WorldWideScience

Sample records for california vehicle fleets

  1. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Redmer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS) and...

  2. Fleet Services adds hybrid vehicles to rental fleet

    OpenAIRE

    West, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Tech Fleet Services added four hybrid vehicles to its rental fleet on June 16, 2008. The additions reflect an effort to further advance the universtiy's commitments to sustainability and to further improve the overall fuel efficiency of the rental car fleet.

  3. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS and types of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet composition problem - FC. The essence of both problems lies in balancing transportation supply and demand taking into account different demand types to be fulfilled and different vehicle types that can be put into a fleet. Vehicles, which can substitute each other while fulfilling different demand types. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FS/FC analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist some best fitted (optimal fleet size / composition matching company's transportation requirements. An optimal fleet size / composition allows for a significantly higher fleet utilization (10-15% higher than any other, including random fleet structure. Moreover, any changes in the optimal fleet size / composition, even small ones, result in a lower utilization of vehicles (lower by a few percent. Conclusions: The presented in this paper analysis, on the one hand, is consistent with a widespread opinion that the number of vehicle types in a fleet should be limited. In the other words it means that the versatility / interchangeability of vehicles is very important. On the other hand, the analysis proves that even small changes in a fleet size / fleet composition can result in an important changes of the fleet

  4. Advanced technology mobile robotics vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. The vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as testbeds for developing concepts in the areas of remote control (teleoperation) and computer control (autonomy). Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering via manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  5. Fleet Dispostion Systems with Vehicle Probe Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kühne, Reinhart

    2006-01-01

    Experiences in congested urban areas show that on about ¼ of the days of a year the traffic develops surprisingly. That’s due to unpredictable events as accidents or weather extremes and to partially planned events with hardly calculable effects as sport events and construction sites. It is Therefore worth to dispose vehicle fleets traffic actuated. For this one needs a comprehensive traffic situation report. Vehicle probes, which are featured with positioning equipment and mobile communicati...

  6. Telematics for the Analysis of Vehicle Fleet Fuel Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Niebel, Wolfgang; Ebendt, Rüdiger; Kuhns, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Within the European research project SimpleFleet, a telematics system for fleet management business intelligence was developed, delivering live or near-realtime statistics about individual vehicles or the entire fleet. This supports the fleet manager in ad-hoc decisions and in medium and long term improvements. The fleet vehicles (e.g. taxis, delivery vans) are equipped with an On-Board-Unit (OBU) for GPS tracking and data collection from other sensors, e.g., an engine on/off detector. These ...

  7. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  8. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle t

  9. Evaluating the Electrification of Vehicle Fleets Using the Veins Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, Sebastian; Berndt, Rüdiger; German, Reinhard; Eckhoff, David

    2014-01-01

    The case study discussed in this paper involves a company maintaining a vehicle fleet of one hundred vehicles. In this article we will discuss how we extend and deploy the Veins framework, which couples OMNeT++ and SUMO, to help in the process of electrifying this vehicle fleet, i.e., replacing combustion engine cars with electric vehicles to save money and lower CO$_2$ emissions.

  10. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). PMID:23953768

  11. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th.nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th.nk City fleet is from US$ 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US$ 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid. (author)

  12. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of products with recycled content to be procured pursuant to the clause at 48 CFR 970.5223-2. Section... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle...

  13. The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels Program Evaluation of EC-Diesel and Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California Vehicle Fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC-Diesel and particulate filter combination greatly reduced the particulate matter, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions of all vehicles tested in the program to date. Particulate matter reductions greater than 98% were achieved. For several vehicles tested, the PM and HC emissions were less than background levels. Based on preliminary statistical analysis, there is 95%+ confidence that EC-D and particulate filters reduced emissions from three different types of vehicles. A fuel consumption penalty was not detectable using the current test procedures and chassis dynamometer laboratory. Test vehicles equipped with the CRT and DPX particulate filters and fueled with EC-Diesel fuel have operated reliably during the program start-up period

  14. Evaluation of fleet systems model for vehicle compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweep, C.D. van der; Kellendonk, G.; Lemmen, P.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of NHTSA, the European Commission, and the Dutch Ministry of Traffic and Transport, the Safety department of TNO Automotive is performing numerical fleet studies using multi-body models. Aim is to develop strategies for optimisation and evaluating the effects in new vehicles based on propo

  15. Electric Vehicle Fleet Integration in the Danish EDISON Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Træholt, Chresten; Marra, Francesco;

    2010-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both the individual car owners and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300 Public Contracts and Property Management... fleet motor vehicle? After meeting the replacement standards under subpart E of this part, you may dispose of a Government-owned domestic fleet motor vehicle. Detailed instructions for the transfer of...

  17. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-fuel fleet vehicles. 88.308-94 Section 88.308-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  18. Optimal charging schedule of an electric vehicle fleet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to optimize the charging schedule of an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet both taking into account spot price and individual EV driving requirement with the goal of minimizing charging costs. A flexible and suitable mathematic model is introduced to characterize...... the smart charging behavior and detailed parameters needed for charging behavior of an individual EV are analyzed. The individual charging schedule is extended to the EV fleet. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model....

  19. 40 CFR 80.59 - General test fleet requirements for vehicle testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General test fleet requirements for... test fleet requirements for vehicle testing. (a) The test fleet must consist of only 1989-91 MY... test fleet shall have no fewer than 4,000 miles of accumulated mileage prior to being included in...

  20. Scheduling and location issues in transforming service fleet vehicles to electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Adler, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels which are more sustainable. The electric vehicle is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which “refuels” by exchanging its spent batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses the issues that must be addressed if a transit service were to use electric vehicles, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each e...

  1. Through-tunnel estimates of vehicle fleet emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Townsend, Thomas; Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Chan, Tat Leung; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    On-road measurements of traffic-related gas and particle pollutant concentrations in three tunnels in Hong Kong and high resolution pollutant concentration profiles obtained while driving through the tunnels were used to derive the individual pollutant gradients using parametric and non-parametric (Sen-Thiel) slopes and compared with the commonly used entrance-exit two points calculation. The fuel based emission factors of measured pollutants for individual tunnels at different times of day were derived from gradients using a new method based on fuel carbon balance principle. Combined with the tunnel traffic volume and composition, the average tunnel emission factors were analyzed by linear regression to derive the diesel fleet emission factors. Average nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) emission factor for diesel fleets are 29.3 ± 11.0 gNO2 kg-1 and 1.28 ± 0.76 g kg-1 of fuel, respectively. The results from the study were compared with the emission data from vehicle chasing approaches and the literature, showing reasonable agreement. Practical limitations and future direction for improvement of our method were also discussed. The method presented in this study provides a convenient drive-through approach for fast determination of tunnel and individual vehicle fleet emission factors. It can be used as an effective and fast approach to validate the emission inventory and to evaluate the effectiveness of policy intervention on the traffic emissions.

  2. Through-tunnel estimates of vehicle fleet emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Townsend, Thomas; Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Chan, Tat Leung; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    On-road measurements of traffic-related gas and particle pollutant concentrations in three tunnels in Hong Kong and high resolution pollutant concentration profiles obtained while driving through the tunnels were used to derive the individual pollutant gradients using parametric and non-parametric (Sen-Thiel) slopes and compared with the commonly used entrance-exit two points calculation. The fuel based emission factors of measured pollutants for individual tunnels at different times of day were derived from gradients using a new method based on fuel carbon balance principle. Combined with the tunnel traffic volume and composition, the average tunnel emission factors were analyzed by linear regression to derive the diesel fleet emission factors. Average nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) emission factor for diesel fleets are 29.3 ± 11.0 gNO2 kg-1 and 1.28 ± 0.76 g kg-1 of fuel, respectively. The results from the study were compared with the emission data from vehicle chasing approaches and the literature, showing reasonable agreement. Practical limitations and future direction for improvement of our method were also discussed. The method presented in this study provides a convenient drive-through approach for fast determination of tunnel and individual vehicle fleet emission factors. It can be used as an effective and fast approach to validate the emission inventory and to evaluate the effectiveness of policy intervention on the traffic emissions.

  3. Scheduling and location issues in transforming service fleet vehicles to electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Adler, Jonathan

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels which are more sustainable. The electric vehicle is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which “refuels” by exchanging its spent....... In particular, the paper addresses the optimization and analysis of infrastructure design alternatives dealing with (1) the number of battery-exchange stations, (2) their locations, (3) the recharging capacity and inventory management of batteries at each facility, and (4) routing and scheduling of the fleet...

  4. 49 CFR 526.3 - Transfer of vehicle from non-domestic to domestic fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fleet. 526.3 Section 526.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... domestic fleet. Each plan submitted under section 503(b)(4) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost... fleet under the plan (i.e., those with at least 50 percent but less than 75 percent U.S. or...

  5. Fleet Purchase Behavior: Decision Processes and Implications for New Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Nesbitt, Kevin; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Vehicle fleets are a poorly understood part of the economy. They are important, though, in that they purchase a large share of light-duty vehicles and are often targeted by governments as agents of change. We investigate fleet purchase behavior, using focus groups, interviews, and mail and telephone surveys. We categorize fleets into four different decision-making structures (autocratic, bureaucratic, hierarchic, and democratic), determine what share of the market sector each represents, d...

  6. Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago;

    2016-01-01

    level, the extra loads created by the increasing number of electric vehicles may have adverse impacts on grid. These factors bring new challenges to the power system operators. To coordinate the interests and solve the conflicts, electric vehicle fleet operators are proposed both by academics...... and industries. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging (including power to vehicle and vehicle-to-grid) of electric vehicles for fleet operators. The study firstly presents service relationships between fleet operators and other four actors in smart grids; then, modeling...

  7. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  8. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contained in 40 CFR part 88, subpart A. (b) Program administration. (1)(i) Each state in which there is all... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel...

  9. An Availability Analysis and Energy Consumption Model for a Flemish Fleet of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Juan Van; Leemput, Niels; De Breucker, Sven; Geth, Frederik; Tant, Peter; Driesen, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This paper determines a simulation model to create realistic driving patterns for a fleet of vehicles (availability analysis) and a model to calculate the energy consumption (Wh/km) of electric vehicles (EVs). The first model creates a unique driving behavior for each vehicle in the fleet, based on Flemish data on travel behavior. The second model calculates the energy consumption of EVs based on representative driving cycles and vehicle characteristics based on data sheets from manufacturers...

  10. Modeling vehicle emissions in different types of Chinese cities: Importance of vehicle fleet and local features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a method to simulate vehicle emissions in Chinese cities of different sizes and development stages. Twenty two cities are examined in this study. The target year is 2007. Among the cities, the vehicle emission factors were remarkably different (the highest is 50-90% higher than the lowest) owing to their distinct local features and vehicle technology levels, and the major contributors to total vehicle emissions were also different. A substantial increase in vehicle emissions is foreseeable unless stronger measures are implemented because the benefit of current policies can be quickly offset by the vehicle growth. Major efforts should be focused on all cities, especially developing cities where the requirements are lenient. This work aims a better understanding of vehicle emissions in all types of Chinese cities. The proposed method could benefit national emission inventory studies in improving accuracy and help in designing national and local policies for vehicle emission control. - Highlights: → We examine vehicle emissions in 22 Chinese cities of different types and locations. → Vehicle emission factors of the cities differ by 50-90% due to distinct local features. → Each vehicle type contributes differently to total emissions among the cities. → A substantial increase in vehicle emissions in most Chinese cities is foreseeable. → City-specific fleet and local features are important in research and policy making. - Vehicle emission characteristics of Chinese cities are remarkably different, and local features need to be taken into account in vehicle emission studies and control strategy.

  11. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  12. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Interagency Fleet... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  13. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    detours to recharging stations necessary, thus requiring efficient tour planning mechanisms in order to sustain the competitiveness of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. We introduce the Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations (E......-FSMFTW) to model decisions to be made with regards to fleet composition and the actual vehicle routes including the choice of recharging times and locations. The available vehicle types differ in their transport capacity, battery size and acquisition cost. Furthermore, we consider time windows at customer...

  14. Critical Paths and Sensitivities towards a Zero Emission Vehicle Fleet in Germany - A Scenario Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Propfe, Bernd; Schmid, Stephan; Friedrich, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Based on a detailed analysis on how the availability of charging infrastructure influences the technical suitability of electric vehicles for customer needs, we assess critical paths and probable outcomes for the future composition of the German passenger vehicle fleet. In three different market scenarios several technical as well as political options for developing the German market towards a low carbon fleet are analyzed. Eventually, a comparison between the assumptions made and the German ...

  15. INL Fleet Vehicle Characterization Study for the U.S. Department of Navy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion Dale [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John Galloway [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC collected and evaluated data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate use of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on US Department of Navy's fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, SUSTAINABILITY AND GROWTH DISORDER FLEET OF MOTOR VEHICLES OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams, parking difficulties, noise horns, especially stress and the increment of air pollution by greenhouse gas emissions by the growing fleet of motor vehicles in Brazilian capitals, then, the question is: what are the possible impacts that the growing fleet of motor vehicles of the State of Ceará may cause to the environment? With the general aim of this study: to analyze the growing fleet of vehicles in the State of Ceará and its possible environmental impacts. And yet with the following specific objectives: to analyze the determinants of growth in vehicle fleet of the state of Ceará, by applying the statistical technique of Multiple Regression; discuss the relationship between economic development and environmental mitigation measures related to the growth fleet of automotive vehicles. This is a literature review, using secondary data that was applied multiple regression analysis. It was made a data analysis about the period between 1980 to 2009. Thiswork serves asawarningas theuncontrolled growthof the fleet ofvehiclesleads to anincrease in pollutionby the emission oftoxic gases, whosedirect consequence isthe destructionof the ozone layerthat protectsthe earth’s atmosphere from the exposure of UV irradiation.

  17. Development of molecular marker source profiles for emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicle fleets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Glynis C; Christensen, Charles G; Schauer, James J; Tortorelli, James; Mani, Erin; Lawson, Douglas R; Clark, Nigel N; Gabele, Peter A

    2007-10-01

    As part of the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study, relatively large fleets of gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer to develop chemical source profiles for source attribution of atmospheric particulate matter in California's South Coast Air Basin. Gasoline vehicles were tested in cold-start and warm-start conditions, and diesel vehicles were tested through several driving cycles. Tailpipe emissions of particulate matter were analyzed for organic tracer compounds, including hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Large intervehicle variation was seen in emission rate and composition, and results were averaged to examine the impacts of vehicle ages, weight classes, and driving cycles on the variation. Average profiles, weighted by mass emission rate, had much lower uncertainty than that associated with intervehicle variation. Mass emission rates and elemental carbon/organic carbon (EC/OC) ratios for gasoline vehicle age classes were influenced most by use of cold-start or warm-start driving cycle (factor of 2-7). Individual smoker vehicles had a large range of mass and EC/OC (factors of 40 and 625, respectively). Gasoline vehicle age averages, data on vehicle ages and miles traveled in the area, and several assumptions about smoker contributions were used to create emissions profiles representative of on-road vehicle fleets in the Los Angeles area in 2001. In the representative gasoline fleet profiles, variation was further reduced, with cold-start or warm-start and the representation of smoker vehicles making a difference of approximately a factor of two in mass emission rate and EC/OC. Diesel vehicle profiles were created on the basis of vehicle age, weight class, and driving cycle. Mass emission rate and EC/OC for diesel averages were influenced by vehicle age (factor of 2-5), weight class (factor of 2-7), and driving cycle (factor of 10-20). Absolute and relative emissions of molecular marker compounds showed

  18. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290 Public Contracts... forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? Use the following forms to report a domestic fleet crash. The forms should be carried in any domestic fleet motor vehicle....

  20. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57695, Sept. 22, 2010. As prescribed in 48 CFR 970.2307-2... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOE motor vehicle...

  1. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  2. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AS A CRITERION IN THE VEHICLE FLEET MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Vujanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport represents an industry sector with intense energy consumption, the road transport sector within is the dominant subsector. The objective of the research presented in this paper is in defining the activities which applied within road freight transport companies contribute to enhancing vehicles' energy efficiency. Vehicle fleet operation management process effects on fuel consumption decrease have been looked into. Operation parameters that influence vehicle fuel consumption were analysed. In this sense, a survey has been realised in order to evaluate the vehicle load factor impact on the specific fuel consumption. Measures for enhancing vehicle's logistics efficiency have been defined. As a tool for those measures' implementation an algorithm for vehicle fleet operation management was developed which represented a basis for a dedicated software package development for vehicle dispatching process decision support. A set of measures has been recommended and their effects in fuel savings were evaluated.

  3. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label...-duty engines and vehicles used as LEVs, ULEVs, and ZEVs that are also regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall comply with the labeling requirements of 40 CFR 86.095-35 (or later applicable sections),...

  4. Vehicle Fleet Information, County fleet refueling locations., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Vehicle Fleet Information dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It...

  5. Vehicle Real Driving Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides in an Urban Area from a large Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Oesterle, Tobias; Adler, Tim; Reh, Miriam; Tirpitz, Lukas; Kanatschnig, Florian; Lampel, Joahnnes; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen Oxide (NOx=NO +NO2) emissions by road vehicles are the major contributor for poor air quality in urban areas. High NOx concentrations, and especially NO2, are typically the most problematic pollution in cities. However, emissions vary significantly depending on the type of vehicle, its engine, the age, condition of the vehicle, driving properties, modifications and many more. Even if official NOx emission data of the manufacturer exist, they are only valid for new vehicles and the current vehicle emission scandal shows clearly that these data are often wrong. Thus, real driving emissions (RDE) of the current vehicle fleet is required. With such data the contribution of individual vehicles to the NO2 and NOx levels in urban areas can be estimated. Significant reduction of NOx concentrations can be achieved by identifying the strong emitting vehicles and excluding, replace or modify them. We developed a precise and fast ICAD (Iterative CAvity DOAS) NO2 instrument which can measure the concentration within the emission plume of vehicles under real driving conditions. The sampling was performed with an inlet at the front of a car which was following the investigated vehicles. The instrument measure NO2 and additionally CO2 with a time resolution of 2 seconds. With the observed NO2 values already strong emitters can easily be identified. With the use of known CO2 emissions, more reliable emissions for NO2 can be calculated for each vehicle. Currently the system is expanded with a NOx channel to derive the total nitrogen oxide emissions. The system was successfully applied in several studies over the last two years to investigate NO2 RDE. More than thousand vehicles were investigated. We observed that several vehicles from various brands show much higher emissions than allowed (more than a factor of 5). Highest emissions correlate for trucks and busses typically to older vehicles, what is not the case for cars. A large variability between different cars was

  6. High-Mileage Light-Duty Fleet Vehicle Emissions: Their Potentially Overlooked Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H; Burgard, Daniel A; Atkinson, Oscar

    2016-05-17

    State and local agencies in the United States use activity-based computer models to estimate mobile source emissions for inventories. These models generally assume that vehicle activity levels are uniform across all of the vehicle emission level classifications using the same age-adjusted travel fractions. Recent fuel-specific emission measurements from the SeaTac Airport, Los Angeles, and multi-year measurements in the Chicago area suggest that some high-mileage fleets are responsible for a disproportionate share of the fleet's emissions. Hybrid taxis at the airport show large increases in carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and oxide of nitrogen emissions in their fourth year when compared to similar vehicles from the general population. Ammonia emissions from the airport shuttle vans indicate that catalyst reduction capability begins to wane after 5-6 years, 3 times faster than is observed in the general population, indicating accelerated aging. In Chicago, the observed, on-road taxi fleet also had significantly higher emissions and an emissions share that was more than double their fleet representation. When compounded by their expected higher than average mileage accumulation, we estimate that these small fleets (2-5% of fleet emissions). PMID:27137705

  7. Guidelines for the Establishment of a Model Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberta Brayer; Donald Karner; Kevin Morrow; James Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in both track and fleet testing environments. NEVs, which are also known as low speed vehicles, are light-duty vehicles with top speeds of between 20 and 25 mph, and total gross vehicle weights of approximately 2,000 pounds or less. NEVs have been found to be very viable alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles based on their low operating costs. However, special charging infrastructure is usually necessary for successful NEV fleet deployment. Maintenance requirements are also unique to NEVs, especially if flooded lead acid batteries are used as they have watering requirements that require training, personnel protection equipment, and adherence to maintenance schedules. This report provides guidelines for fleet managers to follow in order to successfully introduce and operate NEVs in fleet environments. This report is based on the NEV testing and operational experience of personnel from the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Electric Transportation Applications, and the Idaho National Laboratory.

  8. Fuel conservation and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passenger vehicles are the main consumers of gasoline in China. We established a bottom-up model which focuses on the simulation of energy consumptions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation effects of five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, strengthening fuel consumption rate (FCR) limits, vehicle downsizing and promoting electric vehicle (EV) penetration were evaluated. Based on the combination of these measures, the fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were analyzed. Under reference scenario with no measures implemented, the fuel consumptions and life cycle GHG emissions will reach 520 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and 2.15 billion tons in 2050, about 8.1 times the level in 2010. However, substantial fuel conservation can be achieved by implementing the measures. By implementing all five measures together, the fuel consumption will reach 138 Mtoe in 2030 and decrease to 126 Mtoe in 2050, which is only 37.1% and 24.3% of the consumption under reference scenario. Similar potential lies in GHG mitigation. The results and scenarios provided references for the Chinese government’s policy-making. -- Highlights: ► We established a bottom-up model to simulate the fuel consumptions and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. ► Five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, improving fuel efficiency, vehicle downsizing and promoting EV penetration were evaluated. ► The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were provided as references for policy-making.

  9. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AS A CRITERION IN THE VEHICLE FLEET MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Davor Vujanović; Radomir Mijailović; Vladimir Momčilović; Vladimir Papić

    2010-01-01

    Transport represents an industry sector with intense energy consumption, the road transport sector within is the dominant subsector. The objective of the research presented in this paper is in defining the activities which applied within road freight transport companies contribute to enhancing vehicles' energy efficiency. Vehicle fleet operation management process effects on fuel consumption decrease have been looked into. Operation parameters that influence vehicle fuel consumption were anal...

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.70 - What do we do with completed calculations of our fleet vehicle acquisitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do we do with completed calculations of our fleet vehicle acquisitions? 102-34.70 Section 102-34.70 Public Contracts and... What do we do with completed calculations of our fleet vehicle acquisitions? You must maintain...

  11. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  12. Fleet Fatality Risk and its Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass Change in Frontal Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crashes, Using a Combined Empirical and Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yibing; Nusholtz, Guy S

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analytically model the fatality risk in frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes of the current vehicle fleet, and its sensitivity to vehicle mass change. A model is built upon an empirical risk ratio-mass ratio relationship from field data and a theoretical mass ratio-velocity change ratio relationship dictated by conservation of momentum. The fatality risk of each vehicle is averaged over the closing velocity distribution to arrive at the mean fatality risks. The risks of the two vehicles are summed and averaged over all possible crash partners to find the societal mean fatality risk associated with a subject vehicle of a given mass from a fleet specified by a mass distribution function. Based on risk exponent and mass distribution from a recent fleet, the subject vehicle mean fatality risk is shown to increase, while at the same time that for the partner vehicles decreases, as the mass of the subject vehicle decreases. The societal mean fatality risk, the sum of these, incurs a penalty with respect to a fleet with complete mass equality. This penalty reaches its minimum (~8% for the example fleet) for crashes with a subject vehicle whose mass is close to the fleet mean mass. The sensitivity, i.e., the rate of change of the societal mean fatality risk with respect to the mass of the subject vehicle is assessed. Results from two sets of fully regression-based analyses, Kahane (2012) and Van Auken and Zellner (2013), are approximately compared with the current result. The general magnitudes of the results are comparable, but differences exist at a more detailed level. The subject vehicle-oriented societal mean fatality risk is averaged over all possible subject vehicle masses of a given fleet to obtain the overall mean fatality risk of the fleet. It is found to increase approximately linearly at a rate of about 0.8% for each 100 lb decrease in mass of all vehicles in the fleet. PMID:26660748

  13. California's experience with alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    California is often referred to as a nation-state, and in many aspects fits that description. The state represents the seventh largest economy in the world. Most of California does not have to worry about fuel to heat homes in the winter. What we do worry about is fuel for our motor vehicles, approximately 24 million of them. In fact, California accounts for ten percent of new vehicle sales in the United States each year, much of it used in the transportation sector. The state is the third largest consumer of gasoline in the world, only exceeded by the United States as a whole and the former Soviet Union. California is also a leader in air pollution. Of the nine worst ozone areas in the country cited in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, two areas the Los Angeles Basin and San Diego are located in California. Five of California's cities made the top 20 smoggiest cities in the United States. In reality, all of California's major metropolitan areas have air quality problems. This paper will discuss the beginnings of California's investigations of alternative fuels use in vehicles; the results of the state's demonstration programs; and future plans to improve California's air quality and energy security in the mobile sector

  14. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  15. Economic balance sheet of a natural gas vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas fuels for vehicles bear an important and variable additional cost which corresponds to the cost for compression. This short paper gives a cost-benefit comparative estimation of the m3 of natural gas cost when the FUELMAKER and the CIRRUS compressors are used, respectively. A comparative economic estimation between petrol and natural gas for vehicles is given for two Renault vehicles. (J.S.)

  16. Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet: Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation -- VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, John

    2015-04-02

    Presentation by Senior Engineer John Gonzales on Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet using the Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-flow Estimation (VICE) 2.0 model.

  17. Passive Safety Capability: Measure of National Vehicle Fleets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rackliff, L. & Vis, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Within any country's national vehicle stock there will be a number of vehicles which, either through their design or age, will not offer good protection to the occupants in the event of a collision. This study describes the development and application of a safety performance indicator (SPI) forthe s

  18. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Zimmerman, N.; Healy, R. M.; Wang, D. K.; Ke, F.; Evans, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    An automated identification and integration method has been developed for in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high-time-resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada, during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013-2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number; black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline-dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg fuel-1 and 7.5 × 1014 # kg fuel-1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (fleet emissions: 100, 100, 81, and 77 % for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter; however, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutant mixtures may be better developed by considering the co-emitted pollutants as well.

  19. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  20. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An automated identification and integration method has been developed to investigate in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high time resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013–2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number, black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX; and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg−1 and 7.7 × 1014 kg−1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (< 25% contributed significantly to total fleet emissions; 95, 93, 76, and 75% for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter. However, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutants mixtures may be better developed by

  1. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  2. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2007 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized the regulatory requirements related to nitrous oxide (NOx) fleet averaging for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines and include technical standards that establish maximum limits on vehicle exhaust emissions. The fleet average NOx emission performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for 2007 was summarized, and the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NOx emission program was evaluated in relation to its environmental performance objectives. A total of 22 companies submitted reports for 294 test groups comprising 1,599,051 vehicles of the 2007 model year. The average NOx value for the entire LDV/LLDT fleet was 0.06897630 grams per mile. The average value for the HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.160668 grams per mile. NOx values for both overall fleets remained better than the corresponding fleet average NOx standards, and were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations. 9 tabs., 3 figs.

  3. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  4. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Yu Liu; Chun-Cheng Lin; Ching-Ren Chiu; You-Song Tsao; Qunwei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP). This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, a...

  5. Modelling energy demand for a fleet of hydrogen-electric vehicles interacting with a clean energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper details the development of an energy demand model for a hydrogen-electric vehicle fleet and the modelling of the fleet interactions with a clean energy hub. The approach taken is to model the architecture and daily operation of every individual vehicle in the fleet. A generic architecture was developed based on understanding gained from existing detailed models used in vehicle powertrain design, with daily operation divided into two periods: charging and travelling. During the charging period, the vehicle charges its Electricity Storage System (ESS) and refills its Hydrogen Storage System (HSS), and during the travelling period, the vehicle depletes the ESS and HSS based on distance travelled. Daily travel distance is generated by a stochastic model and is considered an input to the fleet model. The modelling of a clean energy hub is also presented. The clean energy hub functions as an interface between electricity supply and the energy demand (i.e. hydrogen and electricity) of the vehicle fleet. Finally, a sample case is presented to demonstrate the use of the fleet model and its implications on clean energy hub sizing. (author)

  6. The promotion of electrified vehicles in the municipal car fleet in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeland, Helene

    2012-07-01

    To target the transport sector is of vital in order to reduce the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Through Norway's membership in the European Economic Area Treaty (EEA), Norway has committed itself to reach this target through amongst other things taking measures within the transport sector by promoting an increased use of electric vehicles (EVs). Limited attention has so far been paid to the public sectors vehicle fleet in general, and to the municipal car fleet in particular. The current report provides both a general mapping of the policy instruments promoting EVs in Norway, as well focusing on the barriers and drivers promoting increased use of EVs in the municipal car fleet in particular. The analysis has shown that the framework in Norway supporting GPP is well developed concerning guidelines, laws as well as plans. However, the outcome of a framework concerning integration of environmental concerns in practice is very dependent on political motivation and will. Consequently, this will form the local political approach towards GPP within the transport sector.(Author)

  7. Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  8. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time

  9. Characterization of on-road CO, HC and NO emissions for petrol vehicle fleet in China city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui; ZHANG Qing-yu; SHI Yao; WANG Da-hui; DING Shu-ying; YAN Sha-sha

    2006-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact on urban air quality could be reduced if the trends of vehicle emissions are well understood. In the present study, the real-world emissions of vehicles were measured using a remote sensing system at five sites in Hangzhou, China from February 2004 to August 2005. More than 48000 valid gasoline powered vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured. The results show that petrol vehicle fleet in Nangzhou has considerably high CO emissions, with the average emission concentration of 2.71%±0.02% , while HC and NO emissions are relatively lower, with the average emission concentration of (153.72± 1.16)× 10-6 and (233.53±1.80)× 10-6, respectively. Quintile analysis of both average emission concentration and total amount emissions by model year suggests that in-use emission differences between well maintained and badly maintained vehicles are larger than the age-dependent deterioration of emissions. In addition, relatively new high polluting vehicles are the greatest contributors to fleet emissions with, for example, 46.55% of carbon monoxide fleet emissions being produced by the top quintile high emitting vehicles from model years 2000~2004. Therefore, fleet emissions could be significantly reduced if new highly polluting vehicles were subject to effective emissions testing followed by appropriate remedial action.

  10. Affordable thermal imaging systems for the UK light-armored vehicle fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the background to the planned upgrade of the UK Light Armoured Vehicle fleet, focussing specifically on the introduction of Thermal Imaging and Tactical Navigation systems which meet the requirement to conduct 24 hour operations and enhance the situational awareness of the crew. The main bulk of the paper will concentrate on the Battle Group Thermal Imaging (BGTI) system(s) selected by the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) to be installed on the Warrior Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle (AIFV) and Scimitar Close Recce vehicle. In particular the paper will describe the Gunners Sight, the integrated Commanders Crew Station, the Tactical Navigation sub-system and the interfacing of the Thales Optronics BGTI system to the General Dynamics Bowman Radio and Battlefield Management System (BMS). Throughout the paper, the Author will make reference to the need to offer affordable solutions that ensure the total cost to the UK MoD is kept within their budget.

