidence, while also optimizing water availability. These analyses will be critical for successful implementation of recent legislation aimed toward sustainable groundwater use.

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  19. Aquifer geometry, lithology, and water levels in the Anza–Terwilliger area—2013, Riverside and San Diego Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Morita, Andrew Y.; Nawikas, Joseph M.; Christensen, Allen H.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2015-11-24

    The population of the Anza–Terwilliger area relies solely on groundwater pumped from the alluvial deposits and surrounding bedrock formations for water supply. The size, characteristics, and current conditions of the aquifer system in the Anza–Terwilliger area are poorly understood, however. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the High Country Conservancy and Rancho California Water District, undertook a study to (1) improve mapping of groundwater basin geometry and lithology and (2) to resume groundwater-level monitoring last done during 2004–07 in the Anza–Terwilliger area. 

  20. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  1. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  2. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  3. Wine Valley Inn: A mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. Geothermal-energy-system conceptual design and economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-26

    The purpose of this study is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility for utilizing geothermal energy for air conditioning and service water heating at the Wine Valley Inn, a mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. The study evaluates heating, ventilating, air conditioning and water heating systems suitable for direct heat geothermal application. Due to the excellent geothermal temperatures available at this site, the mechanics and economics of a geothermally powered chilled water cooling system are evaluated. The Wine Valley Inn has the resource potential to have one of the few totally geothermal powered air conditioning and water heating systems in the world. This total concept is completely developed. A water plan was prepared to determine the quantity of water required for fresh water well development based on the special requirements of the project. An economic evaluation of the system is included to justify the added capital investment needed to build the geothermally powered mineral spa. Energy payback calculations are presented. A thermal cascade system is proposed to direct the geothermal water through the energy system to first power the chiller, then the space heating system, domestic hot water, the two spas and finally to heat the swimming pool. The Energy Management strategy required to automatically control this cascade process using industrial quality micro-processor equipment is described. Energy Management controls are selected to keep equipment sizing at a minimum, pump only the amount of geothermal water needed and be self balancing.

  4. Impact of transient soil water simulation to estimated nitrogen leaching and emission at high- and low-deposition forest sites in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan. Yuan; Thomas. Meixner; Mark E. Fenn; Jirka. Simunek

    2011-01-01

    Soil water dynamics and drainage are key abiotic factors controlling losses of atmospherically deposited N in Southern California. In this paper soil N leaching and trace gaseous emissions simulated by the DAYCENT biogeochemical model using its original semi‐dynamic water flow module were compared to that coupled with a finite element transient water flow...

  5. Geologic, water-chemistry, and hydrologic data from multiple-well monitoring sites and selected water-supply wells in the Santa Clara Valley, California, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, M.W.; Hanson, R.T.; Wentworth, C.M.; Everett, Rhett; Williams, C.F.; Tinsley, J.C.; Noce, T.E.; Carkin, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    To better identify the three-dimensional geohydrologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley, lithologic, geologic, geophysical, geomechanical, hydraulic, and water-chemistry data were collected from eight ground-water multiple-well monitoring sites constructed in Santa Clara County, California, as part of a series of cooperative studies between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The data are being used to update and improve the three-dimensional geohydrologic framework of the basin and to address issues related to water supply, water chemistry, sequence stratigraphy, geology, and geological hazards. This report represents a compilation of data collected from 1999 to 2003, including location and design of the monitoring sites, cone penetrometer borings, geologic logs, lithologic logs, geophysical logs, core analysis, water-chemistry analysis, ground-water-level measurements, and hydraulic and geomechanical properties from wells and core samples. Exploratory cone penetrometer borings taken in the upper 17 to 130 feet at six of the monitoring sites identified the base of Holocene as no deeper than 75 feet in the central confined area and no deeper than 35 feet in the southern unconfined areas of the valley. Generalized lithologic characterization from the monitoring sites indicates about four to six different aquifer units separated by relatively fine-grained units occur within the alluvial deposits shallower than 860 feet deep. Analysis of geophysical logs indicates that coarse-grained units varied in thickness between 10 and 25 feet in the southeastern unconfined area of the valley and between 50 and 200 feet in the south-central and southwestern areas of the valley. Deviations from temperature-gradient logs indicate that the majority of horizontal ground-water flow occurs above a depth of 775 feet in the south central and above 510 feet in the southeastern areas of the valley. Bulk physical properties from more than 1,150 feet of

  6. Scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini, utilizes deep-water, hypoxic zone in the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, S J; Klimley, A P; Muhlia-Melo, A F

    2009-05-01

    A hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini tracked for 74 days revealed an expansion of the range of vertical distribution for the species to include the extreme hypoxic environment of the oxygen minimum layer in the Gulf of California.

  7. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  8. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin Lakes, water year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2004-01-01

     The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2003 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2002 through September 30, 2003 is called "water year 2003."

  9. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.L.; Elder, J.F.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Mergener, E.A.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The location of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 1999 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999 is called "water year 1999."

  10. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    lead by Rose, W. J.; Elder, J.F.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Mergener, E.A.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2001 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001 is called "water year 2001."

  11. Water-quality and lake stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2000 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000 is called "water year 2000."

  12. Updates on Water Use of Pistachio Orchards Grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California on Saline Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Daniele; Marino, Giulia; Whiting, Michael; Sanden, Blake; Ferguson, Louise; Lampinen, Bruce; Kent, Eric; Snyder, Richard; Grattan, Stephen; Little, Cayle

    2017-04-01

    Pistachio acreage is rapidly expanding in California thanks to its economic profitability and capacity to grow and produce in salt-affected soils. Our team at University of California is updating information on actual water use (ET) of mature pistachio orchards grown on saline soils under micro-irrigation methods. Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa) and Crop Coefficients (Ka) were determined for the 2015 and 2016 crop seasons on four pistachio orchards grown in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) on grounds with increasing levels of soil-water salinity, using the residual of energy balance method with a combination of eddy covariance and surface renewal equipment. Tree canopy cover, light interception, and plant water status across the orchards were also measured and evaluated. Our preliminary results show that salinity strongly affects the tree water use, resulting in 10-30% less ET for medium to high salt-affected soils. Salinity also showed a strong effect on tree water status and light interception, as suggested by values of the Midday Stem Water Potential (ΨSWP) around 10 to 15-bar lower in salt-affected than in the control orchard, and by the intercepted Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) decreasing from 75% in the control orchard to 25% in the severely salt affected grounds. The crop coefficient values we observed in this study are lower than those commonly used for irrigation scheduling in the SJV, suggesting that pistachio growers could better tailor irrigation management to the actual site-specific orchard conditions (e.g. canopy features and soil-water salinity) if they are provided updated information. Improved irrigation practices could likely lead to significant water savings and thus improve the resource-efficiency and competitiveness of pistachio production in the SJV. Keywords: Pistacia vera L., salinity, stem water potential, surface renewal, canopy cover.

  13. Summary of hydrologic conditions in Kansas, 2013 water year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Arin J.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Kansas Water Science Center (KSWSC), in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, maintains a long-term network of hydrologic monitoring gages in the State of Kansas. These include 195 real-time streamflow-gaging stations (herein gages) and 12 real-time reservoir-level monitoring stations. These data and associated analysis, accumulated for many years, provide a unique overview of hydrologic conditions and help improve our understanding of our water resources.

  14. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  15. Foraminiferal area density as a proxy for ocean acidification over the last 200 years in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, E.; Thunell, R.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in an increase in atmospheric CO2 from 280 ppm to 400 ppm over the last 250 years. It is estimated that approximately one-third of this anthropogenically produced CO2 is sequestered in the global ocean, increasing the inventory of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen ions (H+) and consuming carbonate (CO32-) as a result of carbonate buffering reactions. This increase in [H+] lowers seawater pH, the phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). Estimates indicate that mean seawater pH has already decreased by 0.1 pH units since 1750 and IPCC reports indicate it is likely that CO2 concentrations will reach 790 ppm by 2100 further reducing pH by 0.3 units. Marine calcifiers, such as foraminifera, utilize CO32- dissolved in seawater during calcification, a process that is highly sensitive to changes in pH due to the chemical reactions described above. The reduction in surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]) caused by OA has impaired calcification of planktonic foraminifera and other marine calcifiers. It has been proposed that planktonic foraminiferal shell weight or shell thickness is positively correlated with ambient [CO32-] and has been used as proxy to reconstruct past changes in the surface ocean carbonate system. An ideal location for the application of this proxy is the California Current System (CSS), an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System (EBUS), which is characterized as having naturally lower pH. Upwelling introduces CO2-enriched bottom waters to the surface ocean, intensifying the effects of increasing dissolved CO2 as a result of anthropogenic activities. Upwelling produces a wide range of surface water [CO32-] making the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) an ideal site to carry out a foraminiferal shell weight calibration study. Area density (ρA) is a new method for collecting size-normalized shell weights that will be used in this study. Species-specific calibrations have been derived for two symbiont

  16. Water and Energy Savings using Demand Hot Water Recirculating Systems in Residential Homes: A Case Study of Five Homes in Palo Alto, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R.

    2002-11-14

    This report summarizes a preliminary study aimed at estimating the potential of saving potable water, (and the electrical energy used to heat it), that is presently lost directly to the drain while occupants wait for hot water to arrive at the faucet (point of use). Data were collected from five single-family homes in Palo Alto, California. Despite the small sample size in this study, the results make a compelling case for retrofitting homes with hot water recirculation systems to eliminate unnecessary wastage of water at the point of use. Technical as well as behavioral and attitudinal changes towards water conservation are necessary for a fulfilling and successful conservation effort. This report focuses on the technical issues, but behavioral issues are also noted, which may be factored into future studies involving local and state governments and utility companies.

  17. Distribution and Mass Inventories of p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE in the Water Column of the Southern California Bight, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, E. Y.; Peng, J.; Tsukada, D.; Diehl, D.; Noblet, J.; Schiff, K.

    2005-05-01

    As part of the Southern California Bight(SCB) 2003 Regional Marine Monitoring Survey (Bight' 03), we examined the concentrations and distribution patterns of p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE in the water columns at randomly-selected sites throughout SCB using solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. The technique involves deployment of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated fibers at certain depths of the water column for a prolonged time (3 weeks or longer). The fibers were then retrieved and analyzed by GC-MS, and water column concentrations of DDTs were calculated based on an equilibrium partitioning between water and PDMS coating. Our results showed that p,p'-DDE concentrations were in the range of 0.05-0.22ng/L, and 0.005-0.036 for o,p'-DDE. For p,p'-DDE, there is a general increasing trend toward the sediment-water interface. Santa Monica Bay contains the highest concentrations of both p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE, indicative of the influence of `hot spots' at Palos Verdes Shelf. Concentrations of DDTs were lower in San Pedro Shelf and Santa Barbara Basin, and were mostly under detection limit in other areas. The results showed that water column DDT concentrations have decreased significantly compared with previous investigations, but a constant source of DDTs from sediment to the overlying water column is still significant. The spatial distribution patterns of water column p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE suggest that the Palos Verdes Shelf remains a dominant source of DDT contamination to the SCB. Based on the spatial data, we estimated that the total mass of DDTs in the entire SCB is rather low ( under 1 kg). The annual loss of DDTs from SCB to the open ocean should be about tens of kg. Based on the historical trend of the DDT input into SCB since the 1970s, SCB should have contributed considerable amount of DDTs to the open ocean.

  18. Development and use of a mathematical model of the San Bernardino Valley ground-water basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, William F.; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    Part of the San Bernardino urbanized area in California overlies formerly swampy lands with a history of flowing wells. This area , upgradient from and adjacent to the San Jacinto fault, contains a zone in an alluvial ground-water basin that is under artesian pressure. Since 1945, withdrawals have exceeded recharge and caused head declines of more than 100 feet. Artificial recharge of imported water in the upgradient areas may cause ground-water levels to rise, which could cause abandoned but unplugged wells to resume flowing. If so, structures could be damaged. A two-layer Galerkin finite-element digital model was used for predicting the rate and extent of the rise in water levels from 1975 to 2000. Six hydrologic conditions were modeled for the basin. Artificial recharge of one-half entitlement and full entitlement from the California Aqueduct were each coupled with low, average, and high natural recharge to the basin. According to model predictions, the greatest water level rises will be along the San Bernardino front. This area encompasses the artificial recharge sites and also has a thick section of unsaturated sediments for storing ground water. The formerly swampy lands between Warm Creek and the Santa Ana River adjacent to the San Jacinto fault have little additional storage capacity, and water levels could rise to the land surface as early as 1983 under maximum recharge conditions and 1970-74 average pumping conditions. If pumping rates are reduced in the Warm Creek area, water levels may rise to land surface prior to the dates predicted by the model, regardless of the artificial-recharge program. (USGS)

  19. Evaluation of California isolates of Lingulodinium polyedrum for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L. polyedrum has been determined to produce YTX in isolates from Italy, the United Kingdom, Ireland and, most recently, Spain. L. polyedrum is present most years off Baja, California, and bloom events of this species in southern California coastal waters have been recorded as far back as 1901. Three cultures of L.

  20. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Lockwood, Brian; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within “water-balance subregions” (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori.

  1. Energy-water nexus analysis of enhanced water supply scenarios: a regional comparison of Tampa Bay, Florida, and San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2014-05-20

    Increased water demand and scarce freshwater resources have forced communities to seek nontraditional water sources. These challenges are exacerbated in coastal communities, where population growth rates and densities in the United States are the highest. To understand the current management dilemma between constrained surface and groundwater sources and potential new water sources, Tampa Bay, Florida (TB), and San Diego, California (SD), were studied through 2030 accounting for changes in population, water demand, and electricity grid mix. These locations were chosen on the basis of their similar populations, land areas, economies, and water consumption characters as well as their coastal locations and rising contradictions between water demand and supply. Three scenarios were evaluated for each study area: (1) maximization of traditional supplies; (2) maximization of seawater desalination; and (3) maximization of nonpotable water reclamation. Three types of impacts were assessed: embodied energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and energy cost. SD was found to have higher embodied energy and energy cost but lower GHG emission than TB in most of its water infrastructure systems because of the differences between the electricity grid mixes and water resources of the two regions. Maximizing water reclamation was found to be better than increasing either traditional supplies or seawater desalination in both regions in terms of the three impact categories. The results further imply the importance of assessing the energy-water nexus when pursuing demand-side control targets or goals as well to ensure that the potentially most economical options are considered.

  2. Assessing Drought Impacts on Water Storage Changes from New GRACE Mascons Solutions and Regional Groundwater Modeling in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Faunt, C. C.; Save, H.; Wiese, D. N.; Dettinger, M. D.; Longuevergne, L.; Margulis, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the impacts of the current five year drought in California on water resources. Here we use recently released GRACE mascons solutions from Univ. Texas Center for Space Research and NASA Jet Propulsion Lab and output from a regional groundwater model developed by the U.S Geological Survey to assess changes in water storage in response to the current and past droughts. Marked declines in Total Water Storage (TWS) from GRACE are recorded during the current drought from mid-2011 - mid-2015 with slight recovery after this time. TWS declines during the current drought exceed those recorded during the previous 2007 - 2009 drought. Contributors to TWS depletion include snow water storage (very low during 2013 and 2014), reservoir storage (decline mid 2011 - late 2015, with slight recovery in spring 2016), soil moisture storage from land surface models (greater decline during early years of drought and recent slight recovery) and groundwater storage estimated as a residual. There is general consistency between GRACE derived groundwater storage decline during the drought and simulated groundwater storage depletion from the regional groundwater model. Combining remote sensing estimation of TWS trends with global and regional modeling allows estimation of the contribution of different components to TWS anomalies, and assessment of the reliability of the groundwater storage changes.

