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Sample records for california san diego

  1. Convair Astronautics, San Diego (California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira & Luckmam, Arquitectos

    1960-05-01

    Full Text Available Este brillante y espectacular complejo industrial se ha creado especialmente para la investigación y fabricación de cohetes intercontinentales y vehículos del espacio de las Fuerzas Aéreas de los EE. UU., en las proximidades de San Diego y cerca del campo de pruebas de Sycamore Canyon.

  2. 76 FR 75908 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    .... Matthews, Vice Chancellor Resource Management & Planning, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman... the criteria in 43 CFR 10.11(c)(1) should contact Gary C. Matthews, Vice Chancellor...

  3. 77 FR 66910 - Environmental Impact Statement, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... San Diego County, California (Federal Register Vol. 72, No 10; FR Doc E7-491) will be withdrawn. FOR... Highway Administration--California Division, 401 B Street, Suite 800, San Diego, CA 92101, Regular Office.... April, Deputy District Director--Environmental, Caltrans District 11, 4050 Taylor Street, MS 242,...

  4. San Diego, California 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second San Diego, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid...

  5. San Diego, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Diego, CA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  6. Examination of spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus pollutant bioaccumulation in San Diego Bay, San Diego, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad L. Loflen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus is an important recreational sport and subsistence food fish within San Diego Bay, a large industrialized harbor in San Diego, California. Despite this importance, few studies examining the species life history relative to pollutant tissue concentrations and the consumptive fishery exist. This study utilized data from three independent spotted sand bass studies from 1989 to 2002 to investigate PCB, DDT, and mercury tissue concentrations relative to spotted sand bass age and growth in San Diego Bay, with subsequent comparisons to published pollutant advisory levels and fishery regulations for recreational and subsistence consumption of the species. Subsequent analysis focused on examining temporal and spatial differences for different regions of San Diego Bay. Study results for growth confirmed previous work, finding the species to exhibit highly asymptotic growth, making tissue pollutant concentrations at initial take size difficult if not impossible to predict. This was corroborated by independent tissue concentration results for mercury, which found no relationship between fish size and pollutant bioaccumulation observed. However, a positive though highly variable relationship was observed between fish size and PCB tissue concentration. Despite these findings, a significant proportion of fish exhibited pollutant levels above recommended state recreational angler consumption advisory levels for PCBs and mercury, especially for fish above the minimum take size, making the necessity of at-size predictions less critical. Lastly, no difference in tissue concentration was found temporally or spatially within San Diego Bay.

  7. Solar energy system performance evaluation-seasonal report for Elcam San Diego, San Diego, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system, Elcam San Diego, was designed to supply domestic hot water heating for a single family residence located in Encinitas, California. System description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, maintenance, and conclusions are presented. The system is a 'Sunspot' two tank cascade type, where solar energy is supplied to either a 66 gallon preheat tank (solar storage) or a 40 gallon domestic hot water tank. Water is pumped directly from one of the two tanks, through the 65 square feet collector array and back into the same tank. Freeze protection is provided by automatically circulating hot water from the hot water tank through the collectors and exposed plumbing when freezing conditions exist. Auxiliary energy is supplied by natural gas. Analysis is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for one full season of operation.

  8. Mexican women seeking safe abortion services in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Daniel; Garcia, Sandra G; Kingston, Jessica; Schweikert, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Except for in Mexico City, abortion is legally restricted throughout Mexico, and unsafe abortion is prevalent. We surveyed 1,516 women seeking abortions in San Diego, California. Of these, 87 women (5.7%) self-identified as Mexican residents. We performed in-depth interviews with 17 of these women about their experiences seeking abortions in California. The Mexican women interviewed were generally well-educated and lived near the U.S.-Mexican border; most sought care in the United States due to mistrust of services in Mexico, and the desire to access mifepristone, a drug registered in the United States for early medical abortion. Several reported difficulties obtaining health care in Mexico or reentering the United States when they had postabortion complications. Several areas for improvement were identified, including outreach to clinics in Mexico. PMID:23066967

  9. 75 FR 56942 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District...

  10. Multibeam bathymetry and selected perspective views offshore San Diego, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Normark, William R.; Driscoll, Neal W.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Gardner, James V.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Iampietro, Pat J.

    2007-01-01

    This set of two posters consists of a map on one sheet and a set of seven perspective views on the other. The ocean floor image was generated from multibeam-bathymetry data acquired by Federal and local agencies as well as academic institutions including: - U.S. Geological Survey mapped from the La Jolla Canyon south to the US-Mexico border using a Kongsberg Simrad multibeam echosounder system (MBES) (March - April 1998). Data and metadata available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1221/. - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and SCRIPPS Institution of Oceanography mapped the majority of the La Jolla Fan Valley including the sea floor to the north and south of the valley using a Seabeam 2100 MBES. Data available at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/multibeam.html. Survey ID, AT07L09, Chief Scientists, Barrie Walden and Joseph Coburn (April 2002). - California State University, Monterey Bay, mapped Scripps Canyon and the head of La Jolla Canyon using a Reson 8101 MBES (October 2001). Data and metadata available at http://seafloor.csumb.edu/SFMLwebDATA.htm. This work was funded by the California Department of Fish and Game California Coastal Conservancy, San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG), California Department of Fish and Game, and Fugro Pelagos mapped the nearshore region out to about 35-40 m. - The sea floor within this image that has not been mapped with MBES is filled in with interpreted bathymetry gridded from single-beam data available at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/hydro.html. Depths are in meters below sea level, which is referenced to Mean Lower Low Water.

  11. SPUR: Moving San Diego, California Schools toward Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    The preparation of a report, slide show, and brochure to promote awareness of the hazards of toxic pest control for school pest management personnel in the San Diego Unified School District is discussed. The future plans of the coalition are proposed. (CW)

  12. California Clean Air Act: A compliance strategy for the City of San Diego`s non-emergency fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Historically, parts of California have had the worst air quality in the nation. The California Energy Commission began experimenting with alternate fuels in the 1970`s in an effort to reduce harmful automobile emissions and hence, improve air quality. It is recognized that the costs to California which result from our air quality problems are immense. Ten to twenty billion dollars each year is the estimated damage in terms of health impacts, materials damages, lost agricultural crop output and forest damages. As the California population increases and health care costs escalate, the total monetary damages from air pollution will increase. The California Energy Commission goal to improve air quality became a mandate in 1988 with the passage of the California Clean Air Act (CCAA). The CCAA requires a revised air quality strategy for the San Diego district since we do not meet State air quality standards for smog, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Smog remains San Diego`s major air quality problem, even though the annual number of days each year over the Federal standard has been reduced by 55 percent in the past ten years. Ten years ago about two-thirds of San Diego`s smog was transported from Los Angeles. Today more than 60 per cent of the days San Diego exceeds the State standard are from locally generated smog. It is estimated that 57% of the reactive hydrocarbon emissions (which react with nitrogen dioxide in the presence of sunlight to form smog) is from cars, trucks and buses. The Air Pollution Control District (part of the County of San Diego) is the office that the Air Resources Board has put in charge of creating regulations and designing strategy to reduce polluting emissions. The purpose of this project is to determine the full cost of acquiring and operating a municipal fleet which meets the mandates of the California Clean Air Act. With that information, a plan to meet the Clear Air Act (CCAA) requirements can be formulated by local government.

  13. Degradation of tributyltin in San Diego Bay, California, waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, P.F.; Valkirs, A.O.; Lee, R.F.

    1986-12-01

    Several experiments were carried out to determine the degradation rate of tributyltin (TBT) in microcosms containing harbor water. Unlabeled or /sup 14/C-labeled tributyltin was added to water samples collected from two stations in San Diego Bay, CA. Degradation rates were determined by calculating the rate of loss of the added parent TBT compound. Calculated half-lives in water collected from a yacht harbor (ambient concentration was 0.5 ..mu..g of TBT/L) were 6 and 7 days for light and dark treatments, respectively. Half-lives from a clean-water site (< 0.03 ..mu..g of TBT/L) were 9 and 19 days for light and dark treatments, respectively. The principal degradation product in all experiments was dibutyltin with lesser amounts of monobutyltin. Complete mineralization, measured by the formation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, proceeded slowly with a half-life of 50-75 days. Tributyltin at high concentrations (744 ..mu..g/L) was not degraded in sunlight, indicating that photolysis was not taking place and that biological degradation was the primary degradative process for TBT at low ambient concentrations.

  14. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Elcam-Tempe, Tempe, Arizona and Elcam-San Diego, San Diego, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The long term economic performance of the solar energy system at its installation site is analyzed and four additional locations selected to demonstrate the viability of the design over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions. The economic analysis of the solar energy systems that were installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California, is developed for these and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f Chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings; year of positive savings; and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainites in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. The results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  15. Local and transported pollution over San Diego, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, M.; Tanner, R. L.; Valente, R. J.; Bairai, S. T.; Koracin, D.; Gertler, A. W.

    Ten air-quality samplings flights were performed over the San Diego metropolitan area during July 2003. One of the objectives of these flights was to assess the contribution of the offshore pollution sources (civilian and military vessels) to the air quality in the region. The flights, which took place during the mid-day hours in the lower levels of the boundary layer, originated offshore and proceeded eastwards through a series of concentric arcs covering an area of approximately 600 km 2. The data from the continuous gas analyzers were translated to image plots that enabled the determination of the impact of the various sources on air quality. The results revealed that the offshore sources could often be detected (at least during five of the 10 flights) from their SO 2 plume. However, the area covered by these plumes and the concentrations were significantly lower than those measured over other parts of the domain due to sources south of the region. It was further observed that vehicular traffic contributed in a major source way to the formation of ozone. During most flights the pollution cloud, originating over the high traffic area in the vicinity of the downtown area, could be tracked 'downwind' until the completion of the photochemical processing. By then, most of the NO X had been converted to NO Z, and peak O 3 levels caused by the local emissions had started to ebb. Also, during most flights boundary layer peak levels of O 3 exceeded 100 ppbv, and in one case were above 140 ppbv.

  16. 75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations.... * * * * * (c) * * * (379) * * * (i) * * * (B) San Diego County Air Pollution Control District. (1) Rule...

  17. University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager Cloud Position Study Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleissl, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Urquhart, B. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Ghonima, M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Dahlin, E. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Nguyen, A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Kurtz, B. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Chow, C. W. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Mejia, F. A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    During the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager Cloud Position Study, two University of California, San Diego Sky Imagers (USI) (Figure 1) were deployed the U.S. Department of Energy(DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains SGP) research facility. The UCSD Sky Imagers were placed 1.7 km apart to allow for stereographic determination of the cloud height for clouds over approximately 1.5 km. Images with a 180-degree field of view were captured from both systems during daylight hours every 30 seconds beginning on March 11, 2013 and ending on November 4, 2013. The spatial resolution of the images was 1,748 × 1,748, and the intensity resolution was 16 bits using a high-dynamic-range capture process. The cameras use a fisheye lens, so the images are distorted following an equisolid angle projection.

  18. Glaucoma at the Hamilton Glaucoma Center and the University of California, San Diego

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert N. Weinreb

    2011-01-01

    @@ Known for its unique cross-disciplinary investigative programs and clinical excellence, the scientists and clinicians at the Hamilton Glaucoma Center of the University of California, San Diego seek to enhance the discovery and translation of innovative research to clinical glaucoma care to prevent and cure glaucoma blindness.With state of the art laboratory and clinical facilities located on the La Jolla campus (Figure 1), the Center is a home for a worldrenowned team of scientists and staff.More than 100 post-doctoral fellows in Glaucoma, many of whom hold distinguished academic positions throughout the world, have been trained at the Hamilton Glaucoma Center and the University of California, San Diego.At the core of Hamilton Glaucoma Center activities are the outstanding faculty that are described below.

  19. Water-balance and groundwater-flow estimation for an arid environment: San Diego region, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Flint

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The coastal-plain aquifer that underlies the San Diego City metropolitan area in southern California is a groundwater resource. The understanding of the region-wide water balance and the recharge of water from the high elevation mountains to the east needs to be improved to quantify the subsurface inflows to the coastal plain in order to develop the groundwater as a long term resource. This study is intended to enhance the conceptual understanding of the water balance and related recharge processes in this arid environment by developing a regional model of the San Diego region and all watersheds adjacent or draining to the coastal plain, including the Tijuana River basin. This model was used to quantify the various components of the water balance, including semi-quantitative estimates of subsurface groundwater flow to the coastal plain. Other approaches relying on independent data were used to test or constrain the scoping estimates of recharge and runoff, including a reconnaissance-level groundwater model of the San Diego River basin, one of three main rivers draining to the coastal plain. Estimates of subsurface flow delivered to the coastal plain from the river basins ranged from 12.3 to 28.8 million m3 yr−1 from the San Diego River basin for the calibration period (1982–2009 to 48.8 million m3 yr−1 from all major river basins for the entire coastal plain for the long-term period 1940–2009. This range of scoping estimates represents the impact of climatic variability and realistically bounds the likely groundwater availability, while falling well within the variable estimates of regional recharge. However, the scarcity of physical and hydrologic data in this region hinders the exercise to narrow the range and reduce the uncertainty.

  20. Assessment of Family Planning Services at Community Pharmacies in San Diego, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Rafie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Levonorgestrel emergency contraception and other contraceptive methods are available over-the-counter (OTC; however youth continue to face a number of barriers in accessing healthcare services, including lack of knowledge of the method, fear of loss of privacy, difficulties in finding a provider, and cost. A descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study of a sample of 112 community pharmacies in San Diego, California was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 to assess community pharmacy practices related to the availability and accessibility of family planning health pharmacy services and products, particularly to youth. A majority (n = 79/112, 70.5% of the pharmacies carried a wide selection of male condoms; however, the other OTC nonhormonal contraceptive products were either not available or available with limited selection. A majority of the pharmacies sold emergency contraception (n = 88/111, 78.6%. Most patient counseling areas consisted of either a public or a semi-private area. A majority of the pharmacy sites did not provide materials or services targeting youth. Significant gaps exist in providing family planning products and services in the majority of community pharmacies in San Diego, California. Education and outreach efforts are needed to promote provision of products and services, particularly to the adolescent population.

  1. San Diego Bay Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Brueggeman, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The San Diego Bay Bibliography references the scientific & gray literature on the Bay up through 1994 and it is NOT current. Compiled from numerous resources (including Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute, Regional Water Quality Control Board, & local library catalogs), it is not comprehensive since so the Bay literature is elusive. In addition, there can be duplicate references varying in completeness. The San Diego Bay Bibliography is the outcome of discussion and networking within ...

  2. Under- and over-nutrition among refugees in San Diego County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinelli, Amanda J; Morris, Meghan D; Rodwell, Timothy C; Moser, Kathleen S; Paida, Paulino; Popper, Steve T; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2011-02-01

    Resettled refugees often arrive in their host country with little knowledge of nutrition or available food choices. We explored nutrition-related issues of recent refugee arrivals to San Diego County-the second largest California resettlement site. In-depth interviews (n = 40) were conducted with refugees, health care practitioners, and refugee service organizations. Content analysis identified nutrition-related themes. Unhealthy weight gain after arrival was the most common concern and was attributed to social pressures among adolescents, food choices and a more sedentary lifestyle. Conversely, undernutrition remained a concern due to poor diets. Factors influencing nutritional problems included continuation of past habits, acculturation, unfamiliarity with available foods and socio-economic influences. The nutritional concerns encountered by resettled refugees in San Diego are not unique to this group but are aggravated by their past experiences, and abrupt changes to food choices and behavior. Addressing contextual factors of poor food choices may prevent some of the long term health consequences of poor nutrition.

  3. 33 CFR 165.T11-304 - Safety zone; Sea World Summer Nights Fireworks; Mission Bay, San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety zone; Sea World Summer Nights Fireworks; Mission Bay, San Diego, California. 165.T11-304 Section 165.T11-304 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  4. Coastal Cactus Wren, San Diego Co. - 2011 [ds708

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the southeast portion of San Diego County....

  5. Coastal Cactus Wren, San Diego Co. - 2009 [ds702

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the southeast portion of San Diego County....

  6. Comprehensive monitoring of meteorology, hydraulics, and thermal regime of the San Diego Aqueduct, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Sturrock, Alex M.

    1979-01-01

    Water temperature, as well as meteorologic and hydraulic variables which influence the energy budget of the San Diego Aqueduct in southern California, were continuously monitored for a 1-year period beginning July 24, 1973. Incoming solar and atmospheric radiation, windspeed and direction, water temperature, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperatures were recorded at 10-minute intervals at each end of the 26-kilometer concrete-lined canal, while flow-rates and stages were determined at hourly intervals for five locations. Although only daily averaged values are presented in this report, all information necessary for the use and interpretation of these data are presented. Windspeeds were minimum during the early morning hours and maximum during the late afternoon; however, they were variable spatially. On the other hand, incoming radiation and absolute vapor pressure varied little from point to point. (Kosco-USGS)

  7. Macrobenthic community response to copper in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Carlos; Mendoza, Guillermo; Levin, Lisa A; Zirino, Alberto; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Porrachia, Magali; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2011-04-01

    We examined Cu contamination effects on macrobenthic communities and Cu concentration in invertebrates within Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California. Results indicate that at some sites, Cu in sediment has exceeded a threshold for "self defense" mechanisms and highlight the potential negative impacts on benthic faunal communities where Cu accumulates and persists in sediments. At sites with elevated Cu levels in sediment, macrobenthic communities were not only less diverse but also their total biomass and body size (individual biomass) were reduced compared to sites with lower Cu. Cu concentration in tissue varied between species and within the same species, reflecting differing abilities to "regulate" their body load. The spatial complexity of Cu effects in a small marina such as SIYB emphasizes that sediment-quality criteria based solely on laboratory experiments should be used with caution, as they do not necessarily reflect the condition at the community and ecosystem levels. PMID:21354577

  8. Comprehensive monitoring of meteorology, hydraulics, and thermal regime of the San Diego Aqueduct, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Sturrock, Alex M.

    1976-01-01

    Water temperature, as well as meteorologic and hydraulic variables which influence the energy budget of the San Diego Aqueduct in southern California, were continuously monitored for a 1-year period beginning July 24, 1973. Incoming solar and atmospheric radiation, windspeed and direction, water temperature, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperatures were recorded at 10-minute intervals at each end of the 26-km concrete-lined canal, while flow rates and stages were determined at hourly intervals for five locations. Although only daily averaged values are presented in this report, all information necessary for the use and interpretation of these data are presented. Windspeeds were minimum during the early morning hours and maximum during the late afternoon; however, they were variable spatially. On the other hand, incoming radiation and absolute vapor pressure varied little from point to point. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Fire risk in San Diego County, California: A weighted Bayesian model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolden, Crystal A.; Weigel, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Fire risk models are widely utilized to mitigate wildfire hazards, but models are often based on expert opinions of less understood fire-ignition and spread processes. In this study, we used an empirically derived weights-of-evidence model to assess what factors produce fire ignitions east of San Diego, California. We created and validated a dynamic model of fire-ignition risk based on land characteristics and existing fire-ignition history data, and predicted ignition risk for a future urbanization scenario. We then combined our empirical ignition-risk model with a fuzzy fire behavior-risk model developed by wildfire experts to create a hybrid model of overall fire risk. We found that roads influence fire ignitions and that future growth will increase risk in new rural development areas. We conclude that empirically derived risk models and hybrid models offer an alternative method to assess current and future fire risk based on management actions.

  10. 78 FR 58878 - Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay... Diego Shark Fest Swim. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants,...

  11. (De)constructing literacy: Education inequalities and the production of space in San Diego, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangeman, Andrew Gerrit

    Since its inception, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and recent additions to the U.S. Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) have elicited a broad swath of responses from the educational community. These responses include critical discussions of how standardized testing requirements proliferate a "teach for the test" mentality that transforms how reading, writing, and mathematics are taught in public schools. This thesis focused specifically on "literacy" in relation to the policies that challenge its status as a subjective form of communication, knowledge sharing, and story-telling. Embedded within the term "literacy" are sets of socially-constructed dualisms such as "good school" vs. "bad school," "literate" vs. "illiterate," and "reader" vs. "test-taker" that are propagated under education reform. Investigating these dualisms involved a mixed methods approach, which included the use of critical theory, geovisualization, and geographic analysis. The resulting data allows for a comprehensive look into the economic, political, social, and cultural forces involved in the production of literate space(s) in San Diego, California.

  12. San Diego's Capital Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article describes San Diego's capital planning process. As part of its capital planning process, the San Diego Unified School District has developed a systematic analysis of functional quality at each of its school sites. The advantage of this approach is that it seeks to develop and apply quantifiable metrics and standards for the more…

  13. Gallegos and Kyle: Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Claude N.

    2007-01-01

    Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California. Dennis Gallegos and Carolyn Kyle. Salinas: Coyote Press, 1998. [Archives of California Prehistory No. 40.] Xiv + 224 pp., 32 figs., 86 tables, 1 appendix. $23.00, (paper).

  14. Water resources and geology of the Los Coyotes Indian Reservation and vicinity, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballog, A.P.; Moyle, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The water resources of the Los Coyotes Indian Reservation, San Diego County, Calif., are sufficient to supply the limited domestic and stock-water needs of the present residents of the reservation. Surface-water runoff is derived from direct precipitation on the area and from intermittent spring flow. Groundwater occurs in the alluvial deposits and in the consolidated rocks where they are highly fractured or deeply weathered. The best potential for groundwater development on the reservation is in the small alluvial basins in the San Ysidro and San Ignacio areas. Most water on the reservation is good to excellent in chemical quality for domestic, stock, and irrigation use. Water from two wells (and one spring), however, exceeds the primary drinking-water standard for nitrate plus nitrate. (USGS)

  15. Species Observations (poly) - San Diego County [ds648

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Created in 2009, the SanBIOS database serves as a single repository of species observations collected by various departments within the County of San Diego's Land...

  16. 75 FR 55975 - Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego... of a bay swim in San Diego Harbor. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety... of the San Diego Bay swim in sufficient time to issue an NPRM without delaying this rulemaking....

  17. Academic Decathlon--San Diego County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    Publicity materials and a brief program description of the 1983 San Diego County (California) Academic Decathlon are presented. The program description discusses the background, subject coverage, and rules of the Academic Decathlon, a program to promote academic excellence among high school juniors and seniors through competition. The Academic…

  18. Proceedings of the Conference on Joint Problem Solving and Microcomputers (San Diego, California, March 31 - April 2, 1983). Technical Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael; And Others

    A group of American and Japanese psychologists, anthropologists, linguists, and computer scientists gathered at the University of California, San Diego, to exchange ideas on models of joint problem solving and their special relevance to the design and implementation of computer-based systems of instruction. Much of the discussion focused on…

  19. University of California San Diego's Program in Medical Education-Health Equity (PRIME-HEq): Training Future Physicians to Care for Underserved Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tamara; Garcia, Katherine Arias; Lopez, Alexis; Bailey, Jacob; Willies-Jacobo, Lindia

    2016-01-01

    The Program in Medicine-Health Equity (PRIME-HEq) at the University of California, San Diego prepares physicians to clinically serve and publicly advocate for underserved communities. In this article we share some of PRIME-HEq's defining features, such as our admissions process, student-directed service-focused elective courses, active community engagement, and multi-disciplinary Master's training. PMID:27524742

  20. A Response to Warren's Review of Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Gallegos, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    The Ballast Point report (Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California) was the first such report to document the complexity of maritime subsistence in San Diego County from circa 6,600 B.P. to 1,300 B.P. It was completed in 1988, and later published by Coyote Press in 1998, "with very minor editing and corrections." CRM reports by their very nature are usually not structured for publication; however, the Coyote Press publishers felt...

  1. San Diego Littoral Cell CRSMP Potential Offshore Borrow Areas 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Offshore sediment sources along the entire reach of the San Diego Coastal RSM Plan region were previously identified by SANDAG and used for Regional Beach Sand...

  2. Baseline Surveys - Tecolote Canyon, San Diego Co. [ds655

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Various resource projects have been conducted in the City of San Diego's Open Space Parks as part of the implementation of the City's Multiple Species Conservation...

  3. Vegetation Mapping - Tecolote Canyon, San Diego Co. [ds656

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vegetation mapping has been conducted at various City of San Diego Park and Recreation Open Space lands in support of natural resource management objectives and the...

  4. Vernal Pool Amphibians, Shrimp, Plants - San Diego [ds188

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 2002, the City of San Diego (City) received funding through a U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Section 6 Planning Grant to complete an inventory and...

  5. San Diego Littoral Cell CRSMP Receiver Sites 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — A total of 27 possible placement sites (some with multiple placement footprints) are incorporated into this San Diego Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan to...

  6. A basin-scale approach for assessing water resources in a semiarid environment: San Diego region, California and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Flint

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many basins throughout the world have sparse hydrologic and geologic data, but have increasing demands for water and a commensurate need for integrated understanding of surface and groundwater resources. This paper demonstrates a methodology for using a distributed parameter water-balance model, gaged surface-water flow, and a reconnaissance-level groundwater flow model to develop a first-order water balance. Flow amounts are rounded to the nearest 5 million cubic meters per year.

    The San Diego River basin is 1 of 5 major drainage basins that drain to the San Diego coastal plain, the source of public water supply for the San Diego area. The distributed parameter water-balance model (Basin Characterization Model was run at a monthly timestep for 1940–2009 to determine a median annual total water inflow of 120 million cubic meters per year for the San Diego region. The model was also run specifically for the San Diego River basin for 1982–2009 to provide constraints to model calibration and to evaluate the proportion of inflow that becomes groundwater discharge, resulting in a median annual total water inflow of 50 million cubic meters per year. On the basis of flow records for the San Diego River at Fashion Valley (US Geological Survey gaging station 11023000, when corrected for upper basin reservoir storage and imported water, the total is 30 million cubic meters per year. The difference between these two flow quantities defines the annual groundwater outflow from the San Diego River basin at 20 million cubic meters per year. These three flow components constitute a first-order water budget estimate for the San Diego River basin. The ratio of surface-water outflow and groundwater outflow to total water inflow are 0.6 and 0.4, respectively. Using total water inflow determined using the Basin Characterization Model for the entire San Diego region and the 0.4 partitioning factor, groundwater outflow from the San Diego region, through

  7. A basin-scale approach for assessing water resources in a semiarid environment: San Diego region, California and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.; Stolp, B.J.; Danskin, W.R.

    2012-01-01

    Many basins throughout the world have sparse hydrologic and geologic data, but have increasing demands for water and a commensurate need for integrated understanding of surface and groundwater resources. This paper demonstrates a methodology for using a distributed parameter water-balance model, gaged surface-water flow, and a reconnaissance-level groundwater flow model to develop a first-order water balance. Flow amounts are rounded to the nearest 5 million cubic meters per year. The San Diego River basin is 1 of 5 major drainage basins that drain to the San Diego coastal plain, the source of public water supply for the San Diego area. The distributed parameter water-balance model (Basin Characterization Model) was run at a monthly timestep for 1940–2009 to determine a median annual total water inflow of 120 million cubic meters per year for the San Diego region. The model was also run specifically for the San Diego River basin for 1982–2009 to provide constraints to model calibration and to evaluate the proportion of inflow that becomes groundwater discharge, resulting in a median annual total water inflow of 50 million cubic meters per year. On the basis of flow records for the San Diego River at Fashion Valley (US Geological Survey gaging station 11023000), when corrected for upper basin reservoir storage and imported water, the total is 30 million cubic meters per year. The difference between these two flow quantities defines the annual groundwater outflow from the San Diego River basin at 20 million cubic meters per year. These three flow components constitute a first-order water budget estimate for the San Diego River basin. The ratio of surface-water outflow and groundwater outflow to total water inflow are 0.6 and 0.4, respectively. Using total water inflow determined using the Basin Characterization Model for the entire San Diego region and the 0.4 partitioning factor, groundwater outflow from the San Diego region, through the coastal plain aquifer to

  8. Water resources of the Santa Ysabel and Mesa Grande Indian Reservations, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckleton, John R.

    1981-01-01

    The Santa Ysabel (consisting of three tracts) and Mesa Grande Indian Reservations are in north-central San Diego County, Calif. On both reservations fractured and weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks and alluvium are water bearing; however, no wells are known to derive their water entirely from alluvium. Well yields range from 2.5 to 250 gallons per minute. Springs occur where saturated fractured or weathered material intersects the land surface. Spring discharge ranged from 0 gallon per minute (November 1979) to 9.4 gallons per minute (November 1979). Few data are available for the surface water characteristics of the study area. One-time measurements of discharge at selected stream sites were made in late November 1979 and late May 1980; discharges ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to an estimated 3 cubic feet per second. Further study of the surface-water systems would provide a basis for estimating their development potential. The existing water-supply development on the Santa Ysabel Indian Reservation is adequate for the present residents. The Mesa Grande reservation was unoccupied in 1952, was reportedly unoccupied in November 1979, and has no developed water supply. Additional water can be developed for both reservations from the igneous and metamorphic rock, from presently undeveloped springs, and from perennial reaches of the larger streams. Except for excessive iron and sodium at some ground-water sites and excessive sodium at a few surface-water sites, the water is of suitable quality for domestic and agricultural use. (USGS)

  9. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, 2004: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 3,900-square-mile (mi2) San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter San Diego) study unit was investigated from May through July 2004 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southwestern California in the counties of San Diego, Riverside, and Orange. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Diego study was designed to provide a statistically robust assessment of untreated-groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 58 wells in 2004 and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as the primary aquifers) were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the San Diego study unit. The San Diego study unit consisted of four study areas: Temecula Valley (140 mi2), Warner Valley (34 mi2), Alluvial Basins (166 mi2), and Hard Rock (850 mi2). The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers. For example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination than groundwater in deep water-bearing zones. This study had two components: the status assessment and the understanding assessment. The first component of this study-the status assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource-was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to

  10. Education in a Global Age: An Inter-California Strategy for the Tijuana-San Diego Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Vásquez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un bosquejo para una estrategia Inter-California que enlazaría las áreas de San Diego y Tijuana como una sola fuerza regional. Esto intenta conceptualizar dos distintas y frecuentemente contradictorias áreas como una sola, haciendo una aproximación a grosso modo de las desiguales condiciones económicas y educativas en ambos lados de la frontera. Se discute la colaboración binacional en el pasado en educación, y se plantean las posibilidades para el futuro de dicha colaboración, ofreciendo recomendaciones y predicciones de las metas que podrían alcanzarse. Llamando a la región Inter-California, el artículotambién argumenta por una identidad global, y específicamente, por una educación que es relevante para la nueva economía, asi como los avances científicos y tecnológicos que están iluminando cada vez más una nueva sociedad global.

  11. Collaborative Problem-Solving Environments; Proceedings for the Workshop CPSEs for Scientific Research, San Diego, California, June 20 to July 1, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, George

    1999-01-11

    A workshop on collaborative problem-solving environments (CPSEs) was held June 29 through July 1, 1999, in San Diego, California. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the High Performance Network Applications Team of the Large Scale Networking Working Group. The workshop brought together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government to identify, define, and discuss future directions in collaboration and problem-solving technologies in support of scientific research.

  12. Cost effectiveness comparison of certain transportation measures to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in San Diego County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    California's overarching mandate to achieve 1990 levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in 2020 (AB 32, 2005), and the ensuing recent regulations (SB 375, CEQA updates) require local and regional governments to assess GHG mitigation policies, including on-road transportation. The regulations do not make cost-effectiveness a primary criteria for choosing measures but cost remains important to a variety of stakeholders. This communication summarizes results from GHG and cost analysis for seven actual San Diego County road transportation policies: telecommute, vanpools, a bicycle strategy, an increase in mass transit use, parking policies (parking pricing, preferred parking for electric vehicles), an increased local fuel tax and speed harmonization (signal re-timing, roundabouts). Net costs are calculated as the sum of direct costs and benefits to the administering agency, the employer and the individual. Net costs per metric ton GHG abated vary greatly across measures, from negative to high positive (more than US $1000). We find that local GHG cost cannot be sensibly compared to other carbon or GHG policy costs outside the local context for a variety of reasons, but especially because measures have not been adopted primarily for carbon or GHG abatement potential or on the basis of cost effectiveness

  13. Gaining the necessary geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical understanding for additional brackish groundwater development, coastal San Diego, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, Wesley R.

    2012-01-01

    Local water agencies and the United States Geological Survey are using a combination of techniques to better understand the scant freshwater resources and the much more abundant brackish resources in coastal San Diego, California, USA. Techniques include installation of multiple-depth monitoring well sites; geologic and paleontological analysis of drill cuttings; geophysical logging to identify formations and possible seawater intrusion; sampling of pore-water obtained from cores; analysis of chemical constituents including trace elements and isotopes; and use of scoping models including a three-dimensional geologic framework model, rainfall-runoff model, regional groundwater flow model, and coastal density-dependent groundwater flow model. Results show that most fresh groundwater was recharged during the last glacial period and that the coastal aquifer has had recurring intrusions of fresh and saline water. These intrusions disguise the source, flowpaths, and history of ground water near the coast. The flow system includes a freshwater lens resting on brackish water; a 100-meter-thick flowtube of freshwater discharging under brackish estuarine water and above highly saline water; and broad areas of fine-grained coastal sediment filled with fairly uniform brackish water. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicate the recharged water flows through many kilometers of fractured crystalline rock before entering the narrow coastal aquifer.

  14. National Weather Service, Emergency Medical Services, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/UCSD and California EPA Collaboration on Heat Health Impact and Public Notification for San Diego County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, A. O.; Corcus, I.; Guirguis, K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has issued official heat alerts in the form of either a heat advisory or excessive heat warning product to the public and core partners for many years. This information has traditionally been developed through the use of triggers for heat indices which combine humidity and temperature. The criteria typically used numeric thresholds and did not consider impact from a particular heat episode, nor did it factor seasonality or population acclimation. In 2013, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego in collaboration with the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, of the California Environmental Protection Agency and the NWS completed a study of heat health impact in California, while the NWS San Diego office began modifying their criteria towards departure from climatological normal with much less dependence on humidity or heat index. The NWS changes were based on initial findings from the California Department of Public Health, EpiCenter California Injury Data Online system which documents heat health impacts. Results from the UCSD study were finalized and published in 2014; they supported the need for significant modification of the traditional criteria. In order to better understand the impacts of heat on community health, medical outcome data were provided by the County of San Diego Emergency Medical Services Branch, which is charged by the County's Public Health Officer to monitor heat-related illness and injury daily from June through September. The data were combined with UCSD research to inform the modification of local NWS heat criteria and establish trigger points to pilot new procedures for the issuance of heat alerts. Finally, practices and procedures were customized for each of the county health departments in the NWS area of responsibility across extreme southwest California counties in collaboration with their Office of Emergency Services. The end result of the

  15. Copper toxicity to larval stages of three marine invertebrates and copper complexation capacity in San Diego Bay, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio; Rosen, Gunther; Lapota, David; Chadwick, David B; Kear-Padilla, Lora; Zirino, Alberto

    2005-03-15

    Temporal and spatial measurements of the toxicity (EC50), chemical speciation, and complexation capacity (Cu-CC) of copper in waters from San Diego Bay suggest control of the Cu-CC over copper bioavailability. While spatial distributions of total copper (CuT) indicate an increase in concentration from the mouth toward the head of San Diego Bay, the distribution of aqueous free copper ion (Cu(II)aq) shows the opposite trend. This suggests that the bioavailability of copper to organisms decreases toward the head of the bay, and is corroborated by the increase in the amount of copper needed to reach an EC50, observed for larval stages of three marine invertebrates (Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, sand dollar, Dendraster excentricus, and purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and by the increase in Cu-CC heading into the head of the bay. The amount of Cu(II)aq required to produce a 50% reduction in normal larval development (referred to here as pCuTox,) of the mussel, the most sensitive of the three marine invertebrates, was generally at or above approximately 1 x 10(-11) mol L(-1) equivalents of Cu (i.e., pCuTox approximately 11 = -(log [Cu(II)aq])). These results suggest that the copper complexation capacity in San Diego Bay controls copper toxicity by keeping the concentration of Cu(II)aq at nontoxic levels.

  16. A Bear-Shaped Crescentic From Nothern San Diego County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Koerper, Henry C; Farmer, Malcolm F

    1987-01-01

    The diversity of functions proposed for chipped stone crescentics is mirrored by the variety of their shapes. Some crescentics are simply of lunate design (e.g., Tadlock 1966), while others (often called "eccentric crescentics") incorporate notches, "spurs," "legs," and tangs onto an underlying crescent form (Rogers 1966; Jertberg 1978,1986). Malcolm Rogers (1929) believed that crescentics of San Dieguito age served as hunting amulets. Other suggested functions include lateral bird bunts, sur...

  17. Hepatitis E Virus among Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA, 2009–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Reena; Collier, Melissa G.; Kamili, Saleem; Drobeniuc, Jan; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Garfein, Richard S.; Teshale, Eyasu

    2013-01-01

    Data about prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in persons who inject drugs are limited. Among 18–40-year-old persons who inject drugs in California, USA, prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis E virus was 2.7%. This prevalence was associated with age but not with homelessness, incarceration, or high-risk sexual behavior.

  18. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance in Marginalized Populations, Tijuana, Mexico, and West Nile Virus Knowledge among Hispanics, San Diego, California, 2006

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-10

    This podcast describes public health surveillance and communication in hard to reach populations in Tijuana, Mexico, and San Diego County, California. Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director of CDC's Health Disparities in the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, discusses the importance of being flexible in determining the most effective media for health communications.  Created: 8/10/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.   Date Released: 8/10/2010.

  19. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Morena Reservoir Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  20. Water resources of the Barona, Capitan Grande, and Sycuan Indian Reservations, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, W.R.; Blazs, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Barona and Capitan Grande Indian Reservations, California, have sufficient water to satisfy present (1976) domestic and stock needs; however, the Sycuan Indian Reservation is experiencing a shortage of water for domestic supply because of the decline of the water table beneath the reservation well field and a general decline of the water table surrounding the reservation. The water quality on the three reservations is generally good; however, the water is at or near land surface in several areas. This shallow water could be subject to contamination by animal waste, septic tanks, or farming operations. Historical hydrologic data were obtained from government agencies and private individuals, and all wells and springs on the reservations were visited. This report summarizes the data collected and the findings of the study. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. 78 FR 77597 - Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San... the Allied PRA--Solid Works fireworks display, which will be conducted from a barge located southwest....T11-612 Safety zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works; San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The limits of the...

  2. Non-invasive genetic sampling of Southern Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus fuliginatus) reveals limited movement across California State Route 67 in San Diego County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitelberg, Anna; Vandergast, Amy

    2016-01-01

    —The Southern Mule Deer is a mobile but non-migratory large mammal found throughout southern California and is a covered species in the San Diego Multi-Species Conservation Plan. We assessed deer movement and population connectivity across California State Route 67 and two smaller roads in eastern San Diego County using non-invasive genetic sampling. We collected deer scat pellets between April and November 2015, and genotyped pellets at 15 microsatellites and a sex determination marker. We successfully genotyped 71 unique individuals from throughout the study area and detected nine recapture events. Recaptures were generally found close to original capture locations (within 1.5 km). We did not detect recaptures across roads; however, pedigree analysis detected 21 first order relative pairs, of which approximately 20% were found across State Route 67. Exact tests comparing allele frequencies between groups of individuals in pre-defined geographic clusters detected significant genetic differentiation across State Route 67. In contrast, the assignment-based algorithm of STRUCTURE supported a single genetic cluster across the study area. Our data suggest that State Route 67 may reduce, but does not preclude, movement and gene flow of Southern Mule Deer.

  3. Arc-rift transition volcanism in the Volcanic Hills, Jacumba and Coyote Mountains, San Diego and Imperial Counties, california

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Gregory Zane

    Neogene volcanism associated with the subduction of the Farallon-Pacific spreading center and the transition from a subduction zone to a rift zone has been studied extensively in Baja, California, Mexico. One of the main goals of these studies was to find a geochemical correlation with slab windows that may have formed during that complicated transition. While workers have been able to find distinct geochemical signatures in samples from Baja California, none have shown statistically significant correlation with samples from southern California that are thought to be related to the same arc-rift transition events. All of the basaltic samples from this study of southern California rocks have prominent Nb depletions typical of island-arc subduction-related volcanism, in contrast to the chemistry of Baja California volcanics that have trace element patterns typical of synrift related volcanism. The work done by previous investigators has been additionally complicated due to each investigator's choice of important ratios or patterns, which bears little, if any, correlation with work done by others working in the same area. For example, Martin-Barajas et al. (1995) use K/Rb ratios in their study of the Puertocitos Volcanic Province, while Castillo (2008) argues that Sr/Y vs. Y is a better indicator of petrogenetic processes. Little petrologic work has been done on Neogene volcanic rocks in the Imperial Valley and eastern San Diego County region of Southern California. This thesis combines new research with that of previous workers and attempts to establish a better understanding of the processes involved with the transition volcanism. Prior work documents significant differences in the geochemistry between some of these areas, especially those in close proximity to each other (e.g. the Volcanic Hills and Coyote Mountains). These differences were thought to be largely the result different magmatic sources. The potential of finding two differing magma types in close

  4. Water- and air-quality and surficial bed-sediment monitoring of the Sweetwater Reservoir watershed, San Diego County, California, 2003-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Morita, Andrew Y.

    2015-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sweetwater Authority, began a study to assess the overall health of the Sweetwater watershed in San Diego County, California. This study was designed to provide a data set that could be used to evaluate potential effects from the construction and operation of State Route 125 within the broader context of the water quality and air quality in the watershed. The study included regular sampling of water, air, and surficial bed sediment at Sweetwater Reservoir (SWR) for chemical constituents, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), base-neutral and acid- extractable organic compounds (BNAs) that include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and metals. Additionally, water samples were collected for anthropogenic organic indicator compounds in and around SWR. Background water samples were collected at Loveland Reservoir for VOCs, BNAs, pesticides, and metals. Surficial bed-sediment samples were collected for PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals at Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs.

  5. What influences Latino grocery shopping behavior? Perspectives on the small food store environment from managers and employees in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Flack, Jennifer C; Baquero, Barbara; Linnan, Laura A; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pickrel, Julie L; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2016-01-01

    To inform the design of a multilevel in-store intervention, this qualitative study utilized in-depth semistructured interviews with 28 managers and 10 employees of small-to-medium-sized Latino food stores (tiendas) in San Diego, California, to identify factors within the tienda that may influence Latino customers' grocery-shopping experiences and behaviors. Qualitative data analysis, guided by grounded theory, was performed using open coding. Results suggest that future interventions should focus on the physical (i.e., built structures) and social (i.e., economic and sociocultural) dimensions of store environments, including areas where the two dimensions interact, to promote the purchase of healthy food among customers. PMID:26800243

  6. Population Effects of Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic among Health Plan Members, San Diego, California, USA, October-December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Roger A

    2016-02-01

    Lacking population-specific data, activity of seasonal and pandemic influenza is usually tracked by counting the number of diagnoses and visits to medical facilities above a baseline. This type of data does not address the delivery of services in a specific population. To provide population-specific data, this retrospective study of patients with influenza-like illness, influenza, and pneumonia among members of a Kaiser Permanente health plan in San Diego, California, USA, during October-December 2009 was initiated. Population data included the number of outpatients accessing healthcare; the number of patients diagnosed with pneumonia; antimicrobial therapy administered; number of patients hospitalized with influenza, influenza-like illness, or pneumonia; level of care provided; and number of patients requiring specialized treatments (e.g., oxygen, ventilation, vasopressors). The rate of admissions specific to weeks and predictions of 2 epidemiologic models shows the strengths and weaknesses of those tools. Data collected in this study may improve planning for influenza pandemics.

  7. Strategies for Survival: Indian Transitions in the Mountains of San Diego County, 1846 - 1907

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks Dunn, Dana Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Survival Strategies were chosen by Indians in the mountains of northern San Diego County from 1846 to 1907 according to their personal, individual transition situation and needs of their families, tribes and clans. These choices were complex and varied from clan to clan and village to village. Americans arrived and permanently settled in San Diego, California in 1846 during the Mexican War. By 1850 California had become a part of the United States. In 1848, gold was discovered in northern...

  8. San Diego Zoo:Success in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Giant pandas have become very popular in U.S.zoos. One in particular, the San Diego Zoo, has been extremely successful at making the pandas feel at home and getting them to breed. In 1999, it became home tothe first surviving panda cub born in the United States.

  9. 3D Geologic Model of the San Diego Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, W. R.; Cromwell, G.; Glockhoff, C.; Martin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Prior geologic studies of the San Diego area, including northern Baja California, Mexico, focused on site investigations, characterization of rock formations, or earthquake hazards. No comprehensive, quantitative model characterizing the three-dimensional (3D) geology of the entire area has been developed. The lack of such a model limits understanding of large-scale processes, such as development of ancient landforms, and groundwater movement and availability. To evaluate these regional processes, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to better understand the geologic structure of the San Diego area. A cornerstone of this study is the installation and analysis of 77 wells at 12 multiple-depth monitoring-well sites. Geologic information from these wells was combined with lithologic data from 81 oil exploration wells and municipal and private water wells, gravity and seismic interpretations, and paleontological interpretations. These data were analyzed in conjunction with geologic maps and digital elevation models to develop a 3D geologic model of the San Diego area, in particular of the San Diego embayment. Existing interpretations of regional surficial geology, faulting, and tectonic history provided the framework for this model, which was refined by independent evaluation of subsurface geology. Geologic formations were simplified into five sedimentary units (Quaternary, Plio-Pleistocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Cretaceous ages), and one basal crystalline unit (primarily Cretaceous and Jurassic). Complex fault systems are represented in the model by ten fault strands that maintain overall displacement. The 3D geologic model corroborates existing geologic concepts of the San Diego area, refines the extent of subsurface geology, and allows users to holistically evaluate subsurface structures and regional hydrogeology.

  10. Energy-water nexus analysis of enhanced water supply scenarios: a regional comparison of Tampa Bay, Florida, and San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2014-05-20

    Increased water demand and scarce freshwater resources have forced communities to seek nontraditional water sources. These challenges are exacerbated in coastal communities, where population growth rates and densities in the United States are the highest. To understand the current management dilemma between constrained surface and groundwater sources and potential new water sources, Tampa Bay, Florida (TB), and San Diego, California (SD), were studied through 2030 accounting for changes in population, water demand, and electricity grid mix. These locations were chosen on the basis of their similar populations, land areas, economies, and water consumption characters as well as their coastal locations and rising contradictions between water demand and supply. Three scenarios were evaluated for each study area: (1) maximization of traditional supplies; (2) maximization of seawater desalination; and (3) maximization of nonpotable water reclamation. Three types of impacts were assessed: embodied energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and energy cost. SD was found to have higher embodied energy and energy cost but lower GHG emission than TB in most of its water infrastructure systems because of the differences between the electricity grid mixes and water resources of the two regions. Maximizing water reclamation was found to be better than increasing either traditional supplies or seawater desalination in both regions in terms of the three impact categories. The results further imply the importance of assessing the energy-water nexus when pursuing demand-side control targets or goals as well to ensure that the potentially most economical options are considered. PMID:24730467

  11. Energy-water nexus analysis of enhanced water supply scenarios: a regional comparison of Tampa Bay, Florida, and San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2014-05-20

    Increased water demand and scarce freshwater resources have forced communities to seek nontraditional water sources. These challenges are exacerbated in coastal communities, where population growth rates and densities in the United States are the highest. To understand the current management dilemma between constrained surface and groundwater sources and potential new water sources, Tampa Bay, Florida (TB), and San Diego, California (SD), were studied through 2030 accounting for changes in population, water demand, and electricity grid mix. These locations were chosen on the basis of their similar populations, land areas, economies, and water consumption characters as well as their coastal locations and rising contradictions between water demand and supply. Three scenarios were evaluated for each study area: (1) maximization of traditional supplies; (2) maximization of seawater desalination; and (3) maximization of nonpotable water reclamation. Three types of impacts were assessed: embodied energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and energy cost. SD was found to have higher embodied energy and energy cost but lower GHG emission than TB in most of its water infrastructure systems because of the differences between the electricity grid mixes and water resources of the two regions. Maximizing water reclamation was found to be better than increasing either traditional supplies or seawater desalination in both regions in terms of the three impact categories. The results further imply the importance of assessing the energy-water nexus when pursuing demand-side control targets or goals as well to ensure that the potentially most economical options are considered.