  11. Intelligent Iterated Local Search Methods for Solving Vehicle Routing Problem with Different Fleets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To solve vehicle routing problem with different fleets, two methodologies are developed. The first methodology adopts twophase strategy. In the first phase, the improved savings method is used to assign customers to appropriate vehicles. In the second phase, the iterated dynasearch algorithm is adopted to route each selected vehicle with the assigned customers. The iterated dynasearch algorithm combines dynasearch algorithm with iterated local search algorithm based on random kicks. The second methodplogy adopts the idea of cyclic transfer which is performed by using dynamic programming algorithm, and the iterated dynasearch algorithm is also embedded in it. The test results show that both methodologies generate better solutions than the traditional method, and the second methodology is superior to the first one.

  12. CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

  13. Assessing the potential of different charging strategies for electric vehicle fleets in closed transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key reason for the low sales volumes of electric vehicles is their significantly higher purchasing price in comparison to conventional vehicles. However, various charging strategies can be applied to make these vehicles more profitable. In this paper, controlled charging concepts are transferred to commercial fleets operating in closed transport systems, as we found this field of application particularly well suited for the implementation of charging strategies. We analyzed data gathered in a field experiment conducted in a European port using electric vehicles in combination with a battery-swapping station to calculate the economic potentials of three charging scenarios: (1) optimizing energy procurement (2) trading load-shifting potential on control markets, and (3) a combination of the two. The findings indicate that all approaches are appropriate for reducing economic disadvantages of electric transport vehicles. Furthermore, we find that adjusting charging processes to avoid price peaks is more profitable than offering control reserve. Finally, focusing on the combination of both strategies seems to be most promising from an economic perspective. In this context, operational cost savings of more than 65% can be achieved compared to a similar dieselpowered vehicle when applying this strategy. - Highlights: • We model various charging strategies for electric transport vehicles. • The economic assessment is based on a field experiment with a port operator. • We consider the special market design of spot and ancillary service markets. • All charging strategies presented provide substantial cost-saving potentials. • Optimizing energy procurement is more profitable than offering control reserve

  14. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. (a) Fleet average NMOG standards and compliance. (1) Each manufacturer...

  15. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

  16. Particle swarm optimization method for the control of a fleet of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkadi, A.; Ciarletta, L.; Theilliol, D.

    2015-11-01

    This paper concerns a control approach of a fleet of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) based on virtual leader. Among others, optimization methods are used to develop the virtual leader control approach, particularly the particle swarm optimization method (PSO). The goal is to find optimal positions at each instant of each UAV to guarantee the best performance of a given task by minimizing a predefined objective function. The UAVs are able to organize themselves on a 2D plane in a predefined architecture, following a mission led by a virtual leader and simultaneously avoiding collisions between various vehicles of the group. The global proposed method is independent from the model or the control of a particular UAV. The method is tested in simulation on a group of UAVs whose model is treated as a double integrator. Test results for the different cases are presented.

  17. Fine particle emission factors from vehicles in a highway tunnel: Effects of fleet composition and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, Andrew P.; Lipsky, Eric M.; Pekney, Natalie J.; Takahama, Satoshi; Robinson, Allen L.

    In-use, fuel-based motor vehicle emission factors were determined using measurements made in a highway tunnel in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Concentrations of PM 2.5 mass, CO, CO 2, and NO x were measured continuously. Filter-based measurements included PM 2.5 mass, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), inorganic ions and metals. Fuel-based emission factors for each pollutant were calculated using a fuel-carbon balance. The weekday traffic volume and fleet composition varied in a consistent diurnal pattern with the estimated fraction of fuel consumed by heavy-duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) traffic ranging from 11% to 36%. The emission rate of most species showed a significant dependence on sample period. NO x, PM 2.5, EC and OC emission factors were significantly larger during the early morning, truck-dominated period. Emissions of particulate metals associated with brake wear (Cu, Sb, Ba and potentially Ga) were emitted at higher rates during the rush-hour period, which is characterized by slower, stop-and-go traffic. Emission rates of crustal elements (Fe, Ca, Mg, Li), Zn and Mn were highest during the early-morning period when there was more heavy-truck traffic. A seasonal shift in average OC/EC ratio for the rush-hour period was observed; fall and summer OC/EC ratios are 1.0±0.6 and 0.26±0.06, respectively. Potential causes for this shift are increased partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds into the gas phase during the summer months and/or effects of seasonal changes in fuel formulation. Emission factors for HDDV and light-duty vehicles (LDV) classes were estimated using a linear regression of emission factor as a function of fleet composition. The extrapolated emission factors generally agree with previously published measurements, though a substantial range in published values is noted.

  18. Demonstration of Alternative Fuel, Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles in State and Municipal Vehicle Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, John H.; Polubiatko, Peter; Tucchio, Michael A.

    2002-02-06

    This project involved the purchase of two Compressed Natural Gas School Buses and two electric Ford Rangers to demonstrate their viability in a municipal setting. Operational and maintenance data were collected for analysis. In addition, an educational component was undertaken with middle school children. The children observed and calculated how electric vehicles could minimize pollutants through comparison to conventionally powered vehicles.

  19. Demonstration of Alternative Fuel, Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles in State and Municipal Vehicle Fleets; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project involved the purchase of two Compressed Natural Gas School Buses and two electric Ford Rangers to demonstrate their viability in a municipal setting. Operational and maintenance data were collected for analysis. In addition, an educational component was undertaken with middle school children. The children observed and calculated how electric vehicles could minimize pollutants through comparison to conventionally powered vehicles

  20. On the synergy between large electric vehicle fleet and high wind penetration – An analysis of the Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Ekman, Claus

    2011-01-01

    the power system and the transportation sector and provide the possibility to make use of the inherent energy storage of a large electric vehicle (EV) fleet. The present work investigates the effects of different EV charging strategies on the balance between wind power production and consumption in a future...

  1. “Team Play” between Renewable Energy Sources and Vehicle Fleet to Decrease Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Longo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of air pollutants for the purpose of maintaining or improving air quality across the globe is a fundamental concern to which all modern governments are allocating varying amounts of attention and resources. The successful amelioration of air pollution requires strategic investments in the commercialization and adoption of “clean energy technologies” by both private and public entities, the conversion of contemporary houses to “smart houses”, the diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources (RES including photovoltaic systems (PV, wind farms, and different forms of bioenergy, and the integration of electric-powered vehicles. In concert with these ideas, this paper aims to discuss the possibility of undertaking a feasibility study in two countries Canada and Italy concerning the integration of electric vehicles (EVs and electric motorcycles (EMs. The proposed feasibility study would seek to assess the prospect of replacing the current vehicle fleets in these two countries with EVs in a manner that utilizes renewable energy sources and, thus, does not generate new toxic emissions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a pronounced introduction and distribution of RES, EVs, and EMs can operate as a great opportunity for both the environment and the capacities and needs of energy production. Today, the EV is not widespread. With this contribution, it is shown how EVs can be well integrated with renewable energy. Therefore, it is the duty of governments to implement policy strategies, in order to spread them across more territory.

  2. California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Helwig, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment conveys to interested parties the Energy Commission’s conclusions, recommendations, and intentions with respect to plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure development. There are several relatively low-risk and high-priority electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) deployment options that will encourage PEV sales and

  3. Mitsubishi iMiEV: An Electric Mini-Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Mitsubishi iMiEV, an electric mini-car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's fast-charging research efforts, NREL engineers are conducting charge and discharge performance testing on the vehicle. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  4. Evaluation of diesel fleet emissions and control policies from plume chasing measurements of on-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Townsend, Thomas; Brimblecombe, Peter; Chan, Tat Leung; Yam, Yat Shing; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are an important source of urban air pollution. Diesel fuelled vehicles, although constituting a relatively small fraction of fleet population in many cities, are significant contributors to the emission inventory due to their often long mileage for goods and public transport. Recent classification of diesel exhaust as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization also raises attention to more stringent control of diesel emissions to protect public health. Although various mandatory and voluntary based emission control measures have been implemented in Hong Kong, there have been few investigations to evaluate if the fleet emission characteristics have met desired emission reduction objectives and if adoption of an Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programme has been effective in achieving these objectives. The limitations are partially due to the lack of cost-effective approaches for the large scale characterisation of fleet based emissions to assess the effectiveness of control measures and policy. This study has used a plume chasing method to collect a large amount of on-road vehicle emission data of Hong Kong highways and a detailed analysis was carried out to provide a quantitative evaluation of the emission characteristics in terms of the role of high and super-emitters in total emission reduction, impact of after-treatment on the multi-pollutants reduction strategy and the trend of NO2 emissions with newer emission standards. The study revealed that not all the high-emitters are from those vehicles of older Euro emission standards. Meanwhile, there is clear evidence that high-emitters for one pollutant may not be a high-emitter for another pollutant. Multi-pollutant control strategy needs to be considered in the enactment of the emission control policy which requires more comprehensive retrofitting technological solutions and matching I/M programme to ensure the proper maintenance of fleets. The plume chasing approach used in this study also

  5. Risk assessment and analysis of the M109 family of vehicles Fleet Management Pilot Program

    OpenAIRE

    Hitz, Stephen E

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The purpose of this thesis is to conduct a risk assessment and analysis for the M109 l55mm Self Propelled Howitzer (SPH) Fleet Management Pilot Program. The objective of this program is to reengineer the fleet's logistical support system by outsourcing those functions which make sense and that can be performed more efficiently by private industry. This innovative approach places one contractor, or Fleet Manager, in charge of sustainin...

  6. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  7. Impact of the management strategy on the sizing of a collaborative system: photovoltaic plant -electric vehicle fleet, under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Le Goff Latimier, R; Multon, B; Ben Ahmed, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE-To foster the grid integration of both electric vehicles (EV) and renewable generators, this paper investigates the possible synergies between these players so as to jointly improve the production predictability while ensuring a green mobility. It is here achieved by the mean of a grid commitment over the overall power produced by a collaborative system which here gathers a PV plant with an EV fleet. The scope of the present contribution is to investigate the conditions to make the mo...

  8. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP. This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint.

  9. Energy Impacts of Wide Band Gap Semiconductors in U.S. Light-Duty Electric Vehicle Fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua A; Riddle, Matthew E; Graziano, Diane J; Das, Sujit; Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Masanet, Eric; Cresko, Joe

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide and gallium nitride, two leading wide band gap semiconductors with significant potential in electric vehicle power electronics, are examined from a life cycle energy perspective and compared with incumbent silicon in U.S. light-duty electric vehicle fleet. Cradle-to-gate, silicon carbide is estimated to require more than twice the energy as silicon. However, the magnitude of vehicle use phase fuel savings potential is comparatively several orders of magnitude higher than the marginal increase in cradle-to-gate energy. Gallium nitride cradle-to-gate energy requirements are estimated to be similar to silicon, with use phase savings potential similar to or exceeding that of silicon carbide. Potential energy reductions in the United States vehicle fleet are examined through several scenarios that consider the market adoption potential of electric vehicles themselves, as well as the market adoption potential of wide band gap semiconductors in electric vehicles. For the 2015-2050 time frame, cumulative energy savings associated with the deployment of wide band gap semiconductors are estimated to range from 2-20 billion GJ depending on market adoption dynamics. PMID:26247853

  10. Measurements of real-world vehicle CO and NOx fleet average emissions in urban tunnels of two cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yiwen; Chen, Chao; Li, Qiong; Hu, Qinqiang; Yuan, Haoting; Li, Junmei; Li, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Urban tunnels located in the city center areas, can alleviate traffic pressure and provide more convenient traffic for people. Vehicles emit pollutants that are significant contributors to air pollution inside and at the outlet of tunnels. Ventilation is the most widely used method to dilute pollutants in tunnels. To calculate the design required air volume flow accurately, vehicle emissions should be exactly determined. Emission factors are important parameters to estimate vehicle emissions. To characterize carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emission factors for a mixed vehicle fleet under real-world driving conditions of urban China, we measured CO and NOX concentrations in Shanghai East Yan'an Road tunnel and Changsha Yingpan Road tunnel in 2012 and 2013. In-use fleet average CO and NOX emission factors were calculated according to tunnel pollutants mass balance models. The results showed that the maximum CO concentration in August was 86 ppm, while in October it was 45 ppm in Shanghai East Yan'an Road tunnel. The maximum concentrations of CO and NOX were 33 ppm and 2 ppm in Changsha Yingpan Road tunnel, respectively. In-use fleet average CO emission factors of East Yan'an Road tunnel, with gradient of -3% ∼ 3%, were 1.266 (±0.889) ∼ 3.974 (±2.189) g km-1 vehicle-1. In-use fleet average CO and NOX emission factors of Yingpan Road tunnel with gradient of -6% ∼ 6% amounted to 0.754 (±0.561) ∼ 6.050 (±5.940) g km-1 vehicle-1 and 0.121 (±0.022) ∼ 0.818 (±0.755) g km-1 vehicle-1, respectively. The dependences of CO and NOX emission on roadway gradient and vehicle speed were found. The average CO and NOX emission factors increased with the ascending of roadway gradient as well as reverse with vehicle speed. These findings provide meaningful reference for ventilation design and environmental assessment of urban tunnels, and further help provide basic data to formulate relevant standards and norms.

  11. Plug-in-Hybrid Vehicle Use, Energy Consumption, and Greenhouse Emissions: An Analysis of Household Vehicle Placements in Northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kammen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the real-world use over the course of one year of a nickel-metal-hydride plug-in hybrid—the Toyota Plug-In HV—by a set of 12 northern California households able to charge at home and work. From vehicle use data, energy and greenhouse-emissions implications are also explored. A total of 1557 trips—most using under 0.5 gallons of gasoline—ranged up to 2.4 hours and 133 miles and averaged 14 minutes and 7 miles. 399 charging events averaged 2.6 hours. The maximum lasted 4.6 hours. Most recharges added less than 1.4 kWh, with a mean charge of 0.92 kWh. The average power drawn was under one-half kilowatt. The greenhouse gas emissions from driving and charging were estimated to be 2.6 metric tons, about half of the emissions expected from a 22.4-mpg vehicle (the MY2009 fleet-wide real-world average. The findings contribute to better understanding of how plug-in hybrids might be used, their potential impact, and how potential benefits and requirements vary for different plug-in-vehicle designs. For example, based on daily driving distances, 20 miles of charge-depleting range would have been fully utilized on 81% of days driven, whereas 40 miles would not have been fully utilized on over half of travel days.

  12. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  13. Determination of fleet hourly emission and on-road vehicle emission factor using integrated monitoring and modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Martel, M.; Pongkiatkul, P.; Berkowicz, R.

    Roadside air quality and vehicle emission are important and challenging issues in urban air quality management which need to be adequately characterized. This study involves designing a monitoring program that produces suitable data to determine the on-road hourly fleet emission and emission factors of individual vehicles in a street canyon. Simultaneous hourly monitoring of roadside gaseous pollutants (both windward and leeward sides), traffic volume and speed, and wind in a busy street of Bangkok was conducted in the rainy season when traffic emission was predominant in the city. Higher pollutant concentrations often occurred at midday (11:00 to 14:00h) when higher traffic density (3700-3800vehicles h - 1, weekdays) was observed. The levels of toluene and xylenes found in this study are higher than the roadside levels reported in other Asian cities. Hourly maximum concentrations reached 258ppb for toluene, 51ppb for m, p-xylenes, 15ppb for o-xylene, 526ppb for NO x, and 10.5ppm for CO. Hourly monitoring data during the periods when the street canyon effects were pronounced were selected for determination of the fleet hourly emission and vehicle emission factors by back calculation using a street canyon model (Operational Street Pollution Model). The average fleet hourly emission at daytime of NO x (6.2kg km - 1 h - 1), CO (54kg km - 1 h - 1), toluene (2.1kg km - 1 h - 1), m, p-xylenes (0.73kg km - 1 h - 1) and o-xylene (0.27kg km - 1 h - 1) did not vary much. However, the emission rates were substantially reduced at nighttime following the traffic pattern. The obtained pollutant emission factors varied within each group of vehicles with the average values agreed reasonably with the chassis dynamometer results for NO x but somewhat higher for CO and TX. The model estimated results are, however, considered to better represent the real driving conditions in the street at the average vehicle travel speed of around 20km h - 1. A statistical sampling design is proposed

  14. California Clean Air Act: A compliance strategy for the City of San Diego`s non-emergency fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Historically, parts of California have had the worst air quality in the nation. The California Energy Commission began experimenting with alternate fuels in the 1970`s in an effort to reduce harmful automobile emissions and hence, improve air quality. It is recognized that the costs to California which result from our air quality problems are immense. Ten to twenty billion dollars each year is the estimated damage in terms of health impacts, materials damages, lost agricultural crop output and forest damages. As the California population increases and health care costs escalate, the total monetary damages from air pollution will increase. The California Energy Commission goal to improve air quality became a mandate in 1988 with the passage of the California Clean Air Act (CCAA). The CCAA requires a revised air quality strategy for the San Diego district since we do not meet State air quality standards for smog, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Smog remains San Diego`s major air quality problem, even though the annual number of days each year over the Federal standard has been reduced by 55 percent in the past ten years. Ten years ago about two-thirds of San Diego`s smog was transported from Los Angeles. Today more than 60 per cent of the days San Diego exceeds the State standard are from locally generated smog. It is estimated that 57% of the reactive hydrocarbon emissions (which react with nitrogen dioxide in the presence of sunlight to form smog) is from cars, trucks and buses. The Air Pollution Control District (part of the County of San Diego) is the office that the Air Resources Board has put in charge of creating regulations and designing strategy to reduce polluting emissions. The purpose of this project is to determine the full cost of acquiring and operating a municipal fleet which meets the mandates of the California Clean Air Act. With that information, a plan to meet the Clear Air Act (CCAA) requirements can be formulated by local government.

  15. Distributed multi-level supervision to effectively monitor the operations of a fleet of autonomous vehicles in agricultural tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesús; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Ribeiro, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations. PMID:25751079

  16. Distributed Multi-Level Supervision to Effectively Monitor the Operations of a Fleet of Autonomous Vehicles in Agricultural Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Conesa-Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations.

  17. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations. PMID:26867100

  18. Data Collection, Testing, and Analysis of Hybrid Electric Trucks and Buses Operating in California Fleets. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duran, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cosgrove, Jon [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sindler, Petr [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Russell, Robert [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Johnson, Kent [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The objective of this project was to evaluate and quantify the emission impacts of commercially available hybrid medium- and heavy-duty vehicles relative to their non-hybrid counterparts. This effort will allow the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and other agencies to more effectively encourage development and commercial deployment of the most efficient, lowest emitting hybrid technologies needed to meet air quality and climate goals.

  19. Optimizing Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions: An Eleven-Agency FY 2012 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M.; Daley, R.

    2015-02-01

    This report focuses on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) fiscal year (FY) 2012 effort that used the NREL Optimal Vehicle Acquisition (NOVA) analysis to identify optimal vehicle acquisition recommendations for eleven diverse federal agencies. Results of the study show that by following a vehicle acquisition plan that maximizes the reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, significant progress is also made toward the mandated complementary goals of acquiring alternative fuel vehicles, petroleum use reduction, and alternative fuel use increase.

  20. Manufacturing the electric vehicle: a window of technological opportunity for Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    C O Quandt

    1995-01-01

    The California Air Resources Board has mandated that by 1998 2% of new vehicles sold in California must be zero emission, effectively, electric vehicles. This requirement is largely responsible for the electric vehicle development programs run by almost every global automobile manufacturer that does business in the United States. At present, no single electric vehicle technology, from battery type, to propulsion system, to vehicle design, represents a standard for a protoelectric vehicle indu...

  1. Vehicle fleet emissions of black carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other pollutants measured by a mobile laboratory in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of concern due to their effects on climate and health. The main goal of this research is to provide the first estimate of emissions of BC and particle-phase PAHs (PPAHs from motor vehicles in Mexico City. The emissions of other pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO, oxides of nitrogen (NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, and particulate matter of diameter 2.5 μm and less (PM2.5 are also estimated. As a part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign in April 2003 (MCMA-2003, a mobile laboratory was driven throughout the city. The laboratory was equipped with a comprehensive suite of gas and particle analyzers, including an aethalometer that measured BC and a photoionization aerosol sensor that measured PPAHs. While driving through traffic, the mobile lab continuously sampled exhaust plumes from the vehicles around it. We have developed a method of automatically identifying exhaust plumes, which are then used as the basis for calculation of fleet-average emissions. In the approximately 75 h of on-road sampling during the field campaign, we have identified ~30 000 exhaust measurement points that represent a variety of vehicle types and driving conditions. The large sample provides a basis for estimating fleet-average emission factors and thus the emission inventory. Motor vehicles in the Mexico City area are estimated to emit 1700±200 metric tons BC, 57±6 tons PPAHs, 1 190 000±40 000 tons CO, 120 000±3000 tons NOx, 240 000±50 000 tons VOCs, and 4400±400 tons PM2.5 per year, not including cold start emissions. The estimates for CO, NOx, and PPAHs may be low by up to 10% due to the slower response time of analyzers used to measure these species. Compared to the government's official motor vehicle emission inventory for the year 2002, the estimates for CO, NOx, VOCs, and PM2.5 are 38% lower, 23% lower, 27% higher, and 25% higher, respectively. The

  2. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  3. Diffusion of new automotive technologies for improving energy efficiency in Brazil's light vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, Brazil has promoted the development and sales of light duty vehicles running on ethanol (firstly, ethanol-dedicated cars, and recently flexfuel cars). In the 1990s, the country also favored the sales of compact cars to middle and low-income classes. However, in the last years, the profile of vehicles sold in Brazil has converged towards larger and less-efficient vehicles. In 2008, Brazil launched the vehicle labeling program. Based on the outcomes of the historical programs oriented towards the development of automotive innovations, and on a survey conducted with the country's main auto makers, this article evaluates whether the vehicle labeling program will both improve the energy efficiency of light vehicles, and introduce new technologies. Our results indicate that, despite its virtuous intentions, the program will not control the tendency of rising fuel consumption of passenger cars sold in Brazil. Therefore, other policies are needed to boost innovations in Brazil's automotive industry.

  4. Diffusion of new automotive technologies for improving energy efficiency in Brazil's light vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, Brazil has promoted the development and sales of light duty vehicles running on ethanol (firstly, ethanol-dedicated cars, and recently flexfuel cars). In the 1990s, the country also favored the sales of compact cars to middle and low-income classes. However, in the last years, the profile of vehicles sold in Brazil has converged towards larger and less-efficient vehicles. In 2008, Brazil launched the vehicle labeling program. Based on the outcomes of the historical programs oriented towards the development of automotive innovations, and on a survey conducted with the country's main auto makers, this article evaluates whether the vehicle labeling program will both improve the energy efficiency of light vehicles, and introduce new technologies. Our results indicate that, despite its virtuous intentions, the program will not control the tendency of rising fuel consumption of passenger cars sold in Brazil. Therefore, other policies are needed to boost innovations in Brazil's automotive industry. (author)

  5. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Ropke, Stefan; Hartl, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    International audience Due to new regulations and further technological progress in the field of electric vehicles, the research community faces the new challenge of incorporating the electric energy based restrictions into vehicle routing problems. One of these restrictions is the limited battery capacity which makes detours to recharging stations necessary, thus requiring efficient tour planning mechanisms in order to sustain the competitiveness of electric vehicles compared to conventio...

  6. Trajectory Planning in a Crossroads for a Fleet of Driverless Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Mehani, Olivier; De La Fortelle, Arnaud

    2007-01-01

    International audience In the context of Intelligent Transportation Systems based on driverless vehicles, one important issue is the passing of a crossroads. This paper presents a supervised reservation system. Extending previous works in this direction, the proposed algorithm determines trajectories and speeds for all the vehicles willing to pass the intersection. The work is separated into tasks shared between the vehicles and an infrastructure in charge of the crossroads. This paper des...

  7. Potential Vehicle Fleet CO2 Reductions and Cost Implications for Various Vehicle Technology Deployment Scenarios in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    PASAOGLU KILANC GUZAY; HONSELAAR MICHEL; THIEL CHRISTIAN

    2011-01-01

    The continuous rise in transport demand in Europe has a significant effect on Europe¿s oil dependency and emissions of greenhouse gases. Alternative fuels and vehicle technology can mitigate these effects. This study analyses powertrain deployment scenarios for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in Europe for the 2010 to 2050 time horizon. It considers European policy developments on vehicle CO2 emissions, bioenergy mandates, and reductions in the CO2 footprint of the European energ...

  8. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and 41 CFR 101-38.301-1 and the operator's packet furnished with each vehicle. See 41 CFR 101-6.4 for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of interagency...

  9. Potential vehicle fleet CO2 reductions and cost implications for various vehicle technology deployment scenarios in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous rise in demand for road transportation has a significant effect on Europe's oil dependency and emissions of greenhouse gases. Alternative fuels and vehicle technology can mitigate these effects. This study analyses power-train deployment scenarios for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in EU-27 until 2050. It considers European policy developments on vehicle CO2 emissions, bio-energy mandates and reductions in the CO2 footprint of the European energy mix and translates these into comprehensive scenarios for the road transport sector. It quantifies and assesses the potential impact of these scenarios on well-to-wheel (WtW) CO2 emission reductions primary energy demand evolution, and cost aspects for the prospective vehicle owners. The study reveals that, under the deployed scenarios, the use of bio-fuel blends, technological learning and the deployment of hybrids, battery electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell vehicles can decrease WtW CO2 emissions in EU-27 passenger road transport by 35–57% (compared to 2010 levels) and primary energy demand by 29–51 Mtoe as they would benefit from a future assumed decarbonised electricity and hydrogen mix in Europe. Learning effects can lead to acceptable payback periods for vehicle owners of electric drive vehicles. - Highlights: ► Power-train penetration scenarios for 2010–2050 passenger road transport in Europe. ► A dedicated tool is developed to analyse H2 production and distribution mix till 2050. ► Alternative vehicles can drastically reduce CO2 emissions and energy demand. ► Electric vehicles could become cost competitive to conventional vehicles by 2030. ► Policies needed to create adequate momentum and guarantee decarbonised transport.

  10. FleetSmart study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of Canada's ecoEnergy for Fleets program was designed to reduce the impacts of freight transportation on the environment and human health by providing information and guidance to the Canadian transportation industry. The FleetSmart component of the program for commercial and institutional vehicles was initiated to develop information, tools, and training programs for vehicle operators. This paper discussed a study conducted to determine the attitudes and opinions of fleet drivers in relation to the FleetSmart program. A total of 1004 telephone surveys were conducted in order assess the level of understanding and value of collaborative materials provided by the program. The level of computer skills and computer accessibility of members of the Canadian transportation industry was evaluated. Attitudes, awareness, opinions, and behaviours of Canadian fleet owners, managers, drivers, and owner-operators in relation to fuel efficiency, product applications, and FleetSmart activities were discussed. The study showed awareness and use of the program offerings among members was relatively high. Approximately 60 per cent of members participated in idling reduction programs, while 56 per cent of members had visited the FleetSmart website, and had accessed information related to fuel efficiency. Approximately 7 out of 10 participants rated that the FleetSmart program was useful, and that materials were easy to understand and access. 12 tabs., 29 figs

  11. Fleet management: Assessment of the best practices

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzi, Rachida; BOURMADA, Noureddine; BOUDA, Mohamed,

    2013-01-01

    fleet safety is seen as important, not just for fleet operators, but as a strategic approach to improving the safety of the entire vehicle fleet. Corporate purchasers of vehicles and transport services can specify high safety standards and thus create an economic imperative for providers of vehicles and transport services to meet these standards. Fleet management comprises all actions needed to maintain and operate pieces of equipment throughout its life from the beginning stages of equipment...

  12. The effect on photochemical smog of converting the U.S. fleet of gasoline vehicles to modern diesel vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Seinfeld, John H.; Carmichael, Greg R.; Streets, David G.

    2004-01-01

    With the increased use of particle traps and nitrogen oxide (NO_x) control devices to reduce air pollution, “modern” diesel vehicles are being encouraged over gasoline vehicles globally as a central method of slowing global warming. Data to date, though, suggest that the NO_2:NO ratio from modern diesel may exceed that of gasoline, and it is difficult to reduce diesel NO_x below gasoline NO_x without increasing particle emissions. Here, it is calculated that, unless the diesel NO_2:NO ratio a...

  13. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles and the use of related services by the Contractor shall be in accordance with 41 CFR 101-39 and 41 CFR 101-38.301-1. (End of clause) ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interagency...

  14. Identifying the potential CO2-efficiency for the Deutsche Post DHL delivery fleet based on vehicle technology scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Propfe, Bernd; Schlaghecken, Georg; Jüchter, Achim; Schmid, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    In order to identify the CO2-reduction potential of the German delivery fleet of Deutsche Post DHL, this study analyzes 3 different fleet scenarios. Based on a newly developed driving cycle that matches the specific requirements of delivery trucks, fuel consumptions for 6 different types of powertrains have been simulated. Subsequently, 3 fleet scenarios up to 2020 have been calculated with VECTOR21. A comparison of potential CO2-reductions and corresponding costs for the entire delivery f...

  15. Challenges and Approaches for Developing Ultrafine Particle Emission Inventories for Motor Vehicle and Bus Fleets

    OpenAIRE

    Keogh, Diane U.; Darrell Sonntag

    2011-01-01

    Motor vehicles in urban areas are the main source of ultrafine particles (diameters < 0.1 µm). Ultrafine particles are generally measured in terms of particle number because they have little mass and are prolific in terms of their numbers. These sized particles are of particular interest because of their ability to enter deep into the human respiratory system and contribute to negative health effects. Currently ultrafine particles are neither regularly monitored nor regulated by ambient ai...

  16. Inter-vehicle-communications based on ad hoc networking principles. The FleetNet Project

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Walter; Hartenstein, Hannes; Mauve, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) represent an emerging topic in wireless communication and networking. VANETs are currently receiving a lot of attention due to their promise of considerably increasing safety and comfort while being on the road. High mobility, adverse channel conditions, and market introduction are some of the key challenges one has to deal with when designing these spontaneous networks. Inter-Vehicle-Communications Based on Ad Hoc Networking Principles covers results and ac...

  17. Mobile information systems for goods transport logistics. How to use vehicle fleets flexibly and economically; Mobile Informationssysteme fuer die Gueterverkehrslogistik. Loesungen fuer den flexiblen und wirtschaftlichen Fuhrparkeinsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lublow, R.; Baumeister, G.H.; Bonn, B. van; Landen, R.; Kolb, R.