  3. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hirsch, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    We are in the midst of a continental-scale, multi-year experiment in the United States, in which we have not defined our testable hypotheses or set the duration and scope of the experiment, which poses major water-resources challenges for the 21st century. What are we doing? We are expanding population at three times the national growth rate in our most water-scarce region, the southwestern United States, where water stress is already great and modeling predicts decreased streamflow by the middle of this century. We are expanding irrigated agriculture from the west into the east, particularly to the southeastern states, where increased competition for ground and surface water has urban, agricultural, and environmental interests at odds, and increasingly, in court. We are expanding our consumption of pharmaceutical and personal care products to historic high levels and disposing them in surface and groundwater, through sewage treatment plants and individual septic systems. These substances are now detectable at very low concentrations and we have documented significant effects on aquatic species, particularly on fish reproduction function. We don’t yet know what effects on human health may emerge, nor do we know if we need to make large investments in water treatment systems, which were not designed to remove these substances. These are a few examples of our national-scale experiment. In addition to these water resources challenges, over which we have some control, climate change models indicate that precipitation and streamflow patterns will change in coming decades, with western mid-latitude North America generally drier. We have already documented trends in more rain and less snow in western mountains. This has large implications for water supply and storage, and groundwater recharge. We have documented earlier snowmelt peak spring runoff in northeastern and northwestern States, and western montane regions. Peak runoff is now about two weeks earlier than it was

  4. Evaluating options for balancing the water-electricity nexus in California: Part 2--greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Water-quality data from storm runoff after the 2007 fires, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected water-quality samples during the first two storms after the Witch and Harris Fires (October 2007) in southern California. The sampling locations represent an urban area (two residential sites in Rancho Bernardo that were affected by the Witch Fire; a drainage ditch and a storm drain) and a rural area (Cotton-wood Creek, which was downstream of a mobile home park destroyed by the Harris Fire). Fires produce ash and solid residues that contain soluble chemicals that can contaminant runoff. The contaminants, whether sorbed to soil and ash or dissolved, can seriously affect the quality of water supplies and sensitive ecosystems. Stormflow water samples were analyzed for field parameters, optical properties, and for a variety of constituents, including nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suspended sediment, and metals. pH values for storm runoff from the urban areas (7.6 to 8.5) were less than pH values for ash and burned soil from previous studies (12.5 to 13). pH values for storm runoff from the rural area (about 7.7) also were less than pH values for ash and burned soil collected from the rural area (8.6 to 11.8), but were similar to pH values for wildland burned soil from previous studies. Turbidity values were much lower for the urban area than for the rural area. Nitrate concentrations in stormflow samples from all sites were less than a quarter of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (2006) maximum allowable contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) (as nitrogen). Phosphorus concentrations were half as much in filtered samples and two orders of magnitude smaller in unfiltered samples at the urban sites than at the rural site. DOC concentrations in stormflow samples were one order of magnitude lower at the urban sites than at the rural site. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 254 nanometers (UV254) in samples ranged from 0.145 to 0.782 per centimeter (cm-1). UV-absorbance data at the urban sites indicate that

  6. Hydrogeologic framework refinement, ground-water flow and storage, water-chemistry analyses, and water-budget components of the Yuma area, southwestern Arizona and southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Land, Michael; Faunt, Claudia C.; Leake, S.A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Fleming, John B.; Pool, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    The ground-water and surface-water system in the Yuma area in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California is managed intensely to meet water-delivery requirements of customers in the United States, to manage high ground-water levels in the valleys, and to maintain treaty-mandated water-quality and quantity requirements of Mexico. The following components in this report, which were identified to be useful in the development of a ground-water management model, are: (1) refinement of the hydrogeologic framework; (2) updated water-level maps, general ground-water flow patterns, and an estimate of the amount of ground water stored in the mound under Yuma Mesa; (3) review and documentation of the ground-water budget calculated by the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior (Reclamation); and (4) water-chemistry characterization to identify the spatial distribution of water quality, information on sources and ages of ground water, and information about the productive-interval depths of the aquifer. A refined three-dimensional digital hydrogeologic framework model includes the following hydrogeologic units from bottom to top: (1) the effective hydrologic basement of the basin aquifer, which includes the Pliocene Bouse Formation, Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and pre-Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic rocks; (2) undifferentiated lower units to represent the Pliocene transition zone and wedge zone; (3) coarse-gravel unit; (4) lower, middle, and upper basin fill to represent the upper, fine-grained zone between the top of the coarse-gravel unit and the land surface; and (5) clay A and clay B. Data for the refined model includes digital elevation models, borehole lithology data, geophysical data, and structural data to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units. The top surface of the coarse-gravel unit, defined by using borehole and geophysical data, varies similarly to terraces resulting from the down cutting of the Colorado River. Clay A

  7. High-resolution paleoclimatology of the coastal margin of northernmost California during the past 7,300 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, J. A.; Heusser, L. E.; Addison, J. A.; Burky, D.; Kusler, J. E.; Finney, B.

    2013-12-01

    Piston core TN062 0550, located 13 km offshore of Eureka, California (40.866 deg. N, 124.572 deg. W, 550 m water depth), contains a continuous high-resolution climate record of the past 7,300 yr. Deposition occurred at nearly constant sedimentation rates averaging 94 cm/kyr based on 14C AMS dating of planktonic foraminifers. Pollen and marine ecosystem proxies (diatoms, silicoflagellates, wt. percent biogenic silica) studied at 50-70 yr sample resolution show a stepwise development of the climate/ oceanographic system off northernmost California. The relative contributions of Sequoia sempervirens (coastal redwood) pollen, a proxy for coastal fog associated with offshore upwelling, and biogenic silica concentrations (a proxy for siliceous export productivity) increase (two fold and three fold, respectively) in successive steps at ~5,000 yr BP and from ~2,400 to 2,000 yr BP. These increases are interpreted to reflect a progressive intensification of spring upwelling based on modern observations of the California Current system. At 5,000 yr BP diatom assemblages change from an assorted mixture of warm, temperate, and cool-water taxa to a low diversity temperate-oceanic assemblage dominated by Thalassionema spp. At ~2,400 yr BP the diatom assemblage transitions to a mixture of nearshore upwelling taxa and taxa associated with the central North Pacific Gyre. Silicoflagellate assemblages undergo a similar increase in the representation of modern seasonal proxies at ~3,000 yr BP that may reflect intensified ENSO variability. A two-fold increase in the relative contributions of Quercus (oak) and riparian Alnus (alder) pollen between ~3,800 and 2,000 yr BP likely signals a period of enhanced fluvial runoff associated with increased winter precipitation. Given the present day association of the Eel River system with the northwestern half of the western US winter precipitation dipole, these pollen data suggest that the ~3,800 and 2,000 yr interval was dominated by protracted

  8. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean ground-water-level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2006. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2006 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 3 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 5, and below normal in the remaining 3 wells.

  9. The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in waters of the Lower Ballona Creek Watershed, Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawecki, Stephanie; Kuleck, Gary; Dorsey, John H; Leary, Christopher; Lum, Michelle

    2017-06-01

    Screening for the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) was done at the Ballona Creek and Wetlands, an urban-impacted wetland system in Los Angeles, California. The goals were (1) to assess the overall prevalence of ARB, and (2) compare differences in ARB abundance and the types of antibiotic resistance (AR) among the following sample types: lagoon water from Del Rey Lagoon, urban runoff from Ballona Creek, and water from the Ballona Wetlands (tidal water flooding in from the adjacent estuary, and ebbing out from the salt marsh). Antibiotic resistance distributions were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to develop the cumulative frequency of bacteria having resistance of up to eight antibiotics. Distributions from the environmental water samples were compared to unchlorinated secondary effluent from the Hyperion Water Reclamation Plant that was used as comparator samples likely to have an abundance of ARB. As expected, densities of total and ARB were highest in secondary effluent, followed by urban runoff. Samples of water flooding into the wetlands showed similar results to urban runoff; however, a reduction in densities of total and ARB occurred in water ebbing out of the wetlands. During preliminary work to identify ARB species, several bacterial species of relevance to human illness (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas veronii, Enterobacter cancerogenus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Staphylococcus intermedius) were isolated from sampled waters. If wetlands are a sink for ARB, construction and restoration of wetlands can help in the mediation of this human and environmental health concern.

  10. Decadal and shorter period variability of surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, A B; Grant, S B; Kim, J H; Mowbray, S L; McGee, C D; Clark, C D; Foley, D M; Wellman, D E

    2002-09-15

    The concentration of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone at Huntington Beach, CA, varies over time scales that span at least 7 orders of magnitude, from minutes to decades. Sources of this variability include historical changes in the treatment and disposal of wastewater and dry weather runoff, El Niño events, seasonal variations in rainfall, spring-neap tidal cycles, sunlight-induced mortality of bacteria, and nearshore mixing. On average, total coliform concentrations have decreased over the past 43 years, although point sources of shoreline contamination (storm drains, river outlets, and submarine outfalls) continue to cause transiently poor water quality. These transient point sources typically persist for 5-8 yr and are modulated by the phase of the moon, reflecting the influence of tides on the sourcing and transport of pollutants in the coastal ocean. Indicator bacteria are very sensitive to sunlight therefore, the time of day when samples are collected can influence the outcome of water quality testing. These results demonstrate that coastal water quality is forced by a complex combination of local and external processes and raise questions about the efficacy of existing marine bathing water monitoring and reporting programs.

  11. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  12. Summary of hydrologic conditions in Kansas, water year 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louen, Justin M.

    2017-04-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, maintains a long-term network of hydrologic monitoring sites in Kansas. Real-time data are collected at 216 streamgage sites and are verified throughout the year with regular measurements of streamflow made by USGS personnel. Annual assessments of hydrologic conditions are made by comparing statistical analyses of current and historical water year (WY) data for the period of record. A WY is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the calendar year in which the period ends. Long-term monitoring of hydrologic conditions in Kansas provides critical information for water-supply management, flood forecasting, reservoir operations, irrigation scheduling, bridge and culvert design, ecological monitoring, and many other uses.

  13. Nitrate isotopic composition and ancillary variables (land use, redox, excess N2, age, water isotopics) in California groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Nathan; Moran, Jean; Visser, Ate; Singleton, Michael; Esser, Bradley

    2017-04-01

    Nitrate is a critical water quality issue in California, the United States and the world. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has compiled a large, unique database of California groundwater nitrate isotopic compositions (δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3), acquired largely through more than a decade of coordination with the State of California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The water samples are predominantly from shallow aquifers accessed by domestic and monitoring wells. The database of >1,300 nitrate isotopic compositions includes a number of important ancillary parameters: DO, ORP and DOC (measured for 18% of samples); excess air and dissolved N2 (24%); water isotopic composition (δ18O-H2O and δD-H2O) (43%); and tritium/3He groundwater age (27%). Methods used at LLNL include sample preparation by the denitrifier method (for δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3) and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry with (δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 and δ18O-H2O and δD-H2O), Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry (NGMS; for excess air and groundwater age), and Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MIMS; for major dissolved gases and excess N2). Redox indicators (DO, ORP and DOC) in conjunction with excess N2, groundwater age, and nitrate isotopic composition are used to assess the presence or absence, and potentially the rate of, saturated-zone denitrification. Comparison of δ18O-NO3 to δ18O-H2O isotopic composition is used to distinguish synthetic nitrate from nitrification of reduced forms of nitrogen as a source of groundwater nitrate. Groundwater age is used to discern timing and temporal trends in groundwater nitrate isotopic composition. The relationship of nitrate isotopic composition to ancillary parameters (redox, excess N2, water isotopic composition and groundwater age) is explored, along with its relationship to well location, screened interval, and land use, with a focus on the extent of saturated-zone denitrification and the significance of synthetic nitrate as

  14. Modeling a thick unsaturated zone at San Gorgonio Pass, California: lessons learned after five years of artificial recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Alan L.; Ellett, Kevin M.; Christensen, Allen H.; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The information flow among the tasks of framework assessment, numerical modeling, model forecasting and hind casting, and system-performance monitoring is illustrated. Results provide an understanding of artificial recharge in high-altitude desert settings where large vertical distances may separate application ponds from their target aquifers.Approximately 3.8 million cubic meters of surface water was applied to spreading ponds from 2003–2007 to artificially recharge the underlying aquifer through a 200-meter thick unsaturated zone in the San Gorgonio Pass area in southern California. A study was conducted between 1997 and 2003, and a numerical model was developed to help determine the suitability of the site for artificial recharge. Ongoing monitoring results indicated that the existing model needed to be modified and recalibrated to more accurately predict artificial recharge at the site. The objective of this work was to recalibrate the model by using observation of the application rates, the rise and fall of the water level above a perching layer, and the approximate arrival time to the water table during the 5-yr monitoring period following initiation of long-term artificial recharge. Continuous monitoring of soil-matric potential, temperature, and water levels beneath the site indicated that artificial recharge reached the underlying water table between 3.75 and 4.5 yr after the initial application of the recharge water. The model was modified to allow the simulation to more adequately match the perching layer dynamics and the time of arrival at the water table. The instrumentation also showed that the lag time between changes in application of water at the surface and the response at the perching layer decreased from about 4 mo to less than 1 mo due to the wet-up of the unsaturated zone and the increase in relative permeability. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of iteratively monitoring and modeling the unsaturated zone in layered

  15. Channel and Floodplain Change Analysis over a 100-Year Period: Lower Yuba River, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Aalto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, California (1853–1884 displaced ~1.1 billion m3 of sediment from upland placer gravels that were deposited along piedmont rivers below dams where floods can remobilize them. This study uses topographic and planimetric data from detailed 1906 topographic maps, 1999 photogrammetric data, and pre- and post-flood aerial photographs to document historic sediment erosion and deposition along the lower Yuba River due to individual floods at the reach scale. Differencing of 3 × 3-m topographic data indicates substantial changes in channel morphology and documents 12.6 × 106 m3 of erosion and 5.8 × 106 m3 of deposition in these reaches since 1906. Planimetric and volumetric measurements document spatial and temporal variations of channel enlargement and lateral migration. Over the last century, channels incised up to ~13 m into mining sediments, which dramatically decreased local flood frequencies and increased flood conveyance. These adjustments were punctuated by event-scale geomorphic changes that redistributed sediment and associated contaminants to downstream lowlands.

  16. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater- level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2007. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2007 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 6 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 1 well, and below normal in the remaining 4 wells.

  17. Geothermal space/water heating for Mammoth Lakes Village, California. Quarterly technical progress report, 13 December 1976-12 March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.; Racine, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    During the second three months of this feasibility study to determine the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of heating Mammoth Lakes Village, California using geothermal energy, the following work was accomplished. A saturation survey of the number and types of space and water heaters currently in use in the Village was completed. Electric energy and ambient temperature metering equipment was installed. Peak heating demand for Mammoth Lakes was estimated for the years 1985, 1990 and 2000. Buildings were selected which are considered typical of Mammoth Lakes in terms of their heating systems to be used in estimating the cost of installing hydronic heating systems in Mammoth. Block diagrams and an order of magnitude cost comparison were prepared for high-temperature and low-temperature geothermal district heating systems. Models depicting a geothermal district heating system and a geothermal-electric power plant were designed, built and delivered to ERDA in Washington. Local input to the feasibility study was obtained from representatives of the State of California Departments of Transportation and Fish and Game, US Forest Service, and Mono County Planning Department.