  12. A Welfare Reform--Homelessness--Foster Care Connection? The Story of "Lag Families" and "Limbo Children" in San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    An analysis of data from a survey of more than 100 parents residing in emergency shelter in San Diego, California, reveals a portrait of poverty that is prevalent among women and children in the United States today. Homeless families in San Diego, as in the rest of the country, are most often headed by women in their early thirties whose prospects…

  13. 33 CFR 110.90 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.90 San Diego Harbor, Calif. (a) Area A-1. In North San... District. Temporary floats or buoys for marking anchors are allowed. Fixed moorings, piles or stakes...

  14. 33 CFR 110.210 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 110.210 Section 110.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.210 San Diego Harbor, CA. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) Special anchorage for U.S. Government...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1104 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 80.1104 Section 80.1104 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1104 San Diego Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Zuniga Jetty Light “V” to Zuniga...

  16. 75 FR 71179 - Environmental Impact Statement: San Diego County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ...-- Environmental Division, MS 242, 4050 Taylor Street, San Diego, CA 92110, Regular Office Hours 7 a.m. to 3 p.m., Telephone number 619-688- 0240, e-mail Kevin.Hovey@dot.ca.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Effective July 1... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: San Diego County, CA AGENCY:...

  17. The San Diego Panasonic Partnership: A Case Study in Restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Michael; Tewel, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    The Panasonic Foundation provides resources for restructuring school districts. The article examines its partnership with the San Diego City School District, highlighting four schools that demonstrate promising practices and guiding principles. It describes recent partnership work on systemic issues, noting the next steps to be taken in San Diego.…

  18. Aquifer geometry, lithology, and water levels in the Anza–Terwilliger area—2013, Riverside and San Diego Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Morita, Andrew Y.; Nawikas, Joseph M.; Christensen, Allen H.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2015-11-24

    The population of the Anza–Terwilliger area relies solely on groundwater pumped from the alluvial deposits and surrounding bedrock formations for water supply. The size, characteristics, and current conditions of the aquifer system in the Anza–Terwilliger area are poorly understood, however. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the High Country Conservancy and Rancho California Water District, undertook a study to (1) improve mapping of groundwater basin geometry and lithology and (2) to resume groundwater-level monitoring last done during 2004–07 in the Anza–Terwilliger area. 

  19. Pollinator specificity and pollen limitation in the San Diego mesa mint, Pogogyne abramsii, a vernal pool endemic /

    OpenAIRE

    Scioli, Justin Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Vernal pool ecosystems in California support a variety of narrowly distributed annual plants. As a result of the destruction, fragmentation, and degradation of vernal pool habitat, some vernal pool endemic plants are now considered threatened or endangered. The federally endangered San Diego mesa mint Pogogyne abramsii) is a vernal pool endemic now found only in a few locations in coastal San Diego County, California. To learn more about the pollination biology of this species, we conducted a...

  20. Summary of water resources for the Campo, Cuyapaipe, La Posta, and Manzanita Indian Reservations and vicinity, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, W.R.; Downing, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1945, precipitation and runoff in California on the Campo, Cuyapaipe, La Posta, and Manzanita Indian Reservations and surrounding areas generally have been below normal, and ground-water levels are declining. Most of the water is of excellent quality. The analysis of water from one well on the Campo Reservation indicates a concentration of nitrate that exceeds the recommended limit established in 1972 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Most wells and springs in the study area yield water for domestic purposes. The yields range from less than 1 gallon per minute to 210 gallons per minute. Most of the water is produced from shallow aluvial-filled channels or from consolidated rocks that are deeply weathered locally or highly fractured. The well data show that insufficient water is available on the four reservations for large-scale irrigation. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. 78 FR 45268 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar... Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California, and by this.... ADDRESSES: Copies of the Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final EIS/Proposed CDCA Plan Amendment have been sent...

  2. Puente Coronado - San Diego (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available This 3,5 km long bridge, joining the cities of San Diego and Coronado is one of the longest in the world of this type, and one of the three most important straight line bridges in the United States. Its supporting structure consists of reinforced concrete columns resting on footings or piles, according to whether they are under the sea water or on dry land. The superstructure is partly of metal plates and partly of box girders. The surfacing of the deck consists of asphalt epoxy concrete, of 5 cm depth. Special paint was applied to the bridge, including layers of vinyl, iron oxide and blue vinyl on a zinc base.Este puente, de unos 3 km y medio, que une las ciudades de San Diego y Coronado es uno de los de mayor longitud del mundo, de este tipo, y uno de los tres principales ortótropos de los Estados Unidos de América. Su infraestructura está constituida por pilas de hormigón armado apoyadas sobre pilotes o sobre zapatas, según estén en el mar o en tierra firme. La superestructura está formada, en parte, por chapas metálicas y, en parte, por vigas cajón. El acabado del tablero metálico se realizó a base de hormigón asfáltico de epoxi con un espesor de 5 cm. La pintura es especial y se compone de capas de vinilo, de óxido de hierro y de vinilo azul sobre una capa de cinc.

  3. Communication Media and Perceptions of Undocumented Immigrants: The Case of San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, C. Richard; Loveman, Brian

    A telephone survey of 500 adults in the San Diego, California, area was conducted to examine the role of mass media in shaping views of the respondents toward undocumented immigrants from Mexico. The sample, designed to reflect all adults in the area, was distorted somewhat by a refusal rate of approximately 30%. The results showed that the most…

  4. Yancheng City Delegation Visits San Diego County of the U. S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Yancheng City of Jiangsu Province and San DiegoCounty of California have carried out several substantial exchanges and their friendly relations have seen sound and steady development since the two signed the agreement of intention on the establishment of friendship-city relations in April 2002. When Ron

  5. San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement: Volume I

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Diego Bay NWR (Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units) for the next 15...

  6. California Indian Education Association Report on the Fifth Annual State Conference and Workshop (San Diego, California, October 8-10, 1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gwen, Ed.; And Others

    The California Indian Education Association has held American Indian education workshops in conjunction with its annual conferences since its inception in 1967. The report of this 5th annual meeting reflected many of the frustrations that Indians face in their contact with society, particularly in the educational system. The frustrations of Indian…

  7. 75 FR 9921 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... the Draft Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan...

  8. 75 FR 11194 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... application, and notice of public meetings for the San Diego County Water Authority's (Water...

  9. Annual Report of the Chancellor, San Diego Community College District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Dale

    This document contains a review of the goals of the San Diego Community College District for 1975-76 and the progress that has been made to date in accomplishing those goals. Broad categories reviewed include stabilization and improvement of the environment for teaching and learning, systematization of management efforts, the search for new…

  10. SAN DIEGO FACILITY SETS NEW PATTERN FOR APPRENTICE TRAINING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARNOLD, WALTER M.

    THE APPRENTICE TRADES BUILDING AT SAN DIEGO MESA COLLEGE WAS ERECTED WITH COOPERATIVE FINANCING BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (UNDER THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ACT OF 1963), THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL SYSTEM, LABOR UNIONS, AND INDUSTRY. THE STRUCTURE AND SITE COST OF $339,000 WAS PROVIDED FROM FEDERAL AND SCHOOL DISTRICT FUNDS, WHILE THE EQUIPMENT, WORTH…

  11. 75 FR 63167 - San Diego Gas and Electric Company v. Sellers of Energy and Ancillary Services Into Markets...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission San Diego Gas and Electric Company v. Sellers of Energy and Ancillary Services Into Markets Operated by the California Independent System Operator Corporation and the...

  12. Dudleya Variegata Translocation - San Diego [ds654

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — At Mission Trails Regional Park, a translocation project of Dudleya variegata was conducted in efforts to save the population from a private property undergoing...

  13. Chemical spill characteristics in the San Diego Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriakidis, Kleanthis; Peter C. Chu

    2011-01-01

    Marine Technology Society Journal, 45 (2), 52-58 Dispersion of ocean pollutants in estuarine environments and bays (such as San 46 Diego Bay) depends on the location of the source of the pollutants relative to the 47 mouth and the tidal excursion, which is the net horizontal distance over which a 48 pollutant particle moves during one tidal cycle offlood and ebb. Pollutant dispersion 49 was investigated using a coupled hydrodynamic and chemical discharge model in 50 this stud...

  14. Rare Plants - City of San Diego [ds455

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Biological Monitoring Plan (BMP; Ogden 1996) for the Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) was developed in 1996 and is a component of the City of San...

  15. 76 FR 1521 - Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San... Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier. The pier is no longer owned by the U.S. Navy and the existing... of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. The existing security zone is around the former Fleet...

  16. 78 FR 32121 - When Pigs Fly Fireworks Display; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 When Pigs Fly Fireworks Display; San Diego, CA AGENCY... on the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay in support of the When Pigs Fly Fireworks Display...

  17. 76 FR 6491 - San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA; Final Environmental Impact... November 26, 2003 (68 FR 66478). The Service and Water Authority held a public scoping meeting on...

  18. My Most Memorial Meeting - The June, 1997, San Diego Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A. G. Davis

    1999-05-01

    At the June, 1997 AAS meeting in San Diego I arranged a topical session on the Shapley Visiting Lectureships Program. There were poster papers and speakers from the early days of the program, going back to the Visiting Lectureships Program of the AAS. Then the three past directors and the present director described their activities in running the program from 1979 to 1997. We had other speakers who described their many visits to institutions over the years and representatives from two institutions which had received many visits. This session provided much interesting information about the Shapley Program and its history. At the end of the program several people pledged, and then gave, a substantial sum to the Shapley Endowment Fund. Because of all these events and happenings, the San Diego Meeting was a highlight meeting for me. A second meeting with significance to the Shapley Program was the June, 1996 meeting in Madison, Wisconsin. At this meeting certificates were awarded to 31 lecturers who had made 15 or more Shapley visits and 18 lecturers who had made 25 or more visits. A dinner was held at which those lecturers in these two groups who were present at the meeting were personally awarded their certificates. The remaining certificates were mailed after the meeting. The success of the Shapley Program is directly related to the devotion of its group of lecturers who spend considerable time and effort in making the two day visits to host institutions.

  19. 75 FR 15611 - Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San... United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety... Spectaculars is sponsoring the United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, which will include a...

  20. San Diego, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Proposed South San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Level III preaquisition survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Level III Contaminant Preaquisition Survey was conducted during 1992 in the south San Diego Bay area to evaluate potential hazards to trustee resources and/or...

  2. Prioritizing Invasive Plant Populations with WHIPPET: Report to San Diego National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the WHIPPET analysis as applied to invasive plant data from San Diego National Wildlife Refuge (refuge). The WHIPPET analysis had two...

  3. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary school-aged Latino children: a pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the US-Mexican border region of San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. The following themes around feeding emerged: feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children and feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors, and reinforcement strategies for "eating well." These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and can help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children.

  4. Reclassification of SIDS cases--a need for adjustment of the San Diego classification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisbeth Lund; Rohde, Marianne Cathrine; Banner, Jytte;

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken reclassifying cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) taken from two geographically separate locations utilizing the San Diego definition with subclassifications. One hundred twenty-eight infant cases were examined from files at Forensic Science South Australia....... None of the cases met the criteria for IA SIDS. Problems arose in assessing cases with failure to thrive, fever, and possible asphyxia. Modifications to the San Diego subclassifications might improve the consistency of categorizing these cases....

  5. Deaths associated with choking in San Diego county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Laura; Stanley, Christina; Smith, Alan M; Vilke, Gary M

    2007-01-01

    Death from choking is the fourth most common cause of unintentional-injury mortality, but little data are published on causes or locations of these episodes. These deaths typically are peaked at the extremes of age, with young children and the elderly having the greatest rate of fatal choking. Our objective was to characterize the causes of fatal airway obstruction in adults. The San Diego County Medical Examiner's database was searched for deaths attributed to choking in decedents 18 years and older during the 10-year period from 1994 to 2004. Data were abstracted regarding the underlying medical conditions, items choked on, location of the choking, and treatments involved in the individual cases. We found 133 victims who died from choking, with 14% having using alcohol or other sedatives and 55% having a documented neurological deficit or anatomic difficulty with swallowing. The most common specified food objects that victims choked on were meat products, and 45% occurred at home, followed by 26% at supervised facilities, and 14% at restaurants. Of the 19 choking episodes occurring in restaurants, only one employee was documented to attempt a resuscitative effort. Most victims who choked to death had an underlying neurological deficit, and occurred at home or supervised facilities appear to have an appropriate initial-response intervention.

  6. Shoestring submersible tested : Frankie goes to San Diego and sinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, F.

    2005-11-01

    Details of a Canadian group's contribution to the eighth annual Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Competition in San Diego were presented. The purpose of the competition was to introduce future generations of engineers, scientists and operators to unmanned systems. The oil industry uses unmanned systems for a number of purposes, from underwater surveying and sea floor mapping to assisting in the installation and inspection of undersea pipelines and offshore drilling and production platforms. The machine, called the Multi-purpose Autonomous Robotic Submersible System (MARSS) cost only $2000 to build and was made largely from donated parts by a group of DeVry students in Calgary. Nick-named Frankie, the vehicle was designed to plunge into a pool, navigate through a portal and then follow a pipe. Although Frankie scanned its surroundings, matched the image to its onboard data and placed itself on target, water started to fill the hull, dragging it down to the bottom of the pool. A 500 MHz Pentium III and its silicone circuits were given the task to identify images from an onboard web camera in order to complete the course without any information other than a starting point, speed, depth, direction and visual cues. To implement the program, the team used a cascading set of possibilities that went through processed data from the compass, a pressure sensitive depth meter and the webcam. In response, the computer determined the next best course of action to complete the run. It was anticipated that an improved machine like MARSS could conceivably be used in underwater operations, moving down along pipes to scan for air bubble streams and then mark them either physically or in memory, without the need for communication with operators. It was concluded that DeVry students will continue to work on a new generation of MARSS. 1 fig.

  7. K-12 Students Flock To ToxTown In San Diego: Results of an SOT K-12 Education Outreach Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just prior to the start of the 2015 Annual Meeting in San Diego, hundreds of K-12 students, teachers, and science enthusiasts visited the ToxTown booth at the annual San Diego Festival of Science and Engineering grand finale event, EXPO Day. Over 20,000 attendees participated in ...

  8. Habitat distribution for non-native Amazona viridigenalis within San Diego County using Maxent predictive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseck, Kristin April

    Human propagated changes to the environment have adversely affected certain species while advantaging other species. Psittacines, or species that fall within the parrot family, have been found to be well adapted to modified environments. Over time, transportation of various parrot species for use in the exotic pet trade has caused accidental releases of individual parrots, resulting in species groups forming and colonizing in new, non-native environments, specifically urban and suburban ones. Amazona viridigenalis, the Red-crowned parrot, is a species that has adapted to living in several regions within the United States including Texas, Florida, and California. This species is endangered within its native range in the lowlands of eastern Mexico, yet has the largest population of any other psittacine species in California. Despite this interesting dichotomy this species remains severely understudied in its new range. Using geographic information systems and Maxent predictive model, this research aims to achieve a greater understanding of the extent of habitat suitable to the Amazona viridigenalis within San Diego County and the habitat variables that enable its establishment success. Presence locations where individuals of the species were using habitat were collected along with 12 important variables that represent Red-crowned parrot habitat elements. These were used in the creation of a predictive habitat model utilizing Maxent machine-learning technique. Three models were created using three different background extents from which the pseudo-absence points were generated. These models were tested for statistical significance and predictive accuracy. It was found that model performance significantly decreased with a decrease in size of model extent. The largest extent was chosen to model habitat using the five variables that were found to be the least correlated, achieved the most gain, and had the most explanatory power for the earlier models. The final model

  9. 75 FR 43225 - Finding of No Significant Impact: San Diego-Tijuana Airport Cross Border Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... public notice of the draft EA in the Federal Register, 74 FR 68906 (December 29, 2009), and invited... and Purpose The San Diego/Tijuana region is the largest urban area along the U.S.--Mexico border, with... be required. Construction: Minimizing equipment and truck idling Recycling construction waste...

  10. Creating an Engaging Library Orientation: First Year Experience Courses at UC San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Crystal; Turnbow, Dominique; Roth, Amanda; Friedman, Lia; Heskett, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of an engaging library orientation module for UC San Diego First Year Experience (FYE) courses. The library module included a brief in-class presentation about research concepts and library services, an online interactive library scavenger hunt given as an in-class activity, and a homework assignment where…

  11. San Diego State U. Defends Its Role in Federal Drug Sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    When a freshman at San Diego State University (SDSU) died of a cocaine overdose last May, the campus police chief decided to pursue a full-scale investigation. In December, he summoned undercover agents from the federal Drug Enforcement Administration to pose as students and roam the campus in search of illegal drugs. According to college…

  12. Conference Report: Meeting of the Peace Education Special Interest Group of AERA, San Diego, April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The Peace Education Special Interest Group of AERA had a very successful AERA Annual Meeting in San Diego in April 2009. There were a total of seven sessions, including two paper sessions, two interactive symposia, two roundtable sessions and a business meeting. The program began with an interactive symposium by Irene Zoppi, Brecken Swartz and…

  13. 33 CFR 165.1121 - Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Fleet Supply... Guard District § 165.1121 Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. (a... feet from the north, west, and south sides of the Fleet Industrial Supply Center enclosed by...

  14. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005...

  15. San Diego Coast Kelp Persistence (1967-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Giant kelp forests, with their extensive vertical structure, represent the most diverse of the marine habitats and support commercial fisheries, education, and...

  16. 78 FR 1246 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... November 14, 2011 (76 FR 70480), and scoping comments were accepted through January 12, 2012. Since then... management of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge over a 15-year period (71 FR 64552, November 2,...

  17. Habitat--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  18. Contours--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file...

  19. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. Backscatter data...

  20. Habitat--Offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor (see sheet 7, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. The vector...

  1. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. Backscatter data...

  2. Bathymetry--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore of San Francisco, California (raster data file is included in...

  3. San Diego Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Specific concerns relate to the threatened snowy plover’s critical habitat, including nesting and wintering locations, as well as the endangered least tern’s...

  4. San Diego Littoral Cell CRSMP Upland Sand Source Sites 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Sediment sources of interest to this Coastal RSM Plan exist seaward of the coastal watershed drainage divide. These sources generally are more plentiful downstream...

  5. San Diego Region Nearshore Coastal Zone Seafloor Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The layer is meant to display those locations offshore where bedrock is present, as these locations may support sensitive habitats that could be adversely affected...

  6. Decolonizing our plates : analyzing San Diego and vegans of color food politics

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Marilisa Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This project focuses on discursive formations of race, gender, class, and sexuality within food justice movements as well as these discursive formations within veganism. In particular, I analyze how mainstream food justice movements in San Diego engage in discourses of colorblindness, universalism, individualism, whiteness, and consumption. I also examine how these movements are centered on possessive individualism, or one's capacity to own private property, as the means through which they se...

  7. Managing Transborder Cooperation on Public Security: The Tijuana-San Diego Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, José María

    2003-01-01

    This paper discuss some concern and challenges regards with the U.S-Mexico transborder cooperation, especially with the role of Mexican local governments to manage the transnational border issues, such as drug trafficking, public security and terrorism. The paper examines two main concerns: first, an overview on transborder cooperation along the U.S. Mexican border, focusing in the Tijuana San Diego region on matters relating to narcotrafficking, public security and terrorism and second, some...

  8. Pharmacy automation in Navy Medicine: a study of Naval Medical Center San Diego

    OpenAIRE

    Merkl, Abbie J.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In August 2012, Naval Medical Center San Diego implemented a state-of-the-art pharmacy automation system in an effort to reduce cost and improve efficiency. The objective of this study is to quantify the increase in efficiency after installation through a focus on observed post-automation prescription fill times during calendar year 2014 (CY2014) and a simulated pre-automation process. With a response of average daily prescription fill...

  9. Initial source and site characterization studies for the U. C. San Diego campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, S.; Erick, F.; Heuze, F.E.; Mellors, R.; Minster, B.; Park, S.; Wagoner, J.

    1999-07-01

    The basic approach of the Campus Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) project is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the University of California (UC) system in geology, seismology, geotechnical engineering, and structural engineering to evaluate the effects of large earthquakes on UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, dynamic soil testing, and structural dynamics. The UC campuses currently chosen for applications of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The basic procedure is first to identify possible earthquake source regions and local campus site conditions that may affect estimates of strong ground motion. Combined geological , geophysical, and geotechnical studies are conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. The project will then drill and log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access to deeper materials, below the soil layers, that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analysis of conjugate downhole and uphole records provides a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are then used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings.

  10. New Directions in Native American Earth Science Education in San Diego County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, E. M.

    2001-05-01

    Founded in 1998, the Indigenous Earth Sciences Project (IESP) of San Diego State University aims to increase the access of local Native American tribal communities to geoscience education and to geoscience information, and to attract more Indian students into earth science careers. As tribes encounter earth and environmental science-related issues, it is important to increase 1) on-reservation geoscience expertise, 2) the quality and cultural accessibility of geoscience curricula for Native K-12 students, and 3) geoscience literacy in Native communities at large. We have established partnerships with local reservation learning centers and education councils with the goal of building programs for K-12 students, college students, adult learners and on-reservation field programs for the whole community which both enrich the resident scientific understanding of reservation settings and find ways to include the rich intellectual tradition of indigenous knowledge of earth processes in the San Diego region. This work has been greatly assisted by the construction of HPWREN, a wireless Internet backbone connection built by UCSD, which now delivers broadband Internet service to the reservation communities of Pala, Rincon, and La Jolla as well as providing high-speed access to a variety of locally-collected geoscience data. This new networking venture has allowed us to explore virtual classroom, tutoring, and interactive data analysis activities with the learning centers located on these reservations. Plans and funding are also in place to expand these connections to all of the 18 reservation communities within San Diego county. We are also actively working to establish earth science components to existing bridging programs to Palomar College, a community college with deep connections to the northern San Diego county American Indian communities. These students will be assisted in their transfer to SDSU and will also be connected with geoscience research opportunities at the

  11. Report of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) Scientific Sessions 2015, San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-01-01

    The 64th Annual Scientific Sessions and Exposition of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) were held at the San Diego Convention Center from March 14-16, 2015. The ACC Scientific Sessions are 1 of 2 major scientific cardiology meetings in the United States, with nearly 20,000 attendees, including 15,000 cardiovascular professionals. There were over 2,100 oral and poster abstracts, and more than 15 late-breaking clinical trials (LBCTs) abstructs. This report presents the highlights and several key presentations, especially the LBCTs, from the ACC Scientific Sessions 2015. I hope this review will help cardiologists update to the latest information.

  12. Bathymetry--Offshore San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps (see sheet 1 and 2, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California....

  13. Predictors of Dropouts From a San Diego Diabetes Program: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Benoit

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to determine the demographic, treatment, clinical, and behavioral factors associated with dropping out of a nurse-based, low-income, multiethnic San Diego diabetes program. Methods Data were collected during a 17-month period in 2000 and 2002 on patients with type 2 diabetes from Project Dulce, a disease management program in San Diego County designed to care for an underserved diabetic population. The study sample included 69 cases and 504 controls representing a racial/ethnic mix of 53% Hispanic, 7% black, 16% Asian, 22% white, and 2% other. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with patient dropout. Results Patients who had high initial clinical indicators including blood pressure and hemoglobin A1c and those who smoked currently or smoked in the past were more likely to drop out of the diabetes program. Conclusion This study provides markers of patient dropout in a low-income, multiethnic, type 2 diabetic population. Reasons for dropout in this program can be investigated to prevent further cohort loss.

  14. Sebastián de Benavente y la capilla de San Diego de Alcalá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Yábar, Juan María

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The correct interpretation of the documents concerning the chapel of San Diego in the convent of Santa María de Jesús in Alcalá de Henares demonstrates that the master-architect Sebastián de Benavente played a fundamental role in its invention and realization, including the main altarpiece. For both documental and stylistic reasons, the author attributes to Benavente the drawing from a Florentine private collection until now attributed to Alonso Cano.

    La correcta interpretación de los documentos relativos a la capilla de San Diego en el convento de Santa María de Jesús de Alcalá de Henares demuestra que el maestro arquitecto Sebastián de Benavente tuvo un papel fundamental en su invención y realización, incluido el retablo mayor. Consideramos suyo el dibujo de colección particular florentina hasta ahora atribuido a Alonso Cano, lo que defendemos por razones documentales y estilísticas.

  15. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in

  16. 76 FR 53913 - Award of an Urgent Single-Source Grant to Survivors of Torture International (SOTI) in San Diego...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... published a document in the Federal Register of August 16, 2011 (76 FR 50744), concerning the issuance of an... Federal Register of August 16, 2011 (76 FR 50744), ORR omitted the primary authority for issuing this... Torture International (SOTI) in San Diego, CA; Correction AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF,...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1108 Section 180.1108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES...

  18. Adjacent Band Interference from San Diego Area Transmitters to Goldstone Deep Space Network Receivers Near 2300 Megahertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C.; Bathker, D.; Sue, M.; Peng, T.

    2001-10-01

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has recently granted a commercial company a license to potentially deploy its wireless Internet system in the San Diego area in the 2300- to 2305-MHz frequency range. Each of several base station emitters would transmit a relatively strong effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) (about 50 W). The frequency band is immediately above the band (2290 to 2300 MHz) used by NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving stations at Goldstone, California. A potential interference problem to DSN receivers thus exists through some anomalous propagation modes, such as tropospheric ducting and rain scattering, and interference must be kept under a very small percentage of time (0.001 percent), as required by NASA deep-space missions. In this article, we have estimated the effects of interference from the wireless Internet system to Goldstone receivers. The calculation results show that at 2300 MHz the interference received by the DSN could exceed the DSN protection level up to 0.1 percent of the time for ducting propagation. For rain scattering, this could occur up to 2.3 percent of the time. At 2290 MHz, due to the transmitter spectrum, interference through either mode is below the DSN protection level. Interference through terrain diffraction will suffer very large attenuations at both frequencies. After considering that in the middle of the path there is a tall mountain peak that largely blocks the surface ducting and direct illumination of rain clouds, the interference generated by the wireless system emitters and propagated

  19. Rapid increase in copper concentrations in a new marina, San Diego Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Trent W; D'Anna, Heather

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of copper in water rose rapidly following the introduction of boats to a new marina in San Diego Bay. Two months after the marina reached half its capacity, a majority of water samples exceeded chronic and acute criteria for dissolved copper, and copper concentrations in several samples exceeded the highest concentrations observed in another marina that has been listed as an impaired water body. A box model suggested that a small fraction of the leached copper was sequestered in sediment. Copper concentrations in water entering the marina from the bay was more than half the chronic concentration limit, so only 50% of marina boat capacity could be accommodated without exceeding the chronic criterion more than 50% of the time. Copper concentrations in water may increase rapidly following boat introduction in small marinas, but could return to pre-introduction levels by controlling boat numbers or reducing use of copper-based paints. PMID:22245437

  20. Copper bioavailability and toxicity to Mytilus galloprovincialis in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Casey; Rosen, Gunther; Colvin, Marienne; Earley, Patrick; Santore, Robert; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

    2014-08-15

    The bioavailability and toxicity of copper (Cu) in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), San Diego, CA, USA, was assessed with simultaneous toxicological, chemical, and modeling approaches. Toxicological measurements included laboratory toxicity testing with Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) embryos added to both site water (ambient) and site water spiked with multiple Cu concentrations. Chemical assessment of ambient samples included total and dissolved Cu concentrations, and Cu complexation capacity measurements. Modeling was based on chemical speciation and predictions of bioavailability and toxicity using a marine Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Cumulatively, these methods assessed the natural buffering capacity of Cu in SIYB during singular wet and dry season sampling events. Overall, the three approaches suggested negligible bioavailability, and isolated observed or predicted toxicity, despite an observed gradient of increasing Cu concentration, both horizontally and vertically within the water body, exceeding current water quality criteria for saltwater.

  1. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  2. Wind resource assessment: San Nicolas Island, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Olsen, T.L. [Timothy L. Olsen Consulting, (United States)

    1996-01-01

    San Nicolas Island (SNI) is the site of the Navy Range Instrumentation Test Site which relies on an isolated diesel-powered grid for its energy needs. The island is located in the Pacific Ocean 85 miles southwest of Los Angeles, California and 65 miles south of the Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS), Point Mugu, California. SNI is situated on the continental shelf at latitude N33{degree}14` and longitude W119{degree}27`. It is approximately 9 miles long and 3.6 miles wide and encompasses an area of 13,370 acres of land owned by the Navy in fee title. Winds on San Nicolas are prevailingly northwest and are strong most of the year. The average wind speed is 7.2 m/s (14 knots) and seasonal variation is small. The windiest months, March through July, have wind speeds averaging 8.2 m/s (16 knots). The least windy months, August through February, have wind speeds averaging 6.2 m/s (12 knots).

  3. Improving Pediatric Cancer Care Disparities Across the United States-Mexico Border: Lessons Learned from a Transcultural Partnership between San Diego and Tijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Paula; Fuller, Spencer; Rivera, Rebeca; Beyda, David; Ribeiro, Raul C; Roberts, William

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the 5-year survival rate for children with acute leukemia in Baja California, Mexico was estimated at 10% (vs. 88% in the United States). In response, stakeholders at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, and the Hospital General de Tijuana (HGT) implemented a transcultural partnership to establish a pediatric oncology program. The aim was to improve clinical outcomes and overall survival for children in Baja California. An initial needs assessment evaluation was performed and a culturally sensitive, comprehensive, 5-year plan was designed and implemented. After six years, healthcare system accomplishments include the establishment of a fully functional pediatric oncology unit with 60 new healthcare providers (vs. five in 2007). Patient outcome improvements include a rise in 5-year survival for leukemia from 10 to 43%, a rise in new cases diagnosed per year from 21 to 70, a reduction in the treatment abandonment rate from 10% to 2%, and a 45% decrease in the infection rate. More than 600 patients have benefited from this program. Knowledge sharing has taken place between teams at the HGT and Rady Children's Hospital San Diego. Further, one of the most significant outcomes is that the HGT has transitioned into a regional referral center and now mentors other hospitals in Mexico. Our results show that collaborative initiatives that implement long-term partnerships along the United States-Mexico border can effectively build local capacity and reduce the survival gap between children with cancer in the two nations. Long-term collaborative partnerships should be encouraged across other disciplines in medicine to further reduce health disparities across the United States-Mexico border.

  4. Using Local Climate Science to Educate "Key Influentials" and their Communities in the San Diego Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Anders, S.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Yin, Z.; Schultz, P.; Young, E.

    2012-12-01

    The San Diego Regional Climate Education Partnership has formed an innovative and collaborative team whose mission is to implement a research-based climate science education and communications program to increase knowledge about climate science among highly-influential leaders and their communities and foster informed decision making based on climate science and impacts. The team includes climate scientists, behavioral psychologists, formal and informal educators and communication specialists. The Partnership's strategic plan has three major goals: (1) raise public understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change; (2) identify the most effective educational methods to educate non-traditional audiences (Key Influentials) about the causes and consequences of climate change; and (3) develop and implement a replicable model for regional climate change education. To implement this strategic plan, we have anchored our project on three major pillars: (1) Local climate science (causes, impacts and long-term consequences); (2) theoretical, research-based evaluation framework (TIMSI); and (3) Key! Influentials (KI) as primary audience for messages (working w! ith and through them). During CCEP-I, the Partnership formed and convened an advisory board of Key Influentials, completed interviews with a sample of Key Influentials, conducted a public opinion survey, developed a website (www.sandiego.edu/climate) , compiled inventories on literature of climate science education resources and climate change community groups and local activities, hosted stakeholder forums, and completed the first phase of on an experiment to test the effects of different messengers delivering the same local climate change message via video. Results of 38 KI Interviews provided evidence of local climate knowledge, strong concern about climate change, and deeply held values related to climate change education and regional leadership. The most intriguing result was that while 90% of Key

  5. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of San Francisco, California, taken on October 3,1994. The image is about 40 kilometers by 55 kilometers (25 miles by 34 miles) with north toward the upper right. Downtown San Francisco is visible in the center of the image with the city of Oakland east (to the right) across San Francisco Bay. Also visible in the image is the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) and the Bay Bridge connecting San Francisco and Oakland. North of the Bay Bridge is Treasure Island. Alcatraz Island appears as a small dot northwest of Treasure Island. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 56. The image is centered at 37 degrees north latitude, 122degrees west longitude. This single-frequency SIR-C image was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) radar channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this image appear very dark as do other smooth surfaces such as airport runways. Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of San Francisco, appear as lighter gray. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as those seen in the downtown areas, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the radar flight track. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes

  6. Gastrointestinal torsions and intussusception in northern koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) at San Diego Zoo (1976-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Roesler, Jennifer; Andrus, Chris Hamlin; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Rideout, Bruce A; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2014-03-01

    The recent classification as threatened status of the northern koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) by the Australian Government highlights the importance of the conservation and health management of this iconic Australian marsupial. This case series describes gastrointestinal torsion and intussusception in six northern koalas (three males, three females, 2-11 yr old) at the San Diego Zoo from 1976 to 2012. Two koalas died shortly after presentation. Diagnoses of ileocecal intussusception, resulting from enteritis in one case and cecal torsion in the other, were made at postmortem examination. One koala died 4 days after an exploratory laparotomy, with negative findings, and an acute double colonic intussusception was diagnosed at postmortem examination. Two small intestinal mesenteric torsion and one proximal colon mesenteric torsion cases were successfully corrected surgically. In the case of colonic mesenteric torsion, the koala had recurrent clinical signs 2 wk later, and a second surgery requiring resection and anastomosis of ischemic jejunum was performed, with the koala dying shortly afterward. One koala with small intestinal torsion had a recurrence of torsion 22 mo later and subsequently died. The koala with the second case of small intestinal torsion remains alive 14 mo postsurgical correction. All six koalas presented with signs of colic that included anorexia, lethargy, depression, acute abdominal distension, abdominal stretching, decreased fecal output, open-mouth gasping, or a combination of symptoms. Abdominal radiographs may show stacked gastrointestinal linear gas patterns and contrast stasis. Prevalence of torsion and intussusception is low at this institution (2%), although recurrence in individuals is common (50%) and overall survival is poor (83%), which emphasizes the importance of timely recognition, surgical correction, and postoperative management. While inciting etiologies were unable to be determined in these cases, monitoring generalized

  7. Backscatter C [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  8. Backscatter B [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  9. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  10. Backscatter D [7125]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  11. Faults--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is...

  12. Folds--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is...

  13. Seafloor character--Offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. The raster data...

  14. Folds--Offshore of San Gregorio Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California....

  15. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore of San Francisco, California (raster data file is included in...

  16. San Francisco Bay, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second San Francisco Bay, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  17. El ferrocarril San Diego-Arizona y el ferrocarril Tijuana-Tecate: Un corredor de herencia cultural binacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Castillo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discuten algunos lineamientos teóricos para identificar el antiguo ferrocarril estadounidense San Diego-Arizona –del cual forma parte el ferrocarril mexicano Tijuana-Tecate– como un corredor de herencia binacional. Asimismo se analiza una aproximación metodológica dentro del campo de la geografía cultural y de la preservación histórica para su valorización e integración al desarrollo regional fronterizo.

  18. Strong earthquake motion estimates for three sites on the U.C. San Diego campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, S; Doroudian, M; Elgamal, A; Gonzales, S; Heuze, F; Lai, T; Minster, B; Oglesby, D; Riemer, M; Vernon, F; Vucetic, M; Wagoner, J; Yang, Z

    2002-05-07

    The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill, sample, and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling

  19. Groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Fernando and San Gabriel groundwater basins constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  20. Resilient development and environmental justice in divided territory: political ecology in the San Diego-Tijuana bioregion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haines

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores issues in the expansion of environmental justice rhetoric to the developing world, and propose insights from resilience theory, political ecology, and bioregionalism as supplements. I do this from the frame of the San Diego-Tijuana region, where regional inequalities are stark and global processes have a heavy local footprint. Sharing a broadly-defined natural region, the growing evidence of ecological crisis increasingly calls for collaboration between two communities which often perceive themselves as relatively disconnected. Understanding challenges to social-ecological resilience and environmental justice in the San Diego-Tijuana region, however, also requires understanding it as an inflection point for global economic, military, and human migration flows occurring at many scales. It is in the context of building effective regional collaboration that environmental justice must engage the analyses of scale and political economy contained in political ecology as a challenge. I suggest, however, that any environmental justice discourse informed by political ecology cannot remain abstract from the local context. A “bioregional” community forged around shared ecological systems may serve as an important resource for creating social-ecological resilience in politically divided territory.

  1. Levels of radioactivity and historical heavy metal enrichment in healing mud profiles from San Diego River, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behaviour of the radioactivity levels of 210Pb, 234Th, 214Pb, 137Cs, 232Th and 40K and the historical heavy metal enrichment in 210Pb-dated healing mud profiles from San Diego river outlet (western Cuba) has been studied to evaluate its possible impact in peloide medical uses. The obtained results show the same behaviour for natural radionuclide activities. The estimated annual effective dose for pelotherapy (1.7 μSv.h-1) is a very small fraction of the annual dose received by Cuban population from terrestrial environmental source. On the other hand, iron-normalized enrichment factors indicate the Co, Ni, Cu and Zn natural origin (Enrichment Factor ∼ ), reflecting a low anthropogenic-pogenic impact to the area in the last 100 years. A minor lead enrichment (EF=2) in the last few decades was determined. The heavy metal levels in most recent mud (0-5 cm, on mg.kg-1 dry weight) were: Co = 18 ± 2, Ni = 62 ± 8, Cu = 52 ± 2, Zn = 72 ± 4 and Pb = 28 ± 2. The comparison with reported Earth's upper crust average shales and muds, and with data reported for different muds used for medical purposes shows that heavy metal content and radioactivity levels in San Diego River mud are not an impediment for its use with therapeutic purposes. (Author)

  2. Interpretation of geology, geophysics and hydrochemistry for selection of geothermal drilling sites, Canon de San Diego Grant, Sandoval county, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, J.B.; McIntyre, J.R.; Klein, C.W.; Beyer, J.H.

    1978-11-01

    This project began in mid-1977 as an evaluation of the geology and hydrogeology of the Canon de San Diego Grant for Sunoco Energy Development Co. (Sunedco) and evolved late in 1977, at Sunedco's direction, into a more comprehensive study of geophysical, geologic and hydrogeochemical data. This has been used to select sites for the possible drilling of deep geothermal wells.

  3. Recent deep-seated coastal landsliding at San Onofre State Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne LiDAR collected during the period 1998-2010 and differential GPS surveys conducted over 2008-2013 show recent reactivation and movement of a large deep-seated coastal landslide at San Onofre State Beach, San Diego County, California. The overall slide complex extends about 700 m alongshore, 150 m inland, and an unknown distance offshore. Differencing digital elevation models and tracking field monuments (benchmarks) provide time series of quantitative topographic landslide changes and new insight in to the slide motion sequences and mechanics. The slide contains several distinct primary and secondary regions moving and deforming at different rates. Primary slide motion includes slow seaward translational motion, rotational slipping, and upward offshore movement. Secondary processes of basal wave erosion and new inland cliffline failures contribute to primary landslide destabilization. The landslide exhibits lithologic and structural controls, is driven by a combination of marine and subaerial processes, influences local beach morphology, and deviates from typical southern California coastal cliff processes which mostly involve shallow landslides and topples. Large-scale, cross-shore slide rotation has recently created new nearshore reefs. Eroded cliff sediments provide a local beach sand source and probably influence local nearshore ecosystems. All known time periods of major historical landslide activity were preceded by elevated seasonal rainfall and analysis suggests elevated rainfall generated primary slide motion as opposed to wave action. As of spring 2013, landslide activity has slowed, but continued positive feedbacks including toe removal by wave activity suggest that future landsliding will probably threaten coastal infrastructure.

  4. Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Transgender Women and Men Undergoing Community-Based Screening for Acute and Early HIV Infection in San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nella; Hoenigl, Martin; Morris, Sheldon; Little, Susan J

    2015-10-01

    The transgender community represents an understudied population in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare risk behavior, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates between transgender women and transgender men undergoing community-based HIV testing.With this retrospective analysis of a cohort study, we characterize HIV infection rates as well as reported risk behaviors and reported STI in 151 individual transgender women and 30 individual transgender men undergoing community based, voluntary screening for acute and early HIV infection (AEH) in San Diego, California between April 2008 and July 2014.HIV positivity rate was low for both, transgender women and transgender men undergoing AEH screening (2% and 3%, respectively), and the self-reported STI rate for the prior 12 months was 13% for both. Although transgender women appeared to engage in higher rates of risk behavior overall, with 69% engaged in condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) and 11% engaged in sex work, it is important to note that 91% of transgender women reported recent sexual intercourse, 73% had more than 1 sexual partner, 63% reported intercourse with males, 37% intercourse with males and females, and 30% had CRAI.Our results indicate that in some settings rates of HIV infection, as well as rates of reported STIs and sexual risk behavior in transgender men may resemble those found in transgender women. Our findings support the need for comprehensive HIV prevention in both, transgender women and men. PMID:26469928

  5. Vertical tectonic deformation associated with the San Andreas fault zone offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, H. F.; Parsons, T.; Sliter, R. W.

    2008-10-01

    A new fault map of the shelf offshore of San Francisco, California shows that faulting occurs as a distributed shear zone that involves many fault strands with the principal displacement taken up by the San Andreas fault and the eastern strand of the San Gregorio fault zone. Structures associated with the offshore faulting show compressive deformation near where the San Andreas fault goes offshore, but deformation becomes extensional several km to the north off of the Golden Gate. Our new fault map serves as the basis for a 3-D finite element model that shows that the block between the San Andreas and San Gregorio fault zone is subsiding at a long-term rate of about 0.2-0.3 mm/yr, with the maximum subsidence occurring northwest of the Golden Gate in the area of a mapped transtensional basin. Although the long-term rates of vertical displacement primarily show subsidence, the model of coseismic deformation associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake indicates that uplift on the order of 10-15 cm occurred in the block northeast of the San Andreas fault. Since 1906, 5-6 cm of regional subsidence has occurred in that block. One implication of our model is that the transfer of slip from the San Andreas fault to a fault 5 km to the east, the Golden Gate fault, is not required for the area offshore of San Francisco to be in extension. This has implications for both the deposition of thick Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments (the Merced Formation) observed east of the San Andreas fault, and the age of the Peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault.

  6. Geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, J.C.; Trollman, W.M.; Denman, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    The following list of references includes most of the geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in central California (see figure 1) published prior to January 1, 1973. The San Joaquin Valley comprises all or parts of 11 counties -- Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare (figure 2). As a matter of convenient geographical classification the boundaries of the report area have been drawn along county lines, and to include San Benito and Santa Clara Counties on the west and Mariposa and Tuolumne Counties on the east. Therefore, this list of geological literature includes some publications on the Diablo and Temblor Ranges on the west, the Tehachapi Mountains and Mojave Desert on the south, and the Sierra Nevada Foothills and Mountains on the east.

  7. San Jose, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Jose, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  8. San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Francisco, CA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  9. Contours--Offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps (see sheets 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map...

  10. College Success and the Black Male. San Jose City College, San Jose, California. Research Report #128.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Percy; And Others

    In 1992, a study was conducted at San Jose City College (SJCC) and Evergreen Valley College (EVC), California, to examine the fourth semester persistence rates of black male students and to investigate the effect of SJCC athletic and athlete academic support programs on persistence. Study findings included the following: (1) new full-time (NFT)…

  11. Downscaling climate change models to local site conditions: San Diego National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Executive Summary Southern California tidal marshes have been affected by coastal development and urbanization.Over the past 150 years, dredging and filling...

  12. 76 FR 4283 - Foreign-Trade Zone 153-San Diego, CA; Application for Manufacturing Authority; Abbott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ...; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. (Cardiovascular Device Manufacturing); Riverside County, CA An.... (Abbott), located in Riverside County, California. The application was submitted pursuant to the... sourced from abroad (representing 5% of the value of the finished product) include: resins, plastic...

  13. Isotope identification as a part of the decommissioning of San Diego State University's Texas Nuclear neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Physics at San Diego State University has maintained a Neutron Generator facility in room P-32C since the mid 1960's. This facility has provided students and faculty with a resource for the study of neutron interactions with matter, such as activation analysis, flux determinations, cross section determinations and shielding studies. The model 9500 was built by Texas Nuclear Research in the early 1960's, and could be used for either photon or neutron generation, depending on the source ions introduced into the accelerator's plasma bottle and the target material. In February of 1988, the Texas Nuclear Research neutron generator was replaced by a unit manufactured by Kaman Sciences Corporation. The Texas Nuclear unit was then removed and stored for later disassembly and disposal. In the summer of 1993, the neutron generator was disassembled into three large sections consisting of the titanium-tritide target, the oil diffusion pump and the corona shield/accelerator tube assembly. The target was packaged and stored in room P-33A and the other 2 assemblies were wrapped in plastic for storage. In June of 1995 the neutron generator was further disassembled to enable storage in 55 gallon drums and thoroughly surveyed for loose surface contamination. Openings on the disassembled hardware components were closed off using either duct tape or bolted stainless steel flanges to prevent the possible spread of contamination. Significant levels of removable surface contamination could be found on system internal and some external surfaces, up to five hundred thousand disintegrations per minute. Initial analysis of the removable contamination using aluminum absorbers and a Geiger-Meuller tube indicated beta particle or possibly photon emitters with an energy of approximately 180 keV. This apparent radiation energy conflicted with what one would be expected to find, given knowledge of the source material and the possible neutron activated products that would be

  14. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Survival Rate of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California from 1987-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains initial capture and marking data for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups at San Miguel Island, California and subsequent...

  15. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  16. Structure and mechanics of the San Andreas-San Gregorio fault junction, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Bruns, Terry R.; Sliter, Ray

    2005-01-01

    The right-lateral San Gregorio and San Andreas faults meet west of the Golden Gate near San Francisco. Coincident seismic reflection and refraction profiling across the San Gregorio and San Andreas faults south of their junction shows the crust between them to have formed shallow extensional basins that are dissected by parallel strike-slip faults. We employ a regional finite element model to investigate the long-term consequences of the fault geometry. Over the course of 2-3 m.y. of slip on the San Andreas-San Gregorio fault system, elongated extensional basins are predicted to form between the two faults. An additional consequence of the fault geometry is that the San Andreas fault is expected to have migrated eastward relative to the San Gregorio fault. We thus propose a model of eastward stepping right-lateral fault formation to explain the observed multiple fault strands and depositional basins. The current manifestation of this process might be the observed transfer of slip from the San Andreas fault east to the Golden Gate fault.

  17. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter polymorphism with the sudden infant death syndrome in the San Diego Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, David S; Rivera, Keith D; Broadbelt, Kevin G; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Belliveau, Richard A; Holm, Ingrid A; Haas, Elisabeth A; Stanley, Christina; Krous, Henry F; Kinney, Hannah C; Markianos, Kyriacos

    2010-11-01

    Dysfunction of medullary serotonin (5-HT)-mediated respiratory and autonomic function is postulated to underlie the pathogenesis of the majority of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases. Several studies have reported an increased frequency of the LL genotype and L allele of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) gene promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which is associated with increased transcriptional activity and 5-HT transport in vitro, in SIDS cases compared with controls. These findings raise the possibility that this polymorphism contributes to or exacerbates existing medullary 5-HT dysfunction in SIDS. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency of LL genotype and L allele are higher in 179 SIDS cases compared with 139 controls of multiple ethnicities in the San Diego SIDS Dataset. We observed no significant association of genotype or allele with SIDS cases either in the total cohort or on stratification for ethnicity. These observations do not support previous findings that the L allele and/or LL genotype of the 5-HTTLPR are associated with SIDS.