    1997-12-31

    The book graphically demonstrates the bandwidth of the subject (cost analysis, follow-up of shipments, planning of tours for commissions at short notice, and planning of maintenance) and points out all aspects relevant to procurement and use. Theoretic elements and practical experience are described in understandable form. The book addresses readers in all sectors of goods transport: forwarding agents, logistics services, transport planners, vehicle fleet managers, EDP personnel in the transport sector, and consultants. (GL)

  18. Launching of the bio-ethanol (E85) national experimentation in the Marne and implementing of the first vehicles fleet Flex Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of a national protocol the new E85 composed of 85% of ethanol and 15% of gasoline SP95 has been implemented in the Marne on Flex Fuel vehicles for an experimentation. The document presents the government policy in favor of the biofuels, the E85, the fabrication processus of the ethanol, the biofuels channel in France, the Flex Fuel technology, the experimentation protocol and the implementing of the fleet in the Marne department. (A.L.B.)

  19. Progressive Fleet tracking systems

    OpenAIRE

    Smětal, Matěj

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the importance of vehicle tracking as a part of Fleet management for company's success. The theoretical part contains analysis of positioning systems GPS and GLONASS, describes the structure and principles of its functioning. The practical part contains implementation of Fleet management system into Russian company"Cech č. 1", Ltd. Practical part consists of information gained from internal sources of the company.

  20. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California

    OpenAIRE

    Kempton, Willett; Tomic, Jasna; Letendre, Steven; Brooks, Alec; Lipman, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can become and important resource for the California electric utility system, with consequent air pollution, system reliability, and economic benefits. We refer to electric power resources from vehicles as “Vehicle to Grid” power (V2G). The economic value of some forms of V2G appear high, more than enough to offset the initially higher costs of electric-drive vehicles, thus having the potential to accelerate their introduction. To realize this potential, some coordi...

  1. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... the federal requirements with the same test vehicle in the course of the same test. See, e.g., 43 FR... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...: The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified EPA that it has adopted a...

  2. Fleet Services makes the switch to biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    West, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    As part of their Green Fleet Initiative and in an effort to meet customer's demand for alternative fuel sources, Virginia Tech Fleet Services will begin using B-10 Biodiesel for diesel powered vehicles.

  3. Infrastructure for thulium-170 isotope power systems for autonomous underwater vehicle fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope thulium-170 is a safe and environmentally benign heat source for providing the high endurance and energy densities needed by advanced power systems for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). Thulium Isotope Power (TIP) systems have an endurance of ∼3000 h, and gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of 3 x 104 Wh/kg and 3 x 108 Wh/m3, respectively. These energy densities are more than 200 times higher than those currently provided by Ag-Zn battery technology. In order to capitalize on these performance levels with about one hundred AUVs in continuous use, it will be necessary to establish an infrastructure for isotope production and heat-source refurbishment. The infrastructure cost is not trivial, and studies are needed to determine its optimum configuration. The major component of the projected infrastructure is the nuclear reactor used to produce Tm- 170 by neutron absorption in Tm-169. The reactor design should ideally be optimized for TM-170 production. Using the byproduct ''waste'' heat beneficially would help defray the cost of isotope production. However, generating electric power with the reactor would compromise both the cost of electricity and the isotope production capacity. A coastal location for the reactor would be most convenient from end-use considerations, and the ''waste'' heat could be used to desalinate seawater in water-thirsty states. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Dynamic coordination in fleet management systems: Toward smart cyber fleets

    OpenAIRE

    Billhardt, Holger; Fernandez, Alberto; Lemus, Lissette; Lujak, Marin; Osman, Nardine; Ossowski, Sascha; Sierra, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Fleet management systems are commonly used to coordinate mobility and delivery services in a broad variety of domains. However, their traditional top-down control architecture becomes a bottleneck in open and dynamic environments, where scalability, proactiveness, and autonomy are becoming key factors for their success. Here, the authors present an abstract event-based architecture for fleet management systems that supports tailoring dynamic control regimes for coordinating fleet vehicles, an...

  5. Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet-Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising transport related greenhouse gas emissions is crucial in order to derive policies that strive towards more energy-efficient on-road passenger mobility. We focus on the efficacy of technological efficiency improvements in mitigating climate-relevant emissions from car use in light of shifting demand patterns towards bigger, heavier and more powerful cars. The analysis is descriptive in nature and based on a bottom-up database that was originally collated for the purpose of the present study. Technological data on car models, which includes tested fuel consumption, engine size, power and weight, is related to registered car stock and, in parts, to newly registered cars. From this, we obtain an original database of the Austrian passenger car fleet, i.e. information on consumer choice of specific car models, segregated by gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Conclusions are derived for policies aimed at reducing the fossil fuel consumption of the moving vehicle fleet in order to contribute to a low carbon society.

  6. 78 FR 23935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet... Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles, by any of...

  7. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

  8. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

  9. Anticipating plug-in hybrid vehicle energy impacts in California: Constructing consumer-informed recharge profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can be powered by gasoline, grid electricity, or both. To explore potential PHEV energy impacts, a three-part survey instrument collected data from new vehicle buyers in California. We combine the available information to estimate the electricity and gasoline use under three recharging scenarios. Results suggest that the use of PHEV vehicles could halve gasoline use relative to conventional vehicles. Using three scenarios to represent plausible conditi...

  10. A Demand Forecasting System for Clean-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Brownstone, David; Bunch, David S.; Golob, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing project to develop a demand forecasting model for clean-fuel vehicles in California. Large-scale surveys of both households and commercial fleet operators have been carried out. These data are being used to calibrate a new micro-simulation based vehicle demand forecasting system. Based on pre-specified attributes of future vehicles (including specified clean-fueled vehicle incentives), the system will produce annual forecasts of new and used vehicle demand by t...

  11. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions and energy use analysis of hypothetical fleet of electrified vehicles in Canada and the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduro, Miguelangel

    The shift to strong hybrid and electrified vehicle architectures engenders controversy and brings about many unanswered questions. It is unclear whether developed markets will have the infrastructure in place to support and successfully implement them. To date, limited effort has been made to comprehend if the energy and transportation solutions that work well for one city or geographic region may extend broadly. A region's capacity to supply a fleet of EVs, or plug-in hybrid vehicles with the required charging infrastructure, does not necessarily make such vehicle architectures an optimal solution. In this study, a mix of technologies ranging from HEV to PHEV and EREV through to Battery Electric Vehicles were analyzed and set in three Canadian Provinces and 3 U.S. Regions for the year 2020. Government agency developed environmental software tools were used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and energy use. Projected vehicle technology shares were employed to estimate regional environmental implications. Alternative vehicle technologies and fuels are recommended for each region based on local power generation schemes.

  12. Impacts of ethanol fuel level on emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from a fleet of gasoline light-duty vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zheng, Zhongqing; Villella, Phillip M.; Jung, Hee-Jung

    2012-03-30

    The study investigated the impact of ethanol blends on criteria emissions (THC, NMHC, CO, NOx), greenhouse gas (CO2), and a suite of unregulated pollutants in a fleet of gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. The vehicles ranged in model year from 1984 to 2007 and included one Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed in duplicate or triplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle using a chassis dynamometer for four fuels in each of seven vehicles. The test fuels included a CARB phase 2 certification fuel with 11% MTBE content, a CARB phase 3 certification fuel with a 5.7% ethanol content, and E10, E20, E50, and E85 fuels. In most cases, THC and NMHC emissions were lower with the ethanol blends, while the use of E85 resulted in increases of THC and NMHC for the FFV. CO emissions were lower with ethanol blends for all vehicles and significantly decreased for earlier model vehicles. Results for NOx emissions were mixed, with some older vehicles showing increases with increasing ethanol level, while other vehicles showed either no impact or a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease. CO2 emissions did not show any significant trends. Fuel economy showed decreasing trends with increasing ethanol content in later model vehicles. There was also a consistent trend of increasing acetaldehyde emissions with increasing ethanol level, but other carbonyls did not show strong trends. The use of E85 resulted in significantly higher formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions than the specification fuels or other ethanol blends. BTEX and 1,3-butadiene emissions were lower with ethanol blends compared to the CARB 2 fuel, and were almost undetectable from the E85 fuel. The largest contribution to total carbonyls and other toxics was during the cold-start phase of FTP.

  13. The Allure of Technology: How France and California Promoted Electric Vehicles to Reduce Urban Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calef, David; Goble, Robert

    2005-01-01

    All advanced industrialized societies face the problem of air pollution produced by motor vehicles. In spite of striking improvements in internal combustion engine technology, air pollution in most urban areas is still measured at levels determined to be harmful to human health. Throughout the 1990s and beyond, California and France both chose to improve air quality by means of technological innovation, adopting legislation that promoted clean vehicles, prominently among them, electric vehicl...

  14. CNG and Fleets: Building Your Business Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Two online resources help fleets evaluate the economic soundness of a compressed natural gas program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE 2.0) model and the accompanying report, Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications, are uniquely designed for fleet managers considering an investment in CNG and can help ensure wise investment decisions about CNG vehicles and infrastructure.

  15. The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis -- A Reflexively Designed Survey of New-Car-Buying Multi-Vehicle California Households

    OpenAIRE

    Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of a survey of the potential demand for electric vehicles (EVs) among a subset of California households. We limit our analysis to one group of potential hybrid households. These households own two or more light duty vehicles and buy new vehicles of the body styles we expect will be offered as electric vehicles. These characteristics identify households who may be able to incorporate at least one limited range vehicle into their household vehicle holdings with no, or mini...

  16. Contributing Data to the Fleet DNA Project (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    The Fleet DNA clearinghouse of commercial fleet transportation data helps vehicle manufacturers and developers optimize vehicle designs and helps fleet managers choose advanced technologies for their fleets. This online tool - available at www.nrel.gov/fleetdna - provides data summaries and visualizations similar to real-world 'genetics' for medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles operating within a variety of vocations. To contribute your fleet data, please contact Adam Duran of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at adam.duran@nrel.gov or 303-275-4586.

  17. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01

    Achieving policy targets for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation will likely require significant adoption of battery-electric, plug-in hybrid, or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. These vehicles use electricity either directly as fuel, or indirectly for hydrogen production or storage. As they gain share, currently disparate electricity and transportation fuels supply systems will begin to “converge.” Several studies consider impacts of electric vehicle recharging o...

  18. The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis--A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-buying, Multi-vehicle California Households

    OpenAIRE

    Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    We report the results of a survey of the potential demand for electric vehicles (EVs) among a subset of California households. We limit our analysis to one group of potential hybrid households. These households own two or more light duty vehicles and buy new vehicles of the body styles we expect will be offered as electric vehicles. These characteristics identify households who may be able to incorporate at least one limited range vehicle into thei...

  19. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Emissions. 2. Volatile Organic Compound Speciation and Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchstetter, Thomas; Singer, Brett; Harley, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of California phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the composition and reactivity of motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative emissions. Significant changes to gasoline properties that occurred in the first half of 1996 included an increase in oxygen content; decreases in alkene, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur contents; and modified distillation properties. Vehicle emissions were measured in a San Francisco Bay Area roadway tunnel in summers 1994-1997; gasoline s...

  20. Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; John, M.

    1999-05-03

    This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compress natural gas (CNG) Ford Crown Victoria sedans in a taxicab fleet. In the study, we assess the performance and reliability of the vehicles and the cost of operating the CNG vehicles compared to gasoline vehicles. The study results reveal that the CNG vehicles operated by this fleet offer both economic and environmental advantages. The total operating costs of the CNG vehicles were about 25% lower than those of the gasoline vehicles. The CNG vehicles performed as well as the gasoline vehicles, and were just as reliable. Barwood representatives and drivers have come to consider the CNG vehicles an asset to their business and to the air quality of the local community.

  1. Analysis of a 'cluster' strategy for introducing hydrogen vehicles in Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost and logistics of building early hydrogen refueling infrastructure are key barriers to the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. In this paper, we explore a 'cluster strategy' for introducing hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure in Southern California over the next decade, to satisfy California's Zero Emission Vehicle regulation. Clustering refers to coordinated introduction of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure in a few focused geographic areas such as smaller cities (e.g. Santa Monica, Irvine) within a larger region (e.g. Los Angeles Basin). We analyze several transition scenarios for introducing hundreds to tens of thousands of vehicles and 8-42 stations, considering: · Station placement; · Convenience of the refueling network; · Type of hydrogen supply; · Economics (capital and operating costs of stations, hydrogen cost). A cluster strategy provides good convenience and reliability with a small number of strategically placed stations, reducing infrastructure costs. A cash flow analysis estimates infrastructure investments of $120-170 million might be needed to build a network of 42 stations serving the first 25,000 vehicles. As more vehicles are introduced, the network expands, larger stations are built and the cost of hydrogen becomes competitive on a cents per mile basis with gasoline. - Research Highlights: → Hydrogen infrastructure strategy based on 'clustering' early stations and vehicles. → Good fuel accessibility with sparse station networks. → As hydrogen use grows, fuel network expands and hydrogen becomes cost competitive.

  2. Simulation and optimization of site and capacity selection in the planning of charge infrastructure for battery electric vehicle fleets; Simulation und Optimierung der Standort- und Kapazitaetsauswahl in der Planung von Ladeinfrastruktur fuer batterieelektrische Fahrzeugflotten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefen, Kostja

    2012-07-15

    Political, technological and economic factors have led to a new upswing in the development of Electric Mobility. In addition to the private sector, certain industrial fleets are especially suited as pilot customers for battery electric vehicles. Economic advantages compared to conventional vehicles are caused by low energy costs if vehicles reach high mileage and still have enough time to recharge the needed energy. To supply energy to all fleet vehicles, a proper charging infrastructure has to be available in the operational area. The focus of this work is the development of new simulation and optimization models for this strategic planning task. The developed simulation model allows a detailed analysis and evaluation of the impact of various business models. It allows the variation of the fleet size, the vehicle types, the battery capacity, the infrastructure configuration and charging rules in the operational concept. The developed optimization model allows the cost-minimal selection of supply locations and their capacity to ensure the required quality of service. For medium and large problem instances exact solution methods reach their limits, so that a separate heuristic method is presented. The developed methods were used in a real project to demonstrate the practicality.

  3. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  4. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    The project proceeded generally according to schedule, with most of the work directed at procurement of materials, initiation of equipment fabrication by contractors, and development of educational materials. The first vehicle retrofit was completed in March 1995, and prepared for delivery to DOE`s Energy Technology Engineering Center.

  5. Vehicle Fleet Information - BMV_LICENSE_BRANCHES_IN: Bureau of Motor Vehicle License Branch Locations in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BMV_LICENSE_BRANCHES_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 142 branch offices of the Indiana Bureau of Motor Vehicles (BMV). Addresses for each branch...

  6. 40 CFR 86.422-78 - Administrator's fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrator's fleet. 86.422-78... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.422-78 Administrator's fleet. The Administrator... accordance with § 86.421. The number of vehicles selected shall not increase the size of the test fleet...

  7. Characteristics of automotive fleets in the United States, 1966--1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonka, D.B.

    1978-09-01

    Several major areas pertaining to automobile fleet operations in the U.S. are covered. First, all known available sources that contain statistics on fleet vehicles are described. Second, fleet operations in the U.S. are characterized according to stock composition and operational characteristics. Third, properties of fleet cars are compared with those of the total car population, and a comparison is made among fleets used by different sectors. Finally, the significance of fleet operations for transportation energy conservation is discussed.

  8. A cask fleet operations study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs.

  9. A cask fleet operations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs

  10. Operating a fleet of electric taxis

    OpenAIRE

    Gacias, Bernat; Meunier, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of electric taxi fleets is highly desirable from a sustainable point of view. Nevertheless, the weak autonomy of this kind of vehicles requires a careful operation. The way of managing such a fleet and the question of locating charging terminals for the vehicles are addressed in this paper. Methods for dealing with these tasks are proposed and their efficiency is proved through simulations.

  11. 41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section 101-39.104 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104 Notice of establishment of a fleet...

  12. 41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section 101-39.104-1 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1 Consolidations into a fleet...

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do we need a fleet... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that —...

  14. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alternative Motor Fuel Act of 1988 requires the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate and evaluate alternative fuels usage in the United States. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project to compare alternative fuel and diesel fuel trucks. Information for the comparison comes from data collected on the operational, maintenance, performance, and emissions characteristics of alternative fuel trucks being used in vehicle fleets and comparable diesel fuel trucks servings as controls within the same fleets. This report highlights the start-up experience and presents the lessons learned from a project that operated a fleet of liquefied natural gas (LNG) refuse haulers in Washington, Pennsylvania

  15. Cooperation Patterns between Fleet Owners for Transport Assignments

    OpenAIRE

    Farokhi, Farhad; Liang, Kuo-Yun; Johansson, Karl Henrik

    2015-01-01

    We study cooperation patterns between the heavy- duty vehicle fleet owners to reduce their costs, improve their fuel efficiency, and decrease their emissions. We consider a distributed cooperation pattern in which the fleet owners can communicate directly with each other to form alliances. A centralized cooperation pattern is studied in which the fleet owners pay to subscribe to a third-party service provider that pairs their vehicles for cooperation. The effects of various pricing strategies...

  16. Plug-in-Hybrid Vehicle Use, Energy Consumption, and Greenhouse Emissions: An Analysis of Household Vehicle Placements in Northern California

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kammen; Elliot Martin; Brett Williams; Timothy Lipman

    2011-01-01

    We report on the real-world use over the course of one year of a nickel-metal-hydride plug-in hybrid—the Toyota Plug-In HV—by a set of 12 northern California households able to charge at home and work. From vehicle use data, energy and greenhouse-emissions implications are also explored. A total of 1557 trips—most using under 0.5 gallons of gasoline—ranged up to 2.4 hours and 133 miles and averaged 14 minutes and 7 miles. 399 charging events averaged 2.6 hours. The maximum lasted 4.6 ...

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there fleet average... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there fleet... that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  18. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet requirements for exhaust... fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing. (a) Candidate vehicles which conform to the emission... the in-use fleet and tested in their as-received condition. (b) Candidate vehicles for the test...

  19. Application of Strategic Planning Process with Fleet Level Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Pfaender, Holger; Jimenez, Hernando; Garcia, Elena; Feron, Eric; Bernardo, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify and characterize the potential system-wide reduction of fuel consumption and corresponding CO2 emissions, resulting from the introduction of N+2 aircraft technologies and concepts into the fleet. Although NASA goals for this timeframe are referenced against a large twin aisle aircraft we consider their application across all vehicle classes of the commercial aircraft fleet, from regional jets to very large aircraft. In this work the authors describe and discuss the formulation and implementation of the fleet assessment by addressing the main analytical components: forecasting, operations allocation, fleet retirement, fleet replacement, and environmental performance modeling.

  20. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  1. Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance; Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.; Ahdieh, N.; Bentley, J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook that builds upon the "Guidance for Federal Agencies on E.O. 13514 Section 12-Federal Fleet Management" and provides information to help fleet managers select optimal greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction strategies for each location, meeting or exceeding related fleet requirements, acquiring vehicles to support these strategies while minimizing fleet size and vehicle miles traveled, and refining strategies based on agency performance.

  2. A demand forecasting system for clean-fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownstone, D.; Bunch, D.S.; Golob, T.F.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes an ongoing project to develop a demand forecasting model for clean-fuel vehicles in California. Large-scale surveys of both households and commercial fleet operators have been carried out. These data are being used to calibrate a new micro-simulation based vehicle demand forecasting system. Based on pre-specified attributes of future vehicles (including specified clean-fueled vehicle incentives), the system will produce annual forecasts of new and used vehicle demand by type of vehicle and geographic region. The system will also forecast annual vehicle miles traveled for all vehicles and recharging demand by time of day for electric vehicles. These results are potentially useful to utility companies in their demand-side management planning, to public agencies in their evaluation incentive schemes, and to manufacturers faced with designing and marketing clean-fuel vehicles.

  3. CEP action area studies : City of Yellowknife fleet review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Yellowknife maintains a fleet of vehicles and equipment used for public service. Yellowknife's Community Energy Plan (CEP) has a goal to reduce Yellowknife's fleet fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20 per cent within 10 years. This report examined current fuel consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet based on available data and examined options to reduce fleet fuel consumption. It also quantified the reduction in fuel consumption, GHG emissions, as well as the financial impacts of various options. An overview of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of vehicles and equipment was first provided, as well as calculated annual values for fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and energy consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet. Two fleet management case studies were presented. Fuel-efficient vehicles on the market that could provide an opportunity to replace some of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of light vehicles, and bylaw vehicles with fuel-efficient vehicles were discussed. These vehicles include hybrid vehicles, smart cars, compressed natural gas vehicles, and compressed-air vehicles. Equipment maintenance for tires, preventive, synthetic oils, and driver training programs were discussed. Anti-idling campaigns and technologies were also examined. The report concluded with a discussion of renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol blended gasoline. Fleet fuel consumption, GHG and financial impacts were provided for each chapter heading. It was concluded that if all of the measures identified in the report were implemented, an overall decrease in GHG emissions of approximately 15 per cent would be achieved. 15 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  4. How can the Brazilian emissions legislation influence the size of NG (Natural Gas) light duty vehicles fleet; Como o programa de controle de emissoes veiculares no Brasil pode influenciar a frota de veiculos leves a GNV (Gas Natural Veicular)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Tadeu C.C.; Machado, Guilherme B. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Siqueira, Amanda Albani [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico

    2004-07-01

    In the last years, a high growth of Brazilian converted Natural Gas (NG) light duty vehicles fleet was observed. It can be related mainly to tax license reduction of NG vehicles; the increase of the NG distribution around the country; attractive price difference between NG and other fuels, mainly gasoline, and an increase on the infrastructure for NG conversion in many places of Brazil. The IBAMA, worried about this uncontrolled increase, published, in 2002, the CONAMA resolution, number 291, that defines ways for the environmental certification of the NG conversion kits and establishes that gas emission from the converted vehicle must be equal or lower than those of the original vehicles, before the conversion. The new PROCONVE phases, which will start in 2007 and 2009, including the requirement for OBD technology (On Board Diagnosis) use and the emission limits reduction, will make the attendance of the legislature difficult to be achieved by the NG conversion companies. This new context can impact on a reduction in the number of converted vehicles and, on the other hand, can stimulate the increase of the OEM participation in this market. (author)

  5. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet averaged emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  6. Fleet operator risks for using fleets for V2G regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future fleets of vehicles may include electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) because of potential fuel savings. Recent demonstration of diesel parallel hybrids in a delivery fleet led to fuel economy improvements, and hybrid bus demonstrations exhibited twice the fuel economy of the conventional bus. Fleet ownership may include management of a fleet of vehicles as small as 10 units and as large as hundreds or thousands. In addition to fuel savings, the newer extended range electric vehicles (EREVs) and pure EVs permit vehicle to grid (V2G) opportunities. These V2G opportunities may present additional revenue for fleets by providing ancillary services to local grid independent system operators (ISOs), provided that the burden of driving and V2G services do not accelerate the degradation of the battery systems in these vehicles. The subject of this study is to determine the financial risks associated with accelerated battery degradation in a V2G-enabled EREV fleet expected to perform ancillary service duty while charging in addition to the normal loads of drive cycle duty. We determine that battery cycle life during V2G duty is a critical parameter, which can determine whether or not the business model is viable. - Highlights: ► V2G regulation cycle life of EREV batteries must be >50,000 cycles to be profitable. ► Present knowledge and test data about the impact of V2G cycles on battery life are limited. ► Replacement of batteries and energy throughput are major factors in the cost–benefit analysis. ► V2G fleet is not viable with present data but can be viable with some technical advancement.

  7. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...\\ See, e.g., 71 FR 44027 at 44028 (August 3, 2006)(``EPA believed it possible that CARB's amendments do... Resources Board (CARB) its request to confirm that its amendments to California's heavy-duty vehicle and... upon in making this decision, including those submitted to ] EPA by CARB, are contained in the...

  8. On the business value of ICT-controlled plug-in electric vehicle charging in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing penetration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, requires the deployment of large scale energy storage or dynamic demand side management. Leveraging the intrinsic energy storage potential of certain electric loads could be the key for an efficient transition to green power generation. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are about to be introduced on a large scale. In this paper, we investigate the savings potential of electricity retailers resulting from the ability to control the charging behavior of a fleet of PEVs using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This savings potential is important as it could jumpstart the development of advanced control infrastructures for dynamic demand side management. The paper makes three major contributions: first, it applies a novel car usage model based on data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). Second, it develops and evaluates several charging scheduling algorithms with low computational requirements. Third, it identifies several key parameters influencing the relative and absolute savings potential of ICT-controlled PEV charging. We obtain a relative savings potential of up to 45%. The absolute yearly savings per PEV, however, are rather small, which could limit the economic incentives of electricity retailers to deploy the required infrastructure. - Highlights: ► The paper presents a novel model for car usage based on NHTS. ► Several charging scheduling algorithms with low computational requirements are developed and evaluated. ► Several key parameters influencing the relative and absolute savings potential of ICT-controlled PEV charging are identified. ► PEVs can be used to reduce electricity sourcing cost by up to 45%. ► The absolute yearly savings per controlled PEV are rather small and could limit the economic incentives of electricity retailers to deploy the required infrastructure.

  9. 40 CFR 86.421-78 - Test fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet. 86.421-78 Section 86.421... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.421-78 Test fleet. (a) A test vehicle will be selected by... prior to the start of testing and not later than 30 days following notification of the test...

  10. Fleet operator data book (summer 1977 data). Volume 1. National data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Joseph R.

    1979-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present data useful for analyzing the marketability of alternative (i.e., nonconventional) vehicles in the fleet market. In the context of this report, fleet refers to a group of 10 or more light-duty highway vehicles (i.e., passenger cars and light trucks) operated by a corporation or by a government agency. The data describe acquisition behavior of fleet operators and the physical capabilities required of fleet vehicles. The primary source of the data is a survey which was mailed to fleet operators by the Bobit Publishing Company in the summer of 1977. Besides presenting data, this report discusses ways in which characteristics of alternative (especially electric) vehicles affect their likely penetration of the fleet market, and the important role which fleets can play in determining the overall market success of new technologies.

  11. Gestão de manutenção de frotas de veículos: uma revisão Maintenance management of vehicle fleets: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Celso de Campos

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve, sob a ótica gerencial, os problemas e os desafios enfrentados pelo setor de manutenção, nas empresas que operam frotas de veículos. O contexto da manutenção é caracterizado a partir da discussão de questões ligadas a: qualificação da mão-de-obra, nível de informatização, complexidade do processo decisório e necessidade de conferir qualidade e produtividade ao funcionamento do setor.This paper describes problems and challenges concerning the maintenance area of organizations that operate vehicle fleets, from the management point of view. The maintenance context is characterized from discussions about manpower qualification, informatization level, decision making complexity and the necessities of incorporating quality and productivity into this area.

  12. 41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section 101-39.105-1 Public Contracts and... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.105-1 Transfers...

  13. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  14. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  15. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  16. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  17. Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) use in the United States (US) has doubled in recent years and is projected to continue increasing rapidly. This is especially true in California, which makes up nearly one-third of the current US PEV market. Planning and constructing the necessary infrastructure to support this projected increase requires insight into the optimal strategies for PEV battery recycling. Utilizing life-cycle perspectives in evaluating these supply chain networks is essential in fully understanding the environmental consequences of this infrastructure expansion. This study combined life-cycle assessment and geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the energy, greenhouse gas (GHG), water use, and criteria air pollutant implications of end-of-life infrastructure networks for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in California. Multiple end-of-life scenarios were assessed, including hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical recycling processes. Using economic and environmental criteria, GIS modeling revealed optimal locations for battery dismantling and recycling facilities for in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. Results show that economic return on investment is likely to diminish if more than two in-state dismantling facilities are constructed. Using rail as well as truck transportation can substantially reduce transportation-related GHG emissions (23–45%) for both in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. The results revealed that material recovery from pyrometallurgy can offset environmental burdens associated with LIB production, namely a 6–56% reduction in primary energy demand and 23% reduction in GHG emissions, when compared to virgin production. Incorporating human health damages from air emissions into the model indicated that Los Angeles and Kern Counties are most at risk in the infrastructure scale-up for in-state recycling due to their population density and proximity to the optimal location. (letter)

  18. Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P.; Kavvada, Olga; Shah, Nihar; Sathre, Roger; Scown, Corinne D.

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) use in the United States (US) has doubled in recent years and is projected to continue increasing rapidly. This is especially true in California, which makes up nearly one-third of the current US PEV market. Planning and constructing the necessary infrastructure to support this projected increase requires insight into the optimal strategies for PEV battery recycling. Utilizing life-cycle perspectives in evaluating these supply chain networks is essential in fully understanding the environmental consequences of this infrastructure expansion. This study combined life-cycle assessment and geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the energy, greenhouse gas (GHG), water use, and criteria air pollutant implications of end-of-life infrastructure networks for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in California. Multiple end-of-life scenarios were assessed, including hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical recycling processes. Using economic and environmental criteria, GIS modeling revealed optimal locations for battery dismantling and recycling facilities for in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. Results show that economic return on investment is likely to diminish if more than two in-state dismantling facilities are constructed. Using rail as well as truck transportation can substantially reduce transportation-related GHG emissions (23-45%) for both in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. The results revealed that material recovery from pyrometallurgy can offset environmental burdens associated with LIB production, namely a 6-56% reduction in primary energy demand and 23% reduction in GHG emissions, when compared to virgin production. Incorporating human health damages from air emissions into the model indicated that Los Angeles and Kern Counties are most at risk in the infrastructure scale-up for in-state recycling due to their population density and proximity to the optimal location.

  19. Emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, HC, PM, HFC-134a, N2O and CH4 from the global light duty vehicle fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Wallington

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles emit carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, hydrocarbons (HC, particulate matter (PM, hydrofluorocarbon 134a (HFC-134a, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. An understanding of these emissions is needed in discussions of climate change and local air pollution issues. To facilitate such discussions an overview of past, present, and likely future emissions from light duty vehicles is presented. Emission control technologies have reduced the emissions of CO, VOCs, PM, HFC-134a, CH4, and N2O from modern vehicles to very low levels.

  20. Fleet Tools; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    From beverage distributors to shipping companies and federal agencies, industry leaders turn to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help green their fleet operations. Cost, efficiency, and reliability are top priorities for fleets, and NREL partners know the lab’s portfolio of tools can pinpoint fuel efficiency and emissions-reduction strategies that also support operational the bottom line. NREL is one of the nation’s foremost leaders in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle research and development (R&D) and the go-to source for credible, validated transportation data. NREL developers have drawn on this expertise to create tools grounded in the real-world experiences of commercial and government fleets. Operators can use this comprehensive set of technology- and fuel-neutral tools to explore and analyze equipment and practices, energy-saving strategies, and other operational variables to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits.

  1. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject......, can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...

  2. Think City Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford Motor Company

    2005-03-01

    The THINK city Electric Vehicle (EV) Demonstration Program Project, initiated late 2001, has been successfully completed as of April 2005. US. Partners include Federal, State and Municipal agencies as well as commercial partners. Phase I, consisting of placement of the vehicles in demonstration programs, was completed in 2002. Phase II, the monitoring of these programs was completed in 2004. Phase III, the decommissioning and/or exporting of vehicles concluded in 2005. Phase I--the Program successfully assigned 192 EV's with customers (including Hertz) in the state of California, 109 in New York (including loaner and demo vehicles), 16 in Georgia, 7 to customers outside of the US and 52 in Ford's internal operations in Dearborn Michigan for a total of 376 vehicles. The Program was the largest operating Urban EV Demonstration Project in the United States. Phase II--the monitoring of the operational fleet was ongoing and completed in 2004, and all vehicles were returned throughout 2004 and 2005. The Department of Energy (DOE) was involved with the monitoring of the New York Power Authority/THINK Clean Commute Program units through partnership with Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC), which filed separate reports to DOE. The remainder of the field fleet was monitored through Ford's internal operations. Vehicles were retired from lease operation throughout the program for various operator reasons. Some of the vehicles were involved in re-leasing operations. At the end of the program, 376 vehicles had been involved, 372 of which were available for customer use while 4 were engineering prototype and study vehicles. Phase III--decommissioning and/or export of vehicles. In accordance with the NHTSA requirement, City vehicles could not remain in the United States past their three-year allowed program timeframe. At the end of leases, City vehicles have been decommissioned and/or exported to KamKorp in Norway.

  3. Policies for improving the efficiency of the Brazilian light-duty vehicle fleet and their implications for fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, energy security issues and competition for land use are putting pressure on governments and policymakers. However, these three subjects are not usually treated in integrated form. This paper shows that the implementation of energy efficiency policies combined with policies to encourage use of biofuels can help reduce greenhouse gases emissions while easing land use competition from sugarcane ethanol in Brazil. By adapting the ADVISOR (Advanced Vehicle Simulator) software to evaluate vehicle efficiency, and by estimating the Brazilian light-duty vehicle market share based on historical data, this paper estimates the possible levels of GHG emissions and area planted with sugarcane in 2030 in the country. The findings indicate that reductions from 8% to 20% in greenhouse gas emissions and 0.9-1.8 million ha in sugarcane planted area are possible with no significant technological breakthroughs over the horizon to 2030 in comparison with a baseline scenario. - Highlights: → We simulated energy efficiency policies combined with Brazilian biofuels policy. → Vehicle efficiency programs helps for energy saving, reducing GHG and planted area. → Alternative scenario indicate that sugarcane expansion could be 24% less in Brazil.

  4. Optimal fleet conversion policy from a life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicles typically deteriorate with accumulating mileage and emit more tailpipe air pollutants per mile. Although incentive programs for scrapping old, high-emitting vehicles have been implemented to reduce urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases, these policies may create additional sales of new vehicles as well. From a life cycle perspective, the emissions from both the additional vehicle production and scrapping need to be addressed when evaluating the benefits of scrapping older vehicles. This study explores an optimal fleet conversion policy based on mid-sized internal combustion engine vehicles in the US, defined as one that minimizes total life cycle emissions from the entire fleet of new and used vehicles. To describe vehicles' lifetime emission profiles as functions of accumulated mileage, a series of life cycle inventories characterizing environmental performance for vehicle production, use, and retirement was developed for each model year between 1981 and 2020. A simulation program is developed to investigate ideal and practical fleet conversion policies separately for three regulated pollutants (CO, NMHC, and NOx) and for CO2. According to the simulation results, accelerated scrapping policies are generally recommended to reduce regulated emissions, but they may increase greenhouse gases. Multi- objective analysis based on economic valuation methods was used to investigate trade-offs among emissions of different pollutants for optimal fleet conversion policies. (author)

  5. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Grand Canyon National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

    2014-08-01

    This report focuses on the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  6. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Glenn Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  7. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  8. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for National Institute of Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the National Institute of Health (NIH) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  9. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM10 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-03-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM10 and PM2.5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM2.5 fraction contributes 66% of PM10 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM10 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003-0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1-33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4-3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2-2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM10 emission of brake wear (3.8-4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2-8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9-10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM10 emission factor (16.7-19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1-12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. PMID:26844787

  10. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. PMID:22342958

  11. 75 FR 44948 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within-the-Scope Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ...-the-scope confirmation for California's LEV II follow-up amendments.\\3\\ \\1\\ 60 FR 19811 (April 22, 2003). \\2\\ 70 FR 22034 (April 28, 2005). \\3\\ 68 FR 77 (April 22, 2003), 70 FR 22034 (April 28, 2005). See also 67 FR 162 (August 21, 2002) (EPA's waiver for California's onboard refueling vapor...

  12. A Study of the Awareness Level of Electric Vehicle Technology in California Community College Automotive Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzer, James

    California automotive technician programs were surveyed regarding their awareness of the impact that mandates of the Clean Air Act would have on their automotive technology programs. A questionnaire was sent to 100 California community colleges with an automotive technology program; 49 usable questionnaires were returned. A possible byproduct of…

  13. Electric Vehicle Charging and the California Power Sector: Evaluating the Effect of Location and Time on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohnen, Julia Meagher

    This thesis explores the implications of the increased adoption of plug-in electric vehicles in California through its effect on the operation of the state's electric grid. The well-to-wheels emissions associated with driving an electric vehicle depend on the resource mix of the electricity grid used to charge the battery. We present a new least-cost dispatch model, EDGE-NET, for the California electricity grid consisting of interconnected sub-regions that encompass the six largest state utilities that can be used to evaluate the impact of growing electric vehicle demand on existing power grid infrastructure system and energy resources. This model considers spatiality and temporal dynamics of energy demand and supply when determining the regional impacts of additional charging profiles on the current electricity network. Model simulation runs for one year show generation and transmission congestion to be reasonable similar to historical data. Model simulation results show that average emissions and system costs associated with electricity generation vary significantly by time of day, season, and location. Marginal cost and emissions also exhibit seasonal and diurnal differences, but show less spatial variation. Sensitivity of demand analysis shows that the relative changes to average emissions and system costs respond asymmetrically to increases and decreases in electricity demand. These results depend on grid mix at the time and the marginal power plant type. In minimizing total system cost, the model will choose to dispatch the lowest-cost resource to meet additional vehicle demand, regardless of location, as long as transmission capacity is available. Location of electric vehicle charging has a small effect on the marginal greenhouse gas emissions associated with additional generation, due to electricity losses in the transmission grid. We use a geographically explicit, charging assessment model for California to develop and compare the effects of two charging

  14. Economic analysis of feebates to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from light vehicles for California

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, Walter

    2007-01-01

    A growing majority of climate scientists are convinced that unless emissions are reduced, global warming would cause a number of adverse effects throughout the United States. In California, rising temperatures would reduce the snow pack in the Sierra-the state's primary source of water-and lead to less water for irrigating farms in the Central Valley. Global warming would increase the number of extreme heat days and greatly increase the risk of poor air quality across the state. California's ...

  15. Energy and climate effects of second-life use of electric vehicle batteries in California through 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathre, Roger; Scown, Corinne D.; Kavvada, Olga; Hendrickson, Thomas P.

    2015-08-01

    As the use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) further increases in the coming decades, a growing stream of batteries will reach the end of their service lives. Here we study the potential of those batteries to be used in second-life applications to enable the expansion of intermittent renewable electricity supply in California through the year 2050. We develop and apply a parametric life-cycle system model integrating battery supply, degradation, logistics, and second-life use. We calculate and compare several metrics of second-life system performance, including cumulative electricity delivered, energy balance, greenhouse gas (GHG) balance, and energy stored on invested. We find that second-life use of retired PEV batteries may play a modest, though not insignificant, role in California's future energy system. The electricity delivered by second-life batteries in 2050 under base-case modeling conditions is 15 TWh per year, about 5% of total current and projected electricity use in California. If used instead of natural gas-fired electricity generation, this electricity would reduce GHG emissions by about 7 million metric tons of CO2e per year in 2050.

  16. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  17. A personal vehicle transactions choice model for use in forecasting demand for future alternative-fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, W.; Brownstone, D.; Bunch, D.S.; Golob, T.F.

    1994-12-31

    A discrete choice model has been developed in which the choice alternatives consist of vehicle transactions rather than portfolios of vehicle holdings. The model is based on responses to customized stated preference questions involving both hypothetical future vehicles and the household`s current vehicle holdings. The stated choices were collected from 4747 survey respondents located throughout most of the urbanized portions of California. Respondents were asked what their next vehicle transaction would most likely be (replace a current vehicle, add another vehicle, or dispose of a current vehicle), and respondents who wanted to replace or add vehicles were asked to indicate their most preferred vehicle from a set of six hypothetical vehicles. The hypothetical vehicles were described in terms of fourteen attributes, manipulated according to an experimental design. The transactions model is a multinomial logic model of the choice of the hypothetical vehicles and whether or not the hypothetical vehicle will be a replacement or addition to the household fleet. The model is conditioned on the household`s current vehicle stock, and the characteristics of the current vehicles are important explanators of the stated preference choices. In addition to the model estimates, forecasts are given for a base case scenario in 1998. The model is one component in a micro-simulation demand forecasting system being designed to produce annual forecasts of new and used vehicle demand by type of vehicle and geographic area. The system will also forecast annual vehicle miles traveled for all vehicles and recharging demand by time of day for electric vehicles. These results are potentially useful to utility companies in their demand-side management planning, to public agencies in their evaluation incentive schemes, and to manufacturers faced with designing and marketing alternative-fuel vehicles.

  18. JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirck

    2009-01-01

    JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

  19. IEEE AUV 96 / Oceanic Engineering Society Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Symposium on Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Technology / June 2 -6, 1996 in Monterey, California

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Oceanic Engineering Society Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Symposium On Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Technology June 2-6, 1996 Advance Program Hosted by the Naval Postgraduate School at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey California USA General Information, registration information, conference proceedings, accomodations, etc. on the IEEE AUV 96 Symposium on Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Technology, June 2 - 6, 1996 Hosted by the Nav...

  20. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO2 emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  1. 76 FR 34693 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within-the-Scope Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... for public hearing and comment on CARB's request. \\8\\ 76 FR 5368 (January 31, 2011). Although CARB's... (February 23, 2010), and 70 FR 22034 (April 28, 2005). \\36\\ CARB, Request that Amendments to California's...\\ In its initial greenhouse gas Waiver Request letter, CARB stated: \\38\\ 74 FR at 32762. \\39\\ 74 FR...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 fleet average credit programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the test procedure provisions specified in 40 CFR part 600 subpart B and using the calculation... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CO2 fleet average credit programs. 86...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1866-12 CO2 fleet average credit...

  3. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  4. Fleet renewal: An approach to achieve sustainable road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Aleksandar V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail in this paper. Afore mentioned calculation comprises the costs for: vehicle ownership, energy, carbon dioxide and pollutants emissions. Implementation of this methodology allows making the choice of energy efficient vehicles and vehicles with notable positive environmental effects. The objective of the research is to assess the influence of specific parameters of vehicle operational lifecycle costs, especially energy costs and estimated vehicle energy consumption, on vehicle choice in the procurement procedure. The case of urban bus fleet in Serbia was analyzed. Their operational lifecycle costs were calculated and differently powered vehicles were assessed. Energy consumption input values were defined. It was proved that defined fleet renewal scenarios could influence unquestionable decrease in energy consumption.

  5. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  6. 41 CFR 102-34.335 - How do I submit information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet Report (FFR)? 102-34.335... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report... Fleet Report (FFR)? (a) Annually, agencies must submit to GSA the information needed to produce the...

  7. Black carbon concentrations and diesel vehicle emission factors derived from coefficient of haze measurements in California: 1967-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Fairley, David; Novakov, T.

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived coefficient of haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ˜3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has been retired.

  8. Modeling transitions in the California light-duty vehicles sector to achieve deep reductions in transportation greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    California’s target for reducing economy-wide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. We develop transition scenarios for meeting this goal in California’s transportation sector, with focus on light-duty vehicles (LDVs). We explore four questions: (1) what options are available to reduce transportation sector GHG emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050; (2) how rapidly would transitions in LDV markets, fuels, and travel behaviors need to occur over the next 40 years; (3) how do intermediate policy goals relate to different transition pathways; (4) how would rates of technological change and market adoption between 2010 and 2050 impact cumulative GHG emissions? We develop four LDV transition scenarios to meet the 80in50 target through a combination of travel demand reduction, fuel economy improvements, and low-carbon fuel supply, subject to restrictions on trajectories of technological change, potential market adoption of new vehicles and fuels, and resource availability. These scenarios exhibit several common themes: electrification of LDVs, rapid improvements in vehicle efficiency, and future fuels with less than half the carbon intensity of current gasoline and diesel. Availability of low-carbon biofuels and the level of travel demand reduction are “swing factors” that influence the degree of LDV electrification required. - Highlights: ► We model change in California LDVs for deep reduction in transportation GHG emissions. ► Reduced travel demand, improved fuel economy, and low-carbon fuels are all needed. ► Transitions must begin soon and occur quickly in order to achieve the 80in50 goal. ► Low-C biofuel supply and travel demand influence the need for rapid LDV electrification. ► Cumulative GHG emissions from LDVs can differ between strategies by up to 40%.

  9. Detecting Faults in Southern California using Computer-Vision Techniques and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, M.; Rains, C.; von Dassow, W.; Parker, J. W.; Glasscoe, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Knowing the location and behavior of active faults is essential for earthquake hazard assessment and disaster response. In Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images, faults are revealed as linear discontinuities. Currently, interferograms are manually inspected to locate faults. During the summer of 2013, the NASA-JPL DEVELOP California Disasters team contributed to the development of a method to expedite fault detection in California using remote-sensing technology. The team utilized InSAR images created from polarimetric L-band data from NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) project. A computer-vision technique known as 'edge-detection' was used to automate the fault-identification process. We tested and refined an edge-detection algorithm under development through NASA's Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) project. To optimize the algorithm we used both UAVSAR interferograms and synthetic interferograms generated through Disloc, a web-based modeling program available through NASA's QuakeSim project. The edge-detection algorithm detected seismic, aseismic, and co-seismic slip along faults that were identified and compared with databases of known fault systems. Our optimization process was the first step toward integration of the edge-detection code into E-DECIDER to provide decision support for earthquake preparation and disaster management. E-DECIDER partners that will use the edge-detection code include the California Earthquake Clearinghouse and the US Department of Homeland Security through delivery of products using the Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) service. Through these partnerships, researchers, earthquake disaster response teams, and policy-makers will be able to use this new methodology to examine the details of ground and fault motions for moderate to large earthquakes. Following an earthquake, the newly discovered faults can

  10. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  11. Retrofitting bus fleet for natural gas operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buses, operating within a Florence (Italy) municipal transportation system, and equipped with Otto cycle engines, were selected for retrofitting taking into account the suitability of each vehicle's specific routing and service requirements. Cost benefit analyses indicated that it wouldn't be economically feasible to retrofit buses equipped with diesel engines. A computerized refuelling system was set up at the fleet's central service station which was hooked up to the natural gas utility's supply line. This paper tables the cost benefit analysis data comparing gasoline and methane operation and reflecting the cost savings which are expected to be accrued through this methanization program over a span of 14 years

  12. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs – VA Manhattan Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Manhattan Campus (VA- Manhattan) fleet to identify the daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively called PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  13. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  14. Fleet retrofit report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests are evaluated of an avionics system which aids the pilot in making two-segment approaches for noise abatement. The implications are discussed of equipping United's fleet of Boeing 727-200 aircraft with two-segment avionics for use down to Category 2 weather operating minima. The experience is reported of incorporating two-segment approach avionics systems on two different aircraft. The cost of installing dual two-segment approach systems is estimated to be $37,015 per aircraft, including parts, labor, and spares. This is based on the assumption that incremental out-of-service and training costs could be minimized by incorporating the system at airframe overhaul cycle and including training in regular recurrent training. Accelerating the modification schedule could add up to 50 percent to the modification costs. Recurring costs of maintenance of the installation are estimated to be of about the same magnitude as the potential recurrent financial benefits due to fuel savings.

  15. Cask fleet operations study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

  16. Cask fleet operations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system

  17. Software Application for Remote Monitoring of Fleets Based on Geographic Information Systems Using Open Source Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Daniel Cano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlling a fleet usually implies to establish means of control of vehicles, to collect the data associated with the routes taken by these vehicles, to interpret and evaluate the meaning of the collected data and to make the appropriate decisions to improve the efficiency in the use of vehicles in an organization. The implementation of this process of fleet management is mainly performed manually and the solutions available on the market are costly because of the payments for licenses, it is also necessary that the people monitoring the fleets are geographically close to them. This paper aims to answer the following questions: How to reduce errors in the management of information resulting from the fleet management process? How to reduce the cost of remote fleet monitoring? To obtain the solution, we propose the use of GPS devices in each vehicle, the GPS device’s information is captured and consistently stored in a data base, then the information is consulted, analyzed and represented on a map. The result is a software application that allows users have fast and reliable information that will enable them to take the necessary decisions in the vehicle fleet they are trying to control at a low cost.

  18. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  19. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Health and Human Services – ASPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  20. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  1. Evaluation of the Energy Efficiency of a Fleet of Electric Vehicle for Eco-Driving Application Évaluation de l’efficacité énergétique d’une flotte de véhicules électriques dédiée à une application d’éco-conduite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib W.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach to evaluate the energy efficiency of an electrical vehicle during a short trip is addressed. This approach provides metrics that can be used to evaluate the potential of improvement achievable via intelligent eco-driving techniques and the performance actually achieved by any of them. It can be the basis for an evaluation of a fleet of vehicles and of a whole city for which an energy efficiency map could be derived, depending for instance of traffic management strategy. Experimental data are provided to illustrate the approach for a fleet of electric vehicles in an urban environment. The methods proposed are intended to be the basis of a driver assistance system oriented to optimal eco-driving. Dans cet article, nous proposons une approche pour évaluer l’efficacité énergétique d’un véhicule électrique lors d’un déplacement urbain. Cette approche fournit des outils permettant d’évaluer le gain énergétique réalisable par l’intermédiaire des techniques intelligentes d’éco-conduite. Cette approche peut être utilisée pour évaluer une flotte de véhicules, ainsi que pour élaborer une cartographie énergétique d’une ville. Des données expérimentales sont fournies pour illustrer cette approche sur une flotte de véhicules électriques dans un environnement urbain. Les méthodes d’éco-conduite proposées sont destinées à constituer la base d’un système d’assistance au conducteur.

  2. Cost effective determination of vehicle emission factors using on-road measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hudda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the success of vehicle emissions regulations, trends in both fleet-wide average emissions as well as high-emitter emissions are needed, but it is challenging to capture the full spread of vehicle emission factors (EFs with chassis dynamometer, tunnel or remote sensing studies. We developed an efficient and cost-effective method using real-time on-road pollutant measurements from a mobile platform, which when linked with real-time traffic data, allows calculating both the average and spread of EFs for light-duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDV and heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles (HDV. This is the first study in California to report EFs under a wide range of real-driving conditions on multiple freeways and it captured much or most of the variability in EFs due to inter-vehicle differences. Fleet average LDV EFs were generally in agreement with most recent studies and an order of magnitude lower than HDV EFs, but over an order of magnitude or more spread was observed for both LDV and HDV EFs. HDV EFs reflected relatively rapid decreases occurring in diesel emissions in Los Angeles/California, and HDV EFs on I-710, a primary route used for goods movement and a focus of additional truck fleet turnover incentives, were lower than on other freeways. When freeway emission rates (ER were quantified as the product of EF and vehicle activity rates per mile of freeway, ERs were found to be generally similar in magnitude. Despite a two- to three-fold difference in HDV fractions between freeways, higher LDV volumes largely offset this difference.

  3. First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

  4. 78 FR 64499 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... management system vehicles. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 78 FR 23935, on April 23, 2013... Register on March 5, 2010 (75 FR 10267). No public comments were received in prior years that have... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles...

  5. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  6. System investigation H2 bus fleet (technology, regulations, future development)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cooperation with Ansaldo Ricerche, ICIL have compiled a technical catalogue, providing the impartial descriptions, both of existing technology and regulations, and the likely future developments of these, as to remedy the first problem faced by a potential hydrogen bus fleet operator viz the absence of an impartial description of the available vehicle and fuels systems together with the absence of a description of regulatory and safety factors which need consideration. (orig.)

  7. Analyzing C2 Greyhound capacity at Fleet Readiness Center Southwest (FRC SW)

    OpenAIRE

    Dewar, Althea C.; Savanh, Bobby B.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited MBA Professional Report In an effort to foster process improvement and ensure cost-wise support of the ongoing military operations throughout the world, Fleet Readiness Center Southwest (FRC SW) created its Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) as a vehicle to establish cost-wise readiness throughout its organization. The goal of this MBA project is to determine a reasonable range of production at Fleet Readiness Center Southwest (FR...

  8. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  9. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  10. Anomaly Detection in a Fleet of Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fleet is a group of systems (e.g., cars, aircraft) that are designed and manufactured the same way and are intended to be used the same way. For example, a fleet...

  11. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  12. 30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  14. Fleet view of electrified transportation reveals smaller potential to reduce GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel framework compares GHG of plugins vs. hybrids for any vehicle type/performance. • Fleet GHG can be compared without forecasting market penetrations of vehicle sizes. • GHG/km for pure electrics must account for limited range using novel, modified Utility Factor. • Applied to the US, this points to smaller GHG reduction at fleet level than traditional fleet analyses. - Abstract: Plugin and hybrid vehicles have been shown to offer possible reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus life-cycle battery emissions and vehicle weight, and on trip patterns. We present a framework that enables GHG comparisons (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing) for three drivetrains (pure-electric, gasoline-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid), both for individual vehicles and for fleets. The framework captures effects of grid- versus vehicle-based electricity generation, grid transmission and charging losses, and manufacturing and carrying batteries. In contrast to previous work, GHG comparisons can be obtained for heterogeneous fleets of varying vehicle sizes (cars, vans, buses, trucks) and performances, without requiring forecasting of such vehicle specs and their respective market penetrations. Further, we show how a novel adaptation of the Utility Factor concept from plug-in-hybrids to mixed fleets of battery-only and gasoline-hybrids is crucial to quantifying battery-only-vehicles’ impact on fleet-wide GHG. To account for regional variations and possible future technology improvements, we show scenarios over a wide spectrum of grid-carbon-intensities (50–1200 g CO2e/kW h at wall), vehicle range (∼5–500 km), battery energy densities, and battery life-cycle GHG. Model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity tests. Applying the framework to trip patterns of US passenger transportation, we find that owing to the interplay of GHG/km, battery size, all-electric range, and trip patterns, GHG

  15. Nuclear fleet: Today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many years of operational experience have shown advantages of nuclear liner icebreakers over those burning fossil fuels primarily in ensuring reliable and stable shipping along the North Sea Route with an extended navigation season being realized. The advantages of the nuclear fleet are described

  16. Electric Vehicles at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The story of how the transportation office began by introducing low speed electric cars (LSEV) to the fleet managers and employees. This sparked and interest in purchasing some of these LSEV and the usage on KSC. Transportation was approached by a vender of High Speed Electric Vehicle (HSEV) we decided to test the HSEV to see if they would meet our fleet vehicle needs. Transportation wrote a Space Act Agreement (SAA) for the loan of three Lithium Powered Electric vehicles for a one year test. The vehicles have worked very well and we have extended the test for another year. The use of HSEV has pushed for an independent Electric Vehicle Study to be performed to consider ways to effectively optimize the use of electric vehicles in replacement of gasoline vehicles in the KSC vehicle fleet. This will help the center to move closer to meeting the Executive Order 13423.

  17. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs. James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Intertek Testing Services, North America, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, James J. Peters VA Medical Center (VA - Bronx) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  18. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future.

  19. 民办高校车队管理思考%Private Fleet Management Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮琪

    2014-01-01

    随着民办高校的快速发展,民办高校日渐呈现多校区办学,车辆队伍日趋壮大。因此,如何进一步加快民办高校车队管理发展步伐,利用信息化技术进一步做好车辆管理和调度工作,实现车队管理的信息化、合理化和制度化,在确保安全运行的前提下,加强车队管理具有重要意义。本文从民办高校车辆使用现状和发展方向思考,对车队管理改革提出明确思路。%With the rapid development of private colleges and universities, private colleges and universities are increasingly multi-school, vehicle fleet growing. Therefore, the steps of how to further Quicken the development of private fleet management, use of information technology in fleet management and dispatching, institutionalization of rationalization of fleet management information, and, on the premise of ensuring safe operation to enhance fleet management is important. Present situation and development direction of thinking based on private vehicle use, clear thinking on fleet management reforms.

  20. 民办高校车队管理思考%Private Fleet Management Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮琪

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of private colleges and universities, private colleges and universities are increasingly multi-school, vehicle fleet growing. Therefore, the steps of how to further Quicken the development of private fleet management, use of information technology in fleet management and dispatching, institutionalization of rationalization of fleet management information, and, on the premise of ensuring safe operation to enhance fleet management is important. Present situation and development direction of thinking based on private vehicle use, clear thinking on fleet management reforms.%随着民办高校的快速发展,民办高校日渐呈现多校区办学,车辆队伍日趋壮大。因此,如何进一步加快民办高校车队管理发展步伐,利用信息化技术进一步做好车辆管理和调度工作,实现车队管理的信息化、合理化和制度化,在确保安全运行的前提下,加强车队管理具有重要意义。本文从民办高校车辆使用现状和发展方向思考,对车队管理改革提出明确思路。

  1. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  2. Robustness and Adaptiveness Analysis of Future Fleets

    CERN Document Server

    Wesolkowski, Slawomir; Whitacre, James M; Bender, Axel; Abbass, Hussein

    2009-01-01

    Making decisions about the structure of a future military fleet is a challenging task. Several issues need to be considered such as the existence of multiple competing objectives and the complexity of the operating environment. A particular challenge is posed by the various types of uncertainty that the future might hold. It is uncertain what future events might be encountered; how fleet design decisions will influence and shape the future; and how present and future decision makers will act based on available information, their personal biases regarding the importance of different objectives, and their economic preferences. In order to assist strategic decision-making, an analysis of future fleet options needs to account for conditions in which these different classes of uncertainty are exposed. It is important to understand what assumptions a particular fleet is robust to, what the fleet can readily adapt to, and what conditions present clear risks to the fleet. We call this the analysis of a fleet's strate...

  3. Real-time hiring of vehicles for container transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This study concerns the deployment of large numbers of container transporting vehicles on a network consisting of (dedicated) roads and logistic sites such as container terminals. Each site is managed autonomously by a site manager. The fleet of vehicles is deployed by a fleet manager. On request of

  4. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity's Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies' fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. GGNRA identified 182 vehicles in its fleet, which are under the management of the U.S. General Services Administration. Fleet vehicle mission categories are defined in Section 4, and while the GGNRA vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and law enforcement missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The selected vehicles included sedans, trucks, and sport-utility vehicles. This report will show that battery electric vehicles and/or PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for support vehicles and PHEVs provide the same for law enforcement, because each has a sufficient range for individual trips and time is available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These

  5. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  6. County Government Fleet Purchasing Practices: Financial Efficiency vs. Need Assertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Modlin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An abundant amount of local government services are implemented through the use of automobiles each year. These costs include initial purchase, use, repair, and replacement. Traditional budgeting research is broad and does not isolate fleet costs or the influential actors in the process. This study examines the finance practices and need assertion associated with vehicle purchases and acquisition. Findings indicate most county governments in North and South Carolina choose to purchase vehicles on a cash basis, especially if there is a low resale value for surplus automobiles. In addition, county staff are very influential in additional vehicle purchases, especially if the sheriff can convince the county manager that additional automobiles of a particular make can enhance service delivery.

  7. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  8. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  9. Tele-Supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.

    2009-01-01

    The Tele-supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) is a multi-robot science exploration architecture and system that uses a group of robotic boats (the Ocean-Atmosphere Sensor Integration System, or OASIS) to enable in-situ study of ocean surface and subsurface characteristics and the dynamics of such ocean phenomena as coastal pollutants, oil spills, hurricanes, or harmful algal blooms (HABs). The OASIS boats are extended- deployment, autonomous ocean surface vehicles. The TAOSF architecture provides an integrated approach to multi-vehicle coordination and sliding human-vehicle autonomy. One feature of TAOSF is the adaptive re-planning of the activities of the OASIS vessels based on sensor input ( smart sensing) and sensorial coordination among multiple assets. The architecture also incorporates Web-based communications that permit control of the assets over long distances and the sharing of data with remote experts. Autonomous hazard and assistance detection allows the automatic identification of hazards that require human intervention to ensure the safety and integrity of the robotic vehicles, or of science data that require human interpretation and response. Also, the architecture is designed for science analysis of acquired data in order to perform an initial onboard assessment of the presence of specific science signatures of immediate interest. TAOSF integrates and extends five subsystems developed by the participating institutions: Emergent Space Tech - nol ogies, Wallops Flight Facility, NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Carnegie Mellon University, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The OASIS Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) system, which includes the vessels as well as the land-based control and communications infrastructure developed for them, controls the hardware of each platform (sensors, actuators, etc.), and also provides a low-level waypoint navigation capability. The Multi-Platform Simulation Environment from GSFC is a surrogate

  10. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, George [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    VICE 2.0 is the second generation of the VICE financial model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for fleet managers to assess the financial soundness of converting their fleets to run on CNG. VICE 2.0 uses a number of variables for infrastructure and vehicles to estimate the business case for decision-makers when considering CNG as a vehicle fuel. Enhancements in version 2.0 include the ability to select the project type (vehicles and infrastructure or vehicle acquisitions only), and to decouple vehicle acquisition from the infrastructure investment, so the two investments may be made independently. Outputs now include graphical presentations of investment cash flow, payback period (simple and discounted), petroleum displacement (annual and cumulative), and annual greenhouse gas reductions. Also, the Vehicle Data are now built around several common conventionally fueled (gasoline and diesel) fleet vehicles. Descriptions of the various model sections and available inputs follow. Each description includes default values for the base-case business model, which was created so economic sensitivities can be investigated by altering various project parameters one at a time.

  11. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the United States Forest Service: Caribou-Targhee National Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

    2014-06-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Caribou-Targhee National Forest (CTNF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. ITSNA acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory and CTNF for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from the Forest Service and CTNF personnel.

  12. The electric car controversy. A social-constructivist interpretation of the California zero-emission vehicle mandate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelberg, H.

    1998-07-01

    This study focuses the socio-technical dynamics of the attempted reintroduction of electric cars in California. The underlying question is whether or not it is possible to open up an entrenched technological area as car technology, and achieve a radical change. With the perspectives of social constructivist approaches to technological change, this study examines how a large technological controversy was initiated by regulatory action of the air agency in California, the California Air Resources Board, how this controversy developed and stabilized, and how it was ended by the air agency and the auto industry. Based on mainly secondary sources, the definitions that were established on electric cars and gasoline cars at the turn of the 20th century are highlighted, thus showing the existence of two types of automobiles: the city car and the endurance car. The city car did not survive, and was not defined as being a real car. Based on mainly primary sources, the recent electric car controversy is examined, suggesting that the air agency could not force the car industry to re-introduce the city car, and consequently the efforts were directed towards the development of more advanced batteries that could give the electric car a performance close to that of the gasoline car. It also display that electric car technology was enhanced due to the mandate. In ending the controversy, the agency, due to political forces, changed from 'command-and-control' to a 'partnership' strategy. The California Air Resources Board postponed the mandate (from 1998 to 2003), due to the fact that large volume production of advanced batteries was not expected to be in place by 1998. This regulatory relief removed the principal obstacle on behalf of auto manufacturers of not to accept mandated markets, and led General Motors to start to market their purpose built electric sports car by late 1996, and Toyota to promote electric- and electric hybrid car technologies. Thus car

  13. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry - volume, fleet characteristics and the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry in Denmark, using aggregate time series data for the period 1980–2007. The model captures the main linkages between the demand for freight transport, the characteristics of the vehicle fleet, and the demand for fuel. Results...

  14. Efficient determination of vehicle emission factors by fuel use category using on-road measurements: downward trends on Los Angeles freight corridor I-710

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hudda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the success of vehicle emissions regulations, trends in both fleet-wide average emissions as well as high-emitter emissions are needed, but it is challenging to capture the full spread of vehicle emission factors (EFs with chassis dynamometer or tunnel studies, and remote sensing studies cannot evaluate particulate compounds. We developed an alternative method that links real-time on-road pollutant measurements from a mobile platform with real-time traffic data, and allows efficient calculation of both the average and the spread of EFs for light-duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDG and heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles (HDD. This is the first study in California to report EFs under a full range of real-world driving conditions on multiple freeways. Fleet average LDG EFs were in agreement with most recent studies and an order of magnitude lower than observed HDD EFs. HDD EFs reflected the relatively rapid decreases in diesel emissions that have recently occurred in Los Angeles/California, and on I-710, a primary route used for goods movement and a focus of additional truck fleet turnover incentives, HDD EFs were often lower than on other freeways. When freeway emission rates (ER were quantified as the product of EF and vehicle miles traveled (VMT per time per mile of freeway, despite a two- to three-fold difference in HDD fractions between freeways, ERs were found to be generally similar in magnitude. Higher LDG VMT on low HDD fraction freeways largely offset the difference. Therefore, the conventional assumption that freeways with the highest HDD fractions are significantly worse sources of total emissions in Los Angeles may no longer be~true.

  15. A geographic analysis of motor vehicle collisions with child pedestrians in Long Beach, California: comparing intersection and midblock incident locations

    OpenAIRE

    Lightstone, A; Dhillon, P; Peek-Asa, C; Kraus, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—The purpose of this study was to use geographic information system (GIS) software to locate areas of high risk for child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in the city of Long Beach and to compare risk factors between midblock and intersection collisions.

  16. Taxi Fleet Renewal in Cities with Improved Hybrid Powertrains: Life Cycle and Sensitivity Analysis in Lisbon Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António P. Castel-Branco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stringent emissions regulations in cities and the high amount of daily miles driven by taxi vehicles enforce the need to renew these fleets with more efficient and cleaner technologies. Hybrid vehicles are potential candidates due to their enhanced powertrain, and slower battery depletion and fewer lifetime issues, relative to full electric vehicles. This paper proposes a methodology to analyze the best theoretical hybrid powertrain candidate with maximum in-use efficiency, minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, and minimum additional cost, for a Lisbon taxi fleet case study. A multi-objective genetic algorithm integrated with a vehicle simulator is used to achieve several trade-off optimal solutions for different driving patterns. Potential improvements in taxi carbon footprint are discussed as a function of its lifetime, urban/extra-urban driving and maintenance/fuel life cycle uncertainty. Hybrid powertrains reveal to be advantageous comparatively to the conventional vehicle, especially in urban conditions. Specifically optimized solutions could reduce in-use energy consumption by 43%–47% in urban driving, and 27%–34% in extra-urban driving conditions, and reduce life cycle emissions by 47%–49% and 34%–36% respectively, relative to the conventional taxi. A financial gain of 50 $/km/fleet in extra-urban and 226 $/km/fleet in urban routes could be achieved by replacing the taxi fleet with the optimal solutions.

  17. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-03-19

    Natural gas is a clean-burning, abundant, and domestically produced source of energy. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has recently garnered interest as a transportation fuel because of these attributes and because of its cost savings and price stability compared to conventional petroleum fuels. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to help businesses and fleets evaluate the financial soundness of CNG vehicle and CNG fueling infrastructure projects.

  18. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  19. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Stennis Space Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which NASA Stennis Space Center (Stennis) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  20. Exhaust gas emissions from diesel-engines driven by rape seed oil methyl ester, rape seed oil and diesel fuel - an evaluation of laboratory and vehicle fleet test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, C.; Widmann, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Diesel fuels from rape seed oil can contribute to a reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and save mineral fuel resources. But at the same time other emission components, which have an environmental or health impact, must be compared with the exhaust gas emissions from presently used mineral diesel fuels. This study compares various results from vehicle emission tests, concentrating on personnel vehicles and rape seed oil methyl ester (RME), to show a tendency if there is a similar, lower or even higher output of critical exhaust gas components. The results vary in a wide range: for motors with a generally high emission level there is a tendency for lower emissions with RME, but for motors with a sophisticated technology (e.g. injection technique and exhaust gas cleaning) the differences between the fuels become more and more insignificant, so that general statements about advantages cannot be made. The influence of modern motor and exhaust gas cleaning technology seems more important here than the fuel properties. Even through the differences between the fuels in emission components are not significant in general it can be stated that the advantages concerning the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emission and biodegradability remain. (orig.)

  1. Exhaust gas emissions from diesel-engines driven by rape seed oil methyl ester, rape seed oil and diesel fuel - an evaluation of laboratory and vehicle fleet test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, C.; Widmann, B. (Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany))

    1999-01-01

    Diesel fuels from rape seed oil can contribute to a reduction of CO[sub 2]-emissions and save mineral fuel resources. But at the same time other emission components, which have an environmental or health impact, must be compared with the exhaust gas emissions from presently used mineral diesel fuels. This study compares various results from vehicle emission tests, concentrating on personnel vehicles and rape seed oil methyl ester (RME), to show a tendency if there is a similar, lower or even higher output of critical exhaust gas components. The results vary in a wide range: for motors with a generally high emission level there is a tendency for lower emissions with RME, but for motors with a sophisticated technology (e.g. injection technique and exhaust gas cleaning) the differences between the fuels become more and more insignificant, so that general statements about advantages cannot be made. The influence of modern motor and exhaust gas cleaning technology seems more important here than the fuel properties. Even through the differences between the fuels in emission components are not significant in general it can be stated that the advantages concerning the reduction of CO[sub 2]-emission and biodegradability remain. (orig.)

  2. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the use of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FVNHS) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the agencies’ fleet. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to EV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles) could fulfill the mission requirements. FVNHS identified three vehicles in its fleet for consideration. While the FVNHS vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and pool missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The logged vehicles included a pickup truck and a minivan. This report will show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for both mission categories, because each has sufficient range for individual trips and time available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle’s home base, high-use work areas, or in intermediate areas along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in

  3. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  4. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  6. Fleet DNA Phase 1 Refinement & Phase 2 Implementation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Duran, Adam

    2015-06-11

    Fleet DNA acts as a secure data warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle data. It demonstrates that vehicle drive cycle data can be collected and stored for large-scale analysis and modeling applications. The data serve as a real-world data source for model development and validation. Storage of the results of past/present/future data collection efforts improves analysis efficiency through pooling of shared data and provides the opportunity for 'big data' type analyses. Fleet DNA shows it is possible to develop a common database structure that can store/analyze/report on data sourced from multiple parties, each with unique data formats/types. Data filtration and normalization algorithms developed for the project allow for a wide range of data types and inputs, expanding the project’s potential. Fleet DNA demonstrates the power of integrating Big Data with existing and future tools and analyses: it provides an enhanced understanding and education of users, users can explore greenhouse gases and economic opportunities via AFLEET and ADOPT modeling, drive cycles can be characterized and visualized using DRIVE, high-level vehicle modeling can be performed using real-world drive cycles via FASTSim, and data reporting through Fleet DNA Phase 1 and 2 websites provides external users access to analysis results and gives the opportunity to explore on their own.

  7. Contamination from Russian Northern Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, from an environmental group known as Bellona and based in Norway, is highly critical of the Russian navy's apparently short-sighted attitude to nuclear power's longer term economic and environmental consequences. Six main sources of radioactive contamination from the activities of the Russian Northern Fleet are summarised, namely, the still increasing numbers of nuclear-powered submarines in service, naval bases, shipyards (including the storage of solid and liquid radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuels), safety problems with service ships providing transport for nuclear materials, the whole unaddressed problem of decommissioning nuclear submarines due to go out of service (eighty-eight vessels at present), and accidents involving nuclear submarines. (UK)

  8. Harnessing Vehicle Automation for Public Mobility -- An Overview of Ongoing Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley E.

    2015-11-05

    This presentation takes a look at the efforts to harness automated vehicle technology for public transport. The European CityMobil2 is the leading demonstration project in which automated shuttles were, or are planned to be, demonstrated in several cities and regions. The presentation provides a brief overview of the demonstrations at Oristano, Italy (July 2014), LaRochelle, France (Dec 2014), Lausanne, Switzerland (Apr 2015), Vantaa, Finland (July 2015), and Trikala, Greece (Sept 2015). In addition to technology exposition, the objectives included generating a legal framework for operation in each location and gaging the reaction of the public to unmanned shuttles, both of which were successfully achieved. Several such demonstrations are planned throughout the world, including efforts in North America in conjunction with the GoMentum Station in California. These early demonstration with low-speed automated shuttles provide a glimpse of the possible with a fully automated fleet of driverless vehicle providing a public transit service.

  9. Estimating emissions from the Indian transport sector with on-road fleet composition and traffic volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization and rising household incomes in India have led to growing transport demand, particularly during 1990-2010. Emissions from transportation have been implicated in air quality and climate effects. In this work, emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5 or mass concentration of particles smaller than 2.5 um diameter), black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), were estimated from the transport sector in India, using detailed technology divisions and regionally measured emission factors. Modes of transport addressed in this work include road transport, railways, shipping and aviation, but exclude off-road equipment like diesel machinery and tractors. For road transport, a vehicle fleet model was used, with parameters derived from vehicle sales, registration data, and surveyed age-profile. The fraction of extremely high emitting vehicles, or superemitters, which is highly uncertain, was assumed as 20%. Annual vehicle utilization estimates were based on regional surveys and user population. For railways, shipping and aviation, a top-down approach was applied, using nationally reported fuel consumption. Fuel use and emissions from on-road vehicles were disaggregated at the state level, with separate estimates for 30 cities in India. The on-road fleet was dominated by two-wheelers, followed by four-and three-wheelers, with new vehicles comprising the majority of the fleet for each vehicle type. A total of 276 (-156, 270) Gg/y PM2.5, 144 (-99, 207) Gg/y BC, and 95 (-64, 130) Gg/y OC emissions were estimated, with over 97% contribution from on-road transport. Largest emitters were identified as heavy duty diesel vehicles for PM2.5 and BC, but two-stroke vehicles and superemitters for OC. Old vehicles (pre-2005) contributed significantly more (∼70%) emissions, while their share in the vehicle fleet was smaller (∼45%). Emission estimates were sensitive to assumed superemitter fraction. Improvement of emission estimates requires on-road emission factor measurements

  10. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  11. Temporal Optimization Planning for Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state...... with the different possible activity scenarios and applies branch-and-bound with tight lower bounds to find optimal solutions efficiently. We show how key aspects of fleet repositioning can be modeled using TOP and demonstrate experimentally that our approach scales to the size of problems considered by our...

  12. 40 CFR 610.32 - Test fleet selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 610.32 Section... fleet selection. (a) The composition and size of the test fleet will be determined by the Administrator... test fleet will be determined by the Administrator in consultation with the FTC. (b) The goal of...

  13. NATIONAL FLEET DEVELOPMENT IN THE INNOVATIVE ECONOMY. CASE STUDY OF THE GREEK FLEET

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Grzybowski

    2016-01-01

    In the article the development of the Greek fleet in the period of last ten years was discussed. The Greek fleet is an example of accommodating itself to the requirements of the global and innovative economy. Greek shipowners are developing their fleets through the consolidation and replacing older ships with new generation vessels. They are invest-ing into ships adapted for new markets, including LNG maritime transport market. As a result of it Greece became a market leader in maritime trans...

  14. Methane emissions from vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, E K; Jensen, T E; Wallington, T J

    2004-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted by vehicles. We report results of a laboratory study of methane emissions using a standard driving cycle for 30 different cars and trucks (1995-1999 model years) from four different manufacturers. We recommend the use of an average emission factor for the U.S. on-road vehicle fleet of (g of CH/g of CO2) = (15 +/- 4) x 10(-5) and estimate that the global vehicle fleet emits 0.45 +/- 0.12 Tg of CH4 yr(-1) (0.34 +/- 0.09 Tg of C yr(-1)), which represents effects of vehicle aging, cold start, and hot running emissions. The contribution of CH4 emissions from vehicles to radiative forcing of climate change is 0.3-0.4% of that of CO2 emissions from vehicles. The environmental impact of CH4 emissions from vehicles is negligible and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. PMID:15112800

  15. Electric Vehicles in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power mark...

  16. Weekly Fleet Assignment Model and Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xing-hui; ZHU Jin-fu; GONG Zai-wu

    2007-01-01

    A 0-1 integer programming model for weekly fleet assignment was put forward based on linear network and weekly flight scheduling in China. In this model, the objective function is to maximize the total profit of fleet assignment, subject to the constraints of coverage, aircraft flow balance, fleet size, aircraft availability, aircraft usage, flight restriction, aircraft seat capacity,and stopover. Then the branch-and-bound algorithm based on special ordered set was applied to solve the model. At last, a realworld case study on an airline with 5 fleets, 48 aircrafts and 1 786 flight legs indicated that the profit increase was $1591276 one week and the running time was no more than 4 min, which shows that the model and algorithm are fairly good for domestic airline.

  17. Fleet Assistance and Support Team (FAST) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FAST team was established by PMA-264 for introduction of multistatic ASW systems into the Fleet.FAST provides Air ASW mission planning, tactics/tactical sensor...

  18. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysisincludes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based...... on data from The Danish Road Directorate. Theelectricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potentialtransition...... towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO2-emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and powersupply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have...

  19. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-03

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2011, NREL launched a large-scale performance evaluation of medium-duty electric vehicles. With support from vehicle manufacturers Smith and Navistar, NREL research focused on characterizing vehicle operation and drive cycles for electric delivery vehicles operating in commercial service across the nation.

  20. Robustness and Adaptiveness Analysis of Future Fleets

    OpenAIRE

    Wesolkowski, Slawomir; Mazurek, Michael; Whitacre, James M.; Bender, Axel; Abbass, Hussein

    2009-01-01

    Making decisions about the structure of a future military fleet is a challenging task. Several issues need to be considered such as the existence of multiple competing objectives and the complexity of the operating environment. A particular challenge is posed by the various types of uncertainty that the future might hold. It is uncertain what future events might be encountered; how fleet design decisions will influence and shape the future; and how present and future decision makers will act ...

  1. Strategic groups in the Belgian fishing fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Stouten, H.; A. HEENE; Gellynck, X.; Polet, H

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the heterogeneity of the Belgian fishing fleet based on “strategic groups”, a concept borrowed from the field of strategic management. Its objectives are: (1) to define strategic groups within the Belgian fishing fleet; (2) to examine the performance differences among these strategic groups; (3) to examine whether firms (i.e., vessels) move between strategic groups over time; and (4) to examine if firm-movement (i.e., vessel-movement) differs across strategic groups. In th...

  2. What is behind fleet evolution: a framework for flow analysis and application to the French Atlantic fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Guyader, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The study of fishery dynamics considers national-level fleet evolution. It has, however, failed to consider the flows behind fleet evolution as well as the impact of the dynamics of owners of invested capital on fleet evolution. This paper establishes a general conceptual framework which identifies different vessel and owner flows behind fleet evolution and some relationships between these flows. This descriptive conceptual framework aims to change the current focus on drivers of fleet evolut...

  3. On the primary emission of formic acid from light duty gasoline vehicles and ocean-going vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Timia A.; Brady, James M.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Collier, Sonya; Forestieri, Sara D.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Lerner, Brian M.; Williams, Eric J.; Zhang, Qi; Bertram, Timothy H.

    2014-12-01

    We present determinations of fuel-based emission factors for formic acid (EFHCOOH) from light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) and in-use ocean-going vessels. Emission ratios, from which the emission factors were derived, were determined from LDGVs through measurement of HCOOH and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the exhaust of a fleet of eight LDGVs driven under the California Unified Cycle at the California Air Resources Board's Haagen-Smit Laboratory. Emission ratios from in-use ocean-going vessels were determined through direct measurement of HCOOH and CO2 in ship plumes intercepted by the R/V Atlantis during the 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign within 24 nautical miles of the California coast. The eight car fleet average EFHCOOH was 0.94 ± 0.32 (1σ) and 0.57 ± 0.18 mg (kg fuel)-1 for the cold start and hot running phases of the drive cycle, respectively. This difference suggests that catalytic converter performance and the air/fuel equivalence ratio are important metrics contributing to EFHCOOH. EFHCOOH was determined to be 1.94 ± 1.06 mg (kg fuel)-1 for a single diesel vehicle driven under highway driving conditions, higher on average than any individual LDGV tested. In comparison, HCOOH primary emissions from in-use ocean-going vessels were substantially larger, averaging 20.89 ± 8.50 mg (kg fuel)-1. On a global scale, HCOOH primary emissions from fossil fuel combustion are likely to be insignificant relative to secondary production mechanisms, however primary emissions may contribute more significantly on a finer, regional scale in urban locations.

  4. Seventh Fleet field training exercise : Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo : fires initiatives final report

    OpenAIRE

    Schacher, G. E. (Gordon Everett); Pilnick, Steve; Irvine, Nelson; Gallup, Shelley

    2003-01-01

    Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo was conducted during Seventh Fleet exercise Tandem Thrust 03. During the Field Training Exercise phase, testing of Time Sensitive Targets processes using the Joint Fires Network was carried out. This report contains results obtained on contributions made by the Joint Fires Network to Navy Time Sensitive Targeting and experiment lessons learned. NA

  5. Seventh Fleet Command Post Exercise Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo Fires Initiative Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Schacher, Gordon Everett; Gallup, Shelley

    2003-01-01

    Fleet Battle Experiment was conducted during Seventh Fleet exercise Tandem Thrust 03. During the Command Post Exercise phase, testing of Time Sensitive Targets processes using the Joint Fires Network was carried out. This report covers training and use of the TES-N portion of the Joint Fires Network. Prepared for: Navy Warfare Development Command

  6. Optimal routing of electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Andelmin, Juho

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, a vehicle routing problem (VRP) variant tailored for plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) is studied. The studied problem involves a fleet of identical BEVs located at a central depot, a set of customers that must be serviced within given time windows, and a set of charging stations where the vehicles can recharge their batteries. The objective is to design a set of vehicle routes, each starting and ending at the depot, so that each customer is serviced exactly once and th...

  7. The Electric Vehicle on its way into the Danish society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    This report is a guide-line for municipalities, institutions and firms how to introduce an Electric Vehicle in their fleet.Many topics concerning EV's has been tried answered in the most understandable way for many different interestgroups.......This report is a guide-line for municipalities, institutions and firms how to introduce an Electric Vehicle in their fleet.Many topics concerning EV's has been tried answered in the most understandable way for many different interestgroups....

  8. Real-world driving speciated VOC hot start missions of the 2001 French passenger car fleet

    OpenAIRE

    FLANDRIN, Y; Vidon, R; Cazier, F.; Hue, S.; DECHAUX, JC; Nollet, V.

    2001-01-01

    A 25 passenger cars sample was selected on the basis of a 2001 year French fleet prediction. Various types of vehicle technologies, i.e. diesel and petrol cars both equipped with or without catalyst, were tested on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling for regulated emissions and individual Volatile Organic Compounds determination. A particular emphasis has been placed on toxic and/or photochemically reactive compounds such as benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-b...

  9. Enriching the Tactical Network Design of Express Service Carriers with Fleet Scheduling Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Meuffels, W.J.M.; Fleuren, H.A.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; van Dam, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Express service carriers provide time-guaranteed deliveries of parcels via a network consisting of nodes and hubs. In this, nodes take care of the collection and delivery of parcels, and hubs have the function to consolidate parcels in between the nodes. The tactical network design problem assigns nodes to hubs, determines arcs between hubs, and routes parcels through the network. Afterwards, fleet scheduling creates a schedule for vehicles operated in the network. The strong relation between...

  10. First Battleships of the Coast Defense of Russian Emperor Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is told about design and building in Russia of the first tower armored ships, are given their characteristics, are described design features, and also basic stages of service in the composition of Baltic fleet, the advantages and disadvantages in the projects are analyzed. The authors come to the conclusion that the first navigation of tower armored vehicles revealed many design flaws. Low-built monitors and two-turret armored boat had very poor seakeeping. However, for advertising purposes the ten monitors in 1865 have been sent to the coast of Sweden. During the operation it was determined the necessity of combining the reliable protection with sufficient seaworthiness. The solution to this problem is reflected in the subsequent types of armored ships – the tower frigates.

  11. Fleets of enduring drones to probe atmospheric phenomena with clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Simon; Roberts, Greg; Benard, Emmanuel; Bronz, Murat; Burnet, Frédéric; Bouhoubeiny, Elkhedim; Condomines, Jean-Philippe; Doll, Carsten; Hattenberger, Gautier; Lamraoui, Fayçal; Renzaglia, Alessandro; Reymann, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    technologies are challenged at the low speeds of lightweight UAVs. The overall control of the fleet so as to gather series of synchronized data in the cloud volume is a poorly informed and highly constrained adaptive sampling problem, in which the UAV motions must be defined to maximize the amount of gathered information and the mission duration. The overall approach casts the problem in a hierarchy of two modeling and decision stages. A macroscopic parametrized model of the cloud is built from the gathered data and exploited at the higher level by an operator, who sets information gathering goals. A subset of the UAV fleet is allocated to each goal, considering the current fleet state. These high level goals are handled by the lower level, which autonomously optimizes the selected UAVs trajectories using an on-line updated dense model of the variables of interest. Building the models involves Gaussian processes techniques (kriging) to fuse the gathered data with a generic cumulus conceptual model, the latter being defined from thorough statistics on realistic MesoNH cloud simulations. The model is exploited by a planner to generate trajectories that minimize the uncertainty in the map, while steering the vehicles within the air flows to save energy.

  12. Insurance issues and natural gas vehicles. Final report, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRI has been funding research on natural gas vehicle (NGV) technology since 1986. To support the activity, GRI is evaluating a number of NGV issues including fuel storage, tank inspection, system safety, refueling, U.S. auto and truck use characteristics, and the fleet vehicle infrastructure. In addition, insurance and leasing companies will require new regulations and policies to address clean-fueled vehicle fleets' emergence into the marketplace. These policies may influence and partially determine the structure of the alternatively fueled vehicle industry, and the requirements, if any, imposed upon vehicle technologies. The report asseses the insurance and leasing industries' infrastructure/institutional barriers as they relate to the introduction of natural gas fueled vehicle fleets

  13. Fleet wide motor asset management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) performed several studies concerning the effects of motor failures on US power production. Problems with aging and the lack of preventative maintenance were noted as major contributors to this production loss. Westinghouse has developed, and successfully utilized, a computer program to assist plants in the decision making process for maximizing the operational availability of their motor fleet. The program considers motors of a fleet as a single, critical to production asset, and aids the operator in decisions regarding the following: 1.) Purchase of spares. 2.) Rewind and refurbishment prioritization. 3.) Long-term budget forecasting. (author)

  14. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  15. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders

  16. Joint experimentation results from Fleet battle experiment Foxtrot

    OpenAIRE

    Schacher, Gordon; Gallup, Shelley; Kimmel, Richard.; Sovereign, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Fleet Battle Experiments produce information that is relevant to Joint Experimentaion Objectives and Issues. This report presents an extraction of Joint Experimentation pertinent information from Fleet Battle Experiment Foxtrot.--Report Documentation Page. N0001401WR30407.

  17. INDOT Fleet Management Strategies: Implementing Alternative Fuel Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This session will discuss INDOT’s initiative to introduce vechicles fueled by propane and compressed natural gas (CNG) to their fleet. Successes to date will be shared as well as recommendations for fleet managers considering these alternative technologies.

  18. Lithium Battery Power Delivers Electric Vehicles to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid Technologies Inc., a manufacturer and marketer of lithium-ion battery electric vehicles, based in Las Vegas, Nevada, and with research and manufacturing facilities in Mooresville, North Carolina, entered into a Space Act Agreement with Kennedy Space Center to determine the utility of lithium-powered fleet vehicles. NASA contributed engineering expertise for the car's advanced battery management system and tested a fleet of zero-emission vehicles on the Kennedy campus. Hybrid Technologies now offers a series of purpose-built lithium electric vehicles dubbed the LiV series, aimed at the urban and commuter environments.

  19. Fuel Economy and Safety: The Influences of Vehicle Class and Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    Fuel economy standards change the composition of the vehicle fleet, potentially influencing accident safety. I introduce a model of the fleet that captures risks across interactions between vehicle types while simultaneously recovering estimates of unobserved driving safety behavior. The model importantly includes the ability to consider the selection of driver types across vehicles. I apply the model to the present structure of U.S. fuel economy standards and find an adverse effect on safety...

  20. Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka

    2010-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

  1. Demonstration of fleet trucks fueled with PV hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project has been installed at the Xerox Corporation, El Segundo, California site. Three Ford Ranger trucks have been converted to use hydrogen fuel. The ''stand- alone'' electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system is powered by a photovoltaic array with no connection to the power grid. A variable frequency DC/AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 hp motor for the hydrogen compressor. Up to 400 standard cubic meters (SCM) of solar hydrogen is stored, and storage of up to 2300 SCM of commercial hydrogen is collocated. As the hydrogen storage is within 5km of Los Angeles International Airport, pilot operation of a hydrogen fuel cell bus for airport shuttle service has been demonstrated with fueling at the CAN facility. The truck engine conversions are bored to 2.91 displacement, use a Roots type supercharger and CVI (constant volume injection) fuel induction to allow performance similar to that of the gasoline powered truck. Truck fuel storage is done with carbon composite tanks at pressures up to 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Two tanks are located just behind the driver's cab, and take up nearly half of the truck bed space. The truck highway range is approximately 140 miles. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil emissions of CO and HC. NOx emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two Xerox fleet trucks have been converted, and one for the City of West Hollywood. The Clean Air Now Program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality. It further demonstrates that continued technological development and cost reduction will make such implementation competitive. (Author)

  2. Emissions credits from natural gas vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) often are capable of testing to lower than federally required engine certification standards. NGVs often meet inherently low emission vehicle (ILEV) and ultra low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards. Over the useful life of the vehicle, a significant amount of mobile source emission reduction credits (MSERCs) can be generated. This paper will discuss key elements of establishing a workable methodology to quantify the emissions benefits generated through the purchase and use of heavy-duty natural gas vehicles instead of heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The paper will focus on a public fleet of transit buses owned by the Massachusetts Bay Transit Agency, the Massachusetts Port Authority, and a private fleet of waste haulers. Public fleets may generate emission credits as a key compliance option to offset emission shortfalls from changes to the Employee Commute Options (ECO) program, the Inspection and Maintenance program, and facilitate annual surface transportation conformity. Private fleets may generate emission credits for open market trading to area and stationary sources seeking to buy credits from mobile sources, where allowed by EPA and state policy

  3. 40 CFR 89.117 - Test fleet selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 89.117 Section... Certification Provisions § 89.117 Test fleet selection. (a) The manufacturer must select for testing, from each... of maximum torque and secondarily at rated speed. (b) Each engine in the test fleet must...

  4. Competitive interactions between two fishing fleets in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sys, Klaas; Poos, Jan Jaap; Meensel, van Jef; Polet, Hans; Buysse, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    We examine whether the landing rates of Belgian beam trawlers in the Southern Bight of the North Sea were affected through competitive interactions with the Dutch beam trawler fleet and whether the development of a pulse trawler fleet has altered competitive interactions between both fleets. Effe

  5. 46 CFR 296.21 - Participating Fleet Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participating Fleet Vessels. 296.21 Section 296.21... OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Priority for Granting Applications § 296.21 Participating Fleet... priority, tank vessels, in § 296.20, the second priority is applicable to Participating Fleet Vessels....

  6. 33 CFR 138.90 - Individual and Fleet Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual and Fleet Certificates... for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.90 Individual and Fleet Certificates. (a) The Director, NPFC... provided and appropriate fees have been paid, except where a Fleet Certificate is issued under this...

  7. 40 CFR 88.313-93 - Incentives for the purchase of Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. 88.313-93 Section 88.313-93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-93 Incentives for the purchase of Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. (a) Administration. (1) The...—Fleet Credit Table Based on Reduction in NMOG+NOX. Vehicle Equivalents for Light-Duty Vehicles and...

  8. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 465 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the DOE consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated

  9. Implementing Automotive Telematics for Fleet Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Azzopardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology.

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fleet Report? 102-34.330 Section 102-34.330 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.330 What is the Federal Fleet Report? The Federal Fleet Report (FFR) is an annual summary of Federal fleet statistics based upon fleet composition at the end of...

  11. Fleet Management and The Adoption of Innovations by Corporate Car Fleets: An Exploratory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Boutueil, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that guide fleet management by corporations is key to assessing the potential role corporations could play in the transition towards a more sustainable mobility system, and to drawing operational policy conclusions accordingly. Building on the information collected through 44 interviews with decision-makers from 22 large organisations in the Paris region, we reach a much deeper understanding of the fleet management processes of large organisations. We find that the...

  12. How Fleet Bank fought employee flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantian, Haig R; Szostak, Anne

    2004-04-01

    In the late 1990s, Fleet Bank was facing high and rising employee turnover, particularly in its retail operations. Overall turnover had reached 25% annually, and among some groups, such as tellers and customer service reps, turnover was as high as 40%. Using a new methodology developed by Mercer Human Resource Consulting, Fleet set out to determine why so many employees were leaving and what could be done to retain them. It began examining data from HR, finance, operations, and sales about employee behavior and the factors that influence it in different locations and labor markets, departments or work groups, in positions with different pay and benefits, and under different supervisors. Fleet's analysis showed that people were leaving not so much for better pay--their personal testimony notwithstanding--but for broader experience, which they thought would enhance their marketability. Additionally, the analysis revealed a link between the turnover problem and the company's busy history of mergers and acquisitions. Fleet's mergers and acquisitions. frequently meant that it had to consolidate operations. That consolidation resulted in layoffs, which provoked higher levels of voluntary turnover, perhaps because remaining employees began worrying about their job security. While the obvious solution to the turnover problem might have been to compensate the remaining employees--say, with higher pay--the more effective and less costly solution, Fleet discovered, was to focus on employees' career opportunities within the company. Those who moved up the hierarchy, or who even made lateral moves, stayed longer. By offering better internal opportunities for career development, the bank was able to stanch much of the hemorrhaging in personnel. Its solutions required only modest investments, which in the end saved the company millions of dollars. PMID:15077372

  13. Medium-Duty Plug-in Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-06-29

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  14. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  15. Are hybrids a means for fleets to meet the Kyoto commitment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, P.; Fitzpatrick, N.; Inglis, A.; McDonough, V.; Strange, M.; Zettel, A. [Azure Dynamics Inc, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The arrival of Prius by Toyota has generated increased interest in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), mainly because of their potential to reduce fuel consumption, and hence emissions by 30 to 50 per cent, without radical infrastructure change, and the promise of equal effectiveness with future primary power sources such as fuel cells. Based on current estimates, a Canadian fleet of vehicles could save as much as 28 per cent on fuel costs over a 10 year period, assuming present gasoline prices and a 6 per cent discount rate. Azure Dynamics Inc., has developed an adaptive control technology which they believe to be the key to hybrid electric vehicle superiority by optimizing HEV driver habits, HEV system design factors, mechanical and electrical system performance curves and current system component condition and performance. A step van equipped with Azure's prototype datalogger is currently in operation in Vancouver to gather performance data on the vehicle for future analysis and evaluation.

  16. Medium-Duty Plug-In Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  17. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Brett D.

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called “Mobile Electricity” is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. T...

  18. Cooperation is fleeting in the world of transposable elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wagner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite transposons are key vehicles for the worldwide spreading of genes that allow bacteria to survive toxic compounds. Composite transposons consist of two smaller transposable elements called insertion sequences (ISs, which flank the genes that permit such survival. Each IS in a composite transposon can either transpose alone, selfishly, or it can transpose cooperatively, jointly with the other IS. Cooperative transposition can enhance an IS's chance of survival, but it also carries the risk of transposon destruction. I use game theory to show that the conditions under which cooperative transposition is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS are not biologically realistic. I then analyze the distribution of thousands of ISs in more than 200 bacterial genomes to test the following prediction of the game-theoretical model: if cooperative transposition was an ESS, then the closely spaced ISs that characterize composite transposons should be more abundant in genomes than expected by chance. The data show that this is not the case. Cooperativity can only be maintained in a transitional, far-from-equilibrium state shortly after a selection pressure first arises. This is the case in the spreading of antibiotic resistance, where we are witnessing a fleeting moment in evolution, a moment in which cooperation among selfish DNA molecules has provided a means of survival. Because such cooperation does not pay in the long run, the vehicles of such survival will eventually disappear again. My analysis demonstrates that game theory can help explain behavioral strategies even for mobile DNA.

  19. Measures to reduce car-fleet consumption - Estimation of effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study that estimated the effects of measures that were to be taken in order to reduce the fuel consumption of fleets of vehicles as part of the SwissEnergy programme. The research reported on aimed to estimate the effects of the Energy Label on energy consumption and research concerning the results to be expected from the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Questions reviewed include the effect of fuel consumption data on making decisions concerning which vehicle to purchase, the effects of the Energy Label on consumption, the awareness of other appropriate information sources, the possible effects of a bonus-malus system and how the effectiveness of the Energy Label could be improved. The answers and results obtained are reviewed and commented on. Finally, an overall appraisal of the situation is presented and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of the Energy Label are made

  20. On-road emission rates of PAH and n-alkane compounds from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandip D; Ogunyoku, Temitope A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2005-07-15

    This paper presents the quantification of the emission rates of PAH and n-alkane compounds from on-road emissions testing of nine heavy-duty diesel (HDD) vehicles tested using CE-CERT's Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL) over the California Air Resources Board (ARB) Four Phase Cycle. Per mile and per CO2 emission rates of PAHs and n-alkanes were highest for operation simulating congested traffic (Creep) and lowest for cruising conditions (Cruise). Significant differences were seen in emission rates over the different phases of the cycle. Creep phase fleet average emission rates (mg mi(-1)) of PAHs and n-alkanes were approximately an order of magnitude higher than Cruise phase. This finding indicates that models must account for mode of operation when performing emissions inventory estimates. Failure to account for mode of operation can potentially lead to significant over- and underpredictions of emissions inventories (up to 20 times), especially in small geographic regions with significant amounts of HDD congestion. Howeverthe PAH and n-alkane source profiles remained relatively constant for the different modes of operation. Variability of source profiles within the vehicle fleet exceeded the variability due to different operating modes. Analysis of the relative risk associated with the compounds indicated the importance of naphthalene as a significant contributor to the risk associated with diesel exhaust. This high relative risk is driven by the magnitude of the emission rate of naphthalene in comparison to other compounds. PMID:16082957

  1. TEMAS: fleet-based bio-economic simulation software to evaluate management strategies accounting for fleet behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Sparre, Per Johan;

    2007-01-01

    TEMAS (technical management measures) is a fleet-based bio-economic software for evaluating management strategies accounting for technical measures and fleet behaviour. It focuses on mixed fisheries in which several fleets can choose among several fishing activities to target different stocks...... in one or several areas. The software combines a management strategy evaluation framework, using a forward-running operating model and a management procedure with a fleet behaviour module simulating both short-term (effort allocation) and long-term (entry/exit) fleet dynamics. The suite of models behind...

  2. Alleviating a form of electric vehicle range anxiety through On-Demand vehicle access

    OpenAIRE

    King, Christopher; Griggs, Wynita; Wirth, Fabian; Quinn, Karl; Shorten, Robert

    2013-01-01

    On-demand vehicle access is a method that can be used to reduce types of range anxiety problems related to planned travel for electric vehicle owners. Using ideas from elementary queueing theory, basic QoS metrics are defined to dimension a shared fleet to ensure high levels of vehicle access. Using mobility data from Ireland, it is argued that the potential cost of such a system is very low.

  3. Alleviating a form of electric vehicle range anxiety through on-demand vehicle access

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher; Griggs, Wynita; Wirth, Fabian; Quinn, Karl; Shorten, Robert

    2015-04-01

    On-demand vehicle access is a method that can be used to reduce types of range anxiety problems related to planned travel for electric vehicle owners. Using ideas from elementary queueing theory, basic quality of service (QoS) metrics are defined to dimension a shared fleet to ensure high levels of vehicle access. Using mobility data from Ireland, it is argued that the potential cost of such a system is very low.

  4. Waste minimization, recycling and reuse in operations support services fleet maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Government regulations and smart business practices demand that organizations dramatically reduce both the type and volume of waste generated by their operations. This article describes successful waste minimization and recycling programs created by the Fleet Maintenance, Operations Support Services Division, Westinghouse Hanford Company. These comprehensive programs have greatly reduced waste formerly produced in maintaining 3,528 government-owned vehicles and nearly 200 emergency power generators at the Hanford Site. The actions are integral to preventing future contamination of the Site as well as to cleaning up the complexity of wastes from almost 50 years of defense production. The results of the Fleet Maintenance programs are impressive, recording cost savings of $290,000 in fiscal year 1993 and $965,000 since 1988

  5. CERN’s automobile fleet turns a brighter shade of green

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    CERN is partnering with Services Industriels de Genève (SIG) in an environmentally friendly initiative to acquire cars running on natural gas. The first forty vehicles will arrive at CERN around mid-February, and enter service in March.   On 3 February 2011 CERN, represented by Steve Myers at the FEDRE Forum, was awarded the mobility prize. CERN currently has approximately 800 vehicles in use at its different sites. Véronique Marchal, head of Site Services in the GS Department, explains: “Our fleet includes a great variety of vehicles, from small Category A cars for staff to utility/transport vehicles. The decision to acquire cars running on natural gas is part of our strategy of diversifying CERN's automobile fleet so as to make it more environmentally friendly.” The new cars are actually bi-fuel, which means that they will have two tanks: one for regular fuel and one for compressed natural gas (CNG). “This kind of car is a little more exp...

  6. Electric Vehicles in Imperfect Electricity Markets: A German Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market with a game-theoretic model. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine their effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players being in charge of vehicle operations. We find that vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplu...

  7. Prototype design for autonomous vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Lehander, Jacob; Persson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanical design of a prototype vehicle developed for a company located in California. The project was based on an earlier vehicle located at KTH, Transport Labs, and investigated if the existing concept for the vehicle would work as a concept for an autonomous prototype, with focus on component layout and increased forces. The design of the vehicle is based on a concept with a carbon fiber bottom plate, two separate suspension modules with electric hub motors and s...

  8. Impact assessment of road fleet transitions on emissions: The case study of a medium European size country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to examine the impacts of fleet composition changes on emission due to the introduction of different road transportation policies in a medium size European country (Portugal) applying an ex-post analysis (e.g. policies based on fuel pricing, car scraping, car taxation). A baseline scenario was compared with a counterfactual scenario in order to understand what would occur in the absence of the introduction of those policies. For each scenario, four approaches were assessed using economic effects and/or human health costs. HC, CO, NOx, PM and CO2 emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles were evaluated. The results show high statistical significance (p≤0.05) between CO emissions and different vehicle features as vehicle age, fuel type and engine classes. The same pattern was observed between the average vehicle age and HC, NOx and PM. After the implementation of road traffic policies, the average emission factors of the fleet decreased 28–62% for HC, CO, NOx, PM and 20–39% for CO2. However, if a counterfactual scenario would be implemented, the reduction would be 20–80% and 26–55% higher, respectively. The results demonstrates that although were recorded some benefits, the fleet characteristics distribution were more environmental friendly in 2001 than in 2011. - Highlights: • Assess the effects of fleet composition changes on emission in Portugal between 2001 and 2011. • A baseline scenario was compared with a counterfactual scenario. • In the baseline scenario the average emission factors decreased 28–62%. • If a counterfactual scenario would be implemented, the reduction would be 20–80% higher. • High statistical significance was found only between some pollutants and vehicle features

  9. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  10. Charging Schedule for Electric Vehicles in Danish Residential Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2015-01-01

    vehicle owner, vehicle fleet operator and other parties involved in the process could economically benefit from the process. This paper investigates an optimal EV charging plan in Danish residential distribution grids in view of supporting high volumes of wind power in electricity grids. The results of...

  11. Network Topology and Time Criticality Effects in the Modularised Fleet Mix Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Whitacre, James M; Baker, Stephen; Fan, Qi; Sarker, Ruhul A; Abbass, Hussein

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the interplay between network topology and time criticality in a military logistics system. A general goal of this work (and previous work) is to evaluate land transportation requirements or, more specifically, how to design appropriate fleets of military general service vehicles that are tasked with the supply and re-supply of military units dispersed in an area of operation. The particular focus of this paper is to gain a better understanding of how the logistics environment changes when current Army vehicles with fixed transport characteristics are replaced by a new generation of modularised vehicles that can be configured task-specifically. The experimental work is conducted within a well developed strategic planning simulation environment which includes a scenario generation engine for automatically sampling supply and re-supply missions and a multi-objective meta-heuristic search algorithm (i.e. Evolutionary Algorithm) for solving the particular scheduling and routing problems....

  12. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 2, Identification of Vehicles for Installation of Data Loggers for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In Task 1, a survey was completed of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization was used to select vehicles for further monitoring, which involves data logging of vehicle movements in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the list of vehicles selected by MCBCL and Intertek for further monitoring and fulfills the Task 2 requirements.

  13. Robustness and Adaptability Analysis of Future Military Air Transportation Fleets

    OpenAIRE

    Wesolkowski, Dr Slawomir; Mazurek, Michael; Whitacre, Dr James M; Abbass, Dr Hussein; Bender, Dr Axel

    2009-01-01

    Making decisions about the structure of a future military fleet is challenging. Several issues need to be considered, including multiple competing objectives and the complexity of the operating environment. A particular challenge is posed by the various types of uncertainty that the future holds. It is uncertain what future events might be encountered and how fleet design decisions will influence these events. In order to assist strategic decision-making, an analysis of future fleet options n...

  14. Size and transportation capabilities of the existing US cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the current spent nuclear fuel cask fleet capability in the United States. In addition, it assesses the degree to which the current fleet would be available, as a contingency, until proposed Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management casks become operational. A limited fleet of ten spent fuel transportation casks is found to be readily available for use in Federal waste management efforts over the next decade

  15. Coordination of Fleet Battle Experimentation and Joint Experimentation Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Alexander, J.; Gallup, Shelley P.; Bowden, John; Schacher, Gordon E.; Kemple, William E.; Michael G. Sovereign; Maruyama, Xavier K.; Kimmel, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    The Fleet Battle Experiments (FBE) are CNO-initiated series of operational experiments for the purpose of examining emerging systems, technologies and concepts. The Maritime Battle Center (MBC) of the new Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) is the CNO's agent for planning and implementing these experiments in conjunction with the numbered Fleets. FBE-E is the fifth in the series and is under the operational sponsorship of Commander Third Fleet (COMTHIRDFLT) in San Diego. The Naval Pos...

  16. Actual car fleet emissions estimated from urban air quality measurements and street pollution models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to determine emissions from the actual car fleet under realistic driving conditions has been developed. The method is based on air quality measurements, traffic counts and inverse application of street air quality models. Many pollutants are of importance for assessing the adverse impact of the air pollution, e.g. NO2, CO, lead, VOCs and particulate matter. Aromatic VOCs are of special great concern due to their adverse health effects. Measurements of benzene, toluene and xylenes were carried out in central Copenhagen since 1994. Significant correlation was observed between VOCs and CO concentrations, indicating that the petrol engine vehicles are the major sources of VOC air pollution in central Copenhagen. Hourly mean concentrations of benzene were observed to reach values of up to 20 ppb, what is critically high according to the WHOs recommendations. Based on inverse model calculation of dispersion of pollutants in street canyons, an average emission factor of benzene for the fleet of petrol fuelled vehicles was estimated to be 0.38 g/km in 1994 and 0.11 in 1997. This decrease was caused by the reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol since summer 1995 and increasing percentage of cars equipped with three-way catalysts. The emission factors for benzene for diesel-fuelled vehicles were low

  17. 2005 nonroad engine fleet characterization in the Canadian Lower Fraser Valley : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metro Vancouver conducts an emission inventory for the Lower Fraser Valley on a five year basis. This report presented an estimate of the nonroad engine fleet population and emissions in the Canadian portion of the Lower Fraser Valley (CLFV). The nonroad engine fleet includes internal combustion engines of different fuel types used in mobile equipment such as on-road vehicles, aircraft, locomotives and ocean-going marine vessels. Some examples of nonroad equipment that were estimated included agricultural tractors; airport ground equipment; forklifts; excavators; generator sets; lawn mowers; railroad maintenance equipment; pleasure boats; and off-road motorcycles. The purpose of the study was to assist Metro Vancouver and other levels of government in determining what progress has been made in improving air quality, as well as the effect of policies and regulations on the environment in terms of nonroad vehicles. The report presented the objectives of the nonroad engine fleet characterization project which were to review the current data on nonroad engine populations and associated information, and confirm or improve the data through appropriate means; prepare estimates of 2005 emissions in the CLFV based on the revised engine counts using the United States Environmental Protection Agency's nonroad 2005 model; and prepare backcasts and forecasts of the 2005 nonroad engine emission estimates for 1990 to 2030 in five-year increments. Results were presented and analysed into the following 9 equipment type categories: agricultural, airport ground support, commercial, construction, industrial, lawn and garden, railway maintenance, recreational marine and recreational off-road vehicle. Four fuel types were considered for each type of equipment, notably gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gases and compressed natural gas. The report described the methodologies and sources and presented the equipment population data. Emission results for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides

  18. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  19. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  20. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  1. Estimating the early household market for light-duty hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles and other "Mobile Energy" innovations in California: A constraints analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    Facing stiff competition from conventional and gasoline-hybrid vehicles, the commercialization prospects for hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles (H 2FCVs) are uncertain. Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive their adoption, early markets for H 2FCVs are explored in the context of a group of promising opportunities collectively called mobile energy (ME) innovation. An estimate of the initial market potential for ME-enabled vehicles is produced by applying various constraints that eliminate unlikely households from consideration for early adoption of H 2FCVs and other ME technologies (such as plug-in hybrids). Currently 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians live in households pre-adapted to ME-enabled vehicles, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the population as a whole are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H 2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments-which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing H 2FCVs and related ME innovations.

  2. Study of a Shared Autonomous Vehicles Based Mobility Solution in Stockholm

    OpenAIRE

    Rigole, Pierre-Jean

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide an analysis of potential benefits of a fleet of Shared Autonomous Vehicles (SAV) providing a taxi service to replace private car commuter trips in a metropolitan area. We develop a framework for dynamic allocation of SAVs to passenger trips, empty-vehicle routing and multi-criteria evaluation with regard to passenger waiting time, trip time and fleet size. Using a representation of current private trip demand for the Stockholm metropolitan area and a detai...

  3. An evaluation of the acquisition streamlining methods at the Fleet and Industrial Supply Center Pearl Harbor Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Mark Charles

    1999-01-01

    Federal contracting officials are contending with a virtual barrage of reforms, involving new legislation, new contract vehicles, and new business practices - thus changing how agencies are to operate with respect to acquisition streamlining. This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of the Fleet and Industrial Supply Center (FISC) Pearl Harbor's implementation of acquisition streamlining initiatives and recommends viable methods of streamlining the acquisition process at FISC Pearl Harbor and ...

  4. REPORT on the TRUCK BRAKE LINING WORKSHOP and FLEET OPERATORS' SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.

    2003-02-03

    on aftermarket linings. A written fleet operator survey was also conducted during the TMC meeting. Twenty-one responses were received, spanning fleet sizes between 12 and 170,000 vehicles. Responses are summarized in a series of tables separated into responses from small (100 or fewer powered vehicles), medium (101-1000 vehicles), and large fleets (>1000 vehicles). The vast majority of fleets do their own brake maintenance, relying primarily on experience and lining manufactures to select aftermarket linings. At least half of the responders are familiar to some extent with TMC Recommended Practice 628 on brake linings, but most do not use this source of test data as the sole criterion to select linings. Significant shortfalls in the applicability of TMC RP 628 to certain types of brake systems were noted.

  5. An Electric taxi fleet charging system using second life electric car batteries simulation and economical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The industrial car manufacturers see in the high battery price an im-portant obstacle for an electric vehicle mass selling, thus mass production. There-fore, in order to find some cost relieves and better selling opportunities, they look and push forward to find profitable second battery uses. This study presents a sim-ulation and an economical approach for an electric taxi fleet charging system, us-ing these “old” electric car batteries, implemented in the city of Barcelona. The simulation w...

  6. Cheaper Fuels for the Light-Duty Fleet: Opportunities and Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Fraas, Arthur G.; Harrington, Winston; Richard D. Morgenstern

    2013-01-01

    The shale gas revolution in the United States has dropped the price of natural gas (NG) significantly. Combined with new fuel and vehicle technologies, an opportunity exists to expand the use of NG throughout the economy, including in the light-duty fleet of cars and trucks. This expansion could involve the direct combustion of the gas in the form of compressed natural gas or liquid petroleum gas or, alternatively, the use of natural-gas-based liquid fuels such as ethanol or methanol. This pa...

  7. 41 CFR 109-38.903-50 - Reporting DOE motor vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting DOE motor... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.9-Federal Motor Vehicle Fleet Report § 109-38.903-50 Reporting DOE motor vehicle data. (a) DOE offices and designated...

  8. Trends in Aggregate Vehicle Emissions: Do We Need To Emissions Test?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Kahn

    1995-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are falling. As the oldest vehicles in the fleet are scrapped and are replaced by cleaner vehicles, aggregate emissions decline. Given this trend, must costly used car regulation continue? The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires more stringent used car testing without considering the counter-factual of how aggregate emissions would evolve in the absence of more regulation. This paper use data on vehicle scrappage rates, vehicle emissions by model year, and county air quality leve...

  9. Condition Monitoring of the SSE Generation Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SSE (previously known as Scottish and Southern Energy) operates a diverse portfolio of generation plant, including coal, gas and renewable plant with a total generation capacity of 11,375MW (Sept 2011). In recent years a group of specialists dedicated to providing condition monitoring services has been established at the Equipment Performance Centre (EPC) based at Knottingley, West Yorkshire. We aim to illustrate the role of the EPC and the methods used for monitoring the generation fleet with the objective of maintaining asset integrity, reducing risk of plant failure and unplanned outages and describe the challenges which have been overcome in establishing the EPC. This paper describes methods including vibration and process data analysis, model-based techniques and on-site testing used for monitoring of generation plant, including gas turbines, steam turbines, generators and steam raising plant. These condition monitoring processes utilise available data, adding value to the business, by bringing services in-house and capturing knowledge of plant operation for the benefit of the whole fleet.

  10. Economics of symbiotic nuclear fleets at equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many decades of industrial experience have proven that thermal reactors are able to provide a safe, reliable and competitive source of electricity. The higher construction costs of fast reactors compared to thermal reactors could be compensated by their better use of fissile material during the probable fast development of nuclear energy in the first half of the century. Thus, despite the over-cost of their cores, on the longer term, fast reactors are expected to take the lead in the nuclear reactor race. In the mean term, multi-strata symbiotic parks, using high conversion-rate thermal reactors, may delay fast reactor start up. We compare projected fuel cycle costs and cost of electricity of various symbiotic nuclear fleets, on the basis of a simple economic model and elementary costs estimated on publicly available data. These parameters and their evolution over reactor-life time scale can hardly be estimated. That is why we look at the sensitivities of our results to large modifications of the input parameters. The aim of our simple economic model is to understand which reactor characteristics should be optimized to enhance their economic performance when working as a single symbiotic fleet. (authors)

  11. Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Ravn, Hans; Juul, Nina;

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is analysed how a large-scale implementation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles towards 2030 would influence the power systems of five Northern European countries, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Increasing shares of electric vehicles...... (EVs) are assumed; comprising 2.5%, 15%, 34%, and 53% of the private passenger vehicle fleet in 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030, respectively. Results show that when charged/discharged intelligently, EVs can facilitate significantly increased wind power investments already at low vehicle fleet shares....... Moreover, due to vehicle-to-grid capability, EVs can reduce the need for new coal/natural gas power capacities. Wind power can be expected to provide a large share of the electricity for EVs in several of the countries. However, if EVs are not followed up by economic support for renewable energy...

  12. Ethical and economic issues in the use of zero-emission vehicles as a component of an air-pollution mitigation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Tim; Englander, Fred; Englander, Valerie; Hodson, Thomas J; Marpet, Mark

    2002-10-01

    The air pollution generated by motor vehicles and by static sources is, in certain geographic areas, a very serious problem, a problem that exists because of a failure of the marketplace. To address this marketplace failure, the State of California has mandated that by 2003, 10% of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (LDV) be composed of Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs). However, the policy-making process that was utilized to generate the ZEV mandate was problematic and the resulting ZEV mandate is economically unsound. Moreover, an ethical analysis, based primarily upon the work of John Rawls, suggests that implementation of the California ZEV mandate is--in spite of the wide latitude that ought to be given to policy decision makers--unethical. A more ethical and economically efficient approach to the pollution caused by marketplace failure is one that relies on market incentives and thereby achieves the desired improvement in air quality by appealing both to the self-interest of motorists and to those businesses that are directly or indirectly involved with the automobile industry. Such an approach would take better advantage of the creative forces of the market and improvements in technology over time and avoid the infringements on individual liberty and fairness embodied in the ZEV mandate. PMID:12501725

  13. 40 CFR 86.418-78 - Test fleet selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 86.418-78 Section 86.418-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.418-78 Test fleet selection. (a) Test...

  14. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile electricity" technologies, early California household markets, and innovation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett David

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" (Me-) is characterized. Me- redefines H2 FCVs as innovative products able to provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. To characterize such opportunities, this study first integrates and extends previous analyses of H2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. It uses a new model to estimate zero-emission-power vs. zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. Next, the initial market potential for Me- enabled vehicles, such as H2FCVs and plug-in hybrids, is estimated by eliminating unlikely households from consideration for early adoption. 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians in the 2000 Census live in households pre-adapted to Me-, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. The possible sales base represented by this population is discussed. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the population as a whole are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments-which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing Me- innovations. Next, Me-H2FCV commercialization issues are raised from the perspectives of innovation, product development, and strategic marketing. Starting with today's internalcombustion hybrids, this discussion suggests a way to move beyond the battery vs. fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the

  15. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; DeLuchi, Mark A.; Sperling, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, we analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in California for two target years, 1995 and 2010. We consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. We find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electr...

  16. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Solar Photovoltaic Energy Penetration in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generators under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.

  17. Present Status and Marketing Prospects of the Emerging Hybrid-Electric and Diesel Technologies to Reduce CO2 Emissions of New Light-Duty Vehicles in California

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andy

    2004-01-01

    This report is concerned with the present status of emerging technologies that can be utilized in light-duty vehicles in the next five to ten years to significantly reduce their CO2 emissions. The emerging technologies considered are modern clean diesel engines and hybrid-electric powertrains using batteries. The status of each of these technologies is assessed based on available information and data from the literature. In addition, the present marketing situation for each technology is summ...

  18. Diesel vehicle and urban burning contributions to black carbon concentrations and size distributions in Tijuana, Mexico, during the Cal-Mex 2010 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, S.; Russell, L. M.; Shores, C. A.; Marr, L. C.; Zheng, J.; Levy, M.; Zhang, R.; Castillo, E.; Rodriguez-Ventura, J. G.; Quintana, P. J. E.; Subramanian, R.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) was characterized by three complementary techniques - incandescence (single particle soot photometer, SP2, at Parque Morelos), light absorption (cavity ringdown spectrometer with integrating nephelometer, CRDS-Neph, at Parque Morelos and Aethalometers at seven locations), and volatility (volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer, V-TDMA) during the Cal-Mex 2010 campaign. SP2, CRDS-Neph, and Aethalometer measurements characterized the BC mass, and SP2 and V-TDMA measurements also quantified BC-containing particle number, from which mass-mean BC diameters were calculated. On average, the mass concentrations measured in Tijuana (1.8 ± 2.6 μg m-3 at Parque Morelos and 2.6 μg m-3 in other regions of Tijuana) were higher than in San Diego or the international border crossing (0.5 ± 0.6 μg m-3). The observed BC mass concentrations were attributable to nighttime urban burning activities and diesel vehicles, both from the local (Baja California) and transported (Southern California) diesel vehicle fleets. Comparisons of the SP2 and co-located Aethalometers indicated that the two methods measured similar variations in BC mass concentrations (correlation coefficients greater than 0.85), and the mass concentrations were similar for the BC particles identified from nighttime urban burning sources. When the BC source changed to diesel vehicle emissions, the SP2 mass concentrations were lower than the Aethalometer mass concentrations by about 50%, likely indicating a change in the mass absorption efficiency and quantification by the Aethalometers. At Parque Morelos there were up to three different-sized modes of BC mass in particles: one mode below 100 nm, one near 100 nm, and another between 200 and 300 nm. The mode between 200 and 300 nm was associated with urban burning activities that influenced the site during evening hours. When backtrajectories indicated that airmasses came from the south to the Parque Morelos site, BC mass in particles was

  19. Designing of a Fleet-Leader Program for Carbon Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L.N.; Phoenix, S. Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases on board spacecraft when mass saving is a prime requirement. Substantial weight savings can be achieved compared to all metallic pressure vessels. For example, on the space shuttle, replacement of all metallic pressure vessels with Kevlar COPVs resulted in a weight savings of about 30 percent. Mass critical space applications such as the Ares and Orion vehicles are currently being planned to use as many COPVs as possible in place of all-metallic pressure vessels to minimize the overall mass of the vehicle. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads during long periods of a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is, therefore, important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since it is practically impossible to show by experimental testing the reliability of flight quality vessels. Also, it is a common practice to set aside flight quality vessels as "fleet leaders" in a test program where these vessels are subjected to slightly accelerated operating conditions so that they lead the actual flight vessels both in time and load. The intention of fleet leaders is to provide advanced warning if there is a serious design flaw in the vessels so that a major disaster in the flight vessels can be averted with advance warning. On the other hand, the accelerating conditions must be not so severe as to be prone to false alarms. The primary focus of the present paper is to provide an analytical basis for designing a viable fleet leader program for carbon COPVs. The analysis is based on a stress rupture behavior model incorporating Weibull statistics and power-law sensitivity of life to fiber stress level.

  20. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Passenger Traffic Fleets in Asian Cities: Technology, Driving Activities, and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Huynh, H. V.; Saikawa, E.

    2015-12-01

    The road transport sector is the major emission source of toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large Asian cities. This paper comparatively analyzed on-road passenger traffic fleets (cars, buses, taxis, motorcycles), using local data collected in cities of Bangkok (BKK), Kathmandu, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and Yangon. Surveys were done in 2010-2014 to obtain information on vehicle technology, driving activities (speed, distance, number, and types of starts), traffic density, and fuel characteristics. Large shares of pre-Euro vehicles were still observed, especially for public buses. The most advanced technology was Euro4, which was observed in small shares (traffic jams. Natural gas and LPG had considerable shares in BKK and Yangon while for other cities diesel and gasoline were still the two major fuels used in transportation. Running emission factors (EF) of buses and taxis in Kathmandu were considerably higher than other cities due to its hilly topography, low speeds, high mileage, and less advanced vehicle technologies. The number of passenger vehicles per 1000 people were 400-500 in HCMC and Hanoi (mainly by MC) and in BKK (also by cars), moderate in Kathmandu (200) and the lowest in Yangon (40) because of the MC ban. Annual emissions of the passenger fleets were calculated for each city using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) for 14 species. BC and OC emissions were estimated using their fractions of PM10 emission. Annual emission per capita of toxic air pollutants and GHGs was analyzed. For example, the emission in kg/year/person for CO, VOC, NOx and PM10 in these cities was 24-150 for CO, 0.9-23 for VOC, 2.1-8.2 for NOx and 0.2-1.1 for PM10. The highest per capita emissions of CO and VOC were found for HCMC and the lowest for Yangon, which showed the influence of MC fleet. The per capita emission of Kathmandu was ranked second among the cities. Our results were also analyzed in comparison with the per capita emission estimated

  2. Simulating the impact of policy, energy prices and technological progress on the passenger car fleet in Austria-A model based analysis 2010-2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the effects of policy, fuel prices and technological progress on the Austrian passenger car fleet in terms of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To analyse these effects a simulation model is used. We model the car fleet from a bottom-up perspective, with a detailed coverage of vehicle specifications and propulsion technologies. The model focuses on the technological trend toward electrified propulsion systems and their potential effects on the fleet's energy consumption and GHG emissions. To represent the impact of prices and income on the development of the fleet, we combine the fleet model with top-down demand models. We developed two scenarios for the time frame 2010-2050, using two different sets of assumptions for regulatory development and conditions of increasing fossil fuel prices and continuous technological progress in vehicle propulsion technologies. The results indicate that material cuts in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be achieved with changes to the political framework for passenger cars. Appropriate taxation of fuels and cars can stabilise demand for individual motorised transport and lead to an improvement in vehicle efficiency by fostering the adoption of efficient vehicle propulsion technologies and low carbon fuels. - Highlights: → We present a simulation model for future energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in passenger car transport. → We develop scenarios up to 2050 assuming two different policy schemes. → Policy strongly affects energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in passenger car transport. → Policy can slow down growth in demand for passenger car transport. → Policy can promote the diffusion of more efficient propulsion technologies and low carbon fuels.

  3. Simulating the impact of policy, energy prices and technological progress on the passenger car fleet in Austria-A model based analysis 2010-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloess, Maximilian, E-mail: kloess@eeg.tuwien.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Energy Economics Group, Gusshausstrasse 25-29, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Mueller, Andreas, E-mail: mueller@eeg.tuwien.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Energy Economics Group, Gusshausstrasse 25-29, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-09-15

    This paper investigates the effects of policy, fuel prices and technological progress on the Austrian passenger car fleet in terms of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To analyse these effects a simulation model is used. We model the car fleet from a bottom-up perspective, with a detailed coverage of vehicle specifications and propulsion technologies. The model focuses on the technological trend toward electrified propulsion systems and their potential effects on the fleet's energy consumption and GHG emissions. To represent the impact of prices and income on the development of the fleet, we combine the fleet model with top-down demand models. We developed two scenarios for the time frame 2010-2050, using two different sets of assumptions for regulatory development and conditions of increasing fossil fuel prices and continuous technological progress in vehicle propulsion technologies. The results indicate that material cuts in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be achieved with changes to the political framework for passenger cars. Appropriate taxation of fuels and cars can stabilise demand for individual motorised transport and lead to an improvement in vehicle efficiency by fostering the adoption of efficient vehicle propulsion technologies and low carbon fuels. - Highlights: > We present a simulation model for future energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in passenger car transport. > We develop scenarios up to 2050 assuming two different policy schemes. > Policy strongly affects energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in passenger car transport. > Policy can slow down growth in demand for passenger car transport. > Policy can promote the diffusion of more efficient propulsion technologies and low carbon fuels.

  4. Fleet-wide Emissions from Mobile CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, H.; Thurlow, M. E.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Fung, I. Y.; Harley, R.

    2014-12-01

    In response to regional and municipal policies, transportation agencies are increasingly integrating greenhouse gas considerations into decision making. At the local level, fuel-based methods suffer leakage, mandating a bottom-up approach based on emissions models driven by local activity data. However, high spatial and temporal resolution traffic datasets are in general scarce and subject to error. Emissions models too are based on limited data and often require inputs that are not directly measured. Here, we show that routine, on-road CO2 surface measurements can be used to improve uncertainties on both of these fronts. Using forty hours of surface concentration data collected on CA Highway 24 together with a simple atmospheric dispersion model, we simultaneously derive traffic density as a function of vehicle speed, composite vehicle parameters needed to map vehicle operation to fuel consumption, and baseline meteorological parameters such as wind speed and mixing height. We compare our results directly with traffic loop detector measurements made by California's Performance Measurement System (PeMS), with emissions predictions from EPA's MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), and with weather station data included in NOAA's Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS). Using both top-down and bottom-up techniques, we measure the immediate rush-hour emissions reduction associated with congestion alleviation following the opening of the Caldecott Tunnel fourth bore. We use this example to argue that routine and distributed on-road measurements of this kind could serve as a much needed policy tool for testing the impact of traffic-related emissions reduction strategies.

  5. How Packaging Fleet Renewal Fits French CEA Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CEA's (French Atomic Energy Agency) packaging fleet is dedicated to transportation of test irradiated fuels, of research reactors fuels, of navy propulsion fuels, and of waste coming from and to nuclear plants or facilities. This fleet encompasses more than 30 types of casks ranging from 5 to 30 tons, with either recent designs or other dating back to the seventies. A study has been launched in order to perform a global analysis of the life expectancy of the existing CEA and COGEMA Logistics cask fleets with respect to a 2015 target, in order to anticipate its renewal, while limiting the number of type of cask. Key elements like periodical evolutions of design and transport regulations, lessons learnt of existing casks (design, approval and extensions, operational feedback, maintenance and dismantling) are taken into account in order to ensure compliance and availability of the fleet. Moreover, from design to cask delivery, including regulatory tests, safety analysis report/ CoC, and manufacturing, 3 to 5 years is needed. Therefore cask development should be taken into account earlier of invest and research's programs. The paper will address the current life expectancy study of CEA and COGEMA Logistics packaging fleet, based on lessons learnt and regulation evolution and on general R and D plans by user facilities. It will show how a comprehensive optimized fleet is made available to CEA and other customers. Such a fleet combines optimized investment and uses, thus entailing synergies for well-mastered costs of transports. (authors)

  6. Effects of Vehicle Speed and Engine Load on Motor Vehicle Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Kean, Andrew J.; Harley, Robert A.; Kendall, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory studies have provided a foundation of knowledge regarding vehicle emissions, but questions remain regarding the relationship between on-road vehicle emissions and changes in vehicle speed and engine load that occur as driving conditions change. Light-duty vehicle emissions of CO, NOx, and NMHC were quantified as functions of vehicle speed and engine load in a California highway tunnel for downhill and uphill traffic on a _4% grade. Emissions were measured throughout the day; averag...

  7. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are commonly recognized as smart grid assets in addition to their environmental benefits. However, uncoordinated charging or sole cost minimization based charging of electric vehicles may bring undesirable peak demands and voltage violations in the distribution system. This...... paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...... actors are considered: distribution system operator (DSO), fleet operators and EV owners. In the lower level of the hierarchy, the fleet operator centrally manages the charging schedule of electric vehicles; in the upper level of the hierarchy, the DSO uses transactive control technique to coordinate the...

  8. Optimal Charging of Electric Drive Vehicles: A Dynamic Programming Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Capion, Karsten Emil; Juul, Nina;

    2013-01-01

    With the integration of fluctuating renewable production into the electricity system, electric-drive vehicles may contribute to the resulting need for flexibility, given that the market conditions provide sufficient economic incentive. To investigate this, we consider the short-term management of...... electric vehicles in a market environment. From the perspective of vehicle operators participating in the electricity spot market, the problem is to optimally charge and discharge the vehicles in response to spot market prices. We consider the case of a vehicle owner who is a price-taker and that of a...... fleet operator who can influence prices. In both cases, we show how the problem is amenable to dynamic programming with respectively linear and quadratic costs. With discretization of the state space, however, the problem of fleet operation is prone to suffer from the curse of dimensionality and...

  9. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  10. Increasing the competitiveness of maintenance contract rates by using an alternative methodology for the calculation of average vehicle maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies tend to outsource transport to fleet management companies to increase efficiencies if transport is a non-core activity. The provision of fleet management services on contract introduces a certain amount of financial risk to the fleet management company, specifically fixed rate maintenance contracts. The quoted rate needs to be sufficient and also competitive in the market. Currently the quoted maintenance rates are based on the maintenance specifications of the manufacturer and the risk management approach of the fleet management company. This is usually reflected in a contingency that is included in the quoted maintenance rate. An alternative methodology for calculating the average maintenance cost for a vehicle fleet is proposed based on the actual maintenance expenditures of the vehicles and accepted statistical techniques. The proposed methodology results in accurate estimates (and associated confidence limits of the true average maintenance cost and can beused as a basis for the maintenance quote.

  11. 50 CFR 660.338 - Limited entry permits-small fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry permits-small fleet. 660.338... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.338 Limited entry permits-small fleet. (a) Small limited entry fisheries fleets... another vessel that will continue to operate in the same certified small fleet, provided that the...

  12. 77 FR 21448 - Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort... Fleet Week. 2012 Fleet Week will take place from Wednesday, April 25, 2012 through Monday, April 30... vessels participating in 2012 Fleet Week transit into and out of Port Everglades. The security zone...

  13. Electric vehicles in imperfect electricity markets: The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power market. If excess vehicle batteries can be used for storage, welfare results are reversed: generating firms suffer from the price-smoothing effect of additional storage, whereas power consumers benefit despite increasing overall demand. Strategic players tend to under-utilize the storage capacity of the vehicle fleet, which may have negative welfare implications. In contrast, we find a market power-mitigating effect of electric vehicle recharging on oligopolistic generators. Overall, electric vehicles are unlikely to be a relevant source of market power in Germany in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: → We study the effect of electric vehicles on an imperfectly competitive electricity market. → We apply a game-theoretic model to the German market. → There is a market power-mitigating effect of vehicle loading on oligopolistic generating firms. → Consumers benefit from electric vehicles if excess battery capacity can be used for grid storage. → Electric vehicles are unlikely to be a source of market power in Germany in the near future.

  14. DVD. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Egle Loo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loo, Egle

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalist "Sweeney Todd : The Demon Barber of Fleet Street" Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel : režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  15. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Kaisa Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalile "Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja" (Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel), režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  16. US Tune Purse Seine Fleet History & Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS SWR has collected historical vessel information on the U.S. tuna cannery baitboat and purse seine fleets for many years. The database's first record of a...

  17. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  18. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  19. Intelligent Transportation Technology Elements and Operational Methodologies for Shared-Use Vehicle Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2004-01-01

    There has been significant interest and activity in shared-use vehicle systems as an innovative mobility solution. Shared-use vehicle systems, that is, carsharing and station cars, consist of a fleet of vehicles used by several different individuals throughout the day. Shared-use vehicles offer the convenience of a private automobile and more flexibility than public transportation alone. From the 1990s to today, varying degrees of intelligent transportation system technologies have been appli...

  20. Business fleet refueling assessment. Final report, March 1992-November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report investigates refueling characteristics and capabilities for the light-duty market sector, particularly business automobile fleets. It develops a profile of the characteristics of light-duty and automobile business fleets in 22 designated non-attainment areas, as well as Pittsburgh and Salt Lake City. Reliable data on these subjects will enable better analysis of the market potential for natural gas in the surveyed areas

  1. Discussion on fleet test method for radioactive ore sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing radionuclides in building materials sample with γ-ray spectrometry has become a commonly used laboratory method, in view of the activity of radioactive ore is ten times more than the building materials sample,its fleet test is possible. It discusses the fleet test method for radioactivity ore sample from the 'social production' point of view. Achieving the test quickly and effectively within error permission, so the method can enhance the efficiency of test and reduce the economic cost. (authors)

  2. Automated mission planning for a fleet of micro air vehicules

    OpenAIRE

    Huard, Pierre-Selim; Barnier, Nicolas; Pralet, Cédric

    2007-01-01

    The ENAC University is using and developing the Paparazzi UAV system, which aims to provide a free and fully autonomous autopilot for a fleet of MAV, including fixed wing and rotary wing MAVs. The Paparazzi project has now succeeded in providing a fully autonomous navigation system for multiple fixed-wing aircraft system. One of the main concerns of the project is the development of autonomous decision making algorithms and cooperative behaviour between the different MAV of a fleet to increas...

  3. Role of subsidies in EU fleet capacity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines...... of vessel decommissioning. The Danish fishing fleet case serves as an empirical example in this regard. Comments on the future capacity management regime and the role of subsidies in EU fisheries are offered....

  4. Vehicle technologies, fuel-economy policies, and fuel-consumption rates of Chinese vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the principal ways to reduce transport-related energy use is to reduce fuel-consumption rates of motor vehicles (usually measured in liters of fuel per 100 km). Since 2004, China has implemented policies to improve vehicle technologies and lower the fuel-consumption rates of individual vehicles. Policy evaluation requires accurate and adequate information on vehicle fuel-consumption rates. However, such information, especially for Chinese vehicles under real-world operating conditions, is rarely available from official sources in China. For each vehicle type we first review the vehicle technologies and fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. We then derive real-world (or on-road) fuel-consumption rates on the basis of information collected from various sources. We estimate that the real-world fuel-consumption rates of vehicles in China sold in 2009 are 9 L/100 km for light-duty passenger vehicles, 11.4 L/100 km for light-duty trucks, 22 L/100 km for inter-city transport buses, 40 L/100 km for urban transit buses, and 24.9 L/100 km for heavy-duty trucks. These results aid in understanding the levels of fuel consumption of existing Chinese vehicle fleets and the effectiveness of policies in reducing on-road fuel consumption, which can help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► Vehicle fuel-consumption rate (VFCR) data are rarely available in China. ► We review the fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. ► We derive real-world VFCRs on the basis of information collected from various sources. ► Results aid in understanding the fuel consumption levels of Chinese vehicle fleets. ► Results help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies.

  5. Evaluation of the Yokosuka base for the U.S. Navy Pacific Fleet operation

    OpenAIRE

    Haruki, Hideyuki

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This research concerns evaluation of the Yokosuka base for the U.S. Navy Pacific Fleet operation. The research will focus on fleet operating costs and required fleet assets for a given level of operation. In particular, I will examine what value in terms of fleet operating costs and assets does the United States receive using the Yokosuka base to deploy its fleet in Asia. A computer model will be developed to evaluate this benefit and...

  6. Segmentation of Aegean Fishing Fleet and Spatial Distribution of Fishing Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Ilke Kosar Danisman

    2013-01-01

    The data on fishing fleet play an important role in fisheries management. It is an effective method that collection of reliable and regular data on fleet, and these data into information that is needed in terms of fleet management. In this study, it is demonstrated that the segmentation of the Aegean fishing fleet and fishing port based spatial distribution of fishing capacities concerning each fleet segment at the Aegean coast to improve fisheries management.

  7. Performance study about biodiesel impact on buses engines using dynamometer tests and fleet consumption data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Driving cycle affects the fuel impacts on engine emissions and performance. ► Incorporation of biodiesel can improve efficiency for some engine regimes. ► Biodiesel oxygen content probably increases combustion efficiency in engine. ► The consumption of the fleet agrees with the dynamometer results. ► NOx emissions are very sensitive to engine operating conditions. - Abstract: The problem of reducing harmful emissions, mainly particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOxs) originated in compression ignition combustion engines, and also the mandatory intention of lowering the CO2 impacts of road transportation define the need to improve our knowledge on biodiesel use in engines. A 6 in line cylinders Volvo engine was submitted to a 100 min cycle with 27 stabilized steps for seven different fuel blends from pure fossil diesel (B0) to pure biodiesel (B100), considering also B10, B15, B20, B30, B50 fuel blends. The cycle imposed tries to simulate a normal use of a bus in an urban and extra-urban circuit, considering different engine rotation and loads applied. An analysis on consumption data obtained of a fleet was made. The fleet had near 200 buses, used different fuel blends, and operated in the north of Portugal. Results reveal that the cycle imposed reflects very well the tendency of consumption, allowing to confirm the methodology and also to check influences on consumption, mainly associated with possibilities to decrease CO2 emissions by using some biodiesel blends on buses. This allows increasing the quality of data in vehicle real use and tightening the uncertainties on the actual effects of using biodiesel.

  8. Data Query at the AFDC: Using Oracle Data Query to Access Vehicle Demonstration Data at the Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, R. J.

    1994-11-01

    Through funding by the Office of Alternative Fuels of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collects operating data from alternative-fueled vehicles. These vehicles include passenger sedans and light trucks (light-duty vehicles) operating within the federal fleet; heavy-duty trucks operating in private, city, or state fleets and co-funded by DOE; and municipal transit buses operating in revenue service around the country. This document gives examples of accessing the light-duty vehicle data.

  9. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-05-01

    This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

  10. Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Grasman

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan

  11. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  12. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to

  13. Measurement of black carbon emissions from in-use diesel-electric passenger locomotives in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nicholas W.; Apte, Joshua S.; Martien, Philip T.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2015-08-01

    Black carbon (BC) emission factors were measured for a California commuter rail line fleet of diesel-electric passenger locomotives (Caltrain). The emission factors are based on BC and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the exhaust plumes of passing locomotives, which were measured from pedestrian overpasses using portable analyzers. Each of the 29 locomotives in the fleet was sampled on 4-20 separate occasions at different locations to characterize different driving modes. The average emission factor expressed as g BC emitted per kg diesel consumed was 0.87 ± 0.66 g kg-1 (±1 standard deviation, n = 362 samples). BC emission factors tended to be higher for accelerating locomotives traveling at higher speeds with engines in higher notch settings. Higher fuel-based BC emission factors (g kg-1) were measured for locomotives equipped with separate "head-end" power generators (SEP-HEPs), which power the passenger cars, while higher time-based emission factors (g h-1) were measured for locomotives without SEP-HEPs, whose engines are continuously operated at high speeds to provide both head-end and propulsion power. PM10 emission factors, estimated assuming a BC/PM10 emission ratio of 0.6 and a typical power output-to-fuel consumption ratio, were generally in line with the Environmental Protection Agency's locomotive exhaust emission standards. Per passenger mile, diesel-electric locomotives in this study emit only 20% of the CO2 emitted by typical gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (i.e., cars). However, the reduction in carbon footprint (expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents) due to CO2 emissions avoidance from a passenger commuting by train rather than car is appreciably offset by the locomotive's higher BC emissions.

  14. Measurement of black carbon emissions from in-use diesel-electric passenger locomotives in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, N. W.; Kirchstetter, T.; Martien, P. T.; Apte, J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) emission factors were measured for a California commuter rail line fleet of diesel-electric passenger locomotives (Caltrain). The emission factors are based on BC and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the exhaust plumes of passing locomotives, which were measured from pedestrian overpasses using portable analyzers. Each of the 29 locomotives in the fleet was sampled on 4-20 separate occasions at different locations to characterize different driving modes. The average emission factor expressed as g BC emitted per kg diesel consumed was 0.87 ± 0.66 g kg-1 (±1 standard deviation, n = 362 samples). BC emission factors tended to be higher for accelerating locomotives traveling at higher speeds with engines in higher notch settings. Higher fuel-based BC emission factors (g kg-1) were measured for locomotives equipped with separate "head-end" power generators (SEP-HEPs), which power the passenger cars, while higher time-based emission factors (g h-1) were measured for locomotives without SEP-HEPs, whose engines are continuously operated at high speeds to provide both head-end and propulsion power. PM10 emission factors, estimated assuming a BC/PM10 emission ratio of 0.6 and a typical power output-to-fuel consumption ratio, were generally in line with the Environmental Protection Agency's locomotive exhaust emission standards. Per passenger mile, diesel-electric locomotives in this study emit only 20% of the CO2 emitted by typical gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (i.e., cars). However, the reduction in carbon footprint (expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents) due to CO2 emissions avoidance from a passenger commuting by train rather than car is appreciably offset by the locomotive's higher BC emissions.

  15. A Transactions Choice Model for Forecasting Demand for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Brownstone, David; Bunch, David S.; Golob, Thomas F.; Ren, Weiping

    1996-01-01

    The vehicle choice model developed here is one component in a micro-simulation demand forecasting system being designed to produce annual forecasts of new and used vehicle demand by vehicle type and geographic area in California. The system will also forecast annual vehicle miles traveled for all vehicles and recharging demand by time of day for electric vehicles. The choice model specification differs from past studies by directly modeling vehicle transactions rather than vehicle holdings. T...

  16. 78 FR 24817 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ..., social media content, text-based advertising and marketing, or text- based messages. The display of..., 77 FR 11200 (Feb. 24, 2012). Since light vehicles comprise the vast majority of the vehicle fleet... marketing, or text-based messages. These recommendations are not intended to prevent the display of...

  17. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Ziegler, Richard E [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Smith, Richard L [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL; Brooks, Daniel L [ORNL; Wiegman, Herman [GE Global Research; Miller, Nicholas [GE; Marano, Dr. Vincenzo [Ohio State University

    2008-07-01

    In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions (see Table 1 for complete list). By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consistent set of assumptions and model parameters can be established for use in more elaborate Phase 2 case studies. The project team chose southern California as the Phase 1 case study location because the economic, environmental, social, and regulatory conditions are conducive to the advantages of PHEVs. Assuming steady growth of PHEV sales over the next two decades, PHEVs are postulated to comprise approximately 10% of the area's private vehicles (about 1,000,000 vehicles) in 2030. New PHEV models introduced in 2030 are anticipated to contain lithium-ion batteries and be classified by a blended mileage description (e.g., 100 mpg, 150 mpg) that demonstrates a battery size equivalence of a PHEV-30. Task 3 includes the determination of data, models, and analysis procedures required to evaluate the Phase 1 case study scenario. Some existing models have been adapted to accommodate the analysis of the business model and establish relationships between costs and value to the respective consumers. Other data, such as the anticipated California generation mix and southern California drive cycles, have also been gathered for use as inputs. The collection of models that encompasses the technical, economic, and financial aspects of Phase 1 analysis has been chosen and is described in this deliverable. The role of PHEV owners, utilities (distribution systems, generators, independent system operators (ISO), aggregators, or regional transmission operators (RTO)), facility owners, financing institutions, and other third parties are also defined.

  18. Clean Cities 2016 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2016 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  19. Fuels demand by light vehicles and motorcycles In Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jose Manoel Antelo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the consumption of gasoline, alcohol and natural gas vehicle (NGV) by light vehicles and motorcycles in Brazil. Through the estimation of fleets per consumption class, in an environment influenced by a new engine technology (flex-fuel), this exercise estimates the fleet-elasticity of cars (and motorcycles) powered by gasoline, hydrated alcohol, natural gas vehicle (NGV) and flex-fuel, in addition to the income elasticity within the period from January, 2000 to December, 2008. This paper uses an alternative variable as income proxy and estimates the five different fleets through the combination of vehicles sales and scrapping curves. This paper's conclusion is that given specific issues of the Brazilian fuel market, in special prices and technological innovations, the fleets' equations for the consumption of the three fuels represent in a more significant manner the relationships expected between supply and demand variables than the commonly used functions of prices and income. (author)

  20. Clean Cities 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-02-11

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  1. 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  2. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  3. EDISON – Study on optimal grid integration of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foosnæs, Anders Holm; Andersen, Claus Amtrup; Christensen, Linda;

    2011-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both individual car owners, and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners incl...

  4. 48 CFR 945.570-2 - Acquisition of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agencies. All requisitions (GSA Form 1781) shall be processed in accordance with 41 CFR 101-26.501. (d... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of motor... Acquisition of motor vehicles. (a) The GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (GSA-IFMS) is the first...

  5. Transport control of forest fuels by fleet manager, mobile terminals and GPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chip transportation is undertaken by private transportation enterprises that are contracted by a larger wood fuel trader. Compared with industrial roundwood supply the volumes and value of wood fuel supply are markedly lower. As a result, the possibilities to invest in information systems for transport management are limited. New portable, wireless communication techniques and internet-based systems for fleet management enable more cost-efficient control systems with low investment costs in hard and software and also low operating costs. Mobile handsets with GPS, digital road map display and global positioning systems (GPS) or general purpose radio service data transfer protocol can be used as mobile terminals in chippers and trucks. In addition, transport management personnel can use them to locate in-forest wood fuel storage piles into the map database as well as point suitable routing to the storage piles. In a pilot study, conducted in Central Finland, an internet based management tool, Arbonaut Fleet ManagerTM, was tailored for forest fuel supply chain management and trailed for three months. It was found that use of mobile handsets with GPS and map display assisted especially in exact location of in-forest wood fuel storage piles by managers. They assisted also trucks and chippers in navigation to storages and landings, but the screen was too small for reading during driving. The management system was found helpful in stock accounting and GPS-based vehicle tracking gave transportation distances directly for invoicing

  6. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  7. Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

  8. Technical Issues Associated With the Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends (>E10) in the U.S. Legacy Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, Bechtold [Alliance Technical Services; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Timbario, Tom [Alliance Technical Services; Goodman, Marc [Alliance Technical Services

    2007-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in assessing the impact of using intermediate ethanol blends (E10 to E30) in the legacy fleet of vehicles in the U.S. fleet. The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify the issues associated with intermediate ethanol blends with an emphasis on the end-use or vehicle impacts of increased ethanol levels; (2) assess the likely severity of the issues and whether they will become more severe with higher ethanol blend levels, or identify where the issue is most severe; (3) identify where gaps in knowledge exist and what might be required to fill those knowledge gaps; and (4) compile a current and complete bibliography of key references on intermediate ethanol blends. This effort is chiefly a critical review and assessment of available studies. Subject matter experts (authors and selected expert contacts) were consulted to help with interpretation and assessment. The scope of this report is limited to technical issues. Additional issues associated with consumer, vehicle manufacturer, and regulatory acceptance of ethanol blends greater than E10 are not considered. The key findings from this study are given.

  9. Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.

    1999-01-01

    The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

  10. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887) off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo A. Abitia-Cárdenas; Felipe Galván-Magaña; Víctor H Cruz-Escalona; Peterson, Mark S.; Jesús Rodríguez-Romero

    2011-01-01

    The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus), and jumbo squid (Dosi...

  11. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887) off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Abitia Cárdenas, Leonardo Andrés; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Cruz Escalona, Víctor Hugo; Peterson, Mark S.; Rodriguez Romero, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus), California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus), and jumbo squid (Dosi...

  12. Inter-annual and seasonal trends in cetacean distribution, density and abundance off southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, GS; Thomas, L; Whitaker, K.; Douglas, AB; Calambokidis, J.; Hildebrand, JA

    2015-01-01

    Funding was provided by the Chief of Naval Operations Environmental Readiness Division, the United States Navy’s Pacific Fleet, the Naval Postgraduate School Grant #N00244-11-1-027, and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Living Marine Resources Program. Trends in cetacean density and distribution off southern California were assessed through visual line-transect surveys during thirty-seven California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) cruises from July 2004–Novemb...

  13. Interfacing the existing cask fleet with the MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possibility of using the existing fleet of casks to achieve spent fuel receipt at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The existing cask fleet includes the NLI-1/2, the NAC-LWT, the TN-8 (and TN-8L), the TN-9, and the IF-300 casks. Other casks may be available, but their status is not certain. Use of the existing cask fleet at the MRS places additional design requirements on the system, and specifically affects the cask-to-MRS interface. The decision to use the existing cask fleet also places additional demands on training needs and operator certification, and the configuration management system. Some existing cask designs may not be able to mate with a bottom opening hot cell MRS. Use of the existing cask fleet also greatly increases the number of shipments that must be received, to the point that a facility larger than originally envisioned may be required

  14. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO2-emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market. The

  15. Implementation Approach for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on Joint Base Lewis McChord (JBLM), which is located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at JBLM to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and the types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of select vehicles were identified and vehicle movements were recorded in data loggers in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. In Task 3, the results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements0, as well as the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the JBLM fleet.

  16. ITS Technologies in Military Wheeled Tactical Vehicles: Status Quo and the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Army operates and maintains the largest trucking fleet in the United States. Its fleet consists of over 246,000 trucks, and it is responsible for buying and developing trucks for all branches of the armed forces. The Army's tactical wheeled vehicle fleet is the logistical backbone of the Army, and annually, the fleet logs about 823 million miles. The fleet consists of a number of types of vehicles. They include eight different families of trucks from the High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicles to M900 series line haul tractors and special bodies. The average age of all the trucks within the Army fleet is 15 years, and very few have more than traditional driving instrumentation on-board. Over the past decade, the Department of Transportation's (DOT's) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program has conducted research and deployment activities in a number of areas including in-vehicle systems, communication and telematics technologies. Many current model passenger vehicles have demonstrated the assimilation of these technologies to enhance safety and trip quality. Commercial vehicles are also demonstrating many new electronic devices that are assisting in making them safer and more efficient. Moreover, a plethora of new technologies are about to be introduced to drivers that promise greater safety, enhanced efficiency, congestion avoidance, fuel usage reduction, and enhanced trip quality. The U.S. Army has special needs with regard to fleet management, logistics, sustainability, reliability, survivability, and fuel consumption that goes beyond similar requirements within the private industry. In order to effectively apply emerging ITS technologies to the special needs of the U.S. Army, planning for the conduct of the Army's Vehicle Intelligence Program (AVIP) has now commenced. The AVIP will be focused on the conduct of research that: (1) will apply ITS technologies to the special needs of the Army, and (2) will conduct research for special needs

  17. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  18. RuCool Operational Oceanography: Using a Fleet of Autonomous Ocean Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graver, J.; Jones, C.; Glenn, S.; Kohut, J.; Schofield, O.; Roarty, H.; Aragon, D.; Kerfoot, J.; Haldeman, C.; Yan, A.

    2007-05-01

    At the Rutgers University Coastal Ocean Observation Lab (RU-COOL), we have constructed a shelf-wide ocean observatory to characterize the physical forcing of continental shelf primary productivity in the New York Bight (NYB). The system is anchored by four enabling technologies, which include the international constellation of ocean color satellites, multi-static high frequency long-range surface current radar, real-time telemetry moorings, and long duration autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Operation of the observatory is through a centralized computer network dedicated to receiving, processing and visualizing the real-time data and then disseminating results to both field scientists and ocean forecasters over the World Wide Web. The system was designed to conduct cutting edge research requiring the addition of rapidly evolving technologies, and to serve society by providing sustained data delivered in real-time. Rutgers COOL continues to work closely with Webb Research Corporation (WRC) in testing and development of the Slocum underwater gliders and continues to apply Slocum gliders in field operations spanning the globe. The continued strong collaboration between WRC and Rutgers has led to advances in glider operations and applications. These include deployment/recovery techniques, improvements in durability and reliability, integrated sensors suites, salinity spike removal, and adaptive controls utilized to optimize mission goals and data return. The gliders have gathered numerous data sets including salt intrusions as seen off of New Jersey, plume tracking, biological water sample matching, and operation through Hurricane Ernesto in 2006. This talk will detail recent oceanographic experiments in which the fleet has been deployed and improvements in the operation of these novel robotic vehicles. These experiments, in locations around the world, have resulted in significant new work in operation of underwater gliders and have gathered new and unique data

  19. Discards of the Spanish fleet in ICES Divisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Contreras, M.N. (María Nélida); Pereda-Pérez, P. (Pilar); Uriarte, A. (Andres); Trujillo-Gorbea, V. (Valentín); Olaso-Toca, L.I. (Luis Ignacio); Lens, S. (Santiago)

    1993-01-01

    Study Contract DG XIV. Ref N°. : PEM /93/005 Objectives: 1. To estimate the discards of commercial and non-commercial species, including pinnipeds, cetaceans, sea turtles and sea birds, incidentally caught by different fishing gears of the Spanish fleets in ICES Divisions. 2. To estimate of the total volume and/or number discarded by fleet in each ICES Division by scaling-up the results of the sampling programme using data on the fishing effort. 3. To obtain the size comp...

  20. A PDDL Domain for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Coles, Amanda; Coles, Andrew;

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  1. From Concept to Design: Progress on the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Ares Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with national policy and NASA's Global Exploration Strategy, the Ares Projects Office is embarking on development of a new launch vehicle fleet to fulfill the national goals of replacing the space shuttle fleet, returning to the moon, and exploring farther destinations like Mars. These goals are shaped by the decision to retire the shuttle fleet by 2010, budgetary constraints, and the requirement to create a new fleet that is safer, more reliable, operationally more efficient than the shuttle fleet, and capable of supporting long-range exploration goals. The present architecture for the Constellation Program is the result of extensive trades during the Exploration Systems Architecture Study and subsequent refinement by the Ares Projects Office at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  2. Science at Sea: Meeting Future Oceanographic Goals with a Robust Academic Research Fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Fleet, COEOTNOR; Board, OS; Studies, DOEAL; Council, NR

    2009-01-01

    Meeting Future Oceanographic Goals with a Robust Academic Research Fleet Committee on Evolution of the National Oceanographic Research Fleet, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council ...

  3. Operator Informational Needs for Multiple Autonomous Small Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Cichella, Venanzio; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, Syed Bilal; Cross, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated explosion of small unmanned aerial vehicles, it is highly likely that operators will be controlling fleets of autonomous vehicles. To fulfill the promise of autonomy, vehicle operators will not be concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead, they will deal with the overall mission. Furthermore, the one operator to many vehicles is becoming a constant meme with various industries including package delivery, search and rescue, and utility companies. In order for an operator to concurrently control several vehicles, his station must look and behave very differently than the current ground control station instantiations. Furthermore, the vehicle will have to be much more autonomous, especially during non-normal operations, in order to accommodate the knowledge deficit or the information overload of the operator in charge of several vehicles. The expected usage increase of small drones requires presenting the operational information generated by a fleet of heterogeneous autonomous agents to an operator. NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator has brought together researchers in various disciplines including controls, trajectory planning, systems engineering, and human factors to develop an integrated system to study autonomy issues. The initial human factors effort is focusing on mission displays that would give an operator the overall status of all autonomous agents involved in the current mission. This paper will discuss the specifics of the mission displays for operators controlling several vehicles.

  4. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-29

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles.

  5. Recruitment to the Norwegian fishing fleet: storylines, paradoxes, and pragmatism in Norwegian fisheries and recruitment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of actors in the Norwegian fisheries consider recruitment of fishers to be the main future challenge for the Norwegian fishing fleet. As fleet recruitment is a highly politicized field, the problem of how to mitigate the recruitment problem is a subject of heavy debate. Some argue that recruitment problems are caused by low fleet profitability, while others argue that recruitment problems are caused by fleet restructuring polices. This article aims to explore th...

  6. A concise guide to effective management of the public works equipment fleet

    OpenAIRE

    De Armas, Vicente.

    1996-01-01

    CIVINS The purpose of this report is to present in a concise form the principles and fundamentals of managing the public works equipment fleet, providing a basis from which to develop an effective fleet management program. The report begins with a review of today's trends in fleet management, including, organization, privatization, effects of environmental regulations and a discussion on information management systems. Subsequent chapters discuss the basic fleet management functions such a...

  7. Optimization Model and Algorithm Design for Airline Fleet Planning in a Multiairline Competitive Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Wang; Hong Sun; Jinfu Zhu; Bo Zhu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multiobjective mathematical programming model to optimize airline fleet size and structure with consideration of several critical factors severely affecting the fleet planning process. The main purpose of this paper is to reveal how multiairline competitive behaviors impact airline fleet size and structure by enhancing the existing route-based fleet planning model with consideration of the interaction between market share and flight frequency and also by applying the con...

  8. A Fuel-Based Approach to Estimating Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Brett

    1998-01-01

    Motor vehicles contribute significantly to air pollution problems; accurate motor vehicle emission inventories are therefore essential to air quality planning. Current travel-based inventory models use emission factors measured from potentially biased vehicle samples and predict fleet-average emissions which are often inconsistent with on-road measurements. This thesis presents a fuel-based inventory approach which uses emissions factors derived from remote sensing or tunnel-based measurement...

  9. Impact of plug-in electric vehicles on the supply grid

    OpenAIRE

    Balcells Sendra, Josep; García, Josep

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a case study describing the impact of charging process of plug in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) and all electrical vehicles (EV) on the supply grid. The paper shows the distortion produced in the grid by the simultaneous charge of a large fleet of vehicles and the corrective actions taken to guarantee the Electromagnetic Compatibility with other loads in the same grid. The goal of the investigation was to establish a design guide for parking facilities. Peer Reviewed

  10. Enabling Accelerated Installation of Aftermarket On-Board Equipment for Connected Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    CHAN, Ching-Yao

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes previous findings and describes recent developments with regards to rapid introduction of aftermarket on-board equipment (OBE) devices for connected vehicles to the vehicle fleet. An integration assessment for aftermarket OBE devices will be discussed. An analysis of outside market forces that may affect driver adoption of connected vehicle technologies is shared. Finally, recommendations are provided for strategic approaches to foster the rapid introduction of aftermar...

  11. S/EV 92 (Solar and Electric Vehicles): Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Volume I of these proceedings presents current research on solar and electric powered vehicles. Both fundamental and advanced concepts concerning electric vehicles are presented. The use of photovoltaic cells in electric vehicles and in a broader sense as a means of power generation are discussed. Information on electric powered fleets and races is included. And policy and regulations, especially pertaining to air quality and air pollution abatement are presented.

  12. The Design and Development of the University of California, Davis FutureCar

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Brian; Friedman, David; Burch, Kevin; Frazier, Cameron; Kilmer, Derek; Scheiblich, Tad; Funston, David; Chattot, Eric; McGoldrick, Tim; Carlson, Richard

    1997-01-01

    The UC Davis FutureCar team has redesigned a 1996 For Taurus as a hybrid electric vehicle with the goals of tripling the fuel economy, achieving California ultra low emissions levels (ULEV), and qualifying for partial zero emissions vehicle (ZEV) credits in California. These goals are to be achieved by using a highly efficient powertrain, reducing vehicle weight, and improving stock vehicle aerodynamics. A charge-depletion parallel hybrid was chosen to maximize energy economy and provide subs...

  13. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  14. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  15. 75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week... Hawthorne and Steel Bridges in Portland, Oregon during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2... and other vessels participating in Fleet Week as well as the maritime public in general and will do...

  16. 76 FR 40617 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving... while each vessel is participating in the Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored following... security of the vessels from sabotage or other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week Parade of...

  17. 77 FR 44475 - Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving...: The Coast Guard will enforce Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels Security Zones from 12:00 p.m... ensure the security of the vessels from sabotage or other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet...

  18. 75 FR 45055 - Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving... acts during Seafair Fleet Week and will do so by prohibiting any person or vessel from entering or... of visiting foreign vessels in the 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week event. Basis and Purpose...

  19. 77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay... Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime Festival's Pier 66 Safety Zone in Elliott Bay, WA from 8 a.m... Guard will enforce the Safety Zone for the Fleet Week Maritime Festival in 33 CFR 165.1330 on August...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1121 - Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Fleet Supply... Guard District § 165.1121 Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. (a... feet from the north, west, and south sides of the Fleet Industrial Supply Center enclosed by...

  1. 75 FR 82141 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Maritime Administration Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study... and comments to inform the Maritime Administration's U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study... different locations to maximize stakeholder participation. The U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet...

  2. 47 CFR 80.55 - Application for a fleet station license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for a fleet station license. 80.55... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.55 Application for a fleet... different vessels on the same application. Under these circumstances a fleet station license may be...

  3. 76 FR 31351 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet... availability of Office of Vessel Activities Policy Letter 11-05 regarding Distant Water Tuna Fleet vessels... allow a distant water tuna fleet vessel to engage foreign citizens under a temporary manning...

  4. 78 FR 72070 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing... Atlantic Fleet study area as described in Alternative 2 for the proposed action. Under Alternative 2, the... for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing, dated August 2013 and supporting documents. Single copies...

  5. 77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco... will enforce the safety zone for the Fleet Week Fireworks in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco...'' W (NAD83) for the Fleet Week Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191, Table 1, item number 25. This safety...

  6. 76 FR 1521 - Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San... Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier. The pier is no longer owned by the U.S. Navy and the existing... of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. The existing security zone is around the former Fleet...

  7. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Truck Fleet Survey AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet managers. DATES: Comments must be received within 60 days of...- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey. Background: The Energy Independence and Security Act...

  8. Optimal charging of electric drive vehicles in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Trine Krogh; Capion, Karsten Emil; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With a potential to facilitate the integration of renewable energy into the electricity system, electric drive vehicles may offer a considerable flexibility by allowing for charging and discharging when desired. This paper takes the perspective of an aggregator that manages the electricity market...... participation of a vehicle fleet and presents a framework for optimizing charging and discharging of the electric drive vehicles, given the driving patterns of the fleet and the variations in market prices of electricity. When the aggregator is a price-taker the optimization can be stated in terms of linear...... programming whereas a quadratic programming formulation is required when he/she has market power. A Danish case study illustrates the construction of representative driving patterns through clustering of survey data from Western Denmark and the prediction of electricity price variations through regression on...

  9. Emergency response arrangements for the Pacific Nuclear Transport Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilst the likelihood of an incident occurring during the transportation of radioactive material is very small and the safety arrangements are extensive, any organisation involved should ensure that comprehensive emergency management arrangements are in place. Details of the particular emergency response arrangements adopted for the Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited (PNTL) Fleet are covered by this paper. (author)

  10. Kowloon Shangri-La,Hong Kong Launches New Limousine Fleet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In its constant pursuit to offer the highest level of services and luxury to its guests, Kowloon Shangri-La, Hong Kong has launched a new fleet of limousines, including seven bespoke Mercedes-Benz S350L Series sedans and two five-seat Viano vans. Together with the two existing seven-seat vans, Kowloon Shangri-La, Hong Kong

  11. FLEET for Unseeded Velocity Measurements in All Speed Regimes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FLEET uses a 100 fs laser to excite a multi-photon process that makes the gas (N2 or air) glow.  Images of the glowing gas taken at set time intervals allow...

  12. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  13. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  14. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller;

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  15. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress...

  16. Closure report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations steam-cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Closure Report (CR) provides documentation of the completed corrective action at the Area 12 Fleet Operations site located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Field work was performed in July 1997 as outlined in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The CAP was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in June 1997. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) Number 12-19-01 and is the only CAS in Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. The former Area 12 Fleet Operations Building 12-16 functioned as a maintenance facility for light- and heavy-duty vehicles from approximately 1965 to January 1993. Services performed at the site included steam-cleaning, tire service, and preventative maintenance on vehicles and equipment. Past activities impacted the former steam-cleaning discharge area with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil

  17. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... connectivity, mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology...... and governing the flow of data among them. In pervasive computing, composing services is, however, not the whole story. To fully realize their potential, applications must also deal with challenges such as device heterogeneity, context awareness, openendedness, and resilience to dynamism in network...

  18. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – Cumulative; Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper

  20. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887) off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico Tasa de consumo diario de alimento de Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887) frente a Cabo San Lucas, golfo de California, México

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo A. Abitia-Cárdenas; Felipe Galván-Magaña; Víctor H Cruz-Escalona; Peterson, Mark S.; Jesús Rodríguez-Romero

    2011-01-01

    The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus), and jumbo squid (Dosi...

  1. Field Operations Program - U.S. Postal Service - Fountain Valley Electric Carrier Route Vehicle Testing; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) has ordered 500 light-duty electric carrier route vehicles (ECRV) mostly for their delivery carriers to use in several California locations. The 500 ECRVs have been defined as a demonstration fleet to support a decision of potentially ordering 5,500 additional ECRVs. Several different test methods are being used by the USPS to evaluate the 500-vehicle deployment. One of these test methods is the ECRV Customer Acceptance Test Program at Fountain Valley, California. Two newly manufactured ECRVs were delivered to the Fountain Valley Post Office and eighteen mail carriers primarily drove the ECRVs on ''park and loop'' mail delivery routes for a period of 2 days each. This ECRV testing consisted of 36 route tests, 18 tests per vehicle. The 18 mail carriers testing the ECRVs were surveyed for the opinions on the performance of the ECRVs. The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Field Operations Program, is supporting the USPS's ECRV testing activities both financially and with technical expertise. As part of this support, Field Operations Program personnel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have compiled this report based on the data generated by the USPS and its testing contractor (Ryerson, Master and Associates, Inc.) During the 36 route tests, the two test vehicles were driven a total of 474 miles, averaging 13 mile per test. The distance of the 36 route tests ranged from 4 to 34 miles. Both miles driven and State-of-Charge (SOC) data was collected for only 28 of the route tests. During these 28 tests, the ECRVs were driven a total of 447 miles. The SOC used during the 28 tests averaged a 41% decrease and the average distance driven was 16 miles. This suggests that a 16-mile route uses almost half of the ECRV's battery energy. The 18 carriers also rated 12 ECRV traits that included the physical design of the ECRVs as well as their performance. Based on a scale of 1 being the lowest and 5 being

  2. Comparisons of air quality impacts of fleet electrification and increased use of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air quality impacts of the partial electrification of the transportation fleet and the use of biofuels (E85) were modeled for the Austin Metropolitan Statistical Area, based on a 2030 vision of regional development. Changes in ozone precursor emissions and predicted ozone, carbon monoxide and aldehyde concentrations were estimated for multiple electrification and biofuel scenarios. Maximum changes in hourly ozone concentration from the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for 17% of the vehicle miles traveled ranged from - 8.5 to 2.2 ppb, relative to a base case with no electrification and minimal biofuel use, depending on time of day and location. Differences in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentration ranged from - 2.3 to 0.004 ppb. Replacement of all gasoline fuels with E85 had a smaller effect than PHEVs on maximum daily ozone concentrations. Maximum ozone changes for this scenario ranged from - 2.1 to 2.8 ppb and the difference in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentrations ranged from - 1.53 to 0 ppb relative to the base case. The smaller improvements in maximum ozone concentrations associated with extensive (100%) use of biofuels, compared to a smaller (17%) penetration of PHEVs, suggests that higher levels of PHEV penetration may lead to even greater improvements; however, the higher penetration would require expansion of the electrical grid capacity. The air quality impacts of the PHEVs would then depend on the emissions associated with the added generation.

  3. Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

  4. A Dynamic Algorithm for Facilitated Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Taheri, Nicole; Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) are a rapidly developing technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and change the way vehicles obtain power. PEV charging stations will most likely be available at home and at work, and occasionally be publicly available, offering flexible charging options. Ideally, each vehicle will charge during periods when electricity prices are relatively low, to minimize the cost to the consumer and maximize societal benefits. A Demand Response (DR) service for a fleet of PEVs could yield such charging schedules by regulating consumer electricity use during certain time periods, in order to meet an obligation to the market. We construct an automated DR mechanism for a fleet of PEVs that facilitates vehicle charging to ensure the demands of the vehicles and the market are met. Our dynamic algorithm depends only on the knowledge of a few hundred driving behaviors from a previous similar day, and uses a simple adjusted pricing scheme to instantly assign feasible and satisfactory c...

  5. Analysis of motorcycle fleet in Hanoi for estimation of air pollution emission and climate mitigation co-benefit of technology implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Thuy Phuong, Mai Thi; Permadi, Didin Agustian

    2012-11-01

    A fleet of over two million motorcycles (MC) in Hanoi is believed to contribute a substantial emission of air pollutants and climate forcers but has not been thoroughly characterized. This study conducted a survey of the MC technologies and activities in Hanoi using questionnaires, GPS monitoring, and video camera in 2008. The data were collected for three typical road types (highways, arterials, residential streets) in 3 zones of the city. Majority of MC in Hanoi were relatively new (3.6 years), had 4-stroke engine, but only 6% was equipped with catalyst exhaust control devices. About 35% of the fleet did not comply with any EURO standards. The MC daily driving was 20 km, mostly done on arterial streets. The main driving features in Hanoi arterials and residential streets were of low speeds with frequent starts/stops and idling. International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model produced adjusted emission factors (EFs) that were compared with the limited available measurement data. The fleet emission was estimated for 2008 as a base case and for two “what-if” faster technology implementation scenarios: scenario 1 assumed that the entire fleet in 2008 conformed at least EURO2 and scenario 2 assumed 100% MC met the EURO3 standard. Total emissions from the fleet in 2008 of CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, PM10, and CH4 were 158, 51.5, 9.5, 0.17, 2.4 and 9.5 kt, respectively. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehydes, formaldehydes and benzene were 0.26, 1.2, 4.9 and 2.1 kt, respectively. Faster EURO3 technology intrusion in scenario 2 would significantly reduce the emission of pollutants (by 53-94%) and climate forcers in CO2-equivalent (53% for 20-year and 38% for 100-year horizon), which tripled the reductions obtained under scenario 1. Substantial co-benefits for air quality and climate forcer mitigation could be achieved by the faster technology implementation.

  6. Model-Based Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.

    2010-12-01

    Medium-duty vehicles are used in a broad array of fleet applications, including parcel delivery. These vehicles are excellent candidates for electric drive applications due to their transient-intensive duty cycles, operation in densely populated areas, and relatively high fuel consumption and emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a robust assessment of parcel delivery routes and completed a model-based techno-economic analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle configurations. First, NREL characterized parcel delivery vehicle usage patterns, most notably daily distance driven and drive cycle intensity. Second, drive-cycle analysis results framed the selection of drive cycles used to test a parcel delivery HEV on a chassis dynamometer. Next, measured fuel consumption results were used to validate simulated fuel consumption values derived from a dynamic model of the parcel delivery vehicle. Finally, NREL swept a matrix of 120 component size, usage, and cost combinations to assess impacts on fuel consumption and vehicle cost. The results illustrated the dependency of component sizing on drive-cycle intensity and daily distance driven and may allow parcel delivery fleets to match the most appropriate electric drive vehicle to their fleet usage profile.

  7. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles:“Mobile Electricity†Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Brett D.

    2007-01-01

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called “Mobile Electricity†is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services...

  8. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  9. Effects of diesel particle filter retrofits and accelerated fleet turnover on drayage truck emissions at the Port of Oakland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, Timothy R; Harley, Robert A; Kirchstetter, Thomas W

    2011-12-15

    Heavy-duty diesel drayage trucks have a disproportionate impact on the air quality of communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. In an attempt to mitigate this impact, the state of California has mandated new emission control requirements for drayage trucks accessing ports and rail yards in the state beginning in 2010. This control rule prompted an accelerated diesel particle filter (DPF) retrofit and truck replacement program at the Port of Oakland. The impact of this program was evaluated by measuring emission factor distributions for diesel trucks operating at the Port of Oakland prior to and following the implementation of the emission control rule. Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) were quantified in terms of grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of fuel burned using a carbon balance method. Concentrations of these species along with carbon dioxide were measured in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks as they drove by en route to the Port. A comparison of emissions measured before and after the implementation of the truck retrofit/replacement rule shows a 54 ± 11% reduction in the fleet-average BC emission factor, accompanied by a shift to a more highly skewed emission factor distribution. Although only particulate matter mass reductions were required in the first year of the program, a significant reduction in the fleet-average NO(x) emission factor (41 ± 5%) was observed, most likely due to the replacement of older trucks with new ones. PMID:22039954

  10. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: - Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see

  11. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Steven; Gowri, Krishnan; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Richard M.

    2013-12-01

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  12. Dismantling Russia's Northern Fleet Nuclear Submarines: environmental and proliferation risks

    OpenAIRE

    Snell, Benjamin Aaron.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis examines the 1986 Chernobyl accident and its consequences as the basis for an analysis of the possible dimensions of the nuclear catastrophes that could occur during the dismantlement process of Russia's Northern Fleet nuclear submarines. It assesses the potential demographic, ecological, and economic consequences of a nuclear accident. Given the systemic problems at Russian nuclear facilities, the risks of a catastrophic event in the poorly maintained and operated submarine yards...

  13. Fleet renewal: An approach to achieve sustainable road transport

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlović Aleksandar V.; Papić Vladimir D.; Filipović Snežana M.; Jovanović Vojkan D.

    2011-01-01

    With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail...

  14. A dynamic management of a public transportation fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Ireneusz Celiński; Grzegorz Sierpiński

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present paper deals with the problems of a public transportation fleet management in public transportation operators. A management concept is proposed based on a real-time acquisition of parameters of public transportation passenger exchange. Methods: The relevant research utilised video materials documenting the processes of passenger exchange in public transportation. The proposed methodology is based on a dynamic real-time measurement of passenger streams. A chara...

  15. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  16. Extending tactical fleet communications through VoIP

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, David T.

    2014-01-01

    TheNavy's Fleet is in need of tactical voice communication systems that are highly reliable, protected from cyber threats, and able to operate in a denied or degraded environment. Many of theNavy's current systems rely on outdated and inefficient technology, which reduces the overall effectiveness of our tactical communication channels and also limits the accessibility of these systems to communications challenged areas within ships. This research examines the capabilities, limitations, and o...

  17. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Du; Chuanwang Sun; Jinxian Weng

    2016-01-01

    Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes...

  18. Simultaneous Fleet Deployment and Network Design of Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub loca...... confirm superiority of our approach in comparison with a general-purpose mixed integer programming solver....

  19. Influence of Capacity Constraints on Airline Fleet Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Mark M.; Gosling, Geoffrey D.; Margulici, Jean-David; Wei, Wen-Bin

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the findings of research sponsored by the Los Angeles World Airports to examine the influence of airport capacity constraints on airline fleet mix and to explore the potential effects of policy options to influence airlines to use larger aircraft types and thereby accommodate growth in passenger or cargo demand without a corresponding increase in the number of aircraft operations. This issue is of growing importance at many major airports in the United States and indeed ...

  20. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  1. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  2. Genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volna, Eva

    2016-06-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization tasks. This problem consists in designing the optimal set of routes for fleet of vehicles in order to serve a given set of customers. Evolutionary algorithms are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. These algorithms have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains. This problem is known to be NP-hard; hence many heuristic procedures for its solution have been suggested. For such problems it is often desirable to obtain approximate solutions, so they can be found fast enough and are sufficiently accurate for the purpose. In this paper we have performed an experimental study that indicates the suitable use of genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem.

  3. Topological characterization of safe coordinated vehicle motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILGRAM.R. JAMES; KAUFMAN,STEPHEN G.

    2000-04-03

    This paper characterizes the homotopy properties and the global topology of the space of positions of vehicles which are constrained to travel without intersecting on a network of paths. The space is determined by the number of vehicles and the network. Paths in the space correspond to simultaneous non-intersecting motions of all vehicles. The authors therefore focus on computing the homotopy type of the space, and show how to do so in the general case. Understanding the homotopy type of the space is the central issue in controlling the vehicles, as it gives a complete description of the distinct ways that vehicles may move safely on the network. The authors exhibit graphs, products of graphs, and amalgamations of products of graphs that are homotopy equivalent to the full configuration space, and are far simpler than might be expected. The results indicate how a control system for such a network of vehicles (such as a fleet of automatically guided vehicles guided by wires buried in a factory floor) may be implemented.

  4. Pilot project for vehicle scrapping in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    Accelerated vehicle scrappage programs have been suggested as a possible means to clean the air in urban areas by allowing sponsoring entities to generate emissions credits through the purchase and scrapping of older, high-emitting vehicles. Although two previous car scrapping projects had been executed, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) decided that doing another project would be productive. The authors wanted to further explore certain aspects of vehicle scrappage and concentrate on specific characteristics of the local vehicle fleet to determine how such programs should be considered for credit generation in Illinois. The IEPA, in conjunction with two contractual consultants and a combined team from General Motors and the Environmental Defense Fund, designed a pilot project that would investigate the feasibility of a large scale vehicle scrappage program in the Chicago area. The Illinois Cash for Clunkers project introduced several attributes that had not been part of previous scrappage efforts. The project purchased 207 vehicles from southern Chicago and the southern suburbs. All vehicles were tested using an IM 240 test procedure with a purge and pressure analysis of evaporative emissions. The total average emissions per car in grams per mile for testable cars were found to be: Hydrocarbons (HC), 16.09; Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), 4.81; Carbon Monoxide (CO), 62.42; and Carbon Dioxide (CO2), 496.3.

  5. Wind to Hydrogen in California: Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonia, O.; Saur, G.

    2012-08-01

    This analysis presents a case study in California for a large scale, standalone wind electrolysis site. This is a techno-economic analysis of the 40,000 kg/day renewable production of hydrogen and subsequent delivery by truck to a fueling station in the Los Angeles area. This quantity of hydrogen represents about 1% vehicle market penetration for a city such as Los Angeles (assuming 0.62 kg/day/vehicle and 0.69 vehicles/person) [8]. A wind site near the Mojave Desert was selected for proximity to the LA area where hydrogen refueling stations are already built.

  6. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontela, Pablo [Hybrid Systems Area of R and D Unit, BESEL S.A., Av del mediterraneo 22, Parque Tecnologico de Leganes, Leganes (Spain); Soria, Antonio [Area of Hybrid Systems Area of R and D Unit, BESEL S.A. (Spain); Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, Jose Francisco; de Blas, Juan [R and D Unit, BESEL S.A. (Spain); Gauchia, Lucia [Electric engineering Department, Carlos III University, Universidad Carlos III, Av. Universidad 30, Leganes (Spain); Martinez, Juan M. [Electric engineering Department, Carlos III University (Spain)

    2007-06-10

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness,..), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions. (author)

  7. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  8. Optimization Model and Algorithm Design for Airline Fleet Planning in a Multiairline Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multiobjective mathematical programming model to optimize airline fleet size and structure with consideration of several critical factors severely affecting the fleet planning process. The main purpose of this paper is to reveal how multiairline competitive behaviors impact airline fleet size and structure by enhancing the existing route-based fleet planning model with consideration of the interaction between market share and flight frequency and also by applying the concept of equilibrium optimum to design heuristic algorithm for solving the model. Through case study and comparison, the heuristic algorithm is proved to be effective. By using the algorithm presented in this paper, the fleet operational profit is significantly increased compared with the use of the existing route-based model. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the fleet size and structure are more sensitive to the increase of fare price than to the increase of passenger demand.

  9. Black carbon, particle number concentration and nitrogen oxide emission factors of random in-use vehicles measured with the on-road chasing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ježek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The chasing method was used in an on-road measurement campaign, and emission factors (EF of black carbon (BC, particle number (PN and nitrogen oxides (NOx were determined for 139 individual vehicles of different types encountered on the roads. The aggregated results provide EFs for BC, NOx and PN for three vehicle categories: goods vehicles, gasoline and diesel passenger cars. This is the first on-road measurement study where BC EFs of numerous individual diesel cars were determined in real-world driving conditions. We found good agreement between EFs of goods vehicles determined in this campaign and the results of previous studies that used either chasing or remote sensing measurement techniques. The composition of the sampled car fleet determined from the national vehicle registry information is reflective of Eurostat statistical data on the Slovenian and European vehicle fleet. The median BC EF of diesel and gasoline cars that were in use for less than 5 years, decreased by 60 and 47% from those in use for 5–10 years, respectively, the median NOx and PN EFs, of goods vehicles that were in use for less than five years, decreased from those in use for 5–10 years by 52 and 67%, respectively. The influence of engine maximum power of the measured EFs showed an increase in NOx EF from least to more powerful vehicles with diesel engines. Finally a disproportionate contribution of high emitters to the total emissions of the measured fleet was found; the top 25% of emitting diesel cars contributed 63, 47 and 61% of BC, NOx and PN emissions respectively. With the combination of relatively simple on-road measurements with sophisticated post processing individual vehicles EF can be determined and useful information about the fleet emissions can be obtained by exactly representing vehicles which contribute disproportionally to vehicle fleet emissions; and monitor how the numerous emission reduction approaches are reflected in on-road driving

  10. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  11. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  12. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  13. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ramsden, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  14. California Gillnet Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessels, logbooks, fish size and landings data for three fleets of gillnet vessels that operate within 200 mile of the U.S. west coast,...

  15. Size and transportation capabilities of the existing U.S. cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the current spent nuclear fuel cask fleet capability in the United States. It assesses the degree to which the current fleet would be available, as a contingency, until proposed Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management casks become operational. A limited fleet of ten spent fuel transportation casks is found to be readily available for use in Federal waste management efforts over the next decade

  16. The effect of foldable containers on the costs of container fleet management in liner shipping networks

    OpenAIRE

    Koichi Shintani; Rob Konings; Akio Imai

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the way in which foldable containers could potentially lower the costs of container fleet management in liner shipping networks. An integer programming model is used to obtain an optimal fleet mix of foldable and standard containers. It emerges that savings could be realised in the management costs of container fleets by applying a proper combination of the two. It also emerges that the economic viability of foldable containers depends on the level of trade imbalances an...

  17. The Fleet Support community : meeting its mission in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Murdy, Deanna M.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of the Fleet Support community's management practices in meeting the dynamic changes in the complex fleet support arena, while increasing its value to the Navy in the future. The Fleet Support community's mission statement was used as a benchmark in the evaluation process. Data on billet base management, accession policies, education and the detailing process were evaluated against the mission statement to determine the extent to which these practices s...

  18. An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Feng; Yiran Chen; Bo Sun; Songjie Li

    2014-01-01

    An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceab...

  19. Maritime fleet size and mix problems : An optimization based modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Steffensen, Martin-Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis addresses the maritime fleet size and mix problem (MFSMP). Finding the optimal fleet size and mix of ships for future needs is arguably the single most important decision of a ship owner. This thesis has examined the accuracy with which a developed mathematical formulation of the problem is at predicting fleet demand under various conditions. The FSM model that has been studied is an extension of a model already established by the MARFLIX project. Because of the thesis lin...

  20. Selection and Implementation of a Flagship Fleet in a Locally Undervalued Region of High Endemicity

    OpenAIRE

    Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Armesto, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Flagships are one conservation education tool. We present a proposed flagship species fleet for environmental education in central Chile. Our methods followed recent flagship guidelines. We present our selection process and a detailed justification for the fleet of flagship species that we selected. Our results are a list of eight flagship species forming a flagship fleet, including two small- and medium-sized mammals, the degu (Octodon degus) and the culpeo fox (Lycalopex culpeaus), two bird...