  18. Reducing the impact of summer cattle grazing on water quality in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlet, Robert W; Goldman, Charles R; Connor, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    The Sierra Nevada Mountain range serves as an important source of drinking water for the State of California. However, summer cattle grazing on federal lands affects the overall water quality yield from this essential watershed as cattle manure is washed into the lakes and streams or directly deposited into these bodies of water. This organic pollution introduces harmful microorganisms and also provides nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus which increase algae growth causing eutrophication of otherwise naturally oligotrophic mountain lakes and streams. Disinfection and filtration of this water by municipal water districts after it flows downstream will become increasingly costly. This will be compounded by increasing surface water temperatures and the potential for toxins release by cyanobacteria blooms. With increasing demands for clean water for a state population approaching 40 million, steps need to be implemented to mitigate the impact of cattle on the Sierra Nevada watershed. Compared to lower elevations, high elevation grazing has the greatest impact on the watershed because of fragile unforgiving ecosystems. The societal costs from non-point pollution exceed the benefit achieved through grazing of relatively few cattle at the higher elevations. We propose limiting summer cattle grazing on public lands to lower elevations, with a final goal of allowing summer grazing on public lands only below 1,500 m elevation in the Central and Northern Sierra and 2,000 m elevation in the Southern Sierra.

  19. Streamflow of 2016—Water year summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Xiaodong; Wolock, David M.; Lins, Harry F.; Brady, Steven J.

    2017-09-26

    The maps and graphs in this summary describe national streamflow conditions for water year 2016 (October 1, 2015, to September 30, 2016) in the context of streamflow ranks relative to the 87-year period of 1930–2016, unless otherwise noted. The illustrations are based on observed data from the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Streamflow Network. The period of 1930–2016 was used because the number of streamgages before 1930 was too small to provide representative data for computing statistics for most regions of the country.In the summary, reference is made to the term “runoff,” which is the depth to which a river basin, State, or other geographic area would be covered with water if all the streamflow within the area during a specified period was uniformly distributed on it. Runoff quantifies the magnitude of water flowing through the Nation’s rivers and streams in measurement units that can be compared from one area to another.In all the graphics, a rank of 1 indicates the highest flow of all years analyzed and 87 indicates the lowest flow of all years. Rankings of streamflow are grouped into much below normal, below normal, normal, above normal, and much above normal based on percentiles of flow (less than 10 percent, 10–24 percent, 25–75 percent, 76–90 percent, and greater than 90 percent, respectively). Some of the data used to produce the maps and graphs are provisional and subject to change.

  20. Quality-assurance results for routine water analysis in US Geological Survey laboratories, water year 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, T.J.; Ludtke, A.S.; Krizman, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    The US. Geological Survey operates a quality- assurance program based on the analyses of reference samples for the National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado, and the Quality of Water Service Unit in Ocala, Florida. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and low ionic-strength constituents are prepared and disguised as routine samples. The program goal is to determine precision and bias for as many analytical methods offered by the participating laboratories as possible. The samples typically are submitted at a rate of approximately 5 percent of the annual environmental sample load for each constituent. The samples are distributed to the laboratories throughout the year. Analytical data for these reference samples reflect the quality of environmental sample data produced by the laboratories because the samples are processed in the same manner for all steps from sample login through data release. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System. During water year 1991, 86 analytical procedures were evaluated at the National Water Quality Laboratory and 37 analytical procedures were evaluated at the Quality of Water Service Unit. An overall evaluation of the inorganic (major ion and trace metal) constituent data for water year 1991 indicated analytical imprecision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for 5 of 67 analytical procedures: aluminum (whole-water recoverable, atomic emission spectrometric, direct-current plasma); calcium (atomic emission spectrometric, direct); fluoride (ion-exchange chromatographic); iron (whole-water recoverable, atomic absorption spectrometric, direct); and sulfate (ion-exchange chromatographic). The results for 11 of 67 analytical procedures had positive or negative bias during water year 1991. Analytical imprecision was indicated in the determination of two of the five National Water Quality Laboratory nutrient constituents: orthophosphate as phosphorus and

  1. Monitoring the hydrologic system for potential effects of geothermal and ground-water development in the Long Valley caldera, Mono County, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, C.D.; Lyster, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1980's, renewed interest in the geothermal potential of the Long Valley caldera, California, highlighted the need to balance the benefits of energy development with the established recreational activities of the area. The Long Valley Hydrologic Advisory Committee, formed in 1987, instituted a monitoring program to collect data during the early stages of resource utilization to evaluate potential effects on the hydrologic system. Early data show declines in streamflow, spring flow, and ground-water levels caused by 6 years of below-average precipitation. Springs in the Hot Creek State Fish Hatchery area discharge water that is a mixture of nonthermal and hydrothermal components. Possible sources of nonthermal water have been identified by comparing deuterium concentrations in streams and springs. The equivalent amount of undiluted thermal water discharged from the springs was calculated on the basis of boron and chloride concentrations. Quantifying the thermal and nonthermal fractions of the total flow may allow researchers to assess changes in flow volume or temperature of the springs caused by groundwater or geothermal development.

  2. Water in oral songs of the year cicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukmanović Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a frequent motif in ritual songs of the year cycle. Its meaning of a boundary is important for forming a notion of the place where ritual actions are performed. On the other hand, its fertile potential corresponds with its function of ritual mean or goal. Within the chronotope, it is often connected with temporal boundaries - morning and night. Ritual songs model water as being, to whom the participants direct their songs in the ritual, but it is also the boundary across which inhuman beings enter the human world. It establishes communication with that unearthly world fulfilling the communicative function. Different realizations of water motif in oral lyric show its importance in traditional culture.

  3. A year in the life of a central California kelp forest: physical and biological insights into biogeochemical variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koweek, David A.; Nickols, Kerry J.; Leary, Paul R.; Litvin, Steve Y.; Bell, Tom W.; Luthin, Timothy; Lummis, Sarah; Mucciarone, David A.; Dunbar, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    Kelp forests are among the world's most productive marine ecosystems, yet little is known about their biogeochemistry. This study presents a 14-month time series (July 2013-August 2014) of surface and benthic dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity measurements, along with accompanying hydrographic measurements, from six locations within a central California kelp forest. We present ranges and patterns of variability in carbonate chemistry, including pH (7.70-8.33), pCO2 (172-952 µatm), and the aragonite saturation state, ΩAr (0.94-3.91). Surface-to-bottom gradients in CO2 system chemistry were as large as the spatial gradients throughout the bottom of the kelp forest. Dissolved inorganic carbon variability was the main driver of the observed CO2 system variability. The majority of spatial variability in the kelp forest can be explained by advection of cold, dense high-CO2 waters into the bottom of the kelp forest, with deeper sites experiencing high-CO2 conditions more frequently. Despite the strong imprint of advection on the biogeochemical variability of the kelp forest, surface waters were undersaturated with CO2 in the spring through fall, indicative of the strong role of photosynthesis on biogeochemical variability. We emphasize the importance of spatially distributed measurements for developing a process-based understanding of kelp forest ecosystem function in a changing climate.

  4. Water- and air-quality monitoring of the Sweetwater Reservoir Watershed, San Diego County, California - Phase One results, continued, 2001-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Foreman, William T.; Morita, Andrew; Majewski, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sweetwater Authority, began a study to monitor water, air, and sediment at the Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs in San Diego County, California. The study includes regular sampling of water and air at Sweetwater Reservoir for chemical constituents, including volatile organic compounds (VOC), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and major and trace elements. The purpose of this study is to monitor changes in contaminant composition and concentration during the construction and operation of State Route 125. To accomplish this, the study was divided into two phases. Phase One sampling (water years 1998–2004) determined baseline conditions for the detection frequency and the concentrations of target compounds in air and water. Phase Two sampling (starting water year 2005) continues at selected monitoring sites during and after construction of State Route 125 to assess the chemical impact this roadway alignment may have on water quality in the reservoir. Water samples were collected for VOCs and pesticides at Loveland Reservoir during Phase One and will be collected during Phase Two for comparison purposes. Air samples collected to monitor changes in VOCs, PAHs, and pesticides were analyzed by adapting methods used to analyze water samples. Bed-sediment samples have been and will be collected three times during the study; at the beginning of Phase One, at the start of Phase Two, and near the end of the study. In addition to the ongoing data collection, several special studies were initiated to assess the occurrence of specific chemicals of concern, such as trace metals, anthropogenic indicator compounds, and pharmaceuticals. This report describes the study design, and the sampling and analytical methods, and presents data from water and air samples collected during the fourth and fifth years of Phase One of the study (October 2001 to September 2003). Data collected during the first three

  5. Water-Quality and Lake-Stage Data for Wisconsin Lakes, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Marsh, S.B.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2006 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 is called 'water year 2006.' The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake's watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published in another volume: 'Water Resources Data-Wisconsin, 2006.' Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available through the World Wide Web on the Internet. The Wisconsin Water Science Center's home page is at http://wi.water.usgs.gov/. Information on the

  6. Water-quality and Llake-stage data for Wisconsin Lakes, Water Year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Marsh, S.B.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2004 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004 is called 'water year 2004.' The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake's watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published in another volume: 'Water Resources Data-Wisconsin, 2004.' Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available throught the World Wide Web on the Internet. The Wisconsin Water Science Center's home page is at http://wi.water.usgs.gov/. Information on the

  7. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  8. Sandia National Laboratories California Environmental Monitoring Program Annual Report for Calendar Year 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C.

    2006-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Environmental Monitoring Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2005 Update program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories, California pollution prevention annual program report for calendar year 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren, Laurie J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-07-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the ''SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual''. The 2005 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  10. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  11. Water-resources and land-surface deformation evaluation studies at Fort Irwin National Training Center, Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore-Judy, Jill; Dishart, Justine E.; Miller, David; Buesch, David C.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Woolfenden, Linda R.; Cromwell, Geoffrey; Burgess, Matthew K.; Nawikas, Joseph; O'Leary, David; Kjos, Adam; Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Army Fort Irwin National Training Center (NTC), in the Mojave Desert, obtains all of its potable water supply from three groundwater basins (Irwin, Langford, and Bicycle) within the NTC boundaries (fig. 1; California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Because of increasing water demands at the NTC, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army, completed several studies to evaluate water resources in the developed and undeveloped groundwater basins underlying the NTC. In all of the developed basins, groundwater withdrawals exceed natural recharge, resulting in water-level declines. However, artificial recharge of treated wastewater has had some success in offsetting water-level declines in Irwin Basin. Additionally, localized water-quality changes have occurred in some parts of Irwin Basin as a result of human activities (i.e., wastewater disposal practices, landscape irrigation, and/or leaking pipes). As part of the multi-faceted NTC-wide studies, traditional datacollection methods were used and include lithological and geophysical logging at newly drilled boreholes, hydrologic data collection (i.e. water-level, water-quality, aquifer tests, wellbore flow). Because these data cover a small portion of the 1,177 square-mile (mi2 ) NTC, regional mapping, including geologic, gravity, aeromagnetic, and InSAR, also were done. In addition, ground and airborne electromagnetic surveys were completed and analyzed to provide more detailed subsurface information on a regional, base-wide scale. The traditional and regional ground and airborne data are being analyzed and will be used to help develop preliminary hydrogeologic framework and groundwater-flow models in all basins. This report is intended to provide an overview of recent water-resources and land-surface deformation studies at the NTC.

  12. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water years 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2012 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012, is called “water year 2012.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information on

  13. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a database for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2014 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the periodOctober 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014, is called “water year 2014.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during nonfrozen periods are included for many lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes the location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information

  14. California GAMA Special Study: Analysis of Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine and Metabolites as Wastewater Tracers in Water Resource Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vu, A. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-20

    The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is a comprehensive groundwater quality monitoring program managed by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA Special Studies project provides analyses and interpretation of constituents of concern that allow assessment of current groundwater conditions. In addition, the Special Studies project develops analyses that will enhance the monitoring and assessment effort by focusing on specific constituents of concern and water quality parameters, such as disinfection byproducts (DBP), wastewater indicators, and redox conditions, as it relates to irrigation and groundwater management. This study developed a robust analytical method for the quantitation of CBZ, OXC, CBZ-E, CBZ-DiOH, and CBZ-10-OH in wastewater treatement plant (WWTP) effluent and in groundwater in the parts per trillion range.

  15. Thinning stagnated ponderosa and Jeffrey pine stands in northeastern California: 30-year effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Lilieholm; Dennis E. Teeguarden; Donald T. Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Response to precommercial thinning in stagnated 55-year-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) stands in northeastern alifornia was rapid and long-lasting. During the first 5 years after thinning, average annual diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) and height growth of trees on...

  16. Beyond User Acceptance : A Legitimacy Framework for Potable Water Reuse in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris-Lovett, S.R.; Binz, C.; Sedlak, D.L.; Kiparsky, M.; Truffer, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/6603148005

    2015-01-01

    Water resource managers often tout the potential of potable water reuse to provide a reliable, local source of drinking water in water-scarce regions. Despite data documenting the ability of advanced treatment technologies to treat municipal wastewater effluent to meet existing drinking water

  17. Sources of sediment to the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    The sources of sediment to the Southern California Bight were investigated with new calculations and published records of sediment fluxes, both natural and anthropogenic. We find that rivers are by far the largest source of sediment, producing over 10 ?? 106 t/yr on average, or over 80% of the sediment input to the Bight. This river flux is variable, however, over both space and time. The rivers draining the Transverse Ranges produce sediment at rates approximately an order of magnitude greater than the Peninsular Ranges (600-1500 t/km2/yr versus rivers represent only 23% of the total Southern California watershed drainage area, they are responsible for over 75% of the total sediment flux. River sediment flux is ephemeral and highly pulsed due to the semiarid climate and the influence of infrequent large storms. For more than 90% of the time, negligible amounts of sediment are discharged from the region's rivers, and over half of the post-1900 sediment load has been discharged during events with recurrence intervals greater than 10 yr. These rare, yet important, events are related to the El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the majority of sediment flux occurs during ENSO periods. Temporal trends in sediment discharge due to land-use changes and river damming are also observed. We estimate that there has been a 45% reduction in suspended-sediment flux due to the construction of dams. However, pre-dam sediment loads were likely artificially high due to the massive land-use changes of coastal California to rangeland during the nineteenth century. This increase in sediment production is observed in estuarine deposits throughout coastal California, which reveal that sedimentation rates were two to ten times higher during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries than during pre-European colonization. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  18. California Data Exchange Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make July &28;Water Smart Month.&29; &28;Conserving ... Remote sensors today indicate that statewide, snowpack water content is 54 percent of ... California ranked first, along with Texas, on ...