  18. Población commuter de la frontera norte: el caso de Mexicali-Calexico y Tijuana-San Diego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Vega Briones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo central de este trabajo es analizar el perfil sociodemográfico de los trabajadores transfronterizos o commuters de las ciudades de Tijuana-San Diego y Mexicali- Calexico de acuerdo con el sexo y el lugar donde se encuentra el trabajo. Los trabajadores transfronterizos o commuters son los individuos que residen en alguna ciudad de la frontera norte de México, pero cotidianamente cruzan la línea fronteriza para trabajar en la ciudad estadounidense contigua. La información que se utiliza para realizar este estudio es la obtenida por el Censo de Población y Vivienda mexicano del año 2010; sin embargo, el análisis sobre el perfil de los commuters se complementa con información de carácter etnográfico producto de diversas entrevistas realizadas a los trabajadores transfronterizos, principalmente en las ciudades de Tijuana y Mexicali. Consideramos que esta población tiene una imagen individual y cotidiana más completa de la compleja relación que se da en la frontera México-Estados Unidos, dada su característica principal de interacción continua entre ambos lados de la frontera. Ello al mismo tiempo nos permite contar con una visión más profunda de una realidad fronteriza que se basa en la dependencia creada y recreada en las sociedades tanto mexicana como estadounidense.

  19. El papel de las redes de caminos en los desplazamientos laborales trasfronterizos de Tijuana a San Diego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mungaray Moctezuma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de una encuesta realizada en once secciones de Tijuana y una muestra representativa de su población total, que incluye a aquélla con empleo en ciudades del condado de San Diego, se analiza la red binacional y los desplazamientos laborales a través de sus principales puertos de acceso fronterizo. Se concluye que en el lado mexicano, la mayoría de los puntos de partida de los trabajadores trasfronterizos se ubica cerca de dichos puertos, y que la mayor parte de los sitios de trabajo del lado estadounidense se concentran en cinco municipios próximos a la frontera. La red es eficiente al permitir que las distancias entre ambos lados, incluso las pautas en los puentes sean accesibles tanto para peatones, que utilizan los sistemas de trasporte colectivo estadounidense y que laboran cerca de la frontera, como para quienes usan sus vehículos particulares, para acudir a lugares más lejanos.

  20. Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics, the annual meeting of The Antibody Society December 7-10, 2015, San Diego, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauthner, Matthias; Yeung, Jenny; Ullman, Chris; Bakker, Joost; Wurch, Thierry; Reichert, Janice M; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Carter, Paul J; Melis, Joost P M

    2016-01-01

    The 26th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting, the annual meeting of The Antibody Society united over 800 participants from all over the world in San Diego from 6-10 December 2015. The latest innovations and advances in antibody research and development were discussed, covering a myriad of antibody-related topics by more than 100 speakers, who were carefully selected by The Antibody Society. As a prelude, attendees could join the pre-conference training course focusing, among others, on the engineering and enhancement of antibodies and antibody-like scaffolds, bispecific antibody engineering and adaptation to generate chimeric antigen receptor constructs. The main event covered 4 d of scientific sessions that included antibody effector functions, reproducibility of research and diagnostic antibodies, new developments in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), preclinical and clinical ADC data, new technologies and applications for bispecific antibodies, antibody therapeutics for non-cancer and orphan indications, antibodies to harness the cellular immune system, building comprehensive IgVH-gene repertoires through discovering, confirming and cataloging new germline IgVH genes, and overcoming resistance to clinical immunotherapy. The Antibody Society's special session focused on "Antibodies to watch" in 2016. Another special session put the spotlight on the limitations of the new definitions for the assignment of antibody international nonproprietary names introduced by the World Health Organization. The convention concluded with workshops on computational antibody design and on the promise and challenges of using next-generation sequencing for antibody discovery and engineering from synthetic and in vivo libraries. PMID:26909869

  1. Ground-water-level monitoring network, Hollister and San Juan Valleys, San Benito County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The addition of 17 wells to the existing 86-well network is proposed to improve the ground-water monitoring in the Hollister and San Juan Valleys in California. The new wells were selected on the basis of well-construction data, availability, location, accessibility, use, and condition, either to replace wells that are no longer accessible or to furnish needed additional data for planning artificial recharge, preparing water-level-contour maps, and digital ground-water modeling. (USGS)

  2. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  3. Cameron: Archaeological Investigations on the Rancho San Clemente, Orange County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Clay A

    1990-01-01

    Archaeological Investigations on the Rancho San Clemente, Orange County, California. Constance Cameron. Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory No. 27, 1989, viii + 270 pp., 120 figs, plus tables and appendices, $16.95 (paper).

  4. Antibody engineering & therapeutics, the annual meeting of the antibody society December 7–10, 2015, San Diego, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauthner, Matthias; Yeung, Jenny; Ullman, Chris; Bakker, Joost; Wurch, Thierry; Reichert, Janice M.; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.; Carter, Paul J.; Melis, Joost P.M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 26th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting, the annual meeting of The Antibody Society united over 800 participants from all over the world in San Diego from 6–10 December 2015. The latest innovations and advances in antibody research and development were discussed, covering a myriad of antibody-related topics by more than 100 speakers, who were carefully selected by The Antibody Society. As a prelude, attendees could join the pre-conference training course focusing, among others, on the engineering and enhancement of antibodies and antibody-like scaffolds, bispecific antibody engineering and adaptation to generate chimeric antigen receptor constructs. The main event covered 4 d of scientific sessions that included antibody effector functions, reproducibility of research and diagnostic antibodies, new developments in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), preclinical and clinical ADC data, new technologies and applications for bispecific antibodies, antibody therapeutics for non-cancer and orphan indications, antibodies to harness the cellular immune system, building comprehensive IgVH-gene repertoires through discovering, confirming and cataloging new germline IgVH genes, and overcoming resistance to clinical immunotherapy. The Antibody Society's special session focused on “Antibodies to watch” in 2016. Another special session put the spotlight on the limitations of the new definitions for the assignment of antibody international nonproprietary names introduced by the World Health Organization. The convention concluded with workshops on computational antibody design and on the promise and challenges of using next-generation sequencing for antibody discovery and engineering from synthetic and in vivo libraries. PMID:26909869

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of the Use of Prefilled Syringes Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Richard F; Roth, Alexis M; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Munoz, Fatima A; Garfein, Richard S

    2015-12-01

    Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk for blood-borne virus (BBV) infections and overdose resulting from high-risk injecting practices. Studies of prefilled syringe use ([PFSU] using a syringe that already contained drug solution when it was obtained by the user), an injection practice previously described in Eastern Europe, suggest that it increases susceptibility to BBV. However, little is known about this practice in the USA. Data were obtained from an ongoing cohort study of PWID to determine the prevalence and assess correlates of PFSU in San Diego, CA. Baseline interviews assessed socio-demographics and drug use behaviors. Logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with ever using a prefilled syringe (yes/no). Participants (n = 574) were predominately males (73.9%) and white (50.9%) with a mean age of 43.4 years (range 18-80); 33.3% reported ever using prefilled syringes, although only 4.9% reported use in the past 6 months. In multivariable analyses, PFSU was independently associated with ever having a rushed injection due to police presence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.51, 95% CI 1.66, 3.79], ever being in prison (AOR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.23, 2.63), injecting most often in public versus private places in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.11, 2.48), and injecting drugs in Mexico (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.16, 2.49). Results indicate that a history of PFSU is common and associated with environmental factors that may also increase risk for adverse health outcomes. Studies are needed to better understand PFSU in order to develop interventions to prevent adverse outcomes associated with their use. PMID:26382653

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of the Use of Prefilled Syringes Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Richard F; Roth, Alexis M; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Munoz, Fatima A; Garfein, Richard S

    2015-12-01

    Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk for blood-borne virus (BBV) infections and overdose resulting from high-risk injecting practices. Studies of prefilled syringe use ([PFSU] using a syringe that already contained drug solution when it was obtained by the user), an injection practice previously described in Eastern Europe, suggest that it increases susceptibility to BBV. However, little is known about this practice in the USA. Data were obtained from an ongoing cohort study of PWID to determine the prevalence and assess correlates of PFSU in San Diego, CA. Baseline interviews assessed socio-demographics and drug use behaviors. Logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with ever using a prefilled syringe (yes/no). Participants (n = 574) were predominately males (73.9%) and white (50.9%) with a mean age of 43.4 years (range 18-80); 33.3% reported ever using prefilled syringes, although only 4.9% reported use in the past 6 months. In multivariable analyses, PFSU was independently associated with ever having a rushed injection due to police presence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.51, 95% CI 1.66, 3.79], ever being in prison (AOR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.23, 2.63), injecting most often in public versus private places in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.11, 2.48), and injecting drugs in Mexico (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.16, 2.49). Results indicate that a history of PFSU is common and associated with environmental factors that may also increase risk for adverse health outcomes. Studies are needed to better understand PFSU in order to develop interventions to prevent adverse outcomes associated with their use.

  7. PV Validation and Bankability Workshop: San Jose, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, J.; Howard, J.

    2011-12-01

    This report is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). The report provides feedback from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Program PV Validation and Bankability Workshop in San Jose, California on August 31, 2011. It focuses on the current state of PV in the United States, private funding to fund U.S. PV industry growth, roles and functions of the regional test center program, and ways to improve the current validation and bankability practices.

  8. Observations and modeling of San Diego beaches during El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, André; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, William C.; Yates, M. L.

    2016-08-01

    Subaerial sand levels were observed at five southern California beaches for 16 years, including notable El Niños in 1997-98 and 2009-10. An existing, empirical shoreline equilibrium model, driven with wave conditions estimated using a regional buoy network, simulates well the seasonal changes in subaerial beach width (e.g. the cross-shore location of the MSL contour) during non-El Niño years, similar to previous results with a 5-year time series lacking an El Niño winter. The existing model correctly identifies the 1997-98 El Niño winter conditions as more erosive than 2009-10, but overestimates shoreline erosion during both El Niños. The good skill of the existing equilibrium model in typical conditions does not necessarily extrapolate to extreme erosion on these beaches where a few meters thick sand layer often overlies more resistant layers. The modest over-prediction of the 2009-10 El Niño is reduced by gradually decreasing the model mobility of highly eroded shorelines (simulating cobbles, kelp wrack, shell hash, or other stabilizing layers). Over prediction during the more severe 1997-98 El Niño is corrected by stopping model erosion when resilient surfaces (identified with aerial imagery) are reached. The trained model provides a computationally simple (e.g. nonlinear first order differential equation) representation of the observed relationship between incident waves and shoreline change.

  9. Giving birth across the border: the San Diego-Tijuana connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, S; Jasis, M

    1992-02-01

    Large immigration flows of young Mexican women to the U.S.-Mexico border are increasing the demand for maternity services in the Southwest. To date no attempt has been made to determine how U.S. births are distributed among stable, permanent residents and transient migrants, such as border residents of Mexico who enter the U.S. temporarily, yet long enough to use health services. This exploratory study examines factors associated with childbirth in California by border residents of Tijuana, Mexico. Data on 184 women, 15-44 years old, who gave birth between 1982-87, were examined using a household survey and focus group discussions. The findings indicate that 10.4% of the sample crossed the border to give birth in the United States. Socio-economic and legal status, spoken English proficiency, history of U.S. residency, annual visits across the border, single parenthood and primiparity were factors significantly associated with childbirth in the United States. These factors, in addition to social class differentials in attitudes towards U.S. obstetrical care and citizenship-by-birth need to be examined in future studies of cross-border utilization of services. The findings also demonstrate that most U.S. deliveries were in the private sector and paid for out of pocket, representing a very low public health burden. Changes in Medicaid legislation, which have extended maternity care coverage to the undocumented, may encourage deliveries in the public sector. These effects, coupled with the bridging effects that newly legalized immigrant networks exert on friends and relatives, familiarizing them with U.S. health care resources, will require monitoring to determine changes in demand for U.S. maternity care by this population. PMID:1566123

  10. BILIRUBIN CONCENTRATIONS IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY AND DISEASED CAPTIVE WATERBUCK (KOBUS ELLIPSIPRYMNUS) AT THE SAN DIEGO ZOO SAFARI PARK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Ryan A; Lamberski, Nadine; Christopher, Mary M

    2016-06-01

    Captive waterbuck ( Kobus ellipsiprymnus ) that appear clinically healthy have been noted to have high serum bilirubin concentrations compared with other ruminants; however, questions remain about the physiologic factors affecting bilirubin concentration and its potential association with underlying disease and icteric serum or mucous membranes. Serum bilirubin concentrations of healthy and diseased waterbuck housed at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park from 1989 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed to determine any link between icteric serum, total bilirubin concentration (tBili), and disease entities in this species. Total bilirubin and direct (dBili) bilirubin concentrations and the prevalence of icteric serum were compared by subspecies, age group, and health status; associations with complete blood count and biochemical results and clinical diagnosis were assessed. No significant differences were found in tBili or dBili between Ellipsen (n = 32) and Defassa (n = 29) subspecies or in juveniles (n = 22) versus adults (n = 39). Clinically healthy waterbuck (n = 40) had significantly higher tBili (mean ± 2SD, 7.9 ± 1.2 mg/dl; P < 0.001) and dBili (3.7 ± 1.0 mg/dl; P < 0.001) than did diseased waterbuck (n = 21; tBili: 4.9 ± 2.56 mg/dl; dBili: 2.2 ± 0.8 mg/dl). No waterbuck had icteric tissues on physical examination. Twelve (19.7%) waterbuck (six healthy, six diseased) had icteric serum. Few minor correlations were seen between tBili or dBili and clinical, laboratory, or necropsy evidence of disease, though an inverse correlation between dBili and blood glucose was noted. Of the 40 healthy animals, reference intervals were calculated for tBili (5.5-10.3 mg/dl), dBili (1.7-5.7 mg/dl), and indirect bilirubin (2.2-6.2 mg/dl). These results suggest healthy waterbuck have relatively high tBili and dBili compared with related species. Icteric serum may be seen in up to 15% of healthy animals in the absence of icteric tissues.

  11. Fog and Haze in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration features images of southern California and southwestern Nevada acquired on January 3, 2001 (Terra orbit 5569), and includes data from three of MISR's nine cameras. The San Joaquin Valley, which comprises the southern extent of California's Central Valley, covers much of the viewed area. Also visible are several of the Channel Islands near the bottom, and Mono and Walker Lakes, which stand out as darker patches near the top center, especially in the vertical and backward oblique images. Near the lower right of each image is the Los Angeles Basin, with the distinctive chevron shape of the Mojave Desert to its north.The Central Valley is a well-irrigated and richly productive agricultural area situated between the Coast Range and the snow-capped Sierra Nevadas. During the winter, the region is noted for its hazy overcasts and a low, thick ground fog known as the Tule. Owing to the effects of the atmosphere on reflected sunlight, dramatic differences in the MISR images are apparent as the angle of view changes. An area of thick, white fog in the San Joaquin Valley is visible in all three of the images. However, the pervasive haze that fills most of the valley is only slightly visible in the vertical view. At the oblique angles, the haze is highly distinguishable against the land surface background, particularly in the forward-viewing direction. Just above image center, the forward view also reveals bluish-tinged plumes near Lava Butte in Sequoia National Forest, where the National Interagency Coordination Center reported an active forest fire.The changing surface visibility in the multi-angle data allows us to derive the amount of atmospheric haze. In the lower right quadrant is a map of haze amount determined from automated processing of the MISR imagery. Low amounts of haze are shown in blue, and a variation in hue through shades of green, yellow, and red indicates progressively larger amounts of airborne particulates. Due to the topographically

  12. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    San Joaquin, the name given to the southern portion of California's vast Central Valley, has been called the world's richest agricultural valley. In this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image, we are looking toward the southwest over a checkerboard pattern of agricultural fields. Mt. Pinos, a popular location for stargazing at 2,692 meters (8,831 feet) looms above the valley floor and is visible on the left side of the image. The productive southern San Joaquin is in reality a desert, averaging less than 12.7 cm (5 inches) of rain per year. Through canals and irrigation, the region nurtures some two hundred crops including grapes, figs, apricots, oranges, and more than 4,047 square-km (1,000,000 acres) of cotton. The California Aqueduct, transporting water from the Sacramento River Delta through the San Joaquin, runs along the base of the low-lying Wheeler Ridge on the left side of the image. The valley is not all agriculture though. Kern County, near the valley's southern end, is the United States' number one oil producing county, and actually produces more crude oil than Oklahoma. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U

  13. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.

  14. Microplastic contamination in the San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Mason, Sherri A; Stanek, Shavonne K; Willis-Norton, Ellen; Wren, Ian F; Box, Carolynn

    2016-08-15

    Despite widespread detection of microplastic pollution in marine environments, data describing microplastic abundance in urban estuaries and microplastic discharge via treated municipal wastewater are limited. This study presents information on abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastic at nine sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Also presented are characterizations of microplastic in final effluent from eight wastewater treatment plants, employing varying treatment technologies, that discharge to the Bay. With an average microplastic abundance of 700,000particles/km(2), Bay surface water appears to have higher microplastic levels than other urban waterbodies sampled in North America. Moreover, treated wastewater from facilities that discharge into the Bay contains considerable microplastic contamination. Facilities employing tertiary filtration did not show lower levels of contamination than those using secondary treatment. As textile-derived fibers were more abundant in wastewater, higher levels of fragments in surface water suggest additional pathways of microplastic pollution, such as stormwater runoff. PMID:27289280

  15. 77 FR 32986 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, U.S. Marine Corps, San Diego...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... removed from the construction site of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) on MCB Camp... San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) at MCB Camp Pendleton. Bechtel relocated the...

  16. The Cenozoic evolution of the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartow, J. Alan

    1991-01-01

    The San Joaquin Valley, which is the southern part of the 700-km-long Great Valley of California, is an asymmetric structural trough that is filled with a prism of upper Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments up to 9 km thick; these sediments rest on crystalline basement rocks of the southwestward-tilted Sierran block. The San Joaquin sedimentary basin is separated from the Sacramento basin to the north by the buried Stockton arch and associated Stockton fault. The buried Bakersfield arch near the south end of the valley separates the small Maricopa-Tejon subbasin at the south end of the San Joaquin basin from the remainder of the basin. Cenozoic strata in the San Joaquin basin thicken southeastward from about 800 m in the north to over 9,000 m in the south. The San Joaquin Valley can be subdivided into five regions on the basis of differing structural style. They are the northern Sierran block, the southern Sierran block, the northern Diablo homocline, the westside fold belt, and the combined Maricopa-Tejon subbasin and southmargin deformed belt. Considerable facies variation existed within the sedimentary basin, particularly in the Neogene when a thick section of marine sediment accumulated in the southern part of the basin, while a relatively thin and entirely nonmarine section was deposited in the northern part. The northern Sierran block, the stable east limb of the valley syncline between the Stockton fault and the San Joaquin River, is the least deformed region of the valley. Deformation consists mostly of a southwest tilt and only minor late Cenozoic normal faulting. The southern Sierran block, the stable east limb of the valley syncline between the San Joaquin River and the Bakersfield arch, is similar in style to the northern part of the block, but it has a higher degree of deformation. Miocene or older normal faults trend mostly north to northwest and have a net down-to-the-west displacement with individual offsets of as much as 600 m. The northern Diablo

  17. Summary of California Clapper Rail winter populations in the San Francisco National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Clapper rail (Rallus lonqirostris obsoletus) is a seldom seen resident in some of the remaining tidal salt marshes in San Francisco Bay. The...

  18. Factors affecting reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We assessed the reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), an endangered species restricted to San Francisco Bay, and the...

  19. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of San Gregorio Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. The vector...

  20. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  1. Bathymetric measurements of Little Holland Tract, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2015 for the Little Holland Tract in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California. The...

  2. Topographic measurements of Little Holland Tract, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Topographic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2015 for the Little Holland Tract in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California. The...

  3. Digital Elevation Model of Little Holland Tract, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This product is a digital elevation model (DEM) for the Little Holland Tract in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California based on U.S. Geological Survey...

  4. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation. San Anselmo School, San Jose, California, April 1981-March 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkala, P. A.

    The San Anselmo School is a one story brick elementary school building in San Jose, California. The active solar energy system is designed to supply 70% of the space heating and 72% of the cooling load. It is equipped with 3740 square feet of evacuated tube collectors, a 2175 gallon tank for heat storage, a solar supplied absorption chiller, and four auxiliary gas fired absorption chillers/heaters. The measured solar fraction of 19% is far below the expected values and is attributed to severe system control and HVAC problems. Other performance data given for the year include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Also tabulated are monthly performance data for the overall solar energy system, collector subsystem, space heating and cooling subsystems. Typical hourly operation data for a day are tabulated, including hourly isolation, collector array temperatures (inlet and outlet), and storage fluid temperatures. The solar energy use and percentage of losses are also graphed.

  5. Bartonella quintana in Body Lice and Head Lice from Homeless Persons, San Francisco, California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, Denise L.; Kabeya, Hidenori; Henn, Jennifer; Kramer, Vicki L.; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2009-01-01

    Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that causes trench fever in humans. Past reports have shown Bartonella spp. infections in homeless populations in San Francisco, California, USA. The California Department of Public Health in collaboration with San Francisco Project Homeless Connect initiated a program in 2007 to collect lice from the homeless to test for B. quintana and to educate the homeless and their caregivers on prevention and control of louse-borne disease. During 2007–2008, 33.3% of ...

  6. 76 FR 68103 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Rulemaking For the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

  7. Operation and maintenance experience at the General Atomic Company's TRIGA reactor facility at San Diego, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the startup of the original 250 kW TRIGA Mark I reactor in 1958, General Atomic Company has accumulated nearly 24 years of operation and maintenance experience with this type of reactor. In addition to the nearly 24 years of experience gained on the Mark I, GA has operated the 1.5 MW Advanced Prototype Test Reactor (Mark F) for 22 years and operated a 2 MW below-ground TRIGA Mark III for five years. Information obtained from normal and abnormal operation are presented. (author)

  8. Persistent Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in 3 Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gabrielle; Campbell, Wesley; Jenks, Jeffrey; Beesley, Cari; Katsivas, Theodoros; Hoffmaster, Alex; Mehta, Sanjay R; Reed, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus cereus is typically considered a blood culture contaminant; however, its presence in blood cultures can indicate true bacteremia. We report 4 episodes of B. cereus bacteremia in 3 persons who inject drugs. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the temporally associated infections were caused by unrelated clones. PMID:27533890

  9. AERA Vocational Education Special Interest Group Proceedings (San Diego, California, April 13-17, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Diane H., Ed.

    This document contains six research papers: "Articulation Practices among Secondary and Postsecondary Vocational-Technical Education Programs" (Bob R. Stewart, Sandra Eckert-Stewart); "What Message Are We Sending to Counselors about Their Role in Tech Prep?" (Paula Puckett); "From School-to-Work: Secretaries' and Machinists' Representations of…

  10. 78 FR 37176 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... from architectural coatings. We are proposing to approve a local rule to regulate these emission... available only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material, large maps), and some may not be... Architectural Coatings. In the Rules and Regulations section of this Federal Register, we are approving...

  11. 78 FR 37130 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... direct final rule are encouraged to file a comment in response to the parallel notice of proposed... access'' system, and EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the... files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects...

  12. FINAL DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, SAN DIEGO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  13. Biblioteca de la Universidad Central de San Diego - California (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Pereira y Asociados, Arquitectos

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available This building, which is an original and daring design, consists of five floors and is sphere shaped. It is in the central square of the campus with magnificent views in all directions. It is anticipated that there will be room for 700,000 volumes and about 1,250 students. And in the near future, with easy extensions, these figures will be tripled. The central nucleus and the concrete columns constitute the vertical structure, from which the beams which support the floors extend. The majority of these elements have been left exposed.El edificio, de original y atrevido diseño, consta de cinco plantas y presenta forma esférica, estando emplazado en la plaza central del «campus», con magníficas vistas hacia todas las direcciones. La capacidad prevista es de 700.000 volúmenes, que pueden ser consultados por unos 1.250 estudiantes. En un futuro previsible, y con auxilio de fáciles ampliaciones, pueden llegarse a triplicar las cifras citadas. El núcleo central y los pilares de hormigón constituyen la estructura vertical, desde la que se extienden las vigas que soportan las plantas. La mayor parte de estos elementos se han dejado vistos.

  14. Geologic map of the Morena Reservoir 7.5-minute quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Victoria R.

    2016-06-01

    IntroductionMapping in the Morena Reservoir 7.5-minute quadrangle began in 1980, when the Hauser Wilderness Area, which straddles the Morena Reservoir and Barrett Lake quadrangles, was mapped for the U.S. Forest Service. Mapping was completed in 1993–1994. The Morena Reservoir quadrangle contains part of a regional-scale Late Jurassic(?) to Early Cretaceous tectonic suture that coincides with the western limit of Jurassic metagranites in this part of the Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB). This suture, and a nearly coincident map unit consisting of metamorphosed Cretaceous and Jurassic back-arc basinal volcanic and sedimentary rocks (unit KJvs), mark the boundary between western, predominantly metavolcanic rocks, and eastern, mainly metasedimentary, rocks. The suture is intruded and truncated by the western margin of middle to Late Cretaceous Granite Mountain and La Posta plutons of the eastern zone of the batholith.

  15. F00473A: NOS Hydrographic Survey , San Diego Bay, California, 2001-04-13

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. H09113: NOS Hydrographic Survey , San Diego, California, 1970-04-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. State Education & Environment Roundtable (SEER) Seminar (9th, San Diego, California, May 21-25, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Gerald A.; Hoody, Linda L.

    This document reports on the 9th seminar of the State Education and Environment Roundtable (SEER). It consists of brief overviews of the daily discussions and presentations that were made at the seminar. Topics discussed include connecting service learning and the Environment as an Integrated Context for learning (EIC), and reports from states on…

  18. Smart Parking Pilot on the Coaster Commuter Rail Line in San Diego, California

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Tagan; Rodier, Caroline J.; Shaheen, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, public transit authorities are harnessing advances in sensor, payment, and enforcement technologies to operate parking facilities more efficiently. In the short term, these innovations promise to enhance customer parking experiences, increase the effective supply of existing parking with minimal investment, and increase ridership and overall revenue. Over the longer term, these systems could further expand ridership by generating revenue to add parking capacity and improve acces...

  19. Organochlorine contaminants in eggs of tern species and the western snowy plover nesting in San Diego Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Previous studies have raised concerns about the organochlorine pesticide concentrations in the eggs of tern species in Southern California including the California...

  20. CUERPO, TRATO INTERIOR Y ARTES DE LA MEMORIA: AUTOCONOCIMIENTO E INDIVIDUO MODERNO EN EL TEXTO DE ÚRSULA SAN DIEGO CONVENTO ESPIRITUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Araya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available La obra Convento Espiritual, de la religiosa Úrsula de San Diego, posiblemente escrita en el siglo XVI en Granada, España, forma parte de una tradición de escritura de mujeres como ejercicio ascético-místico en la vida religiosa y devota a ambos lados del Atlántico. En este trabajo se presenta un modo de leerlo en tanto género textual derivado de prácticas de organización del conocimiento provenientes de las artes de la memoria y, como tal, una forma de construcción del sujeto. Estas características son notables en este texto, y si bien no son exclusivas de él, es importante por formar parte de la historia de los primeros impresos en Chile luego de la independencia indicando con ello el reconocimiento pedagógico de este tipo de escritura femenina en las sociedades del Antiguo Régimen.The book Convento Espiritual (Spiritual Convent ofthe Spanish nun Ursula de San Diego, possibly written during the sixteenth century in Granada, Spain, is part of a tradition of womens' writing as an exercise in mystical-ascetic and devout religious life on both sides of the Atlantic. This essay proposes a reading this text within the frame of a textual genre originated in those practices of knowledge organization derived from the arts of memory; as a textual genre, it can also be understood as aform of subject construction. These are remarkable features to be foundin this text, and though they are not exclusive to it, they are important because the Convento espiritual belongs to the history of the early books printed in Chile after the Independence; this points out to the recognition of the educational value  of this type of writing women in those societies belonging to the Old Regime.

  1. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. 334.950 Section 334.950 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The... degrees true, 5.35 nautical miles; thence 040.4 degrees true to the beach. (3) The waters of the...

  2. Testing the Effects of an Introduced Palm on a Riparian Invertebrate Community in Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa Sinicrope Talley; Kim-Chi Nguyen; Anthony Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the iconic association of palms with semi-arid regions, most are introduced and can invade natural areas. Along the San Diego River (San Diego, California, USA), the introduced Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) forms dense patches among native riparian shrubs like arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis). The structural differences between the palm and native shrubs are visually obvious, but little is known about palm's effects on the ecosystem. We tested for the effects of the pa...

  3. The San Bernardino, California, Terror Attack: Two Emergency Departments' Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol; Walters, Elizabeth; Borger, Rodney; Clem, Kathleen; Fenati, Gregory; Kiemeney, Michael; Seng, Sakona; Yuen, Ho-Wang; Neeki, Michael; Smith, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    On December 2, 2015, a terror attack in the city of San Bernardino, California killed 14 Americans and injured 22 in the deadliest attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001. Although emergency personnel and law enforcement officials frequently deal with multi-casualty incidents (MCIs), what occurred that day required an unprecedented response. Most of the severely injured victims were transported to either Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) or Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC). These two hospitals operate two designated trauma centers in the region and played crucial roles during the massive response that followed this attack. In an effort to shed a light on our response to others, we provide an account of how these two teaching hospitals prepared for and coordinated the medical care of these victims. In general, both centers were able to quickly mobilize large number of staff and resources. Prior disaster drills proved to be invaluable. Both centers witnessed excellent teamwork and coordination involving first responders, law enforcement, administration, and medical personnel from multiple specialty services. Those of us working that day felt safe and protected. Although we did identify areas we could have improved upon, including patchy communication and crowd-control, they were minor in nature and did not affect patient care. MCIs pose major challenges to emergency departments and trauma centers across the country. Responding to such incidents requires an ever-evolving approach as no two incidents will present exactly alike. It is our hope that this article will foster discussion and lead to improvements in management of future MCIs.

  4. The Eastern California Shear Zone as the northward extension of the southern San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Wayne R.; Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Cluster analysis offers an agnostic way to organize and explore features of the current GPS velocity field without reference to geologic information or physical models using information only contained in the velocity field itself. We have used cluster analysis of the Southern California Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity field to determine the partitioning of Pacific-North America relative motion onto major regional faults. Our results indicate the large-scale kinematics of the region is best described with two boundaries of high velocity gradient, one centered on the Coachella section of the San Andreas Fault and the Eastern California Shear Zone and the other defined by the San Jacinto Fault south of Cajon Pass and the San Andreas Fault farther north. The ~120 km long strand of the San Andreas between Cajon Pass and Coachella Valley (often termed the San Bernardino and San Gorgonio sections) is thus currently of secondary importance and carries lesser amounts of slip over most or all of its length. We show these first order results are present in maps of the smoothed GPS velocity field itself. They are also generally consistent with currently available, loosely bounded geologic and geodetic fault slip rate estimates that alone do not provide useful constraints on the large-scale partitioning we show here. Our analysis does not preclude the existence of smaller blocks and more block boundaries in Southern California. However, attempts to identify smaller blocks along and adjacent to the San Gorgonio section were not successful.

  5. 77 FR 28618 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... . Fax: 951-697-5299, Attn: Noel Ludwig. Mail: California Desert District Office, Attn: Noel Ludwig... 92243. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Noel Ludwig, Project Manager, telephone 951-697-5368;...

  6. Assessment of hydraulic restoration of San Pablo Marsh, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, Mark E; Kollar, J; Syder, J

    2004-11-01

    Inter-tidal marshes are dynamic diverse ecosystems at the transition zone between terrestrial and ocean environments. Geomorphologically, inter-tidal salt marshes are vegetated land-forms at elevations slightly greater than mean tidal levels that have distributed channels formed under ebb (drainage) tidal flows that widen and deepen in the seaward direction. The drainage channels enable tidal flows to circulate sediments and nutrients through the marsh system during normal tidal events, while depositing sediments during storm or seismic events. This dynamic system encourages considerable biodiversity while simultaneously providing water quality enhancement features that service marsh terrestrial life and marine life in the estuary. Reservoir creation limiting sediment transport, anticipated large increases in sea levels as well as agricultural and urban development have resulted in significant loss of inter-tidal marshes and subsequent adverse impacts on waterfowl, infauna and fisheries. The complex and continuously changing marsh channel hydraulics and sedimentary processes have severely constrained quantitative modeling of these marsh systems such that restoration/creation efforts remain something of an empirical science and further assessments are needed. The purpose of this paper is to outline current understanding of salt marsh hydrodynamics, sediment accretion processes and subsequent response of marsh vegetation to set the stage for assessment of a marsh restoration effort along San Pablo Bay near San Francisco, California. Several kilometers of drainage channels were constructed in a 624 ha disturbed salt marsh to restore tidal circulation and vegetation so as to enhance habitat for threatened species (e.g. clapper rail, harvest mouse, delta smelt and potentially anadromous fish species). Two distinct drainage channel systems ('east' and 'west') were installed having similar channel dimensions common to salt marshes in the region, but having design bankfull

  7. Assessment of hydraulic restoration of San Pablo Marsh, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, Mark E; Kollar, J; Syder, J

    2004-11-01

    Inter-tidal marshes are dynamic diverse ecosystems at the transition zone between terrestrial and ocean environments. Geomorphologically, inter-tidal salt marshes are vegetated land-forms at elevations slightly greater than mean tidal levels that have distributed channels formed under ebb (drainage) tidal flows that widen and deepen in the seaward direction. The drainage channels enable tidal flows to circulate sediments and nutrients through the marsh system during normal tidal events, while depositing sediments during storm or seismic events. This dynamic system encourages considerable biodiversity while simultaneously providing water quality enhancement features that service marsh terrestrial life and marine life in the estuary. Reservoir creation limiting sediment transport, anticipated large increases in sea levels as well as agricultural and urban development have resulted in significant loss of inter-tidal marshes and subsequent adverse impacts on waterfowl, infauna and fisheries. The complex and continuously changing marsh channel hydraulics and sedimentary processes have severely constrained quantitative modeling of these marsh systems such that restoration/creation efforts remain something of an empirical science and further assessments are needed. The purpose of this paper is to outline current understanding of salt marsh hydrodynamics, sediment accretion processes and subsequent response of marsh vegetation to set the stage for assessment of a marsh restoration effort along San Pablo Bay near San Francisco, California. Several kilometers of drainage channels were constructed in a 624 ha disturbed salt marsh to restore tidal circulation and vegetation so as to enhance habitat for threatened species (e.g. clapper rail, harvest mouse, delta smelt and potentially anadromous fish species). Two distinct drainage channel systems ('east' and 'west') were installed having similar channel dimensions common to salt marshes in the region, but having design bankfull

  8. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing.

  9. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing. PMID:27010291

  10. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887) off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo A. Abitia-Cárdenas; Felipe Galván-Magaña; Víctor H Cruz-Escalona; Peterson, Mark S.; Jesús Rodríguez-Romero

    2011-01-01

    The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus), and jumbo squid (Dosi...

  11. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887) off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Abitia Cárdenas, Leonardo Andrés; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Cruz Escalona, Víctor Hugo; Peterson, Mark S.; Rodriguez Romero, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus), California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus), and jumbo squid (Dosi...

  12. Emissions of organic carbon and methane from petroleum and dairy operations in California's San Joaquin Valley

    OpenAIRE

    D. R. Gentner; Ford, T. B.; Guha, A.; Boulanger, K.; J. Brioude; Angevine, W. M.; de Gouw, J. A; C. Warneke; J. B. Gilman; Ryerson, T. B.; J. Peischl; S. Meinardi; D. R. Blake; Atlas, E.; W. A. Lonneman

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum and dairy operations are prominent sources of gas-phase organic compounds in California's San Joaquin Valley. It is essential to understand the emissions and air quality impacts of these relatively understudied sources, especially for oil/gas operations in light of increasing US production. Ground site measurements in Bakersfield and regional aircraft measurements of reactive gas-phase organic compounds and methane were part of the CalNex (California Research at th...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exercising rights under principles of international law, including innocent passage or force majeure, within... seas to the intersection of the maritime boundary with Mexico; thence proceeding easterly, along the maritime boundary with Mexico to its intersection with the California coast; thence proceeding...

  14. San Francisco Bay, California as seen from STS-59

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    San Francisco Bay as seen from STS-59. View is oriented with the sea up. The delta of the combined Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers occupies the foreground with San Francisco Bay in the middle distance, then the Pacific Ocean. Variations in water color caused both by sediment load and by wind streaking strike the eye. Man-made features dominate this scene. The Lafayette/Concord complex is left of the bay head, Vallejo is to the right, the Berkeley/Oakland complex rims the shoreline of the main bay, and San Francisco fills the peninsula beyond. Salt-evaporation ponds contain differently-colored algae depending on salinity. The low altitude (less than 120 nautical miles) and unusually-clear air combine to provide unusually-strong green colors in this Spring scene.

  15. Faults--Offshore of San Gregorio Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area,...

  16. SummerHill Homes, San Francisco Bay Area, Fremont, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-10-01

    Building America fact sheet on SummerHill Homes of Northern California. The Villa Savona Homes in Fremont, California were built using 15% fly ash in concrete, engineered lumber for floors, high efficiency windows with Low-emissivity (Low-E) glass, and fi

  17. 77 FR 745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Correction In rule document 2011-33660 appearing on...

  18. 76 FR 298 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation......... 12/17/92 08/24/07 On September 17, 2007, the submittal for San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution... require that fixed covers be equipped with a 95% efficient Air Pollution Control (APC) device. c....

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" from a Citrus Tree in San Gabriel, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F; Kumagai, L; Liang, G; Deng, X; Zheng, Z; Keremane, M; Chen, J

    2015-12-23

    The draft genome sequence of "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" strain SGCA5 from an orange citrus tree in San Gabriel, California, is reported here. SGCA5 has a genome size of 1,201,445 bp, a G+C content of 36.4%, 1,152 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), and 42 RNA genes.

  20. THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE EMISSION CONTROL POLICIES IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hong Jin

    2000-01-01

    This study analyzes the ROG control costs of stationary sources in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The cost-effectiveness of market incentive approaches such as an uniform marketable permit system, localized marketable permit system and an ambient permit system as well as a traditional command-and-control approach are examined.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" from a Citrus Tree in San Gabriel, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F; Kumagai, L; Liang, G; Deng, X; Zheng, Z; Keremane, M; Chen, J

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" strain SGCA5 from an orange citrus tree in San Gabriel, California, is reported here. SGCA5 has a genome size of 1,201,445 bp, a G+C content of 36.4%, 1,152 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), and 42 RNA genes. PMID:26701083

  2. Estimating natural recharge in San Gorgonio Pass watersheds, California, 1913–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Christensen, Allen H.

    2015-12-21

    A daily precipitation-runoff model was developed to estimate spatially and temporally distributed recharge for groundwater basins in the San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California. The recharge estimates are needed to define transient boundary conditions for a groundwater-flow model being developed to evaluate the effects of pumping and climate on the long-term availability of groundwater. The area defined for estimating recharge is referred to as the San Gorgonio Pass watershed model (SGPWM) and includes three watersheds: San Timoteo Creek, Potrero Creek, and San Gorgonio River. The SGPWM was developed by using the U.S. Geological Survey INFILtration version 3.0 (INFILv3) model code used in previous studies of recharge in the southern California region, including the San Gorgonio Pass area. The SGPWM uses a 150-meter gridded discretization of the area of interest in order to account for spatial variability in climate and watershed characteristics. The high degree of spatial variability in climate and watershed characteristics in the San Gorgonio Pass area is caused, in part, by the high relief and rugged topography of the area.

  3. Adaptive Management Methods to Protect the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Water Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  4. Hydraulic Characteristics of the San Gregorio Creek Drainage Basin, California: a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. R.; Snow, M. K.; Pestrong, R.; Sklar, L. S.; Vavro, M.; Sawachi, A.; Talapian, E.; Bailey, E.

    2004-12-01

    Population pressures within the greater San Francisco Bay Area are forcing development into nearby rural communities, and are impacting local environments. This study of the San Gregorio Creek Watershed is designed as a baseline for evaluating the effect increasing development within the drainage basin has on its river system. We hope to provide evidence for that impact through laboratory and field studies that provide a snap-shot of this drainage basin's current characteristics. The San Gregorio Creek watershed, in the Coast Ranges, is located in the southwestern portion of San Mateo County, California. It drains the western slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in the Coast Ranges into the Pacific Ocean at the town of San Gregorio. Most of its fingertip tributaries flow into the trunk from the north and west, with elevations as high as 2050 feet. The watershed includes an area of approximately 51.6 square miles and San Gregorio Creek, the trunk stream, is roughly 12 miles long. San Gregorio Creek is a fourth order perennial stream. It is fed by a number of major tributaries, the largest of which are Alpine, Mindego, and La Honda creeks. The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a stream gauging station for San Gregorio Creek at the town of San Gregorio, where it has been monitoring stream flows for more than 30 years through its Water Resources Department. The resulting data indicate a mean discharge of 36.4 cfs. Map studies of hydraulic geometry for the drainage basin reveal geometric characteristics for San Gregorio Creek that coincide with similar streams in comparable climatic and environmental settings. Stream table studies are used to further investigate fundamental stream processes. Field studies at selected reaches throughout the drainage basin will document hydraulic characteristics. The results of this study will contribute to more comprehensive studies demonstrateing channel response to changing environmental conditions.

  5. Status of groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel study unit, 2005--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile San Fernando--San Gabriel (FG) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is in Los Angeles County and includes Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary basins situated within the Transverse Ranges of southern California. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA FG study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) throughout California. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 35 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the FG study unit. The quality of groundwater in primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the FG study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.

  6. Record of Environmental Change in San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.

    2004-05-01

    Benthic foraminifera in a 3.52 m core recovered from San Francisco Bay, CA yield a 3,800-year sediment record of climate and environmental change. The microfaunal assemblage of the core contains abundant subtidal estuarine benthic foraminifers found today at shallow water depths (urban areas; its presence being regarded as an index for anthropogenic eutrophication. In San Francisco Bay, this species now commonly comprises over 50% of the foraminiferal fauna, peaking at over 90% at some locations. Such dominance suggests that the environmental conditions of the bay have decreased substantially in the recent past. As an arenaceous species, T. hadai's appearance also marks a possible change in the carbon budget for the bay. Whereas the four most abundant species of foraminifera prior to the T. hadai invasion have tests composed of nearly 100% calcite, T. hadai has only about 6%.

  7. San Francisco, California, August 3-31, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Immacolata Macioti

    2010-01-01

    What are my impressions of San Francisco, after a month’s stay? A city wrapped in a thick mist, in a fog obstructing the panorama. Cold. A city, less frequently, with a clear blue sky, silhouetting the hills and buildings. Low houses, of two or three stories, each with their own characteristics, with their own individual style, often delicate, well cared for. With interesting architectural decorations, bay windows allowing you to glimpse objects clearly held dear by their inhabitants: pottery...

  8. A Study of the San Andreas Slip Rate on the San Francisco Peninsula, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, L. M.; Prentice, C.; Grove, K.; Caskey, J.; Ritz, J. F.; Leslie, S.

    2008-12-01

    The most recent large earthquake on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) along the San Francisco Peninsula was the great San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906, when a Mw= 7.8 event ruptured 435-470 km of the northern SAF. The slip rate for this segment of the SAF is incompletely known but is important for clarifying seismic hazard in this highly urbanized region. A previous study south of our site has found an average slip rate of 17±4 mm/yr for the late Holocene on the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the SAF. North of the Golden Gate, the SAF joins the San Gregorio Fault with an estimated slip rate of 6 mm/yr. A trench study north of where the two faults join has produced an average late Holocene slip rate of 24±3 mm/yr. To refine slip-rate estimates for the peninsula segment of the SAF, we excavated a trench across the fault where we located an abandoned channel between the San Andreas and Lower Crystal Springs reservoirs. This abandoned channel marks the time when a new channel cut across the SAF; the new channel has since been offset in a right-lateral sense about 20 m. The measured amount of offset and the age of the youngest fluvial sediments in the abandoned channel will yield a slip rate for the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the SAF. We excavated a trench across the abandoned channel and logged the exposed sediments. Our investigation revealed channel-fill alluvium incised and filled by probable debris flow sediments, and a wide fault zone in bedrock, west of the channel deposits. The most prominent fault is probably the strand that moved in 1906. We completed a total-station survey to more precisely measure the offset stream, and to confirm that the fault exposed in the trench aligns with a fence that is known to have been offset 2.8m during the 1906 earthquake. We interpret the debris flow sediments to represent the last phase of deposition prior to abandonment of the old channel. We collected samples for radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated

  9. A Study of the Job Satisfaction of Special Education Local Plan Area (SELPA) Directors and Local School District Special Education Directors in Four Counties of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory Haynes, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the perceived level of job satisfaction of SELPA directors with that of local school district special education directors in the counties of Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Orange of Southern California and to identify factors that contribute to their job satisfaction. Additionally, this…

  10. Quaternary geology of Alameda County, and parts of Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Mateo, San Francisco, Stanislaus, and San Joaquin counties, California: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helley, E.J.; Graymer, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Alameda County is located at the northern end of the Diablo Range of Central California. It is bounded on the north by the south flank of Mount Diablo, one of the highest peaks in the Bay Area, reaching an elevation of 1173 meters (3,849 ft). San Francisco Bay forms the western boundary, the San Joaquin Valley borders it on the east and an arbitrary line from the Bay into the Diablo Range forms the southern boundary. Alameda is one of the nine Bay Area counties tributary to San Francisco Bay. Most of the country is mountainous with steep rugged topography. Alameda County is covered by twenty-eight 7.5' topographic Quadrangles which are shown on the index map. The Quaternary deposits in Alameda County comprise three distinct depositional environments. One, forming a transgressive sequence of alluvial fan and fan-delta facies, is mapped in the western one-third of the county. The second, forming only alluvial fan facies, is mapped in the Livermore Valley and San Joaquin Valley in the eastern part of the county. The third, forming a combination of Eolian dune and estuarine facies, is restricted to the Alameda Island area in the northwestern corner of the county.

  11. Reconnaissance radiological characterization for the White Point Nike Missile Site, San Pedro, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of field work performed at the former White Point Nike Missile Site, San Pedro, California. The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program tasked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group in Grand Junction, Colo., with this project. The objective was to determine whether or not radioisotopes possibly associated with past Department of Defense (DOD) operations were present and within accepted background levels. The radiation survey was accomplished by performing three independent radiation surveys, both outdoors and indoors, and random soil sampling. Initially, the site was land surveyed to develop a grid block system. A background radiation investigation was performed out in the San Pedro area

  12. Solar irradiances over Ushuaia (/54.49° S, /68.19° W) and San Diego (/32.45° N, /117.11° W) geographical and seasonal variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, S.; Deferrari, G.; Booth, C. R.; Martinioni, D.; Oberto, A.

    2001-03-01

    The study of long-term variability in UV-B irradiance in places affected by the ``ozone hole'' and the comparison with undisturbed places is of interest for the atmospheric community, and is also useful from the biological and epidemiological points of view. Since some ecosystems are also sensitive to other bands of the solar spectrum, the study of UV-A and visible are also of interest. In this paper, we compare the irradiance in the UV-B, UV-A and visible at Ushuaia (54.49°S,68.19°W) and San Diego (32.45°N,117.11°W), going from instantaneous to year-integrated values. As some ecosystems are sensitive not only to the absolute value, but also to the relative changes, we also analyse the ozone and irradiance relative variations. The large variability in the total ozone column at Ushuaia combined with other parameters such as solar zenith angles, cloud cover and amount of daylight hours results in a wide variety of situations. For the ozone-sensitive bands, peaks of daily and daily-integrated maximum irradiance observed at Ushuaia during spring are remarkably higher than expected, although seldom reaching the maximum observed at San Diego. For the UV-A and visible, values at Ushuaia during the late spring and summer are very close to and, in a few cases, even exceed those at San Diego. The highest monthly integrated irradiance for the band 298.507-303.030 nm, at Ushuaia, was observed in December 1990, with a value well above the mean for that month. Relative ozone variation at Ushuaia presents the most important depletion and largest dispersion during the spring, as expected. While, for the ozone-sensitive bands, the largest relative irradiance increment is observed during the winter.

  13. Selenium and other elements in juvenile striped bass from the San Joaquin Valley and San Francisco Estuary, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Palawski, Donald U.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of selenium and other trace elements were determined in 55 whole body samples of juvenile anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Joaquin Valley and San Francisco Estuary, California. The fish (≤1 yr old—the predominant life stage in the San Joaquin Valley) were collected in September–December 1986 from 19 sites in the Valley and 3 sites in the Estuary, and analyzed for the following elements: aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), boron (B), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), magnesium (Mg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). When compared to concentrations in whole freshwater fish measured by surveys from other waters, a few samples contained higher levels, of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se. The median concentrations of Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se, and Sr also differed significantly (P⩽0.05) among sites. However, only Se concentrations were highest (up to 7.9 μg/g dry weight) in samples from Valley sites exposed to agricultural subsurface (tile) drainwater; concentrations were lower in samples collected elsewhere. Water quality variables—especially those strongly influenced by tile drainwater (conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, and total hardness)—were also significantly correlated (P⩽0.05) with Se concentrations in fish. Selenium concentrations in striped bass from the Estuary were only one-fourth to one-half the concentrations measured in the most contaminated fish from the San Joaquin River.

  14. Community and home gardens increase vegetable intake and food security of residents in San Jose, California

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Algert; Lucy Diekmann; Marian Renvall; Leslie Gray

    2016-01-01

    As of 2013, 42 million American households were involved in growing their own food either at home or in a community garden plot. The purpose of this pilot study was to document the extent to which gardeners, particularly less affluent ones, increase their vegetable intake when eating from either home or community garden spaces. Eighty-five community gardeners and 50 home gardeners from San Jose, California, completed a survey providing information on demographic background, self-rated health,...

  15. Modification of a Community Garden to Attract Native Bee Pollinators in Urban San Luis Obispo, California

    OpenAIRE

    Thorp, Robbin W.; Gordon W. Frankie; Jaime Pawelek; Maggie Przybylski

    2009-01-01

    Gardens have become increasingly important places for growing nutritional food, for conserving biodiversity, for biological and ecological research and education, and for community gathering. Gardens can also be designed with the goal of attracting specific wildlife, like birds and butterflies, but pollinators, like bees, can also be drawn to specially planned and modified gardens. A community garden in San Luis Obispo, California provided the setting for modification with the goal of attract...

  16. Municipal and industrial wastewater loading in the San Francisco Bay, California, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, W.G.; Palmer, R.H.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this release is to describe the approximate volumes and significant pollutional loading attributable to municipal and industrial wastewater discharged into the San Francisco Bay. The six receiving-water regions (fig.1) are the same as those used previously by Pearson, Storrs, and Selleck (1969) in describing results of the comprehensive wastewater-monitoring program conducted by the University of California, Berkeley, during the period 1960-64.

  17. Preliminary geologic map and digital database of the San Bernardino 30' x 60' quadrangle, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas M.; Miller, Fred K.

    2003-01-01

    The San Bernardino 30'x60' quadrangle, southern California, is diagonally bisected by the San Andreas Fault Zone, separating the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains, major elements of California's east-oriented Transverse Ranges Province. Included in the southern part of the quadrangle is the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Province and the northeastern part of the oil-producing Los Angeles basin. The northern part of the quadrangle includes the southern part of the Mojave Desert Province. Pre-Quaternary rocks within the San Bernardino quadrangle consist of three extensive, well-defined basement rock assemblages, the San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, and the Peninsular Ranges assemblages, and a fourth assemblage restricted to a narrow block bounded by the active San Andreas Fault and the Mill Creek Fault. Each of these basement rock assemblages is characterized by a relatively unique suite of rocks that was amalgamated by the end of the Cretaceous and (or) early Cenozoic. Some Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks are unique to specific assemblages, and some overlap adjacent assemblages. A few Miocene and Pliocene units cross the boundaries of adjacent assemblages, but are dominant in only one. Tectonic events directly and indirectly related to the San Andreas Fault system have partly dismembered the basement rocks during the Neogene, forming the modern-day physiographic provinces. Rocks of the four basement rock assemblages are divisible into an older suite of Late Cretaceous and older rocks and a younger suite of post-Late Cretaceous rocks. The age span of the older suite varies considerably from assemblage to assemblage, and the point in time that separates the two suites varies slightly. In the Peninsular Ranges, the older rocks were formed from the Paleozoic to the end of Late Cretaceous plutonism, and in the Transverse Ranges over a longer period of time extending from the Proterozoic to metamorphism at the end of the Cretaceous

  18. Fine-scale delineation of the location of and relative ground shaking within the San Andreas Fault zone at San Andreas Lake, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Prentice, C.S.; Sickler, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission is seismically retrofitting the water delivery system at San Andreas Lake, San Mateo County, California, where the reservoir intake system crosses the San Andreas Fault (SAF). The near-surface fault location and geometry are important considerations in the retrofit effort. Because the SAF trends through highly distorted Franciscan mélange and beneath much of the reservoir, the exact trace of the 1906 surface rupture is difficult to determine from surface mapping at San Andreas Lake. Based on surface mapping, it also is unclear if there are additional fault splays that extend northeast or southwest of the main surface rupture. To better understand the fault structure at San Andreas Lake, the U.S. Geological Survey acquired a series of seismic imaging profiles across the SAF at San Andreas Lake in 2008, 2009, and 2011, when the lake level was near historical lows and the surface traces of the SAF were exposed for the first time in decades. We used multiple seismic methods to locate the main 1906 rupture zone and fault splays within about 100 meters northeast of the main rupture zone. Our seismic observations are internally consistent, and our seismic indicators of faulting generally correlate with fault locations inferred from surface mapping. We also tested the accuracy of our seismic methods by comparing our seismically located faults with surface ruptures mapped by Schussler (1906) immediately after the April 18, 1906 San Francisco earthquake of approximate magnitude 7.9; our seismically determined fault locations were highly accurate. Near the reservoir intake facility at San Andreas Lake, our seismic data indicate the main 1906 surface rupture zone consists of at least three near-surface fault traces. Movement on multiple fault traces can have appreciable engineering significance because, unlike movement on a single strike-slip fault trace, differential movement on multiple fault traces may exert compressive and

  19. The San Diego Dialogue: Reshaping the San Diego Region

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Karen; Rongerude, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995, the James Irvine Foundation has invested more than $11 million to support the growth and development of CRIs throughout the state -- nonprofit organizations that engage key players from business, environmental, and a variety of other advocacy groups with players from local governments and public agencies to create improvements in their regions. CRIs work on issues ranging across transportation, land use, housing, and economic development. They work in a variety of ways from deve...

  20. The Golden Gate Textile Barrier: Preserving California Bay of San Francisco from a Rising North Pacific Ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Cathcart, R B; Bolonkin, Alexander A.; Cathcart, Richart B.

    2007-01-01

    Climate change in California may require construction of a barrier separating the Pacific Ocean from San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento River-San Joaquin River Delta simply because Southern California is remarkably dependent on freshwater exported from the Delta. We offer a new kind of salt barrier, a macroproject built of impermeable textile materials stretched across the Golden Gate beneath the famous bridge. We anticipate it might eventually substitute for a recently proposed San Francisco In-Stream Tidal Power Plant harnessing a 1.7 m tide at the Bay entrance if future climate conditions Statewide is conducive. First-glance physics underpin our macroproject.

  1. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. 334.961 Section 334.961 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone...

  2. Pastron and Walsh: Archaeological Excavations at CA-SFR-113, the Market Street Shell Midden, San Francisco, California

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Archaeological Excavations at CA-SFR-113, the Market Street Shell Midden, San Francisco, California Allen G. Pastron and Michael R. Walsh. Salinas, CA.: Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory No. 25, 1988, vi + 91 pp., 10 figs., 7 tables, 5 appendices, $ 7.45 (paper)

  3. Marine magnetic survey and onshore gravity and magnetic survey, San Pablo Bay, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, David A.; Denton, Kevin M.; Watt, Janet T.

    2016-09-12

    IntroductionFrom November 2011 to August 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 1,000 line-kilometers (length of lines surveyed in kilometers) of marine magnetic data on San Pablo Bay, 98 onshore gravity stations, and over 27 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data in northern California. Combined magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken to study subsurface geologic structures as an aid in understanding the geologic framework and earthquake hazard potential in the San Francisco Bay Area. Furthermore, marine magnetic data illuminate local subsurface geologic features in the shallow crust beneath San Pablo Bay where geologic exposure is absent.Magnetic and gravity methods, which reflect contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying San Pablo Bay. Exposed rock units surrounding San Pablo Bay consist mainly of Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, Great Valley sequence, Franciscan Complex rocks, Miocene sedimentary rocks, and unconsolidated alluvium (Graymer and others, 2006). The contrasting magnetic and density properties of these rocks enable us to map their subsurface extent.

  4. Thermal-maturity trends within Franciscan rocks near Big Sur, California: Implications for offset along the San Gregorio San Simeon Hosgri fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Michael B.; Laughland, Matthew M.; Shelton, Kevin L.; Sedlock, Richard L.

    1995-09-01

    Conventional neotectonic interpretations place the Lucia and Point Sur subterranes of the Franciscan subduction complex on opposite sides of the San Gregorio San Simeon Hosgri dextral fault system and connect that system through the Sur fault zone. Our reconstructed paleotemperature contours, however, are not offset across the San Simeon segment, so differential displacement between the subterranes after peak heating appears to have been negligible. One explanation is that dextral slip on the faults has totaled only 5 10 km. A second possibility is that a discrete Hosgri San Simeon segment extends offshore of the amalgamated Point Sur and Lucia subterranes and that an en echelon stepover transfers dextral slip eastward to the San Gregorio Palo Colorado segment. In either case, the Sur fault zone appears to play a relatively insignificant role in the late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of central California.

  5. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hothem, R.L.; Marois, K.C.; Wainwright, S.E. [National Biological Service, Davis, CA (United States); Roster, D.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Newark, CA (United States). San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge; King, K.A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Ecological Services; Keldsen, T.J. [National Biological Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Midcontinent Ecological Science Center

    1995-08-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California`s San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p{prime}-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time. At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  6. Near-surface structure of the 1906 main trace of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco peninsula segment, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, C.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Grove, K.; Prentice, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    The peninsula segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) is forecasted to have the second highest probability of producing a M6.7 or greater earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area in the next 30 years; yet, relatively little is known about its slip history. In most places, the surface location of the SAF has been determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features and from mapping surface ruptures associated with the 1906 M7.9 San Francisco earthquake. To more precisely locate traces of this segment of the SAF along the San Francisco peninsula in the subsurface, we acquired a high-resolution seismic imaging survey, using both seismic refraction and reflection profiling, south of Upper Crystal Springs Reservoir near Woodside, California in June 2012. High-resolution seismic images produced from this study may benefit ongoing paleoseismological investigations along the SAF because the seismic data can be used to precisely locate the main fault trace and auxiliary faults that may contribute to the earthquake hazards associated with the fault zone. Furthermore, the seismic images provide insights into near-surface fault structure and P- and S-wave velocities, which can be important in understanding strong shaking resulting from future earthquakes along this segment of the SAF. We acquired both P- and S-wave data using a 60-channel seismograph system connected via cable to 40-Hz vertical-component and 4-Hz horizontal geophones, which were spaced at 1-m intervals along a 60-m-long transect. Seismic sources (shots) were generated by hammer impacts on a steel plate or aluminum block at each geophone location. All shots were recorded on all channels. This survey design permits simultaneous acquisition of reflection and refraction data so that both refraction tomography and reflection images can be developed. Our initial analysis of the P-wave data shows that seismic velocities across the main trace of the SAF vary from about 700 m/s near the surface to more than 2500 m

  7. Location and Shallow Structure of the Frijoles Strand of the San Gregorio Fault Zone, Pescadero, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Lent, C.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M. R.; Steedman, C. E.; Prentice, C. S.

    2003-12-01

    The San Gregorio fault is one of the principal faults of the San Andreas fault system in the San Francisco Bay area. Located west of the active trace of the San Andreas fault and near the coast, the San Gregorio fault zone consists of at least two northwest-southeast-trending strands, the Coastways and Frijoles faults. Little is known about the slip history on the San Gregorio, and information for the Frijoles fault is especially scarce, as it lies mostly offshore. To better understand the contribution of the San Gregorio fault zone to slip along the San Andreas fault system, we conducted a high-resolution, seismic imaging investigation of the Frijoles fault to locate near-surface, onshore, branches of the fault that may be suitable for paleoseismic trenching. Our seismic survey consisted of a 590-meter-long, east-west-trending, combined seismic reflection and refraction profile across Butano Creek Valley, in Pescadero, California. The profile included 107 shot points and 120 geophones spaced at 5-m increments. Seismic sources were generated by a Betsy Seisgun in 0.3-m-deep holes. Data were recorded on two Geometrics Strataview RX-60 seismographs at a sampling rate of 0.5 ms. Seismic p-wave velocities, determined by inverting first-arrival refractions using tomographic methods, ranged from 900 m/s in the shallow subsurface to 5000 m/s at 200 m depth, with higher velocities in the western half of the profile. Migrated seismic reflection images show clear, planar layering in the top 100-200 meters on the eastern and western ends of the seismic profile. However, to within the shallow subsurface, a 200-m-long zone near the center of the profile shows disturbed stratigraphic layers with several apparent fault strands approaching within a few meters of the surface. The near-surface locations of the imaged strands suggest that the Frijoles fault has been active in the recent past, although further paleoseismic study is needed to detail the slip history of the San Gregorio

  8. Dual-system Tectonics of the San Luis Range and Vicinity, Coastal Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    The M 6.5 "San Simeon" earthquake of December 22, 2003, occurred beneath the Santa Lucia Range in coastal central California, and resulted in around $250,000,000 property damage and two deaths from collapse of an historic building in the town of Paso Robles, located 40 km from the epicenter. The earthquake and more than 10,000 aftershocks were well recorded by nearby seismographs, which permitted detailed analysis of the event (eg: McLaren et al., 2008). This analysis facilitated evaluation of the hazard of the occurrence of a similar event in the nearby San Luis Range, located along the coast west of the city of San Luis Obispo some 55 km south of the San Simeon epicenter. The future occurrence of earthquakes analogous to the 2003 event in this area had been proposed in the late 1960’s (eg: Benioff and Smith, 1967; Richter, 1969) but the apparent hazard of such occurrences came to be overshadowed by the discovery of the “Hosgri” strike slip fault passing close to the area in the offshore. However data accumulated since the early 1970’s clearly demonstrate the hazard as being partitioned between nearby earthquakes of strike slip origin, and underlying earthquakes of thrust origin analogous to that of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake. And for the onshore San Luis Range area, an underlying actively seismogenic thrust wedge appears to provide the maximum potential seismic ground motion; exceeding that potentially resulting from large events on nearby strike slip faults of the San Simeon-Hosgri system, for onshore sites. Understanding and documentation of the geology, geomorphology, tectonics and seismogenesis of the San Luis Range and vicinity has recently experienced a quantum improvement as both new and accumulated data have been analysed. An integrated interpretation of all available data now clearly shows that a dual “side by side” system of active tectonics exists in the region. Essentially the most obvious evidence for this is seen simply in the

  9. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Fernando Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The San Fernando Valley (lower right of center) is part of Los Angeles and includes well over one million people. Two major disasters have occurred here in the last few decades: the 1971 Sylmar earthquake and the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Both quakes caused major damage to homes, freeways, and other structures and included major injuries and fatalities. The Northridge earthquake was the one of the costliest natural disasters in United States history. Understanding earthquake risks requires understanding a location's geophysical setting, and topographic data are of substantial benefit in that regard. Landforms are often characteristic of specific tectonic processes, such as ground movement along faults. Elevation models, such as those produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), are particularly useful in visualizing regional scale landforms that are too large to be seen directly on-site. They can also be used to model the propagation of damaging seismic waves, which helps in urban planning. In recent years, elevation models have also been a critical input to radar interferometric studies, which reveal detailed patterns of ground deformation from earthquakes that had never before been seen.This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from SRTM. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  10. Home range, habitat selection, and movements of California black rails at tidal marshes at San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Danika C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Woo, Isa; Yee, Julie L.; Evens, Jules G.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the movements and habitat selection of California Black Rails (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) in coastal California. We captured 130 Black Rails, of which we radio-marked 48, in tidal marshes in San Francisco Bay during 2005 and 2006. Our objective was to examine their home ranges, movements, and habitat selection to improve the species' conservation. The mean fixed-kernel home range was 0.59 ha, the mean core area was 0.14 ha. Home ranges and core areas did not differ by year or site. Males had significantly larger home ranges and core areas than did females. All sites combined, Black Rails used areas with > or = 94% total vegetative cover, with perennial pickleweed (Sarcocornia pacifica) the dominant plant. The rails' habitat selection varied by year and site but not by sex. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated that Black Rails selected areas with pickleweed taller and denser than average, greater cover and height of alkali bulrush (Bolboschoenus maritimus) and common saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), more stems between 20 and 30 cm above the ground, maximum vegetation height, and shorter distance to refugia. On average, Black Rails moved 27.6 +/- 1.8 (SE) m daily and 38.4 +/- 5.5 m during extreme high tides. Understanding the California Black Rail's movements, home range, and habitat use is critical for management to benefit the species.

  11. Survival and natality rate observations of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California conducted by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1987-09-20 to 2014-09-25 (NCEI Accession 0145167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains initial capture and marking data for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups at San Miguel Island, California and subsequent...

  12. Offshore geology and geomorphology from Point Piedras Blancas to Pismo Beach, San Luis Obispo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet Tilden; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Roberts, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Marine geology and geomorphology were mapped along the continental shelf and upper slope between Point Piedras Blancas and Pismo Beach, California. The map area is divided into the following three (smaller) map areas, listed from north to south: San Simeon, Morro Bay, and Point San Luis. Each smaller map area consists of a geologic map and the corresponding geophysical data that support the geologic mapping. Each geophysical data sheet includes shaded-relief multibeam bathymetry, seismic-reflection-survey tracklines, and residual magnetic anomalies, as well as a smaller version of the geologic map for reference. Offshore geologic units were delineated on the basis of integrated analysis of adjacent onshore geology, seafloor-sediment and rock samples, multibeam bathymetry and backscatter imagery, magnetic data, and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles. Although the geologic maps are presented here at 1:35,000 scale, map interpretation was conducted at scales of between 1:6,000 and 1:12,000.

  13. Hydrostratigraphy of the Westside Groundwater Basin, San Francisco and San Mateo Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, E. H.; Laforce, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    The Westside Groundwater Basin is a coastal aquifer system located on the San Francisco Peninsula between Golden Gate Park and Burlingame. Since the beginning of the 20th century groundwater from the Basin has been used for drinking water and irrigation purposes. Unfortunately, the Basin wide potentiometric surface has gradually declined and saltwater intrusion from the Pacific Ocean is threatening this fragile aquifer system. Several studies have looked at groundwater movement within the Basin (Boone, Cook and Associates (1987), Yates et al. (1990), Applied Consultants (1991), Geo/Resources Consultants (1993), Phillips et al. (1993), CH2Mhill (1997)); unfortunately, all of the studies assumed horizontal layering of the hydrostratigraphic units. However, recent studies indicate that tectonic deformation and intense folding has altered the stratigraphy of the Westside Basin close to the Pacific Ocean (Bonilla (1998), Barr (1999)). Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to delineate hydrostratigraphic units within the Westside Basin by using tritium, helium, and oxygen isotopes in conjunction with general mineral water quality data, water level data, and geologic cross-sections to depict the subsurface hydrogeology of the system. Our results indicate that the upper part of the Merced Formation (sequences P through Z of Clifton and Hunter (1991, 1999)) forms the major hydrostratigraphic units where groundwater is extracted, and that the Serra Fault separates the upper part of the Merced from the lower part (below sequence P) along most of its extent. In addition, thick clay layers, observed in well logs and identified in cross sections, were tentatively correlated with sequences W and S2. These clay layers, although discontinuous at places, work as aquitards between the hydrostratigraphic units as the difference in water chemistry and age indicates.

  14. Emissions of organic carbon and methane from petroleum and dairy operations in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, D. R.; Ford, T. B.; Guha, A.; Boulanger, K.; Brioude, J.; Angevine, W. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Gilman, J. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.; Atlas, E.; Lonneman, W. A.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Beaver, M. R.; St. Clair, J. M.; Wennberg, P. O.; VandenBoer, T. C.; Markovic, M. Z.; Murphy, J. G.; Harley, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum and dairy operations are prominent sources of gas-phase organic compounds in California's San Joaquin Valley. It is essential to understand the emissions and air quality impacts of these relatively understudied sources, especially for oil/gas operations in light of increasing US production. Ground site measurements in Bakersfield and regional aircraft measurements of reactive gas-phase organic compounds and methane were part of the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) project to determine the sources contributing to regional gas-phase organic carbon emissions. Using a combination of near-source and downwind data, we assess the composition and magnitude of emissions, and provide average source profiles. To examine the spatial distribution of emissions in the San Joaquin Valley, we developed a statistical modeling method using ground-based data and the FLEXPART-WRF transport and meteorological model. We present evidence for large sources of paraffinic hydrocarbons from petroleum operations and oxygenated compounds from dairy (and other cattle) operations. In addition to the small straight-chain alkanes typically associated with petroleum operations, we observed a wide range of branched and cyclic alkanes, most of which have limited previous in situ measurements or characterization in petroleum operation emissions. Observed dairy emissions were dominated by ethanol, methanol, acetic acid, and methane. Dairy operations were responsible for the vast majority of methane emissions in the San Joaquin Valley; observations of methane were well correlated with non-vehicular ethanol, and multiple assessments of the spatial distribution of emissions in the San Joaquin Valley highlight the dominance of dairy operations for methane emissions. The petroleum operations source profile was developed using the composition of non-methane hydrocarbons in unrefined natural gas associated with crude oil. The observed source profile is

  15. Deep crustal heterogeneity along and around the San Andreas fault system in central California and its relation to the segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigami, Kin'ya

    2000-04-01

    The three-dimensional distribution of scatterers in the crust along and around the San Andreas fault system in central California is estimated using an inversion analysis of coda envelopes from local earthquakes. I analyzed 3801 wave traces from 157 events recorded at 140 stations of the Northern California Seismic Network. The resulting scatterer distribution shows a correlation with the San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras faults. These faults seem to be almost vertical from the surface to ˜15 km depth. Some of the other scatterers are estimated to be at shallow depths, 0-5 km, below the Diablo Range, and these may be interpreted as being generated by topographic roughness. The depth distribution of scatterers shows relatively stronger scattering in the lower crust, at ˜15-25 km depth, especially between the San Andreas fault and the Hayward-Calaveras faults. This suggests a subhorizontal detachment structure connecting these two faults in the lower crust. Several clusters of scatterers are located along the San Andreas fault at intervals of ˜20-30 km from south of San Francisco to the intersection with the Calaveras fault. This part of the San Andreas fault appears to consist of partially locked segments, also ˜20-30 km long, which rupture during M6-7 events, and segment boundaries characterized by stronger scattering and stationary microseismicity. The segment boundaries delineated by the present analysis correspond with those estimated from the slip distribution of the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and from the fault geometry as reported by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [1990], although the segment boundaries along the San Andreas fault in and around the San Francisco Bay area are still uncertain.

  16. A brief history of oil and gas exploration in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California: Chapter 3 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenneth I.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    The Golden State got its nickname from the Sierra Nevada gold that lured so many miners and settlers to the West, but California has earned much more wealth from so-called “black gold” than from metallic gold. The San Joaquin Valley has been the principal source for most of the petroleum produced in the State during the past 145 years. In attempting to assess future additions to petroleum reserves in a mature province such as the San Joaquin Basin, it helps to be mindful of the history of resource development. In this chapter we present a brief overview of the long and colorful history of petroleum exploration and development in the San Joaquin Valley. This chapter relies heavily upon the work of William Rintoul, who wrote extensively on the history of oil and gas exploration in California and especially in the San Joaquin Valley. No report on the history of oil and gas exploration in the San Joaquin Valley would be possible without heavily referencing his publications. We also made use of publications by Susan Hodgson and a U.S. Geological Survey Web site, Natural Oil and Gas Seeps in California (http://seeps.wr.usgs.gov/seeps/index.html), for much of the material describing the use of petroleum by Native Americans in the San Joaquin Valley. Finally, we wish to acknowledge the contribution of Don Arnot, who manages the photograph collection at the West Kern Oil Museum in Taft, California. The collection consists of more than 10,000 photographs that have been scanned and preserved in digital form on CD-ROM. Many of the historical photographs used in this paper are from that collection. Finally, to clarify our terminology, we use the term “San Joaquin Valley” when we refer to the geographical or topographical feature and the term “San Joaquin Basin” when we refer to geological province and the rocks therein.

  17. Rapid Post-Miocene tectonic rotation associated with the San Gregorio Fault Zone in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Eric J.; Horns, Daniel M.; Verosub, Kenneth L.

    1991-12-01

    Paleomagnetic measurements of samples from the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation demonstrate that the Pomponio tectonic block of central coastal California has rotated clockwise by approximately 35° to 55° within the last 2.5 million years. The most likely interpretation of this data is that the Pomponio block is broken into several small blocks which have rotated by various amounts. The data suggest that rotations contribute to vertical deformation and secondary faulting within the central San Andreas Fault System, and that they play an important role in the accommodation of shear along the fault system.

  18. IBC's 23rd Antibody Engineering and 10th Antibody Therapeutics Conferences and the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society: December 2-6, 2012, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, John; Begent, Richard H J; Chester, Kerry; Huston, James S; Bradbury, Andrew; Scott, Jamie K; Thorpe, Philip E; Veldman, Trudi; Reichert, Janice M; Weiner, Louis M

    2012-01-01

    Now in its 23rd and 10th years, respectively, the Antibody Engineering and Antibody Therapeutics conferences are the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society. The scientific program covers the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development from basic science through clinical development. In this preview of the conferences, the chairs provide their thoughts on sessions that will allow participants to track emerging trends in (1) the development of next-generation immunomodulatory antibodies; (2) the complexity of the environment in which antibodies must function; (3) antibody-targeted central nervous system (CNS) therapies that cross the blood brain barrier; (4) the extension of antibody half-life for improved efficacy and pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD); and (5) the application of next generation DNA sequencing to accelerate antibody research. A pre-conference workshop on Sunday, December 2, 2012 will update participants on recent intellectual property (IP) law changes that affect antibody research, including biosimilar legislation, the America Invents Act and recent court cases. Keynote presentations will be given by Andreas Plückthun (University of Zürich), who will speak on engineering receptor ligands with powerful cellular responses; Gregory Friberg (Amgen Inc.), who will provide clinical updates of bispecific antibodies; James D. Marks (University of California, San Francisco), who will discuss a systems approach to generating tumor targeting antibodies; Dario Neri (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich), who will speak about delivering immune modulators at the sites of disease; William M. Pardridge (University of California, Los Angeles), who will discuss delivery across the blood-brain barrier; and Peter Senter (Seattle Genetics, Inc.), who will present his vision for the future of antibody-drug conjugates. For more information on these meetings or to register to attend, please visit www

  19. Genetic differentiation and biology of Citrus Tristeza virus populations spreading in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    CTV strains were collected from more than 1500 CTV-infected trees in citrus groves in Tulare, Kern, Ventura, Riverside and San Diego Counties to assess molecular and biological properties of CTV strains currently in California. Tests included serology with MCA13, quantitative (q) real-time Reverse ...

  20. New paleoseismic data from the northern San Jacinto Fault Zone, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderdonk, N.; McGill, S. F.; Marliyani, G. I.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from a new paleoseismic site along the Claremont strand of the San Jacinto Fault Zone in southern California. The site is located along the northeast edge of the ephemeral Mystic Lake at the north end of the San Jacinto Valley step-over. A small-scale (300 m wide) releasing step-over along the Claremont fault has created a sag depression that can be seen in early aerial photography. In 2009 an initial locator trench was excavated 400 m across the full width of this sag, exposing multiple faults and a structural depression filled with excellent shallow lake stratigraphy. Three additional trenches were excavated in 2010 across the main active fault zone that bounds the southwest edge of the sag. This fault is expressed as a zone of progressively folded and displaced strata. Upward terminations, fissures, folding, and growth stratigraphy provide evidence for at least six events in the upper 2 meters of section that was exposed. The stratigraphic relationships suggest a model in which each surface rupture results in subsidence of the sag, followed by clay deposition as the sag is filled in, culminating in a weak surface soil. 14C dating of 19 samples (out of over 400 that have been collected) was used to develop a preliminary event chronology. The most recent rupture occurred after 1750 AD and the penultimate event occurred between 1502 AD and 1612 AD. There is evidence for a cluster of 3 earthquakes between 1026 AD and 1220 AD, and a sixth event between 620 AD and 864 AD. The timing of the three events around 800 to 1000 years ago coincides temporally with a cluster of three events that were recorded at the Wrightwood paleoseismic site on the Mojave segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF). These three events have not been recognized at paleoseismic sites along the San Bernardino segment of the SAF south of the juncture with the San Jacinto Fault, which suggests that some events on the SAF may rupture southward down the San Jacinto Fault (or vice

  1. Preliminary Geologic Map of the San Fernando 7.5' Quadrangle, Southern California: A Digital Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    The city of San Fernando sits atop a structurally complex, sedimentologically diverse, and tectonically evolving late Tertiary-Quaternary basin situated within the Transverse Ranges of southern California. The surrounding San Fernando Valley (SFV) contains the headwaters of the Los Angeles River and its tributaries. Prior to the advent of flood control, the valley floor was composed of active alluvial fans and floodplains. Seasonal streams emanating from Pacoima and Big Tujunga Canyons drain the complex western San Gabriel Mountains and deposit coarse, highly permeable alluvium that contains generally high-quality ground water. The more shallow western part derives mainly from Tertiary and pre-Tertiary sedimentary rocks, and is underlain by less permeable, fine-grained deposits containing persistent shallow ground water and poorer water quality. Home of the 1971 San Fernando and the 1994 Northridge earthquakes, the SFV experienced near-record levels of strong ground motion in 1994 that caused widespread damage from strong shaking and ground failure. A new map of late Quaternary deposits of the San Fernando area shows that the SFV is a structural trough that has been filled from the sides, with the major source of sediment being large drainages in the San Gabriel Mountains. Deposition on the major alluvial fan of Tujunga Wash and Pacoima Wash, which issues from the San Gabriel Mountains, and on smaller fans, has been influenced by ongoing compressional tectonics in the valley. Late Pleistocene deposits have been cut by active faults and warped over growing folds. Holocene alluvial fans are locally ponded behind active uplifts. The resulting complex pattern of deposits has a major effect on liquefaction hazards. Young sandy sediments generally are highly susceptible to liquefaction where they are saturated, but the distribution of young deposits, their grain size characteristics, and the level of ground water all are complexly dependent on the tectonics of the valley

  2. Structure of the San Fernando Valley region, California: implications for seismic hazard and tectonic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Wright, T.L.; Okaya, D.A.; Yeats, R.S.; Fuis, G.S.; Thygesen, K.; Thybo, H.

    2011-01-01

    Industry seismic reflection data, oil test well data, interpretation of gravity and magnetic data, and seismic refraction deep-crustal profiles provide new perspectives on the subsurface geology of San Fernando Valley, home of two of the most recent damaging earthquakes in southern California. Seismic reflection data provide depths to Miocene–Quaternary horizons; beneath the base of the Late Miocene Modelo Formation are largely nonreflective rocks of the Middle Miocene Topanga and older formations. Gravity and seismic reflection data reveal the North Leadwell fault zone, a set of down-to-the-north faults that does not offset the top of the Modelo Formation; the zone strikes northwest across the valley, and may be part of the Oak Ridge fault system to the west. In the southeast part of the valley, the fault zone bounds a concealed basement high that influenced deposition of the Late Miocene Tarzana fan and may have localized damage from the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Gravity and seismic refraction data indicate that the basin underlying San Fernando Valley is asymmetric, the north part of the basin (Sylmar subbasin) reaching depths of 5–8 km. Magnetic data suggest a major boundary at or near the Verdugo fault, which likely started as a Miocene transtensional fault, and show a change in the dip sense of the fault along strike. The northwest projection of the Verdugo fault separates the Sylmar subbasin from the main San Fernando Valley and coincides with the abrupt change in structural style from the Santa Susana fault to the Sierra Madre fault. The Simi Hills bound the basin on the west and, as defined by gravity data, the boundary is linear and strikes ~N45°E. That northeast-trending gravity gradient follows both the part of the 1971 San Fernando aftershock distribution called the Chatsworth trend and the aftershock trends of the 1994 Northridge earthquake. These data suggest that the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 Northridge earthquakes reactivated portions of

  3. Sí se puede: using participatory research to promote environmental justice in a Latino community in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkler, Meredith; Garcia, Analilia P; Williams, Joy; LoPresti, Tony; Lilly, Jane

    2010-09-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is seen as a potent tool for studying and addressing urban environmental health problems by linking place-based work with efforts to help effect policy-level change. This paper explores a successful CBPR and organizing effort, the Toxic Free Neighborhoods Campaign, in Old Town National City (OTNC), CA, United States, and its contributions to both local policy outcomes and changes in the broader policy environment, laying the groundwork for a Specific Plan to address a host of interlocking community concerns. After briefly describing the broader research of which the OTNC case study was a part, we provide background on the Environmental Health Coalition (EHC) partnership and the setting in which it took place, including the problems posed for residents in this light industrial/residential neighborhood. EHC's strong in-house research, and its training and active engagement of promotoras de salud (lay health promoters) as co-researchers and policy change advocates, are described. We explore in particular the translation of research findings as part of a policy advocacy campaign, interweaving challenges faced and success factors and multi-level outcomes to which these efforts contributed. The EHC partnership's experience then is compared with that of other policy-focused CBPR efforts in urban environmental health, emphasizing common success factors and challenges faced, as these may assist other partnerships wishing to pursue CBPR in urban communities. PMID:20683782

  4. 78 FR 21580 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara and San Diego County Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...: Submit comments, identified by docket number EPA-R09-OAR- 2013-0103, by one of the following methods: 1... characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. Docket: Generally, documents...

  5. 2015 NOAA Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of San Diego, California: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  6. New materials by low temperature condensation. Progress report. [Department of Applied Physics and Information Science, Univ. of California, San Diego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, H.L.

    1972-09-01

    The study of new materials prepared mostly by the technique of inert gas ion sputtering is reported. Heat capacity measurement was chosen as the basic tool for the study of material properties. Sputtering experiments were done on Nb/sub 3/Al and Nb/sub 3/(Al, Ge), Ag-base alloys with magnetic impurities, molybdenum-sulfide complex, and other metastable phases. Heat capacity measurements were made on V/sub 3/Si and Nb/sub 3/Sn, ZrZn/sub 2/, Mo isotopes, Mo-S complex, disordered systems, and sapphire and thin films. 3 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  7. Development of an integrated utilities billing management system for the Navy Public Works Center San Diego, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, most buildings, structures, and ship visits were not metered, and flat estimates were calculated based on various estimating techniques. The decomposition process was further complicated by the fact that many of the meters monitor consumption values only and do not provide demand or time of use data. This method of billing provides no incentives to the PWC customers to implement energy conservation programs, including load shedding, Energy Monitoring and Control Systems (EMCS), building shell improvements, low flow toilets and shower heads, efficient lighting systems, or other energy savings alternatives. Similarly, the method had no means of adjustment for seasonal or climatic variations outside of the norm. As an alternative to flat estimates, the Customized Utility Billing Integrated Control (CUBIC) system and the Graphical Data Input System (GDIS) were developed to better manage the data to the major claimant area users based on utilities usage factors, building size, weather data, and hours of operation. GDIS is a graphical database that assists PWC engineers in the development and maintenance of single-line utility diagrams of the facilities and meters. It functions as a drawing associate system and is written in AutoLISP for AutoCAD version 12. GDIS interprets the drawings and provides the facility-to-meter and meter-to-meter hierarchy data that are used by the CUBIC to allocate the billings. This paper reviews the design, development and implementation aspects of CUBIC/GDIS and discusses the benefits of this improved utilities management system

  8. Highlights from Sherwood 2014. International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference, March 24-26, Bahia Resort Hotel, San Diego, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-03-31

    Rob Goldston (PPPL) kicked off the Sherwood meeting with his review talk, “Understanding and innovation in magnetic fusion”. He covered a history of results from tokamak experiments in the areas of core confinement, stability, sustainment – tying the paradigms for understanding all three to the plasma edge, where outstanding questions remain. Two other review talks were given by Russel Caflisch (UCLA) on “Accelerated simulation of coulomb collisions in plasmas”, and Dan Barnes (Tri Alpha) on “Plasma theory as private enterprise”. Altogether, there were 15 invited talks spanning the field of fusion theory on topics such as nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the tokamak edge, plasma-wall modelling, toroidal rotation, zonal flows, magnetic field-line reconnection, coulomb collisions, and intrinsic momentum transport. Author-provided summaries of several of the invited talks are included on pages 7 to 14 of this document. There was a very strong showing by graduate students, postdocs, and young scientists at the meeting. More than 25 students from around the world presented papers. A list of all participating students can be found on page 5 of this document

  9. Quaternary uplift and subsidence of Catalina Ridge and San Pedro Basin, Inner California Continental Borderland, offshore southern California; results of high-resolution seismic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R.; Legg, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection data collected by us, legacy seismic, and multibeam bathymetry show that the San Pedro Basin fault (SPBF) is a continuous fault zone from Santa Monica Basin to Crespi Knoll, and apparently joins with the San Diego Trough fault (SDTF). The SPBF and SDTF together form a more or less straight fault zone over 300 km in length, a major tectonic feature of the Inner Borderland. Catalina Ridge, a 100 km uplift feature including Santa Catalina Island, and adjacent San Pedro Basin, with up to 4-5 km structural relief between them, are closely associated with the SPBF, SDTF, and Catalina fault (CF). Santa Catalina Island has been shown previously to be an uplift associated with a restraining bend (CF linking the Santa Cruz Ridge and San Diego Trough fault zones; White et al., 2004). San Pedro Basin has two major sediment sequences west of the SPBF. The lower one dips away from Catalina Ridge and onlaps onto the basement as a thin sheet that extends beyond the upper sequence around the margins of the basin. This sequence is imaged as deep as 3.7 sec. two way travel time in the basin center. The much thinner upper sequence underlies the flat basin floor, onlaps onto the lower sequence, and is largely flat; any dips are parallel to the SPBF (not away from Catalina Ridge). Basal strata of the upper sequence are approximately 200-600 ka. Santa Catalina Island lacks well-defined marine terraces on land, in contrast to nearby uplifts such as Palos Verdes Peninsula, but submerged depositional terraces occur on the seafloor around the island. These aggradational benches formed on a sediment package that surrounds the island and is separated from the basin sequences. Some of these benches are up to 400 m below present sealevel, well below eustatic sealevel range. Our data suggest that the restraining bend structure formed by the CF was active during the time the lower sequence of San Pedro Basin was deposited. At approximately 200-600 ka, this

  10. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887) off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico Tasa de consumo diario de alimento de Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887) frente a Cabo San Lucas, golfo de California, México

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo A. Abitia-Cárdenas; Felipe Galván-Magaña; Víctor H Cruz-Escalona; Peterson, Mark S.; Jesús Rodríguez-Romero

    2011-01-01

    The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus), and jumbo squid (Dosi...

  11. Emissions of organic carbon and methane from petroleum and dairy operations in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Gentner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum and dairy operations are prominent sources of gas-phase organic compounds in California's San Joaquin Valley. Ground site measurements in Bakersfield and aircraft measurements of reactive gas-phase organic compounds were made in this region as part of the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change project to determine the sources contributing to regional gas-phase organic carbon emissions. Using a combination of near-source and downwind data, we assess the composition and magnitude of emissions from these prominent sources that are relatively understudied compared to motor vehicles We also developed a statistical modeling method with the FLEXPART-WRF transport and meteorological model using ground-based data to assess the spatial distribution of emissions in the San Joaquin Valley. We present evidence for large sources of paraffinic hydrocarbons from petroleum extraction/processing operations and oxygenated compounds from dairy (and other cattle operations. In addition to the small straight-chain alkanes typically associated with petroleum operations, we observed a wide range of branched and cyclic alkanes that have limited previous in situ measurements or characterization in emissions from petroleum operations. Observed dairy emissions were dominated by ethanol, methanol, and acetic acid, and methane. Dairy operations were responsible for the vast majority of methane emissions in the San Joaquin Valley; observations of methane were well-correlated with non-vehicular ethanol, and multiple assessments of the spatial distribution of emissions in the San Joaquin Valley highlight the dominance of dairy operations for methane emissions. The good agreement of the observed petroleum operations source profile with the measured composition of non-methane hydrocarbons in unrefined natural gas associated with crude oil suggests a fugitive emissions pathway during petroleum extraction, storage, or processing with

  12. Near-Surface Structure of the Peninsula Segment of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, C.; Catchings, R.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Grove, K.; Prentice, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    The peninsula segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) is a section of the fault that has the potential to produce the next large earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area, yet the slip history of the peninsula segment is relatively unknown. In most places, the surface location of the SAF has been determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features and from mapping surface ruptures associated with the 1906 M7.9 San Francisco earthquake. To more precisely locate traces of the SAF along the San Francisco peninsula in the subsurface, we acquired a high-resolution seismic imaging survey, using both seismic refraction and reflection profiling, south of Upper Crystal Springs Reservoir near Woodside, California in June 2012. We acquired coincident P- and S-wave data using a 60-channel seismograph system connected via cable to 40-Hz vertical-component and 4-Hz horizontal-component geophones, with spacing at 1-m intervals along a 60-m-long transect across the SAF. Seismic sources (shots) were generated by hammer impacts on a steel plate or aluminum block at each geophone location. All shots were recorded on all channels. This survey design permitted simultaneous acquisition of reflection and refraction data such that both refraction tomography and reflection images were developed. Analysis of the P- and S-wave data, using refraction tomography, shows abrupt variations in the P-wave (Vp) and S-wave (Vs) velocities, including the 1,500 m/s velocity contour that outlines the top to groundwater and images of Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios. P-wave velocities range from about 700 m/s at the surface to more than 4000 m/s at 20-m depth. S-wave velocities range from about 300 m/s at the surface to about 800 m/s at 20-m depth. The combined data indicate that the near-surface trace of the SAF dips steeply to the southwest in the upper few tens of meters. Variations in the velocity images also suggest the possibility of two additional near-surface fault traces within about 25 m of the

  13. Geophysical Surveys of the San Andreas and Crystal Springs Reservoir System Including Seismic-Reflection Profiles and Swath Bathymetry, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, David P.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes geophysical data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in San Andreas Reservoir and Upper and Lower Crystal Springs Reservoirs, San Mateo County, California, as part of an effort to refine knowledge of the location of traces of the San Andreas Fault within the reservoir system and to provide improved reservoir bathymetry for estimates of reservoir water volume. The surveys were conducted by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the USGS for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC). The data were acquired in three separate surveys: (1) in June 2007, personnel from WCMG completed a three-day survey of San Andreas Reservoir, collecting approximately 50 km of high-resolution Chirp subbottom seismic-reflection data; (2) in November 2007, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of San Andreas reservoir; and finally (3) in April 2008, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of both the upper and lower Crystal Springs Reservoir system. Top of PageFor more information, contact David Finlayson.

  14. Distributed Plate Boundary Deformation Across the San Andreas Fault System, Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, M.; Titus, S. J.; Demets, C.; Tikoff, B.

    2007-12-01

    Plate boundaries are now recognized as broad zones of complex deformation as opposed to narrow zones with discrete offsets. When assessing how plate boundary deformation is accommodated, both spatially and temporally, it is therefore crucial to understand the relative contribution of the discrete and distributed components of deformation. The creeping segment of the San Andreas fault is an ideal location to study the distribution of plate boundary deformation for several reasons. First, the geometry of the fault system in central California is relatively simple. Plate motion is dominated by slip along the relatively linear strike-slip San Andreas fault, but also includes lesser slip along the adjacent and parallel Hosgri-San Gregorio and Rinconada faults, as well as within the borderlands between the three fault strands. Second, the aseismic character of the San Andreas fault in this region allows for the application of modern geodetic techniques to assess creep rates along the fault and across the region. Third, geologic structures within the borderlands are relatively well-preserved allowing comparison between modern and ancient rates and styles of deformation. Continuous GPS stations, alignment arrays surveys, and other geodetic methods demonstrate that approximately 5 mm/yr of distributed slip is accumulated (on top of the fault slip rate) across a 70-100 km wide region centered on the San Andreas fault. New campaign GPS data also suggest 2-5 mm/yr of deformation in the borderlands. These rates depend on the magnitude of the coseismic and postseismic corrections that must be made to our GPS time series to compensate for the 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes, which rupture faults outside, but near the edges of our GPS network. The off-fault deformation pattern can be compared to the style of permanent deformation recorded in the geologic record. Fold and thrust belts in the borderlands are better developed in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks west of

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” from a Citrus Tree in San Gabriel, California

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, F.; Kumagai, L.; Liang, G; Deng, X.; Z. Zheng; Keremane, M.; J. Chen

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” strain SGCA5 from an orange citrus tree in San Gabriel, California, is reported here. SGCA5 has a genome size of 1,201,445 bp, a G+C content of 36.4%, 1,152 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), and 42 RNA genes.

  16. Fault rocks from the SAFOD core samples : implications for weakening at shallow depths along the San Andreas Fault, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holdsworth, R.E.; van Diggelen, E.W.E.; Spiers, C.J.; Bresser, J.H.P. de; Walker, R.J.; Bown, L.

    2011-01-01

    The drilling of a deep borehole across the actively creeping Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ), California, and collection of core materials permit direct geological study of fault zone processes at 2–3 km depth. The three drill cores sample both host and fault rocks and pass th

  17. 78 FR 2952 - Foreign-Trade Zone 3-San Francisco, California; Application for Expansion and Expansion of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... on January 9, 2013. FTZ 3 was approved by the Board on March 10, 1948 (Board Order 12, 13 FR 1459, 3/19/48) and the zone was reorganized under the ASF on October 7, 2010 (Board Order 1718, 75 FR 64708... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 3--San Francisco, California; Application for Expansion...

  18. Age Determination of the Remaining Peat in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith Z.; de Fontaine, Christian S.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California was once a 1,400 square kilometer (km2) tidal marsh, which contained a vast layer of peat ranging up to 15 meters (m) thick (Atwater and Belknap, 1980). Because of its favorable climate and highly fertile peat soils, the majority of the Delta was drained and reclaimed for agriculture during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Drainage of the peat soils changed the conditions in the surface layers of peat from anaerobic (having no free oxygen present) to aerobic (exposed to the atmosphere). This change in conditions greatly increased the decomposition rate of the peat, which consists largely of organic (plant) matter. Thus began the process of land-surface subsidence, which initially was a result of peat shrinkage and compaction, and later largely was a result of oxidation by which organic carbon in the peat essentially vaporized to carbon dioxide (Deverel and others, 1998; Ingebritsen and Ikehara, 1999). Because of subsidence, the land-surface elevation on farmed islands in the Delta has decreased from a few meters to as much as 8 m below local mean sea level (California Department of Water Resources, 1995; Steve Deverel, Hydrofocus, Inc., written commun., 2007). The USGS, in collaboration with the University of California at Davis, and Hydrofocus Inc. of Davis, California, has been studying the formation of the Delta and the impact of wetland reclamation on the peat column as part of a project called Rates and Evolution of Peat Accretion through Time (REPEAT). The purpose of this report is to provide results on the age of the remaining peat soils on four farmed islands in the Delta.