  19. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.; Hirsch, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    We are in the midst of a continental-scale, multi-year experiment in the United States, in which we have not defined our testable hypotheses or set the duration and scope of the experiment, which poses major water-resources challenges for the 21st century. What are we doing? We are expanding population at three times the national growth rate in our most water-scarce region, the southwestern United States, where water stress is already great and modeling predicts decreased streamflow by the middle of this century. We are expanding irrigated agriculture from the west into the east, particularly to the southeastern states, where increased competition for ground and surface water has urban, agricultural, and environmental interests at odds, and increasingly, in court. We are expanding our consumption of pharmaceutical and personal care products to historic high levels and disposing them in surface and groundwater, through sewage treatment plants and individual septic systems. These substances are now detectable at very low concentrations and we have documented significant effects on aquatic species, particularly on fish reproduction function. We don’t yet know what effects on human health may emerge, nor do we know if we need to make large investments in water treatment systems, which were not designed to remove these substances. These are a few examples of our national-scale experiment. In addition to these water resources challenges, over which we have some control, climate change models indicate that precipitation and streamflow patterns will change in coming decades, with western mid-latitude North America generally drier. We have already documented trends in more rain and less snow in western mountains. This has large implications for water supply and storage, and groundwater recharge. We have documented earlier snowmelt peak spring runoff in northeastern and northwestern States, and western montane regions. Peak runoff is now about two weeks earlier than it was

  20. Assessing Drought Impacts on Water Storage using GRACE Satellites and Regional Groundwater Modeling in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Save, H.; Faunt, C. C.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concerns about drought impacts on water resources in California underscores the need to better understand effects of drought on water storage and coping strategies. Here we use a new GRACE mascons solution with high spatial resolution (1 degree) developed at the Univ. of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) and output from the most recent regional groundwater model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate changes in water storage in response to recent droughts. We also extend the analysis of drought impacts on water storage back to the 1980s using modeling and monitoring data. The drought has been intensifying since 2012 with almost 50% of the state and 100% of the Central Valley under exceptional drought in 2015. Total water storage from GRACE data declined sharply during the current drought, similar to the rate of depletion during the previous drought in 2007 - 2009. However, only 45% average recovery between the two droughts results in a much greater cumulative impact of both droughts. The CSR GRACE Mascons data offer unprecedented spatial resolution with no leakage to the oceans and no requirement for signal restoration. Snow and reservoir storage declines contribute to the total water storage depletion estimated by GRACE with the residuals attributed to groundwater storage. Rates of groundwater storage depletion are consistent with the results of regional groundwater modeling in the Central Valley. Traditional approaches to coping with these climate extremes has focused on surface water reservoir storage; however, increasing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and storing excess water from wet periods in depleted aquifers is increasing in the Central Valley.

  1. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  2. Fifteen-year growth patterns after thinning a ponderosa-Jeffrey pine plantation in northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver

    1979-01-01

    Growth was analyzed after one thinning in a plantation of pole-size ponderosa and Jeffrey pines on land having a site index of 50 feet at 50 years. Periodic annual increment was determined for each of three 5-year periods. On this basis, increment in diameter and cubic volume were found to he related closely to stand basal area only. Basal area and height increment,...

  3. Water Hyacinth Identification Using CART Modeling With Hyperspectral Data in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S.; Hestir, E. L.; Santos, M. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Ustin, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive aquatic weed that is causing severe economic and ecological impacts in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California, USA). Monitoring its distribution using remote sensing is the crucial first step in modeling its predicted spread and implementing control and eradication efforts. However, accurately mapping this species is confounded by its several phenological forms, namely a healthy vegetative canopy, flowering canopy with dense conspicuous terminal flowers above the foliage, and floating dead and senescent forms. The full range of these phenologies may be simultaneously present at any time, given the heterogeneity of environmental and ecological conditions in the Delta. There is greater spectral variation within water hyacinth than between any of the co-occurring species (pennywort and water primrose), so classification approaches must take these different phenological stages into consideration. We present an approach to differentiating water hyacinth from co-occurring species based on knowledge of relevant variation in leaf chlorophyll, floral pigments, foliage water content, and variation in leaf structure using a classification and regression tree (CART) applied to airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery.

  4. Effects of Sewage Discharge on Trophic State and Water Quality in a Coastal Ecosystem of the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Hugo Vargas-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence of the effects of urban wastewater discharges on the trophic state and environmental quality of a coastal water body in a semiarid subtropical region in the Gulf of California. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients and organic matter from urban wastewater primary treatment were estimated. La Salada Cove was the receiving water body and parameters measured during an annual cycle were temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate, and chlorophyll a. The effects of sewage inputs were determined by using Trophic State Index (TRIX and the Arid Zone Coastal Water Quality Index (AZCI. It was observed that urban wastewater of the city of Guaymas provided 1,237 ton N yr−1 and 811 ton P yr−1 and TRIX indicated that the receiving water body showed symptoms of eutrophication from an oligotrophic state to a mesotrophic state; AZCI also indicated that the environmental quality of the water body was poor. The effects of urban wastewater supply with insufficient treatment resulted in symptoms of eutrophication and loss of ecological functions and services of the coastal ecosystem in La Salada Cove.

  5. Aboveground biomass responses to organic matter removal, soil compaction, and competing vegetation control on 20-year mixed conifer plantations in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Matt D. Busse; David H. Young; Gary O. Fiddler; Joseph W. Sherlock; Jeff D. TenPas

    2017-01-01

    We measured vegetation growth 5, 10, and 20 years following plantation establishment at 12 Long-term Soil Productivity installations in California’s Sierra Nevada and Southern Cascades. The combined effects of soil compaction (none, moderate, severe), organic matter removal (tree bole only, whole tree, whole tree plus forest floor), and competing vegetation...

  6. Assessment of pathogen levels in stream water column and bed sediment of Merced River Watershed in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddella, V. K.; Pandey, P.; Biswas, S.; Lewis, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Mitigating pathogen levels in surface water is crucial for protecting public health. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), approximately 480,000 km of rivers/streams are contaminated in the U.S., and a major cause of contamination is elevated levels of pathogen/pathogen indicator. Many of past studies showed considerably higher pathogen levels in sediment bed than that of the stream water column in rivers. In order to improve the understanding of pathogen levels in rivers in California, we carried out an extensive pathogen monitoring study in four different watersheds (Bear Creek, Ingalsbe, Maxwell, and Yosemite watersheds) of Merced River. Stream water and streambed sediment samples were collected from 17 locations. Pathogen levels (E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes) were enumerated in streambed sediment and water column. In addition, the impacts of heat stress on pathogen survival were assessed by inoculating pathogens into the water and sediment samples for understanding the pathogen survival in stream water column and streambed sediment. The pathogen enumeration (in water column and sediment bed) results indicated that the E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes levels were non-detectable in the water column and streambed sediment. The results of heat stress (50◦ C for 180 minutes) test indicated a pathogen decay at one order of magnitude (108 cfu/ml to 107 cfu/ml). Nonetheless, higher pathogen levels (1.13 × 107 cfu/ml) after the heat stress study showed potential pathogen survival at higher temperature. Preliminary results of this study would help in understanding the impacts of elevated temperature on pathogen in stream environment. Further studies are required to test the long-term heat-stress impacts on pathogen survival.

  7. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720 had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754 were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373 were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L. Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis.

  8. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOIMAZ, Suzely Adas Saliba; SALIBA, Nemre Adas; SALIBA, Orlando; SUMIDA, Doris Hissako; de SOUZA, Neila Paula; CHIBA, Fernando Yamamoto; GARBIN, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods: Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results: A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720) had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754) were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373) were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L). Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions: The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis. PMID:23559106

  9. Oribatid Mite Community Decline Two Years after Low-Intensity Burning in the Southern Cascade Range of California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Gillette

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess effects of low-intensity fire, we combined two silvicultural prescriptions with prescribed fire in the California Cascade Range. In the first treatment, two 100-ha stands were thinned to reduce density while retaining old-growth structural characteristics, yielding residual stands with high structural diversity (HSD. Two other 100-ha plots were thinned to minimize old growth structure, producing even-aged stands of low structural diversity (LSD, and one 50-ha split-plot from each treatment was burned. In addition, two 50 ha old-growth Research Natural Areas (RNA were selected as untreated reference plots, one of which was also burned. Fire treatments profoundly altered mite assemblages in the short term, and forest structure modification likely exacerbated that response. Sampling conducted two years following treatment confirmed a continuing decline in oribatid mite abundance. Oribatid species richness and assemblage heterogeneity also declined, and community dominance patterns were disrupted. Oribatid responses to fire were either more intense or began earlier in the LSD treatments, suggesting that removal of old-growth structure exacerbated mite responses to fire. Prostigmatids recovered quickly, but their populations nonetheless diminished significantly in burned split-plots. Mite assemblage responses to prescribed fire were continuing nearly two years later, with no clear evidence of recovery.

  10. Adaptive Management Using Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Modeling in Response to Climate Variability and Invasive Aquatic Plants for the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Water Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Potter, Christopher; Zhang, Minghua; Madsen, John

    2017-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply and supports important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in Northern to Southern California. Expansion of invasive aquatic plants in the Delta coupled with impacts of changing climate and long-term drought is detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for invasive aquatic plant in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Specific mapping tools developed utilizing satellite and airborne platforms provide regular assessments of population dynamics on a landscape scale and support both strategic planning and operational decision making for resource managers. San Joaquin and Sacramento River watersheds water quality input to the Delta is modeled using the Soil-Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and a modified SWAT tool has been customized to account for unique landscape and management of agricultural water supply and drainage within the Delta. Environmental response models for growth of invasive aquatic weeds are being parameterized and coupled with spatial distribution/biomass density mapping and water quality to study ecosystem response to climate and aquatic plant management practices. On the water validation and operational utilization of these tools by management agencies and how they are improving decision making, management effectiveness and efficiency will be discussed. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and water resource managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes.

  11. Occurrence and concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater used for public drinking-water supply in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fram, Miranda S., E-mail: mfram@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey California Water Science Center, 6000 J Street, Placer Hall, Sacramento, CA 95819-6129 (United States); Belitz, Kenneth, E-mail: kbelitz@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey California Water Science Center, 4165 Spruance Road, Suite 200, San Diego, CA 95101-0812 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Pharmaceutical compounds were detected at low concentrations in 2.3% of 1231 samples of groundwater (median depth to top of screened interval in wells = 61 m) used for public drinking-water supply in California. Samples were collected statewide for the California State Water Resources Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. Of 14 pharmaceutical compounds analyzed, 7 were detected at concentrations greater than or equal to method detection limits: acetaminophen (used as an analgesic, detection frequency 0.32%, maximum concentration 1.89 {mu}g/L), caffeine (stimulant, 0.24%, 0.29 {mu}g/L), carbamazepine (mood stabilizer, 1.5%, 0.42 {mu}g/L), codeine (opioid analgesic, 0.16%, 0.214 {mu}g/L), p-xanthine (caffeine metabolite, 0.08%, 0.12 {mu}g/L), sulfamethoxazole (antibiotic, 0.41%, 0.17 {mu}g/L), and trimethoprim (antibiotic, 0.08%, 0.018 {mu}g/L). Detection frequencies of pesticides (33%), volatile organic compounds not including trihalomethanes (23%), and trihalomethanes (28%) in the same 1231 samples were significantly higher. Median detected concentration of pharmaceutical compounds was similar to those of volatile organic compounds, and higher than that of pesticides. Pharmaceutical compounds were detected in 3.3% of the 855 samples containing modern groundwater (tritium activity > 0.2 TU). Pharmaceutical detections were significantly positively correlated with detections of urban-use herbicides and insecticides, detections of volatile organic compounds, and percentage of urban land use around wells. Groundwater from the Los Angeles metropolitan area had higher detection frequencies of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic compounds than groundwater from other areas of State with similar proportions of urban land use. The higher detection frequencies may reflect that groundwater flow systems in Los Angeles area basins are dominated by engineered recharge and intensive groundwater pumping. - Highlights: {yields

  12. Boiling Water at Hot Creek - The Dangerous and Dynamic Thermal Springs in California's Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Venezky, Dina Y.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Oliver, Lynn K.

    2007-01-01

    The beautiful blue pools and impressive boiling fountains along Hot Creek in east-central California have provided enjoyment to generations of visitors, but they have also been the cause of injury or death to some who disregarded warnings and fences. The springs and geysers in the stream bed and along its banks change location, temperature, and flow rates frequently and unpredictably. The hot springs and geysers of Hot Creek are visible signs of dynamic geologic processes in this volcanic region, where underground heat drives thermal spring activity.

  13. Marine and brackish-water molluscan biodiversity in the Gulf of California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickx, Michel E; Brusca, Richard C.; Mercedes Cordero; Germán Ramírez R.

    2007-01-01

    Una base de datos conteniendo información taxonómica, de distribución y datos ecológicos de 2194 especies de moluscos marinos (1528 Gastropoda, 565 Bivalvia, 59 Polyplacophora, 21 Scaphopoda, 20 Cephalopoda y un Monoplacophora) conocidos para el golfo de California, México, fue utilizada para analizar su distribución latitudinal y batimétrica, para definir su afinidad por los distintos substratos, y para elaborar un modelo de la biodiversidad para el área del estudio. El modelo fue basado en ...

  14. High-resolution climate of the past ∼7300 years of coastal northernmost California: Results from diatoms, silicoflagellates, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David; Heusser, Linda E.; Addison, Jason A.; Alexander, Clark R.

    2017-01-01

    Piston core TN062-O550, collected about 33 km offshore of Eureka, California, contains a high-resolution record of the climate and oceanography of coastal northernmost California during the past ∼7.34 kyr. Chronology established by nine AMS ages on a combination of planktic foraminifers, bivalve shell fragments, and wood yields a mean sedimentation rate of 103 cm kyr−1. Marine proxies (diatoms and silicoflagellates) and pollen transported by the nearby Eel River reveal a stepwise development of both modern offshore surface water oceanography and coastal arboreal ecosystems. Beginning at ∼5.4 cal ka the relative abundance of coastal redwood pollen, a proxy for coastal fog, displays a two fold increase suggesting enhanced coastal upwelling. A decline in the relative contribution of subtropical diatoms at ∼5.0 cal ka implies cooling of sea surface temperatures (SSTs). At ∼3.6 cal ka an increase in the relative abundance of alder and oak at the expense of coastal redwood likely signals intensified riverine transport of pollen from inland environments. Cooler offshore SSTs and increased precipitation characterize the interval between ∼3.6 and 2.8 cal ka. A rapid, stepwise change in coastal climatology and oceanography occurs between ∼2.8 and 2.6 cal ka that suggests an enhanced expression of modern Pacific Decadal Oscillation-like (PDO) cycles. A three-fold increase in the relative abundance of the subtropical diatom Fragilariopsis doliolus at 2.8 cal ka appears to mark an abrupt warming of winter SSTs. Soon afterwards at 2.6 cal ka, a two fold increase in the relative abundance of coastal redwood pollen is suggestive of an abrupt intensification of spring upwelling. After ∼2.8 cal ka a sequence of cool-warm, PDO-like cycles occurs wherein cool cycles are characterized by relative abundance increases in coastal redwood pollen and decreased contributions of subtropical diatoms, whereas opposite proxy trends distinguish warm cycles.

  15. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  16. Pumpage for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents ground-water discharged from the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) through pumped wells. Pumping from wells in...

  17. Analysis of sediment, water, and biological samples from the Bay Farm Borrow Area, San Francisco Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, R.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The Bay Farm Borrow Area (BFBA) of San Francisco Bay, California, is under consideration as a dredged-material disposal site by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). As part of the analysis of the site, information is required on the quality of benthic biota, sediment, and water in the BFBA. The objective of this report was to provide data on infauna communities, sediment, and water chemistry from samples collected from the BFBA. The samples were collected, and the data will be analyzed by Science Applications International (SAIC). A total of four samples for sediment chemistry, four samples for water chemistry, and 7 samples for infauna communities were analyzed by the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL). Water analyses included tests for dissolved organic carbon, total suspended solids, four metals, butyltins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four phenols, and total phenol. Sediment samples were analyzed for percent solids, total organic carbon, total oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, grain size, 10 metals, butyltins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, four phenols, and total phenol. The data along with controls and spike recovery analyses, are presented in tables, and the results are discussed in the text. The quality assurance/quality control criteria were met for the analyses as were the detection limits specified by the sponsor.

  18. The effects of artificial recharge on groundwater levels and water quality in the west hydrogeologic unit of the Warren subbasin, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter; Everett, Rhett; Izbicki, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Between the late 1940s and 1994, groundwater levels in the Warren subbasin, California, declined by as much as 300 feet because pumping exceeded sparse natural recharge. In response, the local water district, Hi-Desert Water District, implemented an artificial-recharge program in early 1995 using imported water from the California State Water Project. Subsequently, the water table rose by as much as 250 feet; however, a study done by the U.S. Geological Survey found that the rising water table entrained high-nitrate septic effluent, which caused nitrate (as nitrogen) concentrations in some wells to increase to more than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter.. A new artificial-recharge site (site 3) was constructed in 2006 and this study, which started in 2004, was done to address concerns about the possible migration of nitrates in the unsaturated zone. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the hydraulic, chemical, and microbiological properties of the unsaturated zone; (2) monitor changes in water levels and water quality in response to the artificial-recharge program at site 3; (3) determine if nitrates from septic effluent infiltrated through the unsaturated zone to the water table; (4) determine the potential for nitrates within the unsaturated zone to mobilize and contaminate the groundwater as the water table rises in response to artificial recharge; and (5) determine the presence and amount of dissolved organic carbon because of its potential to react with disinfection byproducts during the treatment of water for public use. Two monitoring sites were installed and instrumented with heat-dissipation probes, advanced tensiometers, suction-cup lysimeters, and wells so that the arrival and effects of recharging water from the State Water Project through the 250 to 425 foot-thick unsaturated zone and groundwater system could be closely observed. Monitoring site YVUZ-1 was located between two

  19. Regional water table (2016) in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins, southwestern Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Meghan; Kjos, Adam

    2017-12-07

    From January to April 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Mojave Water Agency, and other local water districts made approximately 1,200 water-level measurements in about 645 wells located within 15 separate groundwater basins, collectively referred to as the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with older data, changes in groundwater levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data measured in 2016 that shows the elevation of the water table and general direction of groundwater movement for most of the groundwater basins. Historical water-level data stored in the USGS National Water Information System (https://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/) database were used in conjunction with data collected for this study to construct 37 hydrographs to show long-term (1930–2016) and short-term (1990–2016) water-level changes in the study area.

  20. Lead in water sources and lead and organochlorines in supplemental food items for the California condor

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — All but one water sample had lead concentrations below the detection limit (Table 1). The water sample collected from Ventucopa, located in Santa Barbara County, had...

  1. Subregions of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the subregions of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS). Subregions are...

  2. One hundred and fifty years of Coulomb stress history along the California-Nevada border, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdecchia, Alessandro; Carena, Sara

    2015-02-01

    The region north of the Garlock Fault between the Sierra Nevada and Death Valley has experienced at least eight Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes in historical times, beginning with the 1872, Mw 7.5, Owens Valley earthquake. Furthermore, since 1978, the Long Valley Caldera has been undergoing periods of unrest, with earthquake swarms and resurgence. Our goal is to determine whether the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake and the caldera unrest have influenced the evolution of seismicity in the area. We model the evolution of coseismic, postseismic, and interseismic Coulomb stress change (Coulomb failure stress (ΔCFS)) in the region due to both Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes and caldera inflation in the last 150 years. Our results show that the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake has an important influence on subsequent events, strongly encouraging faulting in northern Owens Valley while inhibiting it elsewhere. There is also a correlation between caldera inflation and seismicity in northern Owens Valley, evidenced by the west-to-east migration of earthquakes from the Long Valley Caldera toward the White Mountains immediately following the 1978 caldera inflation event. Finally, we show that a total ΔCFS increase of up to 30 bars in the last 150 years has occurred on part of the White Mountains fault, making it a possible candidate for the next major earthquake in this region.

  3. Hydrogeology, Water Chemistry, and Factors Affecting the Transport of Contaminants in the Zone of Contribution of a Public-Supply Well in Modesto, Eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; Burow, Karen R.; Dalgish, Barbara A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry in the zone of contribution of a public-supply well in Modesto, California, was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program's topical team for Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants (TANC) to supply wells. Twenty-three monitoring wells were installed in Modesto to record baseline hydraulic information and to collect water-quality samples. The monitoring wells were divided into four categories that represent the chemistry of different depths and volumes of the aquifer: (1) water-table wells were screened between 8.5 and 11.7 m (meter) (28 and 38.5 ft [foot]) below land surface (bls) and were within 5 m (16 ft) of the water table; (2) shallow wells were screened between 29 and 35 m (95 and 115 ft) bls; (3) intermediate wells were screened between 50.6 and 65.5 m (166 and 215 ft) bls; and (4) deep wells are screened between 100 to 106 m (328 and 348 ft) bls. Inorganic, organic, isotope, and age-dating tracers were used to characterize the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and understand the mechanisms of mobilization and movement of selected constituents from source areas to a public-supply well. The ground-water system within the study area has been significantly altered by human activities. Water levels in monitoring wells indicated that horizontal movement of ground water was generally from the agricultural areas in the northeast towards a regional water-level depression within the city in the southwest. However, intensive pumping and irrigation recharge in the study area has caused large quantities of ground water to move vertically downward within the regional and local flow systems. Analysis of age tracers indicated that ground-water age varied from recent recharge at the water table to more than 1,000 years in the deep part of the aquifer. The mean age of shallow ground water was determined to be between 30 and 40 years. Intermediate ground water was determined to be a mixture

  4. Use of introgression lines to determine the ecophysiological basis for changes in water use efficiency and yield in California processing tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe H. Barrios-Masias; Roger T. Chetelat; Nancy E. Grulke; Louise E. Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Field and greenhouse studies examined the effects of growth habit and chloroplast presence in leaf veins for their role in increasing agronomic water use efficiency and yields of California modern processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars. Five introgression lines (ILs), made with Solanum pennellii Cor. in the...

  5. Water flowing north of the border: export agriculture and water politics in a rural community in Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlolniski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Favored by neoliberal agrarian policies, the production of fresh crops for international markets has become a common strategy for economic development in Mexico and other Latin American countries. But as some scholars have argued, the global fresh produce industry in developing countries in which fresh crops are produced for consumer markets in affluent nations implies “virtual water flows,” the transfer of high volumes of water embedded in these crops across international borders. This article examines the local effects of the production of fresh produce in the San Quintín Valley in northwestern Mexico for markets in the United States. Although export agriculture has fostered economic growth and employment opportunities for indigenous farm laborers, it has also led to the overexploitation of underground finite water resources, and an alarming decline of the quantity and quality of water available for residents’ domestic use. I discuss how neoliberal water policies have further contributed to water inequalities along class and ethnic lines, the hardships settlers endure to secure access to water for their basic needs, and the political protests and social tensions water scarcity has triggered in the region. Although the production of fresh crops for international markets is promoted by organizations such as the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank as a model for economic development, I argue that it often produces water insecurity for the poorest, threatening the UN goal of ensuring access to clean water as a universal human right.

  6. Thirty Years of Change in Subalpine Forest Cover from Landsat Image Analysis in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Landsat imagery was analyzed to understand changes in subalpine forest stands since the mid-1980s in the Sierra-Nevada region of California. At locations where long-term plot measurements have shown that stands are becoming denser in the number of small tree stems (compared to the early 1930s), the 30-year analysis of Landsat greenness index (NDVI) indicated that no consistent increases in canopy leaf cover have occurred at these same locations since the mid-1980s. Interannual variations in stand NDVI closely followed snow accumulation amounts recorded at nearby stations. In contrast, at eastern Sierra whitebark pine stand locations where it has been observed that widespread tree mortality has occurred, decreasing NDVI trends over the past 5-10 years were consistent with rapid loss of forest canopy cover. Landsat imagery was further analyzed to understand patterns of post-wildfire vegetation recovery, focusing on high burn severity (HBS) patches within burned areas dating from the late 1940s. Analysis of landscape metrics showed that the percentage of total HBS area comprised by the largest patch of recovered woody cover was relatively small in all fires that occurred since 1995, but increased rapidly with time since fire. Patch complexity of recovered woody cover decreased notably after more than 50 years of regrowth, but was not readily associated with time for fires that occurred since the mid 1990s. The aggregation level of patches with recovery of woody cover increased steadily with time since fire. The study approach using satellite remote sensing can be expanded to assess the consequences of stand-replacing wildfires in all forests of the region.

  7. Ten Years of Land Cover Change on the California Coast Detected using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Landsat satellite imagery was analyzed to generate a detailed record of 10 years of vegetation disturbance and regrowth for Pacific coastal areas of Marin and San Francisco Counties. The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) methodology, a transformation of Tasseled-Cap data space, was applied to detected changes in perennial coastal shrubland, woodland, and forest cover from 1999 to 2009. Results showed several principal points of interest, within which extensive contiguous areas of similar LEDAPS vegetation change (either disturbed or restored) were detected. Regrowth areas were delineated as burned forest areas in the Point Reyes National Seashore (PRNS) from the 1995 Vision Fire. LEDAPS-detected disturbance patterns on Inverness Ridge, PRNS in areas observed with dieback of tanoak and bay laurel trees was consistent with defoliation by sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum). LEDAPS regrowth pixels were detected over much of the predominantly grassland/herbaceous cover of the Olema Valley ranchland near PRNS. Extensive restoration of perennial vegetation cover on Crissy Field, Baker Beach and Lobos Creek dunes in San Francisco was identified. Based on these examples, the LEDAPS methodology will be capable of fulfilling much of the need for continual, low-cost monitoring of emerging changes to coastal ecosystems.

  8. Using Thecamoebians to Reconstruct 1300 Years of Limnological Change at Crystal Lake, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, E.; Palermo, J. A.; Kirby, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Thecamoebians are microscopic unicellar organisms that live in freshwater lakes and produce tests—or shells—that are morphologically distinct to each species. The population distribution of thecamoebian species within a lake can reveal such lake dynamics as trophic status, temperature, and acidity. Crystal Lake is a small alpine lake located in the San Gabriel Mountains of the coastal southwest United States. This project's objective is to reconstruct a 1300 yr paleolimnological record for Crystal Lake using thecamoebian assemblages. The latter reconstruction will be examined in the context of paleoclimatological interpretations from the same core (Palermo et al., 2015) to determine to what extent - if any - changes in thecamoebian assemblages respond to, and record, paleoclimatological changes such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age. Core CLPC14-1 was extracted from Crystal Lake's depocenter in May 2014. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility, and LOI 550°C and 950°C were measured at 1 cm contiguous intervals; additionally, C:N ratios and C and N isotopic analyses were measured every 2 cm (Palermo, 2015). Thecamoebian assemblages were analyzed in five modern surface samples, as well as throughout the core at 2 cm intervals (aligning with the other analyses performed). Statistical analysis was performed to determine significant patterns within the assemblages. Eleven AMS 14C dates of discrete organic matter (i.e. wood or charcoal) were used to generate an age model using Beacon v2.2; for the past 200 years, age control is based on correlation to Rothenberg et al. (2010) core ages (Palermo, 2015).

  9. 150 Years of Coulomb Stress History Along the California-Nevada Border, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena, S.; Verdecchia, A.

    2014-12-01

    The temporal and spatial correlation among earthquakes in diffuse plate boundary zones is not well understood yet. The region north of the Garlock fault between the Sierra Nevada and Death Valley is part of a diffuse plate boundary zone, which absorbs a significant fraction of the plate motion between Pacific and North America. This area has experienced at least eight Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes in historical times, beginning with the 1872 Mw 7.5 Owens Valley earthquake. Furthermore, since 1978 Long Valley caldera has been undergoing periods of unrest, with earthquake swarms and resurgence. Our goal is to determine whether the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake has influenced the seismicity and volcanic activity in the area. We model the evolution of coseismic, interseismic and postseismic Coulomb stress (ΔCFS) in the region due to both earthquakes and caldera activity in the last 150 years. Our results show that the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake strongly encourages faulting in northern Owens Valley. In addition, there is a correlation among smaller events, in the form of a west-to-east migration of earthquakes from Long Valley caldera toward the White Mountains immediately following the 1978 caldera inflation event. The last event in this sequence, the 1986 Mw 6.3 Chalfant Valley earthquake, controls the location of over 80% of its own aftershocks, which occur in areas of positive ΔCFS and reach Mw 5.7. We also calculate the cumulative ΔCFS on several major active faults in the region. Stresses up to 30 bars and 10 bars respectively have accumulated on the White Mountains (Central section) and Deep Springs faults, comparable to the expected stress drop in an average earthquake. Because no surface ruptures more recent than 1.8 ka have been identified on these faults [dePolo, 1989; Lee et al., 2001], we consider them as likely candidates for the next major earthquake in the region.

  10. A 130,000-year-old archaeological site in southern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Steven R; Deméré, Thomas A; Fisher, Daniel C; Fullagar, Richard; Paces, James B; Jefferson, George T; Beeton, Jared M; Cerutti, Richard A; Rountrey, Adam N; Vescera, Lawrence; Holen, Kathleen A

    2017-04-26

    The earliest dispersal of humans into North America is a contentious subject, and proposed early sites are required to meet the following criteria for acceptance: (1) archaeological evidence is found in a clearly defined and undisturbed geologic context; (2) age is determined by reliable radiometric dating; (3) multiple lines of evidence from interdisciplinary studies provide consistent results; and (4) unquestionable artefacts are found in primary context. Here we describe the Cerutti Mastodon (CM) site, an archaeological site from the early late Pleistocene epoch, where in situ hammerstones and stone anvils occur in spatio-temporal association with fragmentary remains of a single mastodon (Mammut americanum). The CM site contains spiral-fractured bone and molar fragments, indicating that breakage occured while fresh. Several of these fragments also preserve evidence of percussion. The occurrence and distribution of bone, molar and stone refits suggest that breakage occurred at the site of burial. Five large cobbles (hammerstones and anvils) in the CM bone bed display use-wear and impact marks, and are hydraulically anomalous relative to the low-energy context of the enclosing sandy silt stratum. (230)Th/U radiometric analysis of multiple bone specimens using diffusion-adsorption-decay dating models indicates a burial date of 130.7 ± 9.4 thousand years ago. These findings confirm the presence of an unidentified species of Homo at the CM site during the last interglacial period (MIS 5e; early late Pleistocene), indicating that humans with manual dexterity and the experiential knowledge to use hammerstones and anvils processed mastodon limb bones for marrow extraction and/or raw material for tool production. Systematic proboscidean bone reduction, evident at the CM site, fits within a broader pattern of Palaeolithic bone percussion technology in Africa, Eurasia and North America. The CM site is, to our knowledge, the oldest in situ, well

  11. Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock

  12. Water Budgets for Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho, Water Years 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.; Weakland, Rhonda J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, calculated annual water budgets and a mean annual water budget for Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho, for water years 2000 through 2005. Mean annual inflow to Coeur d'Alene Lake, including precipitation, was about 167,110 million cubic feet. Mean annual outflow, including evaporation, but excluding wastewater effluent to the Spokane River, was about 167,850 million cubic feet. The amount of water lost from Coeur d'Alene Lake and the Spokane River to the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie aquifer was estimated at 7,250 million cubic feet. Mean annual precipitation into Coeur d'Alene Lake was 3,267 million cubic feet, which exceeded mean annual evaporation of 2,483 million cubic feet. Withdrawals directly from the lake and from wells within a 1,000 foot buffer of the lakeshore for domestic and municipal water uses were reported. However, only the estimate for the consumptive use part of the withdrawals, 265 million cubic feet, was considered in the budget. Mean annual change in lake storage resulted in a net loss of about 49 million cubic feet. The mean annual residual value was about -8,310 million cubic feet.