  19. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  20. Assessing the Carbon Sequestration Potential within the San Joaquin Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. M.; Brennan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) was directed by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140) to assess the potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) within the United States. Utilizing its probabilistic methodology for a national CO2 sequestration assessment, the USGS has assessed the storage potential of Cretaceous and Tertiary formations within the San Joaquin Basin, California. The basic unit of assessment for the USGS methodology is the Storage Assessment Unit (SAU), which consists of a storage formation and an overlying regional seal formation. The SAUs are defined by geologic criteria that include rock properties, formation depth, and regional extents of the storage and seal formations. The methodology requires that the storage formation be at depths from 3,000-13,000 ft below ground surface. This minimum required depth ensures that CO2 will be in a supercritical phase. Within the San Joaquin Basin a significant portion of the Cretaceous to Tertiary section (such as the Tertiary Temblor Sandstone) fits within this depth interval. However, where rock properties indicate that CO2 could be stored at depths greater than 13,000 ft, a separate deep SAU is assessed. The areal extent of the storage formation and overlying seal are required to be continuous and regional in extent. Within the San Joaquin Basin, there are thick, laterally extensive, marine shales, (Kreyenhagen and Monterey Shales) which could inhibit CO2 flow to superjacent strata. In some cases, the stratigraphy includes the potential for multiple or stacked seals. During this assessment the seal was evaluated for leakage potential and a minimum seal thickness of about 75 ft was defined. This minimum seal thickness must exist over the extent of the storage formation that is to be included in the SAU. A final consideration is the salinity of the water within the pore space of the storage formation. Based on available salinity data and geologic models

  1. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  2. Cool PDO phase leads to recent rebound in coastal southern California fog

    OpenAIRE

    Witiw, Michael R.; LaDochy, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between coastal fog in southern California and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is investigated during the last decade. Fog occurrence was examined at two locations in southern California: San Diego and Los Angeles international airports. Both locations are located near the Pacific coast with strong marine influences. The period looked at was 2001 through 2012. The cool season (October-March) and warm season (April-September) were examined separately because of the diff...

  3. A conceptual ground-water-quality monitoring network for San Fernando Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setmire, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual groundwater-quality monitoring network was developed for San Fernando Valley to provide the California State Water Resources Control Board with an integrated, basinwide control system to monitor the quality of groundwater. The geology, occurrence and movement of groundwater, land use, background water quality, and potential sources of pollution were described and then considered in designing the conceptual monitoring network. The network was designed to monitor major known and potential point and nonpoint sources of groundwater contamination over time. The network is composed of 291 sites where wells are needed to define the groundwater quality. The ideal network includes four specific-purpose networks to monitor (1) ambient water quality, (2) nonpoint sources of pollution, (3) point sources of pollution, and (4) line sources of pollution. (USGS)

  4. Community and home gardens increase vegetable intake and food security of residents in San Jose, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Algert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As of 2013, 42 million American households were involved in growing their own food either at home or in a community garden plot. The purpose of this pilot study was to document the extent to which gardeners, particularly less affluent ones, increase their vegetable intake when eating from either home or community garden spaces. Eighty-five community gardeners and 50 home gardeners from San Jose, California, completed a survey providing information on demographic background, self-rated health, vegetable intake and the benefits of gardening. The gardeners surveyed were generally low income and came from a variety of ethnic and educational backgrounds. Participants in this study reported doubling their vegetable intake to a level that met the number of daily servings recommended by the U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Growing food in community and home gardens can contribute to food security by helping provide access to fresh vegetables and increasing consumption of vegetables by gardeners and their families.

  5. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Conflict: Strategic Insights for California's Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazezi, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta - a major water supply source in California and a unique habitat for many native and invasive species--is on the verge of collapse due to a prolonged conflict over how to manage the Delta. There is an urgent need to expedite the resolution of this conflict because the continuation of the status quo would leave irreversible environmental consequences for the entire state. In this paper a systematic technique is proposed for providing strategic insights into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta conflict. Game theory framework is chosen to systematically analyze behavioral characteristics of decision makers as well as their options in the conflict with respect to their preferences using a formal mathematical language. The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR), a recent game-theoretic technique, is applied to model and analyze the Delta conflict in order to better understand the options, preferences, and behavioral characteristics of the major decision makers. GMCR II as a decision support system tool based on GMCR concept is used to facilitate the analysis of the problem through a range of non-cooperative game theoretic stability definitions. Furthermore, coalition analysis is conducted to analyze the potential for forming partial coalitions among decision makers, and to investigate how forming a coalition can influence the conflict resolution process. This contribution shows that involvement of the State of California is necessary for developing an environmental-friendly resolution for the Delta conflict. It also indicates that this resolution is only achievable through improving the fragile levee systems and constructing a new water export facility.

  6. Geodetic measurement of deformation east of the San Andreas fault in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Lisowski, Michael; Solomon, Sean C.

    Triangulation and trilateration data from two geodetic networks located between the San Andreas fault and the Great Valley have been used to calculate shear strain rates in the Diablo Range and to estimate the slip rate along the Calaveras and Paicines faults in central California. The shear strain rates, γ1 and γ2, were estimated independently from angle changes using Prescott's method and from the simultaneous reduction for station position and strain parameters using the DYNAP method with corrections to reduce the triangulation and trilateration data to a common reference surface. On the basis of Prescott's method, the average shear strain rate across the Diablo Range for the time period between 1962 and 1982 is 0.15±0.08 μrad/yr, with the orientation of the most compressive strain (β) at N16°E±14°. Utilizing corrections for the deflection of the vertical and the geoid reference ellipsoid separation computed on the basis of local gravity observations, γ = 0.19±0.09 μrad/yr and β = N16°E±13°. Although γ is not significantly greater than zero, at the 95% confidence level the orientation of β is similar to the direction of maximum compressive strain indicated by the orientation of major fold structures in the region (N25°E). We infer that the measured strain is due to compression across the folds of this area; the average shear straining corresponds to a relative shortening rate of 5.7±2.7 mm/yr. In contrast to the situation throughout most of the Coast Ranges where fold axes have orientations approximately parallel to the San Andreas fault, within the Diablo Range between Hollister and Coalinga the trends of the fold axes are different and are thought to be controlled by reactivation of older structures. From trilateration measurements made between 1972 and 1987 on lines that are within 10 km of the San Andreas fault, a slip rate of 10-12 mm/yr was calculated for the Calaveras-Paicines fault south of Hollister. The slip rate on the Paicines

  7. A multi-decade time series of kelp forest community structure at San Nicolas Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kenner, Michael C.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.; Cowen, Robert K.; Harrold, Christopher; Novak, Mark; Rassweiler, Andrew; Reed, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    San Nicolas Island is surrounded by broad areas of shallow subtidal habitat, characterized by dynamic kelp forest communities that undergo dramatic and abrupt shifts in community composition. Although these reefs are fished, the physical isolation of the island means that they receive less impact from human activities than most reefs in Southern California, making San Nicolas an ideal place to evaluate alternative theories about the dynamics of these communities. Here we present monitoring data from seven sampling stations surrounding the island, including data on fish, invertebrate, and algal abundance. These data are unusual among subtidal monitoring data sets in that they combine relatively frequent sampling (twice per year) with an exceptionally long time series (since 1980). Other outstanding qualities of the data set are the high taxonomic resolution captured and the monitoring of permanent quadrats and swaths where the history of the community structure at specific locations has been recorded through time. Finally, the data span a period that includes two of the strongest ENSO events on record, a major shift in the Pacific decadal oscillation, and the reintroduction of sea otters to the island in 1987 after at least 150 years of absence. These events provide opportunities to evaluate the effects of bottom-up forcing, top-down control, and physical disturbance on shallow rocky reef communities.

  8. Heavy Metals Concentration Levels in Soils throughout the East San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, K.; Ramirez, N.; Diaz, J.; Cuff, K.; Adarkwah, N.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that soils near structures made of pressure treated wood created before 2003 often contain high levels of arsenic, which was widely used in the processing of such wood. One such study, conducted by student scientists affiliated with the SF ROCKS program at San Francisco State University, found high levels of arsenic in soils collected from several children's play areas in San Francisco (Negrete, et al., 2006). Due to the known health risks associated with high concentrations of arsenic, and given a general lack of data related to soils of the East San Francisco Bay Area, the current study was initiated to determine whether or not dangerously high levels of arsenic exist in soils near public schools and playgrounds located in Richmond and Oakland, California. Soil samples were collected from approximately 100 locations in and around such areas, and analyzed for arsenic and a variety of other heavy metals concentration levels using an ICP spectrometer. Preliminary results demonstrate arsenic levels that exceed the EPA's 0.4 ppm action limit in 27 of the 100 sites from which samples were collected. Also, strong correlations between arsenic and various metals in the soil were found, such as arsenic with chromium (0.7022) and nickel (0.6588). Additionally, dangerously high levels of arsenic and lead were found in soils collected along the shores of a small lake fed by Leona Creek on the campus of Mills College in the Oakland foothills, approximately 2 kilometers downstream from a former iron sulphide mine. This occurrence constitutes evidence that the owner of the mine has not complied with recent orders from a local regulatory agency to make sure that mine effluents are safe.

  9. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: San Luis Obispo (California), Santa Maria (California). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An airborne combined radiometric and magnetic survey was performed over the area covered by the Santa Maria and San Luis Obispo, California 1:250,000 National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) 10 x 20 quadrangle maps. The survey was a part of DOE's National Aerial Radiometric Reconnaissance program, which is in turn a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Data were collected by a helicopter equipped with a gamma-ray spectrometer having a large crystal volume, and a high sensitivity proton precession magnetometer. The radiometric system was calibrated at the Walker Field Calibration pads and the Lake Mead Dynamic Test range. Data quality was ensured throughout the survey by daily test flights and equipment checks. Radiometric data were corrected for live time, aircraft and equipment background, cosmic background, atmospheric radon, Compton scatter, and altitude dependence. The corrected data were statistically evaluated, plotted and contoured to produce anomaly maps based on the radiometric response of individual geological units. These maps were interpreted and an anomaly interpretation map produced. Volume I contains a description of the systems used in the survey, a discussion of the calibration of the systems, the data processing procedures, the data display format, the interpretation rationale, and the interpretation methodology. A separate Volume II for each quadrangle contains the data displays and the interpretation results

  10. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  11. Age and paleoenvironment of the imperial formation near San Gorgonio Pass, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.; Poore, R.Z.; Matti, J.

    1999-01-01

    Microfossiliferous marine sediments of the Imperial Formation exposed in the Whitewater and Cabazon areas, near San Gorgonio Pass, southern California, are late Miocene in age and were deposited at intertidal to outer neritic depths, and possibly upper bathyal depths. A late Miocene age of 7.4 to >6.04 Ma is based on the ranges of age-diagnostic benthic foraminifers (Cassidulina delicata and Uvigerina peregrina), planktic foraminifers (Globigerinoides obliquus, G. extremus, and Globigerina nepenthes; zones N17-N19), and calcareous nannoplankton (Discoaster brouweri, D. aff. D. surculus, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicata, Sphenolithus abies, and S. neoabies; zones CN9a-CN11) coupled with published K/Ar dates from the underlying Coachella Formation (10.1 ?? 1.2 Ma; Peterson, 1975) and overlying Painted Hill Formation (6.04 ?? 0.18 and 5.94 ?? 0.18 Ma; J. L. Morton in Matti and others, 1985 and Matti and Morton, 1993). Paleoecologic considerations (sea-level fluctuations and paleotemperature) restrict the age of the Imperial Formation to 6.5 through 6.3 Ma. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate that the Imperial Formation in the Whitewater and Cabazon sections accumulated at inner neritic to outer neritic (0-152 m) and possibly upper bathyal (152-244 m) depths. Shallowing to inner neritic depths occurred as the upper part of the section was deposited. This sea-level fluctuation corresponds to a global highstand at 6.3 Ma (Haq and others, 1987). Planktic foraminifers suggest an increase in surface-water temperatures upsection. A similar increase in paleotemperatures is interpreted for the North Pacific from 6.5 to 6.3 Ma (warm interval W10 of Barron and Keller, 1983). Environmental contrasts between the Whitewater and Cabazon sections of the Imperial Formation provide evidence for right-lateral displacements on the Banning fault, a late Miocene strand of the San Andreas fault system. The Cabazon section lies south of the Banning fault, and has been displaced west

  12. Social Disparities in Drinking Water Quality in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, I.; Balazs, C.; Hubbard, A.; Morello-Frosch, R.

    2011-12-01

    Social Disparities in Drinking Water Quality in California's San Joaquin Valley Carolina Balazs, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Alan Hubbard and Isha Ray Little attention has been given to research on social disparities and environmental justice in access to safe drinking water in the USA. We examine the relationship between nitrate and arsenic concentrations in community water systems (CWS) and the ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of their customers. We hypothesized that systems in the San Joaquin Valley that serve a higher proportion of minority (especially Latino) residents, and/or lower socioeconomic status (proxied by rates of home ownership) residents, have higher nitrate levels and higher arsenic levels. We used water quality monitoring datasets (1999-2001) to estimate nitrate as well as arsenic levels in CWS, and source location and Census block group data to estimate customer demographics. We found that percent Latino was associated with a .04 mg NO3/L increase in a CWS' estimated nitrate ion concentration (95% CI, -.08, .16) and rate of home ownership was associated with a .16 mg NO3/L decrease (95% CI, -.32, .002). We also found that each percent increase in home ownership rate was associated with a .30 ug As/L decrease in arsenic concentrations (pMoore E, Matalon E, Balazs C, Clary J, Firestone L, De Anda S, Guzman, M. 2011. The human costs of nitrate-contaminated drinking water in the San Joaquin Valley. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute. Morello-Frosch R, Pastor M, Sadd J. 2001. Environmental justice and southern california's 'riskscape': The distribution of air toxics exposures and health risks among diverse communities. Urban Affairs Review 36(4): 551-578. National Research Council. 2001. Arsenic in drinking water 2001 update. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Census of population and housing, 2000 [united states]: Summary tape file 3. Washington D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2011a

  13. Evidence of Mercurial Contamination and Denundation Downstream of New Idria Mercury Mine, San Benito County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsinger, H. E.; Sharma, R. K.; Weinman, B.

    2014-12-01

    California's Central Valley water quality and soils are essential to the survival of the valley's communities and agriculture. Therefore, detection of possible contaminants within the valley streams and soils are paramount to the protection of this land and the people that depend upon it. Here we explore the impact of the contaminated stream beds near the New Idria Mercury Mine site, San Benito County, California. Previous work by Ganguli et al. (2000) has been done in this area to determine the mercury levels associated with the water that flows near the ghost town of New Idria. We performed geochemical analyses on the finer bed sediments from channels draining the area, as well as the coarser sediments taken from along the channel banks, to determine mercury transport downriver from the source. Using a novel application of tau, a mass transfer coefficient typically used in critical zone studies or soil production and weathering rates, we determine downstream weathering, accumulation, and transport of mercury. Our initial geochemical data showed higher tau values upstream as well as within the banks of the contaminated streambed and a greater accumulation of mercury near the pollution source (i.e., mine tailings, (τ ~ 103)). Tau results also show elevated mercurial levels existing downstream, with accumulations in mid- (τ ~ 102) and down-stream (τ ~ 10) reaches. Combining tau results with more traditional indices of chemical weathering (CIA) support consistent overall Hg-weathering processes with low levels of chemical weathering and higher dominance of coupled physical-anthropogenic weathering.

  14. Groundwater quality in the Madera and Chowchilla subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Madera and Chowchilla subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated. The Madera-Chowchilla study unit is about 860 square miles and consists of the Madera and Chowchilla groundwater subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley Basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Shelton and others, 2009). The study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 11 to 15 inches, most of which occurs between November and February. The main surface-water features in the study unit are the San Joaquin, Fresno, and Chowchilla Rivers, and the Madera and Chowchilla canals. Land use in the study unit is about 69 percent (%) agricultural, 28% natural (mainly grasslands), and 3% urban. The primary crops are orchards and vineyards. The largest urban area is the city of Madera. The primary aquifer system is defined as those parts of the aquifer corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. In the Madera-Chowchilla study unit, these wells typically are drilled to depths between 200 and 800 feet, consist of a solid casing from land surface to a depth of about 140 to 400 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system. The primary aquifer system in the study unit consists of Quaternary-age alluvial-fan and fluvial deposits that were formed by the rivers draining the Sierra Nevada. Sediments consist of gravels, sands

  15. The San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay region, California: Structure and kinematics of a Young plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachens, R.C.; Zoback, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recently acquired high-resolution aeromagnetic data delineate offset and/or truncated magnetic rock bodies of the Franciscan Complex that define the location and structure of, and total offset across, the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay region. Two distinctive magnetic anomalies caused by ultramafic rocks and metabasalts east of, and truncated at, the San Andreas fault have clear counterparts west of the fault that indicate a total right-lateral offset of only 22 km on the Peninsula segment, the active strand that ruptured in 1906. The location of the Peninsula segment is well defined magnetically on the northern peninsula where it goes offshore, and can be traced along strike an additional ~6 km to the northwest. Just offshore from Lake Merced, the inferred fault trace steps right (northeast) 3 km onto a nearly parallel strand that can be traced magnetically northwest more than 20 km as the linear northeast edge of a magnetic block bounded by the San Andreas fault, the Pilarcitos fault, and the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault zone. This right-stepping strand, the Golden Gate segment, joins the eastern mapped trace of the San Andreas fault at Bolinas Lagoon and projects back onshore to the southeast near Lake Merced. Inversion of detailed gravity data on the San Francisco Peninsula reveals a 3 km wide basin situated between the two strands of the San Andreas fault, floored by Franciscan basement and filled with Plio-Quaternary sedimentary deposits of the Merced and Colma formations. The basin, ~1 km deep at the coast, narrows and becomes thinner to the southeast along the fault over a distance of ~12 km. The length, width, and location of the basin between the two strands are consistent with a pull-apart basin formed behind the right step in the right-lateral strike-slip San Andreas fault system and currently moving southeast with the North American plate. Slight nonparallelism of the two strands bounding the basin (implying a small component of convergence

  16. Preliminary geologic map of the San Guillermo Mountain Quadrangle, Ventura County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Cuyama 30' x 60' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, and tectonic evolution of the complex junction area between the NW-striking Coast Ranges and EW-striking western Transverse Ranges. The 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the San Guillermo Mountain quadrangle is one of six contiguous 7 1/2' quadrangle geologic maps in the eastern part of the Cuyama map area being compiled for a more detailed portrayal and reevaluation of geologic structures and rock units shown on previous geologic maps of the area (e.g., Dibblee, 1979). The following observations and interpretations are based on the new San Guillermo Mountain geologic compilation: (1) The new geologic mapping in the northern part of the San Guillermo Mountain quadrangle allows for reinterpretation of fault architecture that bears on potential seismic hazards of the region. Previous mapping had depicted the eastern Big Pine fault (BPF) as a northeast-striking, sinistral strike-slip fault that extends for 30 km northeast of the Cuyama River to its intersection with the San Andreas fault (SAF). In contrast the new mapping indicates that the eastern BPF is a thrust fault that curves from a northeast strike to an east strike, where it is continuous with the San Guillermo thrust fault, and dies out further east about 15 km south of the SAF. This redefined segment of the BPF is a south-dipping, north-directed thrust, with dominantly dip slip components (rakes > 60 deg.), that places Middle Eocene marine rocks (Juncal and Matilija Formations) over Miocene through Pliocene(?) nonmarine rocks (Caliente, Quatal, and Morales Formations). Although a broad northeast-striking fault zone, exhibiting predominantly sinistral components of slip (rakes < 45 deg.), extends to the SAF as previously mapped, the fault zone does not connect to the southwest with the BPF

  17. Late Quaternary Faulting along the San Juan de los Planes Fault Zone, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, M. M.; Coyan, J. A.; Arrowsmith, J.; Maloney, S. J.; Gutierrez, G.; Umhoefer, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    As a result of continued distributed deformation in the Gulf Extensional Province along an oblique-divergent plate margin, active normal faulting is well manifest in southeastern Baja California. By characterizing normal-fault related deformation along the San Juan de los Planes fault zone (SJPFZ) southwest of La Paz, Baja California Sur we contribute to understanding the patterns and rates of faulting along the southwest gulf-margin fault system. The geometry, history, and rate of faulting provide constraints on the relative significance of gulf-margin deformation as compared to axial system deformation. The SJPFZ is a major north-trending structure in the southern Baja margin along which we focused our field efforts. These investigations included: a detailed strip map of the active fault zone, including delineation of active scarp traces and geomorphic surfaces on the hanging wall and footwall; fault scarp profiles; analysis of bedrock structures to better understand how the pattern and rate of strain varied during the development of this fault zone; and a gravity survey across the San Juan de los Planes basin to determine basin geometry and fault behavior. The map covers a N-S swath from the Gulf of California in the north to San Antonio in the south, an area ~45km long and ~1-4km wide. Bedrock along the SJPFZ varies from Cretaceous Las Cruces Granite in the north to Cretaceous Buena Mujer Tonalite in the south and is scarred by shear zones and brittle faults. The active scarp-forming fault juxtaposes bedrock in the footwall against Late Quaternary sandstone-conglomerate. This ~20m wide zone is highly fractured bedrock infused with carbonate. The northern ~12km of the SJPFZ, trending 200°, preserves discontinuous scarps 1-2km long and 1-3m high in Quaternary units. The scarps are separated by stretches of bedrock embayed by hundreds of meters-wide tongues of Quaternary sandstone-conglomerate, implying low Quaternary slip rate. Further south, ~2 km north of the

  18. Southern California climate, hydrology and vegetation over the past ~96 ka from Baldwin Lake, San Bernardino Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K. C.; Kirby, M. E.; Rhodes, E. J.; Silveira, E.; Stevens, L. R.; Lydon, S. E.; Whitaker, A.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous paleoclimate records are scarce from terrestrial sites in Southern California beyond the Last Glacial Period (i.e. Marine Isotope Stage 2, MIS 2). Baldwin Lake in the Big Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mountains (SBM), is a playa lake in the ecotone between desert and Mediterranean climate and vegetation. We recovered a 27 m core from the site in 2012, which spans ~96 - 10 ka, based upon radiocarbon dating, infrared stimulated luminescence dating, and orbital tuning. Total organic content, total carbonate content, density, magnetic susceptibility, x-ray fluorescence, and grain size data show a lake system that responded in tandem with Marine Isotope State transitions. After the basin closed during MIS 5b, Baldwin Lake was productive for MIS 5a, then cycled through an inorganic phase to a highly organic lowstand by the end of MIS 4. A stratified lake of rapidly-deposited organic silt prevailed throughout MIS 3, then shifted to an inorganic, slow sedimentation regime during MIS 2. Paleoecological data (charcoal and fossil pollen) suggest that the Valley was most prone to wildfire during climate transitions (e.g. the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, ~21 ka). Forest cover was dominated by pine for much of the basin's history, save for the dry period at the onset of MIS 2, and a greater presence of oak woodland at the beginning of MIS 3. The reduced pine cover and increased sagebrush steppe in early MIS 2 suggests a more arid landscape of sagebrush steppe c. 29 - 25 ka, before reverting to wet conditions by the LGM. Throughout MIS 5a - 2, lake organic content fluctuates in tandem with solar radiation values; a possible link between lake productivity and insolation is currently being explored with biogenic silica (BiSi) analysis. The lake was desiccated by ~10 ka, perhaps driven by increasing insolation rates at the onset of MIS 1.

  19. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  20. Bed composition generation for morphodynamic modeling: Case study of San Pablo Bay in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wegen, M.; Dastgheib, A.; Jaffe, B.E.; Roelvink, D.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of process-based morphodynamic models are often constrained by limited availability of data on bed composition, which may have a considerable impact on the modeled morphodynamic development. One may even distinguish a period of "morphodynamic spin-up" in which the model generates the bed level according to some ill-defined initial bed composition rather than describing the realistic behavior of the system. The present paper proposes a methodology to generate bed composition of multiple sand and/or mud fractions that can act as the initial condition for the process-based numerical model Delft3D. The bed composition generation (BCG) run does not include bed level changes, but does permit the redistribution of multiple sediment fractions over the modeled domain. The model applies the concept of an active layer that may differ in sediment composition above an underlayer with fixed composition. In the case of a BCG run, the bed level is kept constant, whereas the bed composition can change. The approach is applied to San Pablo Bay in California, USA. Model results show that the BCG run reallocates sand and mud fractions over the model domain. Initially, a major sediment reallocation takes place, but development rates decrease in the longer term. Runs that take the outcome of a BCG run as a starting point lead to more gradual morphodynamic development. Sensitivity analysis shows the impact of variations in the morphological factor, the active layer thickness, and wind waves. An important but difficult to characterize criterion for a successful application of a BCG run is that it should not lead to a bed composition that fixes the bed so that it dominates the "natural" morphodynamic development of the system. Future research will focus on a decadal morphodynamic hindcast and comparison with measured bathymetries in San Pablo Bay so that the proposed methodology can be tested and optimized. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

  1. Seismic velocity structure and seismotectonics of the eastern San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, J.L.; Michael, A.J.; Brocher, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Hayward Fault System is considered the most likely fault system in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, to produce a major earthquake in the next 30 years. To better understand this fault system, we use microseismicity to study its structure and kinematics. We present a new 3D seismic-velocity model for the eastern San Francisco Bay region, using microseismicity and controlled sources, which reveals a ???10% velocity contrast across the Hayward fault in the upper 10 km, with higher velocity in the Franciscan Complex to the west relative to the Great Valley Sequence to the east. This contrast is imaged more sharply in our localized model than in previous regional-scale models. Thick Cenozoic sedimentary basins, such as the Livermore basin, which may experience particularly strong shaking during an earthquake, are imaged in the model. The accurate earthquake locations and focal mechanisms obtained by using the 3D model allow us to study fault complexity and its implications for seismic hazard. The relocated hypocenters along the Hayward Fault in general are consistent with a near-vertical or steeply east-dipping fault zone. The southern Hayward fault merges smoothly with the Calaveras fault at depth, suggesting that large earthquakes may rupture across both faults. The use of the 3D velocity model reveals that most earthquakes along the Hayward fault have near-vertical strike-slip focal mechanisms, consistent with the large-scale orientation and sense of slip of the fault, with no evidence for zones of complex fracturing acting as barriers to earthquake rupture.

  2. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures With Selected Congenital Anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Lurmann, Frederick; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant mortality and are important contributors to subsequent morbidity. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some anomalies, although evidence is limited. We aimed to investigate whether ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in early gestation contribute to the risk of selected congenital anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997–2006. Seven exposures and 5 outcomes were included for a total of 35 ...

  3. Geophysical evidence for Quaternary deformation within the offshore San Andreas Fault System, Point Reyes Peninsula, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stozek, B.

    2010-12-01

    Our previous work studying the rate and style of uplift of marine terraces on the Point Reyes Peninsula indicates the peninsula has been undergoing differential uplift due to interacting fault geometries in the offshore zone. To better understand offshore fault interactions, recently collected mini-sparker seismic reflection data acquired by the USGS and multi-beam bathymetric data acquired by California State University at Monterey Bay within the 3-mile (5 km) limit offshore of the Point Reyes Peninsula, are being used to reinterpret the tectono-stratigraphic framework of the San Andreas fault (SAF) system. Eight offshore Shell exploratory well logs that provide seismic velocity and paleontologic data are being used in conjunction with industry multichannel (deep-penetration) seismic reflection profiles to provide age control and extend the analyses beyond 3 mile limit of the high-resolution data. Isopach and structure maps of key stratigraphic intervals were generated to show how the stratigraphic units are influenced by fault interactions. These datasets allow for new interpretations of the offshore Neogene stratigraphy and the evolution of the Point Reyes fault, an offshore component of the SAF system. Observations of Quaternary sedimentary sequences in the high-resolution mini-sparker dataset provide evidence of localized areas of subsidence and uplift within the offshore SAF system. For example, the most recent angular unconformity above the Point Reyes fault deepens to the north where the fault bends from an east-west to a more northerly orientation. Stratigraphic horizons in the offshore zone are correlated with the same geologic units exposed on the Point Reyes Peninsula. Both unconformity-bounded sedimentary sequences mapped on reflection profiles in the offshore and marine terraces that have been uplifted on the peninsula are tied to sea-level fluctuations. Our new interpretation of the Point Reyes fault zone will be incorporated into a kinematic fault

  4. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF QUARANTINE AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO QUARANTINE ISOLATION AND TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Chelsea; Marinkovich, Matt; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    Quarantine is designed primarily to prevent the introduction of transmissible diseases to zoological collections. Improvements in preventive medicine, disease eradication, and comprehensive pathology programs call into question current industry quarantine standards. Disease risk analysis was used at the San Diego Zoo (SDZ) and the SDZ Safari Park to eliminate quarantine isolation and transmissible disease testing for animals transferred between the two institutions. To determine if a risk-based approach might be valid between other institutions and SDZ, we reviewed quarantine data for animals arriving at SDZ from 81 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 124 other sources (e.g., non-AZA-accredited institutions, private breeders, private dealers, governmental bodies) over a 5-yr period (2009-2013). No mammal or herptile failed quarantine due to transmissible diseases of concern. Approximately 2.5% of incoming birds failed quarantine due to transmissible disease; however, all 14 failed individuals were obtained from three nonaccredited sources (private breeders, confiscation). The results of our study suggest that a risk-based approach could be used to minimize or eliminate quarantine for the transfer of animals from institutions with comprehensive disease surveillance programs and/or preshipment testing practices. Quarantine isolation with testing remains an essential defense against introducing transmissible diseases of concern when there is a lack of health knowledge about the animals being received.

  5. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF QUARANTINE AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO QUARANTINE ISOLATION AND TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Chelsea; Marinkovich, Matt; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    Quarantine is designed primarily to prevent the introduction of transmissible diseases to zoological collections. Improvements in preventive medicine, disease eradication, and comprehensive pathology programs call into question current industry quarantine standards. Disease risk analysis was used at the San Diego Zoo (SDZ) and the SDZ Safari Park to eliminate quarantine isolation and transmissible disease testing for animals transferred between the two institutions. To determine if a risk-based approach might be valid between other institutions and SDZ, we reviewed quarantine data for animals arriving at SDZ from 81 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 124 other sources (e.g., non-AZA-accredited institutions, private breeders, private dealers, governmental bodies) over a 5-yr period (2009-2013). No mammal or herptile failed quarantine due to transmissible diseases of concern. Approximately 2.5% of incoming birds failed quarantine due to transmissible disease; however, all 14 failed individuals were obtained from three nonaccredited sources (private breeders, confiscation). The results of our study suggest that a risk-based approach could be used to minimize or eliminate quarantine for the transfer of animals from institutions with comprehensive disease surveillance programs and/or preshipment testing practices. Quarantine isolation with testing remains an essential defense against introducing transmissible diseases of concern when there is a lack of health knowledge about the animals being received. PMID:27010290

  6. Remote Sensing Soil Salinity Map for the San Joaquin Vally, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudiero, E.; Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinization is a major natural hazard to worldwide agriculture. We present a remote imagery approach that maps salinity within a range (i.e., salinities less than 20 dS m-1, when measured as the electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract), accuracy, and resolution most relevant to agriculture. A case study is presented for the western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV), California, USA (~870,000 ha of farmland) using multi-year Landsat 7 ETM+ canopy reflectance and the Canopy Response Salinity Index (CRSI). Highly detailed salinity maps for 22 fields (542 ha) established from apparent soil electrical conductivity directed sampling were used as ground-truth (sampled in 2013), totaling over 5000 pixels (30×30 m) with salinity values in the range of 0 to 35.2 dS m-1. Multi-year maximum values of CRSI were used to model soil salinity. In addition, soil type, elevation, meteorological data, and crop type were evaluated as covariates. The fitted model (R2=0.73) was validated: i) with a spatial k-folds (i.e., leave-one-field-out) cross-validation (R2=0.61), ii) versus salinity data from three independent fields (sampled in 2013 and 2014), and iii) by determining the accuracy of the qualitative classification of white crusted land as extremely-saline soils. The effect of land use change is evaluated over 2396 ha in the Broadview Water District from a comparison of salinity mapped in 1991 with salinity predicted in 2013 from the fitted model. From 1991 to 2013 salinity increased significantly over the selected study site, bringing attention to potential negative effects on soil quality of shifting from irrigated agriculture to fallow-land. This is cause for concern since over the 3 years of California's drought (2010-2013) the fallow land in the WSJV increased from 12.7% to 21.6%, due to drastic reduction in water allocations to farmers.

  7. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Mt. Pinos and San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Ask any astronomer where the best stargazing site in Southern California is, and chances are they'll say Mt. Pinos. In this perspective view generated from SRTM elevation data the snow-capped peak is seen rising to an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet), in stark contrast to the flat agricultural fields of the San Joaquin valley seen in the foreground. Below the summit, but still well away from city lights, the Mt. Pinos parking lot at 2,468 meters (8,100 feet) is a popular viewing area for both amateur and professional astronomers and astro-photographers. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Distance to Horizon: 176 kilometers (109 miles) Location: 34.83 deg. North lat., 119.25 deg. West lon. View: Toward the Southwest Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

  8. Anthropogenic Methane Emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley: Characterizing Large Point Source Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Aubrey, A. D.; Falk, M.; Holland, L.; Hook, S. J.; Hulley, G. C.; Johnson, W. R.; Kuai, L.; Kuwayama, T.; Lin, J. C.; Thorpe, A. K.; Worden, J. R.; Lauvaux, T.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is an important atmospheric pollutant that contributes to global warming and tropospheric ozone production. Methane mitigation could reduce near term climate change and improve air quality, but is hindered by a lack of knowledge of anthropogenic methane sources. Recent work has shown that methane emissions are not evenly distributed in space, or across emission sources, suggesting that a large fraction of anthropogenic methane comes from a few "super-emitters." We studied the distribution of super-emitters in California's southern San Joaquin Valley, where elevated levels of atmospheric CH4 have also been observed from space. Here, we define super-emitters as methane plumes that could be reliably detected (i.e., plume observed more than once in the same location) under varying wind conditions by airborne thermal infrared remote sensing. The detection limit for this technique was determined to be 4.5 kg CH4 h-1 by a controlled release experiment, corresponding to column methane enhancement at the point of emissions greater than 20% above local background levels. We surveyed a major oil production field, and an area with a high concentration of large dairies using a variety of airborne and ground-based measurements. Repeated airborne surveys (n=4) with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer revealed 28 persistent methane plumes emanating from oil field infrastructure, including tanks, wells, and processing facilities. The likelihood that a given source type was a super-emitter varied from roughly 1/3 for processing facilities to 1/3000 for oil wells. 11 persistent plumes were detected in the dairy area, and all were associated with wet manure management. The majority (11/14) of manure lagoons in the study area were super-emitters. Comparing to a California methane emissions inventory for the surveyed areas, we estimate that super-emitters comprise a minimum of 9% of inventoried dairy emissions, and 13% of inventoried oil emissions in this region.

  9. Shallow Mesozoic layered gabbros of the Shadow Mountains, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David K.; Cohen, Lewis H.

    1996-10-01

    Jurassic hornblende gabbros intrude as a conspicuous 9 km 2 arcuate complex within Paleozoic metasedimentary pendants of the Shadow Mountains, San Bernardino County, California. This complex is significant because it: (1) displays evidence of processes active in magma chambers which are crystallizing cumulus phases; (2) resembles many mid-Mesozoic plutons described in the western and central Sierra Nevada and western Mojave desert which may all be petrologically related; and (3) may be used as a diagnostic tectonic marker for Mesozoic tectonic reconstructions of the Mojave Desert and western Cordillera. The gabbroic body is unusual for its compact, near-circular plan, conspicuous banding and layering and reverse geochemical zonation. The mafic complex was intruded as a hydrous magma and was emplaced as a concentric epizonal pluton. Oxygen isotopic data indicate the melt was mantle derived but has been contaminated by assimilation of metasediments. The gabbro was likely generated by reaction of olivine with fractionated melt from the melting of a low MgO basalt under water-saturated conditions. The banding and layering is ascribed to the cyclic ascent of felsic rejected solute along the walls of the chamber and its accumulation near the roof of the complex. Cooling was facilitated by conduction and the presence of pendant rocks at uppermost levels. The Shadow Mountains gabbros resemble other gabbroic bodies of similar Jurassic age throughout the Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert and Transverse Ranges, California (Lahren and Schweickert, 1994; Miller and Glazner, 1995). These intrusions are useful as markers of subsequent large-scale tectonic crustal displacements affecting the western Mojave Desert and Sierra Nevada. In particular, the Shadow Mountains gabbros show age, mineralogie and textural affinities with correlative gabbroic complexes in the central Sierra Nevada 400 km to the north. All these plutonic bodies may represent subvolcanic sources of the Jurassic

  10. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Natality rates of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California during 1987-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of California sea lions (Zalophus...

  11. Ar/39Ar age spectrum analysis of detrital microclines from the southern San Joaquin Basin, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detrital microcline grains from sedimentary strata preserve a record of thermal evolution in the temperature range approx.= 1000 to 2000C which can be revealed by 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum analysis. Microcline separates from deep drill hole intersections with Eocene to Miocene sediments in the Basin and Tejon Blocks of the southern San Joaquin Valley, California, analysed by the age spectrum approach show radiogenic 40Ar (40Ar*) gradients that record both the slow cooling of the uplifting sediment source approx.= 65 Ma ago, and a recent thermal event. This information, in conjunction with the observation of fission track annealing in the coexisting apatites, allows estimation of the temperature-time conditions of this thermal event at about 1400C for approx.= 200 ka. Present and paleotemperature data is in accord with heating related to several kilometers of Pleistocene sediment deposition. Heat flow calculations suggest that this recent subsidence has depressed the thermal gradient from about 300C km-1 to the present apparent gradient of 240C km-1. 40Ar/39Ar analysis of detrital microcline crystals yields thermochronological information in the temperature-time range of petroleum maturation and provides this technique with potential as both a useful exploration tool and as a means of probing the fundamental geodynamic processes of basin evolution. (orig.)

  12. Bimodal distribution of creep event amplitudes on the San Andreas fault, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    EPISODIC fault creep, at several instrument sites along the San Andreas and associated faults in central California consists of a few small and large slip events per year generally superimposed on a background of gradual yielding at low rates1-3. Most of the events are aseismic, but a few minor displacement steps have occured in association with local earthquakes 12. After removal of earthquake steps, event lists for several sites include significant numbers of small events about an order or magnitude below the typical 1-4-mm amplitude range for large events1, 3. Recent experimental rock-deformation results demonstrate that under biaxial loading some rocks show episodic slip on pre-cut surfaces9,10. It is not yet clear how the laboratory and field observations are related, but the data presented here indicate that episodic fault creep in nature may be more complex than previously realised. In light of the laboratory results, it is more important than ever to consider all the details of the field data concerning fault creep. ?? 1977 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Leadership lessons from curricular change at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, Helen; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Irby, David M

    2007-04-01

    After successive Liaison Committee on Medical Education accreditation reports that criticized the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine for lack of instructional innovation and curriculum oversight, the dean issued a mandate for curriculum reform in 1997. Could a medical school that prided itself on innovation in research and health care do the same in education? The authors describe their five-phase curriculum change process and correlate this to an eight-step leadership model. The first phase of curricular change is to establish a compelling need for change; it requires leaders to create a sense of urgency and build a guiding coalition to achieve action. The second phase of curriculum reform is to envision a bold new curriculum; leaders must develop such a vision and communicate it broadly. The third phase is to design curriculum and obtain the necessary approvals; this requires leaders to empower broad-based action and generate short-term wins. In the fourth phase, specific courses are developed for the new curriculum, and leaders continue to empower broad-based action, generate short-term wins, consolidate gains, and produce more change. During the fifth phase of implementation and evaluation, leaders need to further consolidate gains, produce more change, and anchor new approaches in the institution. Arising from this experience and the correlation of curricular change phases with leadership steps, the authors identify 27 specific leadership strategies they employed in their curricular reform process. PMID:17414186

  14. Modification of a Community Garden to Attract Native Bee Pollinators in Urban San Luis Obispo, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbin W. Thorp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardens have become increasingly important places for growing nutritional food, for conserving biodiversity, for biological and ecological research and education, and for community gathering. Gardens can also be designed with the goal of attracting specific wildlife, like birds and butterflies, but pollinators, like bees, can also be drawn to specially planned and modified gardens. A community garden in San Luis Obispo, California provided the setting for modification with the goal of attracting native bee pollinators by planting known bee-attractive plants. The local gardeners participated in a survey questionnaire and focused interviews to provide their input and interest in such a project. Presentations on our work with native bees in urban environments and gardening to attract bees were also given to interested gardeners. Work of this type also benefited from a lead gardener who managed donated bee plants and kept up momentum of the project. Modification of the garden and monitoring of native bees started in 2007 and continued through the growing season of 2009. Diversity of collected and observed native bees has increased each year since 2007. To date, 40 species in 17 genera of mostly native bees has been recorded from the garden, and this number is expected to increase through time.

  15. Ground water in the Twenty-Nine Palms Indian Reservation and vicinity, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckleton, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Twenty-Nine Palms Indian Reservation is in San Bernardino County, California. Movement of ground water in the area is impeded locally by faults which act as ground-water barriers. There are indications that a fault probably crosses the reservation in an east-west direction; such a fault may interfere with ground-water pumping. The water-table altitude near the northern boundary of the reservation is estimated to be 120 to 130 feet below land surface datum; the aquifer thickness in the area is unknown. Pumping-test results for wells near the reservation show specific capacities ranging from 9.2 to 70.0 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. Wells drilled on the reservation would probably fall within this range. Sodium concentrations, which may pose a hazard to those who must restrict its intake, and excessive fluoride are present in water samples from wells near the reservation. High sodium and fluoride concentrations are probably present in water in the saturated material underlying the reservation. (USGS)

  16. Near bottom velocity and suspended solids measurements in San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Cheng, Ralph T.; Cacchione, David A.; Tate, George B.

    1997-01-01

    Ability to accurately measure long-term time-series of turbulent mean velocity distribution within the bottom boundary layer (BBL) in addition to suspended solids concentration (SSC) is critical to understanding complex processes controlling transport, resuspension, and deposition of suspended sediments in bays and estuaries. A suite of instruments, including broad band acoustic Doppler current profilers (BB-ADCPs), capable of making very high resolution measurement of velocity profiles in the BBL, was deployed in the shipping channel of South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California in an investigation of sediment dynamics during March and April 1995. Results of field measurements provide information to calculate suspended solids flux (SSF) at the site. Calculations show striking patterns; residual SSF varies through the spring-neap tidal cycle. Significant differences from one spring tide to another are caused by differences in tidal current diurnal inequalities. Winds from significant storms establish residual circulation patterns that may affect magnitude of residual SSF more than increased tidal energy at spring tides.

  17. Smog Nitrogen and the Rapid Acidification of Forest Soil, San Bernardino Mountains, Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne A. Wood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the rapid acidification of forest soils in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. After 30 years, soil to a depth of 25 cm has decreased from a pH (measured in 0.01 M CaCl2 of 4.8 to 3.1. At the 50-cm depth, it has changed from a pH of 4.8 to 4.2. We attribute this rapid change in soil reactivity to very high rates of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen (N added to the soil surface (72 kg ha–1 year–1 from wet, dry, and fog deposition under a Mediterranean climate. Our research suggests that a soil textural discontinuity, related to a buried ancient landsurface, contributes to this rapid acidification by controlling the spatial and temporal movement of precipitation into the landsurface. As a result, the depth to which dissolved anthropogenic N as nitrate (NO3 is leached early in the winter wet season is limited to within the top ~130 cm of soil where it accumulates and increases soil acidity.

  18. Magnetic Fabric and Paleomagnetism of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, Sierra San Pedro M rtir, Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, M.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Böhnel, H. N.

    2003-12-01

    We summarize results of recent paleomagnetic, structural, petrologic and magnetic fabric studies along an east-west (60 km long) transect across the Peninsular Ranges Batholith (PRB) in north-central Baja California. The transect includes both magnetite rich plutons from the western sector of the PRB, and ilmenite rich plutons from the eastern sector, as well as plutons on the eastern and western side of major tectonic discontinuities. We include results for 8 plutons, included well-characterized bodies such as San Pedro M rtir (SP), San José (SJ) and La Zarza (LZ), and relatively little known plutons such as Potrero (PO), Aguaje del Burro (AB), El Milagro (MI), and San Telmo (ST). Plutons on the western sector of the PRB yield a paleomagnetic pole at 82° N-186.4° E (A95=4.8° ). When rotated into a pre- Gulf of California position, the pole (79.2° -188.2° ) is statistically undistinguishable from the North American reference pole. In contrast, SP, SJ and PO plutons, on either side of the NW trending Main Martir Thrust yield clearly discordant direction that can only be reconciled with results for the western plutons assuming southwestward tilt of ˜ 25° for SP and greater than 45° for SJ and PO. We find strong evidence in support of tilt of the plutons from thermochronological, structural, and geobarometric data. These data will be discussed elsewhere. Here we focus on magnetic fabric data. AMS for SJ is strongly developed with high values for degree of anisotropy (P= 1.14 a 1.40), but marked east-west asymmetry that contrasts with the general symmetry of the pluton along a north-south axis. Oblate fabrics (T ˜ +0.4) with dispersed lineation directions dominate the west side of the pluton and prolate fabrics (T ˜ -0.15) with steep to vertical lineations dominate on its eastern side. This fabric is interpreted to result from magma flow. SP, a much larger pluton and sensibly asymmetric, displays high degrees of anisotropy (P ˜1.2) on its western side but

  19. Final Environmental Statement : Acquisition of lands for the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Government proposes to acquire approximately 23,000 acres of land in the South San Francisco Bay region, Alameda, San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties, to...

  20. Hybrid system of generating electricity, solar eolic diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Sistema hibrido de generacion electrica, eolico solar diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Johnston, Peter [Technology Development, Arizona (United States); Napikoski, Chester [Generation Engineering, Arizona (United States); Escutia, Ricardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), and the northamerican electric company Arizona Public Service (APS), made an agreement of collaboration to develop a project of generating electricity with the use of renewable resources. The premises that where agreed on are the following: 1. Focus the project a rural community. 2. The cost of the whole project should be lower than compared to the interconnection to a conventional system. 3. Acceptance of the community, and the governmental authorities. 4. Sustentability of the operation of the system. Several technical and economical analysis where done, such as the evaluation of the solar and eolic resources, study of the environmental impact, negotiation agreements so it would be possible to obtain de economical resources from Niagara Mohawk (NIMO), and the USAID, all of this thru the supervising of the Sandia National Laboratories. After the anemometric and solar radiation measures where made, it was considered that the community of San Juanico, en Baja California Sur, Mexico, was the most feasible one, it was necessary also to consider the aspects of logistics, socials, size of the community and as a detonator for the economic activities of tourism and fishing. The APS formulated the executive project in accordance with the recommendations of the different areas of CFE. The project consists basically in the installation of 10 wind generators of 10 Kw, a battery bank for 432 KWh, plus a diesel generator for emergencies of 80 Kw. Besides the civil and electromechanical installation. It was necessary to involve the community in the knowledge and followup of the project form it's, considering that this factor would be essential, so it could be successful. Lamps of low consumption where installed on the houses and street lightning, to optimize the system. The patronato that is a civil association of the community, is in charge of the administration of the system, it receives support from personnel of CFE. The income

  1. Emplacement, offset history, and recent uplift of basement within the San Andreas Fault System, northeast San Gabriel Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Miles Douglas

    1999-11-01

    Mapping, petrography, cross-sections, structure contours, earthquake locations, and focal mechanism analogues of summed moment tensors have provided insights into the reconstruction and deformation associated with the San Andreas Fault System in the San Gabriel and Western San Bernardino Mountains (WSBM) of the Central Transverse Ranges. The San Gabriel Mountains (SGM) represent a Quaternary 'arch' that extends across the northwest trending San Andreas Fault (SAF). Mechanisms to explain the relatively large magnitudes of uplift on both sides of this relatively straight strike slip fault have been problematical. The uplift results from the interactions between the right lateral San Jacinto Fault (SJF) and SAF, and the thrust Cucamonga-Sierra Madre Faults (CF-SMF). Uplift south of the SAF occurs as the SGM Block propagates through the restraining bend at the intersection of the SJF and SAF at the surface, which has produced an antiform in the topography of the range and in the Vincent Thrust. Uplift is also due to motion on the CF-SMF. Uplift north of the SAF is attributed to an upper-crustal north-dipping subsurface restraining bend in the SAF due to the projected intersection of the CF-SMF and SJF, with the SAF. Northwest migration of the restraining bend in the Quaternary has produced a ˜1.5 km high, northeast dipping monocline in crystalline basement which is adjacent and parallel to the SAF. Reverse faults and deformation of alluvial terraces document a northwest migrating locus of compression and uplift. Toward the southeast, the subsurface restraining bend becomes a subsurface lateral ramp where the SJF intersects the SAF at depth. Crystalline basement of the Holcomb Ridge-Table Mountain 'slice' consists of a syntectonically emplaced, intercalated, north-dipping, igneous and metamorphic suite. Cretaceous igneous rocks were emplaced as tabular bodies, which now strike eastwest, and are concordant with a relatively older metasedimentary screen and para

  2. Channel incision and the role of sediment supply in the San Gabriel Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibiase, R. A.; Whipple, K. X.; Heimsath, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Bed-load sediment flux plays a critical role in controlling fluvial incision, through both the direct effects of abrading or protecting the bed, and indirect effects such as modulating channel roughness and geometry. Recent modeling efforts have begun to explicitly account for these factors, but the field measurements needed to refine and test predictions have been lacking. Here we present results from more than 40 km of detailed channel surveys across the San Gabriel Mountains in Southern California, where we quantify channel width, percent bedrock exposure, and sediment caliber across a strong E-W gradient of relief and associated erosion rate, which spans the transition from soil-mantled to bedrock-dominated landscapes. Our observations are constrained by over 70 catchment-averaged erosion rates, ranging from 30 to 1000 m/Ma, derived from 10Be concentrations in stream sands. We find that channel width scaling with drainage area does not significantly change across an order of magnitude increase in erosion rate for graded channels. Significant narrowing occurs, however, across transient, oversteepened knickpoint reaches. These knickzones are also the most sediment-starved sections of channel in the landscape, suggesting a relative sediment supply control on channel width broadly consistent with published data on channel width response. Conversely, the amount of exposed bedrock in well adjusted or graded channels is generally low, regardless of erosion rate. Indeed, the channels of some of the most rapidly eroding catchments are choked with coarse sediment from oversteepened hillslopes. Our field data have also allowed us to better interpret a growing body of data relating normalized channel steepness index to erosion rate. In the San Gabriel Mountains, channel steepness index increases linearly with erosion rate at low erosion rates (floods, as it affects both bed-load transport and detachment. The stochastic-threshold model explains to first-order the

  3. Structure of the 1906 near-surface rupture zone of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco Peninsula segment, near Woodside, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, C.M.; Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Grove, Karen; Goldman, M.R.

    2016-07-08

    High-resolution seismic-reflection and refraction images of the 1906 surface rupture zone of the San Andreas Fault near Woodside, California reveal evidence for one or more additional near-surface (within about 3 meters [m] depth) fault strands within about 25 m of the 1906 surface rupture. The 1906 surface rupture above the groundwater table (vadose zone) has been observed in paleoseismic trenches that coincide with our seismic profile and is seismically characterized by a discrete zone of low P-wave velocities (Vp), low S-wave velocities (Vs), high Vp/Vs ratios, and high Poisson’s ratios. A second near-surface fault strand, located about 17 m to the southwest of the 1906 surface rupture, is inferred by similar seismic anomalies. Between these two near-surface fault strands and below 5 m depth, we observed a near-vertical fault strand characterized by a zone of high Vp, low Vs, high Vp/Vs ratios, and high Poisson’s ratios on refraction tomography images and near-vertical diffractions on seismic-reflection images. This prominent subsurface zone of seismic anomalies is laterally offset from the 1906 surface rupture by about 8 m and likely represents the active main (long-term) strand of the San Andreas Fault at 5 to 10 m depth. Geometries of the near-surface and subsurface (about 5 to 10 m depth) fault zone suggest that the 1906 surface rupture dips southwestward to join the main strand of the San Andreas Fault at about 5 to 10 m below the surface. The 1906 surface rupture forms a prominent groundwater barrier in the upper 3 to 5 m, but our interpreted secondary near-surface fault strand to the southwest forms a weaker barrier, suggesting that there has been less or less-recent near-surface slip on that strand. At about 6 m depth, the main strand of the San Andreas Fault consists of water-saturated blue clay (collected from a hand-augered borehole), which is similar to deeply weathered serpentinite observed within the main strand of the San Andreas Fault at

  4. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-236-1725, San Francisco Opera Costume Shop, San Francisco, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belanger, P.L.; Okawa, M.T.

    1986-09-01

    An employee representative of the San Francisco Opera Costume Shop requested an investigation of possible exposure to chemical substances by crafts persons and textile artists. No overexposure to chemicals was found during cloth stripping and dying operations, boot deglazing, hat lacquering, fabric painting or casting operations. During boot spray painting, two personal air samples contained methylene chloride at 11.9 and 25 parts per million; both above the NIOSH recommended criteria for methylene-chloride exposure.

  5. A new method to identify earthquake swarms applied to seismicity near the San Jacinto Fault, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Shearer, Peter M.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding earthquake clustering in space and time is important but also challenging because of complexities in earthquake patterns and the large and diverse nature of earthquake catalogues. Swarms are of particular interest because they likely result from physical changes in the crust, such as slow slip or fluid flow. Both swarms and clusters resulting from aftershock sequences can span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Here we test and implement a new method to identify seismicity clusters of varying sizes and discriminate them from randomly occurring background seismicity. Our method searches for the closest neighbouring earthquakes in space and time and compares the number of neighbours to the background events in larger space/time windows. Applying our method to California's San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ), we find a total of 89 swarm-like groups. These groups range in size from 0.14 to 7.23 km and last from 15 min to 22 d. The most striking spatial pattern is the larger fraction of swarms at the northern and southern ends of the SJFZ than its central segment, which may be related to more normal-faulting events at the two ends. In order to explore possible driving mechanisms, we study the spatial migration of events in swarms containing at least 20 events by fitting with both linear and diffusion migration models. Our results suggest that SJFZ swarms are better explained by fluid flow because their estimated linear migration velocities are far smaller than those of typical creep events while large values of best-fitting hydraulic diffusivity are found.

  6. Selenium volatilization in vegetated agricultural drainage sediment from the San Luis Drain, Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, G S; Lin, Z-Q; Arroyo, I; Terry, N

    2005-09-01

    The presence of large amounts of Se-laden agricultural drainage sediment in the San Luis Drain, Central California, poses a serious toxic threat to wildlife in the surrounding environment. Effective management of the drainage sediment becomes a practical challenge because the sediment is polluted with high levels of Se, B, and salts. This two-year field study was conducted to identify the best plant species that are salt and B tolerant and that have a superior ability of volatilizing Se from drainage sediment. The drainage sediment was mixed with clean soil, and vegetated with salado alfalfa (Medicago sativa 'salado'), salado grass (Sporobulus airoides 'salado'), saltgrass-turf (Distichlis spp. 'NYPA Turf'), saltgrass-forage (Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene), cordgrass (Spartina patens 'Flageo'), Leucaenia (Leucaena leucocephola), elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum), or wild type-Brassica (Brassica spp.). Results show that elephant grass produced the greatest amount of biomass and accumulated highest concentrations of B. Highest concentrations of Se, S, and Cl were observed in wild-type Brassica. Biogenic volatilization of Se by plants and soil microbes was greater in summer. Among the treatments, the mean daily rates of Se volatilization (microg Se m(-2)d(-1)) were wild-type Brassica (39) > saltgrass-turf (31) > cordgrass (27) > saltgrass forage (24) > elephant grass (22) > salado grass (21) > leucaenia (19) > salado alfalfa (14) > irrigated bare soil (11) > non-irrigated bare soil (6). Overall, rates of Se volatilization in drainage sediment were relatively low due to high levels of sulfate. To manage Se in drainage sediment by phytoremediation, the biological volatilization process needs to be enhanced substantially under field conditions.

  7. Post-Miocene Right Separation on the San Gabriel and Vasquez Creek Faults, with Supporting Chronostratigraphy, Western San Gabriel Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Larry A.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Denison, Rodger E.; Morin, Ronald W.; Enrico, Roy J.; Barron, John A.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The right lateral San Gabriel Fault Zone in southern California extends from the northwestern corner of the Ridge Basin southeastward to the eastern end of the San Gabriel Mountains. It bifurcates to the southeast in the northwestern San Gabriel Mountains. The northern and older branch curves eastward in the range interior. The southern younger branch, the Vasquez Creek Fault, curves southeastward to merge with the Sierra Madre Fault Zone, which separates the San Gabriel Mountains from the northern Los Angeles Basin margin. An isolated exposure of partly macrofossiliferous nearshore shallow-marine sandstone, designated the Gold Canyon beds, is part of the southwest wall of the fault zone 5.5 km northwest of the bifurcation. These beds contain multiple subordinate breccia-conglomerate lenses and are overlain unconformably by folded Pliocene-Pleistocene Saugus Formation fanglomerate. The San Gabriel Fault Zone cuts both units. Marine macrofossils from the Gold Canyon beds give an age of 5.2+-0.3 Ma by 87Sr/86Sr analyses. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy dates deposition of the overlying Saugus Formation to between 2.6 Ma and 0.78 Ma. Distinctive metaplutonic rocks of the Mount Lowe intrusive suite in the San Gabriel Range are the source of certain clasts in both the Gold Canyon beds and Saugus Formation. Angular clasts of nondurable Paleocene sandstone also occur in the Gold Canyon beds. The large size and angularity of some of the largest of both clast types in breccia-conglomerate lenses of the beds suggest landslides or debris flows from steep terrain. Sources of Mount Lowe clasts, originally to the north or northeast, are now displaced southeastward by faulting and are located between the San Gabriel and Vasquez Creek faults, indicating as much as 12+-2 km of post-Miocene Vasquez Creek Fault right separation, in accord with some prior estimates. Post-Miocene right slip thus transferred onto the Vasquez Creek Fault southeast of the bifurcation. The right separation

  8. Post-Miocene Right Separation on the San Gabriel and Vasquez Creek Faults, with Supporting Chronostratigraphy, Western San Gabriel Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Larry A.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Denison, Rodger E.; Morin, Ronald W.; Enrico, Roy J.; Barron, John A.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The right lateral San Gabriel Fault Zone in southern California extends from the northwestern corner of the Ridge Basin southeastward to the eastern end of the San Gabriel Mountains. It bifurcates to the southeast in the northwestern San Gabriel Mountains. The northern and older branch curves eastward in the range interior. The southern younger branch, the Vasquez Creek Fault, curves southeastward to merge with the Sierra Madre Fault Zone, which separates the San Gabriel Mountains from the northern Los Angeles Basin margin. An isolated exposure of partly macrofossiliferous nearshore shallow-marine sandstone, designated the Gold Canyon beds, is part of the southwest wall of the fault zone 5.5 km northwest of the bifurcation. These beds contain multiple subordinate breccia-conglomerate lenses and are overlain unconformably by folded Pliocene-Pleistocene Saugus Formation fanglomerate. The San Gabriel Fault Zone cuts both units. Marine macrofossils from the Gold Canyon beds give an age of 5.2+-0.3 Ma by 87Sr/86Sr analyses. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy dates deposition of the overlying Saugus Formation to between 2.6 Ma and 0.78 Ma. Distinctive metaplutonic rocks of the Mount Lowe intrusive suite in the San Gabriel Range are the source of certain clasts in both the Gold Canyon beds and Saugus Formation. Angular clasts of nondurable Paleocene sandstone also occur in the Gold Canyon beds. The large size and angularity of some of the largest of both clast types in breccia-conglomerate lenses of the beds suggest landslides or debris flows from steep terrain. Sources of Mount Lowe clasts, originally to the north or northeast, are now displaced southeastward by faulting and are located between the San Gabriel and Vasquez Creek faults, indicating as much as 12+-2 km of post-Miocene Vasquez Creek Fault right separation, in accord with some prior estimates. Post-Miocene right slip thus transferred onto the Vasquez Creek Fault southeast of the bifurcation. The right separation

  9. Bottom-up, decision support system development : a wetlandsalinity management application in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2006-05-10

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin ofCalifornia's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratorywildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during theannual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetland contain saltwhich, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdownperiod, negatively impacts downstream agricultural riparian waterdiverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinityto the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-pointsources, now addresses return flows from seasonally managed wetlands.Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means ofmatching wetland return flows to the assimilative capacity of the SanJoaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring anddecision support systems to implement this concept have failed forreasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed inthe context of more general challenges facing the successfulimplementation of environmental monitoring, modelling and decisionsupport systems. The paper then provides details of a current researchand development project which will ultimately provide wetland managerswith the means of matching salt exports with the available assimilativecapacity of the San Joaquin River, when fully implemented. Manipulationof the traditional wetland drawdown comes at a potential cost to thesustainability of optimal wetland moist soil plant habitat in thesewetlands - hence the project provides appropriate data and a feedback andresponse mechanism for wetland managers to balance improvements to SanJoaquin River quality with internally-generated information on the healthof the wetland resource. The author concludes the paper by arguing thatthe architecture of the current project decision support system, whencoupled with recent advances in environmental data acquisition, dataprocessing and information dissemination technology, holds

  10. Commercial Whaling, Especially for Gray Whales, Eschrichtius robustus, and Humpback Whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, at California and Baja California Shore Stations in the 19th Century (1854–1899)

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Randall R.; Smith, Tim D.

    2010-01-01

    Shore whaling along North America’s California and Baja California coasts during 1854–99 was ancillary to the offshore and alongshore American whale fishery, which had begun in the North Pacific in the early 1800’s and was flourishing by the 1840’s. From its inception at Monterey, Calif., in the mid 1850’s, the shore fishery, involving open boats deployed from land to catch and tow whales for processing, eventually spread from Monterey south to San Diego and Baja California and north...

  11. Effects of flow diversions on water and habitat quality: Examples from California's highly manipulated Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Nancy E.; Cloern, James E.; Burau, Jon R.

    2007-01-01

    We use selected monitoring data to illustrate how localized water diversions from seasonal barriers, gate operations, and export pumps alter water quality across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (California). Dynamics of water-quality variability are complex because the Delta is a mixing zone of water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, agricultural return water, and the San Francisco Estuary. Each source has distinct water-quality characteristics, and the contribution of each source varies in response to natural hydrologic variability and water diversions. We use simulations with a tidal hydrodynamic model to reveal how three diversion events, as case studies, influence water quality through their alteration of Delta-wide water circulation patterns and flushing time. Reduction of export pumping decreases the proportion of Sacramento- to San Joaquin-derived fresh water in the central Delta, leading to rapid increases in salinity. Delta Cross Channel gate operations control salinity in the western Delta and alter the freshwater source distribution in the central Delta. Removal of the head of Old River barrier, in autumn, increases the flushing time of the Stockton Ship Channel from days to weeks, contributing to a depletion of dissolved oxygen. Each shift in water quality has implications either for habitat quality or municipal drinking water, illustrating the importance of a systems view to anticipate the suite of changes induced by flow manipulations, and to minimize the conflicts inherent in allocations of scarce resources to meet multiple objectives.

  12. Morfometría en la Cuenca Hidrológica de San José del Cabo, Baja California Sur, México Morfometry in San José del Cabo Hidrologic Basin, South Baja California, México

    OpenAIRE

    Genaro Martínez; José de J. Díaz

    2011-01-01

    La cuenca hidrológica-forestal de San José del Cabo, localizada al sur de la península de Baja California, México, es la de mayor extensión en el estado de Baja California Sur y es considerada como una de las principales fuentes de recursos hídricos. Los acuíferos que suministran agua a las áreas turísticas y urbanas están en las partes bajas (planicies aluviales) de la cuenca. Un complejo cristalino constituido por rocas ígneas y metamórficas caracteriza la región montañosa de la cuenca. Aná...

  13. Mercury in birds of San Francisco Bay-Delta, California: trophic pathways, bioaccumulation, and ecotoxicological risk to avian reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heinz, Gary; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A. Keith; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Herzog, Mark P.; Bluso-Demers, Jill D.; Demers, Scott A.; Herring, Garth; Hoffman, David J.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Willacker, James J.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Maurer, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    San Francisco Bay Estuary in northern California has a legacy of mercury contamination, which could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds in the estuary. The goal of this study was to use an integrated field and laboratory approach to evaluate the risks of mercury exposure to birds in the estuary. We examined mercury bioaccumulation, and other contaminants of concern, in five waterbird species that depend heavily on San Francisco Bay Estuary for foraging and breeding habitat: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata). These species have different foraging habitats and diets that represent three distinct foraging guilds within the estuary’s food web. In this report, we provide an integrated synthesis of the primary findings from this study and results are synthesized from 54 peer-reviewed publications generated to date with other unpublished results.

  14. Confirmatory sediment analyses and solid and suspended particulate phase bioassays on sediment from Oakland Inner Harbor, San Francisco, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Apts, C.W.; Woodruff, D.L.; Barrows, M.E.; Cullinan, V.I.; Hyland, J.L.; Campbell, J.F.

    1988-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the US Congress to deepen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California. During review of the environmental impact statement required for this dredging and disposal project, a panel of national experts approved the open-water disposal of dredged sediment from selected areas within the Inner Harbor, subject to results of confirmatory solid phase bioassays. The San Francisco District of the Corps requested the Battle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct these confirmatory studies. The studies provided technical data for an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of this project. Within extremely narrow time constraints, these studies provided chemical and biological information required by ocean dumping regulations to determine suitability of the Oakland Inner Harbor and turning basin sediment for ocean disposal. 23 refs., 18 figs., 45 tabs.

  15. Population Structure of Xylella fastidiosa Associated with Almond Leaf Scorch Disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Islam, Md Sajedul; Cabrera-La Rosa, Juan C; Civerolo, Edwin L; Groves, Russell L

    2015-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in many commercial crops, including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of X. fastidiosa associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Isolates obtained from two almond orchards in Fresno and Kern County in the San Joaquin Valley of California were analyzed for two successive years. Multilocus simple-sequence repeat (SSR) analysis revealed two major genetic clusters that were associated with two host cultivars, 'Sonora' and 'Nonpareil', respectively, regardless of the year of study or location of the orchard. These relationships suggest that host cultivar selection and adaptation are major driving forces shaping ALS X. fastidiosa population structure in the San Joaquin Valley. This finding will provide insight into understanding pathogen adaptation and host selection in the context of ALS disease dynamics. PMID:25807309

  16. Quaternary crustal deformation along a major branch of the San Andreas fault in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G.E.; Lajoie, K.R.; Wehmiller, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    Deformed marine terraces and alluvial deposits record Quaternary crustal deformation along segments of a major, seismically active branch of the San Andreas fault which extends 190 km SSE roughly parallel to the California coastline from Bolinas Lagoon to the Point Sur area. Most of this complex fault zone lies offshore (mapped by others using acoustical techniques), but a 4-km segment (Seal Cove fault) near Half Moon Bay and a 26-km segment (San Gregorio fault) between San Gregorio and Point Ano Nuevo lie onshore. At Half Moon Bay, right-lateral slip and N-S horizontal compression are expressed by a broad, synclinal warp in the first (lowest: 125 ka?) and second marine terraces on the NE side of the Seal Cove fault. This structure plunges to the west at an oblique angle into the fault plane. Linear, joint0controlled stream courses draining the coastal uplands are deflected toward the topographic depression along the synclinal axis where they emerge from the hills to cross the lowest terrace. Streams crossing the downwarped part of this terrace adjacent to Half Moon Bay are depositing alluvial fans, whereas streams crossing the uplifted southern limb of the syncline southwest of the bay are deeply incised. Minimum crustal shortening across this syncline parallel to the fault is 0.7% over the past 125 ka, based on deformation of the shoreline angle of the first terrace. Between San Gregorio and Point Ano Nuevo the entire fault zone is 2.5-3.0 km wide and has three primary traces or zones of faulting consisting of numerous en-echelon and anastomozing secondary fault traces. Lateral discontinuities and variable deformation of well-preserved marine terrace sequences help define major structural blocks and document differential motions in this area and south to Santa Cruz. Vertical displacement occurs on all of the fault traces, but is small compared to horizontal displacement. Some blocks within the fault zone are intensely faulted and steeply tilted. One major block 0

  17. Multibeam Data and Socio-Economic Issues in West-Central San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Carlson, Paul R.; Wong, Florence L.; Cacchione, David A.

    1998-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is the largest estuary on the conterminous U.S. Pacific Coast and is one of the world's largest natural harbors. It is a biologically productive and diverse environment. San Francisco Bay has a maritime economy that annually generates over $7.5 billion, handles 50 million tons of cargo, and involves thousands of jobs. Recent investigations by the USGS in this estuary help address both socio-economic and scientific issues: *Trimming pinnacles may prevent a calamitous oil spill. *Can San Francisco Bay accept more dredge spoil? *Bay floor biological habitats are quite varied. *How thick and how variable is the sediment fill in central San Francisco Bay?

  18. Diet of blue marlin Makaira mazara off the coast of Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Abitia Cárdenas, Leonardo Andrés; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Gutiérrez Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez Romero, Jesús; Aguilar Palomino, Bernabé; Moehl Hitz, Almiae

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the stomach contents of 204 blue marlin (Makaira mazara) caught by the sport-fishing fleet of Cabo San Lucas in the southern Gulf of California is presented. The specimens sampled were caught during the summer and fall of 1987, 1988, and 1989 when the sea is warm (28-30°C). Blue marlin were found to feed on 35 prey species, 3 of which represented 90% of the total stomach contents by frequency of occurrence. The main prey were epipelagic organisms from the oceanic zone and demersal...

  19. Aspectos alimentarios del dorado coryphaena hippurus linnaeus, 1758 en Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, México

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabé Aguilar Palomino; Felipe Galván Magaña; L. Andrés Abitia Cárdenas; Arturo F. Muhlia Melo; Jesús Rodríguez Romero

    1998-01-01

    Se presenta el análisis del contenido estomacal de 500 dorados, Coryphaena hippurus, capturados por pesca deportiva entre la línea de costa y 25 millas afuera, frente a Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, México. Se identificaron 51 organismos presa en el componente trófico del dorado, los cuales pertenecen a tres grandes grupos: peces, cefalópodos y crustáceos, representando en orden del índice de importancia relativa el 56.3%, 23.1% y 20.6%, respectivamente. De las 51 presas, 18 registraro...

  20. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of San Gregorio Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  1. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of San Francisco Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  2. Dieta del lobo marino de California, Zalophus californianus Lesson, 1828, en la Isla San Jorge, en el norte del Golfo de California, México, 1998–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El lobo marino de California, Zalophus californianus (Lesson, 1828, es el único pinnípedo residente en el Golfo de California, donde sus mayores poblaciones están en el cinturón de las Grandes Islas y en el norte del golfo. La Isla San Jorge, en el golfo norte, tiene la segunda colonia reproductiva, que también es genéticamente diferente de otras colonias del Golfo (Schramm-Urrutia, 2002. Se estudió la dieta de los lobos marinos de esta isla por medio del análisis de excretas, entre febrero de 1998 y marzo de 1999. El componente más importante de la dieta fue Porichthys sp. (principalmente P. analis Hubbs y Schultz, 1939, seguido de Pomadasys panamensis (Steindachner, 1875 y el calamar Lolliguncula panamensis Berry, 1911. Aparentemente, los lobos forrajearon principalmente en el fondo del mar. Las presas consumidas por los lobos marinos en la Isla San Jorge no son de valor comercial. Hubo poco traslapo en las dietas entre los lobos marinos y el bobo café, Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783, el ave ictiófaga mas abundante en la isla.

  3. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Association of Home Builders v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, No. 08-17309...

  4. Does pollinator diversity loss affect pollination: a test with the California poppy and clustered tarweed

    OpenAIRE

    Cen, Henry Jiayin

    2015-01-01

    Pollinators are in decline as a result of human activities such as habitat fragmentation. This study examined the effects of habitat fragmentation and reduced bee diversity on the reproductive performance of California poppy, Eschscholzia californica, and clustered tarweed, Deinandra fasciculata, in the San Diego region. We experimentally introduced potted poppy plants in to scrub fragment habitats and natural reserves. We surveyed the potted poppy plants for floral visitors followed by in si...

  5. 77 FR 66499 - Environmental Impact Statement: San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Hospitality Lane, San Bernardino, California 92408 (2) Sheraton Ontario Airport Hotel, 429 North Vineyard... the Hilton San Bernardino, 285 East Hospitality Lane, San Bernardino, California 92408 (2)...

  6. Modeling of Reactive Transport of Nitrate in a Heterogeneous Alluvial Fan Aquifer, San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. T.; Phillips, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    Fate of nitrate in an alluvial fan aquifer in the San Joaquin Valley, California, was investigated with combined laboratory analyses, field measurements, geostatistics, and flow and reactive transport modeling. In the summer of 2003, groundwater wells and lysimeters were installed along a 1-km transect extending upgradient from the Merced River through an unfarmed riparian zone, a corn field, and an orchard. Groundwater levels have been monitored continuously. Saturated and unsaturated pore waters were analyzed quarterly for nutrients, anions, and cations. Sediment core samples from above and below the water table were analyzed for organic matter, nutrients, inorganic chemistry, and potential denitrification using denitrification enzyme assays (DEA's) based on the acetylene block technique. Curve fitting of DEA's provided core-scale estimates of microbial populations and growth coefficients. DEA biomass was similar to values obtained with the most probable number technique. Growth coefficients were found to be relatively uniform across the site, while biomass varied by several orders of magnitude. Age dates estimated from Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6), together with analyses of nitrogen species and excess nitrogen gas, provided approximate aquifer-scale, zero-order denitrification rates. The field and laboratory measurements served as input for geostatistical realizations of sediment properties and simulations of reactive transport of nitrate in the saturated zone. Analyses of cores, drillers' logs, and previous interpretations of the local geology were used to generate transition probability models of hydrofacies distributions within Holocene alluvium and pre-Holocene fans, and maps of the boundaries between these stratigraphic sequences. Multiple 3-D realizations were created and ranked based on lateral and vertical bulk-flow properties. For realizations representing a range of geological conditions, 3-D flow was computed with boundary

  7. Late Cenozoic geology and lacustrine history of Searles Valley, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, M.; Smith, G. I.; Robinson, J. E.; Stauffer, P. H.; Zigler, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    (beaches or tufa benches) are common, but their deposits tend to be thin. Combining the subsurface evidence of lake history with the outcrop record allows the history of lake fluctuations to be reconstructed for the period between about 150 ka and the present. Translating this record of lake fluctuations into paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic histories is complicated by uncertainties as to which of the several components of climate affected runoff volumes and lake-surface evaporation. A simplified model, however, suggests that the flow of the Owens River stayed between 2.5 and 4.5 times its present flow volume for most of the past 150 ky. Its flow exceeded this range only about 14 percent of the time, and it fell below this range only 4 percent of the time—which includes the present. In fact, the past 10 ky is clearly the driest period during the past 150 ky in the Owens River drainage. Smith, G.I., 2009, Late Cenozoic geology and lacustrine history of Searles Valley, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1727, 115 p., 4 plates.

  8. Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom, (Edited By)

    2002-01-01

    As of the time of this writing, the San Francisco Bay region is home to about 6.8 million people, ranking fifth among population centers in the United States. Most of these people live on the coastal lands along San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento River delta, and the Pacific coast. The region straddles the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates and is crossed by several strands of the San Andreas Fault system. These faults, which are stressed by about 4 cm of relative plate motion each year, pose an obvious seismic hazard.

  9. San Andreas fault geometry at Desert Hot Springs, California, and its effects on earthquake hazards and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Creek and Banning faults are two of the principal strands of the San Andreas fault zone in the northern Coachella Valley of southern California. Structural characteristics of the faults affect both regional earthquake hazards and local groundwater resources. We use seismic, gravity, and geological data to characterize the San Andreas fault zone in the vicinity of Desert Hot Springs. Seismic images of the upper 500 m of the Mission Creek fault at Desert Hot Springs show multiple fault strands distributed over a 500 m wide zone, with concentrated faulting within a central 200 m wide area of the fault zone. High-velocity (up to 5000 m=sec) rocks on the northeast side of the fault are juxtaposed against a low-velocity (6.0) earthquakes in the area (in 1948 and 1986) occurred at or near the depths (~10 to 12 km) of the merged (San Andreas) fault. Large-magnitude earthquakes that nucleate at or below the merged fault will likely generate strong shaking from guided waves along both fault zones and from amplified seismic waves in the low-velocity basin between the two fault zones. The Mission Creek fault zone is a groundwater barrier with the top of the water table varying by 60 m in depth and the aquifer varying by about 50 m in thickness across a 200 m wide zone of concentrated faulting.

  10. Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, M.L.; Domagalski, J.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Current-use pesticides associated with suspended sediments were measured in the San Joaquin River, California and its tributaries during two storm events in 2008. Nineteen pesticides were detected: eight herbicides, nine insecticides, one fungicide and one insecticide synergist. Concentrations for the herbicides (0.1 to 3000 ng/g; median of 6.1 ng/g) were generally greater than those for the insecticides (0.2 to 51 ng/g; median of 1.5 ng/g). Concentrations in the tributaries were usually greater than in the mainstem San Joaquin River and the west side tributaries were higher than the east side tributaries. Estimated instantaneous loads ranged from 1.3 to 320 g/day for herbicides and 0.03 to 53 g/day for insecticides. The greatest instantaneous loads came from the Merced River on the east side. Instantaneous loads were greater for the first storm of 2008 than the second storm in the tributaries while the instantaneous loads within the San Joaquin River were greater during the second storm. Pesticide detections generally reflected pesticide application, but other factors such as physical-chemical properties and timing of application were also important to pesticide loads.

  11. Paleomagnetism of mesozoic red chert from Cedros Island and the San Benito Islands, Baja California, Mexico revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; Sedlock, Richard L.

    1992-02-01

    Previous paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic subduction-complex rocks on Cedros Island and the San Benito Islands, Mexico, shows that these rocks have been remagnetized; a single-polarity magnetization was found in chert sections and underlying pillow basalt deposited during a mixed-polarity interval of the geomagnetic field. Reanalysis of the Cedros and San Benito chert samples (101 total) shows that 13 samples also retain a high blocking-temperature component of magnetization (600° to 680°C) indicating a polarity stratigraphy and deposition of the bedded chert near 2° ± 3° paleolatitude. These data are similar to those for red chert in California and Japan implying that many of the Mesozoic ophiolitic chert sequences now exposed around the Pacific rim were initially deposited within the equatorial zone of high biologic productivity. These new data also support accretion of the Cedros and San Benito chert to the American margin at tropical paleolatitudes requiring significant northward translation (and clockwise rotation) to bring them to their present position with respect to the continental interior.

  12. Probabilistic Methodology for Estimation of Number and Economic Loss (Cost) of Future Landslides in the San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, Robert A.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    The Probabilistic Landslide Assessment Cost Estimation System (PLACES) presented in this report estimates the number and economic loss (cost) of landslides during a specified future time in individual areas, and then calculates the sum of those estimates. The analytic probabilistic methodology is based upon conditional probability theory and laws of expectation and variance. The probabilistic methodology is expressed in the form of a Microsoft Excel computer spreadsheet program. Using historical records, the PLACES spreadsheet is used to estimate the number of future damaging landslides and total damage, as economic loss, from future landslides caused by rainstorms in 10 counties of the San Francisco Bay region in California. Estimates are made for any future 5-year period of time. The estimated total number of future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region during any future 5-year period of time is about 330. Santa Cruz County has the highest estimated number of damaging landslides (about 90), whereas Napa, San Francisco, and Solano Counties have the lowest estimated number of damaging landslides (5?6 each). Estimated direct costs from future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region for any future 5-year period are about US $76 million (year 2000 dollars). San Mateo County has the highest estimated costs ($16.62 million), and Solano County has the lowest estimated costs (about $0.90 million). Estimated direct costs are also subdivided into public and private costs.

  13. Ground-water hydrology of the Hollister and San Juan Valleys, San Benito County, California, 1913-68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Chabot

    1973-01-01

    The Hollister and San Juan Valleys are within the Gilroy-Hollister ground-water basin. That part of the ground-water basin underlying the valleys consists of three subbasins each of which contains two or more ground-water subunits. The subbasin and subunit boundaries are formed by known or postulated faults, folded sedimentary rocks, and igneous rocks. The principal water-bearing units are lenticular beds of sand and gavel interbedded with clay, silt, sand, and gravel, or their locally consolidated equivalents, which range from Pliocene to Holocene, in age. Ground water occurs mainly under artesian or semiartesian conditions but also under unconfined (water-table) conditions in areas adjacent to most surface streams and, locally, under perched or semiperched conditions. In 1968 the depth to water in wells ranged from approximately 20 feet above land surface to more than 200 feet below land surface. Water-level differences in wells across the boundaries of adjacent subunits ranged from about 1 to more than 100 feet.

  14. 2007 California Department of Water Resources Topographic LiDAR: San Joaquin Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from LIDAR flights of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta conducted during late January and February of 2007. The work was conducted under contract...

  15. 76 FR 33181 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control..., Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  16. 76 FR 47076 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of a revision to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  17. 76 FR 70886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  18. 77 FR 35329 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  19. 77 FR 10472 - San Bernardino National Forest, Mountaintop Ranger District, California, Mitsubishi South Quarry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... in a nursery whether started from seed, cuttings or whole plant salvage from seeds collected at or...: February 13, 2012. Jody Noiron, Forest Supervisor, San Bernardino National Forest. BILLING CODE 3410-11-M...

  20. Geologic and bathymetric reconnaissance overview of the San Pedro shelf region, southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This report presents a series of maps that describe the bathymetry and late Quaternary geology of the San Pedro shelf area as interpreted from seismic-reflection...

  1. Body-Wave Scattering from Seismic Interferometry: Preliminary Results from the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, S. G.; Audet, P.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution direct tomographic imaging of subsurface Earth structures is generally limited by the distribution of seismic sources necessary for such studies. However, seismic interferometry has the potential to significantly overcome this issue through the use of ambient seismic noise recordings. Whereas the recovery of virtual surface waves via seismic interferometry techniques are the most abundant results produced by such studies, it has recently been shown that virtual body waves can also be recovered under appropriate conditions. Of particular interest to us is the scattering of body waves produced by velocity discontinuities in the subsurface, which dramatically improves our ability to characterize seismic velocity structures. In this work, using ambient seismic noise recordings across a network of stations near Parkfield, California, we observe both virtual P waves traversing the San Andreas Fault as well as non-fault-traversing P waves on either side. From observed fault-traversing P waves we propose a P wave velocity model of the San Andreas Fault. We further investigate the possibility of recovering body-wave scattering from interactions with velocity discontinuities associated with the fault. From such body-wave scattering interactions we test whether mode-conversions (P to S waves) can be observed using these virtual Green's functions. Additionally, using non-fault-traversing P waves we explore differences in velocity structure on either side of the San Andreas Fault in the Parkfield region. Finally, we examine the potential of seismic interferometry to produce time-lapse body-wave characterizations of the San Andreas Fault, in which properties of the fault can be seen to change in time

  2. Future impacts of distributed power generation on ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutukuru, Satish; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald

    2011-12-01

    Distributed power generation-electricity generation that is produced by many small stationary power generators distributed throughout an urban air basin-has the potential to supply a significant portion of electricity in future years. As a result, distributed generation may lead to increased pollutant emissions within an urban air basin, which could adversely affect air quality. However, the use of combined heating and power with distributed generation may reduce the energy consumption for space heating and air conditioning, resulting in a net decrease of pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. This work used a systematic approach based on land-use geographical information system data to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of distributed generation emissions in the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin of California and simulated the potential air quality impacts using state-of-the-art three-dimensional computer models. The evaluation of the potential market penetration of distributed generation focuses on the year 2023. In general, the air quality impacts of distributed generation were found to be small due to the restrictive 2007 California Air Resources Board air emission standards applied to all distributed generation units and due to the use of combined heating and power. Results suggest that if distributed generation units were allowed to emit at the current Best Available Control Technology standards (which are less restrictive than the 2007 California Air Resources Board standards), air quality impacts of distributed generation could compromise compliance with the federal 8-hr average ozone standard in the region. PMID:22263420

  3. Revisiting the Lau Decision: 20 Years After. Proceedings of a National Commemorative Symposium (San Francisco, California, November 3-4, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARC Associates, Inc. Oakland, CA.

    The "Lau" decision of 1974, which was related to the education of Chinese-speaking students in San Francisco (California), ushered in new programs, teaching approaches, frameworks, legislation, and government agencies designed to redress fundamental inequities in the educational opportunities available to language minority students. This symposium…

  4. Can One School Pull Together a Safety Net? San Fernando, California's Vaughn Street Elementary School and Its Plans for a One-Stop Service Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleen, Owen

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Vaughn Street Elementary School in San Fernando (California) plan to become a family services delivery site. Plans include cooperation among agencies; a family center for coordination of services, child care, and educational resources; a social network of mutual assistance; and a parent service exchange bank. (JB)

  5. Chinese mitten crab surveys of San Joaquin River basin and Suisun Marsh, California, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) are known to use both brackish and freshwater habitats as rearing areas. The objectives of this study were to examine the habitat use and potential effects of mitten crabs in the freshwater habitats of the San Joaquin River drainage up-stream of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. After several unsuccessful attempts to catch or observe mitten crabs by trapping, electrofishing, and visual observations, the study was redirected to determine the presence of crabs in the San Joaquin River (in the vicinity of Mossdale) and Suisun Marsh. Monthly surveys using baited traps in the San Joaquin River were done from June through November 2000 and in the Suisun Marsh from August through October 2000. No mitten crabs were caught in the San Joaquin River Basin and only one mitten crab was caught in Suisun Marsh. Surveys were conducted at 92 locations in the San Joaquin River Basin by deploying 352 traps for 10,752 hours of trapping effort; in Suisun Marsh, 34 locations were investigated by deploying 150 traps for 3,600 hours of trapping effort. The baited traps captured a variety of organisms, including catfishes (Ictularidae), yellowfin gobies (Acantho-gobius flavimanus), and crayfish (Decapoda). It is unclear whether the failure to capture mitten crabs in the San Joaquin River Basin and Suisun Marsh was due to ineffective trapping methods, or repre-sents a general downward trend in populations of juvenile mitten crabs in these potential rearing areas or a temporary decline related to year-class strength. Available data (since 1998) on the number of mitten crabs entrained at federal and state fish salvage facilities indicate a downward trend in the number of crabs, which may indicate a declining trend in use of the San Joaquin River Basin by juvenile mitten crabs. Continued monitoring for juvenile Chinese mitten crabs in brackish and freshwater portions of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basins is needed to better assess the

  6. Shellfish, seasonality, and sedentism : δ18O analysis of California mussels from early Holocene shell middens on San Miguel Island, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate seasonality of shellfish harvest and site occupation for four Early Holocene shell middens on California's San Miguel Island using a dataset of 449 δ18O measurements from 84 mussel shells (Mytilus californianus). Seasonality was assigned to prehistoric mussels using paleo sea-surface temperature (PSST) estimates from isotopic data obtained across full shell profiles. The results suggest that PSSTs around San Miguel Island were generally cooler between ∼10,000-8600 calBP and that mussels were harvested in a range of water temperatures which suggest a mix of seasonal and year round harvesting at the four sites. Two substantial shell middens dated to ∼10,000 and ∼9000 calBP appear to have been residential basecamps where Paleocoastal peoples harvested shellfish during all four seasons. These data suggest that Early Holocene peoples occupied the Channel Islands year round and highlight the importance of stable isotope analysis of marine shells for helping evaluate human settlement and subsistence strategies along the Pacific Coast. (author)

  7. Age, distribution, and stratigraphic relationship of rock units in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 5 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The San Joaquin Basin is a major petroleum province that forms the southern half of California’s Great Valley, a 700-km-long, asymmetrical basin that originated between a subduction zone to the west and the Sierra Nevada to the east. Sedimentary fill and tectonic structures of the San Joaquin Basin record the Mesozoic through Cenozoic geologic history of North America’s western margin. More than 25,000 feet (>7,500 meters) of sedimentary rocks overlie the basement surface and provide a nearly continuous record of sedimentation over the past ~100 m.y. Further, depositional geometries and fault structures document the tectonic evolution of the region from forearc setting to strike-slip basin to transpressional margin. Sedimentary architecture in the San Joaquin Basin is complicated because of these tectonic regimes and because of lateral changes in depositional environment and temporal changes in relative sea level. Few formations are widespread across the basin. Consequently, a careful analysis of sedimentary facies is required to unravel the basin’s depositional history on a regional scale. At least three high-quality organic source rocks formed in the San Joaquin Basin during periods of sea level transgression and anoxia. Generated on the basin’s west side, hydrocarbons migrated into nearly every facies type in the basin, from shelf and submarine fan sands to diatomite and shale to nonmarine coarse-grained rocks to schist. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources and future additions to reserves in the San Joaquin Valley of California (USGS San Joaquin Basin Province Assessment Team, this volume, chapter 1). Several research aims supported this assessment: identifying and mapping the petroleum systems, modeling the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, and defining the volumes of rock to be analyzed for additional resources. To better understand the three dimensional

  8. Indirect effects of Argentine ant and honeydew-producing insect mutualisms on California red scale in a citrus agroecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Kizner, Michelle Cara

    2010-01-01

    In San Diego County, a major economic impact of the Argentine ant occurs in citrus agroecosystems, where ants interfere with biological control of key insect pests, especially California red scale. Ant control is considered a critical component of integrated pest management (IPM) of several citrus pests, but IPM recommendations fail to consider quantitative relationships between levels of Argentine ant abundance and those of the economic pests. This serious gap in understanding impedes develo...

  9. Economic and policy implications of public support for ethanol production in California's San Joaquin Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency requires that only oxygenated gasoline may be sold in regions that are not in compliance with national air quality standards. Several non-attainment regions are located in California, and most of the gasoline sold there is oxygenated with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). California is planning to discontinue the use of MTBE in gasoline by January 2004. This policy will generate greater demand for ethanol, which is the leading substitute for MTBE. Most of the ethanol required in California will be imported from other states, unless California develops an ethanol production industry. The costs of producing ethanol in California may exceed the benefits, unless substantial value is attributed to non-market, public goods, such as maintaining agriculture and reducing unemployment in rural areas. We examine the firm-level economics of using corn and other agricultural products to produce ethanol in California, and the potential regional economic impacts of building and operating an ethanol plant. The cost of production is greater than the current price of ethanol for all of the feedstocks we consider. Production generates economic activity, but at current prices for inputs and outputs, substantial subsidies will be required to encourage firms to produce ethanol in California

  10. Mixtecos en Baja California: El caso de San Quintín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Garduño

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los múltiples aspectos por los que el valle de San Quintín es un lugar propicio para la horticultura; pero sobre todo el por qué es un polo de atracción de flujos migratorios provenientes, en su mayoria, de la Mixteca oaxaqueña. El autor hace un análisis de las condiciones de vida y trabajo de todos los migrantes indígenas en San Quintín, de su proceso de aculturación y de su integración social.

  11. California's experience with alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    California is often referred to as a nation-state, and in many aspects fits that description. The state represents the seventh largest economy in the world. Most of California does not have to worry about fuel to heat homes in the winter. What we do worry about is fuel for our motor vehicles, approximately 24 million of them. In fact, California accounts for ten percent of new vehicle sales in the United States each year, much of it used in the transportation sector. The state is the third largest consumer of gasoline in the world, only exceeded by the United States as a whole and the former Soviet Union. California is also a leader in air pollution. Of the nine worst ozone areas in the country cited in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, two areas the Los Angeles Basin and San Diego are located in California. Five of California's cities made the top 20 smoggiest cities in the United States. In reality, all of California's major metropolitan areas have air quality problems. This paper will discuss the beginnings of California's investigations of alternative fuels use in vehicles; the results of the state's demonstration programs; and future plans to improve California's air quality and energy security in the mobile sector

  12. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene,...

  13. Summary of California Clapper Rail Winter Populations in the San Francisco Bay, 1989 to 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The federal and state endangered California clapper rail, Rallus longirostris obsoletus. is a species that, until very recently, was on the verge of extinction....

  14. The recent outbreak of botulism in the Tulare Lake Basin of California's San Joaquin Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Part of Botulism Outbreak in California: Hearing before the subcommittee on fisheries and wildlife conservation of the committee on merchant marine and fisheries...

  15. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food Habits of Pinnipeds at San Miguel Island, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collects fecal samples to examine the diet of pinnipeds, including...

  16. Survey for the California Black Rail at Tolay Creek, San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) is the smallest and most secretive member of the rail family and has been sparsely studied. It is a...

  17. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Northern fur seal demography at San Miguel Island, California, 1974 - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of northern fur seals (Callorhinus...

  18. Santa Clara Valley water district multi-aquifer monitoring-well site, Coyote Creek Outdoor Classroom, San Jose, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Newhouse, M.W.; Wentworth, C.M.; Williams, C.F.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD), has completed the first of several multiple-aquifer monitoring-well sites in the Santa Clara Valley. This site monitors ground-water levels and chemistry in the one of the major historic subsidence regions south of San Jose, California, at the Coyote Creek Outdoor Classroom (CCOC) (fig. 1) and provides additional basic information about the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and subsidence potential of the upper- and lower-aquifer systems that is a major source of public water supply in the Santa Clara Valley. The site also serves as a science education exhibit at the outdoor classroom operated by SCVWD.

  19. Population trends of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.

    1992-10-01

    Population trends of a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1989 through August 1991. Six semiannual livetrapping sessions and eight scent-station survey sessions were conducted. Livetrapping results and radiotelemetry data were used to calculate minimum population size, density, and distribution. A total of 175 individual foxes were trapped 463 times. The number of individuals trapped and minimum population size calculations showed a decline over time. The highest minimum population (109) was observed in winter 1988. Summer 1991 had the lowest minimum population size (45). No evidence was found to indicate that the apparent population decline was a result of military-authorized activities.

  20. 76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Air Quality Standard,'' 70 FR 71612, Nov. 29, 2005. 6. Letter from William T. Hartnett to Regional...

  1. 75 FR 1715 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  2. 75 FR 24408 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  3. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Title I of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990'' 57 FR 13498, April 16, 1992. 5. ``Preamble, Final Rule...

  4. 76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No. 08-17309)] to overturn a District Court ruling...

  5. 76 FR 68106 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  6. 76 FR 5276 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  7. 77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Air Act Amendments of 1990,'' 57 FR 13498 (April 16, 1992) (the General Preamble) and 57 FR...

  8. Design and implementation of an emergency environmental responsesystem to protect migrating salmon in the lower San Joaquin River,California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Jacobs, Karl C.