  13. Can the Adoption of Desalination Technology Lead to Aquifer Preservation? A Case Study of a Sociotechnical Water System in Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie McEvoy

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about the sustainability of groundwater supplies worldwide. In many regions, desalination—the conversion of saline water to freshwater—is viewed as a way to increase water supplies and reduce pressure on overdrawn aquifers. Using data from reports, articles, interviews, a survey, and a focus group, this paper examines if, and how, the adoption of desalination technology can lead to aquifer preservation in Baja California Sur (BCS), Mexico. The paper outlines existing ...

  14. A 130,000-year-old archaeological site in southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Steven R.; Deméré, Thomas A.; Fisher, Daniel C.; Fullagar, Richard; Paces, James B.; Jefferson, George T.; Beeton, Jared M.; Cerutti, Richard A.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Vescera, Lawrence; Holen, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    The earliest dispersal of humans into North America is a contentious subject, and proposed early sites are required to meet the following criteria for acceptance: (1) archaeological evidence is found in a clearly defined and undisturbed geologic context; (2) age is determined by reliable radiometric dating; (3) multiple lines of evidence from interdisciplinary studies provide consistent results; and (4) unquestionable artefacts are found in primary context1,2. Here we describe the Cerutti Mastodon (CM) site, an archaeological site from the early late Pleistocene epoch, where in situ hammerstones and stone anvils occur in spatio-temporal association with fragmentary remains of a single mastodon (Mammut americanum). The CM site contains spiral-fractured bone and molar fragments, indicating that breakage occured while fresh. Several of these fragments also preserve evidence of percussion. The occurrence and distribution of bone, molar and stone refits suggest that breakage occurred at the site of burial. Five large cobbles (hammerstones and anvils) in the CM bone bed display use-wear and impact marks, and are hydraulically anomalous relative to the low-energy context of the enclosing sandy silt stratum. 230Th/U radiometric analysis of multiple bone specimens using diffusion–adsorption–decay dating models indicates a burial date of 130.7 ± 9.4 thousand years ago. These findings confirm the presence of an unidentified species of Homo at the CM site during the last interglacial period (MIS 5e; early late Pleistocene), indicating that humans with manual dexterity and the experiential knowledge to use hammerstones and anvils processed mastodon limb bones for marrow extraction and/or raw material for tool production. Systematic proboscidean bone reduction, evident at the CM site, fits within a broader pattern of Palaeolithic bone percussion technology in Africa3,4,5,6, Eurasia7,8,9 and North America10,11,12. The CM site is, to our knowledge, the oldest in situ

  15. Water resources and geology of the Los Coyotes Indian Reservation and vicinity, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballog, A.P.; Moyle, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The water resources of the Los Coyotes Indian Reservation, San Diego County, Calif., are sufficient to supply the limited domestic and stock-water needs of the present residents of the reservation. Surface-water runoff is derived from direct precipitation on the area and from intermittent spring flow. Groundwater occurs in the alluvial deposits and in the consolidated rocks where they are highly fractured or deeply weathered. The best potential for groundwater development on the reservation is in the small alluvial basins in the San Ysidro and San Ignacio areas. Most water on the reservation is good to excellent in chemical quality for domestic, stock, and irrigation use. Water from two wells (and one spring), however, exceeds the primary drinking-water standard for nitrate plus nitrate. (USGS)

  16. Water management analysis of the city of Tijuana, Baja California: Critical factors and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Navarro–Chaparro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes water management issues in the urban area of Tijuana for the period from 1991 to 2009. A comprehensive systematic management system was used as a theoretical framework. For the methodological framework, robust databases were compiled through documentary research, semi–structured interviews were conducted, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS were used to visualize the spatial distribution of water use. The results reveal that water resource management is conducted under a linear process that does not consider a broad assessment of social elements in water anagement. The research results show also inequality in the spatial distribution of water services, and little reuse of treated wastewater and the need for long–term planning to secure water supply and consumption after 2020.

  17. Sustained Water Changes in California during Drought and Heavy Precipitation Inferred from GPS, InSAR, and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D. F.; Fu, Y.; Landerer, F. W.; Wiese, D. N.; Farr, T. G.; Liu, Z.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    About 1200 GPS sites in the westernmost United States are used to weigh changes in surface water as a function of location from 2006 to 2015. The effect of known changes in water in artificial reservoirs is removed, allowing changes in the total of snow, soil moisture, and mountain fracture groundwater to be inferred from GPS. In this study water changes inferred from GPS are placed into the context of complementary InSAR and GRACE data. The southern Central Valley (the San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Basin) is subsiding at spectacular rates of 0.01 m/yr to 0.2 m/yr in response to groundwater management. We construct an elastic model of groundwater change of the southern Central Valley, using GRACE as the basis of total groundwater loss and InSAR to infer the lateral distribution of that groundwater loss. This elastic model of Central Valley groundwater loss is removed from the GPS displacements. Because snow in California is insignificant in October, and because changes in soil moisture between successive autumns are small, we can infer changes in Sierra Nevada mountain fracture groundwater to be: -19 km3 during drought from 2006 to 2009, +35 km3 during heavy precipitation from 2009 to 2011, and -38 km3 during drought from 2011 to 2014 (start and end times are all in October). We infer changes in Sierra Nevada mountain groundwater to be playing an important role in modulating Central Valley groundwater loss. Total water in the Sierra Nevada recovered by 16 km3 from October 2014 to April 2015, but water is being lost again in summer 2015.

  18. Shallow ground-water quality beneath rice areas in the Sacramento Valley, California, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey installed and sampled 28 wells in rice areas in the Sacramento Valley as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of the study was to assess the shallow ground-water quality and to determine whether any effects on water quality could be related to human activities and particularly rice agriculture. The wells installed and sampled were between 8.8 and 15.2 meters deep, and water levels were between 0.4 and 8.0 meters below land surface. Ground-water samples were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 29 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, dissolved organic carbon, 86 pesticides, tritium (hydrogen- 3), deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. At least one health-related state or federal drinking-water standard (maximum contaminant or long-term health advisory level) was exceeded in 25 percent of the wells for barium, boron, cadmium, molybdenum, or sulfate. At least one state or federal secondary maximum contaminant level was exceeded in 79 percent of the wells for chloride, iron, manganese, specific conductance, or dissolved solids. Nitrate and nitrite were detected at concentrations below state and federal 2000 drinking-water standards; three wells had nitrate concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water redox conditions were anoxic in 26 out of 28 wells sampled (93 percent). Eleven pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples. Four of the detected pesticides are or have been used on rice crops in the Sacramento Valley (bentazon, carbofuran, molinate, and thiobencarb). Pesticides were detected in 89 percent of the wells sampled, and rice pesticides were detected in 82 percent of the wells sampled. The most frequently detected pesticide was the rice herbicide bentazon, detected in 20 out of 28 wells (71 percent); the other pesticides detected have been used for rice, agricultural

  19. Simulated effects of dam removal on water temperatures along the Klamath River, Oregon and California, using 2010 Biological Opinion flow requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John C.; Brewer, Scott J.; Perry, Russell W.

    2012-01-01

    Computer model simulations were run to determine the effects of dam removal on water temperatures along the Klamath River, located in south-central Oregon and northern California, using flow requirements defined in the 2010 Biological Opinion of the National Marine Fisheries Service. A one-dimensional, daily averaged water temperature model (River Basin Model-10) developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 10, Seattle, Washington, was used in the analysis. This model had earlier been configured and calibrated for the Klamath River by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Klamath Secretarial Determination to simulate the effects of dam removal on water temperatures for current (2011) and future climate change scenarios. The analysis for this report was performed outside of the scope of the Klamath Secretarial Determination process at the request of the Bureau of Reclamation Technical Services Office, Denver, Colorado.For this analysis, two dam scenarios were simulated: “dams in” and “dams out.” In the “dams in” scenario, existing dams in the Klamath River were kept in place. In the “dams out” scenario, the river was modeled as a natural stream, without the J.C. Boyle, Copco1, Copco2, and Iron Gate Dams, for the entire simulation period. Output from the two dam scenario simulations included daily water temperatures simulated at 29 locations for a 50-year period along the Klamath River between river mile 253 (downstream of Link River Dam) and the Pacific Ocean. Both simulations used identical flow requirements, formulated in the 2010 Biological Opinion, and identical climate conditions based on the period 1961–2009.Simulated water temperatures from January through June at almost all locations between J.C. Boyle Reservoir and the Pacific Ocean were higher for the “dams out” scenario than for the “dams in” scenario. The simulated mean monthly water temperature increase was highest [1.7–2

  20. Temporal fluctuations in soil water repellency following wildfire in chaparral steeplands, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.R. Hubbert; V. Oriol

    2005-01-01

    Soil water repellency is partularly common in unburned chaparral, and its degree and duration can be influenced by seasonal weather conditions. Water repellency tends to increase in dry soils, whil eit decreases or vanishes following precipitation or extended periods of soil moisture. The 15426 ha Williams Fire provided an opportunity to investigate post-fire...

  1. 77 FR 20585 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California, New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Section 303(c)(2)(B) of the Clean Water Act (``CWA'') (57 FR 60848, December 22, 1992). The criteria... previously in the NTR, since the State had not complied fully with Section 303(c) (2) (B) of the Clean Water... and chronic)). Copper (aquatic life--freshwater (acute and chronic))). Lead (aquatic life--freshwater...

  2. California GAMA Special Study: Importance of River Water Recharge to Selected Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. East Bay (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-21

    River recharge represents 63%, 86% and 46% of modern groundwater in the Mojave Desert, Owens Valley, and San Joaquin Valley, respectively. In pre-modern groundwater, river recharge represents a lower fraction: 36%, 46%, and 24% respectively. The importance of river water recharge in the San Joaquin valley has nearly doubled and is likely the result of a total increase of recharge of 40%, caused by river water irrigation return flows. This emphasizes the importance of recharge of river water via irrigation for renewal of groundwater resources. Mountain front recharge and local precipitation contribute to recharge of desert groundwater basins in part as the result of geological features focusing scarce precipitation promoting infiltration. River water recharges groundwater systems under lower temperatures and with larger water table fluctuations than local precipitation recharge. Surface storage is limited in time and volume, as evidenced by cold river recharge temperatures resulting from fast recharge, compared to the large capacity for subsurface storage. Groundwater banking of seasonal surface water flows therefore appears to be a natural and promising method for increasing the resilience of water supply systems. The distinct isotopic and noble gas signatures of river water recharge, compared to local precipitation recharge, reflecting the source and mechanism of recharge, are valuable constraints for numerical flow models.

  3. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  4. Appraisal of the water resources of Death Valley, California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glenn Allen

    1977-01-01

    The hydrologic system in Death Valley is probably in a steady-state condition--that is, recharge and discharge are equal, and net changes in the quantity of ground water in storage are not occurring. Recharge to ground water in the valley is derived from interbasin underflow and from local precipitation. The two sources may be of the same magnitude. Ground water beneath the valley moves toward the lowest area, a 200-square-mile saltpan, much of which is underlain by rock salt and other saline minerals, probably to depths of hundreds of feet or even more than 1,000 feet. Some water discharges from the saltpan by evaportranspiration. Water beneath the valley floor, excluding the saltpan, typically contains between 3,000 and 5,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. Water from most springs and seeps in the mountains contains a few hundred to several hundred milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. Water from large springs that probably discharge from interbasin flow systems typically contains between 500 and 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Present sites of intensive use by man are supplied by springs, with the exception of the Stovepipe Wells Hotel area. Potential sources of supply for this area include (1) Emigrant Spring area, (2) Cottonwood Spring, and (3) northern Mesquite Flat. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Quantification and regional comparison of water use for power generation: A California ISO case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaron J. Peck

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of water use for power generation has, in the past, focused on large geographical regions and time scales. Attempting to refine this analysis on the time and spatial scales could help to further understand the complex relationships involved in the energy–water nexus, specifically, the water required to generate power. Water factors for different types of plants and cooling systems are used from literature in combination with power generation data for different balancing authorities to model water use as a function of time based on the fuel mix and power generated for that region. This model is designed to increase public awareness of the interrelation between the energy consumed and water use that can be taken into account when making decisions about electrical energy use. These results confirm that areas with higher renewable energy penetration use less water per unit of power generated than those with little or no renewable technologies in the area, but this effect is heavily dependent on the distribution of the types of renewable and conventional generation used.

  6. Thermal waters along the Konocti Bay fault zone, Lake County, California: a re-evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. M.; Mariner, R. H.; White, L. D.; Presser, T. S.; Evans, W. C.

    1992-11-01

    The Konocti Bay fault zone (KBFZ), initially regarded by some as a promising target for liquid-dominated geothermal systems, has been a disappointment. At least five exploratory wells were drilled in the vicinity of the KBFZ, but none were successful. Although the Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometers indicate that the thermal waters discharging in the vicinity of Howard and Seigler Springs may have equilibrated at temperatures greater than 200°C, the spring temperatures and fluid discharges are low. Most thermal waters along the KBFZ contain >100 mg/l Mg. High concentrations of dissolved magnesium are usually indicative of relatively cool hydrothermal systems. Dissolution of serpentine at shallow depths may contribute dissolved silica and magnesium to rising thermal waters. Most thermal waters are saturated with respect to amorphous silica at the measured spring temperature. Silica geothermometers and mixing models are useless because the dissolved silica concentration is not controlled by the solubility of either quartz or chalcedony. Cation geothermometry indicates the possibility of a high-temperature fluid (> 200°C) only in the vicinity of Howard and Seigler Springs. However, even if the fluid temperature is as high as that indicated by the geothermometers, the permeability may be low. Deuterium and oxygen-18 values of the thermal waters indicate that they recharged locally and became enriched in oxygen-18 by exchange with rock. Diluting meteoric water and the thermal water appear to have the same deuterium value. Lack of tritium in the diluted spring waters suggest that the diluting water is old.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Fecal Coliform and Associated with Suspended Solids and Water within Five Northern California Estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David J; Atwill, Edward R; Pereira, Maria das Graças C; Bond, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Fecal coliform and associated with suspended solids (SS) and water in five northern California estuaries were studied to document process influences and water quality monitoring biases affecting indicator bacteria concentrations. We collected and analyzed 2371 samples during 10 sampling events for the five studied estuaries. Concentrations during wet-season stormflow conditions were greater than during wet-season base flow and dry-season base flow conditions. Results also document concentration gradients across the length of the studied estuaries and with depth of sample collection. Highest concentrations were associated with shallow samples collected furthest inland. Corresponding decreases occurred the deeper and closer to the estuary mouth a sample was collected. Results also identify direct relationships of wind speed and discharge velocity and indirect relationship of tide stage to indicator bacteria concentrations. Bacteria associated with suspended solids (SS), after conversion to the same units of measurement (mass), were three orders of magnitude greater than in the water fraction. However, the mean proportion contributed by SS to composite water sample concentrations was 8% (SE 0.3) for fecal coliform and 7% (SE 0.3) for . Bacteria from the SS proportion is related to seasonality, tide stage, and discharge velocity that are consistent with mechanisms for entrainment, transport of SS, and reduced particle settling. These results are important for both managing and monitoring these systems by improving sample spatial and temporal context and corresponding bacteria concentration values across the freshwater-saltwater interface. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Water Quality of the Weija Reservoir after 28 Years of Impoundment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    water throughout the year for treatment to provide potable water to major cities ... The assessment of water quality in reservoirs is essential because reservoirs are .... occur naturally as a result of photosynthetic activity of plants (Wetzel, 1983).