    2006-01-30

    In the past decade tens of millions of dollars have beenspent by water resource agencies in California to restore the nativesalmon fishery in the San Joaquin River and its major tributaries. Anexcavated deep water ship channel (DWSC), through which the river runs onits way to the Bay/Delta and Pacific Ocean, experiences episodes of lowdissolved oxygen which acts as a barrier to anadromous fish migration anda threat to the long-term survival of the salmon run. An emergencyresponse management system is under development to forecast theseepisodes of low dissolved oxygen and to deploy measures that will raisedissolved oxygen concentrations to prevent damage to the fisheryresource. The emergency response management system has been designed tointeract with a real-time water quality monitoring network and is servedby a comprehensive data management and forecasting model toolbox. TheBay/Delta and Tributaries (BDAT) Cooperative Data Management System is adistributed, web accessible database that contains terabytes ofinformation on all aspects of the ecology of the Bay/Delta and upperwatersheds. The complexity of the problem dictates data integration froma variety of monitoring programs. A unique data templating system hasbeen constructed to serve the needs of cooperating scientists who wish toshare their data and to simplify and streamline data uploading into themaster database. In this paper we demonstrate the utility of such asystem in providing decision support for management of the San JoaquinRiver fishery. We discuss how the system might be expanded to havefurther utility in coping with other emergencies and threats to watersupply system serving California's costal communities.

  9. Near Surface Structure of the Frijoles Strand of the San Gregorio Fault, Point Año Nuevo, San Mateo County, California, from Seismic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, L.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Weber, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    The San Gregorio Fault Zone (SGFZ) is one of the major faults of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system in the San Francisco Bay region of California. The SGFZ is nearly 200 km long, trends subparallel to the SAF, and is located primarily offshore with two exceptions- between Point Año Nuevo and San Gregorio Beach and between Pillar Point and Moss Beach. It has a total width of 2 to 3 km and is comprised of seven known fault strands with Quaternary activity, five of which also demonstrate late Holocene activity. The fault is clearly a potential source of significant earthquakes and has been assigned a maximum likely magnitude of 7.3. To better understand the structure, geometry, and shallow-depth P-wave velocities associated with the SGFZ, we acquired a 585-m-long, high-resolution, combined seismic reflection and refraction profile across the Frijoles strand of the SGFZ at Point Año Nuevo State Park. Both P- and S-wave data were acquired, but here we present only the P-wave data. We used two 60-channel Geometrics RX60 seismographs and 120 40-Hz single-element geophones connected via cable to record Betsy Seisgun seismic sources (shots). Both shots and geophones were approximately co-located and spaced at 5-m intervals along the profile, with the shots offset laterally from the geophones by 1 m. We measured first-arrival refractions from all shots and geophones to develop a seismic refraction tomography velocity model of the upper 70 m. P-wave velocities range from about 600 m/s near the surface to more than 2400 m/s at 70 m depth. We used the refraction tomography image to infer the depth to the top of the groundwater table on the basis of the 1500 m/s velocity contour. The image suggests that the depth, along the profile, to the top of groundwater varies by about 18 m, with greater depth on the west side of the fault. At about 46 m depth, a 60- to 80-m-wide, low-velocity zone, which is consistent with faulting, is observed southwest of the Frijoles strand of the

  10. Identifying nest predators of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Eadie, John M.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated predation on nests and methods to detect predators using a combination of infrared cameras and plasticine eggs at nests of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, California. Each technique indicated that predation was prevalent; 59% of monitored nests were depredated. Most identifiable predation (n = 49) was caused by mammals (71%) and rates of predation were similar on avocets and stilts. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) each accounted for 16% of predations, whereas gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and avian predators each accounted for 14%. Mammalian predation was mainly nocturnal (mean time, 0051 h +/- 5 h 36 min), whereas most avian predation was in late afternoon (mean time, 1800 h +/- 1 h 26 min). Nests with cameras and plasticine eggs were 1.6 times more likely to be predated than nests where only cameras were used in monitoring. Cameras were associated with lower abandonment of nests and provided definitive identification of predators.

  11. Process-based, morphodynamic hindcast of decadal deposition patterns in San Pablo Bay, California, 1856-1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wegen, M.; Jaffe, B.E.; Roelvink, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the possibility of hindcasting-observed decadal-scale morphologic change in San Pablo Bay, a subembayment of the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA, by means of a 3-D numerical model (Delft3D). The hindcast period, 1856-1887, is characterized by upstream hydraulic mining that resulted in a high sediment input to the estuary. The model includes wind waves, salt water and fresh water interactions, and graded sediment transport, among others. Simplified initial conditions and hydrodynamic forcing were necessary because detailed historic descriptions were lacking. Model results show significant skill. The river discharge and sediment concentration have a strong positive influence on deposition volumes. Waves decrease deposition rates and have, together with tidal movement, the greatest effect on sediment distribution within San Pablo Bay. The applied process-based (or reductionist) modeling approach is valuable once reasonable values for model parameters and hydrodynamic forcing are obtained. Sensitivity analysis reveals the dominant forcing of the system and suggests that the model planform plays a dominant role in the morphodynamic development. A detailed physical explanation of the model outcomes is difficult because of the high nonlinearity of the processes. Process formulation refinement, a more detailed description of the forcing, or further model parameter variations may lead to an enhanced model performance, albeit to a limited extent. The approach potentially provides a sound basis for prediction of future developments. Parallel use of highly schematized box models and a process-based approach as described in the present work is probably the most valuable method to assess decadal morphodynamic development. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Morfometría en la Cuenca Hidrológica de San José del Cabo, Baja California Sur, México Morfometry in San José del Cabo Hidrologic Basin, South Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genaro Martínez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La cuenca hidrológica-forestal de San José del Cabo, localizada al sur de la península de Baja California, México, es la de mayor extensión en el estado de Baja California Sur y es considerada como una de las principales fuentes de recursos hídricos. Los acuíferos que suministran agua a las áreas turísticas y urbanas están en las partes bajas (planicies aluviales de la cuenca. Un complejo cristalino constituido por rocas ígneas y metamórficas caracteriza la región montañosa de la cuenca. Análisis de imagen Landsat ETM, fotografías aéreas y modelo digital de elevación fueron usados para cartografiar la geomorfología, geología y desarrollar un análisis morfométrico en la margen occidental de la cuenca. Rasgos estructurales tales como alineamientos rectos o curvilíneos y diques fueron obtenidos del modelo digital de elevación. Parámetros morfométricos y análisis estructural de siete subcuencas se derivaron para determinar áreas potenciales de captura hacia la Cuenca Hidrológica de San José del Cabo (CHSJ. Del análisis se identificó que la captura toma lugar en la parte serrana de la cuenca, dentro del basamento cristalino a través de un sistema de fracturamiento interconectado. Se proponen dos subcuencas como las principales áreas de recarga hacia la CHSJC. Los resultados muestran que la investigación con imagen Landsat y el modelo digital de elevación proporcionan, una fuente acertada de datos e información para la identificación de áreas de recarga y descarga a una escala regional.The San José del Cabo basin is located in the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula in México. The basin is one of the largest in the state and is considered the major water source for the state. The aquifers and wells that supply water to the urban and tourist areas are in the lower areas (alluvial plains of the basin; however the aquifers recharge takes place in the mountain region. A crystalline complex basement made

  13. Fault systems of the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 Northridge earthquakes, southern California: Relocated aftershocks and seismic images from LARSE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuis, G.S.; Clayton, R.W.; Davis, P.M.; Ryberg, T.; Lutter, W.J.; Okaya, D.A.; Hauksson, E.; Prodehl, C.; Murphy, J.M.; Benthien, M.L.; Baher, S.A.; Kohler, M.D.; Thygesen, K.; Simila, G.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2003-01-01

    We have constructed a composite image of the fault systems of the M 6.7 San Fernando (1971) and Northridge (1994), California, earthquakes, using industry reflection and oil test well data in the upper few kilometers of the crust, relocated aftershocks in the seismogenic crust, and LARSE II (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, Phase II) reflection data in the middle and lower crust. In this image, the San Fernando fault system appears to consist of a decollement that extends 50 km northward at a dip of ???25?? from near the surface at the Northridge Hills fault, in the northern San Fernando Valley, to the San Andreas fault in the middle to lower crust. It follows a prominent aseismic reflective zone below and northward of the main-shock hypocenter. Interpreted upward splays off this decollement include the Mission Hills and San Gabriel faults and the two main rupture planes of the San Fernando earthquake, which appear to divide the hanging wall into shingle- or wedge-like blocks. In contrast, the fault system for the Northridge earthquake appears simple, at least east of the LARSE II transect, consisting of a fault that extends 20 km southward at a dip of ???33?? from ???7 km depth beneath the Santa Susana Mountains, where it abuts the interpreted San Fernando decollement, to ???20 km depth beneath the Santa Monica Mountains. It follows a weak aseismic reflective zone below and southward of the mainshock hypocenter. The middle crustal reflective zone along the interpreted San Fernando decollement appears similar to a reflective zone imaged beneath the San Gabriel Mountains along the LARSE I transect, to the east, in that it appears to connect major reverse or thrust faults in the Los Angeles region to the San Andreas fault. However, it differs in having a moderate versus a gentle dip and in containing no mid-crustal bright reflections.

  14. The San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay area, California: a geology fieldtrip guidebook to selected stops on public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2005-01-01

    This guidebook contains a series of geology fieldtrips with selected destinations along the San Andreas Fault in part of the region that experienced surface rupture during the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Introductory materials present general information about the San Andreas Fault System, landscape features, and ecological factors associated with faults in the South Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Point Reyes National Seashore regions. Trip stops include roadside areas and recommended hikes along regional faults and to nearby geologic and landscape features that provide opportunities to make casual observations about the geologic history and landscape evolution. Destinations include the sites along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in the San Juan Bautista and Hollister region. Stops on public land along the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties include in the Loma Prieta summit area, Forest of Nicene Marks State Park, Lexington County Park, Sanborn County Park, Castle Rock State Park, and the Mid Peninsula Open Space Preserve. Destinations on the San Francisco Peninsula and along the coast in San Mateo County include the Crystal Springs Reservoir area, Mussel Rock Park, and parts of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, with additional stops associated with the San Gregorio Fault system at Montara State Beach, the James F. Fitzgerald Preserve, and at Half Moon Bay. Field trip destinations in the Point Reyes National Seashore and vicinity provide information about geology and character of the San Andreas Fault system north of San Francisco.

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Fernando-San Gabriel Study Unit, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460 square mile San Fernando-San Gabriel study unit (SFSG) was investigated between May and July 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The San Fernando-San Gabriel study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SFSG, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in Los Angeles County. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seventeen wells were selected to aid in the evaluation of specific water-quality issues or changes in water chemistry along a historic ground-water flow path (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP), and 1,4-dioxane], naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fifth (11 of 52) of the wells, and the results for these

  16. A Tidally Averaged Sediment-Transport Model for San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A tidally averaged sediment-transport model of San Francisco Bay was incorporated into a tidally averaged salinity box model previously developed and calibrated using salinity, a conservative tracer (Uncles and Peterson, 1995; Knowles, 1996). The Bay is represented in the model by 50 segments composed of two layers: one representing the channel (>5-meter depth) and the other the shallows (0- to 5-meter depth). Calculations are made using a daily time step and simulations can be made on the decadal time scale. The sediment-transport model includes an erosion-deposition algorithm, a bed-sediment algorithm, and sediment boundary conditions. Erosion and deposition of bed sediments are calculated explicitly, and suspended sediment is transported by implicitly solving the advection-dispersion equation. The bed-sediment model simulates the increase in bed strength with depth, owing to consolidation of fine sediments that make up San Francisco Bay mud. The model is calibrated to either net sedimentation calculated from bathymetric-change data or measured suspended-sediment concentration. Specified boundary conditions are the tributary fluxes of suspended sediment and suspended-sediment concentration in the Pacific Ocean. Results of model calibration and validation show that the model simulates the trends in suspended-sediment concentration associated with tidal fluctuations, residual velocity, and wind stress well, although the spring neap tidal suspended-sediment concentration variability was consistently underestimated. Model validation also showed poor simulation of seasonal sediment pulses from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta at Point San Pablo because the pulses enter the Bay over only a few days and the fate of the pulses is determined by intra-tidal deposition and resuspension that are not included in this tidally averaged model. The model was calibrated to net-basin sedimentation to calculate budgets of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants. While

  17. Investigating Sources and Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, D. R.; Harley, R. A.; Weber, R.; Karlik, J. F.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are regulated both as primary air pollutants and as precursors to the formation of secondary organic aerosol and tropospheric ozone. The San Joaquin Valley, a non-attainment area for ozone and PM2.5, contains a variety of point, area, and mobile VOC sources that contribute to both primary and secondary pollution. Using ambient measurements of over 100 different VOCs and Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds (IVOCs) made at multiple field sites, we assess the magnitude and importance of various VOC sources in the San Joaquin Valley. Hourly measurements were made during the spring and summer of 2010 via in-situ gas chromatography in Bakersfield, CA as part of the CalNex experiment and also at a rural site located 100 km north of Bakersfield. Additionally, in-situ measurements of fresh motor vehicle exhaust were made in Oakland's Caldecott tunnel during the summer of 2010. Measurements include a broad array of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs ranging in size from 1 to 17 carbon atoms, including many compounds with functional groups or substituents (e.g. aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, halogens, sulfur, & nitrogen). Using statistical methods of source apportionment, covariance, source receptor modeling, and air parcel back trajectories, we assess the impact of various sources on observed VOC concentrations at our field sites in the San Joaquin Valley. Prevalent sources include gasoline and diesel-vehicle exhaust, petroleum extraction/refining, biogenic emissions from agricultural crops and natural vegetation, and emissions from dairy operations and animal husbandry. We use measurements of fresh motor vehicle emissions from the Caldecott tunnel to constrain apportionment of gasoline and diesel-related VOCs and IVOCs in the San Joaquin Valley. Initial results from Bakersfield show substantial influence from local anthropogenic VOC sources, but there is evidence for transport of emissions from both anthropogenic and biogenic

  18. Ambient Noise Tomography of Southern California Images Dipping San Andreas-Parallel Structure and Low-Velocity Salton Trough Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, S.; Klemperer, S. L.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise tomography (ANT) images the entire crust but does not depend on the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Our ANT high-resolution 3D velocity model of southern California uses 849 broadband stations, vastly more than previous studies, and four years of data, 1997-1998, 2007, and 2011, chosen to include our own broadband Salton Seismic Imaging Project, a 40-station transect across the Salton Trough, as well as other campaign stations in both Mexico and the U.S.A., and permanent stations. Our shear-wave model has 0.05° x 0.05° lateral and 1 km vertical blocks. We used the Harvard Community Velocity Model (CVM-H) as the initial model for the inversion. We show significant differences relative to the CVM-H model, especially in the lower crust and upper mantle. We observe prominent low-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle under the Salton Buttes and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields, indicating high-temperatures and possibly partial-melt. Similar low-velocity zones have been previously observed along the Gulf of California. We also observe vertical to gradually dipping lateral velocity contrasts in the lower crust under the southern part of the San Andreas Fault. The east to northeast dip may represent crustal fabric sheared by movement of the Pacific plate under the North American plate prior to the initiation of transform motion.

  19. The ammonium nitrate particle equivalent of NOx emissions for wintertime conditions in Central California's San Joaquin Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method has been developed to assess the aerosol particle formation reactivity of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The method involves using a photochemical box model with gas-phase photochemistry, aerosol production and deposition to calculate the ammonium nitrate particle equivalent of NOx emissions. The yields of ammonium nitrate particles used in the box model were determined from parametric simulations made with an equilibrium model that calculated the fraction of nitric acid that reacts to produce ammonium nitrate from the temperature, relative humidity and ammonium-to-nitrate ratios. For the wintertime conditions of emissions and meteorology in the San Joaquin Valley of central California, approximately 80% of the moles of nitric acid produced was found to be in the particulate nitrate phase and about 33% of the moles of emitted NOx was converted to particulate nitrate. The particle equivalent of NOx emissions was found to be on the order of 0.6 g of ammonium nitrate for each gram of NOx emitted (the mass of NOx calculated as NO2). This estimate is in reasonable agreement with an analysis of field measurements made in central California. (author)

  20. Mesocarnivore Surveys on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, H O; Smith, D A; Cypher, B L; Kelly, P A; Woollett, J S

    2004-11-16

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), operated under cooperative agreement between the University of California and the U. S. Department of Energy, administers and operates an approximately 11 mi{sup 2} (28 km{sup 2}) test site in the remote hills at the northern end of the South Coast Ranges of Central California (Figure 1). Known as Site 300, this expanse of rolling hills and canyons supports a diverse array of grassland communities typical of lowland central California. The facility serves a variety of functions related to testing non-nuclear explosives, lasers, and weapons subsystems. The primary purpose of this project was to determine the presence of any mesocarnivores on Site 300 that use the property for foraging, denning, and other related activities. The surveys occurred from mid-September to mid-October, 2002.

  1. Late Holocene sedimentary environments of south San Francisco Bay, California, illustrated in gravity cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; Fregoso, Theresa A.; Wong, Florence L.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Data are reported here from 51 gravity cores collected from the southern part of San Francisco Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990. The sedimentary record in the cores demonstrates a stable geographic distribution of facies and spans a few thousand years. Carbon-14 dating of the sediments suggests that sedimentation rates average about 1 mm/yr. The geometry of the bay floor and the character of the sediment deposited have remained about the same in the time spanned by the cores. However, the sedimentary record over periods of centuries or decades is likely to be much more variable. Sediments containing a few bivalve shells and bivalve or oyster coquinas are most often found west of the main channel and near the San Mateo Bridge. Elsewhere in the south bay, shells are rare except in the southernmost reaches where scattered gastropod shells are found.

  2. Land subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, 2007–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Sneed, M.; Brandt, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid land subsidence was recently measured using multiple methods in two areas of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV): between Merced and Fresno (El Nido), and between Fresno and Bakersfield (Pixley). Recent land-use changes and diminished surface-water availability have led to increased groundwater pumping, groundwater-level declines, and land subsidence. Differential land subsidence has reduced the flow capacity of water-conveyance systems in these areas, exacerbating flood haza...

  3. Clay Mineralogy, Authigenic Smectite Concentration, and Fault Weakening of the San Gregorio Fault; Moss Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, S.; Moore, J.; Bish, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    The apparently weak nature of the San Andreas fault system poses a fundamental geophysical question. The San Gregorio fault at Moss Beach, CA is an active splay of the right-lateral San Andreas fault zone and has a total offset of about 150 km. At Moss Beach, the San Gregorio fault offsets Pliocene sedimentary rocks and consists of a clay-rich gouge zone, eastern sandstone block, and western mudstone block. In the presence of fluids, smectite clays can swell and become very weak to shearing. We studied a profile of samples across the fault zone and wall rocks to determine if there is a concentration of smectite in the gouge zone and propose a possible formation mechanism. Samples were analyzed using standard quantitative X-ray diffraction methods and software recently developed at Los Alamos National Lab. XRD results show a high smectite/illite (weak clay/strong clay) ratio in the gouge (S/I ratio=2-4), lower in the mudstone (S/I ratio=2), and very low in the sandstone (S/I ratio=1). The variability of smectite/illite ratio in the gouge zone may be evidence of preferential alteration where developed shear planes undergo progressive smectite enrichment. The amount of illite layers in illite/smectites is 5-30%, indicating little illitization; therefore, these fault rocks have not undergone significant diagenesis above 100 degrees C and illite present must be largely detrital. Bulk mineralogy shows significant anti-correlation of smectite with feldspar, especially in the gouge, suggesting authigenic smectite generation from feldspar. Under scanning-electron microscope inspection, smectites have fibrous, grain coating growth fabrics, also suggesting smectite authigenesis. If in situ production of smectite via chemical alteration is possible in active faults, it could have significant implications for self-generated weakening of faults above the smectite-to-illite transition (<150 degrees C, or 5-7km).

  4. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Davisson, M. Lee; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We used radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to resolve sources of riverine carbon within agriculturally dominated landscapes in California. During 2003 and 2004, average Δ14C for DOC was -254‰ in agricultural drains in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, -218‰ in the San Joaquin River, -175‰ in the California State Water Project and -152‰ in the Sacramento River. The age of bulk DOC transiting the rivers of California's Central Valley is the oldest reported for large rivers and suggests wide-spread loss of soil organic matter caused by agriculture and urbanization. Using DAX 8 adsorbent, we isolated and measured 14C concentrations in hydrophobic acid fractions (HPOA); river samples showed evidence of bomb-pulse carbon with average Δ14C of 91 and 76‰ for the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, respectively, with older HPOA, -204‰, observed in agricultural drains. An operationally defined non-HPOA fraction of DOC was observed in the San Joaquin River with seasonally computed Δ14C values of between -275 and -687‰; the source of this aged material was hypothesized to be physically protected organic-matter in high clay-content soils and agrochemicals (i.e., radiocarbon-dead material) applied to farmlands. Mixing models suggest that the Sacramento River contributes about 50% of the DOC load in the California State Water Project, and agricultural drains contribute approximately one-third of the load. In contrast to studies showing stabilization of soil carbon pools within one or two decades following land conversion, sustained loss of soil organic matter, occurring many decades after the initial agricultural-land conversion, was observed in California's Central Valley.

  5. 77 FR 5709 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... September 12, 2011 (76 FR 56132), EPA proposed to approve the following rule into the California SIP. Local... Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an information...); Does not have Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August...

  6. 76 FR 53640 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Action On June 24, 2011 (76 FR 37044), EPA proposed to approve the following rule into the California SIP... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory...

  7. 77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Action On July 11, 2011 (76 FR 132), EPA proposed to approve the following rules into the California SIP....' '' 72 FR 20610 (April 25, 2007). Comment #2: Earthjustice asserted that, `` he District's RACM... concerning the economic feasibility of particular control measures. See, e.g., 75 FR 2082. Although...

  8. 76 FR 69135 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... 16, 2011 (76 FR 35167), EPA proposed to approve the following rule into the California SIP. Local... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory...

  9. 78 FR 6740 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley United Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... FR 66429), EPA proposed to approve the following rule into the California SIP. Local agency Rule No... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory...

  10. 76 FR 16696 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... November 5, 2010 (75 FR 68294), EPA proposed to approve the following rule into the California SIP. Local... Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an information...); Does not have Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August...

  11. 77 FR 64427 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... June 13, 2012 (77 FR 35329), EPA proposed to approve the following rules into the California SIP. Rule... 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an information collection burden under the... Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not...

  12. A new species of Ammothella (Pycnogonida: Ammotheidae) from deep water off San Nicolas Island, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dojiri, Masahiro; Cadien, B. Donald; Phillips, A. Charles

    1991-01-01

    Ammothella killix n. sp. is described from upper bathyal depths on the Cortez Ridge; it is the tenth in the genus from the eastern Pacific, and sixth from California. It differs from its congeners most noticeably in having chelifore fusion, and in bearing slender spiny tubercles on all of the follow

  13. Water- and Air-Quality Monitoring of the Sweetwater Reservoir Watershed, San Diego County, California-Phase One Results, Continued, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Foreman, William T.; Sidhu, Jagdeep S.; Majewski, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sweetwater Authority, began a study to assess the overall health of the Sweetwater watershed with respect to chemical contamination. The study included regular sampling of air and water at Sweetwater Reservoir for chemical contaminants, including volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and major and trace elements. Background water samples were collected at Loveland Reservoir for volatile organic compounds and pesticides. The purpose of this study was to monitor changes in contaminant composition and concentration in the air and water resulting from the construction and operation of State Route 125 near Sweetwater Reservoir. To accomplish this, the study was divided into two phases. Phase One sampling was designed to establish baseline conditions for target compounds in terms of detection frequency and concentration in air and water. Phase Two sampling is planned to continue at the established monitoring sites during and after construction of State Route 125 to assess the chemical impact this roadway alignment project may have on the water quality in the reservoir. In addition to the ongoing data collection, several special studies were initiated to assess the occurrence of specific chemicals of concern, such as low-use pesticides, trace metals, and wastewater compounds. This report describes the study design, and the sampling and analytical methods, and presents the results for the second and third years of the study (October 1999 to September 2001). Data collected during the first year of sampling (October 1998 to September 1999) were published in 2002.

  14. Sustainable Schools, Sustainable Communities: The View from the West. CAE Spring 2001 Conference [Proceedings] (San Diego, California, March 22-24, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Sara

    This paper presents summary conclusions reached by discussion panels that participated in the Committee on Architecture for Education's conference. The conference explored the symbiotic relationship between schools and communities and the ways that schools and communities sustain one another. Panel titles were: "City Heights Urban Village"; "High…

  15. A review of circulation and mixing studies of San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lawrence H.

    1987-01-01

    A description of the major characteristics and remaining unknowns of circulation and mixing in San Francisco Bay has been constructed from a review of published studies. From a broad perspective San Francisco Bay is an ocean-river mixing zone with a seaward flow equal to the sum of the river inflows less evaporation. Understanding of circulation and mixing within the bay requires quantification of freshwater inflows and ocean-bay exchanges, characterization of source-water variations, and separation of the within-bay components of circulation and mixing processes. Description of net circulation and mixing over a few days to a few months illustrates best the interactions of major components. Quantification of tidal circulation and mixing is also necessary because net circulation and mixing contain a large tide-induced component, and because tidal variations are dominant in measurements of stage, currents, and salinity. The discharge of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta into Suisun Bay is approximately 90 percent of the freshwater inflow to San Francisco Bay. Annual delta discharge is characterized by a winter season of high runoff and a summer season of low runoff. For the period 1956 to 1985 the mean of monthly discharges exceeded 1,000 cubic meters per second (35,000 cubic feet per second) for the months of December through April, whereas for July through October, it was less than 400 cubic meters per second (14,000 cubic feet per second). The months of November, May, and June commonly were transition months between these seasons. Large year-to-year deviations from this annual pattern have occurred frequently. Much less is known about the ocean-bay exchange process. Net exchanges depend on net seaward flow in the bay, tidal amplitude, and longshore coastal currents, but exchanges have not yet been measured successfully. Source-water variations are ignored by limiting discussion of mixing to salinity. The bay is composed of a northern reach, which is strongly

  16. Streamflow gains and losses along San Francisquito Creek and characterization of surface-water and ground-water quality, southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara counties, California, 1996-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.

    2002-01-01

    San Francisquito Creek is an important source of recharge to the 22-square-mile San Francisquito Creek alluvial fan ground-water subbasin in the southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara Counties of California. Ground water supplies as much as 20 percent of the water to some area communities. Local residents are concerned that infiltration and consequently ground-water recharge would be reduced if additional flood-control measures are implemented along San Francisquito Creek. To improve the understanding of the surface-water/ground-water interaction between San Francisquito Creek and the San Francisquito Creek alluvial fan, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated streamflow gains and losses along San Francisquito Creek and determined the chemical quality and isotopic composition of surface and ground water in the study area.Streamflow was measured at 13 temporary streamflow-measurement stations to determine streamflow gains and losses along a 8.4-mile section of San Francisquito Creek. A series of five seepage runs between April 1996 and May 1997 indicate that losses in San Francisquito Creek were negligible until it crossed the Pulgas Fault at Sand Hill Road. Streamflow losses increased between Sand Hill Road and Middlefield Road where the alluvial deposits are predominantly coarse-grained and the water table is below the bottom of the channel. The greatest streamflow losses were measured along a 1.8-mile section of the creek between the San Mateo Drive bike bridge and Middlefield Road; average losses between San Mateo Drive and Alma Street and from there to Middlefield Road were 3.1 and 2.5 acre-feet per day, respectively.Downstream from Middlefield Road, streamflow gains and losses owing to seepage may be masked by urban runoff, changes in bank storage, and tidal effects from San Francisco Bay. Streamflow gains measured between Middlefield Road and the 1200 block of Woodland Avenue may be attributable to urban runoff and (or) ground-water inflow. Water

  17. Simulation model of Skeletonema costatum population dynamics in northern San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Cheng, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A pseudo-two-dimensional model is developed to simulate population dynamics of one dominant phytoplankton species (Skeletonema costatum) in northern San Francisco Bay. The model is formulated around a conceptualization of this estuary as two distinct but coupled subsystems-a deep (10-20 m) central channel and lateral areas with shallow (<2 m) water and slow circulation. Algal growth rates are governed by solar irradiation, temperature and salinity, while population losses are assumed to result from grazing bycalanoid copepods. Consequences of estuarine gravitational circulation are approximated simply by reducing convective-dispersive transport in that section of the channel (null zone) where residual bottom currents are near zero, and lateral mixing is treated as a bulkexchange process between the channel and the shoals. Model output is consistent with the hypothesis that, because planktonic algae are light-limited, shallow areas are the sites of active population growth. Seasonal variation in the location of the null zone (a response to variable river discharge) is responsible for maintaining the spring bloom of neritic diatoms in the seaward reaches of the estuary (San Pablo Bay) and the summer bloom upstream (Suisun Bay). Model output suggests that these spring and summer blooms result from the same general process-establishment of populations over the shoals, where growth rates are rapid, coupled with reduced particulate transport due to estuarine gravitational circulation. It also suggests, however, that the relative importance of physical and biological processes to phytoplankton dynamics is different in San Pablo and Suisun Bays. Finally, the model has helped us determine those processes having sufficient importance to merit further refinement in the next generation of models, and it has given new direction to field studies. ?? 1981 Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd.

  18. Paleoseismic Studies of the Peninsula San Andreas Fault near Crystal Springs Reservoir, Woodside, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, C. S.; Zachariasen, J. A.; Kozaci, O.; Clahan, K.; Sickler, R. R.; Rosa, C. M.; Hassett, W.; Feigelson, L.; Haproff, P. J.; DeLong, S.; Perkins, A.; Brooks, B. A.; Delano, J.; Baldwin, J. N.

    2013-12-01

    The Peninsula section of the San Andreas Fault (SAFP) is within 10 km of downtown San Francisco, making it among the most significant contributors to seismic hazard in the San Francisco Bay area. However, the history of earthquakes along this fault is poorly known. The most recent ground-rupturing earthquake occurred in 1906, but the ages of earlier earthquakes associated with surface rupture on this fault segment remain uncertain. Most researchers assume that the historically documented earthquake in 1838 occurred on the SAFP, but no definitive evidence of surface rupture at that time has been found. South of Crystal Springs Reservoir, the San Andreas Fault zone is expressed as a prominent fault scarp that is cut back in several locations by recent fluvial processes. At our Crystal Springs South (CSS) trench site, the fault is expressed as a low scarp with no other surface expression to suggest additional young fault traces. Excavations at this site revealed two distinct sets of faults, a younger set of faults that extend nearly to the modern ground surface that we assume represent the 1906 surface rupture, and an older set of faults that terminate lower in the stratigraphic section and are overlain by a scarp-derived colluvial deposit. Radiocarbon dating constrains the age of this older earthquake to 830-930 Cal. years BP. We determined that a buried channel deposit that dates to 790-960 Cal. years BP is displaced approximately 6-7m across both sets of faults. The closest 1906 offset measurement was made about 11 km northwest of this site, and is about 2.9m. Therefore our measurement of 6-7m of offset on the buried channel deposit at the CSS site could represent slip from 1906 and only one previous event comparable in size to the 1906 earthquake. The surprisingly old age of the earlier earthquake raises concerns that one or both of the event horizons exposed at the CSS site could represent multiple earthquakes. We therefore excavated an exploratory trench about 0

  19. Earthquake-induced structures in sediments of Van Norman Lake, San Fernando, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J.D.

    1973-01-01

    The 9 February 1971 earthquake in the San Fernando Valley damaged the Lower Van Norman Dam severely enough to warrant draining the reservoir. In March 1972 the sediment deposited on the reservoir floor was examined to determine whether the 1971 earthquake had induced sediment deformation and, if so, what types. A zone of deformational structures characterized by small-scale loads and slightly recumbent folds associated with the 1971 earthquake was discovered, in addition to two older zones of load structures. Each of the zones has been tentatively correlated with an historic earthquake.

  20. Numerical Wind Modeling for the San Pedro Mártir Sierra in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vogiatzis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos la simulación numérica del viento en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir para realizar una evaluación preliminar de los posibles sitios donde instalar nuevos telescopios. Como criterio inicial, se eligieron los puntos más altos de la sierra, pero a la vez de fácil acceso. Se presentan la altura de la capa límite y el efecto de la turbulencia en los diferentes sitios para velocidades y direcciones del viento típicas.

  1. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico Tasa de consumo diario de alimento de Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 frente a Cabo San Lucas, golfo de California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A Abitia-Cárdenas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus, California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus, and jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas; together these represented ~55% of the striped marlin diet. The daily food consumption was estimated to be 2 kg per day, or ~3.6% of the mean body weight of K. audax. The total biomass of the prey consumed by the striped marlin during the 27 months of sampling around Los Cabos was estimated at 24.8 ton, of which the chub mackerel represented ~29% (7.2 ton, California pilchard just under 16% (3.9 ton, and jumbo squid ~10% (2.5 ton. The feeding habits of K. audax are discussed in terms of the distribution of the epipelagic (neritic and oceanic zones, demersal, and benthic prey, confirming that striped marlin migrate vertically and horizontally in search of their food.Se estimó la tasa de consumo diario de alimento del marlín rayado Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, sobre la base de análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos de su espectro trófico. Se analizó el contenido estomacal de 505 ejemplares capturados por la flota deportiva frente a Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, México muestreados de octubre 1987 a diciembre 1989. Las presas más importantes fueron la macarela del Pacífico (Scomber japonicus, sardina monterrey (Sardinops caeruleus y calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas, que en conjunto representaron aproximadamente el 55% de la dieta. La tasa de consumo de alimento fue estimado en 2 kg diarios, lo cual representó aproximadamente el 3,6% del peso corporal de K. audax. La biomasa total de presas consumidas por el marlín rayado

  2. Excavaciones en la misión San Antonio de Padua, Alta California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Hoover

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available California Polytechnic State University has carried out archeological studies in Mission Antonio de Padua, located in Monterrey County, California. The archeo­logical potential of this site has made it useful in designing research plans for teaching anthropology students.This article describes in detail the characteristics of the residences and other buildings that make up the mission, as well as the business and domestic activities that took place in each. During excavation, it was possible to observe how the different stages of construction at the mission show the degrees of influence and merging of the materials and techniques introduced by the missionaries, with forms and functions that were a contribution of the native people, producing a series of artifacts that reflect a Spanish-Mexican-Indian cultural syncretism.

  3. Preliminary maps of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility, nine-county San Francisco Bay region, California: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Witter, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Helley, Edward J.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Wright, Heather M.; Brown, Katherine H.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the nine-county San Francisco Bay region, together with a digital compendium of ground effects associated with past earthquakes in the region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database of fivedata layers (Quaternary deposits, quadrangle index, and three ground effects layers) and two text layers (a labels and leaders layer for Quaternary deposits and for ground effects), (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map, liquefaction interpretation, and the ground effects compendium, and (4) the databse description pamphlet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a modern and regionally consistent treatment of Quaternary surficial deposits that builds on the pioneering mapping of Helley and Lajoie (Helley and others, 1979) and such intervening work as Atwater (1982), Helley and others (1994), and Helley and Graymer (1997a and b). Like these earlier studies, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, and inferred depositional environments to define and distinguish the map units. In contrast to the twelve map units of Helley and Lajoie, however, this new map uses a complex stratigraphy of some forty units, which permits a more realistic portrayal of the Quaternary depositional system. The two colored maps provide a regional summary of the new mapping at a scale of 1:275,000, a scale that is sufficient to show the general distribution and relationships of

  4. Use of digital multispectral videography to assess seagrass distribution in San Quintin Bay, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.H.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Morton, Alexandra; Carrera-Gonzalez, Eduardo; Kempka, R.

    2004-01-01

    Apparent threats to the spatial distribution of seagrass in San Quinti??n Bay prompted us to make a detailed assessment of habitats in the bay. Six coastal habitats and three seagrass subclasses were delineated using airborne digital multispectral videography (DMSV), Eelgrass, Zostera marina, was the predominant seagrass and covered 40% (1949 ha) of the areal extent of the bay in 1999. Eelgrass grew over a wide range of tidal depths from about -3.0 in mean lower low water (MLLW) to about 1.0 m MLLW, but greatest spatial extent occurred in intertidal areas -0.6 m to 1.0 m MLLW. Exposed-continuous (i.e., high density) eelgrass was the most abundant habitat in the bay. Widgeongrass, Ruppia maritima, was the only other seagrass present and covered 3% (136 ha) of the areal extent of the entire bay. Widgeongrass grew in single species stands in the upper intertidal (??? 0.4 MLLW) and intermixed with eelgrass at lower tidal depths. Overall accuracy of the six habitat classes and three subclasses in the DMSV map was relatively high at 84%. Our detailed map of San Quintin Bay can be used in future change detection analyses to monitor the health of seagrasses in the bay.

  5. STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PRECIPITABLE WATER VAPOR AT SAN PEDRO MARTIR SIERRA IN BAJA CALIFORNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Otárola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos datos del vapor de agua precipitable durante 2006 para la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir obtenidos de mediciones de la emisión atmosférica como función del ángulo de elevación por un radiómetro operando a la frecuencia de 210 GHz. Las mediciones de este radiómetro se combinan con valores de temperatura y presión atmosférica a nivel del suelo en el sitio para determinar una relación matemática para la conversión de la opacidad atmosférica al cenit a 210 GHz y la columna de vapor de agua precipitable para San Pedro Mártir. Los datos del vapor de agua precipitable se analizan estadísticamente para conocer su función de densidad de probabilidad y su distribución acumulativa, así como para determinar el número de horas continuas al año en que el vapor de agua precipitable permanece por debajo de los umbrales de 1 mm, 2 mm y 3 mm. Esta información es de interés para evaluar el desempeño de telescopios operando desde la región del óptico hasta longitudes de onda milimétricas en este sitio.

  6. Does Wind Discourage Sustainable Transportation Mode Choice? Findings from San Francisco, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungkyoo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether and to what extent wind discourages sustainable transportation mode choice, which includes riding public transportation, bicycling, and walking. A six month-long field study was carried out at four locations in San Francisco, a city that has been promoting sustainable transportation mode choice but that experiences high wind levels. It involved surveying pedestrians and on-site recording of microclimate data using various instruments. The survey adopted a mixed-method approach to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Statistical analyses using Kruskal Wallis tests and ordinal logistic regression models identified the significant effect of wind speed on San Francisco’s residents in estimating their discouragement for waiting at transit stop without shelter, bicycling, and walking. Qualitative data revealed a deeper understanding of how wind influences their sustainable transportation mode choice. This research argues for the need to adopt climate-based efforts in urban planning and policy and sheds light on the climate resilience of cities

  7. Determination of the biogenic emission rates of species contributing to VOC in the San Joaquin Valley OF California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Roger L.; Zielinska, Barbara

    As part of an extensive effort to characterize biogenic hydrocarbon emission rates in the San Joaquin Valley and surrounding areas during the SJVAQS/AUSPEX field experimental period, July-August 1990, measurements were made for the first time of isoprene, terpene, and other VOC emission rates from blue oak ( Quercus douglasii), foothill pine ( Pinus sabiniana), and a ground cover plant called tarweed ( Holocarpha sp.) at a rural site near Mariposa, CA. A flow-through plant enclosure method was used to measure the emission flux rates from these species; the plant limb or whole plant was flushed with clean air just prior to hydrocarbon sampling. Samples of the plant emissions were collected on Tenax GC or Tenax GC-Carbosieve S-I1 cartridges and analysed by gas chromatography- Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry (GC-FTIR-MS). Quantifiable biogenic emissions from two blue oak specimens consisted only of isoprene, with an average emission rate of 8.4 μg g -1 dry biomass h -1. Emission rates (above the detection of about 0.05 μg -1 h -1) from two foothill pine specimens consisted mostly of α-pinene; an average emission rate of 0.64 μg -1 h -1 of α-pinene was observed. The tarweed species emitted both α- and β-pinenes, along with other terpene and oxygenated species, some of which have been tentatively identified. The emission rates of biogenic hydrocarbons from foothill pine and blue oak species as determined in this study make these species potentially significant contributors to summertime VOC levels in the San Joaquin Valley of California, based on vegetation classification data and the predominant summer meteorology.

  8. PEAT ACCRETION HISTORIES DURING THE PAST 6000 YEARS IN MARSHES OF THE SACRAMENTO - SAN JOAQUIN DELTA, CALIFORNIA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, J Z; de Fontaine, C S; Brown, T A

    2009-07-20

    Peat cores were collected in 4 remnant marsh islands and 4 drained, farmed islands throughout the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta of California in order to characterize the peat accretion history of this region. Radiocarbon age determination of marsh macrofossils at both marsh and farmed islands showed that marshes in the central and western Delta started forming between 6030 and 6790 cal yr BP. Age-depth models for three marshes were constructed using cubic smooth spline regression models. The resulting spline fit models were used to estimate peat accretion histories for the marshes. Estimated accretion rates range from 0.03 to 0.49 cm yr{sup -1} for the marsh sites. The highest accretion rates are at Browns Island, a marsh at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Porosity was examined in the peat core from Franks Wetland, one of the remnant marsh sites. Porosity was greater than 90% and changed little with depth indicating that autocompaction was not an important process in the peat column. The mean contribution of organic matter to soil volume at the marsh sites ranges from 6.15 to 9.25% with little variability. In contrast, the mean contribution of inorganic matter to soil volume ranges from 1.40 to 8.45% with much greater variability, especially in sites situated in main channels. These results suggest that marshes in the Delta can be viewed as largely autochthonous vs. allochthonous in character. Autochthonous sites are largely removed from watershed processes, such as sediment deposition and scour, and are dominated by organic production. Allochthonous sites have greater fluctuations in accretion rates due to the variability of inorganic inputs from the watershed. A comparison of estimated vertical accretion rates with 20th century rates of global sea-level rise shows that currently marshes are maintaining their positions in the tidal frame, yet this offers little assurance of sustainability under scenarios of increased sea-level rise in

  9. Sources and Cycling of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta, California, Using Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Doctor, D. H.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Fram, M. S.; Kraus, T.

    2006-12-01

    An important water quality concern of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta portion of the Calfed Bay-Delta restoration program is the generation of disinfection byproducts (DBP) as a result of chlorination or ozonation of San Francisco Bay Delta drinking water. One means of reducing DBPs is through monitoring and control of water sources from the various delta environments entering the California aqueduct with the objective of reducing the quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and lowering the fraction with the highest DBP formation potential. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotopic compositions of DOM to help differentiate DOM sources and interpret seasonal variations. For this purpose, water samples collected from five general delta environments between December 1999 and June 2001 were analyzed for d13C, d15N, and d34S of DOM as well as for various chemical and optical properties. Monthly averages of d13C and d15N values for DOM retained on XAD-4 and XAD-8 resins show distinctive compositions for island drain and wetland environments throughout the year which reflect the agriculturally- related terrestrial sources of DOM from island drains, and the aquatic sources for the wetland areas. On average, the d13C values of DOM from open water (flooded island) environments, channels, and the Sacramento River water are indistinguishable from each other from spring through fall and show a progressive increase in d13C, which is likely controlled by the cycle of aquatic production through the growing season. The isotopic values from these environments diverge in the winter reflecting a change in the relative importance of the various mechanisms (sources and cycling) controlling DOM production. Sulfur isotopes show both the effects of sulfate reduction and the influence of seawater sulfate on local biota. The d13C, d15N, and d34S values show a number of correlations related to both environment and season, reflecting the

  10. Health, disease, mortality and survival in wild and rehabilitated harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in San Francisco Bay and along the central California coast

    OpenAIRE

    Greig, Denise J.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional methods for health assessment of wild-caught and stranded seals were used to describe the disease status of harbor seals in California. Clinical chemistry, infectious disease prevalence, immune function, and contaminant data were collected to evaluate harbor seal health with data collected from three groups of seals. Wild-caught seals of all ages were sampled at two locations: San Francisco Bay (a heavily urbanized estuary) and Tomales Bay (a less developed control site). Strande...

  11. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and risk factor prevalence in San Francisco Bay area and California women: 1988 to 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Theresa HM; Chang, Ellen T.; John, Esther M.; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Glaser, Sally L.; Clarke, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Historically, the incidence rate of breast cancer among non-Hispanic white women living in the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) of California has been among the highest in the world. Substantial declines in breast cancer incidence rates have been documented in the United States and elsewhere during recent years. In light of these reports, we examined recent changes in breast cancer incidence and risk factor prevalence among non-Hispanic white women in the SFBA and other regions of C...

  12. Modeling a Sustainable Salt Tolerant Grass-Livestock Production System under Saline Conditions in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen R. Kaffka; John Maas; James D. Oster; Máximo F. Alonso; Dennis L. Corwin

    2013-01-01

    Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV). We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-grazing system under saline conditions. The model uses rainfall and irrigation water amounts, irrigation water quality, soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to predict Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dac...

  13. Geochemistry of the Mesozoic bedded cherts of Central Baja California (Vizcaino-Cedros-San Benito): implications for paleogeographic reconstruction of an old oceanic basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangin, Claude; Steinberg, Michel; Bonnot-Courtois, Chantal

    1981-07-01

    In central Baja California (Vizcaino Peninsula, and Cedros and San Benito Islands) two distinct radiolarian bedded chert sequences of late Triassic and late Jurassic/lowermost Cretaceous age, can be differentiated on lithostratigraphic and geochemical criteria. These bedded chert sequences are part of the conformable sedimentary cover of more or less dismembered ophiolites, which are overthrusted by the San Andrès-Cedros volcanic arc system of middle late Jurassic age. Major and trace elements permit paleogeographic zonation of the late Jurassic/lowermost Cretaceous radiolarites lying conformably upon ophiolites considered as fragments of an oceanic basin floor which developed westward of the San Andrès volcanic arc. Progressive accretion of this oceanic basin floor, along the continental margin is supported by the fact that the more distal radiolarian chert sequences belong to the lowermost structural units of this area.

  14. Current and future plans for wind energy development on San Clemente Island, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, P.J.F. [RLA Consulting, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States); Cable, S.B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Navy is considering possible ways to maximize the use of wind energy technology for power supply to their auxiliary landing field and other facilities on San Clemente Island. A summary of their past analysis and future considerations is presented. An analysis was performed regarding the technical and economic feasibility of installing and operating a sea-water pumped hydro/wind energy system to provide for all of the island`s electric power needs. Follow-on work to the feasibility study include wind resource monitoring as well as procurement and preliminary design activities for a first-phase wind-diesel installation. Future plans include the consideration of alternative siting arrangements and the introduction of on-island fresh water production. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Bathymetry and digital elevation models of Coyote Creek and Alviso Slough, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Finlayson, David P.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Fregoso, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program completed three cruises to map the bathymetry of the main channel and shallow intertidal mudflats in the southernmost part of south San Francisco Bay. The three surveys were merged to generate comprehensive maps of Coyote Creek (from Calaveras Point east to the railroad bridge) and Alviso Slough (from the bay to the town of Alviso) to establish baseline bathymetry prior to the breaching of levees adjacent to Alviso and Guadalupe Sloughs as part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project http://www.southbayrestoration.org. Since 2010 we have conducted four additional surveys to monitor bathymetric change in this region as restoration progresses.

  16. Three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Clifford H.; Brocher, Thomas M.; Zhang, Haijiang; Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2007-07-01

    A new three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the greater San Francisco Bay region has been derived using the double-difference seismic tomography method, using data from about 5,500 chemical explosions or air gun blasts and approximately 6,000 earthquakes. The model region covers 140 km NE-SW by 240 km NW-SE, extending from 20 km south of Monterey to Santa Rosa and reaching from the Pacific coast to the edge of the Great Valley. Our model provides the first regional view of a number of basement highs that are imaged in the uppermost few kilometers of the model, and images a number of velocity anomaly lows associated with known Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins in the study area. High velocity (Vp > 6.5 km/s) features at ˜15-km depth beneath part of the edge of the Great Valley and along the San Francisco peninsula are interpreted as ophiolite bodies. The relocated earthquakes provide a clear picture of the geometry of the major faults in the region, illuminating fault dips that are generally consistent with previous studies. Ninety-five percent of the earthquakes have depths between 2.3 and 15.2 km, and the corresponding seismic velocities at the hypocenters range from 4.8 km/s (presumably corresponding to Franciscan basement or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley Sequence) to 6.8 km/s. The top of the seismogenic zone is thus largely controlled by basement depth, but the base of the seismogenic zone is not restricted to seismic velocities of ≤6.3 km/s in this region, as had been previously proposed.