  9. Comparing the water, energy, pesticide and fertilizer usage for the production of foods consumed by different dietary types in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Harold J; Harwatt, Helen; Soret, Samuel; Sabaté, Joan

    2015-09-01

    To compare the use of water, energy, pesticides and fertilizer to produce commodities for two dietary patterns that vary in the content of plant and animal products. A unique analysis using 'real-world' data was performed, in contrast to previous analyses which applied simulated data. Consumption data from the Adventist Health Study were used to identify two dietary patterns with a markedly different consumption of several plant and animal products. State agricultural data were collected and applied to commodity production statistics. Indices were created to allow a comparison of the resource requirements for each dietary pattern. California, USA. None. The diet containing more animal products required an additional 10 252 litres of water, 9910 kJ of energy, 186 g of fertilizer and 6 g of pesticides per week in comparison to the diet containing less animal products. The greatest contribution to the difference came from the consumption of animal products, particularly beef. Consuming a more plant-based diet could to an extent alleviate the negative environmental impacts related to food production. As a method to feed ourselves more sustainably, behavioural adjustments appear to be a very important tool.

  10. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  11. New species and records of deep-water Cirratulidae (Polychaeta from off Northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Blake

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Polychaetes of the family Cirratulidae are among the most important macrofaunal invertebrates in deep-sea benthic communities off northern California. The genus Chaetozone includes several species that are among the dominant species in depths of 2400-3200 m. Four of the most common species of Chaetozone are described in this paper. Of these four species, only C. spinosa Moore, 1903 has been previously described. Three other species are new to science. C. brunnea, n. sp. has a short, triangular-shaped prostomium, brown body colour, and an enlarged “stomach” which distends the body in a characteristic pattern. C. allanotai, n. sp. has a unique methyl green staining pattern that provides a means to readily identify juveniles and fragmented adults. A third new species, C. palaea, n. sp has posterior spines that are unusually broad, providing a spectacular armature. These species are compared with the type species, C. setosa from the Arctic. New details concerning segmentation of the anterior end, morphology of the nuchal organs, and posterior spines, represent a suite of characters that, in combination, will be used in a phylogenetic analysis of cirratulid polychaetes.

  12. Marine and brackish-water molluscan biodiversity in the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel E. Hendrickx

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A database containing taxonomic, distributional and ecological data of 2194 species of marine molluscs (1528 Gastropoda, 565 Bivalvia, 59 Polyplacophora, 21 Scaphopoda, 20 Cephalopoda, and one Monoplacophora known to the Gulf of California, Mexico, was used to analyse their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution, to define their substrate preferences, and to elaborate a biodiversity model for the study area. The model was based on a comparison between the set of data associated with each species (i.e., depth range, associated substrates and geographic distribution within the Gulf and the environmental conditions prevailing in the Gulf (i.e., depth and substrate, using a georeferenced grid of 2 x 2 nautical miles. Results are presented as predictive biodiversity distribution maps for the major molluscan groups. Putative biodiversity ranges were defined using a percentage accumulative system with 20% classes. As expected, the highest biodiversity occurs along the coastline and around the islands. A south-north biodiversity gradient is observed, although it is less evident between the southern and central Gulf.

  13. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment of Modoc National Wildlife Refuge near Alturas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Water Resource Inventory and Assessment Report for Modoc National Wildlife Refuge is to describe current hydrologic information, provide an...

  14. Hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset represents the surface hydrogeology of an approximately 45,000 square-kilometer area of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  15. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  16. Net infiltration of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Recharge in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) was estimated from net infiltration simulated by Hevesi and others (2003) using a...

  17. Trends in the quality of water in New Jersey streams, water years 1971–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, R. Edward; Hirsch, Robert M.

    2017-02-27

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and the Delaware River Basin Commission, trend tests were conducted on selected water-quality characteristics measured at stations on streams in New Jersey during selected periods over water years 1971‒2011. Tests were conducted on 3 nutrients (total nitrogen, filtered nitrate plus nitrite, and total phosphorus) at 28 water-quality stations. At 4 of these stations, tests were also conducted on 3 measures of major ions (specific conductance, filtered chloride, and total dissolved solids).Two methods were used to identify trends—Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) models and seasonal rank-sum tests. For this report, the use of WRTDS models included the use of the WRTDS Bootstrap Test (WBT). WRTDS models identified trends in flow-normalized annual concentrations and flow-normalized annual fluxes over water years 1980‒2011 and 2000‒11 for each nutrient, filtered chloride, and total dissolved solids. WRTDS models were developed for each nutrient at the 20 or 21 stations at which streamflow was measured or estimated. Trends in nutrient concentration were reported for these stations; trends in nutrient fluxes were reported only for 15–17 of these stations.The results of WRTDS models for water years 1980‒2011 identified more stations with downward trends in concentrations of either total nitrogen or total phosphorus than upward trends. For total nitrogen, there were downward trends at 9 stations and an upward trend at 1 station. For total phosphorus, there were downward trends at 8 stations and an upward trend at 1 station. For filtered nitrate plus nitrite, there were downward trends at 6 stations and upward trends at 6 stations. The result of the trend test in flux for a selected nutrient at a selected station (downward trend, no trend, or upward trend) usually matched the trend result in concentration

  18. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  19. California Watershed Hydrologic Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is intended to be used as a tool for water-resource management and planning activities, particularly for site-specific and localized studies requiring a...

  20. Improving assessments of tropospheric ozone injury to Mediterranean montane conifer forests in California (USA) and Catalonia (Spain) with GIS models related to plant water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, Shawn C.; Peñuelas, Josep; Ustin, Susan L.

    2012-12-01

    The impacts of tropospheric ozone on conifer health in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA, and the Pyrenees of Catalonia, Spain, were measured using field assessments and GIS variables of landscape gradients related to plant water relations, stomatal conductance and hence to ozone uptake. Measurements related to ozone injury included visible chlorotic mottling, needle retention, needle length, and crown depth, which together compose the Ozone Injury Index (OII). The OII values observed in Catalonia were similar to those in California, but OII alone correlated poorly to ambient ozone in all sites. Combining ambient ozone with GIS variables related to landscape variability of plant hydrological status, derived from stepwise regressions, produced models with R2 = 0.35, p = 0.016 in Catalonia, R2 = 0.36, p < 0.001 in Yosemite and R2 = 0.33, p = 0.007 in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks in California. Individual OII components in Catalonia were modeled with improved success compared to the original full OII, in particular visible chlorotic mottling (R2 = 0.60, p < 0.001). The results show that ozone is negatively impacting forest health in California and Catalonia and also that modeling ozone injury improves by including GIS variables related to plant water relations.

  1. An 11-year review of bupropion insufflation exposures in adults reported to the California Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J C; Sutter, M E; Albertson, T E; Owen, K P; Ford, J B

    2014-11-01

    Seizures of both immediate and delayed onset after ingestion of bupropion SR and bupropion XL formulations are well documented, but are less well characterized after insufflation. Bupropion is crushed and insufflated to experience a high similar to that from amphetamines and cocaine. We sought to characterize the abuse of bupropion via insufflation in cases reported to the California Poison Control System (CPCS) and the incidence of seizures. An 11-year (2002-2012) retrospective observational case series of insufflated bupropion exposures evaluated in a health care facility (HCF) were reviewed after searching our database for all bupropion insufflation exposures. Patients with coingestants, multiple exposure routes, or age less than 18 were excluded. Data included age, gender, estimated bupropion dose, occurrence of pre-HCF seizures, symptoms and vital signs reported to the CPCS, treatments, and adverse events that occurred until time of discharge. 74 cases were identified (1 excluded due to age, 5 excluded due to additional oral ingestion of bupropion, and 1 excluded due to being unable to follow). A total of 67 cases met inclusion criteria. The median age was 36 (range, 18-65) years. The total dose of bupropion insufflated was reported in 52 pts; median dose of 1500 (range, 100-9000) mg. Eighteen cases (27%) involved staggered or chronic exposures. Of the 67 patients, 20 (30%) experienced a seizure prior to arrival at the HCF. Of these, 19 patients (95%) presented with tachycardia. None of these patients had a second seizure in the emergency department. There were no major medical outcomes and no deaths. Of the 67 patients, 9 patients received benzodiazepines and 6 patients received single-dose activated charcoal. The abuse of bupropion by crushing and insufflating through the nose is uncommon (67/2270 or 3.0%) compared with that by oral bupropion exposures reported to CPCS. Seizures are common but are self-limited. Delayed seizures (more than 8 h after exposure

  2. Water quality in the tidal Potomac River and Estuary, hydrologic data report, 1979 water year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Stephen F.; Hahl, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains data on the physical and chemical properties measured during the 1979 water year for the tidal Potomac River and estuary. Data were collected routinely at five major stations and periodically at 14 intervening stations. Each major station represents a cross section through which the transport of selected dissolved and suspended materials will be computed. The intervening stations represent locations at which data were collected for special studies such as: salt water migration, dissolved oxygen dynamics, and other synoptic studies. About 960 samples were analyzed for silicate, Kjeldhal nitrogen, nitrite, phosphorus, chlorophyll and suspended sediment, with additional samples analyzed for organic carbon, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, chloride, fluoride, seston and dissolved solids residue. In addition, about 1400 in-situ measurements of dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, temperature, and Secchi disk transparency are reported. (USGS)

  3. Surface water storage capacity of twenty tree species in Davis, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfu Xiao; E. Gregory. McPherson

    2016-01-01

    Urban forestry is an important green infrastructure strategy because healthy trees can intercept rainfall, reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loading. Surface saturation storage capacity, defined as the thin film of water that must wet tree surfaces before flow begins, is the most important variable influencing rainfall interception processes. Surface storage...

  4. Biological assessment: water hyacinth control program for the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed Biological Assessment was developed for the proposed Areawide Water Hyacinth Control Program to outline the procedures that will be used to control this invasive aquatic plant in the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta, and to help determine if this action is expected to threaten endanger...

  5. GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF WATER-ROCK INTERACTIONS AT THE SULPHUR BANK MERCURY MINE, LAKE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine on the eastern shore of Clear Lake is the source of poor quality acid mine drainage seeping into Clear Lake. Lateral and vertical geochemical trends in ground water composition point to a number of redox reactions taking place as a function of subsu...

  6. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faunt, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This study characterizes the hydrogeologic system of the Death Valley region, an area covering approximately 100,000 square kilometers. The study also characterizes the effects of faults on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region by synthesizing crustal stress, fracture mechanics,a nd structural geologic data. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. Faulting and associated fracturing is pervasive and greatly affects ground-water flow patterns. Faults may become preferred conduits or barriers to flow depending on whether they are in relative tension, compression, or shear and other factors such as the degree of dislocations of geologic units caused by faulting, the rock types involved, the fault zone materials, and the depth below the surface. The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional ground-water flow regime. Numerous examples of fault-controlled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths. 97 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. 77 FR 11401 - Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): No Discharge Zone (NDZ) for California State Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... discharges of treated sewage from land-based wastewater treatment plants and may cause or contribute to water... discharge and wastewater treatment facilities, because they are a larger source of pollutants. EPA agrees... sewage discharges include solids, nutrients, pathogens, petroleum products, heavy metals, pesticides...

  8. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  9. Temperature profile, current, pressure, physical, and other data from XBT casts, current meters, pressure gauges, and CTD casts from the VEGA I and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California and other locations as part of the Central California Circulation Study from 1984-01-31 to 1985-07-01 (NODC Accession 8700197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, current, pressure, physical, and other data from the VEGA I and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California and other locations from...

  10. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the ALE ANDRO DE HUMBOLDT from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 27 January 1972 to 13 December 1972 (NODC Accession 7501040)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from ALE ANDRO DE HUMBOLDT in the Coastal Waters of California from...

  11. Analysis of drought and desertification by means of aridity indices and the estimation of water gap in Baja California Sur, Northwest Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Troyo Diéguez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Baja California Sur (BCS, Mexico, dry-semi warm and warm climates prevail associated to an extreme trend of diurnal temperatures and the environmental dryness. In this State, the maximum summer t exceeds 40° C and the minimum varies from 5 to 12° C, with a minimal for the State of 2° C in winter, at the top of the Sierra de La Laguna; only Los Cabos region has a warm humid climate. Because precipitation in the state is low, oscillating from 310 mm in the southern area of the state to 120 mm per year in the northern portion, predictions and scenarios under climate conditions point to an intensification of droughts. The aim of this work was to carry out a comparative analysis of trends of temperature, precipitation and hydro-environmental aridity among contrasting localities of BCS, by means of the application of Aridity Indexes and the determination of the Standardized Water Gap (BHE, through a numerical scale modification of the De Martonne Index. With the values of temperature and precipitation for the different climate change scenarios for four weather stations, the indicators Hydro Environmental Availability Index (IDHA and Hydro Environmental Drought Index (ISHA were calculated to determine their trend and the consequent BHE, an innovative quantification of wáter deficit, which is proposed in this paper. The máximum value of BHE (10 units, indicating prevalence of drought, is observed from February to June in almost the entire state.

  12. CoSMoS Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) flood hazard projections: Los Angeles, San Diego and Orange counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Foxgrover, Amy; O'Neill, Andrea; Herdman, Liv

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. CoSMoS v3.0 for Southern California shows projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. Phase I data for Southern California include flood-hazard information for the coast from the Mexican Border to Pt. Conception for a 100-year storm scenario. Data are complete for the information presented but are considered preliminary; changes may be reflected in the full data release (Phase II) in summer 2016.

  13. Simulation of Groundwater/Surface-Water Interaction to Inform Groundwater Management in the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, M. W.; Wagner, B.

    2009-12-01

    The upper Klamath Basin encompasses approximately 21,000 km2, spanning the Oregon California border east of the Cascade Range. Average precipitation ranges from 166 cm/yr in the Cascade Range to 28 cm/yr in interior lowlands. Because of the semiarid conditions in the interior parts of the basin, cultivated lands (approximately 200,000 ha) are irrigated, primarily from surface water. During the past decade, however, there has been increasing competition for limited surface water due to the habitat requirements of threatened and endangered fishes. As a result, there has been considerable interest in using groundwater to supplement surface-water sources. While groundwater use has the potential to augment water supplies, it also has the potential to negatively affect streamflow. The importance of groundwater to the flow and temperature of streams is generally recognized, but without the ability to quantitatively evaluate the connection, clear management strategies have remained elusive. A regional groundwater flow model has been developed to fill this need. The model encompasses the entire upper Klamath Basin and simulates groundwater interaction with major streams, lakes, and wetlands. Groundwater discharge to agricultural drains in the 77,000 ha Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project area is also simulated. The model was calibrated using 5,562 head observations at 662 wells and 643 groundwater discharge observations for 10 spring complexes, stream reaches, or drainages. Preliminary results show that the distribution of the effects of pumping primarily depends on well location and depth. In some areas, much of the water pumped from wells is reflected as diminished discharge to streams. In agricultural areas with shallow groundwater, in contrast, much of the pumping is reflected as diminished discharge to agricultural drains. The regional groundwater model will provide useful insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of the effects of groundwater pumping, but

  14. Water quality in the New River from Calexico to the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setmire, James G.

    1984-01-01

    The New River enters the United States at Calexico, Calif., after it crosses the international boundary. Water-quality data from routine collection indicated that the New River was degraded by high organic and bacterial content. Intensive sampling for chemical and physical constituents and properties of the river was done May 9-13, 1977, to quantify the chemical composition of the water and to identify water-quality problems. Concentrations of total organic carbon in the New River at Calexico ranged from 80 to 161 milligrams per liter and dissolved organic carbon ranged from 34 to 42 milligrams per liter; the maximum chemical oxygen demand was 510 milligrams per liter. Intensive sampling for chemical and biological characteristics was done in the New River from May 1977 to June 1978 to determine the occurrence of the organic material and its effects on downstream water quality. Dissolved-oxygen concentration was measured along longitudinal profiles of the river from Calexico to the Salton Sea. A dissolved-oxygen sag downstream from the Calexico gage varied seasonally. The sag extended farther downstream and had lower concentrations of dissolved oxygen during the summer months than during the winter months. The sag of zero dissolved-oxygen concentration extended 26 miles in July 1977. In December 1976, the sag extended 20 miles but the minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration was 2.5 milligrams per liter. The greatest diel (24-hour) variation in dissolved-oxygen concentration occurred in the reach from the Calexico gage to Lyons Crossing, 8.8 miles downstream. High concentrations of organic material were detected as far as Highway 80, 19.5 miles downstream from the international boundary. Biological samples analyzed for benthic invertebrates showed that water at the Calexico and Lyons Crossing sites, nearest the international boundary, was of such poor quality that very few bottom-dwelling organisms could survive. Although the water was of poor quality at Keystone

  15. Water-quality data for selected sites on Reversed, Rush, and Alger Creeks and Gull and Silver Lakes, Mono County, California, April 1994 to March 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bronwen; Rockwell, G.L.; Blodgett, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Water-quality data for selected sites on Reversed, Rush, and Alger Creeks and Gull and Silver Lakes, Mono County, California, were collected from April 1994 to March 1995. Water samples were analyzed for major ions and trace elements, nutrients, methylene blue active substances, and oil and grease. Field measurements were made for discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, barometric pressure, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity. Additional data collected include vertical water profiles of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen collected at 3.3-foot intervals for Gull and Silver Lakes; chlorophyll-a and -b concentrations and Secchi depth for Gull and Silver Lakes; sediment interstitial- water nutrient concentrations in cores from Gull Lake; and lake surface and volume of Gull and Silver Lakes.

  16. Cold seeps in Monterey Bay, California: Geochemistry of pore waters and relationship to benthic foraminiferal calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieskes, Joris, E-mail: jgieskes@ucsd.edu [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, IOD-0208, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208 (United States); Rathburn, Anthony E. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, IOD-0208, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208 (United States)] [Indiana State University, Department of Earth and Environmental Systems, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States); Martin, Jonathan B. [University of Florida, Department of Geological Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32611-2120 (United States); Perez, M. Elena [Indiana State University, Department of Earth and Environmental Systems, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States)] [The Natural History Museum, Department of Palaeontology, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Mahn, Chris [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, IOD-0208, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208 (United States); Bernhard, Joan M. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Geology and Geophysics Department, MS52, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Day, Shelley [University of Florida, Department of Geological Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32611-2120 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > We describe the geochemistry of pore waters in the Clam Flats area of Monterey Bay. > The geochemical data are compared with the {delta}{sup 13}C chemistry of benthic foraminifera. > Living foraminifera indicate little effects of pore water low {delta}{sup 13}C (DIC) in the clam bed. > This phenomenon and its implications are discussed in detail. > Implications with regards to paleo-methane seepage are discussed. - Abstract: An extensive geochemical and biogeochemical examination of CH{sub 4} seeps in the Clam Flats area of Monterey Bay provides insight into the character of relationships between seep geochemistry and benthic foraminiferal geochemistry. The area is characterized by sulfide-rich fluids. Sulfide increases are associated with large increases in alkalinity, as well as small decreases in dissolved Ca and Mg. In addition, only small increases in NH{sub 4} are observed, but values of {delta}{sup 13}C of dissolved inorganic C are as low as -60 per mille at shallow depths (<3 cm). These observations indicate that all these processes are related to the bacterial oxidation of CH{sub 4}, which is transported upward by slow seepage of pore fluids. The geochemistry of the pore fluids should be relevant to the geochemistry of the carbonate tests of living and dead foraminifera. However, a profound disequilibrium of approximately an order of magnitude occurs between the {delta}{sup 13}C values of stained (cytoplasm-containing) foraminiferal carbonate and the C isotope values of ambient pore water dissolved inorganic C. Reasons are unclear for this isotopic disequilibrium, but have important implications for interpretations of foraminiferal carbonate as a paleoenvironmental proxy. Much fine scale work is needed to fully understand the relationships between the biogeochemistry of benthic foraminifera and the geochemistry of the pore waters where they live.

  17. Initial characterization of the groundwater system near the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Land, Michael; Densmore, Jill N.; Landrum, Michael T.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Macy, Jamie P.; Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Needles, began a study of the hydrogeology along the All-American Canal, which conveys water from the Colorado River to the Imperial Valley. The focus of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effect of lining the All-American Canal, and other management actions, on future total dissolved solids concentrations in groundwater pumped by Lower Colorado Water Supply Project wells that is delivered to the All-American Canal. The study included the compilation and evaluation of previously published hydrogeologic and geochemical information, establishment of a groundwater-elevation and groundwater-quality monitoring network, results of monitoring groundwater elevations and groundwater quality from 2009 to 2011, site-specific hydrologic investigations of the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project area, examination of groundwater salinity by depth by using time-domain electromagnetic surveys, and monitoring of groundwater-storage change by using microgravity methods. 

  18. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, Diane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, Leslie A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, Thomas D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Palmer, C. S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Loftin, S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Osiek, B. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2013. It is the fifth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), and a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013).

  19. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Palmer, C. S. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center; Loftin, S. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center; Osiek, B. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center

    2014-08-18

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2013. It is the fifth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), and a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013).

  20. Streamflow gains and losses along San Francisquito Creek and characterization of surface-water and ground-water quality, southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara counties, California, 1996-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.

    2002-01-01

    San Francisquito Creek is an important source of recharge to the 22-square-mile San Francisquito Creek alluvial fan ground-water subbasin in the southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara Counties of California. Ground water supplies as much as 20 percent of the water to some area communities. Local residents are concerned that infiltration and consequently ground-water recharge would be reduced if additional flood-control measures are implemented along San Francisquito Creek. To improve the understanding of the surface-water/ground-water interaction between San Francisquito Creek and the San Francisquito Creek alluvial fan, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated streamflow gains and losses along San Francisquito Creek and determined the chemical quality and isotopic composition of surface and ground water in the study area.Streamflow was measured at 13 temporary streamflow-measurement stations to determine streamflow gains and losses along a 8.4-mile section of San Francisquito Creek. A series of five seepage runs between April 1996 and May 1997 indicate that losses in San Francisquito Creek were negligible until it crossed the Pulgas Fault at Sand Hill Road. Streamflow losses increased between Sand Hill Road and Middlefield Road where the alluvial deposits are predominantly coarse-grained and the water table is below the bottom of the channel. The greatest streamflow losses were measured along a 1.8-mile section of the creek between the San Mateo Drive bike bridge and Middlefield Road; average losses between San Mateo Drive and Alma Street and from there to Middlefield Road were 3.1 and 2.5 acre-feet per day, respectively.Downstream from Middlefield Road, streamflow gains and losses owing to seepage may be masked by urban runoff, changes in bank storage, and tidal effects from San Francisco Bay. Streamflow gains measured between Middlefield Road and the 1200 block of Woodland Avenue may be attributable to urban runoff and (or) ground-water inflow. Water

  1. A basin-scale approach for assessing water resources in a semiarid environment: San Diego region, California and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Flint

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many basins throughout the world have sparse hydrologic and geologic data, but have increasing demands for water and a commensurate need for integrated understanding of surface and groundwater resources. This paper demonstrates a methodology for using a distributed parameter water-balance model, gaged surface-water flow, and a reconnaissance-level groundwater flow model to develop a first-order water balance. Flow amounts are rounded to the nearest 5 million cubic meters per year.

    The San Diego River basin is 1 of 5 major drainage basins that drain to the San Diego coastal plain, the source of public water supply for the San Diego area. The distributed parameter water-balance model (Basin Characterization Model was run at a monthly timestep for 1940–2009 to determine a median annual total water inflow of 120 million cubic meters per year for the San Diego region. The model was also run specifically for the San Diego River basin for 1982–2009 to provide constraints to model calibration and to evaluate the proportion of inflow that becomes groundwater discharge, resulting in a median annual total water inflow of 50 million cubic meters per year. On the basis of flow records for the San Diego River at Fashion Valley (US Geological Survey gaging station 11023000, when corrected for upper basin reservoir storage and imported water, the total is 30 million cubic meters per year. The difference between these two flow quantities defines the annual groundwater outflow from the San Diego River basin at 20 million cubic meters per year. These three flow components constitute a first-order water budget estimate for the San Diego River basin. The ratio of surface-water outflow and groundwater outflow to total water inflow are 0.6 and 0.4, respectively. Using total water inflow determined using the Basin Characterization Model for the entire San Diego region and the 0.4 partitioning factor, groundwater outflow from the San Diego region, through

  2. Geochemistry of Dissolved Trace Metals in the Waters of Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Pacific Coast, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Babu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Forty two samples were acquired from the surface and bottom water profiles along 5 transects spread over Bahia Magdalena lagoon, Baja California Sur to assess the behavior of trace metals in a high influenced upwelling region on the Pacific coast. To elaborate the fate of metals, also the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen). Determination of the concentrations of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd As, Hg) were measured using Atomic absorption spectrometry. The results demonstrated high values of As, Ni and Co which is attributed to the local geology and phosphate deposits. Low values of Fe and Mn are attested to the oxic conditions of the lagoon which are responsible for the oxidation of Fe and Mn. The region witnesses raised temperatures (28.92ºC) and salinities of 35.2 PSU for its arid climatic conditions and high rates of evaporation. In general, the region presented minor quantities of dissolved trace metals due to dispersion and high intense interaction with the open sea. The results were also compared with other studies to understand the enrichment pattern in this side of the pacific coast which experiences various geothermal activities and upwelling phenomenon.

  3. Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Clair, S.B.; Sudderth, E.; Fischer, M.L.; Torn, M.S.; Stuart, S.; Salve, R.; Eggett, D.; Ackerly, D.

    2009-03-15

    Variability in the magnitude and timing of precipitation is predicted to change under future climate scenarios. The primary objective of this study was to understand how variation in precipitation patterns consisting of soil moisture pulses mixed with intermittent dry down events influence ecosystem gas fluxes. We characterized the effects of precipitation amount and timing, N availability, and plant community composition on whole ecosystem and leaf gas exchange in a California annual grassland mesocosm study system that allowed precise control of soil moisture conditions. Ecosystem CO2 and fluxes increased significantly with greater precipitation and were positively correlated with soil moisture. A repeated 10 day dry down period following 11 days of variable precipitation inputs strongly depressed net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) across a range of season precipitation totals, and plant community types. Ecosystem respiration (Re), evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf level photosynthesis (Amax) showed greatest sensitivity to dry down periods in low precipitation plots. Nitrogen additions significantly increased NEE, Re and Amax, particularly as water availability was increased. These results demonstrate that N availability and intermittent periods of soil moisture deficit (across a wide range of cumulative season precipitation totals) strongly modulate ecosystem gas exchange.

  4. Dynamic modeling of organophosphate pesticide load in surface water in the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, 325000 (China); Zhang Xuyang [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Liu Xingmei [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Ficklin, Darren [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang Minghua [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, 325000 (China)], E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.edu

    2008-12-15

    The hydrology, sediment, and pesticide transport components of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were evaluated on the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for monthly stream flow and sediment load ranged from 0.49 to 0.99 over the watershed during the study period of 1992-2005. The calibrated SWAT model was applied to simulate fate and transport processes of two organophosphate pesticides of diazinon and chlorpyrifos at watershed scale. The model generated satisfactory predictions of dissolved pesticide loads relative to the monitoring data. The model also showed great success in capturing spatial patterns of dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads according to the soil properties and landscape morphology over the large agricultural watershed. This study indicated that curve number was the major factor influencing the hydrology while pesticide fate and transport were mainly affected by surface runoff and pesticide application and in the study area. - Major factors governing the instream loads of organophosphate pesticides are magnitude and timing of surface runoff and pesticide application.

  5. Response of bacterial communities from California coastal waters to alginate particles and an alginolytic Alteromonas macleodii strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitulla, Maximilian; Dinasquet, Julie; Guillemette, Ryan; Simon, Meinhard; Azam, Farooq; Wietz, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Alginate is a major cell wall polysaccharide from marine macroalgae and nutrient source for heterotrophic bacteria. Alginate can form gel particles in contact with divalent cations as found in seawater. Here, we tested the hypothesis that alginate gel particles serve as carbon source and microhabitat for marine bacteria by adding sterile alginate particles to microcosms with seawater from coastal California, a habitat rich in alginate-containing macroalgae. Alginate particles were rapidly colonized and degraded, with three- to eightfold higher bacterial abundances and production among alginate particle-associated (PA) bacteria. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that alginate PA bacteria were enriched in OTUs related to Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae (Bacteroidetes) and Phaeobacter (Alphaproteobacteria) towards the end of the experiment. In microcosms amended with alginate particles and the proficient alginolytic bacterium Alteromonas macleodii strain 83-1, this strain dominated the community and outcompeted Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae and Phaeobacter, and PA hydrolytic activities were over 50% higher. Thus, alginolytic activity by strain 83-1 did not benefit non-alginolytic strains by cross-feeding on alginate hydrolysis or other metabolic products. Considering the global distribution and extensive biomass of alginate-containing macroalgae, the observed bacterial dynamics associated with the utilization and remineralization of alginate microhabitats promote the understanding of carbon cycling in macroalgae-rich waters worldwide. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the whole field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. We know that irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the ...

  7. Quality of nutrient data from streams and ground water sampled during water years 1992-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David K.; Titus, Cindy J.

    2005-01-01

    Proper interpretation of water-quality data requires consideration of the effects that bias and variability might have on measured constituent concentrations. In this report, methods are described to estimate the bias due to contamination of samples in the field or laboratory and the variability due to sample collection, processing, shipment, and analysis. Contamination can adversely affect interpretation of measured concentrations in comparison to standards or criteria. Variability can affect interpretation of small differences between individual measurements or mean concentrations. Contamination and variability are determined for nutrient data from quality-control samples (field blanks and replicates) collected as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program during water years 1992-2001. Statistical methods are used to estimate the likelihood of contamination and variability in all samples. Results are presented for five nutrient analytes from stream samples and four nutrient analytes from ground-water samples. Ammonia contamination can add at least 0.04 milligram per liter in up to 5 percent of all samples. This could account for more than 22 percent of measured concentrations at the low range of aquatic-life criteria (0.18 milligram per liter). Orthophosphate contamination, at least 0.019 milligram per liter in up to 5 percent of all samples, could account for more than 38 percent of measured concentrations at the limit to avoid eutrophication (0.05 milligram per liter). Nitrite-plus-nitrate and Kjeldahl nitrogen contamination is less than 0.4 milligram per liter in 99 percent of all samples; thus there is no significant effect on measured concentrations of environmental significance. Sampling variability has little or no effect on reported concentrations of ammonia, nitrite-plus-nitrate, orthophosphate, or total phosphorus sampled after 1998. The potential errors due to sampling variability are greater for the Kjeldahl nitrogen analytes and

  8. California-Baja California border master plan - plan maestro fronterizo California-Baja California : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Crossborder travel at the six land ports of entry (POEs) in the California-Baja California region has grown : significantly over the years. The San Diego County-Tijuana/Tecate region is home to the San Ysidro- : Puerta Mxico, the Otay Mesa-Mesa de ...

  9. California-Baja California border master plan - plan maestro fronterizo California-Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Crossborder travel at the six land ports of entry (POEs) in the California-Baja California region has grown : sign