  17. Legacy Mercury in Alviso Slough, South San Francisco Bay, California: Concentration, Speciation and Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Cox, Marisa H.

    2007-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a significant contaminant in the waters, sediment and biota of San Francisco Bay, largely resulting from extensive historic regional mining activities. Alviso Slough represents one of the most mercury contaminated waterways entering south San Francisco Bay, as it is associated with the drainage of the New Almaden mercury mining district. Wetland habitat restoration of former salt manufacturing ponds adjacent to Alviso Slough is currently being planned. One management scenario being considered is a levee breach between Alviso Slough and Pond A8, which will allow reconnection of the salt pond with the tidal slough. This action is projected to increase the tidal prism within Alviso Slough and result in some degree of sediment remobilization as the main channel deepens and widens. The focus of the current study is to assess: a) the current mercury species composition and concentration in sediments within the Alviso Slough main channel and its associated fringing marsh plain, b) how much of each mercury species will be mobilized as a result of projected channel deepening and widening, and c) potential changes in inorganic reactive mercury bioavailability (for conversion to toxic methylmercury) associated with the mobilized sediment fraction. The current report details the field sampling approach and all laboratory analyses conducted, as well as provides the complete dataset associated with this project including a) a quantitative assessment of mercury speciation (total mercury, reactive mercury and methylmercury), b) estimates of the quantity of sediment and mercury mobilized based on 20-foot and 40-foot levee wall notch scenarios, and c) results from a sediment scour experiment examining the changes in the reactive mercury pool under four treatment conditions (high / low salinity and oxic / anoxic water). Ancillary sediment data also collected and reported herein include bulk density, organic content, magnetic susceptibility, percent dry weight, grain

  18. Three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, C.H.; Brocher, T.M.; Zhang, H.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    A new three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the greater San Francisco Bay region has been derived using the double-difference seismic tomography method, using data from about 5,500 chemical explosions or air gun blasts and approximately 6,000 earthquakes. The model region covers 140 km NE-SW by 240 km NW-SE, extending from 20 km south of Monterey to Santa Rosa and reaching from the Pacific coast to the edge of the Great Valley. Our model provides the first regional view of a number of basement highs that are imaged in the uppermost few kilometers of the model, and images a number of velocity anomaly lows associated with known Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins in the study area. High velocity (Vp > 6.5 km/s) features at ???15-km depth beneath part of the edge of the Great Valley and along the San Francisco peninsula are interpreted as ophiolite bodies. The relocated earthquakes provide a clear picture of the geometry of the major faults in the region, illuminating fault dips that are generally consistent with previous studies. Ninety-five percent of the earthquakes have depths between 2.3 and 15.2 km, and the corresponding seismic velocities at the hypocenters range from 4.8 km/s (presumably corresponding to Franciscan basement or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley Sequence) to 6.8 km/s. The top of the seismogenic zone is thus largely controlled by basement depth, but the base of the seismogenic zone is not restricted to seismic velocities of ???6.3 km/s in this region, as had been previously proposed. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release.

  20. Vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in San Jose, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algert, Susan J; Baameur, Aziz; Renvall, Marian J

    2014-07-01

    Urban dwellers across the United States increasingly access a variety of fresh vegetables through participation in neighborhood-level community gardens. Here we document vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in the city of San Jose, CA, to better understand the capacity of community gardens to affect food affordability in an urban setting. A convenience sample of 83 community gardeners in San Jose completed a background survey during spring and summer 2012. On average, gardeners were aged 57 years and had a monthly income of $4,900; 25% had completed college. A representative subset of 10 gardeners was recruited to weigh vegetable output of their plots using portable electronic scales at three separate garden sites. Accuracy of each portable scale was verified by comparing the weight of a sample vegetable to weights obtained using a lab scale precise to 0.2 oz. Garden yields and cost savings were tabulated overall for each plot. Results indicate that community garden practices are more similar to biointensive high-production farming, producing 0.75 lb vegetables/sq ft, rather than conventional agricultural practices, producing 0.60 lb/sq ft. Gardens produced on average 2.55 lb/plant and saved $435 per plot for the season. Results indicate that cost savings are greatest if vertical high value crops such as tomatoes and peppers are grown in community gardens, although yields depend on growing conditions, gardener's skill, availability of water, and other factors. Future research is needed to document cost savings and yields for specific crops grown in community gardens. PMID:24751664

  1. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  2. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Slide Fire Perimeter, Harrison Mountain Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  3. An inventory of published and unpublished fluvial-sediment data for California, 1956-70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, George

    1972-01-01

    This inventory was prepared to provide a convenient reference to published and unpublished fluvial-sediment data for water years 1956-70, and updates substantially previous inventories. Sediment stations are listed in downstream order, and an alphabetical list of stations is also included. Figure 1 shows the approximate location of sediment stations in California. Most of the fluvial-sediment data in California were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, under cooperative agreements with the following Federal, State, and local agencies: California Department of Water Resources, California Department of Navigation and Ocean Development, California Department of Fish and Game, Bolinas Harbor District, Monterey County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, Orange County Flood Control District, Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, San Diego County Department of Sanitation and Flood Control, San Luis Obispo County, San Mateo County, Santa Clara County Flood Control and Water District, Santa Cruz County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, Santa Cruz, city of, University of California, Ventura County Flood Control District, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. This report was prepared by the Geological Survey under the general supervision of R. Stanley Lord, district chief in charge of water-resources investigations in California.

  4. Abundance and distribution of lantern fishes (Myctophiformes: Myctophidae around San Pedro Martir Island, Gulf of California, during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Díaz Santana-Iturríos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Myctophids (Myctophidae are a group of abundant mesopelagic fishes in the world's oceans and are known as the main feeding resource for several high trophic level predators. Changes in abundance may be related to population size of some commercially important species that feed on them. Only two of the myctophid species reported for the Gulf of California were found in the present study: Benthosema panamense and Triphoturus mexicanus. The highest abundance and biomass of myctophids were found during the warm season (June and September, with B. panamense being the most abundant species (20,954 ind 1000 m-3, as well as the one with highest biomass (17,165.8 g 1000 m-3. B. panamese had a size mode interval of 35-40 mm, while T. mexicanus presented a size mode interval of 40-45 mm; both species had negative allometric growth. During the temperate season (February and April B. panamense was distributed in the northwest, west, and southern regions around the island, while T. mexicanus was found in the north, west, and southern regions. During the warm season B. panamense was found distributed around the entire island and T. mexicanus was found in the west, south, and east regions of the island. These species are common around San Pedro Martir Island, with the highest values of abundance and biomass occurring during summer upwelling's.

  5. Blood characteristics of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standley, W.G.; McCue, P.M.

    1992-09-01

    Hematology, serum chemistry, and prevalence of antibodies against selected, pathogens in a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, in 1989 and 1990. Samples from 18 (10 female, 8 male) adult kit foxes were used to establish normal hematology and serum chemistry values for this population. Average values were all within the normal ranges reported for kit foxes in other locations. Three hematology parameters had significant differences between male and female values; males had higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and lower lymphocyte counts. There were no significant differences between serum chemistry values from male and female foxes. Prevalence of antibodies was determined from serum samples from 47 (26 female, 21 male) adult kit foxes and eight (4 female, 4 male) juveniles. Antibodies were detected against five of the eight pathogens tested: canine parvovirus, Toxoplasma gondii Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus, and canine hepatitis virus. Antibodies were not detected against Brucella, canis, Coccidioides immitis, or Yersinia pestis.

  6. Water Hyacinth Identification Using CART Modeling With Hyperspectral Data in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S.; Hestir, E. L.; Santos, M. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Ustin, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive aquatic weed that is causing severe economic and ecological impacts in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California, USA). Monitoring its distribution using remote sensing is the crucial first step in modeling its predicted spread and implementing control and eradication efforts. However, accurately mapping this species is confounded by its several phenological forms, namely a healthy vegetative canopy, flowering canopy with dense conspicuous terminal flowers above the foliage, and floating dead and senescent forms. The full range of these phenologies may be simultaneously present at any time, given the heterogeneity of environmental and ecological conditions in the Delta. There is greater spectral variation within water hyacinth than between any of the co-occurring species (pennywort and water primrose), so classification approaches must take these different phenological stages into consideration. We present an approach to differentiating water hyacinth from co-occurring species based on knowledge of relevant variation in leaf chlorophyll, floral pigments, foliage water content, and variation in leaf structure using a classification and regression tree (CART) applied to airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery.

  7. Distribution and mobility of selenium and other trace elements in shallow ground water of the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverel, S.J.; Millard, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of shallow groundwater that underlies much of the irrigated area in the western San Joaquin Valley of California were analyzed for various major ions and trace elements, including selenium. Concentrations of the major ions generally were similar for groundwater collected in the two primary geologic zones--the alluvial fan and basin trough. Soils in the alluvial fan zone are derived from Coast Range rocks and soils in the basin-trough zone are from a mixture of Sierra Nevada and Coast Range sources. Most of the variance in concentrations of major ions, as determined by principal components analysis, was associated with groundwater salinity and the dominant ions--magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride. Most of the variance in trace elements was associated with concentrations of boron, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium, which are present as mobile oxyanions. The concentrations of oxyanions trace elements were significantly correlated (a=0.05) with groundwater salinity , but the correlations between selenium and salinity and molybdenum and salinity were significantly different (a=0.05) in the alluvial fan geologic zone compared with the basin-trough geologic zone. In addition, selenium concentrations are significantly (a=0.05) higher in the groundwater of the alluvial fan zone than in the basin-trough zone. The evidence suggests that the main factors influencing selenium concentrations in the shallow groundwater are the degree of groundwater salinity and geologic source of the alluvial soil material. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Reproduction of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) on Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, K A; Berry, W H; Standley, W G; O`Farrell, T P

    1992-09-01

    The reproduction of a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) was investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. Of 38 vixens radiocollared prior to parturition, 12 (32%) were successful in raising pups from conception to the point where pups were observed above ground. No yearling vixens were known tb be reproductively active. The mean litter size during 1989 - 1991 was 3.0 (n = 21, SE = 0.28) and ranged from one to six pups. Both the proportion of vixens successfully raising pups and the mean litter size observed at Camp Roberts during this study were lower than those reported at other locations. Sex ratios of kit fox pups were male biased two of the three years, but did not differ statistically from 1:1 throughout the study. Whelping was estimated to occur between February 15 and March 5. Results of this study support previous reports that kit foxes are primarily monogamous, although one case of polygamy may have occurred. Both the proportion of dispersing radiocollared juveniles (26%) and the mean dispersal distance (5.9 km) of juveniles at Camp Roberts appeared low compared to other locations.

  9. Late cretaceous foraminifera, paleoenvironments, and paleoceanography of the rosario formation, San Antonio del Mar, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestas, Y.; MacLeod, K.G.; Douglas, R.; Self-Trail, J.; Ward, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    The 315 m of Rosario Formation exposed at the San Antonio del Mar (SADM) section (Baja California, Mexico) contains moderately-to-well preserved benthic and planktic foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils, and molluscs. Nannofossils suggest most of the SADM section was deposited within a narrow interval of the late Campanian (CC21-CC22), whereas foraminifera and molluscs suggest a younger maximum age (younger than the Globotruncana ventricosa Zone) and allow deposition over a longer interval of time. Planktic foraminifera at SADM represent common Tethyan taxa. They are largely restricted to the lower and middle portions of the section and comprise 0-???40% of foraminiferal assemblages. Stable isotopic analyses of Rugoglobigerina rugosa yield ??18OV-PDB values from -2.27%, to -2.82%, corresponding to salinity-corrected paleotemperature estimates of 26-30??C for the Late Cretaceous eastern Pacific. These estimates are as warm as modern tropical temperatures and are similar to tropical paleotemperature estimates from ??18O analyses of exceptionally preserved Maastrichtian samples; however, they are considerably warmer than most tropical Campanian-Maastrichtian estimates. Benthic foraminifera indicate outer shelf paleodepths with a slight increase in depth or decrease in benthic oxygen levels in the upper parts of the interval studied. The change in the benthic assemblage corresponds to an ???1??? positive shift in benthic ??O18, suggesting a relationship between benthic assemblages and an inferred increase in the local intensity of upwelling.

  10. The legacy of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, J.Z.; De Fontaine, C. S.; Deverel, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the world, many extensive wetlands, such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California (hereafter, the Delta), have been drained for agriculture, resulting in land-surface subsidence of peat soils. The purpose of this project was to study the in situ effects of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Delta. Peat cores were retrieved from four drained, farmed islands and four relatively undisturbed, marsh islands. Core samples were analyzed for bulk density and percent organic carbon. Macrofossils in the peat were dated using radiocarbon age determination. The peat from the farmed islands is highly distinct from marsh island peat. Bulk density of peat from the farmed islands is generally greater than that of the marsh islands at a given organic carbon content. On the farmed islands, increased bulk density, which is an indication of compaction, decreases with depth within the unoxidized peat zone, whereas, on the marsh islands, bulk density is generally constant with depth except near the surface. Approximately 5580 of the original peat layer on the farmed islands has been lost due to land-surface subsidence. For the center regions of the farmed islands, this translates into an estimated loss of between 29005700 metric tons of organic carbon/hectare. Most of the intact peat just below the currently farmed soil layer is over 4000 years old. Peat loss will continue as long as the artificial water table on the farmed islands is held below the land surface. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  11. The legacy of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Christian S. de Fontaine,; Steven J. Deverel,

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the world, many extensive wetlands, such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California (hereafter, the Delta), have been drained for agriculture, resulting in land-surface subsidence of peat soils. The purpose of this project was to study the in situ effects of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Delta. Peat cores were retrieved from four drained, farmed islands and four relatively undisturbed, marsh islands. Core samples were analyzed for bulk density and percent organic carbon. Macrofossils in the peat were dated using radiocarbon age determination. The peat from the farmed islands is highly distinct from marsh island peat. Bulk density of peat from the farmed islands is generally greater than that of the marsh islands at a given organic carbon content. On the farmed islands, increased bulk density, which is an indication of compaction, decreases with depth within the unoxidized peat zone, whereas, on the marsh islands, bulk density is generally constant with depth except near the surface. Approximately 55–80% of the original peat layer on the farmed islands has been lost due to landsurface subsidence. For the center regions of the farmed islands, this translates into an estimated loss of between 2900-5700 metric tons of organic carbon/hectare. Most of the intact peat just below the currently farmed soil layer is over 4000 years old. Peat loss will continue as long as the artificial water table on the farmed islands is held below the land surface.

  12. Reproduction of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) on Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reproduction of a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) was investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. Of 38 vixens radiocollared prior to parturition, 12 (32%) were successful in raising pups from conception to the point where pups were observed above ground. No yearling vixens were known tb be reproductively active. The mean litter size during 1989 - 1991 was 3.0 (n = 21, SE = 0.28) and ranged from one to six pups. Both the proportion of vixens successfully raising pups and the mean litter size observed at Camp Roberts during this study were lower than those reported at other locations. Sex ratios of kit fox pups were male biased two of the three years, but did not differ statistically from 1:1 throughout the study. Whelping was estimated to occur between February 15 and March 5. Results of this study support previous reports that kit foxes are primarily monogamous, although one case of polygamy may have occurred. Both the proportion of dispersing radiocollared juveniles (26%) and the mean dispersal distance (5.9 km) of juveniles at Camp Roberts appeared low compared to other locations

  13. Diversity and biogeography of bacterial assemblages in surface sediments across the San Pedro Basin, Southern California Borderlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Jacobson Meyers, Myrna E; Fuhrman, Jed A

    2007-04-01

    Sediment bacteria play important roles in the biogeochemistry of ocean sediments; however, factors influencing assemblage composition have not been extensively studied. We examined extractable sediment bacterial abundance, the composition of bacterial assemblages using a high-throughput molecular fingerprinting approach, and several sediment biogeochemical parameters (organic matter content and alkaline phosphatase activity), along a 35 km transect from Point Fermin, Southern California, to Santa Catalina Island, across the approximately 900-m-deep San Pedro Basin. Automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) demonstrated that in two spatially isolated shallow (approximately < 60 m, on opposite sides of the channel) sediment environments, assemblages were more similar to each other than to deeper communities. Distinct communities existed in deeper and shallower sediments, and stations within the deep basin over 2 km apart contained remarkably similar assemblage fingerprints. The relative contribution to total amplified DNA fluorescence of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was significantly correlated to that of other OTUs in few comparisons (2.7% of total), i.e. few bacterial types were found together or apart consistently. The relative proportions within assemblages of only a few OTU were significantly correlated to measured physicochemical parameters (organic matter content and wet/dry weight ratio of sediments) or enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) activities. A low percentage of shared OTU between shallow and deep sediments, and the presence of similar, but spatially isolated assemblages suggests that bacterial OTU may be widely dispersed over scales of a few kilometres, but that environmental conditions select for particular assemblages.

  14. Storm surges and climate change implications for tidal marshes: Insight from the San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Swanson, Kathleen; Takekawa, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal marshes are dynamic ecosystems, which are influenced by oceanic and freshwater processes and daily changes in sea level. Projected sea-level rise and changes in storm frequency and intensity will affect tidal marshes by altering suspended sediment supply, plant communities, and the inundation duration and depth of the marsh platform. The objective of this research was to evaluate if regional weather conditions resulting in low-pressure storms changed tidal conditions locally within three tidal marshes. We hypothesized that regional storms will increase sea level heights locally, resulting in increased inundation of the tidal marsh platform and plant communities. Using site-level measurements of elevation, plant communities, and water levels, we present results from two storm events in 2010 and 2011 from the San Francisco Bay Estuary (SFBE), California, USA. The January 2010 storm had the lowest recorded sea level pressure in the last 30 years for this region. During the storm episodes, the duration of tidal marsh inundation was 1.8 and 3.1 times greater than average for that time of year, respectively. At peak storm surges, over 65% in 2010 and 93% in 2011 of the plant community was under water. We also discuss the implications of these types of storms and projected sea-level rise on the structure and function of the tidal marshes and how that will impact the hydro-geomorphic processes and marsh biotic communities.

  15. Dynamic modeling of organophosphate pesticide load in surface water in the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, 325000 (China); Zhang Xuyang [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Liu Xingmei [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Ficklin, Darren [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang Minghua [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, 325000 (China)], E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.edu

    2008-12-15

    The hydrology, sediment, and pesticide transport components of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were evaluated on the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for monthly stream flow and sediment load ranged from 0.49 to 0.99 over the watershed during the study period of 1992-2005. The calibrated SWAT model was applied to simulate fate and transport processes of two organophosphate pesticides of diazinon and chlorpyrifos at watershed scale. The model generated satisfactory predictions of dissolved pesticide loads relative to the monitoring data. The model also showed great success in capturing spatial patterns of dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads according to the soil properties and landscape morphology over the large agricultural watershed. This study indicated that curve number was the major factor influencing the hydrology while pesticide fate and transport were mainly affected by surface runoff and pesticide application and in the study area. - Major factors governing the instream loads of organophosphate pesticides are magnitude and timing of surface runoff and pesticide application.

  16. Estuarine sedimentation, sediment character, and foraminiferal distribution in central San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Central San Francisco Bay is the deepest subembayment in the San Francisco Bay estuary and hence has the largest water volume of any of the subembayments. It also has the strongest tidal currents and the coarsest sediment within the estuary. Tidal currents are strongest over the west-central part of central bay and, correspondingly, this area is dominated by sand-size sediment. Much of the area east of a line from Angel Island to Alcatraz Island is characterized by muddy sand to sandy mud, and the area to the west of this line is sandy. The sand-size sediment over west-central bay furthermore is molded by the energetic tidal currents into bedforms of varying sizes and wavelengths. Bedforms typically occur in water depths of 15-25 m. High resolution bathymetry (multibeam) from 1997 and 2008 allow for subdivision of the west-central bayfloor into four basic types based on morphologic expression: featureless, sand waves, disrupted/man-altered, and bedrock knobs. Featureless and sand-wave morphologies dominate the bayfloor of west-central bay. Disrupted bayfloor has a direct association with areas that are undergoing alteration due to human activities, such as sand-mining lease areas, dredging, and disposal of dredge spoils. Change detection analysis, comparing the 1997 and 2008 multibeam data sets, shows that significant change has occurred in west-central bay during the roughly 10 years between surveys. The surveyed area lost about 5.45 million m3 of sediment during the decade. Sand-mining lease areas within west-central bay lost 6.77 million m3 as the bayfloor deepened. Nonlease areas gained 1.32 million m3 of sediment as the bayfloor shallowed slightly outside of sand-mining lease areas. Furthermore, bedform asymmetry did not change significantly, but some bedforms did migrate some tens of meters. Gravity cores show that the area east of Angel and Alcatraz Islands is floored by clayey silts or silty sand whereas the area to the west of the islands is floored

  17. Use of ground-water reservoirs for storage of surface water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G.H.; Lofgren, B.E.; Mack, Seymour

    1964-01-01

    The San Joaquin Valley includes roughly the southern two-thirds of the Central Valley of California, extending 250 miles from Stockton on the north to Grapevine at the foot of the Tehachapi Mountains. The valley floor ranges in width from 25 miles near Bakersfield to about 55 miles near Visalia; it has a surface area of about 10,000 square miles. More than one-quarter of all the ground water pumped for irrigation in the United States is used in this highly productive valley. Withdrawal of ground water from storage by heavy pumping not only provides a needed irrigation water supply, but it also lowers the ground-water level and makes storage space available in which to conserve excess water during periods of heavy runoff. A storage capacity estimated to be 93 million acre-feet to a depth of 200 feet is available in this ground-water reservoir. This is about nine times the combined capacity of the existing and proposed surface-water reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley under the California Water Plan. The landforms of the San Joaquin Valley include dissected uplands, low plains and fans, river flood plains and channels, and overflow lands and lake bottoms. Below the land surface, unconsolidated sediments derived from the surrounding mountain highlands extend downward for hundreds of feet. These unconsolidated deposits, consisting chiefly of alluvial deposits, but including some widespread lacustrine sediments, are the principal source of ground water in the valley. Ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions in the San Joaquin Valley. In much of the western, central, and southeastern parts of the valley, three distinct ground-water reservoirs are present. In downward succession these are 1) a body of unconfined and semiconfined fresh water in alluvial deposits of Recent, Pleistocene, and possibly later Pliocene age, overlying the Corcoran clay member of the Tulare formation; 2) a body of fresh water confined beneath the Corcoran clay member, which

  18. Seismotectonic Implications Of Clustered Regional GPS Velocities In The San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R. W.; Simpson, R.

    2012-12-01

    We have used a hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance and centroid linkage, applied to continuous GPS observations for the Bay region available from the U.S. Geological Survey website. This analysis reveals 4 robust, spatially coherent clusters that coincide with 4 first-order structural blocks separated by 3 major fault systems: San Andreas (SA), Southern/Central Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama (HAY), and Northern Calaveras-Concord-Green Valley-Berryessa-Bartlett Springs (NCAL). Because observations seaward of the San Gregorio (SG) fault are few in number, the cluster to the west of SA may actually contain 2 major structural blocks not adequately resolved: the Pacific plate to the west of the northern SA and a Peninsula block between the Peninsula SA and the SG fault. The average inter-block velocities are 11, 10, and 9 mm/yr across SA, HAY, and NCAL respectively. There appears to be a significant component of fault-normal compression across NCAL, whereas SA and HAY faults appear to be, on regional average, purely strike-slip. The velocities for the Sierra Nevada - Great Valley (SNGV) block to the west of NCAL are impressive in their similarity. The cluster of these velocities in a velocity plot forms a tighter grouping compared with the groupings for the other cluster blocks, suggesting a more rigid behavior for this block than the others. We note that for 4 clusters, none of the 3 cluster boundaries illuminate geologic structures other than north-northwest trending dominantly strike-slip faults, so plate motion is not accommodated by large-scale fault-parallel compression or extension in the region or by significant plastic deformation , at least over the time span of the GPS observations. Complexities of interseismic deformation of the upper crust do not allow simple application of inter-block velocities as long-term slip rates on bounding faults. However, 2D dislocation models using inter-block velocities and typical

  19. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  20. UCERF3 and Rupture Behavior of the San Jacinto Fault in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, T. K.; Biasi, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The UCERF3 model predicts that most San Jacinto fault (SJF) earthquakes are larger than M7.5. In contrast, both the historical record of moderate earthquakes, along with the rich paleoseismic record, argues that most of the moment release on the SJF is accommodated by earthquakes in the Mw6.5-7.3 range. Over the past 4000 years at Hog Lake, large ruptures are exemplified by the M7.3 event in November 1800, with 1918-type earthquakes filling in the section of low slip to the NW. Limits on the range of rupture sizes can also be inferred by comparing the Hog Lake record to the Mystic Lake site to the NW. Less than half of Hog Lake events have plausible matches at Mystic Lake, implying that the mode in earthquake magnitude is unlikely to be in the M>7.5 range as reported in the UCERF3 model. In addition, moderate earthquakes occurred along the northern SJF in 1899 (2 events), 1918, and 1923, and ~M6.5 events with surface rupture occurred on the southern San Jacinto fault in 1968 and 1987. Several M6-sized earthquakes (1937, 1954, 1890?, 1892?) have also occurred along the southern SJF. Paleoseismic observations to the south, although less extensive, also argue that M7.3 events that rupture the entire Superstition Mountain-Coyote Creek fault are less frequent than ruptures with smaller magnitudes. The CoV at Hog Lake is resolved to be about 0.63 for the entire record, decreasing for the subset of largest interpreted events. The complete record thus suggests quasi-periodic behavior of large earthquakes with superposed more randomly occurring moderate events. The shorter southern SJF record can be interpreted in the same way, with occasional larger earthquakes superposed with moderate, 1968-type events. Both records lend geological support to the recent model-based UCERF3 conclusion that the CoV for ground rupturing earthquakes must depend on magnitude in order to match site-specific observations of CoV in the range of 0.6. A picture emerges of more regular large events

  1. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  2. Population density, biomass, and age-class structure of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in rivers of the lower San Joaquin River watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.R.; Thompson, J.K.; Higgins, K.; Lucas, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    Corbicula fluminea is well known as an invasive filter-feeding freshwater bivalve with a variety of effects on ecosystem processes. However. C. fluminea has been relatively unstudied in the rivers of the western United States. In June 2003, we sampled C. fluminea at 16 sites in the San Joaquin River watershed of California, which was invaded by C. fluminea in the 1940s. Corbicula fluminea was common in 2 tributaries to the San Joaquin River, reaching densities of 200 clams??m-2, but was rare in the San Joaquin River. Biomass followed a similar pattern. Clams of the same age were shorter in the San Joaquin River than in the tributaries. Distribution of clams was different in the 2 tributaries, but the causes of the difference are unknown. The low density and biomass of clams in the San Joaquin River was likely due to stressful habitat or to water quality, because food was abundant. The success of C. fluminea invasions and subsequent effects on trophic processes likely depends on multiple factors. As C. fluminea continues to expand its range around the world, questions regarding invasion success and effects on ecosystems will become important in a wide array of environmental settings.

  3. Space geodetic observation of expansion of the San Gabriel Valley, California, aquifer system, during heavy rainfall in winter 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N.E.; Argus, D.; Langbein, J.; Agnew, D.C.; Bawden, G.; Dollar, R.S.; Liu, Z.; Galloway, D.; Reichard, E.; Yong, A.; Webb, F.H.; Bock, Y.; Stark, K.; Barseghian, D.

    2007-01-01

    Starting early in 2005, the positions of GPS stations in the San Gabriel valley region of southern California showed statistically significant departures from their previous behavior. Station LONG moved up by about 47 mm, and nearby stations moved away from LONG by about 10 mm. These changes began during an extremely rainy season in southern California and coincided with a 16-m increase in water level at a nearby well in Baldwin Park and a regional uplift detected by interferometric synthetic aperture radar. No equivalent signals were seen in GPS station position time series elsewhere in southern California. Our preferred explanation, supported by the timing and by a hydrologic simulation, is deformation due to recharging of aquifers after near-record rainfall in 2004-2005. We cannot rule out an aseismic slip event, but we consider such an event unlikely because it requires slip on multiple faults and predicts other signals that are not observed. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Land disposal of San Luis drain sediments, Panoche Water District, South Dos Palos, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawislanski, Peter; Benson, Sally; TerBerg, Robert; Borglin, Sharon

    2002-07-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), LFR Levine-Fricke (LFR), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Panoche Water District, have completed a pilot-scale test of the viability of land application of selenium- (Se-) enriched San Luis Drain (SLD) sediments. The project was initiated in October 1998 by LBNL. LFR assumed the role of primary subcontractor on the project in July 2001. Substantial portions of this report, describing work performed prior to November 2000, were previously prepared by LBNL personnel. The data set, findings, and recommendations are herein updated with information collected since November 2000. Local land disposal is an attractive option due to its low cost and the proximity of large areas of available land. Two modes of disposal are being tested: (1) the application to a nearby SLD embankment, and (2) the application to and incorporation with nearby farm soils. The study of these options considers the key problems that may potentially arise from this approach. These include disturbance of SLD sediments during dredging, resulting in increased downstream Se concentrations; movement of the land-applied Se to groundwater; reduced productivity of farm crops; and Se uptake by wild and crop plants. This report describes field and laboratory activities carried out from 1998 through February 2002, and results of these investigations.

  5. 76 FR 46352 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for San Diego International, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Federal program. The FAA does not substitute its judgment for that of the airport proprietor with respect... Attenuate Eligible Residential Units has been approved for homes or noncompatible development that...

  6. 77 FR 34988 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3). The determinations in this notice are the... right humorous fragments and, based on diagnostics, represent two individuals. No known individuals...

  7. Bathymetric survey and digital elevation model of Little Holland Tract, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Alexander G.; Lacy, Jessica R.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Carlson, Emily M.

    2016-06-10

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey in Little Holland Tract, a flooded agricultural tract, in the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the “Delta”) during the summer of 2015. The new bathymetric data were combined with existing data to generate a digital elevation model (DEM) at 1-meter resolution. Little Holland Tract (LHT) was historically diked off for agricultural uses and has been tidally inundated since an accidental levee breach in 1983. Shallow tidal regions such as LHT have the potential to improve habitat quality in the Delta. The DEM of LHT was developed to support ongoing studies of habitat quality in the area and to provide a baseline for evaluating future geomorphic change. The new data comprise 138,407 linear meters of real-time-kinematic (RTK) Global Positioning System (GPS) elevation data, including both bathymetric data collected from personal watercraft and topographic elevations collected on foot at low tide. A benchmark (LHT15_b1) was established for geodetic control of the survey. Data quality was evaluated both by comparing results among surveying platforms, which showed systematic offsets of 1.6 centimeters (cm) or less, and by error propagation, which yielded a mean vertical uncertainty of 6.7 cm. Based on the DEM and time-series measurements of water depth, the mean tidal prism of LHT was determined to be 2,826,000 cubic meters. The bathymetric data and DEM are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7RX9954. 

  8. Geologic structure of the Yucaipa area inferred from gravity data, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Langenheim, V.E.; Morita, Andrew; Danskin, Wesley R.

    2016-09-30

    In the spring of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District, began working on a gravity survey in the Yucaipa area to explore the three-dimensional shape of the sedimentary fill (alluvial deposits) and the surface of the underlying crystalline basement rocks. As water use has increased in pace with rapid urbanization, water managers have need for better information about the subsurface geometry and the boundaries of groundwater subbasins in the Yucaipa area. The large density contrast between alluvial deposits and the crystalline basement complex permits using modeling of gravity data to estimate the thickness of alluvial deposits. The bottom of the alluvial deposits is considered to be the top of crystalline basement rocks. The gravity data, integrated with geologic information from surface outcrops and 51 subsurface borings (15 of which penetrated basement rock), indicated a complex basin configuration where steep slopes coincide with mapped faults―such as the Crafton Hills Fault and the eastern section of the Banning Fault―and concealed ridges separate hydrologically defined subbasins.Gravity measurements and well logs were the primary data sets used to define the thickness and structure of the groundwater basin. Gravity measurements were collected at 256 new locations along profiles that totaled approximately 104.6 km (65 mi) in length; these data supplemented previously collected gravity measurements. Gravity data were reduced to isostatic anomalies and separated into an anomaly field representing the valley fill. The ‘valley-fill-deposits gravity anomaly’ was converted to thickness by using an assumed, depth-varying density contrast between the alluvial deposits and the underlying bedrock.To help visualize the basin geometry, an animation of the elevation of the top of the basement-rocks was prepared. The animation “flies over” the Yucaipa groundwater basin, viewing the land surface

  9. Earthquake stress drops and inferred fault strength on the Hayward Fault, east San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, J.L.; Aron, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study variations in earthquake stress drop with respect to depth, faulting regime, creeping versus locked fault behavior, and wall-rock geology. We use the P-wave displacement spectra from borehole seismic recordings of M 1.0-4.2 earthquakes in the east San Francisco Bay to estimate stress drop using a stack-and-invert empirical Green's function method. The median stress drop is 8.7 MPa, and most stress drops are in the range between 0.4 and 130 MPa. An apparent correlation between stress drop and magnitude is entirely an artifact of the limited frequency band of 4-55 Hz. There is a trend of increasing stress drop with depth, with a median stress drop of ~5 MPa for 1-7 km depth, ~10 MPa for 7-13 km depth, and ~50 MPa deeper than 13 km. We use S=P amplitude ratios measured from the borehole records to better constrain the first-motion focal mechanisms. High stress drops are observed for a deep cluster of thrust-faulting earthquakes. The correlation of stress drops with depth and faulting regime implies that stress drop is related to the applied shear stress. We compare the spatial distribution of stress drops on the Hayward fault to a model of creeping versus locked behavior of the fault and find that high stress drops are concentrated around the major locked patch near Oakland. This also suggests a connection between stress drop and applied shear stress, as the locked patch may experience higher applied shear stress as a result of the difference in cumulative slip or the presence of higher-strength material. The stress drops do not directly correlate with the strength of the proposed wall-rock geology at depth, suggesting that the relationship between fault strength and the strength of the wall rock is complex.

  10. Chemometric differentiation of crude oil families in the San Joaquin Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kenneth E.; Coutrot, Delphine; Nouvelle, Xavier; Ramos, L. Scott; Rohrback, Brian G.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Zumberge, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemometric analyses of geochemical data for 165 crude oil samples from the San Joaquin Basin identify genetically distinct oil families and their inferred source rocks and provide insight into migration pathways, reservoir compartments, and filling histories. In the first part of the study, 17 source-related biomarker and stable carbon-isotope ratios were evaluated using a chemometric decision tree (CDT) to identify families. In the second part, ascendant hierarchical clustering was applied to terpane mass chromatograms for the samples to compare with the CDT results. The results from the two methods are remarkably similar despite differing data input and assumptions. Recognized source rocks for the oil families include the (1) Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation, (2) Eocene Tumey Formation, (3–4) upper and lower parts of the Miocene Monterey Formation (Buttonwillow depocenter), and (5–6) upper and lower parts of the Miocene Monterey Formation (Tejon depocenter). Ascendant hierarchical clustering identifies 22 oil families in the basin as corroborated by independent data, such as carbon-isotope ratios, sample location, reservoir unit, and thermal maturity maps from a three-dimensional basin and petroleum system model. Five families originated from the Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation source rock, and three families came from the overlying Eocene Tumey Formation. Fourteen families migrated from the upper and lower parts of the Miocene Monterey Formation source rocks within the Buttonwillow and Tejon depocenters north and south of the Bakersfield arch. The Eocene and Miocene families show little cross-stratigraphic migration because of seals within and between the source rocks. The data do not exclude the possibility that some families described as originating from the Monterey Formation actually came from source rock in the Temblor Formation.

  11. Centro de convenciones George R. Moscone, San francisco/California EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth, George

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available Not available.El Centro Moscone, que ocupa un solar de 4,6 Ha en las afueras de San Francisco, ofrece un total de 60,400 m2 de superficie para exhibiciones, convenciones y reuniones. El salón principal de exposiciones, que con sus 25.500 m2 de superficie subterránea es actualmente el mayor espacio de exhibición —libre de columnas— del mundo tiene una cubierta sostenida por arcos de 85 m de luz. El edificio se completa con un vestíbulo exterior que conecta el salón de exhibiciones con las salas de reuniones y las demás dependencias del Centro. El original sistema estructural de hormigón, en bóveda de canon, del salón principal se desarrolló para adecuarse a tas exigencias de una construcción subterránea por razones de economía de obra y de mantenimiento. La parte superior del techo de esta sala puede soportar una capa de tierra de hasta 2 m de espesor, proporcionando espacio para un parque en la superficie u otra instalación pública que incluya edificaciones de construcción ligera. Acordes con tas colosales dimensiones de este Centro son las instalaciones, que abarcan desde un completo sistema de protección contra incendios y evacuación de personas hasta los sistemas de climatización, iluminación y electricidad.

  12. Temporal changes in HCV genotype distribution in three different high risk populations in San Francisco, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype (GT has become an important measure in the diagnosis and monitoring of HCV infection treatment. In the United States (U.S. HCV GT 1 is reported as the most common infecting GT among chronically infected patients. In Europe, however, recent studies have suggested that the epidemiology of HCV GTs is changing. Methods We assessed HCV GT distribution in 460 patients from three HCV-infected high risk populations in San Francisco, and examined patterns by birth cohort to assess temporal trends. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess factors independently associated with GT 1 infection compared to other GTs (2, 3, and 4. Results Overall, GT 1 was predominant (72.4%, however younger injection drug users (IDU had a lower proportion of GT 1 infections (54.7% compared to older IDU and HIV-infected patients (80.5% and 76.6%, respectively. Analysis by birth cohort showed increasing proportions of non-GT 1 infections associated with year of birth: birth before 1970 was independently associated with higher adjusted odds of GT 1: AOR 2.03 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.34. African-Americans as compared to whites also had higher adjusted odds of GT 1 infection (AOR: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.89, 5.99. Conclusions Although, HCV GT 1 remains the most prevalent GT, especially among older groups, changes in GT distribution could have significant implications for how HCV might be controlled on a population level and treated on an individual level.

  13. Bathymetric survey and digital elevation model of Little Holland Tract, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Alexander G.; Lacy, Jessica R.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Carlson, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey in Little Holland Tract, a flooded agricultural tract, in the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the “Delta”) during the summer of 2015. The new bathymetric data were combined with existing data to generate a digital elevation model (DEM) at 1-meter resolution. Little Holland Tract (LHT) was historically diked off for agricultural uses and has been tidally inundated since an accidental levee breach in 1983. Shallow tidal regions such as LHT have the potential to improve habitat quality in the Delta. The DEM of LHT was developed to support ongoing studies of habitat quality in the area and to provide a baseline for evaluating future geomorphic change. The new data comprise 138,407 linear meters of real-time-kinematic (RTK) Global Positioning System (GPS) elevation data, including both bathymetric data collected from personal watercraft and topographic elevations collected on foot at low tide. A benchmark (LHT15_b1) was established for geodetic control of the survey. Data quality was evaluated both by comparing results among surveying platforms, which showed systematic offsets of 1.6 centimeters (cm) or less, and by error propagation, which yielded a mean vertical uncertainty of 6.7 cm. Based on the DEM and time-series measurements of water depth, the mean tidal prism of LHT was determined to be 2,826,000 cubic meters. The bathymetric data and DEM are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7RX9954. 

  14. Preliminary Geologic Map of the the Little Piute Mountains, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Dennis, Michael L.; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Phelps, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    Introduction The Little Piute Mountains in the eastern Mojave Desert expose a series of folds and thrust faults involving metamorphosed Paleozoic strata (Miller and others, 1982; Stone and others, 1983). Detailed mapping of these structures was undertaken to help elucidate regional Mesozoic structural evolution. Earlier geologic maps were prepared by Cooksley (1960a,b,c,d, generalized by Bishop, 1964) and Stone and others (1983). Deformed and metamorphosed Paleozoic and Triassic rocks form a stratal succession that was originally deposited in shallow seas on the North American craton. Based on lithologic sequence the units are correlated with unmetamorphosed equivalents 200 km to the northeast in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, and 35-50 km to the west in the Marble, Ship, and Providence Mountains, California (Stone and others, 1983). The Paleozoic sequence rests nonconformably on a heterogeneous basement of polydeformed Early Proterozoic gneiss (Miller and others, 1982; Wooden and Miller, 1990). Triassic and older rocks were deformed, metamorphosed to staurolite or andalusite grade, and intruded concordantly at their base by Late Cretaceous granodiorite (Miller and others, 1982).

  15. Fault rupture assessments for high-pressure pipelines in the southern San Francisco Bay area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelson, K.I.; Hitchcock, C.S.; Baldwin, J.N. [William Lettis and Associates, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Hart, J.D. [SSD Inc., Reno NV (United States); Gamble, J.C.; Lee, C.H.; Dauby, F. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This study assessed the Pacific Gas and Electric Company natural gas transmission system in northern California in order to identify areas where primary pipelines cross major active faults in the region. The aim of the study was to develop measures for mitigating fault-rupture hazards during earthquakes. An innovative approach was developed to account for the reduction in expected surface displacement that occurs as a result of fault creep. Recently developed data on the distribution of displacement across fault zones was used to provide potential scenarios of seismic demand on the pipelines. The study identified primary, high-hazard fault crossings and delineated the location, width, and orientation of the active fault zone at specific fault-crossing sites. Expected surface fault displacements were characterized. The geotechnical soil conditions at fault crossings were evaluated. The expected amount of surface offset was modeled to reflect the distribution of offset across the fault zone. The model was based on data from historical surface ruptures throughout the world. Complex rupture distributions were used at sites where pipelines crossed multiple active fault strands. It was concluded that complex fault zones with multiple active strands can now be incorporated within mitigation designs using the new assessment technique. Uncertainties associated with geologic complexity will also be incorporated within the design. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Multi-phase Temporal Seismic Imaging of a Slope Stability Mitigation Project at Newby Island Sanitary Landfill, San Jose, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treece, B. J.; Catchings, R.; Reed, D.; Goldman, M.

    2014-12-01

    Without slope stability mitigation, liquefaction-induced settlement in bay mud and Pleistocene alluvial deposits may lead to the collapse of levee walls surrounding sanitary landfills that are located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay. To analyze the effectiveness of a slope stability mitigation project involving deep soil mixing at Newby Island Sanitary Landfill in San Jose, California, we acquired P- and S-wave seismic surveys along a transect through the mitigated region during, and two years after, completion of the mitigation project. Deep soil mixing involves the injection of a cement slurry in augered holes, resulting in groups of soil-cement columns (elements) that are intended to increase the strength and rigidity of the subsurface materials. For our seismic investigations, we used accelerated-weight-drop (AWD) and hammer impacts to generate P- and S-wave seismic sources, respectively, at 57 geophone locations, spaced 5 m apart. The resulting seismic data were recorded using 40-Hz, vertical-component (P-wave) and 4.5-Hz, horizontal-component (S-wave) sensors. Initially, we developed tomographic refraction (velocity) images along a progressive transition from a yet-to-be-mitigated area into a more recently mitigated area, located along the base of a steep slope composed of compacted landfill. The initial survey revealed an increase in seismic velocity in the treated area, seismic velocity increases with curing time for soil-cement elements, and a high-velocity zone beneath the active injection zone. The influence of the mitigation was most apparent from increases in Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios. To assess the long-term effects of the mitigation project, an identical, follow-up survey was acquired in July 2014, 23 months after the initial survey. We present a comparative analysis of the tomographic images from the two surveys, variations in Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios over time, and a comparison of in situ, time-varying seismic parameters with laboratory

  17. Accuracy of Perceived Estimated Travel Time by EMS to a Trauma Center in San Bernardino County, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Neeki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mobilization of trauma resources has the potential to cause ripple effects throughout hospital operations. One major factor affecting efficient utilization of trauma resources is a discrepancy between the prehospital estimated time of arrival (ETA as communicated by emergency medical services (EMS personnel and their actual time of arrival (TOA. The current study aimed to assess the accuracy of the perceived prehospital estimated arrival time by EMS personnel in comparison to their actual arrival time at a Level II trauma center in San Bernardino County, California. Methods: This retrospective study included traumas classified as alerts or activations that were transported to Arrowhead Regional Medical Center in 2013. We obtained estimated arrival time and actual arrival time for each transport from the Surgery Department Trauma Registry. The difference between the median of ETA and actual TOA by EMS crews to the trauma center was calculated for these transports. Additional variables assessed included time of day and month during which the transport took place. Results: A total of 2,454 patients classified as traumas were identified in the Surgery Department Trauma Registry. After exclusion of trauma consults, walk-ins, handoffs between agencies, downgraded traumas, traumas missing information, and traumas transported by agencies other than American Medical Response, Ontario Fire, Rialto Fire or San Bernardino County Fire, we included a final sample size of 555 alert and activation classified traumas in the final analysis. When combining all transports by the included EMS agencies, the median of the ETA was 10 minutes and the median of the actual TOA was 22 minutes (median of difference=9 minutes, p<0.0001. Furthermore, when comparing the difference between trauma alerts and activations, trauma activations demonstrated an equal or larger difference in the median of the estimated and actual time of arrival (p<0.0001. We also found

  18. Tectonic history of the north portion of the San Andreas fault system, California, inferred from gravity and magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscom, A.; Jachens, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Geologic and geophysical data for the San Andreas fault system north of San Francisco suggest that the eastern boundary of the Pacific plate migrated eastward from its presumed original position at the base of the continental slope to its present position along the San Andreas transform fault by means of a series of eastward jumps of the Mendocino triple junction. These eastward jumps total a distance of about 150 km since 29 Ma. Correlation of right-laterally displaced gravity and magnetic anomalies that now have components at San Francisco and on the shelf north of Point Arena indicates that the presently active strand of the San Andreas fault north of the San Francisco peninsula formed recently at about 5 Ma when the triple junction jumped eastward a minimum of 100 km to its present location at the north end of the San Andreas fault. -from Authors

  19. Identifying induced seismicity in active tectonic regions: A case study of the San Joaquin Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, F.; Göbel, T.

    2013-12-01

    active oil fields generally show different characteristics of frequency-magnitude distributions, higher fractal dimensions and higher b-values compared to natural seismicity. The estimated b-values vary between 0.7 close to the San Andreas fault up to 1.3 within the North-western corner of the Kern County. High b-values within this particular region are likely related to active petroleum production. The spatial differences in seismicity statistics delineate earthquakes related to active faults from distributed seismicity toward the center of the basin. Our results highlight, that the analysis of spatial and temporal variations in seismicity statistics may be a promising tool to identify induced seismicity in active tectonic regions.

  20. SRTM Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay: Los Angeles to San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    California's topography poses challenges for road builders. Northwest of Los Angeles, deformation of Earth's crust along the Pacific-North American crustal plate boundary has made transportation difficult. Direct connection between metropolitan Los Angeles (image lower left) and California's Central Valley (image top center) through the rugged terrain seen on the left side of this image was long avoided in favor of longer, but easier paths. However, over the last century, three generations of roads have traversed this terrain. The first was 'The Ridge Route', a two-lane road, built in 1915, which followed long winding ridge lines that included 697curves. The second, built in 1933, was to become four-lane U.S. Highway 99. It generally followed widened canyon bottoms. The third is the current eight lane Interstate 5 freeway, built in the 1960s, which is generally notched into hillsides, but also includes a stretch of several miles where the two directions of travel are widely separated and driving is 'on the left', a rarity in the United States. Such an unusual highway configuration was necessary in order to optimize the road grades for uphill and downhill traffic in this topographically challenging setting.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary SRTM elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair, and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive