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Sample records for california heat wave

  1. The great 2006 heat wave over California and Nevada: Signal of an increasing trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Iacobellis, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the great California-Nevada heat waves can be classified into primarily daytime or nighttime events depending on whether atmospheric conditions are dry or humid. A rash of nighttime-accentuated events in the last decade was punctuated by an unusually intense case in July 2006, which was the largest heat wave on record (1948-2006). Generally, there is a positive trend in heat wave activity over the entire region that is expressed most strongly and clearly in nighttime rather than daytime temperature extremes. This trend in nighttime heat wave activity has intensified markedly since the 1980s and especially since 2000. The two most recent nighttime heat waves were also strongly expressed in extreme daytime temperatures. Circulations associated with great regional heat waves advect hot air into the region. This air can be dry or moist, depending on whether a moisture source is available, causing heat waves to be expressed preferentially during day or night. A remote moisture source centered within a marine region west of Baja California has been increasing in prominence because of gradual sea surface warming and a related increase in atmospheric humidity. Adding to the very strong synoptic dynamics during the 2006 heat wave were a prolonged stream of moisture from this southwestern source and, despite the heightened humidity, an environment in which afternoon convection was suppressed, keeping cloudiness low and daytime temperatures high. The relative contributions of these factors and possible relations to global warming are discussed. ?? 2009 American Meteorological Society.

  2. Ambient temperature and added heat wave effects on hospitalizations in California from 1999 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbakov, Toki; Malig, Brian; Guirguis, Kristen; Gershunov, Alexander; Basu, Rupa

    2018-01-01

    Investigators have examined how heat waves or incremental changes in temperature affect health outcomes, but few have examined both simultaneously. We utilized distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) to explore temperature associations and evaluate possible added heat wave effects on hospitalizations in 16 climate zones throughout California from May through October 1999-2009. We define heat waves as a period when daily mean temperatures were above the zone- and month-specific 95th percentile for at least two consecutive days. DLNMs were used to estimate climate zone-specific non-linear temperature and heat wave effects, which were then combined using random effects meta-analysis to produce an overall estimate for each. With higher temperatures, admissions for acute renal failure, appendicitis, dehydration, ischemic stroke, mental health, non-infectious enteritis, and primary diabetes were significantly increased, with added effects from heat waves observed for acute renal failure and dehydration. Higher temperatures also predicted statistically significant decreases in hypertension admissions, respiratory admissions, and respiratory diseases with secondary diagnoses of diabetes, though heat waves independently predicted an added increase in risk for both respiratory types. Our findings provide evidence that both heat wave and temperature exposures can exert effects independently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  4. Urban Heat Wave Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Jedlovec, G.; Crane, D. L.; Meyer, P. J.; LaFontaine, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heat waves are one of the largest causes of environmentally-related deaths globally and are likely to become more numerous as a result of climate change. The intensification of heat waves by the urban heat island effect and elevated humidity, combined with urban demographics, are key elements leading to these disasters. Better warning of the potential hazards may help lower risks associated with heat waves. Moderate resolution thermal data from NASA satellites is used to derive high spatial resolution estimates of apparent temperature (heat index) over urban regions. These data, combined with demographic data, are used to produce a daily heat hazard/risk map for selected cities. MODIS data are used to derive daily composite maximum and minimum land surface temperature (LST) fields to represent the amplitude of the diurnal temperature cycle and identify extreme heat days. Compositing routines are used to generate representative daily maximum and minimum LSTs for the urban environment. The limited effect of relative humidity on the apparent temperature (typically 10-15%) allows for the use of modeled moisture fields to convert LST to apparent temperature without loss of spatial variability. The daily max/min apparent temperature fields are used to identify abnormally extreme heat days relative to climatological values in order to produce a heat wave hazard map. Reference to climatological values normalizes the hazard for a particular region (e.g., the impact of an extreme heat day). A heat wave hazard map has been produced for several case study periods and then computed on a quasi-operational basis during the summer of 2016 for Atlanta, GA, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, and Huntsville, AL. A hazard does not become a risk until someone or something is exposed to that hazard at a level that might do harm. Demographic information is used to assess the urban risk associated with the heat wave hazard. Collectively, the heat wave hazard product can warn people in urban

  5. Ion Bernstein wave heating research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki.

    1992-03-01

    Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW's low phase velocity ({omega}/k{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} V{sub Ti} {much lt} V{sub {alpha}}) greatly reduces the otherwise serious wave absorption by the 3.5 MeV fusion {alpha}-particles. In addition, the property of IBW's that k{sub {perpendicular}} {rho}{sub i} {approx} 1 makes localized bulk ion heating possible at the ion cyclotron harmonic layers. Such bulk ion heating can prove useful in optimizing fusion reactivity. In another vein, with proper selection of parameters, IBW's can be made subject to strong localized electron Landau damping near the major ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layers. This property can be useful, for example, for rf current drive in the reactor plasma core. This paper discusses this research.

  6. Ion Bernstein wave heating research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki

    1992-03-01

    Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW`s low phase velocity ({omega}/k{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} V{sub Ti} {much_lt} V{sub {alpha}}) greatly reduces the otherwise serious wave absorption by the 3.5 MeV fusion {alpha}-particles. In addition, the property of IBW`s that k{sub {perpendicular}} {rho}{sub i} {approx} 1 makes localized bulk ion heating possible at the ion cyclotron harmonic layers. Such bulk ion heating can prove useful in optimizing fusion reactivity. In another vein, with proper selection of parameters, IBW`s can be made subject to strong localized electron Landau damping near the major ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layers. This property can be useful, for example, for rf current drive in the reactor plasma core. This paper discusses this research.

  7. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such

  8. Heat Waves in the United States: Mortality Risk during Heat Waves and Effect Modification by Heat Wave Characteristics in 43 U.S. Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Devastating health effects from recent heat waves, and projected increases in frequency, duration, and severity of heat waves from climate change, highlight the importance of understanding health consequences of heat waves. Objectives We analyzed mortality risk for heat waves in 43 U.S. cities (1987–2005) and investigated how effects relate to heat waves’ intensity, duration, or timing in season. Methods Heat waves were defined as ≥ 2 days with temperature ≥ 95th percentile for the community for 1 May through 30 September. Heat waves were characterized by their intensity, duration, and timing in season. Within each community, we estimated mortality risk during each heat wave compared with non-heat wave days, controlling for potential confounders. We combined individual heat wave effect estimates using Bayesian hierarchical modeling to generate overall effects at the community, regional, and national levels. We estimated how heat wave mortality effects were modified by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, timing in season). Results Nationally, mortality increased 3.74% [95% posterior interval (PI), 2.29–5.22%] during heat waves compared with non-heat wave days. Heat wave mortality risk increased 2.49% for every 1°F increase in heat wave intensity and 0.38% for every 1-day increase in heat wave duration. Mortality increased 5.04% (95% PI, 3.06–7.06%) during the first heat wave of the summer versus 2.65% (95% PI, 1.14–4.18%) during later heat waves, compared with non-heat wave days. Heat wave mortality impacts and effect modification by heat wave characteristics were more pronounced in the Northeast and Midwest compared with the South. Conclusions We found higher mortality risk from heat waves that were more intense or longer, or those occurring earlier in summer. These findings have implications for decision makers and researchers estimating health effects from climate change. PMID:21084239

  9. Humid heat waves at different warming levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Simone; Sillmann, Jana; Sterl, Andreas

    2017-08-07

    The co-occurrence of consecutive hot and humid days during a heat wave can strongly affect human health. Here, we quantify humid heat wave hazard in the recent past and at different levels of global warming. We find that the magnitude and apparent temperature peak of heat waves, such as the ones observed in Chicago in 1995 and China in 2003, have been strongly amplified by humidity. Climate model projections suggest that the percentage of area where heat wave magnitude and peak are amplified by humidity increases with increasing warming levels. Considering the effect of humidity at 1.5° and 2° global warming, highly populated regions, such as the Eastern US and China, could experience heat waves with magnitude greater than the one in Russia in 2010 (the most severe of the present era). The apparent temperature peak during such humid-heat waves can be greater than 55 °C. According to the US Weather Service, at this temperature humans are very likely to suffer from heat strokes. Humid-heat waves with these conditions were never exceeded in the present climate, but are expected to occur every other year at 4° global warming. This calls for respective adaptation measures in some key regions of the world along with international climate change mitigation efforts.

  10. Characterization of the Deep Water Surface Wave Variability in the California Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Bôas, Ana B.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2017-11-01

    Surface waves are crucial for the dynamics of the upper ocean not only because they mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, but also because they determine the sea state. The surface wave field in a given region is set by the combination of local and remote forcing. The present work characterizes the seasonal variability of the deep water surface wave field in the California Current region, as retrieved from over two decades of satellite altimetry data combined with wave buoys and wave model hindcast (WaveWatch III). In particular, the extent to which the local wind modulates the variability of the significant wave height, peak period, and peak direction is assessed. During spring/summer, regional-scale wind events of up to 10 m/s are the dominant forcing for waves off the California coast, leading to relatively short-period waves (8-10 s) that come predominantly from the north-northwest. The wave climatology throughout the California Current region shows average significant wave heights exceeding 2 m during most of the year, which may have implications for the planning and retrieval methods of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.

  11. Wave Heating of the Solar Chromosphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The nonmagnetic interior of supergranulation cells has been thought since the 1940s to be heated by the dissipation of acoustic waves. But all attempts to measure the acoustic flux have failed to show sufficient energy for chromospheric heating. Recent space observations with TRACE, for example, have ...

  12. Wave heating of the solar atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Iñigo

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic waves are a relevant component in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Their significance has increased because of their potential as a remote diagnostic tool and their presumed contribution to plasma heating processes. We discuss our current understanding of coronal heating by magnetic waves, based on recent observational evidence and theoretical advances. The discussion starts with a selection of observational discoveries that have brought magnetic waves to the forefront of the coronal heating discussion. Then, our theoretical understanding of the nature and properties of the observed waves and the physical processes that have been proposed to explain observations are described. Particular attention is given to the sequence of processes that link observed wave characteristics with concealed energy transport, dissipation and heat conversion. We conclude with a commentary on how the combination of theory and observations should help us to understand and quantify magnetic wave heating of the solar atmosphere. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying Population Vulnerable to Extreme Heat Events in San Jose, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The extreme heat days not only make cities less comfortable for living but also they are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Mapping studies have demonstrated spatial variability in heat vulnerability. A study conducted between 2000 and 2011 in New York City shows that deaths during heat waves was more likely to occur in black individuals, at home in census tracts which received greater public assistance. This map project intends to portray areas in San Jose California that are vulnerable to extreme heat events. The variables considered to build a vulnerability index are: land surface temperature, vegetated areas (NDVI), and people exposed to these area (population density).

  14. Characterization of Urban Heat and Exacerbation: Development of a Heat Island Index for California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Taha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To further evaluate the factors influencing public heat and air-quality health, a characterization of how urban areas affect the thermal environment, particularly in terms of the air temperature, is necessary. To assist public health agencies in ranking urban areas in terms of heat stress and developing mitigation plans or allocating various resources, this study characterized urban heat in California and quantified an urban heat island index (UHII at the census-tract level (~1 km2. Multi-scale atmospheric modeling was carried out and a practical UHII definition was developed. The UHII was diagnosed with different metrics and its spatial patterns were characterized for small, large, urban-climate archipelago, inland, and coastal areas. It was found that within each region, wide ranges of urban heat and UHII exist. At the lower end of the scale (in smaller urban areas, the UHII reaches up to 20 degree-hours per day (DH/day; °C.hr/day, whereas at the higher end (in larger areas, it reaches up to 125 DH/day or greater. The average largest temperature difference (urban heat island within each region ranges from 0.5–1.0 °C in smaller areas to up to 5 °C or more at the higher end, such as in urban-climate archipelagos. Furthermore, urban heat is exacerbated during warmer weather and that, in turn, can worsen the health impacts of heat events presently and in the future, for which it is expected that both the frequency and duration of heat waves will increase.

  15. Chiral heat wave and mixing of magnetic, vortical and heat waves in chiral media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernodub, M.N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique,Université de Tours, 37200 (France); Soft Matter Physics Laboratory, Far Eastern Federal University,Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent,Krijgslaan 281, S9, Gent (Belgium)

    2016-01-18

    We show that a hot rotating fluid of relativistic chiral fermions possesses a new gapless collective mode associated with coherent propagation of energy density and chiral density waves along the axis of rotation. This mode, which we call the Chiral Heat Wave, emerges due to a mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. At finite density the Chiral Heat Wave couples to the Chiral Vortical Wave while in the presence of an external magnetic field it mixes with the Chiral Magnetic Wave. The coupling of the Chiral Magnetic and Chiral Vortical Waves is also demonstrated. We find that the coupled waves — which are coherent fluctuations of the vector, axial and energy currents — have generally different velocities compared to the velocities of the individual waves.

  16. Climate Change Effects on Heat Waves and Future Heat Wave-Associated IHD Mortality in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Zacharias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of future climate change on the occurrence of heat waves and its implications for heat wave-related mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD in Germany is studied. Simulations of 19 regional climate models with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° forced by the moderate climate change scenario A1B are analyzed. Three model time periods of 30 years are evaluated, representing present climate (1971–2000, near future climate (2021–2050, and remote future climate (2069–2098. Heat waves are defined as periods of at least three consecutive days with daily mean air temperature above the 97.5th percentile of the all-season temperature distribution. Based on the model simulations, future heat waves in Germany will be significantly more frequent, longer lasting and more intense. By the end of the 21st century, the number of heat waves will be tripled compared to present climate. Additionally, the average duration of heat waves will increase by 25%, accompanied by an increase of the average temperature during heat waves by about 1 K. Regional analyses show that stronger than average climate change effects are observed particularly in the southern regions of Germany. Furthermore, we investigated climate change impacts on IHD mortality in Germany applying temperature projections from 19 regional climate models to heat wave mortality relationships identified in a previous study. Future IHD excess deaths were calculated both in the absence and presence of some acclimatization (i.e., that people are able to physiologically acclimatize to enhanced temperature levels in the future time periods by 0% and 50%, respectively. In addition to changes in heat wave frequency, we incorporated also changes in heat wave intensity and duration into the future mortality evaluations. The results indicate that by the end of the 21st century the annual number of IHD excess deaths in Germany attributable to heat waves is expected to rise by factor 2

  17. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

  18. Was there a basis for anticipating the 2010 Russian heat wave?: THE 2010 RUSSIAN HEAT WAVE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dole, Randall; Hoerling, Martin; Perlwitz, Judith; Eischeid, Jon; Pegion, Philip; Zhang, Tao; Quan, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Taiyi; Murray, Donald

    2011-01-01

      The 2010 summer heat wave in western Russia was extraordinary, with the region experiencing the warmest July since at least 1880 and numerous locations setting all-time maximum temperature records...

  19. Heat Wave Vulnerability Mapping for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Gulrez; Saha, Shubhayu; Ganguly, Partha; Mavalankar, Dileep; Madrigano, Jaime

    2017-03-30

    Assessing geographic variability in heat wave vulnerability forms the basis for planning appropriate targeted adaptation strategies. Given several recent deadly heatwaves in India, heat is increasingly being recognized as a public health problem. However, to date there has not been a country-wide assessment of heat vulnerability in India. We evaluated demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental vulnerability factors and combined district level data from several sources including the most recent census, health reports, and satellite remote sensing data. We then applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 17 normalized variables for each of the 640 districts to create a composite Heat Vulnerability Index (HVI) for India. Of the total 640 districts, our analysis identified 10 and 97 districts in the very high and high risk categories (> 2SD and 2-1SD HVI) respectively. Mapping showed that the districts with higher heat vulnerability are located in the central parts of the country. On examination, these are less urbanized and have low rates of literacy, access to water and sanitation, and presence of household amenities. Therefore, we concluded that creating and mapping a heat vulnerability index is a useful first step in protecting the public from the health burden of heat. Future work should incorporate heat exposure and health outcome data to validate the index, as well as examine sub-district levels of vulnerability.

  20. Could aerosol emissions be used for regional heat wave mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D. N.; Neelin, J. D.; Li, Q. B.; Chen, D.

    2013-07-01

    Geoengineering applications by injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere are under consideration as a measure of last resort to counter global warming. Here a potential regional-scale application to offset the impacts of heat waves is critically examined. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with fully coupled chemistry (WRF-Chem), the effect of regional-scale sulfate aerosol emission over California in each of two days of the July 2006 heat wave is used to quantify potential reductions in surface temperature as a function of emission rates in a layer at 12 km altitude. Local meteorological factors yield geographical differences in surface air temperature sensitivity. For emission rates of approximately 30 μg m-2 s-1 of sulfate aerosols (with standard WRF-Chem size distribution) over the region, temperature decreases of around 7 °C result during the middle part of the day over the Central Valley, one of the areas hardest hit by the heat wave. Regions more ventilated with oceanic air such as Los Angeles have slightly smaller reductions. The length of the hottest part of the day is also reduced. Advection effects on the aerosol cloud must be more carefully forecast for smaller injection regions. Verification of the impacts could be done via measurements of differences in reflected and surface downward shortwave. Such regional geoengineering applications with specific near-term target effects but smaller cost and side effects could potentially provide a means of testing larger scale applications. However, design considerations for regional applications, such as a preference for injection at a level of relatively low wind speed, differ from those for global applications. The size of the required injections and the necessity of injection close to the target region raise substantial concerns. The evaluation of this regional-scale application is thus consistent with global model evaluations, emphasizing that mitigation via reduction of fossil fuels

  1. Could aerosol emissions be used for regional heat wave mitigation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Bernstein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering applications by injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere are under consideration as a measure of last resort to counter global warming. Here a potential regional-scale application to offset the impacts of heat waves is critically examined. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with fully coupled chemistry (WRF-Chem, the effect of regional-scale sulfate aerosol emission over California in each of two days of the July 2006 heat wave is used to quantify potential reductions in surface temperature as a function of emission rates in a layer at 12 km altitude. Local meteorological factors yield geographical differences in surface air temperature sensitivity. For emission rates of approximately 30 μg m−2 s−1 of sulfate aerosols (with standard WRF-Chem size distribution over the region, temperature decreases of around 7 °C result during the middle part of the day over the Central Valley, one of the areas hardest hit by the heat wave. Regions more ventilated with oceanic air such as Los Angeles have slightly smaller reductions. The length of the hottest part of the day is also reduced. Advection effects on the aerosol cloud must be more carefully forecast for smaller injection regions. Verification of the impacts could be done via measurements of differences in reflected and surface downward shortwave. Such regional geoengineering applications with specific near-term target effects but smaller cost and side effects could potentially provide a means of testing larger scale applications. However, design considerations for regional applications, such as a preference for injection at a level of relatively low wind speed, differ from those for global applications. The size of the required injections and the necessity of injection close to the target region raise substantial concerns. The evaluation of this regional-scale application is thus consistent with global model evaluations, emphasizing that mitigation via

  2. Impacts of the 2015 Heat Waves on Mortality in the Czech Republic—A Comparison with Previous Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Aleš; Hanzlíková, Hana; Kyselý, Jan; Plavcová, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impacts of heat waves during the summer of 2015 on mortality in the Czech Republic and to compare them with those of heat waves back to the previous record-breaking summer of 1994. We analyzed daily natural-cause mortality across the country’s entire population. A mortality baseline was determined using generalized additive models adjusted for long-term trends, seasonal and weekly cycles, and identified heat waves. Mortality deviations from the baseline were calculated to quantify excess mortality during heat waves, defined as periods of at least three consecutive days with mean daily temperature higher than the 95th percentile of annual distribution. The summer of 2015 was record-breaking in the total duration of heat waves as well as their total heat load. Consequently, the impact of the major heat wave in 2015 on the increase in excess mortality relative to the baseline was greater than during the previous record-breaking heat wave in 1994 (265% vs. 240%). Excess mortality was comparable among the younger age group (0–64 years) and the elderly (65+ years) in the 1994 major heat wave while it was significantly larger among the elderly in 2015. The results suggest that the total heat load of a heat wave needs to be considered when assessing its impact on mortality, as the cumulative excess heat factor explains the magnitude of excess mortality during a heat wave better than other characteristics such as duration or average daily mean temperature during the heat wave. Comparison of the mortality impacts of the 2015 and 1994 major heat waves suggests that the recently reported decline in overall heat-related mortality in Central Europe has abated and simple extrapolation of the trend would lead to biased conclusions even for the near future. Further research is needed toward understanding the additional mitigation measures required to prevent heat-related mortality in the Czech Republic and elsewhere. PMID:29236040

  3. Impacts of the 2015 Heat Waves on Mortality in the Czech Republic-A Comparison with Previous Heat Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Aleš; Hanzlíková, Hana; Kyselý, Jan; Plavcová, Eva

    2017-12-13

    This study aimed to assess the impacts of heat waves during the summer of 2015 on mortality in the Czech Republic and to compare them with those of heat waves back to the previous record-breaking summer of 1994. We analyzed daily natural-cause mortality across the country's entire population. A mortality baseline was determined using generalized additive models adjusted for long-term trends, seasonal and weekly cycles, and identified heat waves. Mortality deviations from the baseline were calculated to quantify excess mortality during heat waves, defined as periods of at least three consecutive days with mean daily temperature higher than the 95th percentile of annual distribution. The summer of 2015 was record-breaking in the total duration of heat waves as well as their total heat load. Consequently, the impact of the major heat wave in 2015 on the increase in excess mortality relative to the baseline was greater than during the previous record-breaking heat wave in 1994 (265% vs. 240%). Excess mortality was comparable among the younger age group (0-64 years) and the elderly (65+ years) in the 1994 major heat wave while it was significantly larger among the elderly in 2015. The results suggest that the total heat load of a heat wave needs to be considered when assessing its impact on mortality, as the cumulative excess heat factor explains the magnitude of excess mortality during a heat wave better than other characteristics such as duration or average daily mean temperature during the heat wave. Comparison of the mortality impacts of the 2015 and 1994 major heat waves suggests that the recently reported decline in overall heat-related mortality in Central Europe has abated and simple extrapolation of the trend would lead to biased conclusions even for the near future. Further research is needed toward understanding the additional mitigation measures required to prevent heat-related mortality in the Czech Republic and elsewhere.

  4. Development of a spinning wave heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, B. T.; Powell, E. A.; Hubbartt, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical analysis and an experimental investigation were conducted to assess the feasibility of developing a spinning wave heat engine. Such as engine would utilize a large amplitude traveling acoustic wave rotating around a cylindrica chamber, and it should not suffer from the inefficiency, noise, and intermittent thrust which characterizes pulse jet engines. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether an artificially driven large amplitude spinning transverse wave could induce a steady flow of air through the combustion chamber under cold flow conditions. In the theoretical analysis the Maslen and Moore perturbation technique was extended to study flat cylinders (pancake geometry) with completely open side walls and a central opening. In the parallel experimental study, a test moel was used to determine resonant frequencies and radial pressure distributions, as well as oscillatory and steady flow velocities at the inner and outer peripheries. The experimental frequency was nearly the same as the theoretical acoustic value for a model of the same outer diameter but without a central hole. Although the theoretical analysis did not predict a steady velocity component, simulaneous measurements of hotwire and microphone responses have shown that the spinning wave pumps a mean flow radially outward through the cavity.

  5. Near-surface heat flow in Saline Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mase, C.W.; Galanis, S.P. Jr.; Munroe, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    With the exception of values from one borehole drilled at Palm Spring and three boreholes drilled around Saline Valley dry lake, eight new heatflow values in Saline Valley, California, are within or somewhat below the range one would expect for this region of the Basin and Range heat-flow province. The lack of recent volcanism in the area and the apparently normal Basin and Range heat flow suggest that geothermal systems within the valley are stable stationary phases supported by high regional heat flow and forced convection.

  6. Heat Wave and Mortality: A Multicountry, Multicommunity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben G; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Tobias, Aurelio; Lavigne, Eric; Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio; Pan, Xiaochuan; Kim, Ho; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D; Bell, Michelle L; Scortichini, Matteo; Michelozzi, Paola; Punnasiri, Kornwipa; Li, Shanshan; Tian, Linwei; Garcia, Samuel David Osorio; Seposo, Xerxes; Overcenco, Ala; Zeka, Ariana; Goodman, Patrick; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Dung, Do Van; Mayvaneh, Fatemeh; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu

    2017-08-10

    Few studies have examined variation in the associations between heat waves and mortality in an international context. We aimed to systematically examine the impacts of heat waves on mortality with lag effects internationally. We collected daily data of temperature and mortality from 400 communities in 18 countries/regions and defined 12 types of heat waves by combining community-specific daily mean temperature ≥90th, 92.5th, 95th, and 97.5th percentiles of temperature with duration ≥2, 3, and 4 d. We used time-series analyses to estimate the community-specific heat wave-mortality relation over lags of 0-10 d. Then, we applied meta-analysis to pool heat wave effects at the country level for cumulative and lag effects for each type of heat wave definition. Heat waves of all definitions had significant cumulative associations with mortality in all countries, but varied by community. The higher the temperature threshold used to define heat waves, the higher heat wave associations on mortality. However, heat wave duration did not modify the impacts. The association between heat waves and mortality appeared acutely and lasted for 3 and 4 d. Heat waves had higher associations with mortality in moderate cold and moderate hot areas than cold and hot areas. There were no added effects of heat waves on mortality in all countries/regions, except for Brazil, Moldova, and Taiwan. Heat waves defined by daily mean and maximum temperatures produced similar heat wave-mortality associations, but not daily minimum temperature. Results indicate that high temperatures create a substantial health burden, and effects of high temperatures over consecutive days are similar to what would be experienced if high temperature days occurred independently. People living in moderate cold and moderate hot areas are more sensitive to heat waves than those living in cold and hot areas. Daily mean and maximum temperatures had similar ability to define heat waves rather than minimum temperature

  7. Responses of tree species to heat waves and extreme heat events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TESKEY, ROBERT; WERTIN, TIMOTHY; BAUWERAERTS, INGVAR; AMEYE, MAARTEN; MCGUIRE, MARY ANNE; STEPPE, KATHY

    2015-01-01

    .... At the whole plant level, heat stress can decrease growth and shift biomass allocation. When drought stress accompanies heat waves, the negative effects of heat stress are exacerbated and can lead to tree mortality...

  8. Wave Observations from Central California: SeaSonde Systems and In Situ Wave Buoys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan M. Long

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave data from five 12-13 MHz SeaSondes radars along the central California coast were analyzed to evaluate the utility of operational wave parameters, including significant wave height, period, and direction. Data from four in situ wave buoys served to verify SeaSonde data and independently corroborate wave variability. Hourly averaged measurements spanned distance is 150 km alongshore × 45 km offshore. Individual SeaSondes showed statistically insignificant variation over 27 km in range. Wave height inter-comparisons between regional buoys exhibit strong correlations, approximately 0.93, and RMS differences less than 50 cm over the region. SeaSonde-derived wave data were compared to nearby buoys over timescales from 15 to 26 months, and revealed wave height correlations =0.85−0.91 and mean RMS difference of 53 cm. Results showed that height RMS differences are a percentage of significant wave height, rather than being constant independent of sea state. Period and directions compared favorably among radars, buoys, and the CDIP model. Results presented here suggest that SeaSondes are a reliable source of wave information. Supported by buoy data, they also reveal minimal spatial variation in significant wave height, period, and direction in coastal waters from ~45 km × ~150 km in this region of the central California coast. Small differences are explained by sheltering from coastal promontories, and cutoff boundaries in the case of the radars.

  9. Impact of Heat Wave Definitions on the Added Effect of Heat Waves on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentan Dong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat waves are associated with increased mortality, however, few studies have examined the added effect of heat waves. Moreover, there is limited evidence for the influence of different heat wave definitions (HWs on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, the capital of China. The aim of this study was to find the best HW definitions for cardiovascular mortality, and we examined the effect modification by an individual characteristic on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, a typical northern city in China. We applied a Poisson generalized additive approach to estimate the differences in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves (using 12 HWs compared with non-heat-wave days in Beijing from 2006 to 2009. We also validated the model fit by checking the residuals to ensure that the autocorrelation was successfully removed. In addition, the effect modifications by individual characteristics were explored in different HWs. Our results showed that the associations between heat waves and cardiovascular mortality differed from different HWs. HWs using the 93th percentile of the daily average temperature (27.7 °C and a duration ≥5 days had the greatest risk, with an increase of 18% (95% confidence interval (CI: 6%, 31% in the overall population, 24% (95% CI: 10%, 39% in an older group (ages ≥65 years, and 22% (95% CI: 3%, 44% in a female group. The added effect of heat waves was apparent after 5 consecutive heat wave days for the overall population and the older group. Females and the elderly were at higher risk than males and younger subjects (ages <65 years. Our findings suggest that heat wave definitions play a significant role in the relationship between heat wave and cardiovascular mortality. Using a suitable definition may have implications for designing local heat early warning systems and protecting the susceptible populations during heat waves.

  10. Changes of heat waves characteristics over the territory of Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollarikova, Patricia; Szolgay, Jan; Pecho, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    The study is focused on the analysis of long-term changes and trends of heat waves occurrence in selected meteorological stations in Slovakia. Changes of the temperature regime of the hydro-climatic system may have serious consequences on population health. It is expected that climate change could, in the next decades, also lead to a higher frequency and greater spatial extent of extreme heat waves in Central Europe. Heat waves can cause severe thermal environmental stress, health complications, higher hospital admission rates, and increased mortality. A larger number of consecutive warm days and nights can also lead to increased solar overheating of buildings, inhibited ventilation, etc. Detection of possible ongoing changes of the regime of heat ways is therefore of particular interest. Since heat waves can be quantitatively evaluated through their temperature range (extremity) and also according to their duration, a set of such characteristics using statistical methods were analysed using maximum and average daily air temperature time series from the 1951-2010 period in 8 meteorological stations over the territory of Slovakia. Results indicate an overall consistent (both in time and space) increase of selected heat wave characteristics in Slovakia mostly due to their occurrence in the last two decades (1991 to 2010). This period was characterised by the occurrence of the most extreme heat waves ever recorded in history of meteorological observations in Slovakia (years 1992, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2007, 2010). The absolutely longest and most extreme heat wave occurred in southern Slovakia (station Hurbanovo) in 1992, when one heat wave lasted 47 days, while the cumulative amount of the deviation from 30 °C reached over 106 ° C. Change of the heat waves character in the last two decades was also indicated. Compared with the previous decade (1991-2000), during the decade of 2001-2010, the heat waves had shorter durations, but their total extremity and the quantity

  11. Wave Heating of the Solar Chromosphere Wolfgang Kalkofen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chromosphere is heated mainly by waves related to the magnetic field. If that were correct, the whole chromosphere, magnetic as well as nonmag- netic, would be heated mainly by waves related to the magnetic field. But contrary to expectation, the radiation emerging from the nonmagnetic chro- mosphere shows none of ...

  12. Heat Wave Changes in the Eastern Mediterranean since 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, Franz G.; Toreti, Andrea; Xoplaki, Elena; Della-Marta, Paul M.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Türkes, Murat; Luterbacher, Jürg

    2010-05-01

    Heat waves have discernible impacts on mortality and morbidity, infrastructure, agricultural resources, the retail industry, ecosystem and tourism and consequently affect human societies. A new definition of socially relevant heat waves is presented and applied to new data sets of high-quality homogenized daily maximum and minimum summer air temperature series from 246 stations in the eastern Mediterranean region (including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey). Changes in heat wave number, length and intensity between 1960 and 2006 are quantified. Daily temperature homogeneity analysis suggest that many instrumental measurements in the 1960s are warm-biased, correcting for these biases regionally averaged heat wave trends are up to 8% higher. We find significant changes across the western Balkans, southwestern and western Turkey, and along the southern Black Sea coastline. Since the 1960s, the mean heat wave intensity, heat wave length and heat wave number across the eastern Mediterranean region have increased by a factor 7.6 ±1.3, 7.5 ±1.3 and 6.2 ±1.1, respectively. These findings suggest that the heat wave increase in this region is higher than previously reported.

  13. Heat waves and urban heat islands in Europe: A review of relevant drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kathrin; Lauf, Steffen; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2016-11-01

    The climate change and the proceeding urbanization create future health challenges. Consequently, more people around the globe will be impaired by extreme weather events, such as heat waves. This study investigates the causes for the emergence of surface urban heat islands and its change during heat waves in 70 European cities. A newly created climate class indicator, a set of meaningful landscape metrics, and two population-related parameters were applied to describe the Surface Urban Heat Island Magnitude (SUHIM) - the mean temperature increase within the urban heat island compared to its surrounding, as well as the Heat Magnitude (HM) - the extra heat load added to the average summer SUHIM during heat waves. We evaluated the relevance of varying urban parameters within linear models. The exemplary European-wide heat wave in July 2006 was chosen and compared to the average summer conditions using MODIS land surface temperature with an improved spatial resolution of 250m. The results revealed that the initial size of the urban heat island had significant influence on SUHIM. For the explanation of HM the size of the heat island, the regional climate and the share of central urban green spaces showed to be critical. Interestingly, cities of cooler climates and cities with higher shares of urban green spaces were more affected by additional heat during heat waves. Accordingly, cooler northern European cities seem to be more vulnerable to heat waves, whereas southern European cities appear to be better adapted. Within the ascertained population and climate clusters more detailed explanations were found. Our findings improve the understanding of the urban heat island effect across European cities and its behavior under heat waves. Also, they provide some indications for urban planners on case-specific adaptation strategies to adverse urban heat caused by heat waves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Heat-related deaths among California residents, May-September, 2000-2009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts, rates, and confidence intervals of heat-related deaths among California residents for the years 2000-2009. These data are stratified by...

  15. Human-biometeorological assessment of heat waves in Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this study is the analysis of heat waves and their impact on humans, using human biometeorological indices, which are based on the energy balance of the human body. The implications for humans are not only described through the intensity of the heat waves, but also through their duration over consecutive days. Both intensity and duration were analyzed for the Greater Athens Area during the period 1955 to 2001. The analysis was carried out using the daily physiologically equivalent temperature and the daily minimum air temperature. Based on these two parameters, the results showed an increase in the average duration of heat waves. Furthermore, the use of the Gaussian filter revealed the intra-annual variation of heat stress conditions and their relevance to humans. The results could be used for the management of the negative consequences of heat waves in cities suffering from environmental pollution and also for climate impact studies.

  16. ASSESSING HUMAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE SUMMER 2013 KOREAN HEAT WAVE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seung-Ki Min; Yeon-Hee Kim; Maeng-Ki Kim; Changyong Park

    2014-01-01

      Here, we assess the Korean heat wave in the context of global warming using recent climate model datasets available from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5; Taylor et al. 2012) experiments...

  17. Event Attribution of the August 2010 Russian Heat Wave

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Imada, Yukiko; Mori, Masato; Ishii, Masayoshi; Kimoto, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    An extreme heat wave hit western Russia in the summer of 2010. To investigate the contribution of anthropogenic climate change to this event, 100-member ensembles of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM...

  18. Sand waves at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Helen; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey; California State University, Monterey Bay; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and Center for Integrative Coastal Observation, Research and Education partnered to map central San Francisco Bay and its entrance under the Golden Gate Bridge using multibeam echosounders. View eastward, through the Golden Gate into central San Francisco Bay. Depth of sea floor color coded: red (less than 10 m deep) to purple (more than 100 m deep). Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Sand waves in this view average 6 m in height and 80 m from crest to crest. Golden Gate Bridge is about 2 km long. Vertical exaggeration is approximately 4x for sea floor, 2x for land.

  19. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1992-07-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  20. Synoptic Conditions Generating Heat Waves and Warm Spells in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Sfîcă

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat waves and warm spells are extreme meteorological events that generate a significant number of casualties in temperate regions, as well as outside of temperate regions. For the purpose of this paper, heat waves and warm spells were identified based on daily maximum temperatures recorded at 27 weather stations located in Romania over a 55-year period (1961–2015. The intensity threshold was the 90th percentile, and the length of an event was of minimum three consecutive days. We analyzed 111 heat wave and warm spell events totaling 423 days. The classification of synoptic conditions was based on daily reanalysis at three geopotential levels and on the online version of a backward trajectories model. The main findings are that there are two major types of genetic conditions. These were identified as: (i radiative heat waves and warm spells (type A generated by warming the air mass due to high amounts of radiation which was found dominant in warm season; and (ii advective heat waves and warm spells (type B generated mainly by warm air mass advection which prevails in winter and transition seasons. These major types consist of two and three sub-types, respectively. The results could become a useful tool for weather forecasters in order to better predict the occurrence of heat waves and warm spells.

  1. An analysis of heat wave trends using heat index in East Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparta, W.; Yatim, A. N. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the heat wave trends in East Malaysia based on the National Weather Services (NWS) Heat Index. The heat index was calculated by using mean temperature and mean relative humidity on monthly basis for 5 meteorological stations in East Malaysia during the period 2008 to 2010. The trends for heat wave were estimated from Heat Index based on the least square regression analysis at each station level. Results showed that the heat wave trends are increasing at all stations. The highest heat index was occurred in Sandakan on July 2010 with heat index 35°C while the lowest heat index happened at Kuching in January 2009 with 27.3°C. From the heat wave observed, East Malaysia is still in caution categories or normal condition (27°C-32°C) and the extreme caution (32°C-41°C) was observed during southwest monsoon (May-July). The safety condition of heat waves in East Malaysia is possibly due to weak to moderate El Nino occurred during the period of observation.

  2. Bulk Ion Heating with ICRF Waves in Tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantsinen, M. J.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER a...

  3. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  4. An "H-index" for summer heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuling, Ryan; Vautard, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Heat waves are among the most severely impacting natural disasters with which we contend. Recent summer "mega-heatwave" extremes in France (2003) and Russia (2010) lead to impacts on ecosystems and economic sectors, as well as increased mortality rates. Appropriate adaptation measures and improved early warning systems are necessary to cope with more frequent phenomena such as those that occurred in the last decade. A simple scale, that allows both identification, definition and ranking of individual heat wave events based on environmental conditions and potential for societal impact, is lacking. Such magnitude scale could also help to evaluate the evolution of heat waves in multi-model climate projections as compared to current climate. A simple index, easy to calculate and communicate, is designed to capture both the intensity and duration of summer heat waves. The index, analogous to the Hirsch index for citations, expresses the magnitude of a heat wave event (H) by the number of subsequent days H over which the daily average apparent temperature anomaly exceeds H K. It accounts for the magnitude of the day- and night-time temperature anomalies, humidity and wind, as well as for the duration of the heat wave episode. As a preliminary application, we calculated H over a 36 year-long global set of meteorological station data, after a careful quality check procedure. We show that these events, as characterised by H, have doubled in number over the past few decades. We also show that large magnitude heat waves (say H≥8) occur essentially in mid to high latitudes and over continental areas.

  5. Social media responses to heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jihoon; Uejio, Christopher K.

    2017-07-01

    Social network services (SNSs) may benefit public health by augmenting surveillance and distributing information to the public. In this study, we collected Twitter data focusing on six different heat-related themes (air conditioning, cooling center, dehydration, electrical outage, energy assistance, and heat) for 182 days from May 7 to November 3, 2014. First, exploratory linear regression associated outdoor heat exposure to the theme-specific tweet counts for five study cities (Los Angeles, New York, Chicago, Houston, and Atlanta). Next, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) time series models formally associated heat exposure to the combined count of heat and air conditioning tweets while controlling for temporal autocorrelation. Finally, we examined the spatial and temporal distribution of energy assistance and cooling center tweets. The result indicates that the number of tweets in most themes exhibited a significant positive relationship with maximum temperature. The ARIMA model results suggest that each city shows a slightly different relationship between heat exposure and the tweet count. A one-degree change in the temperature correspondingly increased the Box-Cox transformed tweets by 0.09 for Atlanta, 0.07 for Los Angeles, and 0.01 for New York City. The energy assistance and cooling center theme tweets suggest that only a few municipalities used Twitter for public service announcements. The timing of the energy assistance tweets suggests that most jurisdictions provide heating instead of cooling energy assistance.

  6. Study of heat-stress levels in naturally ventilated sheep barns during heat waves: development and assessment of regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, D. K.; Bartzanas, T.; Panagakis, P.; Zhang, G.; Kittas, C.

    2016-11-01

    It is well documented that heat-stress burdens sheep welfare and productivity. Peak heat-stress levels are observed when high temperatures prevail, i.e. during heat waves; however, continuous measurements inside livestock buildings are not usually available for long periods so as to study the variation of summer heat-stress levels for several years, especially during extreme hot weather. Α methodology to develop a long time series of summer temperature and relative humidity inside naturally ventilated sheep barns is proposed. The accuracy and the transferability of the developed linear regression models were verified. Temperature Humidity Index (THI) was used to assess sheep's potential heat-stress. Τhe variation of THI inside a barn during heat wave and non-heat wave days was examined, and the results were comparatively assessed. The analysis showed that sheep were exposed to moderate, severe, and extreme severe heat-stress in 10, 21 and 66 % of hours, respectively, during heat wave days, while the corresponding values during non-heat wave days were 14, 33 and 43 %, respectively. The heat load on sheep was much higher during heat wave events than during non-heat wave periods. Additionally, based on the averaged diurnal variation of THI, it was concluded that extreme severe heat-stress conditions were prevailing between 1000 and 2400 hours local time during heat wave days. Cool off night periods were never and extremely rarely detected during heat wave and non-heat wave days, respectively.

  7. Public crowdsensing of heat waves by social media data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Valentina; Crisci, Alfonso; Morabito, Marco; Nesi, Paolo; Pantaleo, Gianni

    2017-07-01

    Investigating on society-related heat wave hazards is a global issue concerning the people health. In the last two decades, Europe experienced several severe heat wave episodes with catastrophic effects in term of human mortality (2003, 2010 and 2015). Recent climate investigations confirm that this threat will represent a key issue for the resiliency of urban communities in next decades. Several important mitigation actions (Heat-Health Action Plans) against heat hazards have been already implemented in some WHO (World Health Organization) European region member states to encourage preparedness and response to extreme heat events. Nowadays, social media (SM) offer new opportunities to indirectly measure the impact of heat waves on society. Using the crowdsensing concept, a micro-blogging platform like Twitter may be used as a distributed network of mobile sensors that react to external events by exchanging messages (tweets). This work presents a preliminary analysis of tweets related to heat waves that occurred in Italy in summer 2015. Using TwitterVigilance dashboard, developed by the University of Florence, a sample of tweets related to heat conditions was retrieved, stored and analyzed for main features. Significant associations between the daily increase in tweets and extreme temperatures were presented. The daily volume of Twitter users and messages revealed to be a valuable indicator of heat wave impact at the local level, in urban areas. Furthermore, with the help of Generalized Additive Model (GAM), the volume of tweets in certain locations has been used to estimate thresholds of local discomfort conditions. These city-specific thresholds are the result of dissimilar climatic conditions and risk cultures.

  8. Public crowdsensing of heat waves by social media data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Grasso

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigating on society-related heat wave hazards is a global issue concerning the people health. In the last two decades, Europe experienced several severe heat wave episodes with catastrophic effects in term of human mortality (2003, 2010 and 2015. Recent climate investigations confirm that this threat will represent a key issue for the resiliency of urban communities in next decades. Several important mitigation actions (Heat-Health Action Plans against heat hazards have been already implemented in some WHO (World Health Organization European region member states to encourage preparedness and response to extreme heat events. Nowadays, social media (SM offer new opportunities to indirectly measure the impact of heat waves on society. Using the crowdsensing concept, a micro-blogging platform like Twitter may be used as a distributed network of mobile sensors that react to external events by exchanging messages (tweets. This work presents a preliminary analysis of tweets related to heat waves that occurred in Italy in summer 2015. Using TwitterVigilance dashboard, developed by the University of Florence, a sample of tweets related to heat conditions was retrieved, stored and analyzed for main features. Significant associations between the daily increase in tweets and extreme temperatures were presented. The daily volume of Twitter users and messages revealed to be a valuable indicator of heat wave impact at the local level, in urban areas. Furthermore, with the help of Generalized Additive Model (GAM, the volume of tweets in certain locations has been used to estimate thresholds of local discomfort conditions. These city-specific thresholds are the result of dissimilar climatic conditions and risk cultures.

  9. Exploring the role of Alfvén waves in heating the solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sayak; Gekelman, W.; Hahn, M.; Vincena, S.; Savin, D. W.

    2017-10-01

    The solar corona, the outer atmosphere of the Sun, is 200 times hotter than the underlying visible surface of the Sun. Recent coronal observations find Alfvén wave damping at unexpectedly low heights in the corona, suggesting that Alfvén waves may contribute to the heating of the corona to temperatures of 106 K. Dissipation of wave energy may occur due to gradients in the Alfvén speed along the coronal magnetic field lines. These gradients may cause wave reflection, which subsequently generates turbulence. Furthermore, the presence of gradients in the Alfvén speed across the magnetic field line may lead to phase mixing, which can promote additional nonlinear damping mechanisms. We are studying various wave dissipation processes under conditions similar to the solar corona, using the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California, at Los Angeles. Here we will present the results of our initial experiments exploring the effectiveness of gradients in the Alfvén speed along the magnetic field in reflecting Alfvén waves and reducing the amplitude of Alfvén waves transmitted across a gradient. This work is supported, in part, by the DoE, NSF, and NASA. The Basic Plasma Science facility is supported by the DoE OFES and the NSF.

  10. Evidence for wave heating in the solar corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael

    2013-07-01

    The temperature of the Sun increases over a short distance from a few thousand degrees in the photosphere to over a million degrees in the corona. To understand coronal heating is one of the major problems in astrophysics. There is general agreement that the energy source is convective motion in and below the photosphere. It remains to determine how this mechanical energy is transported outward into the corona and then deposited as heat. Two classes of models have been proposed, namely those that rely on magnetic reconnection and those that rely on waves, particularly Alfvén waves. There is increasing evidence that waves are ubiquitous in the corona. However, a difficulty for wave-driven models has been that most theories predict Alfvén waves to be undamped in the corona, and therefore they cannot dissipate their energy into heat. Our research has shown unambiguous observational evidence that the waves do damp at sufficiently low heights in the corona to be important for coronal heating. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Southern California coastal response to CMIP5 projected 21st century wave conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegermiller, C.; Erikson, L. H.; Barnard, P.; Adams, P. N.

    2016-02-01

    Recent projections of 21st century Eastern North Pacific deep-water wave conditions under climate change scenarios predict slightly decreased significant wave heights, increased peak wave periods, and more southerly wave directions offshore of Southern California relative to historical conditions. Combined dynamical and statistical efforts were employed to project wave climate-driven changes in local erosion and accretion patterns along the Southern California coast based on these deep-water wave projections. The numerical wave model SWAN was forced with USACE WIS hindcast bulk wave parameters and reanalysis near-surface winds to generate nearshore wave conditions at the 5 m contour from 1980-2010. A nontraditional lookup table was created to establish the functional relationship between deep-water wave conditions defined by the ERA-Interim wave reanalysis and nearshore wave conditions simulated with SWAN. Historical and future deep-water wave time series were translated to the nearshore via the lookup table. Refraction across the continental shelf reduces the difference between projected and historical nearshore wave angles. Never the less, changes in gradients in longshore transport, resulting from long-term changes in wave angle, create new hot spots for erosion and accretion. This work identifies potentially vulnerable areas on which to focus protection and mitigation efforts and provides an approach for assessing how the future evolution of the wave climate due to climate change may affect coastal processes and hazards.

  12. Strong SH-to-Love wave scattering off the Southern California Continental Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunquan; Zhan, Zhongwen; Hauksson, Egill; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Seismic scattering is commonly observed and results from wave propagation in heterogeneous medium. Yet, deterministic characterization of scatterers associated with lateral heterogeneities remains challenging. In this study, we analyze broadband waveforms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network and observe strongly scattered Love waves following the arrival of teleseismic SH wave. These scattered Love waves travel approximately in the same (azimuthal) direction as the incident SH wave at a dominant period of ~10 s but at an apparent velocity of ~3.6 km/s as compared to the ~11 km/s for the SH wave. Back-projection suggests that this strong scattering is associated with pronounced bathymetric relief in the Southern California Continental Borderland, in particular the Patton Escarpment. Finite-difference simulations using a simplified 2-D bathymetric and crustal model are able to predict the arrival times and amplitudes of major scatterers. The modeling suggests a relatively low shear wave velocity in the Continental Borderland.

  13. Strong SH-to-Love Wave Scattering off the Southern California Continental Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunquan; Zhan, Zhongwen; Hauksson, Egill; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2017-10-01

    Seismic scattering is commonly observed and results from wave propagation in heterogeneous medium. Yet deterministic characterization of scatterers associated with lateral heterogeneities remains challenging. In this study, we analyze broadband waveforms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network and observe strongly scattered Love waves following the arrival of teleseismic SH wave. These scattered Love waves travel approximately in the same (azimuthal) direction as the incident SH wave at a dominant period of 10 s but at an apparent velocity of 3.6 km/s as compared to the 11 km/s for the SH wave. Back projection suggests that this strong scattering is associated with pronounced bathymetric relief in the Southern California Continental Borderland, in particular the Patton Escarpment. Finite-difference simulations using a simplified 2-D bathymetric and crustal model are able to predict the arrival times and amplitudes of major scatterers. The modeling suggests a relatively low shear wave velocity in the Continental Borderland.

  14. Crustal thickness estimates for Baja California, Sonora, and Sinaloa, Mexico, using disperse surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pineda, Leobardo; Rebollar, Cecilio J.; Quintanar, Luis

    2007-04-01

    Dispersed surface waves of regional events recorded at Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs (NARS)-Baja and Red Sísmica de Banda Ancha (RESBAN) networks located over the Baja California Peninsula, Sonora, and Sinaloa, Mexico, were used to estimate shear wave elastic models and crustal thickness. We analyzed fundamental modes of surface waves with period between 10 and 40 s. Multiple filter analysis and the inversion method described by Herrmann and Ammon (2003) was used. Crustal thickness estimates for the Peninsular Ranges of Northern Baja California agree with those obtained by previous studies in the Peninsular Ranges of Northern Baja California. We analyzed dispersion of surface waves with northwest-southeast travel paths along the east and west sides of the Baja California Peninsula as well as a northwest-southeast travel path along the western sides of the Mexican states of Sonora and Sinaloa. It was found that the crustal structure east of the Baja California Peninsula is similar to the structure of Sonora and Sinaloa. The correlation between those two structures suggests dextral offset of the order of 275 ± 25 km if we consider Baja California Peninsula as a rigid body moving toward the northwest relative to the North America plate. This displacement between the structures is in agreement with the displacement determined by the dating of Miocene deposits located in San Felipe on the Baja California Peninsula (Pacific plate), and Isle Tiburon located west of Sonora (North America plate).

  15. Mesoscale heat waves induced by orography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Gladich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the analysis of an unusual and sudden thermal fluctuation that interested portions of Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy during the night of 27 July 1983. The whole 1983 summer was extremely warm in Europe and in particular on the Italian peninsula, from the Alps down to Sicily. Nevertheless, the day of 27 July 1983 in Friuli Venezia Giulia deserves special attention because the observed maximum temperatures did not occur during day-time but during night-time (from 23:00 up to 24:00 LT, 21:00–22:00 UTC. Peaks of 34.8°C and values of relative humidity of the order of 28% were registered by the official network of weather stations. This event interested mainly the central-eastern part of the plain of Friuli Venezia Giulia, a few kilometers far from the Slovenian border and relieves. The thermal anomalies lasted up to an hour, then temperatures decreased toward values more usual for the climate of the month. The study of this event is carried out with the aid of the AR-WRF numerical atmospheric model, initialized through the ECMWF analysis. The numerical simulations highlight the important role played by orography, jointly with the peculiar thermal structure of the atmosphere, for the enhancing of the internal wave pattern over that area. According to the sensitivity studies realized, the amplification of the internal wave pattern might represent a possible explanation for that meteorological enigma.

  16. Seasonal variation of geostrophic velocity and heat flux at the entrance to the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, A. S.; Castro, Ruben; Collins, Curtis A.; Durazo, Reginaldo

    2004-07-01

    The divergence of the surface heat flux in the Gulf of California is driven by the exchange of waters with the Pacific Ocean [, 1994]. To estimate these exchanges, geostrophic velocities and heat fluxes were computed from nine sections of closely spaced conductivity-temperature-depth stations across the entrance to the Gulf of California between 1992 and 1999. The mean geostrophic velocity was composed of two alternating cores of inflow and outflow. The two cores that were adjacent to either coast were broader and contained the highest inflow (0.40 m/s) and outflow (-0.25 m/s) velocities, supporting the general idea of inflow along Sinaloa and outflow along Baja California (BC). During winter and spring the baroclinic outflow usually occurred near BC, and the baroclinic inflow occurred either through the center of the section and/or along the Sinaloa coast. Both inflow and outflow cores were ˜45 km wide and extended deeper than 700 dbar. Summer and fall showed a more complex pattern, with alternating cores of inflow and outflow but with inflow along Sinaloa on all cruises. During May the inflow was mainly in the center of the section, while outflow was concentrated along BC. The heat transport associated with the geostrophic flow was calculated and compared with estimates derived from surface heat budgets for the gulf [, 1994]. Both the geostrophic flow and heat transport exhibited (for the first empirical orthagonal function mode) a strong seasonal signal with the maximum amplitude in May and the minimum amplitude in late October. A seasonal fit to the net heat transport had an amplitude of 50 × 1012 W and phase of 133 days, in good agreement with other authors, further validating the geostrophic velocity estimates. The heat added to (subtracted from) the Pacific Ocean accelerates (decelerates) alongshore currents and appears to propagate ˜10° westward as a Rossby wave.

  17. Sampling extreme heat waves using a large deviation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Ragone, Francesco; Wouters, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    For some aspects of climate dynamics, rare dynamical events may play a key role. A class of such problems are extreme events that have huge impacts, for instance extreme heat waves. The study of those events from numerical models is extremely difficult because of the rareness of the event and the related numerical cost. This makes detection and attribution study in this context even more difficult as factual and counterfactual studies have to be sampled through prohibitively long simulations, in order to be compared. In the recent past, new theoretical and numerical tools have been developed in the statistical mechanics community, in order to specifically study such rare events. Those approaches are based on large deviation theory for complex dynamical systems. We will present some of these tools and apply them to a paradigmatic example in climate dynamics: we will study the probability of extreme heat waves over Europe, in a comprehensive climate model. We will demonstrate that large deviation algorithms allow to sample extremely efficiently extreme heat waves. The number of sampled extreme heat waves is increased by a factor of a few hundreds to a thousand, for a given numerical cost, compared to direct numerical simulations. We discuss the future implications for detection and attribution studies.

  18. Heat Waves, Droughts, and Preferences for Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Ann L.; Conover, Emily; Videras, Julio; Wu, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a new household survey on environmental attitudes, behaviors, and policy preferences, we find that current weather conditions affect preferences for environmental regulation. Individuals who have recently experienced extreme weather (heat waves or droughts) are more likely to support laws to protect the environment. We find…

  19. Impact of simulated heat waves on soybean physiology and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    With increases in mean global temperatures and associated climate change, extreme temperature events are predicted to increase in both intensity and frequency. Despite the clearly documented negative public health impacts of heat waves, the impact on physiology and yields of key agricultural species...

  20. Responses of tree species to heat waves and extreme heat events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teskey, Robert; Wertin, Timothy; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Ameye, Maarten; McGuire, Mary Anne; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-09-01

    The number and intensity of heat waves has increased, and this trend is likely to continue throughout the 21st century. Often, heat waves are accompanied by drought conditions. It is projected that the global land area experiencing heat waves will double by 2020, and quadruple by 2040. Extreme heat events can impact a wide variety of tree functions. At the leaf level, photosynthesis is reduced, photooxidative stress increases, leaves abscise and the growth rate of remaining leaves decreases. In some species, stomatal conductance increases at high temperatures, which may be a mechanism for leaf cooling. At the whole plant level, heat stress can decrease growth and shift biomass allocation. When drought stress accompanies heat waves, the negative effects of heat stress are exacerbated and can lead to tree mortality. However, some species exhibit remarkable tolerance to thermal stress. Responses include changes that minimize stress on photosynthesis and reductions in dark respiration. Although there have been few studies to date, there is evidence of within-species genetic variation in thermal tolerance, which could be important to exploit in production forestry systems. Understanding the mechanisms of differing tree responses to extreme temperature events may be critically important for understanding how tree species will be affected by climate change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E.; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended.

  2. Three‐dimensional aspects of the seasonal heat balance in the Gulf of California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beron‐Vera, F. J; Ripa, P

    2000-01-01

    Previously unresolved three‐dimensional aspects of the time mean, as well as the annual and semiannual cycles of the heat transport, are studied in the Gulf of California using a minimal box model suggested by the hydrographic data...

  3. On the construction of heat wave in symmetric case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, A. L.; Lempert, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    A nonlinear second-order parabolic equation with two variables is considered. Under additional conditions, this equation can be interpreted as the porous medium equation in case of dependence of the unknown function on two variables: time and distance from the origin. The equation has a wide variety of applications in continuum mechanics, for example, it is applicable for mathematical modeling of filtration of ideal polytropic gas in porous media or heat conduction. The authors deal with a special solutions which are usually called heat waves. A special feature of such solution is that it consists of two continuously joined solutions. The first of them is trivial and the second one is nonnegative. The heat wave solution can have discontinuous derivatives on the line of joint which is called the front of heat wave, i.e. smoothness of the solution, generally speaking, is broken. The most natural problem which has such solutions is the so-called “the Sakharov problem of the initiation of a heat wave”. New solutions of the problem in the form of multiple power series for physical variables are constructed. The coefficients of the series are obtained from tridiagonal systems of linear algebraic equations. Herewith, the elements of matrices of this systems depend on the matrix order and the condition of the diagonal dominance is not fulfilled. The recurrent formulas for the coefficients are suggested.

  4. Probability of US Heat Waves Affected by a Subseasonal Planetary Wave Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Haiyan; Branstator, Grant; Wang, Hailan; Meehl, Gerald A.; Washington, Warren M.

    2013-01-01

    Heat waves are thought to result from subseasonal atmospheric variability. Atmospheric phenomena driven by tropical convection, such as the Asian monsoon, have been considered potential sources of predictability on subseasonal timescales. Mid-latitude atmospheric dynamics have been considered too chaotic to allow significant prediction skill of lead times beyond the typical 10-day range of weather forecasts. Here we use a 12,000-year integration of an atmospheric general circulation model to identify a pattern of subseasonal atmospheric variability that can help improve forecast skill for heat waves in the United States. We find that heat waves tend to be preceded by 15-20 days by a pattern of anomalous atmospheric planetary waves with a wavenumber of 5. This circulation pattern can arise as a result of internal atmospheric dynamics and is not necessarily linked to tropical heating.We conclude that some mid-latitude circulation anomalies that increase the probability of heat waves are predictable beyond the typical weather forecast range.

  5. Bulk ion heating with ICRF waves in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M. J., E-mail: mervi.mantsinen@bsc.es [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona (Spain); Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V. V.; Kappatou, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Odstrčil, T.; Tardini, G.; Bernert, M.; Dux, R.; Maraschek, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ryter, F.; Stober, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Nocente, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, CNR, Milano (Italy); Hellsten, T. [Dept. of Fusion Plasma Physics, EES, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Mantica, P.; Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, CNR, Milano (Italy); Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, Lyngby (Denmark); and others

    2015-12-10

    Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER and DEMO operation. This is of particular importance for the bulk ion heating capabilities of ICRF waves. Efficient bulk ion heating with the standard ITER ICRF scheme, i.e. the second harmonic heating of tritium with or without {sup 3}He minority, was demonstrated in experiments carried out in deuterium-tritium plasmas on JET and TFTR and is confirmed by ICRF modelling. This paper focuses on recent experiments with {sup 3}He minority heating for bulk ion heating on the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak with ITER-relevant all-tungsten PFCs. An increase of 80% in the central ion temperature T{sub i} from 3 to 5.5 keV was achieved when 3 MW of ICRF power tuned to the central {sup 3}He ion cyclotron resonance was added to 4.5 MW of deuterium NBI. The radial gradient of the T{sub i} profile reached locally values up to about 50 keV/m and the normalized logarithmic ion temperature gradients R/LT{sub i} of about 20, which are unusually large for AUG plasmas. The large changes in the T{sub i} profiles were accompanied by significant changes in measured plasma toroidal rotation, plasma impurity profiles and MHD activity, which indicate concomitant changes in plasma properties with the application of ICRF waves. When the {sup 3}He concentration was increased above the optimum range for bulk ion heating, a weaker peaking of the ion temperature profile was observed, in line with theoretical expectations.

  6. Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Groissbock, Markus [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cardoso, Goncalo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Andreas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lai, Judy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Governor Brown’s research priorities include an additional 6.5 GW of combined heat and power (CHP) by 2030. As of 2009, roughly 0.25 GW of small natural gas and biogas fired CHP is documented by the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) database. The SGIP is set to expire, and the anticipated grid de-carbonization based on the development of 20 GW of renewable energy will influence the CHP adoption. Thus, an integrated optimization approach for this analysis was chosen that allows optimizing the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER) such as photovoltaics (PV), CHP, storage technologies, etc. in the California commercial sector from the building owners’ perspective. To solve this DER adoption problem the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and used extensively to address the problem of optimally investing and scheduling DER under multiple settings, has been used. The application of CHP at large industrial sites is well known, and much of its potential is already being realized. Conversely, commercial sector CHP, especially those above 50 to 100 kW peak electricity load, is widely overlooked. In order to analyze the role of DER in CO2 reduction, 147 representative sites in different climate zones were selected from the California Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS). About 8000 individual optimization runs, with different assumptions for the electric tariffs, natural gas costs, marginal grid CO2 emissions, and nitrogen oxide treatment costs, SGIP, fuel cell lifetime, fuel cell efficiency, PV installation costs, and payback periods for investments have been performed. The most optimistic CHP potential contribution in this sector in 2020 will be 2.7 GW. However, this result requires a SGIP in 2020, 46% average electric efficiency for fuel cells, a payback period for investments of 10 years, and a CO2 focused approach of the building owners. In

  7. The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianguo; Zheng, Youfei; Tang, Xu; Guo, Changyi; Li, Liping; Song, Guixiang; Zhen, Xinrong; Yuan, Dong; Kalkstein, Adam J; Li, Furong

    2010-01-01

    With global warming forecast to continue into the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions, these future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological records (1975-2004) were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai. Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998-2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An examination of summer mortality rates in and around Shanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects from exposure to extreme thermal conditions.

  8. The effect of heat waves on dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, A; Felici, A; Esposito, S; Bernabucci, U; Bertocchi, L; Maresca, C; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the mortality of dairy cows during heat waves. Mortality data (46,610 cases) referred to dairy cows older than 24mo that died on a farm from all causes from May 1 to September 30 during a 6-yr period (2002-2007). Weather data were obtained from 12 weather stations located in different areas of Italy. Heat waves were defined for each weather station as a period of at least 3 consecutive days, from May 1 to September 30 (2002-2007), when the daily maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the reference distribution (1971-2000). Summer days were classified as days in heat wave (HW) or not in heat wave (nHW). Days in HW were numbered to evaluate the relationship between mortality and length of the wave. Finally, the first 3 nHW days after the end of a heat wave were also considered to account for potential prolonged effects. The mortality risk was evaluated using a case-crossover design. A conditional logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for mortality recorded in HW compared with that recorded in nHW days pooled and stratified by duration of exposure, age of cows, and month of occurrence. Dairy cows mortality was greater during HW compared with nHW days. Furthermore, compared with nHW days, the risk of mortality continued to be higher during the 3 d after the end of HW. Mortality increased with the length of the HW. Considering deaths stratified by age, cows up to 28mo were not affected by HW, whereas all the other age categories of older cows (29-60, 61-96, and >96mo) showed a greater mortality when exposed to HW. The risk of death during HW was higher in early summer months. In particular, the highest risk of mortality was observed during June HW. Present results strongly support the implementation of adaptation strategies which may limit heat stress-related impairment of animal welfare and economic losses in dairy cow farm during HW. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  9. Heating of solar coronal holes by reflected Alfven waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.; An, C.-H.

    1992-01-01

    As a continuation of the work of Moore et al. (1991), who found evidence that coronal holes are heated by Alfven waves that are reflected back down within the coronal holes, this paper shows that to demonstrate this evidence, it is only necessary to consider a subset of the Moore et al. models, namely, those having radial magnetic field. Using these models, it is shown that the Alfven velocity is not constant in the atmosphere of coronal holes, but changes with height (or radius), causing downward reflection of all upward Alfven waves of sufficiently long wavelength (or period).

  10. Heat-related inpatient hospitalizations and emergency room visits among California residents, May-September, 2000-2010.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of heat-related inpatient hospitalizations and ED visits among California residents for the years...

  11. Dynamical effects of vegetation on the 2003 summer heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stéfanon, M.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamical effects of vegetation on the 2003 summer heat waves Marc Stéfanon(1), Philippe Drobinski(1), Fabio D'Andrea(1), Nathalie de Noblet(2) (1) IPSL/LMD, France; (2) IPSL/LSCE, France The land surface model (LSM) in regional climate models (RCMs) plays a key role in energy and water exchanges between land and atmosphere. The vegetation can affect these exchanges through physical, biophysical and bio-geophysical mechanisms. It participates to evapo-transpiration process which determines the partitioning of net radiation between sensible and latent heat flux, through water evaporation from soil throughout the entire root system. For seasonal timescale leaf cover change induced leaf-area index (LAI) and albedo changes, impacting the Earth's radiative balance. In addition, atmospheric chemistry and carbon concentration has a direct effect on plant stomatal structure, the main exchange interface with the atmosphere. Therefore the surface energy balance is intimately linked to the carbon cycle and vegetation conditions and an accurate representation of the Earth's surface is required to improve the performance of RCMs. It is even more crucial for extreme events as heat waves and droughts which display highly nonlinear behaviour. If triggering of heat waves is determined by the large scale, local coupled processes over land can amplify or inhibit heat trough several feedback mechanism. One set of two simulation has been conducted with WRF, using different LSMs. They aim to study drought and vegetation effect on the dynamical and hydrological processes controlling the occurrence and life cycle of heat waves In the MORCE plateform, the dynamical global vegetation model (DGVM) ORCHIDEE is implemented in the atmospheric module WRF. ORCHIDEE is based on three different modules. The first module, called SECHIBA, describes the fast processes such as exchanges of energy and water between the atmosphere and the biosphere, and the soil water budget. The phenology and carbon

  12. Using forecast and observed weather data to assess performance of forecast products in identifying heat waves and estimating heat wave effects on mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yeh-Hsin; Schwartz, Joel D; Rood, Richard B; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-09-01

    Heat wave and health warning systems are activated based on forecasts of health-threatening hot weather. We estimated heat-mortality associations based on forecast and observed weather data in Detroit, Michigan, and compared the accuracy of forecast products for predicting heat waves. We derived and compared apparent temperature (AT) and heat wave days (with heat waves defined as ≥ 2 days of daily mean AT ≥ 95th percentile of warm-season average) from weather observations and six different forecast products. We used Poisson regression with and without adjustment for ozone and/or PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) to estimate and compare associations of daily all-cause mortality with observed and predicted AT and heat wave days. The 1-day-ahead forecast of a local operational product, Revised Digital Forecast, had about half the number of false positives compared with all other forecasts. On average, controlling for heat waves, days with observed AT = 25.3°C were associated with 3.5% higher mortality (95% CI: -1.6, 8.8%) than days with AT = 8.5°C. Observed heat wave days were associated with 6.2% higher mortality (95% CI: -0.4, 13.2%) than non-heat wave days. The accuracy of predictions varied, but associations between mortality and forecast heat generally tended to overestimate heat effects, whereas associations with forecast heat waves tended to underestimate heat wave effects, relative to associations based on observed weather metrics. Our findings suggest that incorporating knowledge of local conditions may improve the accuracy of predictions used to activate heat wave and health warning systems.

  13. Observation of Electron Bernstein Wave Heating in the RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzman, Andrew; Anderson, Jay; Goetz, John; Forest, Cary

    2017-10-01

    The first observation of RF heating in a reversed field pinch (RFP) using the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) has been demonstrated on MST. Efficient mode conversion of an outboard-launched X mode wave at 5.5 GHz leads to Doppler-shifted resonant absorption (ωrf = nωce-k||v||) for a broad range (n =1-7) of harmonics. The dynamics of EBW-heated electrons are measured using a spatial distribution of solid targets with diametrically opposed x-ray detectors. EBW heating produces a clear supra-thermal electron tail in MST. Radial deposition of the EBW is controlled with |B|and is measured using the HXR flux emitted from an insertable probe. In the thick-shelled MST RFP, the radial accessibility of EBW is limited to r/a >0.8 ( 10cm) by magnetic field error induced by the porthole necessary for the antenna. Experimental measurements show EBW propagation inward through a stochastic magnetic field. EBW-heated test electrons are used as a direct probe of edge (r/a >0.9) radial transport, showing a modest transition from `standard' to reduced-tearing RFP operation. Electron loss is too fast for collisional effects and implies a large non-collisional radial diffusivity. EBW heating has been demonstrated in reduced magnetic stochasticity plasmas with β = 15-20%. Work supported by USDOE.

  14. A new way to convert Alfven waves into heat in solar coronal holes - Intermittent magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. L.; Hammer, R.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.; An, C.-H.

    1992-01-01

    In our recent analysis of Alfven wave reflection in solar coronal holes, we found evidence that coronal holes are heated by reflected Alfven waves. This result suggests that the reflection is inherent to the process that dissipates these Alfven waves into heat. We propose a novel dissipation process that is driven by the reflection, and that plausibly dominates the heating in coronal holes.

  15. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  16. Persistent heat waves in Eastern China: Dynamical processes and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freychet, Nicolas; Tett, Simon; Wang, Jun; Hegerl, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Recent trends (1979-2010) in summer heat waves (HW) over Central-Eastern China and their atmospheric drivers are investigated using the ERA Interim re-analysis. We focus on regional scale (105E-125E,30N-40N) and persistent events (more than 5 days), thus threatening for a large population. A composite analysis is used to highlight the main dynamical processes associated with such events, and lag-composites show the evolution of the circulation before and after the heat waves. A particular attention is made on the possible feedbacks that can extend the length of the events. The trend in the occurrence of such events is analysed and we conducted a simple attribution analysis to separate the changes in the background temperature and the possible changes in the atmospheric anomalies.

  17. Multivariate Statistical Modelling of Drought and Heat Wave Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Colin; Widmann, Martin; Vrac, Mathieu; Maraun, Douglas; Bevaqua, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Multivariate Statistical Modelling of Drought and Heat Wave Events C. Manning1,2, M. Widmann1, M. Vrac2, D. Maraun3, E. Bevaqua2,3 1. School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK 2. Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, (LSCE-IPSL), Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France 3. Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz, Austria Compound extreme events are a combination of two or more contributing events which in themselves may not be extreme but through their joint occurrence produce an extreme impact. Compound events are noted in the latest IPCC report as an important type of extreme event that have been given little attention so far. As part of the CE:LLO project (Compound Events: muLtivariate statisticaL mOdelling) we are developing a multivariate statistical model to gain an understanding of the dependence structure of certain compound events. One focus of this project is on the interaction between drought and heat wave events. Soil moisture has both a local and non-local effect on the occurrence of heat waves where it strongly controls the latent heat flux affecting the transfer of sensible heat to the atmosphere. These processes can create a feedback whereby a heat wave maybe amplified or suppressed by the soil moisture preconditioning, and vice versa, the heat wave may in turn have an effect on soil conditions. An aim of this project is to capture this dependence in order to correctly describe the joint probabilities of these conditions and the resulting probability of their compound impact. We will show an application of Pair Copula Constructions (PCCs) to study the aforementioned compound event. PCCs allow in theory for the formulation of multivariate dependence structures in any dimension where the PCC is a decomposition of a multivariate distribution into a product of bivariate components modelled using copulas. A

  18. Heating by transverse waves in simulated coronal loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampelas, K.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Antolin, P.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Recent numerical studies of oscillating flux tubes have established the significance of resonant absorption in the damping of propagating transverse oscillations in coronal loops. The nonlinear nature of the mechanism has been examined alongside the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, which is expected to manifest in the resonant layers at the edges of the flux tubes. While these two processes have been hypothesized to heat coronal loops through the dissipation of wave energy into smaller scales, the occurring mixing with the hotter surroundings can potentially hide this effect. Aims: We aim to study the effects of wave heating from driven and standing kink waves in a coronal loop. Methods: Using the MPI-AMRVAC code, we perform ideal, three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of both (a) footpoint driven and (b) free standing oscillations in a straight coronal flux tube, in the presence of numerical resistivity. Results: We have observed the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz eddies at the loop boundary layer of all three models considered here, as well as an increase of the volume averaged temperature inside the loop. The main heating mechanism in our setups was Ohmic dissipation, as indicated by the higher values for the temperatures and current densities located near the footpoints. The introduction of a temperature gradient between the inner tube and the surrounding plasma, suggests that the mixing of the two regions, in the case of hotter environment, greatly increases the temperature of the tube at the site of the strongest turbulence, beyond the contribution of the aforementioned wave heating mechanism. Three movies associated to Fig. 1 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Periodic heat wave determination of thermal diffusivity of clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responses of Ankaful, Tetegu (# 1 & 2) and Mamfe clays to periodic heat waves were analyzed to deter-mine the thermal diffusivity values. The temperature amplitude attenuated with depth of penetration, while the phase shift increased. The thermal diffusivity values ranged from 3.0 - 9.5 x 10P-7P mP2P/s by amplitude ...

  20. The 2011 marine heat wave in Cockburn Sound, southwest Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Rose

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Over 2000 km of Western Australian coastline experienced a significant marine heat wave in February and March 2011. Seawater temperature anomalies of +2–4 °C were recorded at a number of locations, and satellite-derived SSTs (sea surface temperatures were the highest on record. Here, we present seawater temperatures from southwestern Australia and describe, in detail, the marine climatology of Cockburn Sound, a large, multiple-use coastal embayment. We compared temperature and dissolved oxygen levels in 2011 with data from routine monitoring conducted from 2002–2010. A significant warming event, 2–4 °C in magnitude, persisted for > 8 weeks, and seawater temperatures at 10 to 20 m depth were significantly higher than those recorded in the previous 9 yr. Dissolved oxygen levels were depressed at most monitoring sites, being ~ 2 mg l−1 lower than usual in early March 2011. Ecological responses to short-term extreme events are poorly understood, but evidence from elsewhere along the Western Australian coastline suggests that the heat wave was associated with high rates of coral bleaching; fish, invertebrate and macroalgae mortalities; and algal blooms. However, there is a paucity of historical information on ecologically-sensitive habitats and taxa in Cockburn Sound, so that formal examinations of biological responses to the heat wave were not possible. The 2011 heat wave provided insights into conditions that may become more prevalent in Cockburn Sound, and elsewhere, if the intensity and frequency of short-term extreme events increases as predicted.

  1. Heat waves in Senegal : detection, characterization and associated processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnacoussa Sambou, Marie Jeanne; Janicot, Serge; Badiane, Daouda; Pohl, Benjamin; Dieng, Abdou L.; Gaye, Amadou T.

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric configuration and synoptic evolution of patterns associated with Senegalese heat wave (HW) are examined on the period 1979-2014 using the Global Surface Summary of the Day (GSOD) observational database and ERA-Interim reanalysis. Since there is no objective and uniform definition of HW events, threshold methods based on atmospheric variables as daily maximum (Tmax) / minimum (Tmin) temperatures and daily mean apparent temperature (AT) are used to define HW threshold detection. Each criterion is related to a specific category of HW events: Tmax (warm day events), Tmin (warm night events) and AT (combining temperature and moisture). These definitions are used in order to characterize as well as possible the warm events over the Senegalese regions (oceanic versus continental region). Statistics on time evolution and spatial distribution of warm events are carried out over the 2 seasons of maximum temperature (March-May and October-November). For each season, a composite of HW events, as well as the most extended event over Senegal (as a case study) are analyzed using usual atmospheric fields (sea level pressure, geopotential height, total column water content, wind components, 2m temperature). This study is part of the project ACASIS (https://acasis.locean-ipsl.upmc.fr/doku.php) on heat waves occurrences over the Sahel and their impact on health. Keywords: heat wave, Senegal, ACASIS.

  2. Plasma heating via electron Bernstein wave heating using ordinary and extraodinary mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parvazian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically confined plasma can be heated with high power microwave sources. In spherical torus the electron plasma frequency exeeds the electron cyclotron frequency (EC and, as a consequence, electromagnetic waves at fundamental and low harmonic EC cannot propagate within the plasma. In contrast, electron Bernstein waves (EBWs readily propagate in spherical torus plasma and are absorbed strongly at the electron cyclotron resonances. In order to proagate EBWs beyond the upper hybrid resonance (UHR, that surrounds the plasma, the EBWs must convert via one of two processes to either ordinary (O-mode or extraordinary (X-mode electromagnetic waves. O-mode and X-mode electromagnetic waves lunched at the plasma edge can convert to the electron Bernstein waves (EBWs which can propagate without and cut-off into the core of the plasma and damp on electrons. Since the electron Bernstein wave (EBW has no cut-off limits, it is well suited to heat an over-dense plasma by resonant absorption. An important problem is to calculate mode conversion coefficient that is very sensitive to density. Mode conversion coefficient depends on Budden parameter ( ñ and density scale length (Ln in upper hybrid resonance (UHR. In Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST, the optimized conversion efficiency approached 72.5% when Ln was 4.94 cm and the magnetic field was 0.475 Tesla in the core of the plasma.

  3. Atmospheric aerosol variability above the Paris Area during the 2015 heat wave - Comparison with the 2003 and 2006 heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Shang, Xiaoxia

    2017-12-01

    The aerosol layers during the heat wave of July 2015 over Paris Area have been studied using a N2-Raman lidar with co- and cross-polarized channels. The lidar observations are examined to allow the identification of main aerosol types and their origins, in synergy with measurements of the AERONET sunphotometer network and back trajectory studies from the HYSPLIT model. The results are compatible with spaceborne observations of MODIS and CALIOP. As for previous heat waves of August 2003 and July 2006 occurring in France, the aerosol optical thickness is very large, up to 0.8 at the lidar wavelength of 355 nm (between 0.5 and 0.7 at 550 nm). However, air mass trajectories highlight that the observed aerosol layers may have multiple and diverse origins during the 2015 heat wave (North America, Northwest Africa, Southern and Northern Europe). Biomass burning, pollution and desert dust aerosols have been identified, using linear particle depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and analysis of back trajectories initiated at the altitudes and arrival times of the plumes. These layers are elevated and are shown to have little impact on surface aerosol concentrations (PM10 albedo distributions at 550 nm: 0.90 ± 0.03, 0.95 ± 0.02 and 0.93 ± 0.04 for 2003, 2006 and 2015, respectively.

  4. Geodynamics of the Gulf of California from surface wave tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Paulssen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Gulf of California, which forms part of the Pacific-North American plate boundary, is an ideal place to investigate upper mantle dynamics in a continental rifting area. With 19 seismic stations located around the gulf, the NARS-Baja experiment (2002-2008) was designed to image its crustal and

  5. Future changes of temperature and heat waves in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Huang, Wendy; Lin, Qianguo; Liao, Renfei; Fan, Yurui

    2017-05-01

    Apparent changes in the temperature patterns in recent years brought many challenges to the province of Ontario, Canada. As the need for adapting to climate change challenges increases, the development of reliable climate projections becomes a crucial task. In this study, a regional climate modeling system, Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS), is used to simulate the temperature patterns in Ontario. Three PRECIS runs with a resolution of 25 km × 25 km are carried out to simulate the present (1961-1990) temperature variations. There is a good match between the simulated and observed data, which validates the performance of PRECIS in reproducing temperature changes in Ontario. Future changes of daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures during the period 2071-2100 are then projected under the IPCC SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios using PRECIS. Spatial variations of annual mean temperature, mean diurnal range, and temperature seasonality are generated. Furthermore, heat waves defined based on the exceedance of local climatology and their temporal and spatial characteristics are analyzed. The results indicate that the highest temperature and the most intensive heat waves are most likely to occur at the Toronto-Windsor corridor in Southern Ontario. The Northern Ontario, in spite of the relatively low projected temperature, would be under the risk of long-lasting heat waves, and thus needs effective measures to enhance its climate resilience in the future. This study can assist the decision makers in better understanding the future temperature changes in Ontario and provide decision support for mitigating heat-related loss.

  6. ALFVÉNIC WAVE HEATING OF THE UPPER CHROMOSPHERE IN FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reep, J. W. [National Research Council Post-Doc Program, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Russell, A. J. B., E-mail: jeffrey.reep.ctr@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: arussell@maths.dundee.ac.uk [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-10

    We have developed a numerical model of flare heating due to the dissipation of Alfvénic waves propagating from the corona to the chromosphere. With this model, we present an investigation of the key parameters of these waves on the energy transport, heating, and subsequent dynamics. For sufficiently high frequencies and perpendicular wave numbers, the waves dissipate significantly in the upper chromosphere, strongly heating it to flare temperatures. This heating can then drive strong chromospheric evaporation, bringing hot and dense plasma to the corona. We therefore find three important conclusions: (1) Alfvénic waves, propagating from the corona to the chromosphere, are capable of heating the upper chromosphere and the corona, (2) the atmospheric response to heating due to the dissipation of Alfvénic waves can be strikingly similar to heating by an electron beam, and (3) this heating can produce explosive evaporation.

  7. Calculations of Temperature, Conductive Heat Flux, and Heat Wave Velocities Due to Radiant Heating of Opaque Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    presentation and the help of Dr. Anthony Kotlar with the Mathcad calculations are greatly appreciated. vi INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. 1 1. Introduction...Corporation. Mathcad 2001; Needham, MA, 2001. 4. Joseph, D. D.; Preziosi, L. Heat Waves. Rev. Modern Physics 1989, 61 (1), 41–73. 5. Cao, B-Y; Guo, Z-Y

  8. Attribution and mitigation of heat wave-induced urban heat storage change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Kotthaus, Simone; Li, Dan; Ward, H. C.; Gao, Zhiqiu; Ni, Guang-Heng; Grimmond, C. S. B.

    2017-11-01

    When the urban heat island (UHI) effect coincides with a heat wave (HW), thermal stress in cities is exacerbated. Understanding the surface energy balance (SEB) responses to HWs is critical for improving predictions of the synergies between UHIs and HWs. This study evaluates observed SEB characteristics in four cities (Beijing, Łódź, London and Swindon), along with their ambient meteorological conditions, for both HW and background summer climate scenarios. Using the Analytical Objective Hysteresis Model (AnOHM), particular emphasis is on the heat storage. The results demonstrate that in London and Swindon the amount of daytime heat storage and its fraction relative to the net all-wave radiation increase under HWs. Results further demonstrate that such increases are strongly tied to lower wind speeds. The effects of different UHI mitigation measures on heat storage are assessed using AnOHM. Results reveal that use of reflective materials and maintaining higher soil moisture availability can offset the adverse effects of increased heat storage.

  9. Could sulfate aerosol emissions be used for regional heat wave mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D.; Neelin, J.; Li, Q.; CHEN, D.

    2012-12-01

    Geoengineering applications by injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere are under consideration as a measure of last resort to counter global warming. Here adaptation to a potential regional-scale application to offset the impacts of heat waves is critically examined. The effect of regional-scale sulfate aerosol emission over California in each of two days of the July 2006 heat wave using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with fully coupled chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify potential reductions in surface temperature as a function of emission rates in the lower stratosphere. Over the range considered, afternoon temperature reductions scale almost linearly with emissions. Local meteorological factors yield geographical differences in surface air temperature sensitivity. For emission rates of approximately 30 μ g m-2 s-1 of sulfate aerosols (with standard WRF-Chem size distribution) over the region, temperature decreases of around 7oC result during the middle part of the day over the Central Valley, one of the hardest hit by the heat wave. Regions more ventilated with oceanic air such as Los Angeles have slightly smaller reductions. The length of the hottest part of the day is also reduced. Advection effects on the aerosol cloud must be more carefully forecast for smaller emission regions. Verification of the impacts could be done via measurements of differences in reflected and surface downward shortwave. Such regional geoengineering applications with specific near-term target effects but smaller cost and side effects could potentially provide a means of testing larger scale applications. However, design trade-offs differ from global applications and the size of the required emissions and the necessity of emission close to the target region raise substantial concerns. The evaluation of this regional scale application is thus consistent with global model evaluations emphasizing that mitigation via reduction of fossil fuels remains

  10. Impact of Cold Waves and Heat Waves on the Energy Production Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Añel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cold and heat waves represent a significant problem for the electricity generation sector. The disruptions cold and heat waves can cause in power production are beyond their consumption impacts through, for instance, higher peak demand. Unexpected stops at thermal or nuclear power plants by excessively high-temperature water constitute clear examples of this. In this invited paper, we use past case studies to analyze the impact of these kinds of events on power production. Subsequently we discuss how events of this nature may evolve over the future in view of their association to climate change. Although the review is not exhaustive, we do expose some ideas that may be relevant for decision making in this area

  11. Coast of California Storm and Tidal Waves Study. Southern California Coastal Processes Data Summary,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    3.1.2-5). As soon as longshore motions develop, sea level -74- WIND V -CURRENT V AT CARNATION ~-40 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 5 10 Is 20 25 JULY AUGUST 1973... Orange County, California," 26 pp. Houston, J. R., 1978, ’Tsunami run-up predictions for the west coast," p. 2885-2896 in Coastal Zone 󈨒, v. IV, ASCE...B, C and D, Laguna Niguel., Orange County, California," unpublished consulting report with Larry Seeman Associates, Newport Beach. CA, p. 64-84

  12. Projected heat wave characteristics over the Korean Peninsula during the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongsoo; Olson, Roman; An, Soon-Il

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperatures globally, and consequently more frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves are likely to occur. Ambiguity in defining heat waves appropriately makes it difficult to compare changes in heat wave events over time. This study provides a quantitative definition of a heat wave and makes probabilistic heat wave projections for the Korean Peninsula under two global warming scenarios. Changes to heat waves under global warming are investigated using the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) and 8.5 (RCP8.5) experiments from 30 coupled models participating in phase five of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project. Probabilistic climate projections from multi-model ensembles have been constructed using both simple and weighted averaging. Results from both methods are similar and show that heat waves will be more intense, frequent, and longer lasting. These trends are more apparent under the RCP8.5 scenario as compared to the RCP4.5 scenario. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, typical heat waves are projected to become stronger than any heat wave experienced in the recent measurement record. Furthermore, under this scenario, it cannot be ruled out that Korea will experience heat wave conditions spanning almost an entire summer before the end of the 21st century.

  13. [Impact of heat waves on non-accidental deaths in Jinan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liu, S Q; Zhou, L; Gong, S P; Liu, Y L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J

    2016-02-20

    To assess the impact of heat waves on non-accidental deaths, and to investigate the influencing factors for deaths caused by heat waves in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data for summer days with or without heat waves in Jinan from 2012 to 2014 were collected, and a cross-over analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of heat waves on non-accidental deaths and deaths caused by other reasons. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the influencing factors for deaths caused by heat waves. The risks of non-accidental deaths and deaths caused by circulation system diseases during the days with heat waves were 1.82 times(95% CI: 1.47~2.36) and 1.53 times(95% CI: 1.14~2.07) those during the days without heat waves. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that old age(≥75 years)(OR=1.184, 95% CI: 1.068~1.313), low educational level(OR=1.187, 95% CI: 1.064~1.324), and deaths outside hospital(OR=1.105, 95% CI: 1.009~1.210) were associated with the high risk of deaths during the days with heat waves. Heat waves significantly increase the risk of non-accidental deaths and deaths caused by circulation system diseases in Jinan, and the deaths during the days with heat waves are related to age, educational level, and place of death.

  14. Effects of Simulated Heat Waves on Cardiovascular Functions in Senile Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiakun Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the effects of simulated heat waves on cardiovascular disease in senile mice was investigated. Heat waves were simulated in a TEM1880 meteorological environment simulation chamber, according to a heat wave that occurred in July 2001 in Nanjing, China. Eighteen senile mice were divided into control, heat wave, and heat wave BH4 groups, respectively. Mice in the heat wave and heat wave BH4 groups were exposed to simulated heat waves in the simulation chamber. The levels of ET-1, NO, HSP60, SOD, TNF, sICAM-1, and HIF-1α in each group of mice were measured after heat wave simulation. Results show that heat waves decreased SOD activity in the myocardial tissue of senile mice, increased NO, HSP60, TNF, sICAM-1, and HIF-1α levels, and slightly decreased ET-1 levels, BH4 can relieve the effects of heat waves on various biological indicators. After a comprehensive analysis of the experiments above, we draw the followings conclusions regarding the influence of heat waves on senile mice: excess HSP60 activated immune cells, and induced endothelial cells and macrophages to secrete large amounts of ICAM-1, TNF-α, and other inflammatory cytokines, it also activated the inflammation response in the body and damaged the coronary endothelial cell structure, which increased the permeability of blood vessel intima and decreased SOD activity in cardiac tissues. The oxidation of lipoproteins in the blood increased, and large amounts of cholesterol were generated. Cholesterol penetrated the intima and deposited on the blood vessel wall, forming atherosclerosis and leading to the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in senile mice. These results maybe are useful for studying the effects of heat waves on elderly humans, which we discussed in the discussion chapter.

  15. Heat waves and cause-specific mortality at all ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Sartini, Claudio; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Dadvand, Payam; Cunillera, Jordi; Ostro, Bart; Sunyer, Jordi; Medina-Ramón, Mercedes

    2011-11-01

    Mortality has been shown to increase with extremely hot ambient temperatures. Details on the specific cause of mortality can be useful for improving preventive policies. Infants are often identified as a population that is vulnerable to extreme heat conditions; however, information on heat and infant mortality is scarce, with no studies reporting on cause-specific mortality. The study includes all deaths in the Catalonia region of Spain during the warm seasons of 1983-2006 (503,389 deaths). We used the case-crossover design to evaluate the association between the occurrence of extremely hot days (days with maximum temperature above the 95th percentile) and mortality. Total mortality and infant mortality were stratified into 66 and 8 causes of death, respectively. Three consecutive hot days increased total daily mortality by 19%. We calculated that 1.6% of all deaths were attributable to heat. About 40% of attributable deaths did not occur during heat-wave periods. The causes of death that were increased included cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, mental and nervous system disorders, infectious and digestive system diseases, diabetes, and some external causes such as suicide. In infants, the effect of heat was observed on the same day and was detected only for conditions originating in the perinatal period (relative risk = 1.53 [95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.02]). Within the perinatal causes, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive system, and hemorrhagic and hematologic disorders were the causes of death with stronger effects. Heat contributes to an increase in mortality from several causes. In infants, the first week of life is the most critical window of vulnerability.

  16. Quantifying impacts of heat waves on power grid operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Xinda; Wu, Di; Rice, Jennie S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Lu, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is projected to cause an increase in the severity and frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves and droughts. Such changes present planning and operating challenges and risks to many economic sectors. In the electricity sector, statistics of extreme events in the past have been used to help plan for future peak loads, determine associated infrastructure requirements, and evaluate operational risks, but industry-standard planning tools have yet to be coupled with or informed by temperature models to explore the impacts of the "new normal" on planning studies. For example, high ambient temperatures during heat waves reduce the output capacity and efficiency of gas fired combustion turbines just when they are needed most to meet peak demands. This paper describes the development and application of a production cost and unit commitment model coupled to high resolution, hourly temperature data and a temperature dependent load model. The coupled system has the ability to represent the impacts of hourly temperatures on load conditions and available capacity and efficiency of combustion turbines, and therefore capture the potential impacts on system reliability and production cost. Ongoing work expands this capability to address the impacts of water availability and temperature on power grid operation.

  17. Sahelian springtime heat waves and their evolution over the past 60 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Jessica; Guichard, Françoise; Bouniol, Dominique; Couvreux, Fleur; Roehrig, Romain

    2017-04-01

    The Sahel is a semi-arid region which experiences very high temperature both during day- and night-times: monthly-mean temperatures in Spring typically oscillate between 30 and 40°C. At the same time a strong climatic warming has been observed over the past 60 years in this region: it reaches +1,5°C over April-May. Thus heat waves in this region have severe impacts on health, ecosystem, agriculture and more broadly economical activities, which will probably worsen in the context of climate change. However, heat waves in the Sahel remain poorly studied. The present work documents Sahelian heat waves and assesses their evolution across the last 60 years. Properties of heat waves are sensitive to the way they are detected. Here, we use a methodology based on anomalies that allows to filter the seasonal, inter-annual and climatic evolutions, using a percentile-type threshold. It is applied separately to daily maximum and minimum temperatures and leads to two types of heat waves: day- and night-time ones. This separation matters because physical processes linked to minimum and maximum temperatures can be quite distinct. The changes in both types of heat wave were studied over the period 1950-2012 using the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature gridded product: several heat wave characteristics were investigated, including morphological ones such as the length and the spatial extent of the event, the heat wave intensity and the associated warming trends. We found no significant trends in the frequency, duration and spatial extent of both types of heat waves, while on the other hand their maximum and minimum temperatures displayed significant positive trends. They were mainly explained by the regional warming. By contrast, with a standard climatic heat index using percentile-threshold on raw temperatures, both day- and night-time heat wave frequencies were increasing, and while the day-time heat waves were getting longer and larger, the night-time heat waves were getting

  18. The impact of heat waves on surface urban heat island and local economy in Cluj-Napoca city, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, Ioana; Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Rus, Adina Viorica; Roşca, Cristina Florina; Harpa, Gabriela Victoria; Ciupertea, Antoniu-Flavius; Rus, Ionuţ

    2017-07-01

    The association between heat waves and the urban heat island effect can increase the impact on environment and society inducing biophysical hazards. Heat stress and their associated public health problems are among the most frequent. This paper explores the heat waves impact on surface urban heat island and on the local economy loss during three heat periods in Cluj-Napoca city in the summer of 2015. The heat wave events were identified based on daily maximum temperature, and they were divided into three classes considering the intensity threshold: moderate heat waves (daily maximum temperature exceeding the 90th percentile), severe heat waves (daily maximum temperature over the 95th percentile), and extremely severe heat waves (daily maximum temperature exceeding the 98th percentile). The minimum length of an event was of minimum three consecutive days. The surface urban heat island was detected based on land surface temperature derived from Landsat 8 thermal infrared data, while the economic impact was estimated based on data on work force structure and work productivity in Cluj-Napoca derived from the data released by Eurostat, National Bank of Romania, and National Institute of Statistics. The results indicate that the intensity and spatial extension of surface urban heat island could be governed by the magnitude of the heat wave event, but due to the low number of satellite images available, we should consider this information only as preliminary results. Thermal infrared remote sensing has proven to be a very efficient method to study surface urban heat island, due to the fact that the synoptic conditions associated with heat wave events usually favor cloud free image. The resolution of the OLI_TIRS sensor provided good results for a mid-extension city, but the low revisiting time is still a drawback. The potential economic loss was calculated for the working days during heat waves and the estimated loss reached more than 2.5 mil. EUR for each heat wave day

  19. Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWavesm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakeslee, Samuel Norman [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Inst. for Advanced Technology and Public Policy; Toman, William I. [Protean Wave Energy Ltd., Los Osos, CA (United States); Williams, Richard B. [Leidos Maritime Solutions, Reston, VA (United States); Davy, Douglas M. [CH2M, Sacramento, CA (United States); West, Anna [Kearns and West, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Connet, Randy M. [Omega Power Engineers, LLC, Anaheim, CA (United States); Thompson, Janet [Kearns and West, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Dolan, Dale [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Baltimore, Craig [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Jacobson, Paul [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States); Hagerman, George [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Potter, Chris [California Natural Resources Agency, Sacramento, CA (United States); Dooher, Brendan [Pacific Gas and Electric Company, San Francisco, CA (United States); Wendt, Dean [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Sheppard, Colin [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States); Harris, Andrew [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States); Lawson, W. Graham [Power Delivery Consultants, Inc., Albany, NY (United States)

    2017-07-31

    The California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Feasibility Study project was funded over multiple phases by the Department of Energy to perform an interdisciplinary feasibility assessment to analyze the engineering, permitting, and stakeholder requirements to establish an open water, fully energetic, grid connected, wave energy test center off the coast of California for the purposes of advancing U.S. wave energy research, development, and testing capabilities. Work under this grant included wave energy resource characterization, grid impact and interconnection requirements, port infrastructure and maritime industry capability/suitability to accommodate the industry at research, demonstration and commercial scale, and macro and micro siting considerations. CalWave Phase I performed a macro-siting and down-selection process focusing on two potential test sites in California: Humboldt Bay and Vandenberg Air Force Base. This work resulted in the Vandenberg Air Force Base site being chosen as the most favorable site based on a peer reviewed criteria matrix. CalWave Phase II focused on four siting location alternatives along the Vandenberg Air Force Base coastline and culminated with a final siting down-selection. Key outcomes from this work include completion of preliminary engineering and systems integration work, a robust turnkey cost estimate, shoreside and subsea hazards assessment, storm wave analysis, lessons learned reports from several maritime disciplines, test center benchmarking as compared to existing international test sites, analysis of existing applicable environmental literature, the completion of a preliminary regulatory, permitting and licensing roadmap, robust interaction and engagement with state and federal regulatory agency personnel and local stakeholders, and the population of a Draft Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Preliminary Application Document (PAD). Analysis of existing offshore oil and gas infrastructure was also performed

  20. Time-series Analysis of Heat Waves and Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, 1993 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianqi; Sarnat, Stefanie E; Grundstein, Andrew J; Winquist, Andrea; Chang, Howard H

    2017-05-31

    Heat waves are extreme weather events that have been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, there is limited knowledge of heat waves' impact on population morbidity, such as emergency department (ED) visits. We investigated associations between heat waves and ED visits for 17 outcomes in Atlanta over a 20-year period, 1993-2012. Associations were estimated using Poisson log-linear models controlling for continuous air temperature, dew-point temperature, day of week, holidays, and time trends. We defined heat waves as periods of consecutive days with temperatures beyond the 98th percentile of the temperature distribution over the period from 1945-2012. We considered six heat wave definitions using maximum, minimum, and average air temperatures and apparent temperatures. Associations by heat wave characteristics were examined. Among all outcome-heat wave combinations, associations were strongest between ED visits for acute renal failure and heat waves defined by maximum apparent temperature at lag 0 [relative risk (RR) = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.29], ED visits for ischemic stroke and heat waves defined by minimum temperature at lag 0 (RR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02-1.17), and ED visits for intestinal infection and heat waves defined by average temperature at lag 1 (RR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00-1.21). ED visits for all internal causes were associated with heat waves defined by maximum temperature at lag 1 (RR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.04). Heat waves can confer additional risks of ED visits beyond those of daily air temperature, even in a region with high air-conditioning prevalence. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP44.

  1. Thermal bioclimate in Strasbourg - the 2003 heat wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; de Rocco, Manuela; Najjar, Georges

    2009-10-01

    This case study highlights the implications of the 2003 heat wave for the city of Strasbourg, France. The urban centers of France and other European countries were particularly affected by the heat wave. In some urban areas, the mortality rate was 60% above the expected value (Institute de Veille Sanitaire, 2003). The 2003 heat wave demonstrated once again that populations in urban centers are much more affected by extreme meteorological events than people living in rural areas. The aim of this analysis is to explore differences in thermal comfort conditions of (a) the city center of Strasbourg, and (b) its hinterland. The differences in thermal conditions existing between rural and urban areas are quantified by using a bio-climatological index termed physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). This index is based on the human energy balance and builds a relevant index for the quantification of the thermal environment of humans. We calculate the PET for the years 2003 and 2004 to highlight the temporal changes in the severity of climate extremes. The spatial scope of this study is improved compared to previous works in the field through the inclusion of PET calculations for five different sites on a central place in Strasbourg (Place Kléber). The calculations are characterized by different sky view factors and are compared to the reference site, which is located in a rural area. In the rural hinterland (Entzheim), the analysis of PET indicates a strong cold thermal stress during the winter months but no significant stress in summer. In 2003, summer temperatures were sensed as warmer compared to other years, but did not reach the extreme temperatures that may cause severe heat stress. For both the rural and the urban study sites PET was higher in the summer of 2003 than in 2004, which reflects the inferior thermal conditions in the urban area during the heat wave in 2003. For the entire study period, urban and rural day-time PET reached similar maximal values

  2. Modeling of ICRF wave propagation and heating in EAST with the full-wave code TORIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, E. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Porkolab, M.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2015-11-01

    Access to advanced tokamak (AT) scenarios in EAST depends on efficient coupling of the launched ion-cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) power for heating and lower-hybrid waves to the plasma for steady-state current drive. This work builds on recent predictions from the full-wave code TORIC that have shown significant reductions in loading, resulting in improved heating efficiency, by operating with smaller phasing between antenna straps. The density regime of typical EAST experiments produces perpendicular wavelengths of the fast-wave that are comparable to the minor radius of the plasma, resulting in cavity-resonance effects and requiring full-spectrum analysis for accurate calculations of the antenna coupling. This study examines the effects of antenna phasing, as well as plasma density, temperature and current as control parameters for achieving good coupling of the ICRF power in the pursuit of the optimal conditions for AT plasmas. This work is funded by the US DOE under contract DoE Grant DE-SC0010492.

  3. A heat wave and dispersal cause dominance shift and decrease biomass in experimental metacommunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, Sarah Lena; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Matthiessen, Birte

    In experimental metacommunities with marine benthic microalgae, we tested whether heat stress changes effects of connectivity and habitat heterogeneity on metacommunity structure and functioning, by manipulating a simulated heat wave, dispersal frequency and a light intensity gradient. We found that

  4. The impact of heat waves on mortality in 9 European cities: results from the EuroHEAT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisanti Luigi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed at developing a standardized heat wave definition to estimate and compare the impact on mortality by gender, age and death causes in Europe during summers 1990-2004 and 2003, separately, accounting for heat wave duration and intensity. Methods Heat waves were defined considering both maximum apparent temperature and minimum temperature and classified by intensity, duration and timing during summer. The effect was estimated as percent increase in daily mortality during heat wave days compared to non heat wave days in people over 65 years. City specific and pooled estimates by gender, age and cause of death were calculated. Results The effect of heat waves showed great geographical heterogeneity among cities. Considering all years, except 2003, the increase in mortality during heat wave days ranged from + 7.6% in Munich to + 33.6% in Milan. The increase was up to 3-times greater during episodes of long duration and high intensity. Pooled results showed a greater impact in Mediterranean (+ 21.8% for total mortality than in North Continental (+ 12.4% cities. The highest effect was observed for respiratory diseases and among women aged 75-84 years. In 2003 the highest impact was observed in cities where heat wave episode was characterized by unusual meteorological conditions. Conclusions Climate change scenarios indicate that extreme events are expected to increase in the future even in regions where heat waves are not frequent. Considering our results prevention programs should specifically target the elderly, women and those suffering from chronic respiratory disorders, thus reducing the impact on mortality.

  5. Geothermal direct-heat study: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    Potential applications of geothermal energy which would be compatible with the agricultural activities in the county were identified and a plan to attract potential users to the area was developed. The intent of the first effort was to identify general classifications of industries which could utilize geothermal heat in production processes. Two levels of analyses were utilized for this effort. Initially, activities relying on previously developed engineering and industrial concepts were investigated to determine capital costs, employment, and potential energy savings. Second, innovative concepts not yet fully developed were investigated to determine their potential applicability to the agricultural base of the county. These investigations indicated that the major potential applications of geothermal heat would involve industries related to food processing or other direct agriculture-related uses of raw materials produced or imported to the county. An implementation plan which can be utilized by the county to market direct heat applications was developed. A socioeconomics analysis examined the potential effects on the county from development of direct heat projects. The county's planning and permitting requirements for dirct heat projects were also examined.

  6. WAVE DIRECTION and Other Data from FIXED STATIONS From Coastal Waters of California from 19750313 to 19750525 (NODC Accession 9400044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains Wave Surface Data collected in Coastal Waters of California between March 13, 1975 and May 25, 1975. Water surface elevation data was...

  7. Nearshore waves in southern California: hindcast, and modeled historical and 21st-century projected time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Abstract: This data release presents modeled time series of nearshore waves along the southern California coast, from Point Conception to the Mexican border,...

  8. Heat waves and morbidity: current knowledge and further direction-a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Gu, Shaohua; Bi, Peng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-05-18

    In the past few decades, several devastating heat wave events have significantly challenged public health. As these events are projected to increase in both severity and frequency in the future, it is important to assess the relationship between heat waves and the health indicators that can be used in the early warning systems to guide the public health response. Yet there is a knowledge gap in the impact of heat waves on morbidity. In this study, a comprehensive review was conducted to assess the relationship between heat waves and different morbidity indicators, and to identify the vulnerable populations. The PubMed and ScienceDirect database were used to retrieve published literature in English from 1985 to 2014 on the relationship between heat waves and morbidity, and the following MeSH terms and keywords were used: heat wave, heat wave, morbidity, hospital admission, hospitalization, emergency call, emergency medical services, and outpatient visit. Thirty-three studies were included in the final analysis. Most studies found a short-term negative health impact of heat waves on morbidity. The elderly, children, and males were more vulnerable during heat waves, and the medical care demand increased for those with existing chronic diseases. Some social factors, such as lower socioeconomic status, can contribute to heat-susceptibility. In terms of study methods and heat wave definitions, there remain inconsistencies and uncertainties. Relevant policies and guidelines need to be developed to protect vulnerable populations. Morbidity indicators should be adopted in heat wave early warning systems in order to guide the effective implementation of public health actions.

  9. Forest response to heat waves at the dry timberline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakir, D.; Rotenberg, E.; Tatrinov, F.; Ogee, J.; Maseyk, K.

    2012-04-01

    Predictions of climate change consistently indicate continuous warming and drying for the entire Mediterranean basin and other regions during the next century. Investigating forest functioning at the current dry and hot "timberline" has therefore implications for predicting future forest distribution. In such investigations we should consider the forest adjustments to extreme conditions both at the long-term average climate basis, as at the time-scale of episodic extreme events, such as heat waves and droughts. Investigating both aspects in a 45-yr old semi-arid pine forest at the dry timberline (MuSICA) was used to test our understandings of underlying processes, and our ability to account for such differential responses.

  10. Excitation of kinetic Alfven waves by resonant mode conversion and longitudinal heating of magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motohiko; Sato, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, A.

    1989-01-01

    The excitation of the kinetic Alfven wave by resonant mode conversion and longitudinal heating of the plasma by the kinetic Alfven wave were demonstrated on the basis of a macroscale particle simulation. The longitudinal electron current was shown to be cancelled by the ions. The kinetic Alfven wave produced an ordered motion of the plasma particles in the wave propagation direction. The electrons were pushed forward along the ambient magnetic field by absorbing the kinetic Alfven wave through the Landau resonance.

  11. Urban warming in the 2013 summer heat wave in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yan, Zhongwei; Quan, Xiao-Wei; Feng, Jinming

    2017-05-01

    The impact of urban warming during the 2013 July-August extreme heat wave event across the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China was assessed. Using a newly developed high-resolution, land-use dataset, urban stations were identified from a total of 101 stations in the YRD. The difference between urban and non-urban/rural stations indicates that urban warming reached 1.22 °C in the 2013 summer heat wave. The new land-use dataset was then input to the Weather Research and Forecasting model to further understand the dynamical/physical processes of the urban warming during the heat wave. The model-simulated urban warming is 1.5 °C. Impacts of urbanization on near-surface temperature had strong diurnal variation, reaching a peak at 19:00 LST, around sunset. In the daytime, urban warming was mainly caused by enhanced sensible heat fluxes and longwave radiation from the surface. Because of reduced latent heat flux and increased heat capacity, urban ground stored much more heat than rural ground during the daytime, which is later released as sensible heat flux from the surface at night, leading to the nocturnal urban warming. The simulation results also suggest a positive feedback between urban warming and heat wave intensity, which makes the heat wave more intense in urban than rural areas and the urban warming during the extreme heat wave stronger than its climatological mean.

  12. Potential for Solar Industrial Process Heat in the United States: A Look at California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig

    2016-05-31

    The use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors (e.g., parabolic trough or linear Fresnel systems) for industrial thermal applications has been increasing in global interest in the last few years. In particular, the European Union has been tracking the deployment of Solar Industrial Process Heat (SIPH) plants. Although relatively few plants have been deployed in the United States (U.S.), we establish that 29% of primary energy consumption in the U.S. manufacturing sector is used for process heating. Perhaps the best opportunities for SIPH reside in the state of California due to its excellent solar resource, strong industrial base, and solar-friendly policies. This initial analysis identified 48 TWhth/year of process heat demand in certain California industries versus a technical solar-thermal energy potential of 23,000 TWhth/year. The top five users of industrial steam in the state are highlighted and special attention paid to the food sector that has been an early adopter of SIPH in other countries. A comparison of the cost of heat from solar-thermal collectors versus the cost of industrial natural gas in California indicates that SIPH may be cost effective even under the relatively low gas prices seen in 2014. A recommended next step is the identification of pilot project candidates to promote the deployment of SIPH facilities.

  13. Potential for solar industrial process heat in the United States: A look at California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig

    2016-05-01

    The use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors (e.g., parabolic trough or linear Fresnel systems) for industrial thermal applications has been increasing in global interest in the last few years. In particular, the European Union has been tracking the deployment of Solar Industrial Process Heat (SIPH) plants. Although relatively few plants have been deployed in the United States (U.S.), we establish that 29% of primary energy consumption in the U.S. manufacturing sector is used for process heating. Perhaps the best opportunities for SIPH reside in the state of California due to its excellent solar resource, strong industrial base, and solar-friendly policies. This initial analysis identified 48 TWhth/year of process heat demand in certain California industries versus a technical solar-thermal energy potential of 23,000 TWhth/year. The top five users of industrial steam in the state are highlighted and special attention paid to the food sector that has been an early adopter of SIPH in other countries. A comparison of the cost of heat from solar-thermal collectors versus the cost of industrial natural gas in California indicates that SIPH may be cost effective even under the relatively low gas prices seen in 2014. A recommended next step is the identification of pilot project candidates to promote the deployment of SIPH facilities.

  14. 76 FR 62777 - Forum-Trends and Causes of Observed Changes in Heat Waves, Cold Waves, Floods and Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Forum--Trends and Causes of Observed Changes in Heat Waves, Cold Waves, Floods and Drought AGENCY: National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service....com/a/noaa.gov/heatwaves-coldwaves-floods-drought/ . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brooke Stewart...

  15. Heat waves measured with MODIS land surface temperature data predict changes in avian community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff

    2011-01-01

    Heat waves are expected to become more frequent and severe as climate changes, with unknown consequences for biodiversity. We sought to identify ecologically-relevant broad-scale indicators of heat waves based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and interpolated air temperature data and assess their associations with avian community structure. Specifically, we...

  16. Heat waves according to warm spell duration index in Slovakia during 1901-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochníček, Oliver; Faško, Pavel; Markovič, Ladislav

    2017-04-01

    A heat wave is a prolonged period of extremely high temperatures for a particular region. However, there exist no universal definitions for a heat wave as it is relative to a specific area and to a certain time of year. In fact, average temperatures in one region may be considered heat wave conditions in another. For instance, an average day in the Mediterranean would be regarded as heat wave conditions in Northern Europe. We have known that World Meteorological Organization definition of a heatwave which is "when the daily maximum temperature of more than five consecutive days exceeds the average maximum temperature by 5 °C, the normal period being 1961-1990". This rule has been accepted in contribution Heat waves and warm periods in Slovakia (Oliver Bochníček - Pavol Fa\\vsko - Ladislav Markovič) published (presented) in EGU 2016. To move on we have tried another criterion for heat waves evaluation (according to warm spell duration index, WSDI) and period since 1901 (1951) to 2016. Important for many sectors (hydrology, agriculture, transportation and tourism) is, that heat waves have been expected during the whole year and period, that is why it can have various impacts. Heat waves occurrence gave us interesting results especially after the 1990.

  17. Heat wave hazard classification and risk assessment using artificial intelligence fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Kiranoudis, Chris T; Maiheu, Bino; De Ridder, Koen; Daglis, Ioannis A; Manunta, Paolo; Paganini, Marc

    2013-10-01

    The average summer temperatures as well as the frequency and intensity of hot days and heat waves are expected to increase due to climate change. Motivated by this consequence, we propose a methodology to evaluate the monthly heat wave hazard and risk and its spatial distribution within large cities. A simple urban climate model with assimilated satellite-derived land surface temperature images was used to generate a historic database of urban air temperature fields. Heat wave hazard was then estimated from the analysis of these hourly air temperatures distributed at a 1-km grid over Athens, Greece, by identifying the areas that are more likely to suffer higher temperatures in the case of a heat wave event. Innovation lies in the artificial intelligence fuzzy logic model that was used to classify the heat waves from mild to extreme by taking into consideration their duration, intensity and time of occurrence. The monthly hazard was subsequently estimated as the cumulative effect from the individual heat waves that occurred at each grid cell during a month. Finally, monthly heat wave risk maps were produced integrating geospatial information on the population vulnerability to heat waves calculated from socio-economic variables.

  18. Nonlinear waves in an ultrarelativistic heat-conducting fluid II (Eckart formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Giambò

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a second-order theory for relativistic heat-conducting fluids is derived in the Eckart scheme, based on the assumption that the entropy 4-current should include quadratic terms in the heat flux. In the special case of ultrarelativistic fluids, the velocities of hydrodynamic and thermal weak discontinuity wave fronts are determined and, through the second-order compatibility conditions, the discontinuities associated to the waves and the transport equations for the amplitude of the discontinuities are found out. Finally, for heat wave, plane, cylindrical and spherical diverging waves are also investigated.

  19. [Selective Heating of Membrane-forming Holes in Teflon Film Exposed to Decimeter Waves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, S I; Fesenko, E E; Fesenko, E E

    2015-01-01

    Calculations of heating of membrane-forming holes in Teflon film exposed to decimeter waves were performed. The dependence of the temperature increment in holes on the geometry of holes, electrolyte concentration, and decimeter wave frequency was studied. The kinetics of heating depending on the hole diameter was also obtained. It was concluded that the observed in the experiment effects of the decimeter wave on bilayer lipid membranes resulted from the elevated concentration of decimeter electromagnetic waves in membrane-forming hole that led to selective heating of electrolyte in hole and bilayer lipid membranes.

  20. Heat wave Characteristics in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East using Extreme Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanarhte, Meryem; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Lelieveld, Jos

    2015-04-01

    Heat waves in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East can have large socioeconomic impacts. We apply a newly developed statistical framework, based on extreme value theory, to study the characteristics of heat waves in the region during the period 1973-2010 using data from fifteen measurement stations across the region. The analysis shows increasing trends in the highest daytime temperatures in the Persian Gulf region in summer. Increasing trends in the number of heat waves are found at all stations, whereas the maximum temperature during heat waves is found unchanged, implying no change in their intensity. Furthermore, no significant trends in the heat wave duration are also observed. Return levels are calculated for the individual hot days and found to be very high in the Persian Gulf region.

  1. Process heat in California: Applications and potential for solar energy in the industrial, agricultural and commercial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Bartera, R. E.; Davis, E. S.; Hlavka, G. E.; Pivirotto, D. S.; Yanow, G.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the results of a survey of potential applications of solar energy for supplying process heat requirements in the industrial, agricultural, and commercial sectors of California is presented. Technical, economic, and institutional characteristics of the three sectors are examined. Specific applications for solar energy are then discussed. Finally, implications for California energy policy are discussed along with recommendations for possible actions by the State of California.

  2. Heat stress related dairy cow mortality during heat waves and control periods in rural Southern Ontario from 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Williams, Katherine E; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Hand, Karen; Kelton, David F

    2015-11-27

    Heat stress is a physiological response to extreme environmental heat such as heat waves. Heat stress can result in mortality in dairy cows when extreme heat is both rapidly changing and has a long duration. As a result of climate change, heat waves, which are defined as 3 days of temperatures of 32 °C or above, are an increasingly frequent extreme weather phenomenon in Southern Ontario. Heat waves are increasing the risk for on-farm dairy cow mortality in Southern Ontario. Heat stress indices (HSIs) are generally based on temperature and humidity and provide a relative measure of discomfort which can be used to predict increased risk of on-farm dairy cow mortality. In what follows, the heat stress distribution was described over space and presented with maps. Similarly, on-farm mortality was described and mapped. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that heat waves and related HSI increases during 2010-2012 were associated with increased on-farm dairy cow mortality in Southern Ontario. Mortality records and farm locations for all farms registered in the CanWest Dairy Herd Improvement Program in Southern Ontario were retrieved for 3 heat waves and 6 three-day control periods from 2010 to 2012. A random sample of controls (2:1) was taken from the data set to create a risk-based hybrid design. On-farm heat stress was estimated using data from 37 weather stations and subsequently interpolated across Southern Ontario by geostatistical kriging. A Poisson regression model was applied to assess the on-farm mortality in relation to varying levels of the HSI. For every one unit increase in HSI the on-farm mortality rate across Southern Ontario increases by 1.03 times (CI95% (IRR) = (1.025,1.035); p = ≤ 0.001). With a typical 8.6 unit increase in HSI from a control period to a heat wave, mortality rates are predicted to increase by 1.27 times. Southern Ontario was affected by heat waves, as demonstrated by high levels of heat stress and increased on-farm mortality

  3. Site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and wave propagation at the San Jose, California, dense seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Carver, D.; Williams, R.A.; Harmsen, S.; Zerva, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-motion records from a 52-element dense seismic array near San Jose, California, are analyzed to obtain site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and plane-wave propagation characteristics. The array, located on the eastern side of the Santa Clara Valley south of the San Francisco Bay, is sited over the Evergreen basin, a 7-km-deep depression with Miocene and younger deposits. Site response values below 4 Hz are up to a factor of 2 greater when larger, regional records are included in the analysis, due to strong surface-wave development within the Santa Clara Valley. The pattern of site amplification is the same, however, with local or regional events. Site amplification increases away from the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley, reaching a maximum over the western edge of the Evergreen basin, where the pre-Cenozoic basement shallows rapidly. Amplification then decreases further to the west. This pattern may be caused by lower shallow shear-wave velocities and thicker Quaternary deposits further from the edge of the Santa Clara Valley and generation/trapping of surface waves above the shallowing basement of the western Evergreen basin. Shear-wave velocities from the inversion of site response spectra based on smaller, local earthquakes compare well with those obtained independently from our seismic reflection/refraction measurements. Velocities from the inversion of site spectra that include larger, regional records do not compare well with these measurements. A mix of local and regional events, however, is appropriate for determination of site response to be used in seismic hazard evaluation, since large damaging events would excite both body and surface waves with a wide range in ray parameters. Frequency-wavenumber, plane-wave analysis is used to determine the backazimuth and apparent velocity of coherent phases at the array. Conventional, high-resolution, and multiple signal characterization f-k power spectra and stacked slowness power spectra are

  4. The characteristic of heat wave effects on coronary heart disease mortality in Beijing, China: a time series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxing Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence for the impacts of heat waves on coronary heart disease (CHD mortality in Beijing, capital city of China. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to find a best heat wave definition for CHD mortality; and explore the characteristic of heat wave effects on CHD in Beijing, China. METHODS: We obtained daily data on weather and CHD mortality in Beijing for years 2000-2011. A quasi-Poisson regression model was used to assess the short-term impact of heat waves on CHD mortality in hot season (May-September, while controlling for relative humidity, day of the week, long-term trend and season. We compared 18 heat wave definitions by combining heat wave thresholds (87.5(th, 90.0(th, 92.5(th, 95(th, 97.5(th, and 99(th percentile of daily mean temperature with different duration days (≥ 2 to ≥ 4 days, using Akaike information criterion for quasi-Poisson. We examined whether heat wave effects on CHD mortality were modified by heat wave duration and timing. RESULTS: Heat wave definition using 97.5(th percentile of daily mean temperature (30.5 °C and duration ≥ 2 days produced the best model fit. Based on this heat wave definition, we found that men and elderly were sensitive to the first heat waves of the season, while women and young were sensitive to the second heat waves. In general, the longer duration of heat waves increased the risks of CHD mortality more than shorter duration for elderly. The first two days of heat waves had the highest impact on CHD mortality. Women and elderly were at higher risks than men and young when exposed to heat waves, but the effect differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Heat waves had significant impact on CHD mortality. This finding may have implications for policy making towards protecting human health from heat waves.

  5. Observation of Electron Bernstein Wave Heating in a Reversed Field Pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzman, A. H.; Anderson, J. K.; Diem, S. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Forest, C. B.

    2017-11-01

    The first observation of rf heating in a reversed field pinch (RFP) using the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) is demonstrated on the Madison Symmetric Torus. Propagation across and heating in a stochastic magnetic field is observed. Novel techniques are required to measure the suprathermal electron tail generated by EBW heating in the presence of intense Ohmic heating. rf-heated electrons directly probe the edge transport properties in the RFP; measured loss rates imply a large noncollisional radial diffusivity.

  6. Effects of Autumn and Spring Heat Waves on Seed Germination of High Mountain Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Orsenigo

    Full Text Available Alpine plants are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change and related extreme episodes, such as heat waves. Despite growing interest in the impact of heat waves on alpine plants, knowledge about their effects on regeneration is still fragmentary. Recruitment from seeds will be crucial for the successful migration and survival of these species and will play a key role in their future adaptation to climate change. In this study, we assessed the impacts of heat waves on the seed germination of 53 high mountain plants from the Northern Apennines (Italy. The seeds were exposed to laboratory simulations of three seasonal temperature treatments, derived from real data recorded at a meteorological station near the species growing site, which included two heat wave episodes that occurred both in spring 2003 and in autumn 2011. Moreover, to consider the effect of increasing drought conditions related to heat waves, seed germination was also investigated under four different water potentials. In the absence of heat waves, seed germination mainly occurred in spring, after seeds had experienced autumn and winter seasons. However, heat waves resulted in a significant increase of spring germination in c. 30% of the species and elicited autumn germination in 50%. When heat waves were coupled with drought, seed germination decreased in all species, but did not stop completely. Our results suggest that in the future, heat waves will affect the germination phenology of alpine plants, especially conditionally dormant and strictly cold-adapted chorotypes, by shifting the emergence time from spring to autumn and by increasing the proportion of emerged seedlings. The detrimental effects of heat waves on recruitment success is less likely to be due to the inhibition of seed germination per se, but rather due to seedling survival in seasons, and temperature and water conditions that they are not used to experiencing. Changes in the proportion and

  7. Effects of Autumn and Spring Heat Waves on Seed Germination of High Mountain Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsenigo, Simone; Abeli, Thomas; Rossi, Graziano; Bonasoni, Paolo; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gandini, Maurizia; Mondoni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Alpine plants are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change and related extreme episodes, such as heat waves. Despite growing interest in the impact of heat waves on alpine plants, knowledge about their effects on regeneration is still fragmentary. Recruitment from seeds will be crucial for the successful migration and survival of these species and will play a key role in their future adaptation to climate change. In this study, we assessed the impacts of heat waves on the seed germination of 53 high mountain plants from the Northern Apennines (Italy). The seeds were exposed to laboratory simulations of three seasonal temperature treatments, derived from real data recorded at a meteorological station near the species growing site, which included two heat wave episodes that occurred both in spring 2003 and in autumn 2011. Moreover, to consider the effect of increasing drought conditions related to heat waves, seed germination was also investigated under four different water potentials. In the absence of heat waves, seed germination mainly occurred in spring, after seeds had experienced autumn and winter seasons. However, heat waves resulted in a significant increase of spring germination in c. 30% of the species and elicited autumn germination in 50%. When heat waves were coupled with drought, seed germination decreased in all species, but did not stop completely. Our results suggest that in the future, heat waves will affect the germination phenology of alpine plants, especially conditionally dormant and strictly cold-adapted chorotypes, by shifting the emergence time from spring to autumn and by increasing the proportion of emerged seedlings. The detrimental effects of heat waves on recruitment success is less likely to be due to the inhibition of seed germination per se, but rather due to seedling survival in seasons, and temperature and water conditions that they are not used to experiencing. Changes in the proportion and timing of emergence

  8. Effects of Autumn and Spring Heat Waves on Seed Germination of High Mountain Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsenigo, Simone; Abeli, Thomas; Rossi, Graziano; Bonasoni, Paolo; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gandini, Maurizia; Mondoni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Alpine plants are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change and related extreme episodes, such as heat waves. Despite growing interest in the impact of heat waves on alpine plants, knowledge about their effects on regeneration is still fragmentary. Recruitment from seeds will be crucial for the successful migration and survival of these species and will play a key role in their future adaptation to climate change. In this study, we assessed the impacts of heat waves on the seed germination of 53 high mountain plants from the Northern Apennines (Italy). The seeds were exposed to laboratory simulations of three seasonal temperature treatments, derived from real data recorded at a meteorological station near the species growing site, which included two heat wave episodes that occurred both in spring 2003 and in autumn 2011. Moreover, to consider the effect of increasing drought conditions related to heat waves, seed germination was also investigated under four different water potentials. In the absence of heat waves, seed germination mainly occurred in spring, after seeds had experienced autumn and winter seasons. However, heat waves resulted in a significant increase of spring germination in c. 30% of the species and elicited autumn germination in 50%. When heat waves were coupled with drought, seed germination decreased in all species, but did not stop completely. Our results suggest that in the future, heat waves will affect the germination phenology of alpine plants, especially conditionally dormant and strictly cold-adapted chorotypes, by shifting the emergence time from spring to autumn and by increasing the proportion of emerged seedlings. The detrimental effects of heat waves on recruitment success is less likely to be due to the inhibition of seed germination per se, but rather due to seedling survival in seasons, and temperature and water conditions that they are not used to experiencing. Changes in the proportion and timing of emergence

  9. Characterization of Heat Waves in the Sahel and associated mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Boutheina; Pohl, Benjamin; Moron, Vincent; Rome, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Large efforts are made to investigate the heat waves (HW) in developed countries because of their devastating impacts on society, economy and environment. This interest increased after the intense event over Europe during summer 2003. However, HWs are still understudied over developing countries. This is particularly true in West Africa, and especially in the Sahel, where temperatures recurrently reach critical values, such as during the 2010 HW event. Understanding the Sahelian HWs and associated health risks constitute the main objective of ACASIS, a 4-year project funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche. Our work contributes to this project and aims at characterizing the Sahelian HWs and understanding the mechanisms associated with such extreme events. There is no universal definition of a HW event, since it is highly dependent on the sector (human health, agriculture, transport...) and region of interest. In our case, a HW is defined when the heat index of the day and of the night exceeds the 90th percentile for at least 3 consecutive days (Rome et al. 2016, in preparation). This index combines temperature and relative humidity in order to determine the human-perceived equivalent temperature (definition adapted from Steadman, 1979). Intrinsic properties of Sahelian HW are analyzed from the Global Summary of the Day (GSOD) synoptic observations and ERA-interim reanalyses over 1979-2014 during boreal spring seasons (April-May-June), the warmest period of the year in the Central Sahel. ERA-interim captures well the observed interannual variability and seasonal cycle at the regional scale, as well as the 1979-2014 increasing linear trend of springtime HW occurrences in the Sahel. Reanalyses, however, overestimate the duration, spatial extent of HW, and underestimate their intensity. For both GSOD and ERA-interim, we show that, over the last three decades, Sahelian HWs tend to become more frequent, last longer, cover larger areas and reach higher

  10. Health impacts of the July 2010 heat wave in Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustinza Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the consequences of climate change is the increased frequency and intensity of heat waves which can cause serious health impacts. In Québec, July 2010 was marked by an unprecedented heat wave in recent history. The purpose of this study is to estimate certain health impacts of this heat wave. Methods The crude daily death and emergency department admission rates during the heat wave were analyzed in relation to comparison periods using 95% confidence intervals. Results During the heat wave, the crude daily rates showed a significant increase of 33% for deaths and 4% for emergency department admissions in relation to comparison periods. No displacement of mortality was observed over a 60-day horizon. Conclusions The all-cause death indicator seems to be sufficiently sensitive and specific for surveillance of exceedences of critical temperature thresholds, which makes it useful for a heat health-watch system. Many public health actions combined with the increased use of air conditioning in recent decades have contributed to a marked reduction in mortality during heat waves. However, an important residual risk remains, which needs to be more vigorously addressed by public health authorities in light of the expected increase in the frequency and severity of heat waves and the aging of the population.

  11. Unraveling anthropogenic influence on the changing risk of heat waves in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiaohong; Miao, Chiyuan; AghaKouchak, Amir; Duan, Qingyun

    2017-05-01

    Heat waves trigger substantial social and environmental impacts and even cause massive civilian casualties in extreme cases. Observations show the areas affected by heat waves have increased over China, with the most extreme heat wave occurring during the past five decades. Here we show that both trends can be attributed to anthropogenic influences. We report that under the moderate Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 scenario, anthropogenic influences will increase the risk of occurrence of the observed maximum Heat Wave Magnitude Index in the late 21st century and will cause a more than tenfold increase in the likelihood of the strongest events on record recurring across more than half China. More than 50% of land area in China is projected to be affected by intense heat waves. Our results show that over eastern China, the extremes in heat distribution are more sensitive to precipitation deficits, indicating stronger heat wave amplification trends to occur under drier conditions. The likelihood of concurrent droughts and heat waves is expected to increase in large parts of China in the late 21st century.

  12. Electron transport in Tore Supra with fast wave electron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, G.T.; Aniel, T.; Ottaviani, M.; Garbet, X. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Horton, W.; Zhu, P. [University of Texas at Austin (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1999-09-15

    The hot electron plasmas (T{sub e} > 2T{sub i}) in Tore Supra driven by Fast Wave Electron Heating (FWEH) are analyzed for thermal transport. Both neoclassical and anomalous transport processes are taken into account. The dominant power flow is through the electron channel of anomalous thermal diffusivity. The electron and ion temperature gradient driven instabilities are analyzed for a well documented discharge and shown to explain the diffusivities inferred from the steady power balance analysis. The discharges are maintained in a quasi-steady state for periods up to one hundred global energy replacement times. A large Tore S database is tested against two models for the turbulent electron thermal conductivity Good correlation is obtained with an updated version of the collisionless skin depth formula. The electrostatic turbulence-based formula performs poorly in the core but well in the outer plasma. The electromagnetic turbulence theory based formula is benchmarked with the empirical Taroni-Bohm formula derived from JET data. (author)

  13. India heat wave attribution considering effects of anthropogenic aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, Karsten; Otto, Friederike; Allen, Myles; Cullen, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    Extreme weather event attribution, now a well-established field within the Detection and Attribution community, slowly incorporates all regions of the globe. Here we present heat wave results for India in 2015, using pre-conditioned (SST driven) large ensemble RCM simulations provided by weather@home. Apart from the presentation of a thoroughly validated set of hydrometeorological model variables for the South Asian region, the novelty in this study is that we include a GHG-only ensemble in our analysis. Rather than relying on actual and counterfactual data for 2015 to investigate the event-specific dynamic contribution, we make also use of an ensemble where the SST forcing corresponds to a world in which anthropogenic aerosols have been removed (AA). Since AAs have far-reaching implications for the Asian monsoon system (e.g. Bollasina et al. 2011; Li et al 2016), the changing risk of certain extreme weather events occurring due to a variable load of AAs can potentially be attributed for the first time. Since we are now in the possession a fully consistent 30 year climatology (200 ensemble member per year) for actual, counterfactual and GHG only conditions as well, we can try and answer the question whether circulation changes or trends due to anthropogenic climate change are detectable already. In addition, we demonstrate how these results can be used in our fast track attribution framework, including evidence for the robustness of the analogue method utilised to determine event-specific dynamic contributions.

  14. Diamond Heat-Spreader for Submillimeter-Wave Frequency Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Robert H.; Schlecht, Erich T.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter H.; Ward, John S.; Lee, Choonsup; Thomas, Bertrand C.; Maestrini, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The planar GaAs Shottky diode frequency multiplier is a critical technology for the local oscillator (LO) for submillimeter- wave heterodyne receivers due to low mass, tenability, long lifetime, and room-temperature operation. The use of a W-band (75-100 GHz) power amplifier followed by a frequency multiplier is the most common for submillimeter-wave sources. Its greatest challenge is to provide enough input power to the LO for instruments onboard future planetary missions. Recently, JPL produced 800 mW at 92.5 GHz by combining four MMICs in parallel in a balanced configuration. As more power at W-band is available to the multipliers, their power-handling capability be comes more important. High operating temperatures can lead to degradation of conversion efficiency or catastrophic failure. The goal of this innovation is to reduce the thermal resistance by attaching diamond film as a heat-spreader on the backside of multipliers to improve their power-handling capability. Polycrystalline diamond is deposited by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This diamond film acts as a heat-spreader to both the existing 250- and 300-GHz triplers, and has a high thermal conductivity (1,000-1,200 W/mK). It is approximately 2.5 times greater than copper (401 W/mK) and 20 times greater than GaAs (46 W/mK). It is an electrical insulator (resistivity approx. equals 10(exp 15) Ohms-cm), and has a low relative dielectric constant of 5.7. Diamond heat-spreaders reduce by at least 200 C at 250 mW of input power, compared to the tripler without diamond, according to thermal simulation. This superior thermal management provides a 100-percent increase in power-handling capability. For example, with this innovation, 40-mW output power has been achieved from a 250-GHz tripler at 350-mW input power, while the previous triplers, without diamond, suffered catastrophic failures. This breakthrough provides a stepping-stone for frequency multipliers-based LO up to 3 THz. The future work

  15. Detection of heat and cold waves in Montevergine time series (1884-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, extreme events related to cooling and heating have taken high resonance, motivating the scientific community to carry out an intensive research activity, aimed to detect their variability and frequency. In this work, we have investigated about the frequency, the duration, the severity and the intensity of heat and cold waves in a Southern Italy high-altitude region, by analysing the climatological time series collected in Montevergine observatory. Following the guidelines provided by CLIVAR project (Climate and Ocean Variability, Predictability and Change), we have adopted indicators based on percentiles and duration to define a heat wave and cold event. Main results have highlighted a strong and significant positive trend in the last 40 years (1974-2015) in heat waves frequency, severity and intensity. On the contrary, in recent decades, cold wave events have exhibited a significant and positive trend only in intensity. Moreover, through the usage of two Wavelet Analysis tools, the Cross Wavelet Transform and the Wavelet Coherence, we have investigated about the connections between the extreme temperature events occurred in Montevergine and the large-scale atmospheric patterns. The heat wave events have exhibited relevant relationships with the Western European Zonal Circulation and the North Atlantic Oscillation, whereas the variability of cold wave events have shown linkages with the Eastern Mediterranean Pattern and the North Sea Caspian Pattern. In addition, the main features of synoptic patterns that have caused summer heat waves and winter cold waves in Montevergine site are presented.

  16. Evaluation of major heat waves' mechanisms in EURO-CORDEX RCMs over Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan; Plavcová, Eva

    2017-09-01

    The main aim of the study is to evaluate the capability of EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) to simulate major heat waves in Central Europe and their associated meteorological factors. Three reference major heat waves (1994, 2006, and 2015) were identified in the E-OBS gridded data set, based on their temperature characteristics, length and spatial extent. Atmospheric circulation, precipitation, net shortwave radiation, and evaporative fraction anomalies during these events were assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The analogous major heat waves and their links to the aforementioned factors were analysed in an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX RCMs driven by various global climate models in the 1970-2016 period. All three reference major heat waves were associated with favourable circulation conditions, precipitation deficit, reduced evaporative fraction and increased net shortwave radiation. This joint contribution of large-scale circulation and land-atmosphere interactions is simulated with difficulties in majority of the RCMs, which affects the magnitude of modelled major heat waves. In some cases, the seemingly good reproduction of major heat waves' magnitude is erroneously achieved through extremely favourable circulation conditions compensated by a substantial surplus of soil moisture or vice versa. These findings point to different driving mechanisms of major heat waves in some RCMs compared to observations, which should be taken into account when analysing and interpreting future projections of these events.

  17. Detection of heat wave using Kalpana-1 VHRR land surface temperature product over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dhiraj; Pandya, Mehul R.; Pathak, Vishal N.; Darji, Nikunj P.; Trivedi, Himanshu J.

    2016-05-01

    Heat Waves can have notable impacts on human mortality, ecosystem, economics and energy supply. The effect of heat wave is much more intense during summer than the other seasons. During the period of April to June, spells of very hot weather occur over certain regions of India and global warming scenario may result in further increases of such temperature anomalies and corresponding heat waves conditions. In this paper, satellite observations have been used to detect the heat wave conditions prevailing over India for the period of May-June 2015. The Kalpana-1 VHRR derived land surface temperature (LST) products have been used in the analysis to detect the heat wave affected regions over India. Results from the analysis shows the detection of heat wave affected pixels over Indian land mass. It can be seen that during the study period the parts of the west India, Indo-gangetic plane, Telangana and part of Vidarbh was under severe heat wave conditions which is also confirmed with Automatic Weather Station (AWS) air temperature observations.

  18. Wave disturbance overwhelms top-down and bottom-up control of primary production in California kelp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C; Rassweiler, Andrew; Carr, Mark H; Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Malone, Daniel P; Siegel, David A

    2011-11-01

    We took advantage of regional differences in environmental forcing and consumer abundance to examine the relative importance of nutrient availability (bottom-up), grazing pressure (top-down), and storm waves (disturbance) in determining the standing biomass and net primary production (NPP) of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in central and southern California. Using a nine-year data set collected from 17 sites we show that, despite high densities of sea urchin grazers and prolonged periods of low nutrient availability in southern California, NPP by giant kelp was twice that of central California where nutrient concentrations were consistently high and sea urchins were nearly absent due to predation by sea otters. Waves associated with winter storms were consistently higher in central California, and the loss of kelp biomass to winter wave disturbance was on average twice that of southern California. These observations suggest that the more intense wave disturbance in central California limited NPP by giant kelp under otherwise favorable conditions. Regional patterns of interannual variation in NPP were similar to those of wave disturbance in that year-to-year variation in disturbance and NPP were both greater in southern California. Our findings provide strong evidence that regional differences in wave disturbance overwhelmed those of nutrient supply and grazing intensity to determine NPP by giant kelp. The important role of disturbance in controlling NPP revealed by our study is likely not unique to giant kelp forests, as vegetation dynamics in many systems are dominated by post-disturbance succession with climax communities being relatively uncommon. The effects of disturbance frequency may be easier to detect in giant kelp because it is fast growing and relatively short lived, with cycles of disturbance and recovery occurring on time scales of years. Much longer data sets (decades to centuries) will likely be needed to properly evaluate the role of

  19. The role of spring precipitation deficits on European and North American summer heat wave activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Tim; Hegerl, Gabi

    2017-04-01

    Heat waves are relatively short-term climate phenomena with potentially severe societal impacts, particularly on health, agriculture and the natural environment. In water-limited regions, increased heat wave activity over intra-decadal periods is often associated with protracted droughts, as observed over North America's Central and Southern Great Plains in the 1930s and 1950s, highlighting the importance of land surface-atmosphere feedbacks. Here we present an analysis of the covariability of spring precipitation deficit and summer heat waves for North America and Europe, the latter having experienced an increase in summer heat wave frequency since the 1950s (Perkins et al. 2012). Over the Great Plains summer heat waves are significantly earlier, longer and hotter if following dry rather than wet springs, with the mega-heat waves of the 1930s Dust Bowl decade an extreme example (e.g. Cowan et al. 2017). Similar relationships can be found in some parts of Europe for heat wave frequency and duration, namely Southern and Eastern Europe, although the heat wave timing and amplitude (i.e. the hottest events) appear less sensitive to spring drying. Climate model results investigating the relationship between heat waves and precipitation deficit in regions in Europe and North America will also be presented. It is necessary to pinpoint the causes of large decadal variations in heat wave metrics, as seen in the 1930s over North America and more recently across Central Europe, for event attribution purposes and to improve near-decadal prediction. The tight link between spring drought and summer heat waves will also be important for understanding the impacts of these climatic events and supports the development of compound event analysis techniques. References: Cowan, T., G. Hegerl, I. Colfescu, A. Purich and G. Boshcat (2016), Factors contributing to record-breaking heat waves over the Great Plains during the 1930s Dust Bowl. Journal of Climate, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16

  20. Systematic heat flow measurements across the Wagner Basin, northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Florian; Negrete-Aranda, Raquel; Harris, Robert N.; Contreras, Juan; Sclater, John G.; González-Fernández, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    A primary control on the geodynamics of rifting is the thermal regime. To better understand the geodynamics of rifting in the northern Gulf of California we systematically measured heat-flow across the Wagner Basin, a tectonically active basin that lies near the southern terminus of the Cerro Prieto fault. The heat flow profile is 40 km long, has a nominal measurement spacing of ∼1 km, and is collocated with a seismic reflection profile. Heat flow measurements were made with a 6.5-m violin-bow probe. Although heat flow data were collected in shallow water, where there are significant temporal variations in bottom water temperature, we use CTD data collected over many years to correct our measurements to yield accurate values of heat flow. After correction for bottom water temperature, the mean and standard deviation of heat flow across the western, central, and eastern parts of the basin are 220 ± 60, 99 ± 14, 889 ± 419 mW m-2, respectively. Corrections for sedimentation would increase measured heat flow across the central part of basin by 40 to 60%. We interpret the relatively high heat flow and large variability on the western and eastern flanks in terms of upward fluid flow at depth below the seafloor, whereas the lower and more consistent values across the central part of the basin are suggestive of conductive heat transfer. Moreover, heat flow across the central basin is consistent with gabbroic underplating at a depth of 15 km and suggests that continental rupture here has not gone to completion.

  1. Increased heat waves with loss of irrigation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaqiong; Kueppers, Lara

    2015-06-01

    A potential decline in irrigation due to groundwater depletion or insufficient surface water would not only directly affect agriculture, but also could alter surface climate. In this study we investigated how loss of irrigation affects heat wave frequency, duration, and intensity across fifteen heat wave indices (HINs) using a regional climate model that incorporated dynamic crop growth. Averaged across all indices, loss of irrigation increased heat wave frequency, duration, and intensity. In the United States, irrigation effects on heat waves were statistically significant over irrigated cropland for the majority of HINs, but in non-irrigated regions, the effects were significant only for a few HINs. The heat index temperature metrics that include humidity were less sensitive to loss of irrigation due to the trade-off between increased temperature and decreased humidity. Using the same temperature metric but different temperature thresholds resulted in qualitatively similar effects on heat waves. Regions experiencing strong groundwater depletion, such as the southern high plains, may suffer more and longer heat waves with reduced irrigation.

  2. On the long term climatology and trends of heat and cold waves over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    10

    shown significant decreasing trend in heat waves (2 stations from north India ..... Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK and New York N Y USA 582 pp. ... Board, Department of Science and Technology (SERB-DST), New Delhi, India.

  3. Chiral heat wave in cold Fermi liquid and modified zero sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklakh, D.; Gorsky, A.

    2017-08-01

    We discuss kinetic equations involving the anomalous terms responsible for the chiral anomaly. The general chiral heat wave in cold Fermi liquid is described and the modification of the anomalous zero sound at small temperature and vorticity is found.

  4. Detection of heat and cold waves in Montevergine time series (1884–2015)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vincenzo Capozzi; Giorgio Budillon

    2017-01-01

    .... In this work, we have investigated about the frequency, the duration, the severity and the intensity of heat and cold waves in a Southern Italy high-altitude region, by analysing the climatological...

  5. Coupling of an acoustic wave to shear motion due to viscous heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Goree, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Viscous heating due to shear motion in a plasma can result in the excitation of a longitudinal acoustic wave, if the shear motion is modulated in time. The coupling mechanism is a thermal effect: time-dependent shear motion causes viscous heating, which leads to a rarefaction that can couple into a longitudinal wave, such as an acoustic wave. This coupling mechanism is demonstrated in an electrostatic three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a dusty plasma, in which a localized shear flow is initiated as a pulse, resulting in a delayed outward propagation of a longitudinal acoustic wave. This coupling effect can be profound in plasmas that exhibit localized viscous heating, such as the dusty plasma we simulated using parameters typical of the PK-4 experiment. We expect that a similar phenomenon can occur with other kinds of plasma waves.

  6. The Role Of Torsional Alfvén Waves in Coronal Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolin, P.; Shibata, K.

    2010-03-01

    In the context of coronal heating, among the zoo of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves that exist in the solar atmosphere, Alfvén waves receive special attention. Indeed, these waves constitute an attractive heating agent due to their ability to carry over the many different layers of the solar atmosphere sufficient energy to heat and maintain a corona. However, due to their incompressible nature these waves need a mechanism such as mode conversion (leading to shock heating), phase mixing, resonant absorption, or turbulent cascade in order to heat the plasma. Furthermore, their incompressibility makes their detection in the solar atmosphere very difficult. New observations with polarimetric, spectroscopic, and imaging instruments such as those on board the Japanese satellite Hinode, or the Crisp spectropolarimeter of the Swedish Solar Telescope or the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter, are bringing strong evidence for the existence of energetic Alfvén waves in the solar corona. In order to assess the role of Alfvén waves in coronal heating, in this work we model a magnetic flux tube being subject to Alfvén wave heating through the mode conversion mechanism. Using a 1.5 dimensional MHD code, we carry out a parameter survey varying the magnetic flux tube geometry (length and expansion), the photospheric magnetic field, the photospheric velocity amplitudes, and the nature of the waves (monochromatic or white-noise spectrum). The regimes under which Alfvén wave heating produces hot and stable coronae are found to be rather narrow. Independently of the photospheric wave amplitude and magnetic field, a corona can be produced and maintained only for long (>80 Mm) and thick (area ratio between the photosphere and corona >500) loops. Above a critical value of the photospheric velocity amplitude (generally a few km s-1) the corona can no longer be maintained over extended periods of time and collapses due to the large momentum of the waves. These results establish several

  7. Mapping heat wave risk in the UK: Proactive planning for the 2050s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oven, Katie; Reaney, Sim; Ohlemüller, Ralf; Nodwell, Sarah; Curtis, Sarah; Riva, Mylène; Dunn, Christine; Val, Dimitri; Burkhard, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Climate change projections suggest an increased frequency of heat waves in the UK over the coming decades. Such extreme events pose a serious threat to human health and are likely to impact upon health and social care systems and the infrastructures supporting them. This stress will result from both increased demands upon healthcare services and the ability of the infrastructure to cope, such as sufficient climate control in hospitals. Certain sectors of the population, such as older people, have an increased susceptibility to heat waves and hence are the focus of this research. There is no universal definition of a heat wave, reflecting the acclimatisation of a population. Based on a review of the literature, this research therefore sets out a series of working definitions of a heat wave in the UK context from a human health perspective. Drawing on these definitions, the UK heat wave hazard was mapped for the 2050s (2040-2069) using daily minimum and maximum temperature data derived from the UKCP09 Weather Generator at 50 km resolution. The analysis was undertaken for the three different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios within UKCP09 (low, medium and high). Hot spots of increased heat wave risk were identified and comparisons made between the various model outputs. These data were then combined with demographic forecasts for the 2050s enabling the identification of areas with an ageing population. Results are presented showing the scale of the projected change in heat wave risk across the UK and the location of older people. These results will be used in proactive planning to help policymakers and practitioners respond more appropriately to the needs of vulnerable populations in the coming decades. Key words: climate change; heat wave; risk mapping; vulnerability; risk reduction.

  8. Quantification and assessment of heat and cold waves in Novi Sad, Northern Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarin, Biljana; Lukić, Tin; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been applied to the analysis of heat and cold waves and human thermal conditions in Novi Sad, Serbia. A series of daily minimum and maximum air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and cloud cover was used to calculate PET for the investigated period 1949-2012. The heat and cold wave analysis was carried out on days with PET values exceeding defined thresholds. Additionally, the acclimatization approach was introduced to evaluate human adaptation to interannual thermal perception. Trend analysis has revealed the presence of increasing trend in summer PET anomalies, number of days above defined threshold, number of heat waves, and average duration of heat waves per year since 1981. Moreover, winter PET anomaly as well as the number of days below certain threshold and number of cold waves per year until 1980 was decreasing, but the decrease was not statistically significant. The highest number of heat waves during summer was registered in the last two decades, but also in the first decade of the investigated period. On the other hand, the number of cold waves during six decades is quite similar and the differences are very small.

  9. Generation of ELF waves during HF heating of the ionosphere at midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. S.; Eliasson, B.; Shao, X.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2016-07-01

    Modulated high-frequency radio frequency heating of the ionospheric F region produces a local modulation of the electron temperature, and the resulting pressure gradient gives rise to a diamagnetic current. The oscillations of the diamagnetic current excite hydromagnetic waves in the ELF range that propagate away from the heated region. The generation of the waves in the 2-10 Hz range by a modulated heating in the midlatitude ionosphere is studied using numerical simulations of a collisional Hall-magnetohydrodynamic model. To model the plasma processes in the midlatitude ionosphere the Earth's dipole magnetic field and typical ionospheric plasma parameters are used. As the hydromagnetic waves propagate away from the heated region in the F region, the varying plasma conditions lead to changes in their characteristics. Magnetosonic waves generated in the heating region and propagating down to the E region, where the Hall conductivity is dominant, excite oscillating Hall currents that produce shear Alfvén waves propagating along the field lines into the magnetosphere, where they propagate as the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) and whistler waves. The EMIC waves propagate to the ion cyclotron resonance layer in the magnetosphere, where they are absorbed.

  10. Quantification and assessment of heat and cold waves in Novi Sad, Northern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarin, Biljana; Lukić, Tin; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been applied to the analysis of heat and cold waves and human thermal conditions in Novi Sad, Serbia. A series of daily minimum and maximum air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and cloud cover was used to calculate PET for the investigated period 1949-2012. The heat and cold wave analysis was carried out on days with PET values exceeding defined thresholds. Additionally, the acclimatization approach was introduced to evaluate human adaptation to interannual thermal perception. Trend analysis has revealed the presence of increasing trend in summer PET anomalies, number of days above defined threshold, number of heat waves, and average duration of heat waves per year since 1981. Moreover, winter PET anomaly as well as the number of days below certain threshold and number of cold waves per year until 1980 was decreasing, but the decrease was not statistically significant. The highest number of heat waves during summer was registered in the last two decades, but also in the first decade of the investigated period. On the other hand, the number of cold waves during six decades is quite similar and the differences are very small.

  11. Heat wave probability in the changing climate of the Southwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, Kristen; Gershunov, Alexander; Cayan, Daniel R.; Pierce, David W.

    2017-09-01

    Analyses of observed non-Gaussian daily minimum and maximum temperature probability distribution functions (PDFs) in the Southwest US highlight the importance of variance and warm tail length in determining future heat wave probability. Even if no PDF shape change occurs with climate change, locations with shorter warm tails and/or smaller variance will see a greater increase in heat wave probability, defined as exceedances above the historical 95th percentile threshold, than will long tailed/larger variance distributions. Projections from ten downscaled CMIP5 models show important geospatial differences in the amount of warming expected for a location. However, changes in heat wave probability do not directly follow changes in background warming. Projected changes in heat wave probability are largely explained by a rigid shift of the daily temperature distribution. In some locations where there is more warming, future heat wave probability is buffered somewhat by longer warm tails. In other parts of the Southwest where there is less warming, heat wave probability is relatively enhanced because of shorter tailed PDFs. Effects of PDF shape changes are generally small by comparison to those from a rigid shift, and fall within the range of uncertainty among models in the amount of warming expected by the end of the century.

  12. Nearshore waves in southern California: Hindcast, and modeled historical and 21st-century projected time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegermiller, Christie; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS), time series of hindcast, historical, and 21st-century nearshore wave parameters (wave height, period, and direction) were simulated for the southern California coast from Point Conception to the Mexican border. The hindcast (1980-2010) time series represents reanalysis-forced offshore waves propagated to the nearshore, whereas the historical (1976-2005) and 21st-century (2012-2100) time series represent global climate model-forced offshore waves propagated to the nearshore. Changes in deep-water wave conditions directly regulate the energy driving coastal processes. However, a number of physical processes, for example, refraction on continental shelves and/or diffraction by islands, transform deep-water waves as they propagate to the coast, which complicates large-scale modeling efforts. In this work, a hindcast of nearshore waves was simulated by forcing a numerical wave model with hindcasted intermediate-water waves and reanalysis winds. A lookup table was created by relating corresponding offshore winds and waves with nearshore wave conditions. Using the lookup table, historical and 21st-century nearshore wave time series were generated for global climate model-forced offshore winds and waves.

  13. Three-wave interaction during electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Hansen, Søren Kjer

    2016-01-01

    Non-linear wave-wave interactions in fusion plasmas, such as the parametric decay instability (PDI) of gyrotron radiation, can potentially hamper the use of microwave diagnostics. Here we report on anomalous scattering in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak during electron cyclotron resonance heating...

  14. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, M. Seitzler

    2017-06-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners.

  15. Anomalous heating of the polar E region by unstable plasma waves. II - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.-Maurice, J. P.; Schlegel, K.; Banks, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that anomalous electron temperatures in the disturbed high-latitude E region can be quantitatively explained in terms of heating by unstable plasma waves. The electron temperatures at 110 km have been measured to be as high as 1500 K instead of the expected value of about 300 K. It is shown that by using quasi-linear theory there is an ample source of heat in the unstable waves and that the measured electron temperature profiles have a shape very similar to what is expected from plasma wave heating by the modified two-stream instability. It is found that there is even more heating going to the ion gas, but that the resulting effect on the ion temperature may be difficult to measure. The best estimate of the wave heating rates leads to the conclusion that wave heating can be as much as 50% of the Joule heating for dc electric field strengths of the order of 45 mV/m or greater.

  16. Effects of Simulated Heat Waves with Strong Sudden Cooling Weather on ApoE Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuyu; Kuang, Zhengzhong; Zhang, Xiakun

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the mechanism of influence of heat waves with strong sudden cooling on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in ApoE−/− mice. The process of heat waves with strong sudden cooling was simulated with a TEM1880 meteorological-environment simulation chamber according to the data obtained at 5 a.m. of 19 June 2006 to 11 p.m. of 22 June 2006. Forty-eight ApoE−/− mice were divided into six blocks based on their weight. Two mice from each block were randomly assigned to control, heat wave, temperature drop, and rewarming temperature groups. The experimental groups were transferred into the climate simulator chamber for exposure to the simulated heat wave process with strong sudden temperature drop. After 55, 59, and 75 h of exposure, the experimental groups were successively removed from the chamber to monitor physiological indicators. Blood samples were collected by decollation, and the hearts were harvested in all groups. The levels of heat stress factors (HSP60, SOD, TNF, sICAM-1, HIF-1α), cold stress factors (NE, EPI), vasoconstrictor factors (ANGII, ET-1, NO), and four items of blood lipid (TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C) were measured in each ApoE−/− mouse. Results showed that the heat waves increased the levels of heat stress factors except SOD decreased, and decreased the levels of vasoconstrictor factors and blood lipid factors except TC increased. The strong sudden temperature drop in the heat wave process increased the levels of cold stress factors, vasoconstrictor factors and four blood lipid items (except the level of HDL-C which decreased) and decreased the levels of heat stress factors (except the level of SOD which increased). The analysis showed that heat waves could enhance atherosclerosis of ApoE−/− mice. The strong sudden temperature drop during the heat wave process increased the plasma concentrations of NE and ANGII, which indicates SNS activation, and resulted in increased blood pressure. NE and ANGII are vasoconstrictors

  17. Heat-Related Mortality in India: Excess All-Cause Mortality Associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad Heat Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Knowlton, Kim; Hess, Jeremy J.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Deol, Bhaskar; Bhaskar, Priya Shekhar; Hess, Jeremy; Jaiswal, Anjali; Khosla, Radhika; Knowlton, Kim; Mavalankar, Mavalankar; Rajiva, Ajit; Sarma, Amruta; Sheffield, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8°C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. Methods We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1–31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. Results The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths). In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest “summer” months of April (r = 0.69, pheat (May 19–25, 2010), mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67–1.83, pheat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures prevail through much of April-June. PMID:24633076

  18. Internal waves and surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H.; Santoro, A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Hench, J. L.; Boehm, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterized diurnal, semi-diurnal, and high-frequency internal wave field at Huntington Beach, California, USA and the connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 meter depths offshore of the beach to observe internal waves and cross-shore exchange. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) with measurements of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria, and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. Spectral analysis of water temperature shows well-defined spectral peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of observed currents reveals that the baroclinic component (summation of second to fifth principal components) accounted for 30% of the total variance in the currents in both years, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. The major axis of the first principal component was oriented alongshore, whereas that of the second and third principal components made an angle of 25 to 55 degree with the cross-shore direction. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very near shore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, indicative of shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the

  19. Solitary heat waves in nonlinear lattices with squared on-site potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A model Hamiltonian is proposed for heat conduction in a nonlinear lattice with squared on-site potential using the second quantized operators and averaging the same using a suitable wave function, equations are derived in discrete form for the field amplitude and the properties of heat transfer are examined theoretically.

  20. Syndromic surveillance and heat wave morbidity: a pilot study based on emergency departments in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josseran, Loïc; Caillère, Nadège; Brun-Ney, Dominique; Rottner, Jean; Filleul, Laurent; Brucker, Gilles; Astagneau, Pascal

    2009-02-20

    The health impacts of heat waves are serious and have prompted the development of heat wave response plans. Even when they are efficient, these plans are developed to limit the health effects of heat waves. This study was designed to determine relevant indicators related to health effects of heat waves and to evaluate the ability of a syndromic surveillance system to monitor variations in the activity of emergency departments over time. The study uses data collected during the summer 2006 when a new heat wave occurred in France. Data recorded from 49 emergency departments since July 2004, were transmitted daily via the Internet to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Items collected on patients included diagnosis (ICD10 codes), outcome, and age. Statistical t-tests were used to compare, for several health conditions, the daily averages of patients within different age groups and periods (whether 'on alert' or 'off alert'). A limited number of adverse health conditions occurred more frequently during hot period: dehydration, hyperthermia, malaise, hyponatremia, renal colic, and renal failure. Over all health conditions, the total number of patients per day remained equal between the 'on alert' and 'off alert' periods (4,557.7/day vs. 4,511.2/day), but the number of elderly patients increased significantly during the 'on alert' period relative to the 'off alert' period (476.7/day vs. 446.2/day p waves.

  1. On the dissipation and dispersion of entropy waves in heat transferring channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, A.; Hosseinalipour, S. M.; Karimi, N.

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the hydrodynamic and heat transfer effects on the dissipation and dispersion of entropy waves in non-reactive flows. These waves, as advected density inhomogeneities downstream of unsteady flames, may decay partially or totally before reaching the exit nozzle, where they are converted into sound. Attenuation of entropy waves dominates the significance of the subsequent acoustic noise generation. Yet, the extent of this decay process is currently a matter of contention and the pertinent mechanisms are still largely unexplored. To resolve this issue, a numerical study is carried out by compressible large eddy simulation of the wave advection in a channel subject to convective and adiabatic thermal boundary conditions. The dispersion, dissipation, and spatial correlation of the wave are evaluated by post-processing of the numerical results. This includes application of the classical coherence function as well as development of nonlinear quantitative measures of wave dissipation and dispersion. The analyses reveal that the high frequency components of the entropy wave are always strongly damped. The survival of the low frequency components heavily depends on the turbulence intensity and thermal boundary conditions of the channel. In general, high turbulence intensities and particularly heat transfer intensify the decay and destruction of the spatial coherence of entropy waves. In some cases, they can even result in the complete annihilation of the wave. The current work can therefore resolve the controversies arising over the previous studies of entropy waves with different thermal boundary conditions.

  2. Climate variability of heat waves and their associated diurnal temperature range variations in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueh, M.-T.; Lin, C.-Y.; Chuang, Y.-J.; Sheng, Y.-F.; Chien, Y.-Y.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates heat waves in Taiwan and their maintenance mechanism, based upon observations and dynamically downscaled simulations. A 95th percentile threshold is used for identifying hot extremes over a period of consecutive days. Heat waves are forecast to become more severe in the future projection. Daily minimum temperatures are generally high and diurnal temperature ranges (DTR) are relatively large. The daily minimum temperature serves as the primary control in the variation in DTR during heat waves. An apparent increase in the daily minimum temperature suggests elevated heat stress at nighttime during future heat waves. Heat waves in Taiwan are associated with abnormal warming and drying atmospheric conditions under the control of an enhanced western North Pacific subtropical high. The surrounding waters serve as a vast moisture source to suppress the drying magnitude in the surface layer as the temperature rises, thereby ensuring a high humidity level during the hot spell. The subsidence and adiabatic warming above can trap the warm and humid air in the surface layer, leading to positive feedback to the abnormally hot surface condition. The associated warming and drying atmospheric conditions cover certain spatial extents, suggesting that the extreme situation identified here is not confined to just an island-wide hot spell; the abnormal hot weather can take place across a broad geographical area.

  3. How hard they hit? Perception, adaptation and public health implications of heat waves in urban and peri-urban Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Sara; Bakhsh, Khuda; Abbas, Azhar; Hassan, Sarfraz; Ali, Asghar; Kächele, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Heat waves threaten human health given the fast changing climatic scenarios in the recent past. Adaptation to heat waves would take place when people perceive their impacts based on their knowledge. The present study examines perception level and its determinants resulting in adaptation to heat waves in Pakistan. The study used cross-sectional data from urban and peri-urban respondents of Faisalabad District. The study employs a health belief model to assess risk perception among the respondents. Logistic model is used to determine factors affecting level of knowledge, perception and adaptation to heat waves. Around 30% of peri-urban respondents have a low level of knowledge about the fatal impacts of heat waves. Risk perception of heat waves is very low among urban (57%) and peri-urban (66%) respondents. Households' knowledge on heat waves is significantly related to age, gender, education, wealth and access to health services. Determinants of perception include knowledge of heat waves, age and joint effect of marital status and knowledge while income level, family size, urban/peri-urban background, perceived barriers, perceived benefits and cues to action significantly affect adaptation to heat waves. To reduce deadly health impacts, mass awareness campaigns are needed to build perception and improve adaptation to heat waves.

  4. Projection of heat waves over China for eight different global warming targets using 12 CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojun; Huang, Jianbin; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Zongci; Xu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Simulation and projection of the characteristics of heat waves over China were investigated using 12 CMIP5 global climate models and the CN05.1 observational gridded dataset. Four heat wave indices (heat wave frequency, longest heat wave duration, heat wave days, and high temperature days) were adopted in the analysis. Evaluations of the 12 CMIP5 models and their ensemble indicated that the multi-model ensemble could capture the spatiotemporal characteristics of heat wave variation over China. The inter-decadal variations of heat waves during 1961-2005 can be well simulated by multi-model ensemble. Based on model projections, the features of heat waves over China for eight different global warming targets (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 °C) were explored. The results showed that the frequency and intensity of heat waves would increase more dramatically as the global mean temperature rise attained higher warming targets. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the four China-averaged heat wave indices would increase from about 1.0 times/year, 2.5, 5.4, and 13.8 days/year to about 3.2 times/year, 14.0, 32.0, and 31.9 days/year for 1.5 and 5.0 °C warming targets, respectively. Those regions that suffer severe heat waves in the base climate would experience the heat waves with greater frequency and severity following global temperature rise. It is also noteworthy that the areas in which a greater number of severe heat waves occur displayed considerable expansion. Moreover, the model uncertainties exhibit a gradual enhancement with projected time extending from 2006 to 2099.

  5. Imaging the Isabella Anomaly in Southern California: Surface Wave Tomography, Receiver Function Analysis, and Basin Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoots, C. R.; Schmandt, B.; Clayton, R. W.; Dougherty, S. L.; Hansen, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Past seismic imaging studies of the Isabella anomaly in Southern California lacked resolution to distinguish between the two dominating hypotheses for its origin: a fossil slab origin or a foundering lithospheric root of the Sierra Nevada volcanic arc. To definitively distinguish the origin of the anomaly as one, or neither, of these possibilities is important in the understanding of the evolution of continental arcs and the process of subduction termination. To do this, we deployed an array of 44 broadband seismometers from the Isabella anomaly to the coast at latitude 36°N, starting in December 2013. The array has a station spacing of ~7 km spacing filling a gap between the southern and northern California permanent seismic networks (NCSN and SCSN). The array will continue to collect data until summer 2015. We will present preliminary surface wave tomography results using empirical interstation green's functions derived from ambient seismic noise recorded by more than 500 stations that currently or previously surround our array. Initial Ps receiver function images from common conversion point stacking will also be presented. We also use local earthquakes to model the shape and velocity of the Central Valley, as this will be important in correcting the tomography and receiver function images.We also deployed a dense array of short period stations in Peachtree Valley, where the broadband array crossed the San Andreas Fault (SAF). This network will be used to determine the location and level of seismicity on a segment of the SAF where it is creeping.This first batch of results from our broadband seismic experiment should provide new insight into how far the basaltic crust of the Monterey microplate extends inland beneath California and whether the Isabella anomaly is connected to North America or Pacific lithosphere.

  6. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Yan Jun; Zhang, Yong Hui; Yan, Qing Hua; Song, Xiu Ling; Xie, Hui Yan; Luo, Yuan; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Hua Liang; Ma, Wen Jun

    2013-10-02

    In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of Guangdong province. People with higher

  7. Performance and Economic Modeling of Horizontally Drilled Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Select California Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryadinata, Steven

    Service life modeling was performed to gage the viability of unitary 3.5 kWt, ground-source terminal heat pumps (GTHP) employing horizontal directionally drilled geothermal heat exchangers (GHX) over air-source terminal heat pumps (PTHP) in hotels and motels and residential apartment building sectors in California's coastal and inland climates. Results suggest the GTHP can reduce hourly peak demand for the utility by 7%-25% compared to PTHP, depending on the climate and building type. The annual energy savings, which range from -1% to 5%, are highly dependent on the GTHP pump energy use relative to the energy savings attributed to the difference in ground and air temperatures (DeltaT). In mild climates with small ?T, the pump energy use may overcome any advantage to utilizing a GHX. The majority of total levelized cost savings - ranging from 0.18/ft2 to 0.3/ft 2 - are due to reduced maintenance and lifetime capital cost normally associated with geothermal heat pump systems. Without these reductions (not validated for the GTHP system studied), the GTHP technology does not appear to offer significant advantages over PTHP in the climate zones studied here. The GTHP levelized cost was most sensitive to variations in installed cost and in some cases, energy use (influenced by climate zone choice), which together highlights the importance of climate selection for installation, and the need for larger market penetration of ground-source systems in order to bring down installed costs as the technology matures.

  8. The effects of summer temperature and heat waves on heat-related illness in a coastal city of China, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Ding, Gangqiang; Gu, Shaohua; Bi, Peng; Su, Buda; Qin, Dahe; Xu, Guozhang; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-07-01

    Devastating health effects from recent heat waves in China have highlighted the importance of understanding health consequences from extreme heat stress. Despite the increasing mortality from extreme heat, very limited studies have quantified the effects of summer extreme temperature on heat-related illnesses in China. The associations between extreme heat and daily heat-related illnesses that occurred in the summers of 2011-2013 in Ningbo, China, have been examined, using a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) based on 3862 cases. The excess morbidities of heat-related illness during each heat wave have been calculated separately and the cumulative heat wave effects on age-, sex-, and cause-specific illnesses in each year along lags have been estimated as well. After controlling the effect of relative humidity, it is found that maximum temperature, rather than heat index, was a better predictor of heat-related illnesses in summers. A positive association between maximum temperatures and occurrence of heat-related diseases was apparent, especially at short lag effects. Six heat waves during the period of 2011-2013 were identified and all associated with excess heat-related illnesses. Relative to the average values for the corresponding periods in 2011 and 2012, a total estimated 679 extra heat-related illnesses occurred during three heat waves in 2013. The significant prolonged heat wave effects on total heat-related illnesses during heat waves in three study years have also been identified. The strongest cumulative effect of heat waves was on severe heat diseases in 2013, with a 10-fold increased risk. More males than females, individuals with more severe forms of illness, were more affected by the heat. However, all age groups were vulnerable. Recent heat waves had a substantial and delayed effect on heat illnesses in Ningbo. Relevant active well-organized public health initiatives should be implemented to reduce the adverse effects of heat extremes on the

  9. Feasibility of geothermal space/water heating for Mammoth Lakes Village, California. Final report, September 1976--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.; Racine, W.C.

    1977-12-01

    Results of a study to determine the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of geothermal district heating for Mammoth Lakes Village, California are reported. The geothermal district heating system selected is technically feasible and will use existing technology in its design and operation. District heating can provide space and water heating energy for typical customers at lower cost than alternative sources of energy. If the district heating system is investor owned, lower costs are realized after five to six years of operation, and if owned by a nonprofit organization, after zero to three years. District heating offers lower costs than alternatives much sooner in time if co-generation and/or DOE participation in system construction are included in the analysis. During a preliminary environmental assessment, no potential adverse environmental impacts could be identified of sufficient consequence to preclude the construction and operation of the proposed district heating system. A follow-on program aimed at implementing district heating in Mammoth is outlined.

  10. Tsunami-generated sediment wave channels at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James G.; Schweickert, Richard A.; Kitts, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A gigantic ∼12 km3 landslide detached from the west wall of Lake Tahoe (California-Nevada, USA), and slid 15 km east across the lake. The splash, or tsunami, from this landslide eroded Tioga-age moraines dated as 21 ka. Lake-bottom short piston cores recovered sediment as old as 12 ka that did not reach landslide deposits, thereby constraining the landslide age as 21–12 ka.Movement of the landslide splashed copious water onto the countryside and lowered the lake level ∼10 m. The sheets of water that washed back into the lake dumped their sediment load at the lowered shoreline, producing deltas that merged into delta terraces. During rapid growth, these unstable delta terraces collapsed, disaggregated, and fed turbidity currents that generated 15 subaqueous sediment wave channel systems that ring the lake and descend to the lake floor at 500 m depth. Sheets of water commonly more than 2 km wide at the shoreline fed these systems. Channels of the systems contain sediment waves (giant ripple marks) with maximum wavelengths of 400 m. The lower depositional aprons of the system are surfaced by sediment waves with maximum wavelengths of 300 m.A remarkably similar, though smaller, contemporary sediment wave channel system operates at the mouth of the Squamish River in British Columbia. The system is generated by turbidity currents that are fed by repeated growth and collapse of the active river delta. The Tahoe splash-induced backwash was briefly equivalent to more than 15 Squamish Rivers in full flood and would have decimated life in low-lying areas of the Tahoe region.

  11. Heat-related mortality in India: excess all-cause mortality associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad heat wave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulrez Shah Azhar

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8 °C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1-31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. RESULTS: The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths. In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest "summer" months of April (r = 0.69, p<0.001, May (r = 0.77, p<0.001, and June (r = 0.39, p<0.05. During a period of more intense heat (May 19-25, 2010, mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67-1.83, p<0.001] and 2.12 [95% CI 2.03-2.21] applying reference periods (May 12-18, 2010 from various years. CONCLUSION: The May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures

  12. Future changes in Central Europe heat waves expected to mostly follow summer mean warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, Joan; Rodo, Xavier [Institut Catala de Ciencies del Clima (IC3), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Giorgi, Filippo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Daily output from the PRUDENCE ensemble of regional climate simulations for the end of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries over Europe is used to show that the increasing intensity of the most damaging summer heat waves over Central Europe is mostly due to higher base summer temperatures. In this context, base temperature is defined as the mean of the seasonal cycle component for those calendar days when regional heat waves occur and is close, albeit not identical, to the mean temperature for July-August. Although 36-47% of future Central Europe July and August days at the end of the twenty-first century are projected to be extreme according to the present day climatology, specific changes in deseasonalized heat wave anomalies are projected to be relatively small. Instead, changes in summer base temperatures appear much larger, clearly identifiable and of the same order of magnitude as changes in the whole magnitude of heat waves. Our results bear important consequences for the predictability of central European heat wave intensity under global warming conditions. (orig.)

  13. Thermal Conditions in the City of Poznań (Poland during Selected Heat Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Półrolniczak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to characterise the occurrence of hot days and heat waves in Poznań in the 1966–2015 period, as well as to describe the thermal conditions in the city during selected heat waves between 2008 and 2015. The basis of the study was the daily maximum and minimum air temperature values for Poznań–Ławica station from 1966–2015 and the daily values of air temperature from eight measuring points located in the city in various land types from 2008 to 2015. A hot day was defined as a day with Tmax above the 95th annual percentile (from 1966 to 2015, while a heat wave was assumed to be at least five consecutive hot days. The research study conducted shows the increase of Tmax, number of hot days and frequency of heat waves in Poznań over the last 50 years. Across the area of the city (differentiation of urban area types according to Urban Atlas 2012, there was a great diversity of thermal conditions during the heat waves analysed.

  14. Monthly and seasonal predictability of heat waves in West Africa with CNRM-CM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batté, Lauriane; Ardilouze, Constantin; Déqué, Michel

    2017-04-01

    West Africa, and in particular Sahel, are vulnerable to spring heat waves during which maximum daily temperatures reach over 40°C for several consecutive days. These heat waves have severe consequences on the health and activities of local populations. Moreover, several studies suggest that their frequency and intensity may increase in future decades. The French National Research Agency (ANR) project ACASIS brings together researchers from different backgrounds (geography, climate, meteorology, epidemiology, demography) to improve the understanding of the causes and consequences of these heat waves, as well as their variability and predictability at different time and spatial scales. In this presentation we wish to assess the predictability of Sahelian heat waves in the sub-seasonal and seasonal forecasts with Météo-France system 5, based on the CNRM-CM coupled model updated from its CMIP5 version. The seasonal forecasts are issued each month as part of the Copernicus C3S initiative ; sub-seasonal runs are released for research purposes in the framework of the WWRP/WCRP S2S project. Both forecasts are calibrated with corresponding hindcasts over the 1993-2014 period. Despite surface temperature biases, and trouble in properly representing the persistence of heat spells over the region, some evidence of predictive skill is found for duration and frequency of heat waves defined as a threshold of consecutive days of daily minimum or maximum temperatures reaching over the 90th percentile. A more detailed assessment of the spring 2016 real-time forecasts will also be presented, using a weather regime approach to illustrate how the seasonal prediction system managed to capture the large-scale signal for above-normal occurrences and duration of heat waves last year, but failed to correctly pinpoint the geographical location of these anomalies.

  15. The effect of heat waves on ambulance attendances in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lyle R; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-10-01

    Introduction Heat waves have significant impacts on mortality and morbidity. However, little is known regarding effects on pre-admission health outcomes such as ambulance attendances, particularly in subtropical regions. Problem This study investigated both main temperature effects and the added effects of heat waves on ambulance attendances in Brisbane, a subtropical city in Australia. Daily data relating to 783,935 ambulance attendances, along with data on meteorological variables and air pollutants, were collected for the period 2000-2007. Ambient temperature (main) effects were assessed using a distributed lag nonlinear approach that accounted for delayed effects of temperature, while added heat wave effects were incorporated separately using a local heat wave definition. Effect estimates were obtained for total, cardiovascular and respiratory attendances, and different age groups. Main effects of temperature were found for total attendances, which increased by 50.6% (95% CI, 32.3%-71.4%) for a 9.5°C increase above a reference temperature of 29°C. An added heat wave effect on total attendances was observed (18.8%; 95% CI, 6.5%-32.5%). Significant effects were found for both respiratory and cardiovascular attendances, particularly for those aged 65 and above. Ambulance attendances can be significantly impacted by sustained periods of high temperatures, and are a valid source of early detection of the effects of extreme temperatures on the population. The planning of ambulance services may need to be adapted as a consequence of increasing numbers of heat waves in the future. Ambulance attendance data also should be utilized in the development of heat warning systems and climate change adaptation strategies.

  16. Excess mortality during heat waves and cold spells in Moscow, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revich, B; Shaposhnikov, D

    2008-10-01

    To estimate excess mortality during heat waves and cold spells, and to identify vulnerable population groups by age and cause of death. Daily mortality in Moscow, Russia from all non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory causes between January 2000 and February 2006 was analysed. Mortality and displaced mortality during cold spells and heat waves were estimated using independent samples t tests. Cumulative excess non-accidental mortality during the 2001 heat wave was 33% (95% CI 20% to 46%), or approximately 1200 additional deaths, with short-term displaced mortality contributing about 10% of these. Mortality from coronary heart disease increased by 32% (95% CI 16% to 48%), cerebrovascular mortality by 51% (95% CI 29% to 73%) and respiratory mortality by 80% (95% CI 57% to 101%). In the 75+ age group, corresponding mortality increments were consistently higher except respiratory deaths. An estimated 560 extra deaths were observed during the three heat waves of 2002, when non-accidental mortality increased by 8.5%, 7.8% and 6.1%, respectively. About 40% of these deaths were brought forward by only a few days, bringing net mortality change down to 3.2% (95% CI 0.8% to 5.5%). The cumulative effects of the two cold spells in 2006 on mortality were significant only in the 75+ age group, for which average daily mortality from all non-accidental causes increased by 9.9% (95% CI 8.0% to 12%) and 8.9% (95% CI 6.7% to 11%), resulting in 370 extra deaths; there were also significant increases in coronary disease mortality and cerebrovascular mortality. This study confirms that daily mortality in Moscow increases during heat waves and cold spells. A considerable proportion of excess deaths during heat waves occur a short time earlier than they would otherwise have done. Harvesting, or short-term mortality displacement, may be less significant for longer periods of sustained heat stress.

  17. Efficient heat generation in large-area graphene films by electromagnetic wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangmin; Choi, Haehyun; Lee, Soo Bin; Park, Seong Chae; Park, Jong Bo; Lee, Sangkyu; Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Byung Hee

    2017-06-01

    Graphene has been intensively studied due to its outstanding electrical and thermal properties. Recently, it was found that the heat generation by Joule heating of graphene is limited by the conductivity of graphene. Here we suggest an alternative method to generate heat on a large-area graphene film more efficiently by utilizing the unique electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption property of graphene. The EM wave induces an oscillating magnetic moment generated by the orbital motion of moving electrons, which efficiently absorbs the EM energy and dissipate it as a thermal energy. In this case, the mobility of electron is more important than the conductivity, because the EM-induced diamagnetic moment is directly proportional to the speed of electron in an orbital motion. To control the charge carrier mobility of graphene we functionalized substrates with self-assembled monolayers (SAM). As the result, we find that the graphene showing the Dirac voltage close to zero can be more efficiently heated by EM waves. In addition, the temperature gradient also depends on the number of graphene. We expect that the efficient and fast heating of graphene films by EM waves can be utilized for smart heating windows and defogging windshields.

  18. Propagation of waves in a gravitating and rotating anisotropic heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    propagations become anti-symmetric. It is illustrated that the phase speed of the forward propagating mode increases with increasing drift and the backward propagating mode decreases with increasing drift. In this particular direction of propagation and axis of rotation, this wave mode is also independent of rotation ...

  19. Analyses of thermoregulatory responses of feeder cattle exposed to simulated heat waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Brandl, T M; Eigenberg, R A; Hahn, G L; Nienaber, J A; Mader, T L; Spiers, D E; Parkhurst, A M

    2005-05-01

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle causes reduced performance, and in the most severe cases, death of the animals, thus causing the loss of millions of dollars in revenue to the cattle industry. A study was designed to evaluate dynamics of thermoregulation and feeding activities when feeder cattle were exposed to simulated heat waves, in comparison with repeated sinusoidal hot and thermoneutral environments. Nine beef steers were randomly assigned to an individual pen in one of three environmental chambers. Each chamber was subjected to each of three temperature regimes (heatwave simulation from Rockport, Mo., 1995, heatwave simulation from Columbia, Mo., 1999, and Controlled heat stress treatment of 32+/-7 degrees C) for a period of 18 days, according to a Latin square treatment design, with a 10-day thermoneutral period (18+/-7 degrees C) separating treatment periods. Respiration rate, core body temperature, heat production, feed intake, and feeding behavior were measured on each animal for the duration of the experiment. Differences were found in all treatments for all parameters except feeding behavior. It was shown that the two simulated heat waves elicited very different thermoregulatory responses. Based on these results the heat wave centered at Rockport, Mo. in 1995 was devastating because the animals were not acclimated to hot conditions, thus causing an acute response to heat stress. The responses of cattle to conditions at Columbia, Mo. showed some acclimation to heat prior to the peak stress days, and therefore a dampened response was seen. It appears the extreme conditions at Columbia, Mo., 1999 were made severe by environmental conditions not simulated during this study (low wind speed and intensive solar radiation). Overall, it was determined while a cyclic heat stress treatment is a representative model to test heat stress in cattle, further heat stress experiments should be conducted in an actual feedlot.

  20. Analyses of thermoregulatory responses of feeder cattle exposed to simulated heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Brandl, T. M.; Eigenberg, R. A.; Hahn, G. L.; Nienaber, J. A.; Mader, T. L.; Spiers, D. E.; Parkhurst, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle causes reduced performance, and in the most severe cases, death of the animals, thus causing the loss of millions of dollars in revenue to the cattle industry. A study was designed to evaluate dynamics of thermoregulation and feeding activities when feeder cattle were exposed to simulated heat waves, in comparison with repeated sinusoidal hot and thermoneutral environments. Nine beef steers were randomly assigned to an individual pen in one of three environmental chambers. Each chamber was subjected to each of three temperature regimes (Heatwave simulation from Rockport, Mo., 1995, Heatwave simulation from Columbia, Mo., 1999, and Controlled heat stress treatment of 32±7°C) for a period of 18 days, according to a Latin square treatment design, with a 10-day thermoneutral period (18±7°C) separating treatment periods. Respiration rate, core body temperature, heat production, feed intake, and feeding behavior were measured on each animal for the duration of the experiment. Differences were found in all treatments for all parameters except feeding behavior. It was shown that the two simulated heat waves elicited very different thermoregulatory responses. Based on these results the heat wave centered at Rockport, Mo. in 1995 was devastating because the animals were not acclimated to hot conditions, thus causing an acute response to heat stress. The responses of cattle to conditions at Columbia, Mo. showed some acclimation to heat prior to the peak stress days, and therefore a dampened response was seen. It appears the extreme conditions at Columbia, Mo., 1999 were made severe by environmental conditions not simulated during this study (low wind speed and intensive solar radiation). Overall, it was determined while a cyclic heat stress treatment is a representative model to test heat stress in cattle, further heat stress experiments should be conducted in an actual feedlot.

  1. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-15

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored. May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored.

  2. Future heat waves due to climate change threaten the survival of Posidonia oceanica seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Meseguer, Laura; Marín, Arnaldo; Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Extreme weather events are major drivers of ecological change, and their occurrence is likely to increase due to climate change. The transient increases in atmospheric temperatures are leading to a greater occurrence of heat waves, extreme events that can produce a substantial warming of water, especially in enclosed basins such as the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we tested the effects of current and predicted heat waves on the early stages of development of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Temperatures above 27 °C limited the growth of the plant by inhibiting its photosynthetic system. It suffered a reduction in leaf growth and faster leaf senescence, and in some cases mortality. This study demonstrates that the greater frequency of heat waves, along with anticipated temperature rises in coming decades, are expected to negatively affect the germination of P. oceanica seedlings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term variability of heat waves in Argentina and recurrence probability of the severe 2008 heat wave in Buenos Aires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusticucci, M.; Kyselý, Jan; Almeira, G.; Lhotka, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 3 (2016), s. 679-689 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB15AR001 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : heat waves * long-term variability * climate extremes Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.640, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00704-015-1445-7

  4. The possible role of MHD waves in heating the solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lisa J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Sturrock, Peter A.

    1994-01-01

    The possible role of waves in the heating of the solar corona has been investigated. A general dispersion relation has been derived for waves propagating in a homogeneous plasma subject to dissipation by viscosity and thermal conduction. The dissipation mechanisms have been incorporated self-consistently into the equations, and no assumptions about the strength of the damping have been made. Solutions of the sixth-order dispersion relation provide information on how the damping of both slow and fast mode waves depends upon the plasma density, temperature, field strength, and angle of propagation relative to the background magnetic field. We provide a detailed comparison to the standard approach, which is to solve for the wave quantities in the absence of dissipation and then to use these quantities in expressions for the heating due to viscosity and thermal conduction.

  5. Propagation of waves in a gravitating and rotating anisotropic heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An inviscid, unbounded, collisionless, gravitating, rotating and heat conducting anisotropic plasma medium which is drifting is considered. The medium is assumed to be embedded in a strong magnetic field. A general dispersion relation is derived using normal mode analysis and its various limiting cases are discussed, ...

  6. The impact of heat waves and cold spells on respiratory emergency department visits in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuping; Wang, Shigong; Li, Tanshi; Tian, Jinhui; Ding, Guowu; Wang, Jiaxin; Wang, Jiexin; Shang, Kezheng

    2018-02-15

    The objectives of this article were (i) to find the association between extreme temperatures and respiratory emergency department (ED) visits and (ii) to explore the added effects of heat waves and cold spells on respiratory ED visits in Beijing from 2009 to 2012. A quasi-Poisson generalised linear model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was performed to quantify this association. The results indicated that (i) ambient temperature related to respiratory ED visits exhibited a U-shaped association. The minimum-morbidity temperature was 21.5°C. (ii) the peak relative risk (RR) of cold spells on respiratory ED visits was observed in relatively mild cold spells with a threshold below the 3rd percentile for 4days (RR=1.885, 95% CI: 1.300-2.734), and there was a reduction in risk during extremely chilly cold spells (RR=1.811, 95% CI: 1.229-2.667). However, the risk of heat waves increased with the thresholds, and the greatest risk was found for extremely hot heat waves (RR=1.932, 95% CI: 1.461-2.554). (iii) the added effect of heat waves was small, and we observed that the added heat wave effect only introduced additional risk in females (RR=1.166, 95% CI: 1.007-1.349). No added effect of cold spells was identified. In conclusion, the main effects of heat waves and cold spells on respiratory ED visits showed different change trends. In addition, the added effects of extreme temperatures on respiratory ED visits were small and negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Syndromic surveillance and heat wave morbidity: a pilot study based on emergency departments in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filleul Laurent

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health impacts of heat waves are serious and have prompted the development of heat wave response plans. Even when they are efficient, these plans are developed to limit the health effects of heat waves. This study was designed to determine relevant indicators related to health effects of heat waves and to evaluate the ability of a syndromic surveillance system to monitor variations in the activity of emergency departments over time. The study uses data collected during the summer 2006 when a new heat wave occurred in France. Methods Data recorded from 49 emergency departments since July 2004, were transmitted daily via the Internet to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Items collected on patients included diagnosis (ICD10 codes, outcome, and age. Statistical t-tests were used to compare, for several health conditions, the daily averages of patients within different age groups and periods (whether 'on alert' or 'off alert'. Results A limited number of adverse health conditions occurred more frequently during hot period: dehydration, hyperthermia, malaise, hyponatremia, renal colic, and renal failure. Over all health conditions, the total number of patients per day remained equal between the 'on alert' and 'off alert' periods (4,557.7/day vs. 4,511.2/day, but the number of elderly patients increased significantly during the 'on alert' period relative to the 'off alert' period (476.7/day vs. 446.2/day p Conclusion Our results show the interest to monitor specific indicators during hot periods and to focus surveillance efforts on the elderly. Syndromic surveillance allowed the collection of data in real time and the subsequent optimization of the response by public health agencies. This method of surveillance should therefore be considered as an essential part of efforts to prevent the health effects of heat waves.

  8. Increasing heat waves and warm spells in India, observed from a multiaspect framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Dileep Kumar; AghaKouchak, Amir; Ambast, Sunil Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Recent heat waves have been a matter of serious concern for India because of potential impacts on agriculture, food security, and socioeconomic progress. This study examines the trends and variability in frequency, duration, and intensity of hot episodes during three time periods (1951-2013, 1981-2013 and 1998-2013) by defining heat waves based on the percentile of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures. The study also explores heat waves and their relationships with hydroclimatic variables, such as rainfall, terrestrial water storage, Palmer drought severity index, and sea surface temperature. Results reveal that the number, frequency, and duration of daytime heat waves increased considerably during the post-1980 dry and hot phase over a large area. The densely populated and agriculturally dominated northern half of India stands out as a key region where the nighttime heat wave metrics reflected the most pronounced amplifications. Despite the recent warming hiatus in India and other parts of the world, we find that both daytime and nighttime extreme measures have undergone substantial changes during or in the year following a dry year since 2002, with the probability distribution functions manifesting a hotter-than-normal climate during 1998-2013. This study shows that a few months preceding the 2010 record-breaking heat wave in Russia, India experienced the largest hot episode in the country's history. Interestingly, both these mega events are comparable in terms of their evolution and amplification. These findings emphasize the importance of planning for strategies in the context of the rising cooccurrence of dry and hot events.

  9. The effects of latent heat release on the waves with Ekman pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of the effects of the latent heat release on the waves with both upper and lower boundary frictional effects is investigated. The influence of the vertical shear of the basic wind in these models will be investigated. These investigations will shed some light on the method of solution to the problem of including the effect of Ekman pumping on the moist baroclinic waves in the model of Tang and Fichtl.

  10. Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWavesm) - Volume #2 - Appendices #16-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, Brendan [Pacific Gas and Electric Company, San Ramon, CA (United States). Applied Technical Services; Toman, William I. [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Inst. of Advanced Technology and Public Policy; Davy, Doug M. [CH2M Hill Engineers, Inc., Sacramento, CA (United States); Blakslee, Samuel N. [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    The California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Feasibility Study project was funded over multiple phases by the Department of Energy to perform an interdisciplinary feasibility assessment to analyze the engineering, permitting, and stakeholder requirements to establish an open water, fully energetic, grid connected, wave energy test center off the coast of California for the purposes of advancing U.S. wave energy research, development, and testing capabilities. Work under this grant included wave energy resource characterization, grid impact and interconnection requirements, port infrastructure and maritime industry capability/suitability to accommodate the industry at research, demonstration and commercial scale, and macro and micro siting considerations. CalWave Phase I performed a macro-siting and down-selection process focusing on two potential test sites in California: Humboldt Bay and Vandenberg Air Force Base. This work resulted in the Vandenberg Air Force Base site being chosen as the most favorable site based on a peer reviewed criteria matrix. CalWave Phase II focused on four siting location alternatives along the Vandenberg Air Force Base coastline and culminated with a final siting down-selection. Key outcomes from this work include completion of preliminary engineering and systems integration work, a robust turnkey cost estimate, shoreside and subsea hazards assessment, storm wave analysis, lessons learned reports from several maritime disciplines, test center benchmarking as compared to existing international test sites, analysis of existing applicable environmental literature, the completion of a preliminary regulatory, permitting and licensing roadmap, robust interaction and engagement with state and federal regulatory agency personnel and local stakeholders, and the population of a Draft Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Preliminary Application Document (PAD). Analysis of existing offshore oil and gas infrastructure was also performed

  11. Exact solutions of time fractional heat-like and wave-like equations with variable coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a variable-coefficient time fractional heat-like and wave-like equation with initial and boundary conditions is solved by the use of variable separation method and the properties of Mittag-Leffler function. As a result, exact solutions are obtained, from which some known special solutions are recovered. It is shown that the variable separation method can also be used to solve some others time fractional heat-like and wave-like equation in science and engineering.

  12. Heating of solar coronal loops by resonant absorption of Alfven waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, William; Smith, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical calculations governing the efficiency of coronal loop heating by the resonant absorption of shear Alfven waves are reported. The loop structure is modeled by a class of axisymmetric force-free equilibria of a long straight cylinder, approximating a large aspect ratio loop. For a range of parameters characterizing the evolution of solar coronal loops, the absorption bandwidth falls in the frequency range of the photospheric motions due to granulation and p-modes. Resonant Alfven wave absorption is thus a viable mechanism for coronal loop heating.

  13. Pre-supernova outbursts via wave heating in massive stars - I. Red supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jim

    2017-09-01

    Early observations of supernovae (SNe) indicate that enhanced mass-loss and pre-SN outbursts may occur in progenitors of many types of SNe. We investigate the role of energy transport via waves driven by vigorous convection during late-stage nuclear burning of otherwise typical 15 M⊙ red supergiant SN progenitors. Using mesa stellar evolution models including 1D hydrodynamics, we find that waves carry ˜107 L⊙ of power from the core to the envelope during core neon/oxygen burning in the final years before core collapse. The waves damp via shocks and radiative diffusion at the base of the hydrogen envelope, which heats up fast enough to launch a pressure wave into the overlying envelope that steepens into a weak shock near the stellar surface, causing a mild stellar outburst and ejecting a small (≲1 M⊙) amount of mass at low speed (≲50 km s-1) roughly one year before the SN. The wave heating inflates the stellar envelope but does not completely unbind it, producing a non-hydrostatic pre-SN envelope density structure different from prior expectations. In our models, wave heating is unlikely to lead to luminous Type IIn SNe, but it may contribute to flash-ionized SNe and some of the diversity seen in II-P/II-L SNe.

  14. Land surface and atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves in the South Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eungul; Bieda, Rahama; Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Richter, Heather

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to extreme heat was reconstructed based on regional land-atmosphere processes from 1979 to 2010 in the South Central U.S. The study region surrounds the Chickasaw Nation (CN), a predominantly Native American population with a highly prevalent burden of climate-sensitive chronic diseases. Land surface and atmospheric conditions for summer heat waves were analyzed during spring (March-April-May, MAM) and summer (June-July-August, JJA) based on the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change maximum temperature definition for heat wave frequency (HWF). The spatial-temporal pattern of HWF was determined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the corresponding principle component time series of the first EOF of HWF. Statistically significant analyses of observed conditions indicated that sensible heat increased and latent heat fluxes decreased with high HWF in the South Central U.S. The largest positive correlations of sensible heat flux to HWF and the largest negative correlations of latent heat flux to HWF were specifically observed over the CN. This is a significantly different energy transfer regime due to less available soil moisture during the antecedent MAM and JJA. The higher sensible heat from dry soil could cause significant warming from the near surface (> 2.0°C) to the lower troposphere (> 1.5°C), and accumulated boundary layer heat could induce the significant patterns of higher geopotential height and enhance anticyclonic circulations (negative vorticity anomaly) at the midtroposphere. Results suggested a positive land-atmosphere feedback associated with heat waves and called attention to the need for region-specific climate adaptation planning.

  15. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  16. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-08

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  17. Comments on the dissipation of hydromagnetic surface waves. [applicable to solar coronal plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    A recent paper by Wentzel, which claims to calculate a plasma heating rate due to dissipation of surface waves in an ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid, is found to be in error in interpretation. A well-established general theorem pertaining to the conservative ideal MHD fluid requires that the normal mode calculated by Wentzel be oscillatory in time. Within ideal MHD, dissipation and plasma heating are therefore impossible.

  18. A new approach to the theory of heat conduction with finite wave speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Antonio Cimmelli

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available Relations between the physical models describing the heat conduction in solids and a phenomenological model leading to quasi-linear hyperbolic equations and systems of conservation laws are presented. A new semi-empirical temperature scale is introduced in terms of which a modified Fourier law is formulated. The hyperbolicity of the heat conduction equation is discussed together with some wave propagation problems.

  19. Individual and Public-Program Adaptation: Coping with Heat Waves in Five Cities in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Alhassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat Alert and Response Systems (HARS are currently undergoing testing and implementation in Canada. These programs seek to reduce the adverse health effects of heat waves on human health by issuing weather forecasts and warnings, informing individuals about possible protections from excessive heat, and providing such protections to vulnerable subpopulations and individuals at risk. For these programs to be designed effectively, it is important to know how individuals perceive the heat, what their experience with heat-related illness is, how they protect themselves from excessive heat, and how they acquire information about such protections. In September 2010, we conducted a survey of households in 5 cities in Canada to study these issues. At the time of the survey, these cities had not implemented heat outreach and response systems. The study results indicate that individuals’ recollections of recent heat wave events were generally accurate. About 21% of the sample reported feeling unwell during the most recent heat spell, but these illnesses were generally minor. Only in 25 cases out of 243, these illnesses were confirmed or diagnosed by a health care professional. The rate at which our respondents reported heat-related illnesses was higher among those with cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, was higher among younger respondents and bore no relationship with the availability of air conditioning at home. Most of the respondents indicated that they would not dismiss themselves as “not at risk” and that they would cope with excessive heat by staying in air conditioned environments and keeping well hydrated. Despite the absence of heat outreach and education programs in their city, our respondents at least a rough idea of how to take care of themselves. The presence of air conditioning and knowledge of cooling centers is location-specific, which provides opportunities for targeting HARS interventions.

  20. On mechanism of non-heating sterilization using the underwater shock wave loading and gas formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Takemoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field where the thermal sterilization can’t be applied, the establishment of the sterilization technology with non-heating is strongly requested. The sterilization by pressurizing is one of the sterilization technology. Especially, the underwater shock wave causes scarcely heat in pressurizing because the pressurizing time is extremely short. That is, it is thought that the underwater shock wave enables non-heating sterilization that originates only in pressure. Hence, in this research, the underwater shock wave loading caused by explosive was used for non-heating sterilization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the budding yeast was used for experiments. S. cerevisiae starts fermentation by feeding the glucose, and causes CO2 within its body. There is the great density difference between cells of S. cerevisiae and the gas, hence, the acoustic impedance is different on the underwater shock wave transmission. Therefore, a strong reflected wave is caused on the boundary of the cell and the gas, and a remarkable expansion is caused. Fermented S. cerevisiae are sterilized by this phenomenon, and showed high sterilization rates. The sterilization rate by the underwater shock wave was low for not giving the glucose, that is, S. cerevisiae that had not fermented. The sterilization rate that had been done on three conditions was as follows in the order of higher. 1 Fermenting S. cerevisiae, high pressure. 2 Fermenting S. cerevisiae, low pressure. 3 Non-fermenting S. cerevisiae, high pressure. The detonation fuse was used in this experiment. There was an interesting phenomenon, that is, the sterilization rate was high at the side of detonation beginning, and it was decreased toward the direction. It is thought that this is related to a constant angle of the shock wave caused from the detonation fuse. A corresponding result to the phenomenon was gotten by the numerical analysis between the progress of the detonation and the change of pressure.

  1. Projection of temperature and heat waves for Africa with an ensemble of CORDEX Regional Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosio, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    The most severe effects of global warning will be related to the frequency and severity of extreme events. We provide an analysis of projections of temperature and related extreme events for Africa based on a large ensemble of Regional Climate Models from the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX). Results are presented not only by means of widely used indices but also with a recently developed Heat Wave Magnitude Index-daily (HWMId), which takes into account both heat wave duration and intensity. Results show that under RCP8.5, warming of more than 3.5 °C is projected in JFM over most of the continent, whereas in JAS temperatures over large part of Northern Africa, the Sahara and the Arabian peninsula are projected to increase up to 6 °C. Large increase in in the number of warm days (Tx90p) is found over sub equatorial Africa, with values up to more than 90 % in JAS, and more than 80 % in JFM over e.g., the gulf of Guinea, Central African Republic, South Sudan and Ethiopia. Changes in Tn90p (warm nights) are usually larger, with some models projecting Tn90p reaching 95 % starting from around 2060 even under RCP4.5 over the Gulf of Guinea and the Sahel. Results also show that the total length of heat spells projected to occur normally (i.e. once every 2 years) under RCP8.5 may be longer than those occurring once every 30 years under the lower emission scenario. By employing the recently developed HWMId index, it is possible to investigate the relationship between heat wave length ad intensity; in particular it is shown that very intense heat waves such as that occurring over the Horn of Africa may have values of HWMId larger than that of longer, but relatively weak, heat waves over West Africa.

  2. On the strongly damped wave equation and the heat equation with mixed boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio F. Neves

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We study two one-dimensional equations: the strongly damped wave equation and the heat equation, both with mixed boundary conditions. We prove the existence of global strong solutions and the existence of compact global attractors for these equations in two different spaces.

  3. Future changes in heat-waves, droughts and floods in 571 European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Selma; Dawson, Richard; Kilsby, Chris; Lewis, Elizabeth; Ford, Alistair

    2017-04-01

    Future changes in heat-waves, droughts and floods were assessed for 571 European cities. We used all available climate model runs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 - CMIP5 - for their higher emission scenario (RCP8.5) and grouped the projections into Low, Mid and High impact scenarios. This resulted in impact projections outside the range of published literature, but enabled us to better understand uncertainties in future climate projections (both due to climate model errors but also the effects of natural variability) therefore providing the basis for broad scale risk analysis and thereafter identification of robust adaptation strategies. While heat-waves will worsen for every European city, changes in droughts and floods are spatially variable and climate model dependent. The largest increases in the number of heat-wave days are shown to be in southern Europe, but higher heat-wave maximum temperature increases are expected in the mid-latitudes. In the low impact scenario, drought conditions are expected to intensify only in southern Europe while river flooding in expected to worsen in the north. However, in the high impact scenario most European cities show increases in both drought conditions and river flooding. There is a very wide range of projections for future changes in Europe with disagreement between different studies, partly due to their methodological differences but potentially also due to the small number of climate model runs that limits the uncertainties due to natural variability and model errors that each study captures.

  4. The Bermuda Triangle mysteries: an explanation based on the diffraction of heat waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njau, E.C. [Dar es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania, United Republic of). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-31

    Studies based on actual meteorological records [E.C. Njau, Nuovo Cimento 15C, 17-23 (1992)] as well as analytical methods [E.C. Njau, Proc. Ind. Natn. Sci. Acad., 61A (4) (1995); Renewable Energy 4, 261-263 (1994)] have established the continuous existence of a series of large-scale, Eastward-moving heat waves along the Earth`s surface, whose individual crests and troughs are stretched approximately along the geographical North-South direction. In moving across the American continent, these waves encounter a line of physical barriers formed by the lofty Rocky and Andes ranges of mountains, which is continuous except for a significant gap or opening between Colombia and Mexico. This line of physical barriers consistently maintains a maximum height of 3000-4000 m between latitudes 40{sup o}S and 55{sup o}N except for a significant opening or slit located between Mexico and Colombia where the maximum height hardly exceeds 600 m. The Eastward-moving heat waves are thus incident obliquely on an approximately single-slit barrier when crossing the American continent and those parts of the waves which filter through this single slit essentially form some kind of single-slit diffraction (heat) patterns in, around and past the Bermuda Triangle. These diffraction heat patterns give rise to corresponding weather and ocean patterns which, to a large extent, account for the mysteries already noted in the Bermuda region. (Author)

  5. Observed changes in seasonal heat waves and warm temperature extremes in the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high temperature have a large impact on environment and human activities, especially in high elevation areas particularly sensitive to the recent climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting a significant increasing frequency of warm extremes. The paper investigates the seasonal changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves in relation to the shifts in the daily distribution of maximum temperatures over a 50-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2010). The paper uses the heat wave definition recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and exploits the gridded daily dataset of maximum temperature at 0.1° resolution (~10 km) developed in the framework of the CarpatClim project (www.carpatclim.eu). The seasonal changes in heat waves behavior were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test. The results suggest an increase in heat wave frequency and a lengthening of intervals affected by warm temperature extremes all over the study region, which are explained by the shifts in the upper (extreme) tail of the daily maximum temperature distribution in most seasons. The trends are consistent across the region and are well correlated to the positive phases of the East Atlantic Oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with the previous temperature-related studies concerning the Carpathian region. This study was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM, financed by UEFISCDI, code PN-II 151/2014.

  6. GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage depletion associated with the 2003 European heat wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Seneviratne, S.I.; Hinderer, J.

    2005-01-01

    water storage depletion observed from GRACE can be related to the record-breaking heat wave that occurred in central Europe in 2003. We validate the measurements from GRACE using two independent hydrological estimates and direct gravity observations from superconducting gravimeters in Europe. All...

  7. Combined effects of heat waves and droughts on avian communities across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Brian D. Wardlow; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff

    2010-01-01

    Increasing surface temperatures and climatic variability associated with global climate change are expected to produce more frequent and intense heat waves and droughts in many parts of the world. Our goal was to elucidate the fundamental, but poorly understood, effects of these extreme weather events on avian communities across the conterminous United States....

  8. Climate change and heat and cold wave frequencies for different locations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parey, Sylvie; Thu Huong Hoang, Thi; Dacunha-Castelle, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Heat and cold waves are important meteorological events related to electricity production and consumption. Therefore, we developed a stochastic model for temperature able to correctly reproduce extreme events and this tool can be used to downscale climate model simulations. As a matter of fact, the stochastic model simulates the residues after removing trends and seasonalities in the mean and the variance of temperature time-series. Thus, once the model has been calibrated on an observed time-series, future time series can be re-constructed from the modelled residues and the trends and seasonalities given by any climate model simulation, suitably corrected. This technique allows increasing the number of temperature time-series in order to infer the significance of possible changes. When applied to study the frequency changes of heat or cold waves of different lengths, from 1 day to more than 15 days, preliminary results have shown that the changes are significant only for very long heat or cold waves in the near future. This first analysis will be extended to further locations in Europe and future time periods, using the CMIP5 simulation results of different climate models, in order to check the robustness of such results and to further investigate possible changes in the frequencies of heat and cold waves. The presentation will thus describe the used methodology and detail the main results obtained when applied for different temperature time-series.

  9. A remotely steered millimetre wave launcher for electron cyclotron heating and current drive on ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W. A.; M. F. Graswinckel,; Goede, A. P. H.; Kasparek, W.; Danilov, I.; Curto, A. F.; M.R. de Baar,; van den Berg, M. A.; Donne, A. J. H.; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; Heidinger, R.; Ivanov, P.; Kruijt, O. G.; Lamers, B.; Meier, A.; Piosczyk, B.; Plaum, B.; Ronden, D. M. S.; Thoen, D. J.; Schmid, M.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.

    2010-01-01

    High-power millimetre wave beams employed on ITER for heating and Current drive at the 170 GHz electron cyclotron resonance frequency require agile steering and tight focusing of the beams to suppress neoclassical tearing modes. This paper presents experimental validation of the remote steering (RS)

  10. The 2010 Pakistan Flood and Russian Heat Wave: Teleconnection of Hydrometeorological Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary results are presented showing that the two record-setting extreme events during 2010 summer (i.e., the Russian heat wave-wildfires and Pakistan flood) were physically connected. It is found that the Russian heat wave was associated with the development of an extraordinarily strong and prolonged extratropical atmospheric blocking event in association with the excitation of a large-scale atmospheric Rossby wave train spanning western Russia, Kazakhstan, and the northwestern China-Tibetan Plateau region. The southward penetration of upper-level vorticity perturbations in the leading trough of the Rossby wave was instrumental in triggering anomalously heavy rain events over northern Pakistan and vicinity in mid- to late July. Also shown are evidences that the Russian heat wave was amplified by a positive feedback through changes in surface energy fluxes between the atmospheric blocking pattern and an underlying extensive land region with below-normal soil moisture. The Pakistan heavy rain events were amplified and sustained by strong anomalous southeasterly flow along the Himalayan foothills and abundant moisture transport from the Bay of Bengal in connection with the northward propagation of the monsoonal intraseasonal oscillation.

  11. Analysis of heat wave occurrences in the Carpathian basin using regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha, E. B.; Pongracz, R.; Bartholy, J.

    2012-04-01

    Human health is very likely affected by regional consequences of global warming. One of the most severe impacts is probably associated to temperature-related climatological extremes, such as heat waves. In the coming decades hot conditions in most regions of the world are very likely to occur more frequently and more intensely than in the recent decades. In order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies on local scale, it is essential to analyze the projected changes related to warming climatic conditions including heat waves. In 2004, a Heat Health Watch Warning System was developed in Hungary on the basis of a retrospective analysis of mortality and meteorological data to anticipate heat waves that may result in a large excess of mortality. In the frame of this recently introduced Health Watch System, three levels of heat wave warning are applied. They are associated to the daily mean temperature values, and defined as follows: - Warning level 1 (advisory for internal use) is issued when the daily mean temperature exceeds 25 °C. - Warning level 2 (heat wave watch) is issued when the daily mean temperature for at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 25 °C. - Warning level 3 (heat wave alert) is issued when the daily mean temperature for at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 27 °C. In the present study, frequency of the above climatic conditions are analyzed using regional climate model (RCM) experiments are analyzed for the recent past and the coming decades (1961-2100) for the Carpathian basin. At the Dept. of Meteorology, Eotvos Lorand University two different RCMs have been adapted: RegCM (with 10 km horizontal resolution, originally developed by Giorgi et al., currently, available from the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ICTP) and PRECIS (with 25 km horizontal resolution, developed at the UK Met Office, Hadley Centre). Their initial and lateral boundary conditions have been provided by global climate models ECHAM and HadCM3, respectively. For

  12. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameezdeen, Rameez; Elmualim, Abbas

    2017-01-11

    The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers' health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002-2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS) policies.

  13. Neonates in Ahmedabad, India, during the 2010 heat wave: a climate change adaptation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkad, Khyati; Barzaga, Michelle L; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Sheffield, Perry E

    2014-01-01

    Health effects from climate change are an international concern with urban areas at particular risk due to urban heat island effects. The burden of disease on vulnerable populations in non-climate-controlled settings has not been well studied. This study compared neonatal morbidity in a non-air-conditioned hospital during the 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad to morbidity in the prior and subsequent years. The outcome of interest was neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions for heat. During the months of April, May, and June of 2010, 24 NICU admissions were for heat versus 8 and 4 in 2009 and 2011, respectively. Both the effect of moving the maternity ward and the effect of high temperatures were statistically significant, controlling for each other. Above 42 degrees Celsius, each daily maximum temperature increase of a degree was associated with 43% increase in heat-related admissions (95% CI 9.2-88%). Lower floor location of the maternity ward within hospital which occurred after the 2010 heat wave showed a protective effect. These findings demonstrate the importance of simple surveillance measures in motivating a hospital policy change for climate change adaptation-here relocating one ward-and the potential increasing health burden of heat in non-climate-controlled institutions on vulnerable populations.

  14. Heat transfer measurements in swept shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeol

    An experimental research program providing basic knowledge and establishing a database on the heat transfer in three-dimensional shock wave/boundary-layer interaction is described. High thermal loading in such interactions constitutes a fundamental problem of critical concern to future supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles. A turbulent boundary-layer on a flat plate is subjected to interactions with swept planar shock waves generated by a sharp fin. Fin angles from 10 deg to 20 deg at freestream Mach numbers 3.0 and 4.0 produce a variety of interaction strengths from weak to very strong. A foil heater generates a uniform heat flux over the surface of interest and thin-film resistance thermometers mounted on it are used to measure the local surface temperature. The heat convection equation is then used to calculate the local heat transfer coefficients. The present heat transfer technique is applied to measure heat transfer distributions for 5 different interaction cases. The experimental data are compared with numerical Navier-Stokes solutions. The estimation of total uncertainty of the present measurements is about plus or minus 10 percent, which makes them suitable for CFD code validation purposes. The measured peak heat transfer data are correlated with the normal Mach number based on the concept of the quasi-conical nature of such interactions, and the results show good agreement with other experimental data.

  15. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Rameezdeen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers’ health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002–2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS policies.

  16. Heat wave over India during summer 2015: an assessment of real time extended range forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, D. R.; Mohapatra, M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Kumar, Arun

    2017-08-01

    Hot winds are the marked feature of summer season in India during late spring preceding the climatological onset of the monsoon season in June. Some years the conditions becomes very vulnerable with the maximum temperature ( T max) exceeding 45 °C for many days over parts of north-western, eastern coastal states of India and Indo-Gangetic plain. During summer of 2015 (late May to early June) eastern coastal states, central and northwestern parts of India experienced severe heat wave conditions leading to loss of thousands of human life in extreme high temperature conditions. It is not only the loss of human life but also the animals and birds were very vulnerable to this extreme heat wave conditions. In this study, an attempt is made to assess the performance of real time extended range forecast (forecast up to 3 weeks) of this scorching T max based on the NCEP's Climate Forecast System (CFS) latest version coupled model (CFSv2). The heat wave condition was very severe during the week from 22 to 28 May with subsequent week from 29 May to 4 June also witnessed high T max over many parts of central India including eastern coastal states of India. The 8 ensemble members of operational CFSv2 model are used once in a week to prepare the weekly bias corrected deterministic (ensemble mean) T max forecast for 3 weeks valid from Friday to Thursday coinciding with the heat wave periods of 2015. Using the 8 ensemble members separately and the CFSv2 corresponding hindcast climatology the probability of above and below normal T max is also prepared for the same 3 weeks. The real time deterministic and probabilistic forecasts did indicate impending heat wave over many parts of India during late May and early June of 2015 associated with strong northwesterly wind over main land mass of India, delaying the sea breeze, leading to heat waves over eastern coastal regions of India. Thus, the capability of coupled model in providing early warning of such killer heat wave can be very

  17. Edge loss of high-harmonic fast-wave heating power in NSTX: a cylindrical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. J.; Hosea, J. C.; Bertelli, N.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Efficient high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) heating in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) would facilitate experiments in turbulence, transport, fast-ion studies, and more. However, previous HHFW operation in NSTX exhibited a large loss of fast-wave power to the divertor along the scrape-off layer field lines for edge densities above the fast-wave cutoff. It was postulated that the wave amplitude is enhanced in the scrape-off layer due to cavity-like modes, and that these enhanced fields drive sheath losses through RF rectification. As part of ongoing work to confirm this hypothesis, we have developed a cylindrical cold-plasma model to identify and understand scenarios where a substantial fraction of wave power is confined to the plasma periphery. We previously identified a peculiar class of modes, named annulus resonances, that conduct approximately half of their wave power in the periphery and can also account for a significant fraction of the total wave power. Here, we study the influence of annulus resonances on wave field reconstructions and find instances where annulus-resonant modes dominate the spectrum and trap over half of the total wave power at the edge. The work is part of an ongoing effort to determine the mechanism underlying these scrape-off layer losses in NSTX, identify optimal conditions for operation in NSTX-U, and predict whether similar losses occur for the ion-cyclotron minority heating scheme for both current experiments and future devices such as ITER.

  18. Investigation of the heat source(s) of the Surprise Valley Geothermal System, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, N.; Holt, C. D.; Hawkes, S.; McClain, J. S.; Safford, L.; Mink, L. L.; Rose, C.; Zierenberg, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concerns about environmental impacts and energy security have led to an increased interest in sustainable and renewable energy resources, including geothermal systems. It is essential to know the permeability structure and possible heat source(s) of a geothermal area in order to assess the capacity and extent of the potential resource. We have undertaken geophysical surveys at the Surprise Valley Hot Springs in Cedarville, California to characterize essential parameters related to a fault-controlled geothermal system. At present, the heat source(s) for the system are unknown. Igneous bodies in the area are likely too old to have retained enough heat to supply the system, so it is probable that fracture networks provide heat from some deeper or more distributed heat sources. However, the fracture system and permeability structure remain enigmatic. The goal of our research is to identify the pathways for fluid transport within the Surprise Valley geothermal system using a combination of geophysical methods including active seismic surveys and short- and long-period magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. We have collected 14 spreads, consisting of 24 geophones each, of active-source seismic data. We used a "Betsy Gun" source at 8 to 12 locations along each spread and have collected and analyzed about 2800 shot-receiver pairs. Seismic velocities reveal shallow lake sediments, as well as velocities consistent with porous basalts. The latter, with velocities of greater than 3.0 km/s, lie along strike with known hot springs and faulted and tilted basalt outcrops outside our field area. This suggests that basalts may provide a permeable pathway through impermeable lake deposits. We conducted short-period (10Hz-60kHz) MT measurements at 33 stations. Our short-period MT models indicate shallow resistive blocks (>100Ωm) with a thin cover of more conductive sediments ( 10Ωm) at the surface. Hot springs are located in gaps between resistive blocks and are connected to deeper low

  19. Large Eddy Simulation of Disturbance Waves and Heat Transfer in Annular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Geoff; Yang, Junfeng; Matar, Omar

    2014-11-01

    A numerical method for forced convective boiling in an annulus needs to be developed in order to elucidate the reason for nucleation enhancement by disturbance waves. The benchmark test case is the experiment of Barbosa et al., in which nucleate boiling in a liquid film, droplet entrainment, disturbance waves of the liquid film, and their interaction were observed. We first develop a numerical strategy to model the development of disturbance waves in annular flows in which the highly turbulent gas core flow drives the laminar liquid flow upwards using advanced CFD tool TransAT. Then, the heat transfer process in the non-boiling annular flow was investigated to provide insight into the temperature gradient underneath the wave region. Agreement with experimental data for the temperature field could be improved by accounting for phase change in the models. However, the modelling results are still indicative and show that heat transfer is hindered in the wave region. The local overheat zones underneath the disturbance wave could play key roles activating the nucleation boiling sites. NURESAFE Project, and ASCOMP Co. (for use of TransAT code).

  20. Alfven wave trapping, network microflaring, and heating in solar coronal holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. L.; Suess, S. T.; Musielak, Z. E.; An, C.-H.

    1991-01-01

    Fresh evidence that much of the heating in coronal holes is provided by Alfven waves is presented. This evidence comes from examining the reflection of Alfven waves in an isothermal hydrostatic model coronal hole with an open magnetic field. Reflection occurs if the wavelength is as long as the order of the scale height of the Alfven velocity. For Alfven waves with periods of about 5 min, and for realistic density, magnetic field strength, and magnetic field spreading in the model, the waves are reflected back down within the model hole if the coronal temperature is only slightly less than 1.0 x 10 to the 6th K, but are not reflected and escape out the top of the model if the coronal temperature is only slightly greater than 1.0 x 10 to the 6th K. Because the spectrum of Alfven waves in real coronal holes is expected to peak around 5 min and the temperature is observed to be close to 1.0 x 10 to the 6th K, the sensitive temperature dependence of the trapping suggests that the temperature in coronal holes is regulated by heating by the trapped Alfven waves.

  1. A Bayesian Framework for Exploring Drought-Heat Wave Relationships via Vine Copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Hoerling, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    This study proposes a framework for exploring contributions of underlying factors to extreme weather and climate events via vine copulas. In particular, this framework features a quantitative way for evaluating the importance of conditional relationships between variables and processes that capture underlying physical factors involved in their interdependence. Specifically, a variety of bivariate copulas is incorporated to construct a wide range of joint dependence structures for climate-related extreme events, e.g. building distributions for describing the statistics of heat waves. Underlying factors relevant for the extreme event are then taken into account via the conditioning sets of vine copulas. These quantify changes in the occurrence and severity of the extreme event owing to the co-action of various factors, e.g. conditioning the distribution of heat waves upon soil moisture deficits, precipitation deficits etc. A Bayesian inference approach is integrated into the multi-dimensional vine copulas, which facilitate parameter inference, uncertainty assessments, and the incorporation of various levels of conditioning sets in the vine copula. To illustrate, the proposed framework is applied to explore the relationship between droughts and heat waves over various regions of the contiguous United States that are distinguished by so-called energy-limited versus water-limited climatologies. We use data from large ensembles of CESM1 transient simulations and compare changes in the severity and likelihood of heat waves in response to soil moisture deficits relative to the climatology of the historical, current and future climate states, respectively. We explore whether the sensitivity of heat waves to soil moisture conditions is different for the climate regions mentioned above, and whether each region has unique attributes of sensitivity to human-induced climate change.

  2. Predictability and Spatial Characteristics of New-York-City-Area Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C.; Horton, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The origins, characteristics, and predictability of extreme heat waves in the Northeast U.S. are simultaneously examined at multiple scales, using hourly observational data from 1948-2014 and focusing in particular on the region surrounding New York City. A novel definition of heat waves - incorporating both temperature and moisture at hourly resolution - is used to identify 3-to-5-day heat waves whose dynamics are then analyzed from 3 weeks prior to 3 weeks subsequent to the event. Inter-event differences in dynamics such as the strength and position of geopotential-height anomalies; the strength, persistence, and orientation of sea breezes; and the dominant 850-hPa wind azimuth, all of which are filtered via local terrain and land-use to create differences in conditions between events at specific locations. In particular, using composite maps and back trajectories, they are found to play an important role in creating mesoscale differences in low-level moisture content, from one side of the metropolitan area to the other. Evidence is presented supporting the influence of coastline orientation in explaining the differences in the relationships between wind azimuth and temperature & moisture advection between New York City proper and northern New Jersey. Self-organizing maps are employed to classify heat waves based on the small-scale differences in temperature and moisture between events, and the results of this classification are then used in correlations with synoptic- and hemispheric-scale geopotential-height anomalies. Considerable predictability of event type on the small-scale (as well as occurrence of a heat wave of any kind) is found, originating primarily from central Pacific and western Atlantic SSTs.

  3. Electron heating via mode converted ion Bernstein waves in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonoli, P.T.; OShea, P.; Brambilla, M.; Golovato, S.N.; Hubbard, A.E.; Porkolab, M.; Takase, Y.; Boivin, R.L.; Bombarda, F.; Christensen, C.; Fiore, C.L.; Garnier, D.; Goetz, J.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Horne, S.F.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Irby, J.; Jablonski, D.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E.; May, M.; Mazurenko, A.; McCracken, G.; Nachtrieb, R.; Niemczewski, A.; Ohkawa, H.; Pappas, D.A.; Reardon, J.; Rice, J.; Rost, C.; Schachter, J.; Snipes, J.A.; Stek, P.; Takase, K.; Terry, J.; Wang, Y.; Watterson, R.L.; Welch, B.; Wolfe, S.M. [Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Highly localized direct electron heating [full width at half-maximum (FWHM){congruent}0.2a] via mode converted ion Bernstein waves has been observed in the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak [I. H. Hutchinson {ital et al.}, Phys. Plasmas {bold 1}, 1511 (1994)]. Electron heating at or near the plasma center (r/a{ge}0.3) has been observed in H({sup 3}He) discharges at B{sub 0}=(6.0{endash}6.5)T and n{sub e}(0){congruent}1.8{times}10{sup 20}m{sup {minus}3}. [Here, the minority ion species is indicated parenthetically.] Off-axis heating (r/a{ge}0.5) has also been observed in D({sup 3}He) plasmas at B{sub 0}=7.9T. The concentration of {sup 3}He in these experiments was in the range of n{sub 3{sub He}}/n{sub e}{congruent}(0.2{endash}0.3) and the locations of the mode conversion layer and electron heating peak could be controlled by changing the {sup 3}He concentration or toroidal magnetic field (B{sub 0}). The electron heating profiles were deduced using a rf modulation technique. Detailed comparisons with one-dimensional and toroidal full-wave models in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies have been carried out. One-dimensional full-wave code predictions were found to be in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. Toroidal full-wave calculations indicated the importance of volumetric and wave focusing effects in the interpretation of the experimental results. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Nonresonant absorption of shear Alfven waves. [in solar coronal heating and solar wind acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Resonant absorption of shear Alfven waves is thought to be a likely candidate to explain heating of the solar corona and acceleration of the solar wind. A difficulty with the theory is that the absorption process is slow. Moreover, heating occurs in a very thin layer. A faster absorption mechanism is nonresonant absorption by compressional viscosity, in a curved magnetic field. Heating is nonresonant and is not localized to a narrow layer. The effect could be quite important where the solar coronal magnetic field is strongly curved, in the chromosphere. It could also be important on open field lines in the upper corona, where the compressional viscosity is large. It might imply that a significant part of outgoing Alfven waves are absorbed in the corona.

  5. Development of slow and fast wave coupling and heating from the C-Stellarator to NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosea Joel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A historical perspective on key discoveries which contributed to understanding the properties of coupling both slow and fast waves and the effects on plasma heating and current drive will be presented. Important steps made include the demonstration that the Alfven resonance was in fact a mode conversion on the C-stellarator, that toroidal m = -1 eigenmodes were excited in toroidal geometry and impurity influx caused the Z mode on the ST tokamak, that the H minority regime provided strong heating and that 3He minority could be used as well on PLT, that the 2nd harmonic majority tritium regime was viable on TFTR, and that high harmonic fast wave heating was efficient when the SOL losses were avoided on NSTX.

  6. Development of slow and fast wave coupling and heating from the C-Stellarator to NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosea, Joel

    2017-10-01

    A historical perspective on key discoveries which contributed to understanding the properties of coupling both slow and fast waves and the effects on plasma heating and current drive will be presented. Important steps made include the demonstration that the Alfven resonance was in fact a mode conversion on the C-stellarator, that toroidal m = -1 eigenmodes were excited in toroidal geometry and impurity influx caused the Z mode on the ST tokamak, that the H minority regime provided strong heating and that 3He minority could be used as well on PLT, that the 2nd harmonic majority tritium regime was viable on TFTR, and that high harmonic fast wave heating was efficient when the SOL losses were avoided on NSTX.

  7. Tidal and atmospheric forcing of the upper ocean in the Gulf of California. 2: Surface heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Cynthia A.; Winant, Clinton D.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite infrared imagery and coastal meteorological data for March 1984 through February 1985 are used to estimate the net annual surface heat flux for the northern Gulf of California. The average annual surface heat flux for the area north of Guaymas and Santa Rosalia is estimated to be +74 W/sq m for the 1984-1985 time period. This is comparable to the +20-50 W/sq m previously obtained from heat and freshwater transport estimates made with hydrographic surveys from different years and months. The spatial distribution of the net surface heat flux shows a net gain of heat over the whole northern gulf. Except for a local maximum near San Esteban Island, the largest heat gain (+110-120 W/sq m) occurs in the Ballenas and Salsipuedes channels, where strong tidal mixing produces anomalously cold sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over much of the year. The lowest heat gain occurs in the Guayamas Basin (+40-50 W/sq m), where SSTs are consistently warmer. In the relatively shallow northern basin the net surface heat flux is farily uniform, with a net annual gain of approxmately +70 W/sq m. A local minimum in heat gain (approximately +60 W/sq m) is observed over the shelf in the northwest, where spring and summer surface temperatures are particularly high. A similar minimum in heat gain over the shelf was observed in a separate study in which historical SSTs and 7 years (1979-1986) of meteorological data from Puerto Penasco were used to estimate the net surface heat flux for the northern basin. In that study, however, the heat fluxes were higher, with a gain of +100 W/sq m over the shelf and +114 W/sq m in the northern basin. These larger values are directly attributable to the higher humidities in the 1979-1986 study compared to the 1984-1985 satellite study. High humidities reduce evaporation and the associated latent heat loss, promoting a net annual heat gain. In the norther Gulf of California, however, tidal mixing appears to play a key role in the observed gain of

  8. Account of heat convection by Rayleigh streaming in the description of wave amplitude growth and stabilization in a standing wave thermoacoustic prime-mover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penelet, Guillaume; Guedra, Matthieu; Gusev, Vitalyi

    2012-09-01

    This study focuses on the transient regime of wave amplitude growth and stabilization occuring into a standing wave thermoacoustic engine. Experiments are performed on a standing wave thermoacoustic oscillator. They show that the transient regime leading to steady state sound exhibits complicated dynamics, like the systematic overshoot of wave amplitude before its final stabilization, and the spontaneous and periodic switch on/off of the thermoacoustic instability at constant heat power supply. A simplified model is presented which describes wave amplitude growth from the coupled equations governing thermoacoustic amplification and unsteady heat transfer. In this model, the assumption of a one-dimensional temperature profile is retained and the equations describing heat transfer through the thermoacoustic core are coupled to that describing wave amplitude growth. These equations include the simplified description of two processes saturating wave amplitude growth, i.e. thermoacoustic heat pumping by acoustic waves and heat convection by Rayleigh streaming. It is notably shown that both effects could be responsible of the observed overshoot process.

  9. The possible role of high-frequency waves in heating solar coronal loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lisa J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Sturrock, Peter A.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the role of high-frequency waves in the heating of solar active region coronal loops. We assume a uniform background magnetic field, and we introduce a density stratification in a direction perpendicular to this field. We focus on ion compressive viscosity as the damping mechanism of the waves. We incorporate viscosity self-consistently into the equations, and we derive a dispersion relation by adopting a slab model, where the density inside the slab is greater than that outside. Such a configuration supports two types of modes: surface waves and trapped body waves. In order to determine under what conditions these waves may contribute to the heating of active regions, we solve our dispersion relation for a range of densities, temperatures, magnetic field strengths, density ratios, wavevector magnitudes, wavevector ratios, and slab widths. We find that surface waves exhibit very small damping, but body waves can potentially damp at rates needed to balance radiative losses. However, the required frequencies of these body waves are very high. For example, the wave frequency must be at least 5.0/s for a slab density of 10(exp 9,5)/cc, a slab temperature of 10(exp 6,5) K, a field strength of 100 G, and a density ratio of 5. For a slab density of 10(exp 10)/cc, this frequency increases to 8.8/s. Although these frequencies are very high, there in no observational evidence to rule out their existence, and they may be generated both below the corona and at magnetic reconnection sites in the corona. However, we do find that, for slab densities of 10(exp 10)/cc or less, the dissipation of high-frequency waves will be insufficient to balance the radiative losses if the magnetic field strength exceeds roughly 200 G. Because the magnetic field is known to exceed 200 G in many active region loops, particularly low-lying loops and loops emanating from sunspots, it is unlikely that high-frequency waves can provide sufficient heating in these regions.

  10. Generation of large scale field-aligned density irregularities in ionospheric heating experiments. [electromagnetic wave decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejer, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Threshold and growth rate for stimulated Brillouin scattering are calculated for a uniform magnetoplasma. These are then compared with the threshold and growth rate of a new thermal instability in which the nonlinear Lorentz force felt by the electrons at the beat frequency of the two electromagnetic waves is replaced by a pressure force due to differential heating in the interference pattern of the pump wave and the generated electromagnetic wave. This thermal instability, which is still essentially stimulated Brillouin scattering, has a threshold which is especially low when the propagation vector of the beat wave is almost normal to the magnetic field. The threshold is then considerably lower than the threshold for normal stimulated Brillouin scattering and therefore this new instability is probably responsible for the generation of large scale field aligned irregularities and ionospheric spread F.

  11. Thermal transport in shock wave-compressed solids using pulsed laser heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Lone, B M; Capelle, G; Stevens, G D; Turley, W D; Veeser, L R

    2014-07-01

    A pulsed laser heating method was developed for determining thermal transport properties of solids under shock-wave compression. While the solid is compressed, a laser deposits a known amount of heat onto the sample surface, which is held in the shocked state by a transparent window. The heat from the laser briefly elevates the surface temperature and then diffuses into the interior via one-dimensional heat conduction. The thermal effusivity is determined from the time history of the resulting surface temperature pulse, which is recorded with optical pyrometry. Thermal effusivity is the square root of the product of thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity and is the key thermal transport parameter for relating the surface temperature to the interior temperature of the sample in a dynamic compression experiment. Therefore, this method provides information that is needed to determine the thermodynamic state of the interior of a compressed metal sample from a temperature measurement at the surface. The laser heat method was successfully demonstrated on tin that was shock compressed with explosives to a stress and temperature of ~25 GPa and ~1300 K. In this state, tin was observed to have a thermal effusivity of close to twice its ambient value. The implications on determining the interior shock wave temperature of tin are discussed.

  12. The effect of induced heat waves on Pinus taeda and Quercus rubra seedlings in ambient and elevated CO2 atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameye, Maarten; Wertin, Timothy M; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    Here, we investigated the effect of different heat-wave intensities applied at two atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on seedlings of two tree species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Seedlings were assigned to treatment combinations of two levels of [CO2] (380 or 700 μmol mol(-1)) and four levels of air temperature (ambient, ambient +3°C, or 7-d heat waves consisting of a biweekly +6°C heat wave, or a monthly +12°C heat wave). Treatments were maintained throughout the growing season, thus receiving equal heat sums. We measured gas exchange and fluorescence parameters before, during and after a mid-summer heat wave. The +12°C heat wave, significantly reduced net photosynthesis (Anet) in both species and [CO2] treatments but this effect was diminished in elevated [CO2]. The decrease in Anet was accompanied by a decrease in Fv'/Fm' in P. taeda and ΦPSII in Q. rubra. Our findings suggest that, if soil moisture is adequate, trees will experience negative effects in photosynthetic performance only with the occurrence of extreme heat waves. As elevated [CO2] diminished these negative effects, the future climate may not be as detrimental to plant communities as previously assumed. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Preferential Heating of Oxygen 5+ Ions by Finite-Amplitude Oblique Alfven Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Yana G.; Vinas, Adolfo; Araneda, Jamie; Poedts, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    Minor ions in the fast solar wind are known to have higher temperatures and to flow faster than protons in the interplanetary space. In this study we combine previous research on parametric instability theory and 2.5D hybrid simulations to study the onset of preferential heating of Oxygen 5+ ions by large-scale finite-amplitude Alfven waves in the collisionless fast solar wind. We consider initially non-drifting isotropic multi-species plasma, consisting of isothermal massless fluid electrons, kinetic protons and kinetic Oxygen 5+ ions. The external energy source for the plasma heating and energization are oblique monochromatic Alfven-cyclotron waves. The waves have been created by rotating the direction of initial parallel pump, which is a solution of the multi-fluid plasma dispersion relation. We consider propagation angles theta less than or equal to 30 deg. The obliquely propagating Alfven pump waves lead to strong diffusion in the ion phase space, resulting in highly anisotropic heavy ion velocity distribution functions and proton beams. We discuss the application of the model to the problems of preferential heating of minor ions in the solar corona and the fast solar wind.

  14. Unsteady Heat-Flux Measurements of Second-Mode Instability Waves in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergerise, Michael A.; Rufer, Shann J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report on the application of the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat- flux sensor to the measurement of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a hypersonic flat plate boundary layer. The centerline of the flat-plate model was instrumented with a streamwise array of ALTP sensors and the flat-plate model was exposed to a Mach 6 freestream over a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Here, we observed an unstable band of frequencies that are associated with second-mode instability waves in the laminar boundary layer that forms on the flat-plate surface. The measured frequencies, group velocities, phase speeds, and wavelengths of these instability waves are in agreement with data previously reported in the literature. Heat flux time series, and the Morlet-wavelet transforms of them, revealed the wave-packet nature of the second-mode instability waves. In addition, a laser-based radiative heating system was developed to measure the frequency response functions (FRF) of the ALTP sensors used in the wind tunnel test. These measurements were used to assess the stability of the sensor FRFs over time and to correct spectral estimates for any attenuation caused by the finite sensor bandwidth.

  15. On the existence of motion-induced heat flux due to thermoelastic waves in a one-dimensional solid rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semperlotti, Fabio; Sen, Mihir

    2014-03-01

    In this Letter, we show the existence of motion-induced heat transfer in homogeneous isotropic solids due to the propagation of thermoelastic waves. In particular, using the linearized governing equations for thermoelastic waves, we show that heat transfer in a one-dimensional rod is not only due to conduction but also to the local particle displacement a phenomenon which, in principle, is similar to advective heat transfer in fluids. It is found that the time-averaged heat transfer is dependent on both the material properties and the external excitation parameters. This mechanism can potentially be useful in ultrasonic welding and in the development of solid state refrigerators or heat pumps.

  16. Development and Testing of a Refractory Millimeter-Wave Absorbent Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, Thomas; Myrabo, Leik; Murakami, David; Parkin, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Central to the Millimeter-Wave Thermal Launch System (MTLS) is the millimeter-wave absorbent heat exchanger. We have developed metallic and ceramic variants, with the key challenge being the millimeter-wave absorbent coatings for each. The ceramic heat exchanger came to fruition first, demonstrating for the first time 1800 K peak surface temperatures under illumination by a 110 GHz Gaussian beam. Absorption efficiencies of up to 80 are calculated for mullite heat exchanger tubes and up to 50 are calculated for alumina tubes. These are compared with estimates based on stratified layer and finite element analyses. The problem of how to connect the 1800 K end of the ceramic tubes to a graphite outlet manifold and nozzle is solved by press fitting, or by threading the ends of the ceramic tubes and screwing them into place. The problem of how to connect the ceramic tubes to a metallic or nylon inlet pipe is solved by using soft compliant PTFE and PVC tubes that accommodate thermal deformations of the ceramic tubes during startup and operation. We show the resulting heat exchangers in static tests using argon and helium as propellants.

  17. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  18. Air pollution during the 2003 European heat wave as seen by MOZAIC airliners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tressol

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of both MOZAIC profiles above Frankfurt and Lagrangian dispersion model simulations for the 2003 European heat wave. The comparison of MOZAIC measurements in summer 2003 with the 11-year MOZAIC climatology reflects strong temperature anomalies (exceeding 4°C throughout the lower troposphere. Higher positive anomalies of temperature and negative anomalies of both wind speed and relative humidity are found for the period defined here as the heat wave (2–14 August 2003, compared to the periods before (16–31 July 2003 and after (16–31 August 2003 the heat wave. In addition, Lagrangian model simulations in backward mode indicate the suppressed long-range transport in the mid- to lower troposphere and the enhanced southern origin of air masses for all tropospheric levels during the heat wave. Ozone and carbon monoxide also present strong anomalies (both ~+40 ppbv during the heat wave, with a maximum vertical extension reaching 6 km altitude around 11 August 2003. Pollution in the planetary boundary layer (PBL is enhanced during the day, with ozone mixing ratios two times higher than climatological values. This is due to a combination of factors, such as high temperature and radiation, stagnation of air masses and weak dry deposition, which favour the accumulation of ozone precursors and the build-up of ozone. A negligible role of a stratospheric-origin ozone tracer has been found for the lower troposphere in this study. From 29 July to 15 August 2003 forest fires burnt around 0.3×106 ha in Portugal and added to atmospheric pollution in Europe. Layers with enhanced CO and NOy mixing ratios, advected from Portugal, were crossed by the MOZAIC aircraft in the free troposphere over Frankfurt. A series of forward and backward Lagrangian model simulations have been performed to investigate the origin of anomalies during the whole heat wave. European anthropogenic emissions present the strongest

  19. Projection of heat waves variation over a warming climate in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Wu, S.; Pan, T.

    2016-12-01

    Heat waves (HW) have adverse impacts on economies, human health, societies and environment, which have been observed around the world and are expected to increase in a warming climate. However, the variations of HW under climate change over China are not clear yet. Using the HadGEM2-ES RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 daily maximum temperature and humidity dataset, variation of heat waves in China for 2021-2050 comparing to 1991-2000 as baseline were analyzed. The CMA-HI (Heat Index standardized by China Meteorological Administration) index was used to calculate the frequency and intensity of head waves. This paper classified the HW into three intensity levels including mild HW, moderate HW and severe HW , and defined a heat wave event (HWE) as that CMA-HI are all above or equal to 2.8 and keep at a intensity level more than five consecutive days. Results show that during 2021to 2050, the distribution area, frequency and duration of each intensity level have an increasing trend over China, and those of severe HW will increase mostly. The distribution area of mild, moderate and severe HW will increase 18%, 22%, 35% respectively. Average HWE frequency of each level will concentrate on 0.5-1instead of 0-0.3 in baseline period. Maximum frequency of each intensity can reach to almost 3 times a year. During 1991-2000, the average frequency of mild HW, moderate HW and severe HW kept a downward sequence. But it will change to increase in the future, and the shift occurs during 2031-2040. In addition, only severe HW duration will increase in the future. Its average value will increase from 9days to 13days, and keep a maximum duration of 42days.While the average duration of mild HW and moderate HW just keep almost 6 days and 8 days as usual. Regionally, both the frequency and duration will keep high value in the region of eastern China, central China, southern China and central Xinjiang autonomous region in the future. And only severe HW has a great change in distribution. Under RCP 8

  20. Predicting observational signatures of coronal heating by Alfvén waves and Nanoflares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolin, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    The subject of this thesis is the coronal heating problem, a long standing problem not only in solar physics but in astrophysics, since it is addressed to all stars that possess a corona. The Sun, a middle aged main sequence star of class G2V, has been unveiling many mysteries to us in the last century, especially since the advent of the space era. More than 70 years ago a very hot temperature component in the corona was discovered, reaching temperatures as high as a few million degrees. Such a hot corona came as a surprise to astrophysicists, since it seemed to contradict the second law of thermodynamics being 200 times hotter than the underlying photosphere, the source of its energy. Since then the coronal heating problem has spawned an active research community in solar physics that aims to unveil yet another mystery. This thesis has as purpose to shed some light into the fascinating subject of coronal heating. In the first chapter we give an introduction to the field, in which we discuss the main heating candidate mechanisms: Alfvén wave heating and nanoflare-reconnection heating. Predicting unique observational signatures of each heating mechanism which would allow their distinction during observations is the main purpose of this thesis and the subject of the second chapter. In this chapter we investigate the thermodynamic properties of a corona in a magnetic flux tube obtained, separately, with the two heating mechanisms. We derive a series of observational features which may allow the clear distinction between the two heating mechanisms during observations. In chapter 3 we further investigate the role of Alfvén wave heating in the solar atmosphere. We concentrate our study on magnetic flux tubes (loops), which are closed magnetic structures which populate the solar atmosphere. In the considered model Alfvén waves are generated at the footpoints of a loop and can dissipate their energy mainly through the mode conversion mechanism. A parameter survey is

  1. Four-wave mixing in quantum dot SOAs: Theory of carrier heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayyih, Ahmed H.; Al-Shatravi, Ali Gehad; Al-Khursan, Amin H.

    Carrier heating (CH) theory in a four-wave mixing quantum dot structure has been investigated. The impact of wetting layer (WL) carrier density, CH time constant, effective intraband relaxation time have been examined. The derived heat capacity for QD structure have (T-1) dependence. It is shown here that both WL carrier density and QD excited state (ES) occupation controls the overall nonlinear contributions. Then inclusion of WL and ES in the CH induces a new equilibrium reached at a faster recovery time. The proposed model yields results in a line with experiments at high carrier density reflecting the efficiency of our model.

  2. Can heat waves change the trophic role of the world's most invasive crayfish? Diet shifts in Procambarus clarkii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Bruno M; Segurado, Pedro; Laurila, Anssi; Rebelo, Rui

    2017-01-01

    In the Mediterranean basin, the globally increasing temperatures are expected to be accompanied by longer heat waves. Commonly assumed to benefit cold-limited invasive alien species, these climatic changes may also change their feeding preferences, especially in the case of omnivorous ectotherms. We investigated heat wave effects on diet choice, growth and energy reserves in the invasive red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. In laboratory experiments, we fed juvenile and adult crayfish on animal, plant or mixed diets and exposed them to a short or a long heat wave. We then measured crayfish survival, growth, body reserves and Fulton's condition index. Diet choices of the crayfish maintained on the mixed diet were estimated using stable isotopes (13C and 15N). The results suggest a decreased efficiency of carnivorous diets at higher temperatures, as juveniles fed on the animal diet were unable to maintain high growth rates in the long heat wave; and a decreased efficiency of herbivorous diets at lower temperatures, as juveniles in the cold accumulated less body reserves when fed on the plant diet. Heat wave treatments increased the assimilation of plant material, especially in juveniles, allowing them to sustain high growth rates in the long heat wave. Contrary to our expectations, crayfish performance decreased in the long heat wave, suggesting that Mediterranean summer heat waves may have negative effects on P. clarkii and that they are unlikely to boost its populations in this region. Although uncertain, it is possible that the greater assimilation of the plant diet resulted from changes in crayfish feeding preferences, raising the hypotheses that i) heat waves may change the predominant impacts of this keystone species and ii) that by altering species' trophic niches, climate change may alter the main impacts of invasive alien species.

  3. Overly persistent circulation in climate models contributes to overestimated frequency and duration of heat waves and cold spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The study examines links of summer heat waves and winter cold spells in Central Europe to atmospheric circulation and specifically its persistence in an ensemble of regional climate models (RCMs). We analyse 13 RCMs driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis and compare them against observations over reference period 1971-2000. Using objective classification of circulation types and an efficiency coefficient with a block resampling test, we identify circulation types significantly conducive to heat waves and cold spells. We show that the RCMs have a stronger tendency to group together days with very high or low temperature and tend to simulate too many heat waves and cold spells, especially those lasting 5 days and more. Circulation types conducive to heat waves in summer are characterized by anticyclonic, southerly and easterly flow, with increasing importance of warm advection during heat waves. Winter cold spells are typically associated with easterly and anticyclonic flow, and the onset of cold spells tends to be linked to northerly and cyclonic flow with cold advection. The RCMs are generally able to reproduce the links between circulation and heat waves or cold spells, including the radiation-to-advection effect for heat waves and the opposite advection-to-radiation effect for cold spells. They capture relatively well also changes of mean temperature anomalies during sequences of given circulation types, namely the tendency towards temperature increase (decrease) during those types conducive to heat waves (cold spells). Since mean lengths of all circulation supertypes are overestimated in the RCMs, we conclude that the overly persistent circulation in climate models contributes to the overestimated frequency of long heat waves and cold spells. As these biases are rather general among the examined RCMs and similar drawbacks are likely to be manifested in climate model simulations for the twenty-first century, the results also suggest that climate change scenarios for

  4. Can heat waves change the trophic role of the world's most invasive crayfish? Diet shifts in Procambarus clarkii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M Carreira

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean basin, the globally increasing temperatures are expected to be accompanied by longer heat waves. Commonly assumed to benefit cold-limited invasive alien species, these climatic changes may also change their feeding preferences, especially in the case of omnivorous ectotherms. We investigated heat wave effects on diet choice, growth and energy reserves in the invasive red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. In laboratory experiments, we fed juvenile and adult crayfish on animal, plant or mixed diets and exposed them to a short or a long heat wave. We then measured crayfish survival, growth, body reserves and Fulton's condition index. Diet choices of the crayfish maintained on the mixed diet were estimated using stable isotopes (13C and 15N. The results suggest a decreased efficiency of carnivorous diets at higher temperatures, as juveniles fed on the animal diet were unable to maintain high growth rates in the long heat wave; and a decreased efficiency of herbivorous diets at lower temperatures, as juveniles in the cold accumulated less body reserves when fed on the plant diet. Heat wave treatments increased the assimilation of plant material, especially in juveniles, allowing them to sustain high growth rates in the long heat wave. Contrary to our expectations, crayfish performance decreased in the long heat wave, suggesting that Mediterranean summer heat waves may have negative effects on P. clarkii and that they are unlikely to boost its populations in this region. Although uncertain, it is possible that the greater assimilation of the plant diet resulted from changes in crayfish feeding preferences, raising the hypotheses that i heat waves may change the predominant impacts of this keystone species and ii that by altering species' trophic niches, climate change may alter the main impacts of invasive alien species.

  5. Microwave pre-heating of natural rubber using a rectangular wave guide (MODE: TE10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-ngam, N.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of microwave radiation for pre-heating of natural rubbercompounding with various sulphur contents. The natural rubber-compounding was pre-heated by microwave radiation using a rectangular wave guide system (MODE: TE10 operating at frequency of 2.45 GHz in which the power can vary from 0 to 1500 W. In the present work, the influence of power input, sample thickness, and sulphur content were examined after applying microwave radiation to the rubber samples. Results are discussed regarding the thermal properties, 3-D network, dielectric properties and chemical structures. From the result, firstly, it was found that microwave radiation can be applied to pre-heating natural rubber-compounding before the vulcanization process. Secondly, microwave radiation was very useful for pre-heating natural rubber-compounding that has a thickness greater than 5mm. Thirdly, crosslinking in natural rubber-compounding may occurs after pre-heating by microwave radiation though Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FTIR. Finally, there a little effect of sulphur content on temperature profiles after applying microwave radiation to the natural rubber-compounding. Moreover, natural rubber-compounding without carbon black showed a lower heat absorption compared with natural rubbercompounding filled carbon black. This is due to the difference in dielectric loss factor. This preliminary result will be useful information in terms of microwave radiation for pre-heating natural rubber-compounding and rubber processing in industry.

  6. The role of Ekman flow and planetary waves in the oceanic cross-equatorial heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, P. S.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical model is used to mechanistically simulate the oceans' seasonal cross-equatorial heat transport. The basic process of Ekman pumping and drift is able to account for a large amount of the cross-equatorial flux. Increased easterly wind stress in the winter hemisphere causes Ekman surface drift poleward, while decreased easterly stress allows a reduction in the poleward drift in the summer hemisphere. The addition of planetary and gravity waves to this model does not alter the net cross-equatorial flow, although the planetary waves are clearly seen. On comparison with Oort and Vonder Haar (1976), this adiabatic advective redistribution of heat is seen to be plausible up to 10-20 deg N, beyond which other dynamics and thermodynamics are indicated.

  7. Exposure to a heat wave under food limitation makes an agricultural insecticide lethal: a mechanistic laboratory experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinh, Khuong Van; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-01-01

    variables. While the immediate effects of the heat wave were subtle, our results indicate the importance of delayed effects in shaping the total fitness impact of a heat wave when followed by pesticide exposure. Firstly, the combination of delayed negative effects of the heat wave and starvation...... for mortality could be explained by the cumulative metabolic depression caused by each of these stressors. Further studies with increased realism are needed to evaluate the consequences of the here-identified delayed synergisms at the level of populations and communities. This is especially important...

  8. Anomalies of hydrological cycle components during the 2007 heat wave in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircheva, Biliana; Tsekov, Milen; Meyer, Ulrich; Guerova, Guergana

    2017-12-01

    Heat waves have large adverse social, economic and environmental effects which include increased mortality, transport restrictions and a decreased agricultural production. The estimated economic losses of the 2007 heat wave in South-east Europe exceed 2 billion EUR with 19 000 hospitalisation in Romania only. Understanding the changes of the hydrological cycle components is essential for early forecasting of heat wave occurrence. Valuable insight of two components of the hydrological cycle, namely Integrated Water Vapour (IWV) and Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly (TWSA), is now possible using observations from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. In this study anomalies of temperature, precipitation, IWV and TWS in 2007 are compared to 2003-2013 period for Sofia, Bulgaria. In 2007, positive temperature anomalies are observed in January, February and July. There are negative IWV and precipitation anomalies in July 2007 that coincides with the heat wave in Bulgaria. TWSA in 2007 are negative in January, May and from July to October being largest in August. Long-term trends of: 1) temperatures have a local maximum in March 2007, 2) TWSA has a local minimum in May 2007, 3) IWV has a local minimum in September 2007, and 4) precipitation has a local maximum in July 2007. The TWSA interannual trends in Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland show similar behaviour as indicated by cross correlation coefficients of 0.9 and 0.7 between Bulgaria and Hungary and Bulgaria and Poland respectively. ALADIN-Climate describes the anomalies of temperature and IWV more successfully than those of precipitation and TWS.

  9. Differences on the effect of heat waves on mortality by sociodemographic and urban landscape characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihan; Dadvand, Payam; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Sartini, Claudio; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Borrell, Carme; Medina-Ramón, Mercè; Sunyer, Jordi; Basagaña, Xavier

    2013-06-01

    Mortality increases during heat waves have been reported worldwide. The magnitude of these increases can vary within regions according to sociodemographic and urban landscape characteristics. The objectives of this study were to explore this variation and its determinants, and to identify the most heat-vulnerable areas by mapping heat vulnerability. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover analysis using daily mortality in the Barcelona metropolitan area during the warm seasons of 1999-2006. Temperature data on the date of death were assigned to each individual, which were assigned to their census tract of residence. Eight census tract-level variables on socioeconomic or built environment characteristics were obtained from the census. Residence surrounding greenness was obtained from satellite data. The relative risk (RR) of mortality after three consecutive hot days (defined as those exceeding the 95th percentile of maximum temperature) was calculated via conditional logistic regression. Effect modification was examined by including interaction terms. Analyses were based on 52 806 deaths. The effect of three consecutive hot days was a 30% increase in all-cause mortality (RR=1.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.38). Heterogeneity of this effect was observed across census tracts. The effect of heat on mortality was higher in the census tracts with a large percentage of old buildings (RR=1.21, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.46), manual workers (RR=1.25, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.64) and residents perceiving little surrounding greenness (RR=1.29, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.65). After three consecutive hot days, mortality doubled in the most heat-vulnerable census tracts. Sociodemographic and urban landscape characteristics are associated to mortality risk during heat waves and are useful to build heat vulnerability maps.

  10. Effect of heat waves on VOC emissions from vegetation and urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Kuik, F.; Lauer, A.; Bonn, B.; Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of VOC from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the 2006 heat wave. VOC emissions from vegetation are simulated with MEGAN 2.0 coupled with WRF-CHEM. Our preliminary results indicate that contribution of VOCs from vegetation to ozone formation may increase by more than twofold during the heat wave period. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  11. Cool Roofs in Guangzhou, China: Outdoor Air Temperature Reductions during Heat Waves and Typical Summer Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Meichun; Rosado, Pablo; Lin, Zhaohui; Levinson, Ronnen; Millstein, Dev

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we simulate temperature reductions during heat-wave events and during typical summer conditions from the installation of highly reflective "cool" roofs in the Chinese megacity of Guangzhou. We simulate temperature reductions during six of the strongest historical heat-wave events over the past decade, finding average urban midday temperature reductions of 1.2 °C. In comparison, we simulate 25 typical summer weeks between 2004 and 2008, finding average urban midday temperature reductions of 0.8 °C, indicating that air temperature sensitivity to urban albedo in Guangzhou varies with meteorological conditions. We find that roughly three-fourths of the variance in air temperature reductions across all episodes can be accounted for by a linear regression, including only three basic properties related to the meteorological conditions: mean daytime temperature, humidity, and ventilation to the greater Guangzhou urban area. While these results highlight the potential for cool roofs to mitigate peak temperatures during heat waves, the temperature reductions reported here are based on the upper bound case, which increases albedos of all roofs (but does not modify road albedo or wall albedo).

  12. Strong negative effects of simulated heat waves in a tropical butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Klaus; Klockmann, Michael; Reim, Elisabeth

    2014-08-15

    Climate change poses a significant challenge to all natural systems on Earth. Especially increases in extreme weather events such as heat waves have the potential to strongly affect biodiversity, though their effects are poorly understood because of a lack of empirical data. Therefore, we here explore the sensitivity of a tropical ectotherm, which are in general believed to have a low warming tolerance, to experimentally simulated climate change using ecologically realistic diurnal temperature cycles. Increasing the mean temperature permanently by 3°C had mostly minor effects on developmental traits in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Simulated heat waves (strongly elevated temperatures for some time though retaining the same overall temperature mean), in contrast, caused strong negative effects by prolonging development time (by up to 10%) and reducing body mass (-21%), especially when combined with reduced relative humidity. Detrimental effects were carried over into the adult stage, diminishing subsequent performance. Most strikingly, higher temperatures suppressed adult immune function (haemocytes: -54%, lysozyme activity: -32%), which may potentially change the way species interact with antagonists. Heat waves thus reduced fitness parameters by 10-25% for development time and body mass and by up to 54% for immune parameters even in this plastic and widespread butterfly, exemplifying the potentially dramatic impact of extreme weather events on biodiversity. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Blast-Wave Generation and Propagation in Rapidly Heated Laser-Irradiated Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, S. T.; Stillman, C. R.; Nilson, P. M.; Solodov, A. A.; Froula, D. H.

    2017-10-01

    Time-resolved extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy was used to study the creation and propagation of a >100-Mbar blast wave in a target irradiated by an intense (>1018WWcm2 cm2) laser pulse. Blast waves provide a platform to generate immense pressures in the laboratory. A temporal double flash of XUV radiation was observed when viewing the rear side of the target, which is attributed to the emergence of a blast wave following rapid heating by a fast-electron beam generated from the laser pulse. The time-history of XUV emission in the photon energy range of 50 to 200 eV was recorded with an x-ray streak camera with 7-ps temporal resolution. The heating and expansion of the target was simulated with an electron transport code coupled to 1-D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. The temporal delay between the two flashes measured in a systematic study of target thickness and composition was found to evolve in good agreement with a Sedov-Taylor blast-wave solution. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and Department of Energy Office of Science Award Number DE-SC-0012317.

  14. [Media and public health: example of heat wave during summer 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, L; Robitail, S; Debensason, D; Auquier, P; San Marco, J-L

    2005-11-01

    The summer of 2003 was the hottest for France in the last 50 years with record day and nighttime temperatures. INSERM statistics estimated that 14,802 heat-related deaths occurred during August 2003 heat wave in France. In the aftermath of this crisis, we thought that it was useful to analyze how the French media dealt with public health during the period from June 1 to August 31, 2003. The objective was to analyze French coverage of public health information during the August 2003 heat wave. Manual and computerized analysis of newspaper and radio reports published from June 1 to August 31, 2003. Articles were obtained by searching the EUROPRESS database. Text analysis was performed using the ALCESTE software package. A total of 1,599 articles were analyzed. Few articles contained warnings about heat exposure and preventive measures. Public health policy was relegated to third place after business and ecology themes. The special problems of the high-risk populations were not mentioned until after the rising death toll was known and emphasis was placed on the implications of the crisis in the political process. The findings of this study show the poor performance of public health policy in France and that media must be given guidance to fulfil its role in providing public health information. This crisis discloses the absence of public health culture in France and involves the "social exclusion" related to a breakdown of social cohesion. More cooperation is needed between the media and public health professionals to avoid future heat-wave and other public health crises. France must develop a public health culture to promote involvement of both the community and individuals in public health issues.

  15. Fast wave heating and edge power losses in NSTX and NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Nicola

    2013-10-01

    Experimental studies of high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have demonstrated that substantial HHFW power loss can occur along the open field lines in the scrape-off layer (SOL), but the mechanism behind the loss is not yet understood. Extended ray tracing and full wave codes are being applied to specific NSTX discharges in order to predict the causes of this power loss. Previous full wave simulations predict that cavity-like modes may form outside of the LCFS. We find that inserting a collisional loss in the SOL of AORSA to represent a damping process indicates an effective collisional term of ν / ω ~ [ 0 . 05 - 0 . 1 ] which is considerably larger than the ν / ω ~ 0 . 005 obtained with Spitzer resistivity, suggesting the damping scale of the loss mechanism. The magnitude of the edge collisional losses are being used to evaluate possible potential damping mechanisms in the SOL. Initial numerical analyses show that the presence of the SOL has a significant impact on the launched antenna spectrum. The upgrade of NSTX, NSTX-U, will operate with toroidal magnetic fields (BT) up to 1 T, nearly twice the values used on NSTX. The doubling of BT while retaining the 30 MHz RF frequency moves the heating regime for NSTX-U to the mid harmonic fast wave (MHFW) regime, which will be analyzed and contrasted with the HHFW regime on NSTX. These studies indicate that direct ion damping might be more significant in NSTX-U under TRANSP predicted full performance conditions. Modifications of fast ion distributions due to the interaction of fast waves with NBI will be presented in both MHFW and HHFW regimes. Work supported by the SciDAC Center for Wave-Plasma Interactions under DE-FC02-01ER54648 and the US DOE under DE-AC02-CH0911466.

  16. The temporal behaviour of MHD waves in a partially ionized prominence-like plasma: Effect of heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, J. L.; Carbonell, M.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.

    2018-01-01

    Context. During heating or cooling processes in prominences, the plasma microscopic parameters are modified due to the change of temperature and ionization degree. Furthermore, if waves are excited on this non-stationary plasma, the changing physical conditions of the plasma also affect wave dynamics. Aims: Our aim is to study how temporal variation of temperature and microscopic plasma parameters modify the behaviour of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves excited in a prominence-like hydrogen plasma. Methods: Assuming optically thin radiation, a constant external heating, the full expression of specific internal energy, and a suitable energy equation, we have derived the profiles for the temporal variation of the background temperature. We have computed the variation of the ionization degree using a Saha equation, and have linearized the single-fluid MHD equations to study the temporal behaviour of MHD waves. Results: For all the MHD waves considered, the period and damping time become time dependent. In the case of Alfvén waves, the cut-off wavenumbers also become time dependent and the attenuation rate is completely different in a cooling or heating process. In the case of slow waves, while it is difficult to distinguish the slow wave properties in a cooling partially ionized plasma from those in an almost fully ionized plasma, the period and damping time of these waves in both plasmas are completely different when the plasma is heated. The temporal behaviour of the Alfvén and fast wave is very similar in the cooling case, but in the heating case, an important difference appears that is related with the time damping. Conclusions: Our results point out important differences in the behaviour of MHD waves when the plasma is heated or cooled, and show that a correct interpretation of the observed prominence oscillations is very important in order to put accurate constraints on the physical situation of the prominence plasma under study, that is, to perform prominence

  17. Heat-Flux Measurements in Laser-Produced Plasmas Using Thomson Scattering from Electron Plasma Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchen, R. J.; Goncharov, V. N.; Cao, D.; Katz, J.; Froula, D. H.; Rozmus, W.

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was designed to measure heat flux in coronal plasmas using collective Thomson scattering. Adjustments to the electron distribution function resulting from heat flux affect the shape of the collective Thomson scattering features through wave-particle resonance. The amplitude of the Spitzer-Härm electron distribution function correction term (f1) was varied to match the data and determines the value of the heat flux. Independent measurements of temperature and density obtained from Thomson scattering were used to infer the classical heat flux (q = - κ∇Te) . Time-resolved Thomson-scattering data were obtained at five locations in the corona along the target normal in a blowoff plasma formed from a planar Al target with 1.5 kJ of 351-nm laser light in a 2-ns square pulse. The flux measured through the Thomson-scattering spectra is a factor of 5 less than the κ∇Te measurements. The lack of collisions of heat-carrying electrons suggests a nonlocal model is needed to accurately describe the heat flux. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  18. X-ray analysis of electron Bernstein wave heating in MST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzman, A. H.; Anderson, J. K.; DuBois, A. M.; Almagri, A.; Forest, C. B.

    2016-11-01

    A pulse height analyzing x-ray tomography system has been developed to detect x-rays from electron Bernstein wave heated electrons in the Madison symmetric torus reversed field pinch (RFP). Cadmium zinc telluride detectors are arranged in a parallel beam array with two orthogonal multi-chord detectors that may be used for tomography. In addition a repositionable 16 channel fan beam camera with a 55° field of view is used to augment data collected with the Hard X-ray array. The chord integrated signals identify target emission from RF heated electrons striking a limiter located 12° toroidally away from the RF injection port. This provides information on heated electron spectrum, transport, and diffusion. RF induced x-ray emission from absorption on harmonic electron cyclotron resonances in low current (<250 kA) RFP discharges has been observed.

  19. X-ray analysis of electron Bernstein wave heating in MST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltzman, A. H., E-mail: seltzman@wisc.edu; Anderson, J. K.; DuBois, A. M.; Almagri, A.; Forest, C. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A pulse height analyzing x-ray tomography system has been developed to detect x-rays from electron Bernstein wave heated electrons in the Madison symmetric torus reversed field pinch (RFP). Cadmium zinc telluride detectors are arranged in a parallel beam array with two orthogonal multi-chord detectors that may be used for tomography. In addition a repositionable 16 channel fan beam camera with a 55° field of view is used to augment data collected with the Hard X-ray array. The chord integrated signals identify target emission from RF heated electrons striking a limiter located 12° toroidally away from the RF injection port. This provides information on heated electron spectrum, transport, and diffusion. RF induced x-ray emission from absorption on harmonic electron cyclotron resonances in low current (<250 kA) RFP discharges has been observed.

  20. Heat Flow Budget of the Gulf of California Rift: Preliminary Results of a High Resolution Survey Across the Wagner Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete-Aranda, R.; Neumann, F.; Harris, R. N.; Contreras, J.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Sclater, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    The thermal regime exerts a primary control on rift dynamics and mode of extension for continental lithosphere. We present three heat-flow profiles across the southern terminus of the Cerro Prieto fault, in the northern Gulf of California. The longest profile is 42 km and has a measurement spacing of 1 km that spans the hanging-wall block (Wagner basin) and the footwall block of that fault. Measurements were taken with a 6.5 m long Fielax, violin-bow probe. Most measurements are of good quality, i.e., the probe fully penetrated sediments and measurements were stable enough to perform reliable inversion for heat flow and thermal properties. However, it was necessary to perform numerous corrections due to environmental phenomena related the copious sedimentation in the area, and seasonal changes in water temperature. Our measurements indicate the total throughput across the central rift and its east shoulder is 15 KW/m per meter of rift length. More important, heat flow values cluster in three distinct spatial groups: (i) heat flow in the well sedimented depocenter of the Wagner basin is approximately 200 mW/m2; (ii) the footwall block heat-flow is approximately 400 mW/m2; and (iii) heat flow across the fault zone is very high, up to 5,000 mW/m2. Our interpretation is that the former value represents the background conductive heat flow in the rift whereas heat flow across the fault represents advective heat transport by hydrothermal fluids. The high heat flow in the footwall block of the Cerro Prieto fault might be result of both conductive and advective heat transfer by fluid seepage from the basin. These data provide evidence that fluids from deep magma bodies transported along faults assist rifting in the northern Gulf of California. We are exploring how fluids may play a role in weakening the lithosphere and help localizing/delocalizing strain along major transforms and numerous normal faults observed in the area.

  1. Comparative Calculation of Heat Exchange with the Ground in Residential Building Including Periodes of Heat Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staszczuk Anna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides verification of 3D transient ground-coupled model to calculation of heat exchange between ground and typical one-storey, passive residential building. The model was performed with computer software WUFI®plus and carried out to estimate the indoor air temperatures during extending hot weather periods. For verifying the results of calculations performed by the WUFI®plus software, the most recent version of EnergyPlus software version was used. Comparison analysis of calculation results obtained with the two above mentioned calculation method was made for two scenarios of slab on ground constructions: without thermal insulation and with thermal insulation under the whole slab area. Comprehensive statistical analysis was done including time series analysis and descriptive statistics parameters.

  2. The Relation between Temperature, Ozone, and Mortality in Nine French Cities during the Heat Wave of 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laurent Filleul; Sylvie Cassadou; Sylvia Médina; Pascal Fabres; Agnés Lefranc; Daniel Eilstein; Alain Le Tertre; Laurence Pascal; Benoit Chardon; Myriam Blanchard; Christophe Declercq; Jean-François Jusot; Hélène Prouvost; Martine Ledrans

    2006-01-01

    .... During this period, elevated ozone concentrations were measured all over the country. Questions were raised concerning the contribution of O to the health impact of the summer 2003 heat wave. Methods...

  3. Building a Community Thermal Model for Southern California Using Heat Flow, Geologic, Seismologic and Petrologic Constraints I: Thermophysical Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. S.; Thatcher, W. R.; Williams, C. F.

    2016-12-01

    We are building a community thermal model (CTM) for Southern California that will provide temperatures and their uncertainties throughout the lithosphere. The CTM is an essential ingredient for a community rheologic model to simulate lithospheric deformation and constrain earthquake cycle movements in southern California. Lithospheric geotherms parametric in surface heat flow include: (1) models of conductive heat transfer in the lithosphere, (2) lithology of the crust and lithospheric mantle, and (3) thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, k, and radiogenic heat production, A) to be assigned in the lithologic model. Inexact knowledge of the lithology of the crust can lead to large temperature uncertainties. Lab measurements show that thermal conductivity can vary from 1 to 6 W m-1 K-1 in near-surface rocks depending primarily on quartz vs clay content, but varies only from 2 to 3 W m-1 K-1 for mafic rocks of the lower crust and ultramafic rocks of the upper mantle. Likewise, heat production is highly variable at the surface but decreases progressively by three orders of magnitude between likely upper crustal felsic rocks, the more mafic rocks of the lower crust, and ultramafic mantle rocks. In southern California the lithologic model is constrained by mapped surface geology and subsurface structure is guided by seismic investigations. Where direct sampling of the crust and upper mantle is not possible we apply empirical fits between seismic velocity and thermophysical parameters. As a test case we apply our thermophysical parameter assignment along the LARSE 1 seismic transect. Even along this relatively well studied transect the model uncertainties are large, forcing us to seek bounds on deeper lithospheric temperatures. As shown in our companion poster (Thatcher et al., this meeting) seismic estimates of lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depth and temperature inferred from petrologic bounds on asthenospheric melting provide useful additional

  4. Meteorological factors influencing characteristics of heat waves and cold spells over Central Europe in EURO-CORDEX RCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcova, Eva; Kysely, Jan

    2017-04-01

    We evaluate the ability of current regional climate models (RCMs) to simulate temporal characteristics of heat waves and cold spells over Central Europe. We compare EURO-CORDEX RCMs driven by both global climate models and the ERA-INTERIM reanalysis against observations over the reference period 1980-2005. We focus on heat waves in summer and cold spells in winter over Central Europe (48.5-51.5 N and 12-18 E). We find that some RCMs have difficulties to reproduce basic characteristics of heat waves and cold spells (such as frequency and duration). Most RCMs overestimate length of the longest heat waves and cold spells. We detected that models have a stronger tendency to cluster days of heat waves and cold spells in individual years compared to observations, which results in more extreme seasons in RCMs. We analyze climatological characteristics and meteorological factors related to the persistence of heat waves and cold spells, with focus on simulated atmospheric circulation and precipitation deficits.

  5. Plasma Heating During the Parametric Excitation of Acoustic Waves in Coronal Magnetic Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Kislyakova, K. G.

    When studying microwave emission of active regions on the Sun, an effect of parametric resonance between 5-min velocity oscillations in the solar photosphere and sound oscillations of coronal magnetic loops modulating the microwave emission has been discovered for the first time. The effect shows itself as simultaneous excitation in coronal magnetic loop oscillations with periods 5, 10, and 3 min, which correspond to the pumping frequency, subharmonic, and the first upper frequency of parametric resonance. The parametric resonance can serve as an effective channel of transporting the energy of photospheric oscillations into the upper layers of the solar atmosphere. The energy of acoustic waves excited in a coronal magnetic loop, rate of dissipation of acoustic waves, and rate of heating of the coronal plasma are determined. The maximum temperature predicted for the apex of the loop is calculated as a function of velocity of photospheric oscillations, length of the loop, and electric current in the loop. It is shown that the mechanism proposed can explain the origin of quasi-stationary X-ray loops with temperatures of 3-6 MK. The lengths of these loops are resonant for acoustic waves excited by the 5-min photospheric oscillations. The use of the proposed mechanism to explain heating of the X-ray loops expected to be on stars of late spectral types is discussed.

  6. Control of wave-driven turbulence and surface heating on the mixing of microplastic marine debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulka, T.; Lavender Law, K. L.; Proskurowski, G. K.

    2016-02-01

    Buoyant microplastic marine debris (MPMD) is a pollutant in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL) that is submerged by turbulent transport processes. Langmuir circulation (LC) is a turbulent process driven by wind and surface waves that enhances mixing in the OSBL. Sea surface cooling also contributes to OSBL turbulence by driving convection. On the other hand, sea surface heating stratifies and stabilizes the water column to reduce turbulent motion. We analyze observed MPMD surface concentrations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to reveal a significant increase in MPMD concentrations during surface heating and a decrease during surface cooling. Turbulence resolving large eddy simulations of the OSBL for an idealized diurnal heating cycle suggest that turbulent downward fluxes of buoyant tracers are enhanced at night, facilitating deep submergence of plastics, and suppressed in heating conditions, resulting in surface trapped MPMD. Simulations agree with observations if enhanced mixing due to LC is included. Our results demonstrate the controlling influence of surface heat fluxes and LC on turbulent transport in the OSBL and on vertical distributions of buoyant marine particles.

  7. Investigation of impurity confinement in lower hybrid wave heated plasma on EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Wu, Z. W.; Zhang, L.; Gao, W.; Ye, Y.; Chen, K. Y.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, W.; Yang, X. D.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhang, P. F.; Huang, J.; Wu, C. R.; Morita, S.; Oishi, T.; Zhang, J. Z.; Duan, Y. M.; Zang, Q.; Ding, S. Y.; Liu, H. Q.; Chen, J. L.; Hu, L. Q.; Xu, G. S.; Guo, H. Y.; the EAST team

    2018-01-01

    The transient perturbation method with metallic impurities such as iron (Fe, Z  =  26) and copper (Cu, Z  =  29) induced in plasma-material interaction (PMI) procedure is used to investigate the impurity confinement characters in lower hybrid wave (LHW) heated EAST sawtooth-free plasma. The dependence of metallic impurities confinement time on plasma parameters (e.g. plasma current, toroidal magnetic field, electron density and heating power) are investigated in ohmic and LHW heated plasma. It is shown that LHW heating plays an important role in the reduction of the impurity confinement time in L-mode discharges on EAST. The impurity confinement time scaling is given as 42IP0.32Bt0.2\\overline{n}e0.43Ptotal-0.4~ on EAST, which is close to the observed scaling on Tore Supra and JET. Furthermore, the LHW heated high-enhanced-recycling (HER) H-mode discharges with ~25 kHz edge coherent modes (ECM), which have lower impurity confinement time and higher energy confinement time, provide promising candidates for high performance and steady state operation on EAST.

  8. Definition of temperature thresholds: the example of the French heat wave warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Mathilde; Wagner, Vérène; Le Tertre, Alain; Laaidi, Karine; Honoré, Cyrille; Bénichou, Françoise; Beaudeau, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Heat-related deaths should be somewhat preventable. In France, some prevention measures are activated when minimum and maximum temperatures averaged over three days reach city-specific thresholds. The current thresholds were computed based on a descriptive analysis of past heat waves and on local expert judgement. We tested whether a different method would confirm these thresholds. The study was set in the six cities of Paris, Lyon, Marseille, Nantes, Strasbourg and Limoges between 1973 and 2003. For each city, we estimated the excess in mortality associated with different temperature thresholds, using a generalised additive model, controlling for long-time trends, seasons and days of the week. These models were used to compute the mortality predicted by different percentiles of temperatures. The thresholds were chosen as the percentiles associated with a significant excess mortality. In all cities, there was a good correlation between current thresholds and the thresholds derived from the models, with 0°C to 3°C differences for averaged maximum temperatures. Both set of thresholds were able to anticipate the main periods of excess mortality during the summers of 1973 to 2003. A simple method relying on descriptive analysis and expert judgement is sufficient to define protective temperature thresholds and to prevent heat wave mortality. As temperatures are increasing along with the climate change and adaptation is ongoing, more research is required to understand if and when thresholds should be modified.

  9. Drought and Heat Waves: The Role of SST and Land Surface Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Drought occurs on a wide range of time scales, and within a variety of different types of regional climates. At the shortest time scales it is often associated with heat waves that last only several weeks to a few months but nevertheless can have profound detrimental impacts on society (e.g., heat-related impacts on human health, desiccation of croplands, increased fire hazard), while at the longest time scales it can extend over decades and can lead to long term structural changes in many aspects of society (e.g., agriculture, water resources, wetlands, tourism, population shifts). There is now considerable evidence that sea surface temperatures (SSTs) play a leading role in the development of drought world-wide, especially at seasonal and longer time scales, though land-atmosphere feedbacks can also play an important role. At shorter (subseasonal) time scales, SSTs are less important, but land feedbacks can play a critical role in maintaining and amplifying the atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves and short-term droughts. This talk reviews our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that drive precipitation and temperature variations on subseasonal to centennial time scales. This includes an assessment of predictability, prediction skill, and user needs at all time scales.

  10. Synergies between Urban Heat Island and Heat Waves in Athens (Greece), during an extremely hot summer (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founda, Dimitra; Santamouris, Mattheos

    2017-09-08

    Heat waves (HWs) are recognized as a serious threat for human health worldwide, with urban areas being more vulnerable due to the urban heat island (UHI) effect and population density. Yet, in the climate change context, HWs are becoming more frequent, stronger and longer, which, coupled with intensifying urbanization exacerbates thermal risk for urban residents. Despite the profound impact of this global phenomenon there is no clear consensus so far on possible synergies between UHIs and HWs. The study sheds light on the complex synergies between UHIs and HWs focusing on coastal sites. A quite challenging period comprising five HW episodes during summer 2012 in Athens (Greece) was selected for analysis. A positive feedback between UHIs and HWs was found, with intensification of the average UHI magnitude by up to 3.5 °C during HWs, compared to summer background conditions. Our results contribute significantly to understanding synergies between UHIs and HWs that may strongly increase thermal risk in cities and vulnerability of urban population.

  11. Loop heating by D.C. electric current and electromagnetic wave emissions simulated by 3-D EM particle zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, J. I.; Zhao, J.; Nishikawa, K.-I.

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that a current-carrying plasma loop can be heated by magnetic pinch driven by the pressure imbalance between inside and outside the loop, using a 3-dimensional electromagnetic (EM) particle code. Both electrons and ions in the loop can be heated in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, therefore the perpendicular temperature can be increased about 10 times compared with the parallel temperature. This temperature anisotropy produced by the magnetic pinch heating can induce a plasma instability, by which high-frequency electromagnetic waves can be excited. The plasma current which is enhanced by the magnetic pinch can also excite a kinetic kink instability, which can heat ions perpendicular to the magnetic field. The heating mechanism of ions as well as the electromagnetic emission could be important for an understanding of the coronal loop heating and the electromagnetic wave emissions from active coronal regions.

  12. Social participation and heat-related behavior in older adults during heat waves and on other days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Skelton, Dawn A; Oksa, Juha; Beyer, Nina; Rapp, Kilian; Becker, Clemens; Klenk, Jochen

    2017-11-06

    High indoor temperatures require behavioral adaptation, especially among vulnerable older adults. There are uncertainties as to the degree to which people adapt to these challenging conditions. The aim of this study was to describe the degree of adaptation of social participation and other heat-related behavior with respect to higher indoor temperatures. In this study 81 residents from 10 sheltered living facilities (84% women, mean age 80.9 years) were visited every 4 weeks from May to October 2015 and additionally during 2 heat waves in July and August 2015. The indoor temperature, drinking and clothing and social participation were documented. Baseline documentation of gait speed and residential area were used to create subgroups of people with high or low gait speed and with facility location in a garden city/suburb or city/city center. Social participation and clothing decreased with -4.53 in the World Health Organization participation score units (95% confidence interval CI -5.32; -3.74) and -0.41 for clothing units (95% CI -0.46; -0.37) and volume of drinking increased (0.65 l/day; 95% CI 0.52; 0.77) per increase of indoor temperature by 10 °C. The negative association between indoor temperature and social life participation was stronger if functional capacity was low or if the facility was located in the city/city center. Not all older adults displayed temperature-related adaptive behavior. For older adults the negative association between indoor temperature and social life participation was stronger in the city/city center or if their functional capacity was low. Frequent personal contact and motivation of those who are frail might be helpful to support their adaptive behavior of drinking and clothing during heat stress.

  13. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is

  14. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES AND CORONAL HEATING: UNIFYING EMPIRICAL AND MHD TURBULENCE MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Igor V.; Van der Holst, Bart; Oran, Rona; Jin, Meng; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Gombosi, Tamas I. [Department of AOSS, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Downs, Cooper [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Roussev, Ilia I. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Evans, Rebekah M., E-mail: igorsok@umich.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Space Weather Lab, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We present a new global model of the solar corona, including the low corona, the transition region, and the top of the chromosphere. The realistic three-dimensional magnetic field is simulated using the data from the photospheric magnetic field measurements. The distinctive feature of the new model is incorporating MHD Alfven wave turbulence. We assume this turbulence and its nonlinear dissipation to be the only momentum and energy source for heating the coronal plasma and driving the solar wind. The difference between the turbulence dissipation efficiency in coronal holes and that in closed field regions is because the nonlinear cascade rate degrades in strongly anisotropic (imbalanced) turbulence in coronal holes (no inward propagating wave), thus resulting in colder coronal holes, from which the fast solar wind originates. The detailed presentation of the theoretical model is illustrated with the synthetic images for multi-wavelength EUV emission compared with the observations from SDO AIA and STEREO EUVI instruments for the Carrington rotation 2107.

  15. The 2010 Pakistan Flood and the Russia Heat Wave: Teleconnection of Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The Pakistan flood and the Russia heat wave/Vvild fires of the summer of2010 were two of the most extreme, and catastrophic events in the histories of the two countries occurring at about the same time. To a casual observer, the timing may just be a random coincidence of nature, because the two events were separated by long distances, and represented opposite forces of nature, i.e., flood vs. drought, and water vs. fire. In this paper, using NASA satellite and NOAA reanalysis data, we presented observation evidences that that the two events were indeed physically connected.

  16. Heat transfer from vapor condensation in the region behind a shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasunori; Oshiro, Naoto

    1989-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted on shock wave propagation in a single-component two-phase(vapor-liquid) medium. A heat transfer mechanism in the flow field associated with vapor condensation behind a shock front was investigated. Measurements of pressure and temperature were made by conventional sensors and the flow field was visualized by schlieren photographs with the aid of high speed drum camera. Refrigerant-11 and benzene were used as a working fluid under a large void fraction of almost 100 percent. A flow field realized behind a shock front revealed significant features of ineffective compressibility and complicated flow patterns, which are largely different from those of pure gases.

  17. Simulation of High-Harmonic Fast-Wave Heating on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David L [ORNL; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Chen, Guangye [ORNL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Pugmire, Dave [ORNL; Canik, John [ORNL; Ryan, Philip Michael [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Images associated with radio-frequency heating of low-confinement mode plasmas in the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment, as calculated by computer simulation, are presented. The AORSA code has been extended to simulate the whole antenna-to-plasma heating system by including both the kinetic physics of the well-confined core plasma and a poorly confined scrape-off plasma and vacuum vessel structure. The images presented show the 3-D electric wave field amplitude for various antenna phasings. Visualization of the simulation results in 3-D makes clear that -30 degrees phasing excites kilo-volt per meter coaxial standing modes in the scrape-off plasma and shows magnetic-field-aligned whispering-gallery type modes localized to the plasma edge.

  18. The relationship between housing and heat wave resilience in older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughnan, Margaret; Carroll, Matthew; Tapper, Nigel J.

    2015-09-01

    Older people have justifiably been highlighted as a high-risk group with respect to heat wave mortality and morbidity. However, there are older people living within the community who have developed adaptive and resilient environments around their home that provide some protection during periods of extreme heat. This study investigated the housing stock and self-reported thermal comfort of a group of older people living in a regional town in Australia during the summer of 2012. The results indicated that daily maximum living room temperature was not significantly correlated with outdoor temperature, and daily minimum living room temperature was very weakly correlated with outdoor temperature. Residents reported feeling comfortable when indoor temperature approximated 26 °C. As living room temperature increased, indoor thermal comfort decreased. Significant differences between indoor temperatures were noted for homes that were related to house characteristics such as the age of the house, the number of air-conditioning units, the pitch of the roof, home insulation and the number of heat-mitigation modifications made to the home. Brick veneer homes showed smaller diurnal changes in temperature than other building materials. With population ageing and the increasing focus on older people living in the community, the quality of the housing stock available to them will influence their risk of heat exposure during extreme weather.

  19. High Power Fast Wave Coupling and Heating in H-mode Plasmas on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Buttery, R. J.; Luce, T. C.; Porkolab, M.; Diem, S.; Kaufman, M.; Ryan, P. M.; Hosea, J. C.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.

    2012-10-01

    Up to 2.5 MW of fast wave (FW) heating power has been coupled to the core of ELMing H-mode discharges with βN<=2.5 in conjunction with 3-7 MW of neutral beam injection and 2.6 MW of electron cyclotron heating. Core FW heating efficiency has been found experimentally to approach 100% in the Advanced Inductive regime, consistent with the excellent absorption predicted by ray-tracing models in this high βe regime. Low antenna loading (high rf voltages) characteristic of such regimes makes increasing the FW power challenging. A study of techniques to enhance FW antenna loading has been carried out in DIII-D, with emphasis on maintenance of good confinement. The loading is in absolute agreement with modeling when edge density profiles measured with reflectometry are used in the model. Recent work extending the range of H-mode regimes to which FW heating has been applied and on increasing the FW power coupled to those regimes is described.

  20. Numerical study of heating the upper atmosphere by acoustic-gravity waves from a local source on the Earth's surface and influence of this heating on the wave propagation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, I. V.; Kshevetskii, S. P.

    2017-11-01

    The propagation of acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) from a source on the Earth's surface to the upper atmosphere is investigated with methods of mathematical modeling. The applied non-linear model of wave propagation in the atmosphere is based on numerical integration of a complete set of two-dimensional hydrodynamic equations. The source on the Earth's surface generates waves with frequencies near to the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. The results of simulation have revealed that some region of heating the atmosphere by propagated upward and dissipated AGWs arises above the source at altitudes nearby of 200 km. The horizontal scale of this heated region is about 1000 km in the case of the source that radiates AGWs during approximately 1 h. The appearing of the heated region has changed the conditions of AGW propagation in the atmosphere. When the heated region in the upper atmosphere has been formed, further a waveguide regime of propagation of waves with the periods shorter the Brunt-Vaisala period is realized. The upper boundary of the wave-guide coincides with the arisen heated region in the upper atmosphere. The considered mechanism of formation of large-scale disturbances in the upper atmosphere may be useful for explanation of connections of processes in the upper and lower atmospheric layers.

  1. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study is the first field based experiment that uses IR heaters to study the effects of a regionally defined heat wave on soybean physiology and productivity. The heating technology was successful and all of the heat waves were maintained at the target temperature for the three day duration of t...

  2. Similarity solution for the flow behind a shock wave in a non-ideal gas with heat conduction and radiation heat-flux in magnetogasdynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G.; Vishwakarma, J. P.

    2014-05-01

    The propagation of a spherical (or cylindrical) shock wave in a non-ideal gas with heat conduction and radiation heat-flux, in the presence of a spacially decreasing azimuthal magnetic field, driven out by a moving piston is investigated. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The gas is assumed to have infinite electrical conductivity and to obey a simplified van der Waals equation of state. The shock wave moves with variable velocity and the total energy of the wave is non-constant. Similarity solutions are obtained for the flow-field behind the shock and the effects of variation of the heat transfer parameters, the parameter of the non-idealness of the gas, both, decreases the compressibility of the gas and hence there is a decrease in the shock strength. Further, it is investigated that with an increase in the parameters of radiative and conductive heat transfer the tendency of formation of maxima in the distributions of heat flux, density and isothermal speed of sound decreases. The pressure and density vanish at the inner surface (piston) and hence a vacuum is form at the center of symmetry. The shock waves in conducting non-ideal gas with conductive and radiative heat fluxes can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of central part of star burst galaxies, nuclear explosion, chemical detonation, rupture of a pressurized vessels, in the analysis of data from exploding wire experiments, and cylindrically symmetric hypersonic flow problems associated with meteors or reentry vehicles, etc. The findings of the present works provided a clear picture of whether and how the non-idealness parameter, conductive and radiative heat transfer parameters and the magnetic field affect the flow behind the shock

  3. Marine Heat Waves and Their Impacts on Fisheries and Marine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent years have featured some prominent warm ocean events, also known as marine heat waves. Notable examples occurred in the northwest Atlantic in 2012, in the northeast Pacific in 2014-16, and of course, in the tropical Pacific in association with the 2015-16 El Nino. These episodic events can have profound impacts on marine ecosystems, with implications for fisheries. This paper will review the mechanistic linkages between marine heat waves and living marine resources drawing mostly on examples from the Pacific Ocean. Typically these events cause changes at lower-trophic levels that then ripple through the food web, i.e., are cases of bottom-up forcing. But how this happens varies regionally with the background oceanography, and the oceanographic properties crucial to the ecosystem. Because the effects of warm episodes can be substantial, their ramifications on ecosystems and fisheries are important from a host of perspectives (economic, conservation, cultural, etc.). In addition, to a certain extent they can provide insight into how marine ecosystems are liable to respond to global climate change.

  4. High-frequency torsional Alfvén waves as an energy source for coronal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar; Shetye, Juie; Murawski, Krzysztof; Doyle, John Gerard; Stangalini, Marco; Scullion, Eamon; Ray, Tom; Wójcik, Dariusz Patryk; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2017-03-01

    The existence of the Sun’s hot atmosphere and the solar wind acceleration continues to be an outstanding problem in solar-astrophysics. Although magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes and dissipation of magnetic energy contribute to heating and the mass cycle of the solar atmosphere, yet direct evidence of such processes often generates debate. Ground-based 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope (SST)/CRISP, Hα 6562.8 Å observations reveal, for the first time, the ubiquitous presence of high frequency (~12-42 mHz) torsional motions in thin spicular-type structures in the chromosphere. We detect numerous oscillating flux tubes on 10 June 2014 between 07:17 UT to 08:08 UT in a quiet-Sun field-of-view of 60” × 60” (1” = 725 km). Stringent numerical model shows that these observations resemble torsional Alfvén waves associated with high frequency drivers which contain a huge amount of energy (~105 W m-2) in the chromosphere. Even after partial reflection from the transition region, a significant amount of energy (~103 W m-2) is transferred onto the overlying corona. We find that oscillating tubes serve as substantial sources of Alfvén wave generation that provide sufficient Poynting flux not only to heat the corona but also to originate the supersonic solar wind.

  5. Comparison between off-resonance and electron Bernstein waves heating regime in a microwave discharge ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, G.; Di Giugno, R.; Miracoli, R. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Mascali, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR-IBAM Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Lanaia, D.; Ciavola, G. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Serafino, T. [CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Di Bartolo, F. [Universita di Messina, Ctr. da Papardo-Sperone, 98100 Messina (Italy); Gambino, N. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); IET-Institute of Energy Technology, LEC-Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    A microwave discharge ion source (MDIS) operating at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of INFN, Catania has been used to compare the traditional electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating with an innovative mechanisms of plasma ignition based on the electrostatic Bernstein waves (EBW). EBW are obtained via the inner plasma electromagnetic-to-electrostatic wave conversion and they are absorbed by the plasma at cyclotron resonance harmonics. The heating of plasma by means of EBW at particular frequencies enabled us to reach densities much larger than the cutoff ones. Evidences of EBW generation and absorption together with X-ray emissions due to high energy electrons will be shown. A characterization of the discharge heating process in MDISs as a generalization of the ECR heating mechanism by means of ray tracing will be shown in order to highlight the fundamental physical differences between ECR and EBW heating.

  6. Summer heat waves over western Europe 1880-2003, their relationship to large-scale forcings and predictability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della-Marta, P.M. [University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology Research Group, Bern (Switzerland); Federal Office for Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, Zurich (Switzerland); National Climate Center, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne (Australia); Luterbacher, J.; Xoplaki, E.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology Research Group, Bern (Switzerland); NCCR Climate, Bern (Switzerland); Weissenfluh, H. von [University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology Research Group, Bern (Switzerland); Brunet, M. [University Rovira i Virgili, Climate Change Research Group, Tarragona (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    We investigate the large-scale forcing and teleconnections between atmospheric circulation (sea level pressure, SLP), sea surface temperatures (SSTs), precipitation and heat wave events over western Europe using a new dataset of 54 daily maximum temperature time series. Forty four of these time series have been homogenised at the daily timescale to ensure that the presence of inhomogeneities has been minimised. The daily data have been used to create a seasonal index of the number of heat waves. Using canonical correlation analysis (CCA), heat waves over western Europe are shown to be related to anomalous high pressure over Scandinavia and central western Europe. Other forcing factors such as Atlantic SSTs and European precipitation, the later as a proxy for soil moisture, a known factor in strengthening land-atmosphere feedback processes, are also important. The strength of the relationship between summer SLP anomalies and heat waves is improved (from 35%) to account for around 46% of its variability when summer Atlantic and Mediterranean SSTs and summer European precipitation anomalies are included as predictors. This indicates that these predictors are not completely collinear rather that they each have some contribution to accounting for summer heat wave variability. However, the simplicity and scale of the statistical analysis masks this complex interaction between variables. There is some useful predictive skill of summer heat waves using multiple lagged predictors. A CCA using preceding winter North Atlantic SSTs and preceding January to May Mediterranean total precipitation results in significant hindcast (1972-2003) Spearman rank correlation skill scores up to 0.55 with an average skill score over the domain equal to 0.28 {+-} 0.28. In agreement with previous studies focused on mean summer temperature, there appears to be some predictability of heat wave events on the decadal scale from the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), although the long

  7. Summer heat waves over western Europe 1880 2003, their relationship to large-scale forcings and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Marta, P. M.; Luterbacher, J.; von Weissenfluh, H.; Xoplaki, E.; Brunet, M.; Wanner, H.

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the large-scale forcing and teleconnections between atmospheric circulation (sea level pressure, SLP), sea surface temperatures (SSTs), precipitation and heat wave events over western Europe using a new dataset of 54 daily maximum temperature time series. Forty four of these time series have been homogenised at the daily timescale to ensure that the presence of inhomogeneities has been minimised. The daily data have been used to create a seasonal index of the number of heat waves. Using canonical correlation analysis (CCA), heat waves over western Europe are shown to be related to anomalous high pressure over Scandinavia and central western Europe. Other forcing factors such as Atlantic SSTs and European precipitation, the later as a proxy for soil moisture, a known factor in strengthening land atmosphere feedback processes, are also important. The strength of the relationship between summer SLP anomalies and heat waves is improved (from 35%) to account for around 46% of its variability when summer Atlantic and Mediterranean SSTs and summer European precipitation anomalies are included as predictors. This indicates that these predictors are not completely collinear rather that they each have some contribution to accounting for summer heat wave variability. However, the simplicity and scale of the statistical analysis masks this complex interaction between variables. There is some useful predictive skill of summer heat waves using multiple lagged predictors. A CCA using preceding winter North Atlantic SSTs and preceding January to May Mediterranean total precipitation results in significant hindcast (1972 2003) Spearman rank correlation skill scores up to 0.55 with an average skill score over the domain equal to 0.28 ± 0.28. In agreement with previous studies focused on mean summer temperature, there appears to be some predictability of heat wave events on the decadal scale from the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), although the long

  8. The short-term effect of heat waves on mortality and its modifiers in China: an analysis from 66 communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjun; Zeng, Weilin; Zhou, Maigeng; Wang, Lijun; Rutherford, Shannon; Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yonghui; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zhang, Yewu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Xin; Chu, Cordia

    2015-02-01

    Many studies have reported increased mortality risk associated with heat waves. However, few have assessed the health impacts at a nation scale in a developing country. This study examines the mortality effects of heat waves in China and explores whether the effects are modified by individual-level and community-level characteristics. Daily mortality and meteorological variables from 66 Chinese communities were collected for the period 2006-2011. Heat waves were defined as ≥2 consecutive days with mean temperature ≥95th percentile of the year-round community-specific distribution. The community-specific mortality effects of heat waves were first estimated using a Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DLNM), adjusting for potential confounders. To investigate effect modification by individual characteristics (age, gender, cause of death, education level or place of death), separate DLNM models were further fitted. Potential effect modification by community characteristics was examined using a meta-regression analysis. A total of 5.0% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.9%-7.2%) excess deaths were associated with heat waves in 66 Chinese communities, with the highest excess deaths in north China (6.0%, 95% CI: 1%-11.3%), followed by east China (5.2%, 95% CI: 0.4%-10.2%) and south China (4.5%, 95% CI: 1.4%-7.6%). Our results indicate that individual characteristics significantly modified heat waves effects in China, with greater effects on cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular mortality, respiratory mortality, the elderly, females, the population dying outside of a hospital and those with a higher education attainment. Heat wave mortality effects were also more pronounced for those living in urban cities or densely populated communities. Heat waves significantly increased mortality risk in China with apparent spatial heterogeneity, which was modified by some individual-level and community-level factors. Our findings suggest adaptation plans that target vulnerable

  9. The role played by thermal feedback in heated Farley-Buneman waves at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. St.-Maurice

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that electron thermal effects have to be taken into account when dealing with the theory of ionospheric instabilities in the high-latitude ionosphere. Unfortunately, the mathematical complexity often hides the physical processes at work. We follow the limiting cases of a complex but systematic generalized fluid approach to get to the heart of the thermal processes that affect the stability of E region waves during electron heating events. We try to show as simply as possible under what conditions thermal effects contribute to the destabilization of strongly field-aligned (zero aspect angle Farley-Buneman modes. We show that destabilization can arise from a combination of (1 a reduction in pressure gradients associated with temperature fluctuations that are out of phase with density fluctuations, and (2 thermal diffusion, which takes the electrons from regions of enhanced temperatures to regions of negative temperature fluctuations, and therefore enhanced densities. However, we also show that, contrary to what has been suggested in the past, for modes excited along the E0×B direction thermal feedback decreases the growth rate and raises the threshold speed of the Farley-Buneman instability. The increase in threshold speed appears to be important enough to explain the generation of `Type IV' waves in the high-latitude ionosphere.

    Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; iono- spheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities

  10. The role played by thermal feedback in heated Farley-Buneman waves at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. St.-Maurice

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that electron thermal effects have to be taken into account when dealing with the theory of ionospheric instabilities in the high-latitude ionosphere. Unfortunately, the mathematical complexity often hides the physical processes at work. We follow the limiting cases of a complex but systematic generalized fluid approach to get to the heart of the thermal processes that affect the stability of E region waves during electron heating events. We try to show as simply as possible under what conditions thermal effects contribute to the destabilization of strongly field-aligned (zero aspect angle Farley-Buneman modes. We show that destabilization can arise from a combination of (1 a reduction in pressure gradients associated with temperature fluctuations that are out of phase with density fluctuations, and (2 thermal diffusion, which takes the electrons from regions of enhanced temperatures to regions of negative temperature fluctuations, and therefore enhanced densities. However, we also show that, contrary to what has been suggested in the past, for modes excited along the E0×B direction thermal feedback decreases the growth rate and raises the threshold speed of the Farley-Buneman instability. The increase in threshold speed appears to be important enough to explain the generation of `Type IV' waves in the high-latitude ionosphere.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; iono- spheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities

  11. Risk factors for deaths during the 2009 heat wave in Adelaide, Australia: a matched case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Nitschke, Monika; Krackowizer, Antoinette; Dear, Keith; Pisaniello, Dino; Weinstein, Philip; Tucker, Graeme; Shakib, Sepehr; Bi, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The extreme heat wave in Australia in 2009 resulted in significantly increased number of daily deaths. The circumstances that lead to deaths during extreme heat have not been explored before in Australia. This study aims to identify the individual and community risk factors for deaths during this extreme heat wave in Adelaide. A matched case-control study was conducted. Cases were those who died in the Adelaide metropolitan area during the heat wave period. For each case, two community controls were randomly selected, matched by age and gender. Face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted to collect data of demographic information, living environment, social support, health status and behavioural changes during the heat wave. Descriptive analysis, as well as simple and multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed. In total, 82 deaths and 164 matched community controls were included in the analysis, with a median age of 77.5 (range 26.6-100.7). The multiple logistic regression model indicated that, compared with controls, the risk of death during the heat wave was significantly increased for people living alone (AOR = 42.31, 95 % CI 2.3, 792.8) or having existing chronic heart disease (AOR = 22.4, 95 % CI 1.7, 303.0). In addition, having air conditioning in bedrooms (AOR = 0.004, 95 % CI 0.00006, 0.28) and participating in social activities more than once a week (AOR = 0.011, 95 % CI 0.0004, 0.29) indicated significant protective effects. We have identified factors that could significantly impact on the likelihood of deaths during heat waves. Our findings could assist in the development of future intervention programs and policies to reduce mortality associated with a warmer climate.

  12. Attributing human mortality during extreme heat waves to anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Huntingford, Chris; Masato, Giacomo; Guillod, Benoit P.; Frumhoff, Peter; Bowery, Andy; Wallom, David; Allen, Myles

    2016-07-01

    It has been argued that climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. The extreme high temperatures of the summer of 2003 were associated with up to seventy thousand excess deaths across Europe. Previous studies have attributed the meteorological event to the human influence on climate, or examined the role of heat waves on human health. Here, for the first time, we explicitly quantify the role of human activity on climate and heat-related mortality in an event attribution framework, analysing both the Europe-wide temperature response in 2003, and localised responses over London and Paris. Using publicly-donated computing, we perform many thousands of climate simulations of a high-resolution regional climate model. This allows generation of a comprehensive statistical description of the 2003 event and the role of human influence within it, using the results as input to a health impact assessment model of human mortality. We find large-scale dynamical modes of atmospheric variability remain largely unchanged under anthropogenic climate change, and hence the direct thermodynamical response is mainly responsible for the increased mortality. In summer 2003, anthropogenic climate change increased the risk of heat-related mortality in Central Paris by ∼70% and by ∼20% in London, which experienced lower extreme heat. Out of the estimated ∼315 and ∼735 summer deaths attributed to the heatwave event in Greater London and Central Paris, respectively, 64 (±3) deaths were attributable to anthropogenic climate change in London, and 506 (±51) in Paris. Such an ability to robustly attribute specific damages to anthropogenic drivers of increased extreme heat can inform societal responses to, and responsibilities for, climate change.

  13. On exact solutions of a heat-wave type with logarithmic front for the porous medium equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, A. L.; Lempert, A. A.; Orlov, S. S.; Orlov, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with a nonlinear second-order parabolic equation with partial derivatives, which is usually called “the porous medium equation”. It describes the processes of heat and mass transfer as well as filtration of liquids and gases in porous media. In addition, it is used for mathematical modeling of growth and migration of population. Usually this equation is studied numerically like most other nonlinear equations of mathematical physics. So, the construction of exact solution in an explicit form is important to verify the numerical algorithms. The authors deal with a special solutions which are usually called “heat waves”. A new class of heat-wave type solutions of one-dimensional (plane-symmetric) porous medium equation is proposed and analyzed. A logarithmic heat wave front is studied in details. Considered equation has a singularity at the heat wave front, because the factor of the highest (second) derivative vanishes. The construction of these exact solutions reduces to the integration of a nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equation (ODE). Moreover, the Cauchy conditions lead us to the fact that this equation has a singularity at the initial point. In other words, the ODE inherits the singularity of the original problem. The qualitative analysis of the solutions of the ODE is carried out. The obtained results are interpreted from the point of view of the corresponding heat waves’ behavior. The most interesting is a damped solitary wave, the length of which is constant, and the amplitude decreases.

  14. Biological Implications of Internal Waves and Internal Tidal Bores in the Southern Part of the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladah, L. B.; Leichter, J. J.; Tapia, F. J.

    2007-05-01

    Internal waves and internal tidal bores have been shown to cause rapid changes in temperature associated with vertical and horizontal displacements of water masses in many settings. Their role in the cross-shore transport of matter and energy implies that internal motions have important biological ramifications, particularly in biogeographic transition zones, such as the Southern California Current. Benthic invertebrates and macroalgae depend greatly on the nearshore pelagic environment for the transport of larvae and nutrients. We present 2 examples of how internal motions may modulate benthic populations in this transition zone by enhancing the transport of larvae or the provision of nutrients from offshore sites to the coast. At two sites along the Baja California peninsula, high-frequency variability in thermal structure and horizontal flows were observed. Physical observations show episodes (lasting about 1 h) of rapid variations (every 1 to 5 min) in horizontal flows and temperature in the nearshore water column. We show that the timing and intensity of larval settlement, as well as the residence of cold nutrient - rich water on the shelf, is related with internal motions just offshore. Variability in the direction from which these perturbations propagate may determine small-scale spatial patterns in demography of benthic populations. We discuss the importance of these events in modulating benthic invertebrate and macroalgal populations and how climate change in this transition zone may have important biological consequences via changes in thermocline depth and its subsequent impact on the occurrence of internal motions.

  15. Comprehensive Condition Survey and Storm Waves, Circulation, and Sediment Study, Dana Point Harbor, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    following six meteorological patterns (USACE LAD 1996): 1) extratropical cyclone in the northern hemisphere ; 2) north- west winds in the outer coastal...waters; 3) west to northwest local sea; 4) prefrontal local sea; 5) tropical storm swell; and 6) extratropical cyclone in the southern hemisphere ...Alaska with swells decaying on the average of 1,000 km (660 miles) to the coast of Southern California. However, under some meteorological

  16. A consistent thermodynamics of the MHD wave-heated two-fluid solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chashei

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We start our considerations from two more recent findings in heliospheric physics: One is the fact that the primary solar wind protons do not cool off adiabatically with distance, but appear to be heated. The other one is that secondary protons, embedded in the solar wind as pick-up ions, behave quasi-isothermal at their motion to the outer heliosphere. These two phenomena must be physically closely connected with each other. To demonstrate this we solve a coupled set of enthalpy flow conservation equations for the two-fluid solar wind system consisting of primary and secondary protons. The coupling of these equations comes by the heat sources that are relevant, namely the dissipation of MHD turbulence power to the respective protons at the relevant dissipation scales. Hereby we consider both the dissipation of convected turbulences and the dissipation of turbulences locally driven by the injection of new pick-up ions into an unstable mode of the ion distribution function. Conversion of free kinetic energy of freshly injected secondary ions into turbulence power is finally followed by partial reabsorption of this energy both by primary and secondary ions. We show solutions of simultaneous integrations of the coupled set of differential thermodynamic two-fluid equations and can draw interesting conclusions from the solutions obtained. We can show that the secondary proton temperature with increasing radial distance asymptotically attains a constant value with a magnitude essentially determined by the actual solar wind velocity. Furthermore, we study the primary proton temperature within this two-fluid context and find a polytropic behaviour with radially and latitudinally variable polytropic indices determined by the local heat sources due to dissipated turbulent wave energy. Considering latitudinally variable solar wind conditions, as published by McComas et al. (2000, we also predict latitudinal variations of primary proton temperatures at

  17. A consistent thermodynamics of the MHD wave-heated two-fluid solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chashei

    Full Text Available We start our considerations from two more recent findings in heliospheric physics: One is the fact that the primary solar wind protons do not cool off adiabatically with distance, but appear to be heated. The other one is that secondary protons, embedded in the solar wind as pick-up ions, behave quasi-isothermal at their motion to the outer heliosphere. These two phenomena must be physically closely connected with each other. To demonstrate this we solve a coupled set of enthalpy flow conservation equations for the two-fluid solar wind system consisting of primary and secondary protons. The coupling of these equations comes by the heat sources that are relevant, namely the dissipation of MHD turbulence power to the respective protons at the relevant dissipation scales. Hereby we consider both the dissipation of convected turbulences and the dissipation of turbulences locally driven by the injection of new pick-up ions into an unstable mode of the ion distribution function. Conversion of free kinetic energy of freshly injected secondary ions into turbulence power is finally followed by partial reabsorption of this energy both by primary and secondary ions. We show solutions of simultaneous integrations of the coupled set of differential thermodynamic two-fluid equations and can draw interesting conclusions from the solutions obtained. We can show that the secondary proton temperature with increasing radial distance asymptotically attains a constant value with a magnitude essentially determined by the actual solar wind velocity. Furthermore, we study the primary proton temperature within this two-fluid context and find a polytropic behaviour with radially and latitudinally variable polytropic indices determined by the local heat sources due to dissipated turbulent wave energy. Considering latitudinally variable solar wind conditions, as published by McComas et al. (2000, we also predict latitudinal variations of primary proton temperatures at

  18. Spatial Approach of Climate Risk Assessment and Uncertainty: A Case Study of Heat Wave Risk in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, S.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, W.

    2016-12-01

    As climate change continuously reaches new climaxes, it is aggravating many climate extremes. Urban heat island effect (UHI) is one of them. It occurs in cities with sealed surfaces and building canyons, which make changes in storage, radiative and turbulent heat flux that make cities warmer than surrounding areas. However, applying adequate policies at the right place can attenuate the impacts of UHI. Therefore, heat wave risk assessment is important in the sense that it helps decision makers set priority in targets of application. Seoul is highly urbanized capital of South Korea. It is suffering from increasing heat wave days and tropical nights every year. More than 10 million residents are exposed to heat extremes and measures should be taken. Therefore, heat wave risk assessment of Seoul should be done in advance. While, risk assessment contains uncertainty; from variables to assessment procedure. However, there is no standardized assessment methodology. A fuzzy logic, introduced by Zadeh in 1965, is applied in quantifying these uncertainties. We fuzzified indices for assessing heat wave risk with threshold values. And indices were aggregated step by step with fuzzy operators, which make up "vulnerability" and "climate exposure". Vulnerability and climate exposure are further combined with fuzzy operator to derive complete heat wave risk assessment map. As a result, we expressed spatial distribution of UHI risk. Districts lying in the central area of the city showed higher risk than in marginal areas. In addition, hierarchic structured approach of assessing risk in this study makes it easy to track key variables of risk, therefore, giving decision makers insights to help their application of adaptation policies.

  19. Awareness of and Attitudes towards Heat Waves within the Context of Climate Change among a Cohort of Residents in Adelaide, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akompab, Derick A.; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Heat waves are a public health concern in Australia and unprecedented heat waves have been recorded in Adelaide over recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the perception and attitudes towards heat waves in the context of climate change among a group of residents in Adelaide, an Australian city with a temperate climate. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the summer of 2012 among a sample of 267 residents. The results of the survey found that television (89.9%), radio (71.2%), newspapers (45.3%) were the main sources from which respondents received information about heat waves. The majority of the respondents (73.0%) followed news about heat waves very or somewhat closely. About 26.6% of the respondents were extremely or very concerned about the effects of heat waves on them personally. The main issues that were of personal concern for respondents during a heat wave were their personal comfort (60.7%), their garden (48.7%), and sleeping well (47.6%). Overall, respondents were more concerned about the impacts of heat waves to the society than on themselves. There was a significant association between gender (χ² = 21.2, df = 3, p = 0.000), gross annual household income (p = 0.03) and concern for the societal effects of heat waves. Less than half (43.2%) of the respondents believed that heat waves will extremely or very likely increase in Adelaide according to climate projections. Nearly half (49.3%) believed that the effects of heat waves were already being felt in Adelaide. These findings may inform the reframing and communication strategies for heat waves in Adelaide in the context of climate change. PMID:23343978

  20. Awareness of and Attitudes towards Heat Waves within the Context of Climate Change among a Cohort of Residents in Adelaide, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain A. Walker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat waves are a public health concern in Australia and unprecedented heat waves have been recorded in Adelaide over recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the perception and attitudes towards heat waves in the context of climate change among a group of residents in Adelaide, an Australian city with a temperate climate. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the summer of 2012 among a sample of 267 residents. The results of the survey found that television (89.9%, radio (71.2%, newspapers (45.3% were the main sources from which respondents received information about heat waves. The majority of the respondents (73.0% followed news about heat waves very or somewhat closely. About 26.6% of the respondents were extremely or very concerned about the effects of heat waves on them personally. The main issues that were of personal concern for respondents during a heat wave were their personal comfort (60.7%, their garden (48.7%, and sleeping well (47.6%. Overall, respondents were more concerned about the impacts of heat waves to the society than on themselves. There was a significant association between gender (χ² = 21.2, df = 3, p = 0.000, gross annual household income (p = 0.03 and concern for the societal effects of heat waves. Less than half (43.2% of the respondents believed that heat waves will extremely or very likely increase in Adelaide according to climate projections. Nearly half (49.3% believed that the effects of heat waves were already being felt in Adelaide. These findings may inform the reframing and communication strategies for heat waves in Adelaide in the context of climate change.

  1. Heat transfer and wall temperature effects in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio; Grasso, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of the wall temperature on the behavior of oblique shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions at freestream Mach number $2.28$ and shock angle of the wedge generator $\\varphi = 8^{\\circ}$. Five values of the wall-to-recovery-temperature ratio ($T_w/T_r$) are considered, corresponding to cold, adiabatic and hot wall thermal conditions. We show that the main effect of cooling is to decrease the characteristic scales of the interaction in terms of upstream influence and extent of the separation bubble. The opposite behavior is observed in the case of heating, that produces a marked dilatation of the interaction region. The distribution of the Stanton number shows that a strong amplification of the heat transfer occurs across the interaction, and the maximum values of thermal and dynamic loads are found in the case of cold wall. The analysis reveals that the fluctuating heat flux exhibits a strong intermittent behavior, characterized by ...

  2. Surface thermal analysis of North Brabant cities and neighbourhoods during heat waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Echevarria Icaza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island effect is often associated with large metropolises. However, in the Netherlands even small cities will be affected by the phenomenon in the future (Hove et al., 2011, due to the dispersed or mosaic urbanisation patterns in particularly the southern part of the country: the province of North Brabant. This study analyses the average night time land surface temperature (LST of 21 North-Brabant urban areas through 22 satellite images retrieved by Modis 11A1 during the 2006 heat wave and uses Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper to map albedo and normalized difference temperature index (NDVI values. Albedo, NDVI and imperviousness are found to play the most relevant role in the increase of night-time LST. The surface cover cluster analysis of these three parameters reveals that the 12 “urban living environment” categories used in the region of North Brabant can actually be reduced to 7 categories, which simplifies the design guidelines to improve the surface thermal behaviour of the different neighbourhoods thus reducing the Urban Heat Island (UHI effect in existing medium size cities and future developments adjacent to those cities.

  3. Wave exposure of Corte Madera Marsh, Marin County, California-a field investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jessica R.; Hoover, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Tidal wetlands provide valuable habitat, are an important source of primary productivity, and can help to protect the shoreline from erosion by attenuating approaching waves. These functions are threatened by the loss of tidal marshes, whether due to erosion, sea-level rise, or land-use practices. Erosion protection by wetlands is expected to vary geographically, because wave attenuation in marshes depends on vegetation type, density, and height and wave attenuation over mudflats depends on slope and sediment properties. In macrotidal northern European marshes, a 50 percent reduction in wave height within tens of meters of vegetated salt marsh has been observed. This study was designed to evaluate the role of mudflats and marshes in attenuating waves at a site in San Francisco Bay. In prehistoric times, the shoreline of San Francisco Bay was ringed with tidal wetlands, with mudflats at lower elevations and marshes above. Most of the marshes around the Bay emerged 2,000-4,000 years ago, after the rate of sea-level rise slowed to approximately 1 mm/year. Approximately 80 percent of the acreage of tidal marsh and 40 percent of the acreage of tidal mudflats in San Francisco Bay have been lost to filling and draining since 1800. Tidal wetlands are particularly susceptible to impacts from sea-level rise because the vegetation at each elevation is adapted to a specific tidal-inundation regime. The maintenance of suitable marsh-plain elevations depends on a supply of sediment that can keep up with the rate of sea-level rise. Sea-level rise, which according to recent projections may reach 75 to 190 cm by the year 2100, poses a significant threat to wetlands in San Francisco Bay, where landward migration is frequently impossible due to urbanization of the adjacent landscape. In this study, we collected data in Corte Madera Bay and Marsh to determine whether, and to what degree, waves are attenuated as they transit the Bay and, during high tides, the marsh. Corte Madera Bay

  4. Shear wave splitting observations and implications on stress regimes in the Los Angeles basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Gang

    1996-06-01

    A systematic analysis of three-component seismograms recorded at 15 stations from earthquakes occurring at depths of 5 to 18 km beneath the Los Angeles basin and adjacent areas during the period between 1988 and 1994 shows 20 to 160 ms shear wave splitting. Shallow events exhibit little splitting, while deeper events show progressively greater splitting with depth. The preferred polarization direction of the fast shear wave is nearly N-S, consistent with the direction of the regional maximum horizontal compressive stress but independent of the azimuth between the event and station. We interpret that the shear wave splitting is caused by fluid-filled crustal microcracks and macrofractures aligned in the N-S direction. The shear wave splitting observations of 2.8 to 7.8 ms/km can be explained in terms of an anisotropic crust containing vertical cracks with the apparent crack density of 0.023-0.08. On a regional basis, the crack density may vary from station to station, but we find that the apparent crack density in the strike-slip region of the Newport-Inglewood fault and the Whittier fault is higher than in the reverse-thrusting Santa Monica Mountains and Palos Verdes Hills. No systematic change of shear wave splitting in the Los Angeles basin is found in this study.

  5. Advantages of active love wave techniques in geophysical characterizations of seismographic station - Case studies in California and the central and eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Antony; Yong, Alan K.; Salomone, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Active-source Love waves, recorded by the multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASLW) technique, were recently analyzed in two site characterization projects. Between 2010 and 2012, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded GEOVision to conduct geophysical investigations at 191 seismographic stations in California and the Central Eastern U.S. (CEUS). The original project plan was to utilize active and passive Rayleigh wave-based techniques to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles to a minimum depth of 30 m and the time-averaged VS of the upper 30 meters (VS30). Early in this investigation it became clear that Rayleigh wave techniques, such as multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASRW), were not suited for characterizing all sites. Shear-wave seismic refraction and MASLW techniques were therefore applied. In 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute funded characterization of 33 CEUS station sites. Based on experience from the ARRA investigation, both MASRW and MASLW data were acquired by GEOVision at 24 CEUS sites. At shallow rock sites, sites with steep velocity gradients, and, sites with a thin, low velocity, surficial soil layer overlying stiffer sediments, Love wave techniques generally were found to be easier to interpret, i.e., Love wave data typically yielded unambiguous fundamental mode dispersion curves and thus, reduce uncertainty in the resultant VS model. These types of velocity structure often excite dominant higher modes in Rayleigh wave data, but not in the Love wave data. It is possible to model Rayleigh wave data using multi- or effective-mode techniques; however, extraction of Rayleigh wave dispersion data was found to be difficult in many cases. These results imply that field procedures should include careful scrutiny of Rayleigh wave-based dispersion data in order to also collect Love wave data when warranted.

  6. An open source tool to analyse heat waves using flow analogues and weather regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanovics, Sabine; Jézéquel, Aglaé; Alvarez-Castro, Carmen; Yiou, Pascal; Hempelmann, Nils; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Nangini, Cathy; Vautard, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Studies on the relation of atmospheric circulation patterns and heat waves using flow analogues or weather regimes often miss an assessment of the uncertainties related to internal climate variability and the analysis method itself because of the limited length of the data sets used. However, considering this type of uncertainty is important when interpreting changes found in a transient climate using this type of methods. We used several hundreds of years long preindustrial control runs of CMIP5 climate models to address this issue in a constant model climate. Several heat waves over central Europe as simulated by the climate model were selected and then reconstructed using circulation analogues, that is by searching for days with similar pressure fields in the simulation and recombining the temperatures of these similar days to form uchronic events. The variance of these uchronic events is supposed to vary with the rarity of the original event. We therefore present the relationship between the variance of the uchronic events and the distance between the original event and its analogues. Further we present the variation of the distances due to internal climate variability. Weather regimes are typical atmospheric circulation patterns obtained for example using a cluster analysis. Each day is then assigned to a cluster, the weather regime. The frequency of the weather regimes is supposed to be constant in a constant climate, but variations of these frequencies can occur due to internal climate variability. We therefore show these variations for the weather regimes associated with the heat waves. The web processing service (WPS) flyingpigeon is an open source WPS featuring processes for studying weather extremes and climate change impacts. Flyingpigeon is part of the open source project birdhouse, a collection of WPSs following the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard and available on github. The WPS allowed to first select the data sets needed from the ESGF

  7. Simulation of heat waves in climate models using large deviation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragone, Francesco; Bouchet, Freddy; Wouters, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    One of the goals of climate science is to characterize the statistics of extreme, potentially dangerous events (e.g. exceptionally intense precipitations, wind gusts, heat waves) in the present and future climate. The study of extremes is however hindered by both a lack of past observational data for events with a return time larger than decades or centuries, and by the large computational cost required to perform a proper sampling of extreme statistics with state of the art climate models. The study of the dynamics leading to extreme events is especially difficult as it requires hundreds or thousands of realizations of the dynamical paths leading to similar extremes. We will discuss here a new numerical algorithm, based on large deviation theory, that allows to efficiently sample very rare events in complex climate models. A large ensemble of realizations are run in parallel, and selection and cloning procedures are applied in order to oversample the trajectories leading to the extremes of interest. The statistics and characteristic dynamics of the extremes can then be computed on a much larger sample of events. This kind of importance sampling method belongs to a class of genetic algorithms that have been successfully applied in other scientific fields (statistical mechanics, complex biomolecular dynamics), allowing to decrease by orders of magnitude the numerical cost required to sample extremes with respect to standard direct numerical sampling. We study the applicability of this method to the computation of the statistics of European surface temperatures with the Planet Simulator (Plasim), an intermediate complexity general circulation model of the atmosphere. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method by comparing its performances against standard approaches. Dynamical paths leading to heat waves are studied, enlightening the relation of Plasim heat waves with blocking events, and the dynamics leading to these events. We then discuss the feasibility of this

  8. Impact of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation on heat wave occurrence in Asia and Europe during the summer of 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June-Yi; Hsu, Pang-Chi; ha, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Hae-Jeong; Jung, Yoo-Rim

    2017-04-01

    The summer of 2016 was the earth's hottest summer on record since 1880. Especially, in August, the global mean temperature was 1.66 degree higher than normal and heat waves set records across Asia, Europe, and North America. This study proposes that boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) played an important role in heat wave outbreaks over many regions of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropics in the summer 2016 in addition to other factors including global warming, atmosphere-land interaction, and Africa-Pakistan heavy rainfall. By utilizing the real-time multivariate BSISO indices recently proposed, it has been demonstrated that the two dominant BSISO modes significantly modulate occurrence probability and spatial distributions of extreme rainfall and heat wave over Asia and Europe depending on their phases. The BSISO1 represents the canonical northward propagating variability that often occurs in conjunction with the eastward propagating Madden-Julian Oscillation with quasi-oscillating periods of 30-60 days. The BSISO2 represents the northward/northwestward propagating variability with periods of 10-30 days during primarily the pre-monsoon and monsoon-onset season. In August of 2016, BSISO1 was very active with amplitude up to 2 standard deviation and stayed at phase 7 state for about 20 days. During the phase 7 of BSISO1, extreme convective activity over the South China Sea and western North Pacific typically exerts significant global teleconnection leading to heat wave occurrence over East Asia including Korea and Japan, some part of Russia and Europe, and the western and eastern part of North America. In particular, anticyclonic circulation anomaly tends to be developed over East Asia inducing enhanced adiabatic and diabatic warming over Korea and Japan providing a favorable condition for extreme heat wave occurrence. The August of 2016 exhibited the typical global teleconnection pattern of BSISO1 associated with active convection over the western

  9. Full-wave and Fokker Planck analysis of ICRF heating experiments in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonoli, P.T.; Golovato, S.; Porkolab, M.; Takase, Y. [MIT Plasma Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Alcator C-Mod device is a high field, high density, shaped tokamak with parameters a = 0.22 m, R{sub 0} = 0.67 m, B{sub 0} {le} 9.0 T, {kappa} {le} 1.8, {delta} {le} 0.8, and 1.0 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} n{sub e} (0) {le} 1.0 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3}. Four megawatt of ICRF power is available at 80 MHz. The wide operating range in magnetic field makes several heating schemes possible: (i) Second harmonic heating of hydrogen (f{sub 0} = 2f{sub CH}) at 2.6 T in (D-H); (ii) Fundamental heating of (H) (f{sub 0} = f{sub CH}) at 5.3T in a D-(H) plasma; and (iii) Fundamental heating of ({sup 3}He) (f{sub 0} = f{sub C{sup 3}He}) at 7.9 T in a D-({sup 3}He) plasma. The most successful heating regime to date has been (H)-minority heating at 5.3 T. Pellet enhanced performance (PEP) modes have also been achieved in C-Mod in D-(H) at 5.3 T and in D-({sup 3}He) at 7.9 T, with a combination of intense ICRF heating and Li-pellet injection. A variety of numerical models are used to analyze these heating schemes. A 1-D full-wave code (FELICE) is used to study {open_quotes}single pass{close_quotes} damping of the ICRF wavefront and damping of mode-converted ion Bernstein waves. A toroidal full-wave code (FISIC) is used to study interference and focussing effects of the ICRF waves as well as damping of the ICRF power upon multiple passes of the ICRF wavefront. A combined bounce averaged Fokker Planck and toroidal full-wave code (FPPRF) is used to study the ion tail formation, orbit losses, and the power partition of the ICRF tail to the background electrons and ions. Full-wave and Fokker Planck analyses confirm the strong single pass absorption of the ICRF power in D-(H) at 5.3 T. Analysis of PEP-mode plasmas in D-({sup 3}He) indicates improved wave focussing and {sup 3}He-cyclotron absorption of the ICRF waves relative to L-mode. A dramatic increase in the transfer of {sup 3}He tail power to the background deuterium is also found for PEP-mode plasmas.

  10. Site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and damage in Los Gatos, California, from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Carver, D.; Williams, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Aftershock records of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are used to calculate site response in the frequency band of 0.5-10 Hz at 24 locations in Los Gatos, California, on the edge of the Santa Clara Valley. Two different methods are used: spectral ratios relative to a reference site on rock and a source/site spectral inversion method. These two methods complement each other and give consistent results. Site amplification factors are compared with surficial geology, thickness of alluvium, shallow shear-wave velocity measurements, and ground deformation and structural damage resulting from the Loma Prieta earthquake. Higher values of site amplification are seen on Quaternary alluvium compared with older Miocene and Cretaceous units of Monterey and Franciscan Formation. However, other more detailed correlations with surficial geology are not evident. A complex pattern of alluvial sediment thickness, caused by crosscutting thrust faults, is interpreted as contributing to the variability in site response and the presence of spectral resonance peaks between 2 and 7 Hz at some sites. Within the range of our field measurements, there is a correlation between lower average shear-wave velocity of the top 30 m and 50% higher values of site amplification. An area of residential homes thrown from their foundations correlates with high site response. This damage may also have been aggravated by local ground deformation. Severe damage to commercial buildings in the business district, however, is attributed to poor masonry construction.

  11. Heat transfer with thermal radiation on MHD particle-fluid suspension induced by metachronal wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M. M.; Zeeshan, A.; Ellahi, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this article, effects of heat transfer on particle-fluid suspension induced by metachronal wave have been examined. The influence of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and thermal radiation are also taken into account with the help of Ohm's law and Roseland's approximation. The governing flow problem for Casson fluid model is based on continuity, momentum and thermal energy equation for fluid phase and particle phase. Taking the approximation of long wavelength and zero Reynolds number, the governing equations are simplified. Exact solutions are obtained for the coupled partial differential equations. The impact of all the embedding parameters is discussed with the help of graphs. In particular, velocity profile, pressure rise, temperature profile and trapping phenomena are discussed for all the emerging parameters. It is observed that while fluid parameter enhances the velocity profile, Hartmann number and particle volume fraction oppose the flow.

  12. Modeling and analysis of waves in a heat conducting thermo-elastic plate of elliptical shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Selvamani

    Full Text Available Wave propagation in heat conducting thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-section is studied using the Fourier expansion collocation method based on Suhubi's generalized theory. The equations of motion based on two-dimensional theory of elasticity is applied under the plane strain assumption of generalized thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-sections composed of homogeneous isotropic material. The frequency equations are obtained by using the boundary conditions along outer and inner surface of elliptical cross-sectional plate using Fourier expansion collocation method. The computed non-dimensional frequency, velocity and quality factor are plotted in dispersion curves for longitudinal and flexural (symmetric and antisymmetric modes of vibrations.

  13. The influence of state-to-state kinetics on diffusion and heat transfer behind shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunova, O.; Kustova, E.; Mekhonoshina, M.; Nagnibeda, E. [Saint Petersburg State University, 198504, Universitetskiy pr., 28, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-09

    In the paper, the influence of vibrational and chemical kinetics on heat transfer and diffusion in hypersonic flows of N{sub 2}/N mixture in the relaxation zone behind shock waves is studied on the basis of the state-to-state kinetic theory approach. The results of calculations of vibrational level populations ni, gas temperature T, total energy flux q, diffusion velocities of molecules at different vibrational states V{sub i} and atoms V{sub a} in the relaxation zone behind a shock front are presented for the free stream Mach number M = 10, 15. The contribution of different dissipative processes to the total energy flux is estimated for various flow conditions. The impact of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions in the free stream on molecular level populations and transport properties in the relaxation zone is shown.

  14. Deadly heat waves projected in the densely populated agricultural regions of South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Pal, Jeremy S; Eltahir, Elfatih A B

    2017-08-01

    The risk associated with any climate change impact reflects intensity of natural hazard and level of human vulnerability. Previous work has shown that a wet-bulb temperature of 35°C can be considered an upper limit on human survivability. On the basis of an ensemble of high-resolution climate change simulations, we project that extremes of wet-bulb temperature in South Asia are likely to approach and, in a few locations, exceed this critical threshold by the late 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions. The most intense hazard from extreme future heat waves is concentrated around densely populated agricultural regions of the Ganges and Indus river basins. Climate change, without mitigation, presents a serious and unique risk in South Asia, a region inhabited by about one-fifth of the global human population, due to an unprecedented combination of severe natural hazard and acute vulnerability.

  15. Impacts of a spring heat wave on canopy processes in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filewod, Ben; Thomas, Sean C

    2014-02-01

    Heat wave frequency, duration, and intensity are predicted to increase with global warming, but the potential impacts of short-term high temperature events on forest functioning remain virtually unstudied. We examined canopy processes in a forest in Central Ontario following 3 days of record-setting high temperatures (31–33 °C) that coincided with the peak in leaf expansion of dominant trees in late May 2010. Leaf area dynamics, leaf morphology, and leaf-level gas-exchange were compared to data from prior years of sampling (2002–2008) at the same site, focusing on Acer saccharum Marsh., the dominant tree in the region. Extensive shedding of partially expanded leaves was observed immediately following high temperature days, with A. saccharum losing ca. 25% of total leaf production but subsequently producing an unusual second flush of neoformed leaves. Both leaf losses and subsequent reflushing were highest in the upper canopy; however, retained preformed leaves and neoformed leaves showed reduced size, resulting in an overall decline in end-of-season leaf area index of 64% in A. saccharum, and 16% in the entire forest. Saplings showed lower leaf losses, but also a lower capacity to reflush relative to mature trees. Both surviving preformed and neoformed leaves had severely depressed photosynthetic capacity early in the summer of 2010, but largely regained photosynthetic competence by the end of the growing season. These results indicate that even short-term heat waves can have severe impacts in northern forests, and suggest a particular vulnerability to high temperatures during the spring period of leaf expansion in temperate deciduous forests.

  16. Future Evolution of Marine Heat Waves in the Mediterranean: Coupled Regional Climate Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmaraki, Sofia; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Nabat, Pierre; Cavicchia, Leone; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Cabos, William; Sein, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    FUTURE EVOLUTION OF MARINE HEAT WAVES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN : COUPLED REGIONAL CLIMATE PROJECTIONS The Mediterranean area is identified as a « Hot Spot » region, vulnerable to future climate change with potentially strong impacts over the sea. By 2100, climate models predict increased warming over the sea surface, with possible implications on the Mediterranean thermohaline and surface circulation,associated also with severe impacts on the ecosystems (e.g. fish habitat loss, species extinction and migration, invasive species). However, a robust assesment of the future evolution of the extreme marine temperatures remains still an open issue of primary importance, under the anthropogenic pressure. In this context, we study here the probability and characteristics of marine heat wave (MHW) occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea in future climate projections. To this end, we use an ensemble of fully coupled regional climate system models (RCSM) from the Med- CORDEX initiative. This multi-model approach includes a high-resolution representation of the atmospheric, land and ocean component, with a free air-sea interface.Specifically, dedicated simulations for the 20th and the 21st century are carried out with respect to the different IPCC-AR5 socioeconomic scenarios (1950-2100, RCP8.5, RCP4.5, RCP2.6). Model evaluation for the historical period is performed using satellite and in situ data. Then, the variety of factors that can cause the MHW (e.g. direct radiative forcing, ocean advection, stratification change) are examined to disentangle the dominant driving force. Finally, the spatial variability and temporal evolution of MHW are analyzed on an annual basis, along with additional integrated indicators, useful for marine ecosystems.

  17. Magnetospheric injection of ELF/VLF waves with modulated or steered HF heating of the lower ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.; Piddyachiy, D.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Gołkowski, M.

    2011-06-01

    ELF/VLF waves have been generated via steerable HF heating of the lower ionosphere. The temperature-dependent conductivity of the lower ionospheric plasma enables HF heating (and subsequent recovery) to modulate natural current systems such as the auroral electrojet, thus generating an antenna embedded in the ionospheric plasma. We apply a realistic three-dimensional model of HF heating and ionospheric recovery, as well as ELF/VLF wave propagation in and below the ionosphere, to derive the radiation pattern into the magnetosphere as a result of steerable HF heating. It is found that modulated HF heating preferentially directs signals upward into space because of the phasing effect of the upward HF wave propagation. We find that the steering techniques such as the geometric modulation “circle sweep” enhances the total ELF/VLF power injected into the magnetosphere by 5-7 dB compared to amplitude modulated heating, with a few dB enhancement in the peak magnetic field value. Another technique known as beam painting enhances the total injected power by 1-3 dB but produces weaker peak magnetic fields due to the power being spread over a larger area. Observations on the DEMETER spacecraft are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. DEMETER observations show that the signal produced with geometric modulation can be stronger than the signal from AM under the same conditions.

  18. Heat Waves and Climate Change: Applying the Health Belief Model to Identify Predictors of Risk Perception and Adaptive Behaviours in Adelaide, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Augoustinos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants’ perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9% had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07–0.62, who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17–0.94 and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11–0.79 were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19–6.90 were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00–4.58, a high “cues to action” (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63–8.43, who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25–5.58 and who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07–6.56 were more likely to

  19. Heat waves and climate change: applying the health belief model to identify predictors of risk perception and adaptive behaviours in adelaide, australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akompab, Derick A; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A; Augoustinos, Martha

    2013-05-29

    Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants' perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19-6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00-4.58), a high "cues to action" (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63-8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25-5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07-6.56) were more likely to have good adaptive behaviours

  20. New insights into the decay of ion waves to turbulence, ion heating, and soliton generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T., E-mail: chapman29@llnl.gov; Banks, J. W.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Williams, E. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Brunner, S. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Fédéral de Lausanne, CRPP-PPB, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    The decay of a single-frequency, propagating ion acoustic wave (IAW) via two-ion wave decay to a continuum of IAW modes is found to result in a highly turbulent plasma, ion soliton production, and rapid ion heating. Instability growth rates, thresholds, and sensitivities to plasma conditions are studied via fully kinetic Vlasov simulations. The decay rate of IAWs is found to scale linearly with the fundamental IAW potential amplitude ϕ{sub 1} for ZT{sub e}/T{sub i}≲20, beyond which the instability is shown to scale with a higher power of ϕ{sub 1}, where Z is the ion charge number and T{sub e} (T{sub i}) is the electron (ion) thermal temperature. The threshold for instability is found to be smaller by an order of magnitude than linear theory estimates. Achieving a better understanding of the saturation of stimulated Brillouin scatter levels observed in laser-plasma interaction experiments is part of the motivation for this study.

  1. Seismic site characterization of an urban dedimentary basin, Livermore Valley, California: Site tesponse, basin-edge-induced surface waves, and 3D simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Stephen; Leeds, Alena L.; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Allen, James P.; Schmitt, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty‐two accelerometers were deployed in the Livermore Valley, California, for approximately one year to study sedimentary basin effects. Many local and near‐regional earthquakes were recorded, including the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa, California, earthquake. The resulting ground‐motion data set is used to quantify the seismic response of the Livermore basin, a major structural depression in the California Coast Range Province bounded by active faults. Site response is calculated by two methods: the reference‐site spectral ratio method and a source‐site spectral inversion method. Longer‐period (≥1  s) amplification factors follow the same general pattern as Bouguer gravity anomaly contours. Site response spectra are inverted for shallow shear‐wave velocity profiles, which are consistent with independent information. Frequency–wavenumber analysis is used to analyze plane‐wave propagation across the Livermore Valley and to identify basin‐edge‐induced surface waves with back azimuths different from the source back azimuth. Finite‐element simulations in a 3D velocity model of the region illustrate the generation of basin‐edge‐induced surface waves and point out strips of elevated ground velocities along the margins of the basin.

  2. Heat distribution in the lower leg from pulsed short-wave diathermy and ultrasound treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C L; Draper, D O; Knight, K L

    2000-01-01

    To compare tissue temperature rise and decay after 20-minute diathermy and ultrasound treatments. We inserted 3 26-gauge thermistor microprobes into the medial aspect of the anesthetized triceps surae muscle at a depth of 3 cm and spaced 5 cm apart. Eight subjects received the diathermy treatment first, followed by the ultrasound treatment. This sequence was reversed for the remaining 8 subjects. The diathermy was applied at a frequency of 27.12 MHz at the following settings: 800 bursts per second, 400-microsecond burst duration, 850-microsecond interburst interval, peak root mean square amplitude of 150 W per burst, and an average root mean square output of 48 W per burst. The ultrasound was delivered at a frequency of 1 MHz and an intensity of 1.5 W/cm(2) in the continuous mode for 20 minutes over an area of 40 times the effective radiating area. The study was performed in a ventilated research laboratory. Sixteen (11 men, 5 women) healthy subjects (mean age = 23.56 +/- 4.73 years) volunteered to participate in this study. We recorded baseline, final, and decay temperatures for each of the 3 sites. The average temperature increases over baseline temperature after pulsed short-wave diathermy were 3.02 degrees C +/- 1.02 degrees C in site 1, 4.58 degrees C +/- 0.87 degrees C in site 2, and 3.28 degrees C +/- 1.64 degrees C in site 3. The average temperature increases over baseline temperature after ultrasound were only 0.17 degrees C +/- 0.40 degrees C, 0.09 degrees C +/- 0.56 degrees C, and -0.43 degrees C +/- 0.41 degrees C in sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The temperature dropped only 1 degrees C in 7.65 +/- 4.96 minutes after pulsed short-wave diathermy. We conclude that pulsed short-wave diathermy was more effective than 1-MHz ultrasound in heating a large muscle mass and resulted in the muscles' retaining heat longer.

  3. Borehole P- and S-wave velocity at thirteen stations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Boore, David M.; Tinsley, John C.; Mueller, Charles S.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of a program to acquire seismic velocity data at locations of strong-ground motion in earthquakes (e.g., Gibbs et al., 2000), has investigated thirteen additional sites in the Southern California region. Of the thirteen sites, twelve are in the vicinity of Whittier, California, and one is located in San Bernardino, California. Several deployments of temporary seismographs were made after the Whittier Narrows, California earthquake of 1 October 1987 (Mueller et al., 1988). A deployment, between 2 October and 9 November 1987, was the motivation for selection of six of the drill sites. Temporary portable seismographs at Hoover School (HOO), Lincoln School (LIN), Corps of Engineers Station (NAR), Olive Junior High School (OLV), Santa Anita Golf Course (SAG), and Southwestern Academy (SWA) recorded significant aftershock data. These portable sites, with the exception of Santa Anita Golf Course, were co-sited with strong-motion recorders. Stations at HOO, Lincoln School Whittier (WLB), Saint Paul High School (STP), Alisos Adult School (EXC), Cerritos College Gymnasium (CGM), Cerritos College Physical Science Building (CPS), and Cerritos College Police Building (CPB) were part of an array of digital strong-motion stations deployed from "bedrock" in Whittier to near the deepest part of the Los Angeles basin in Norwalk. Although development and siting of this new array (partially installed at the time of this writing) was generally motivated by the Whittier Narrows earthquake, these new sites (with the exception of HOO) were not part of any Whittier Narrows aftershock deployments. A similar new digital strong-motion site was installed at the San Bernardino Fire Station during the same time frame. Velocity data were obtained to depths of about 90 meters at two sites, 30 meters at seven sites, and 18 to 25 meters at four sites. Lithology data from the analysis of cuttings and samples was obtained from the two 90-meter deep holes and

  4. Spin-Wave Analysis of Specific Heat and Magnetization in EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O. W.; Henderson, A. J.; Meyer, H.

    1975-01-01

    Recent neutron scattering measurements of the spin-wave spectrum have shown that the second-nearest-neighbor exchange constant in EuO is ferromagnetic, in disagreement with previously published results from both specific-heat and magnetization measurements. We undertook a thorough study of the bulk...... data on both EuO and its isomorph EuS, including some previously unpublished specific-heat data. The new analysis resolved the controversy regarding the specific heat, which is actually in good agreement with the neutron scattering results. However, the NMR data are more sensitive to effects other than...

  5. The Foggy EUV Corona and Coronal Heating by MHD Waves from Explosive Reconnection Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ron L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Falconer, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In 0.5 arcsec/pixel TRACE coronal EUV images, the corona rooted in active regions that are at the limb and are not flaring is seen to consist of (1) a complex array of discrete loops and plumes embedded in (2) a diffuse ambient component that shows no fine structure and gradually fades with height. For each of two not-flaring active regions, found that the diffuse component is (1) approximately isothermal and hydrostatic and (2) emits well over half of the total EUV luminosity of the active-region corona. Here, from a TRACE Fe XII coronal image of another not-flaring active region, the large sunspot active region AR 10652 when it was at the west limb on 30 July 2004, we separate the diffuse component from the discrete loop component by spatial filtering, and find that the diffuse component has about 60% of the total luminosity. If under much higher spatial resolution than that of TRACE (e. g., the 0.1 arcsec/pixel resolution of the Hi-C sounding-rocket experiment proposed by J. W. Cirtain et al), most of the diffuse component remains diffuse rather being resolved into very narrow loops and plumes, this will raise the possibility that the EUV corona in active regions consists of two basically different but comparably luminous components: one being the set of discrete bright loops and plumes and the other being a truly diffuse component filling the space between the discrete loops and plumes. This dichotomy would imply that there are two different but comparably powerful coronal heating mechanisms operating in active regions, one for the distinct loops and plumes and another for the diffuse component. We present a scenario in which (1) each discrete bright loop or plume is a flux tube that was recently reconnected in a burst of reconnection, and (2) the diffuse component is heated by MHD waves that are generated by these reconnection events and by other fine-scale explosive reconnection events, most of which occur in and below the base of the corona where they are

  6. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-11-16

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e., ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site's annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities plus a natural gas company, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB's assumed utilization is far higherthan is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed

  7. Shear wave velocity structure in the lithosphere and asthenosphere across the Southern California continent and Pacific plate margin using inversion of Rayleigh wave data from the ALBACORE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A. C.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Kohler, M. D.; Rathnayaka, S.; Escobar, L., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    The North American and Pacific plate boundary is a unique example of past subduction of an oceanic spreading center which has involved oceanic plate capture and inception of a continental transform boundary that juxtaposes continental and oceanic lithosphere on a single plate. The amphibious ALBACORE seismic project (Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment) deployed 34 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) on 15-35 Ma seafloor and offers a unique opportunity to compare the LAB in continental and oceanic lithosphere in one seismic study. Rayleigh waves were recorded simultaneously by our offshore array and 82 CISN network land stations from 2010-2011. Here we predict phase velocities for a starting shear wave velocity model for each of 5 regions in our study area and compare to observed phase velocities from our array in a least-squares sense that produces the best fit 1-D shear wave velocity structure for each region. Preliminary results for the deep ocean (seafloor 25-32 Ma) indicates high velocities reaching 4.5 km/s at depths of 50 km associated with the lithosphere for seafloor 25-32 Ma. A negative velocity gradient is observed below this which reaches a minimum of 4.0 km/s at 160 km depth. The mid-ocean region (age 13-25 Ma) indicates a slightly lower magnitude and shallower LVZ. The Inner Borderland displays the highest lithospheric velocities offshore reaching 4.8 km/s at 40 km depth indicating underplating. The base of the LVZ in the Borderland increases sharply from 4.0 km/s to 4.5 km/s at 80-150 km depth indicating partial melt and compositional changes. The LVZ displays a very gradual positive velocity gradient in all other regions such as the deep seafloor and continent reaching 4.5 km/s at 300 km depth. The deep ocean, Borderlands, and continental region each have unique lithospheric velocities, LAB depths, and LVZ character that indicate stark differences in mantle structure that occur on a

  8. Simulated heat waves during maize reproductive stages alter reproductive growth but have no lasting effect when applied during vegetative stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to climate change, heat waves are predicted to become more frequent and severe. While long-term studies on temperature stress have been conducted on important crops such as maize (Zea mays), the immediate and or long-term effects of short duration but extreme high temperature events during key d...

  9. Main-ion temperature and plasma rotation measurements based on scattering of electron cyclotron heating waves in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate measurements of spectra of O-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) waves scattered collectively from microscopic plasma fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade discharges with an ITER-like ECRH scenario. The measured spectra are shown to allow determination of the main ion...

  10. The contrasting role of forests and grassland on land-climate interaction during recent European heat waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, R.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Stockli, R.; Reichstein, M.; Moors, E.; van den Hurk, B.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent European heat waves have raised the interest in the impact of land conditions, in particular soil moisture, on temperature extremes. Observations from an extensive network of flux towers along with earth observation products reveal a contrasting response of forests and crop-/grassland in

  11. Model for the heat source of the Cerro Prieto magma-hydrothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Williams, A.E.; Schiffman, P.; Cox, B.

    1981-01-01

    Earlier studies at Cerro Prieto led to the development of a qualitative model for fluid flow in the geothermal system before it was drilled and perturbed by production. Current efforts are directed towards numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer in the system in this undisturbed state. This one-dimensional model assumes that the heat source was a single basalt/gabbro intrusion which provided heat to the system as it cooled. After compilation of various information of the physical properties of the reservoir, the enthalpy contained in two 1 cm thick sections across the reservoir orthogonal to each other was calculated. Various shapes, sizes and depths for the intrusion were considered as initial conditions and boundary conditions for the calculations of heat transfer. A family of numerical models which so far gives the best matches to the conditions observed in the field today have in common a funnel-shaped intrusion with a top 4 km wide emplaced at a depth of 5 km some 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, providing heat to the geothermal system.

  12. The ion cyclotron turbulence generated by a low frequency kinetic Alfvén wave and turbulent heating of ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, V. S.; Mikhailenko, V. V.; Lee, Hae June

    2018-01-01

    The ion cyclotron instability driven by a strong kinetic Alfvén wave is investigated as a possible source of anisotropic heating of ions in the sun's corona. We present a novel model of a plasma with coupled inhomogeneous current and shearing flow, which results from the particle's motion in the electric field of the kinetic Alfvén wave of finite wavelength. The investigation is performed employing the non-modal kinetic theory grounded on the shearing mode approach. The solution of the governing linear integral equation for the perturbed potential displays that the flow velocity shear, which for the corona conditions may be above the growth rate of the ion cyclotron instability in the plasma with steady current, changes the exponential growth of the ion cyclotron potential on the power function of time, that impedes the growth of the unstable ion cyclotron wave and reduces the turbulent heating rate of ions across the magnetic field.

  13. A Hydrodynamic Model of Alfvénic Wave Heating in a Coronal Loop and Its Chromospheric Footpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reep, Jeffrey W.; Russell, Alexander J. B.; Tarr, Lucas A.; Leake, James E.

    2018-02-01

    Alfvénic waves have been proposed as an important energy transport mechanism in coronal loops, capable of delivering energy to both the corona and chromosphere and giving rise to many observed features of flaring and quiescent regions. In previous work, we established that resistive dissipation of waves (ambipolar diffusion) can drive strong chromospheric heating and evaporation, capable of producing flaring signatures. However, that model was based on a simplified assumption that the waves propagate instantly to the chromosphere, an assumption that the current work removes. Via a ray-tracing method, we have implemented traveling waves in a field-aligned hydrodynamic simulation that dissipate locally as they propagate along the field line. We compare this method to and validate against the magnetohydrodynamics code Lare3D. We then examine the importance of travel times to the dynamics of the loop evolution, finding that (1) the ionization level of the plasma plays a critical role in determining the location and rate at which waves dissipate; (2) long duration waves effectively bore a hole into the chromosphere, allowing subsequent waves to penetrate deeper than previously expected, unlike an electron beam whose energy deposition rises in height as evaporation reduces the mean-free paths of the electrons; and (3) the dissipation of these waves drives a pressure front that propagates to deeper depths, unlike energy deposition by an electron beam.

  14. Site Response and Basin Waves in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Boatwright, John

    2013-01-01

    The Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta is an inland delta at the western extent of the Central Valley. Levees were built around swampy islands starting after the Civil War to reclaim these lands for farming. Various studies show that these levees could fail in concert from shaking from a major local or regional earthquake resulting in salty water from the San Francisco Bay contaminating the water in the Delta. We installed seismographs around the Delta and on levees to assess the contribution of site response to the seismic hazard of the levees. Cone penetrometer testing shows that the upper 10 s of meters of soil in the Delta have shear‐wave velocities of about 200  m/s, which would give a strong site response. Seismographs were sited following two strategies: pairs of stations to compare the response of the levees to nearby sites, and a more regional deployment in the Delta. Site response was determined in two different ways: a traditional spectral ratio (TSR) approach of S waves using station BDM of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Net as a reference site, and using SH/SV ratios of noise (or Nakamura’s method). Both estimates usually agree in spectral character for stations whose response is dominated by a resonant peak, but the most obvious peaks in the SH/SV ratios usually are about two‐thirds as large as the main peaks in the TSRs. Levee sites typically have large narrow resonances in the site response function compared to sites in the farmland of the Delta. These resonances, at a frequency of about 1–3 Hz, have amplitudes of about 15 with TSR and 10–12 with Nakamura’s method. Sites on farmland in the Delta also have amplifications, but these are typically broader and not as resonant in appearance. Late (slow) Rayleigh waves were recorded at stations in the Delta, have a dominant period of about one second, and are highly monochromatic. Results from a three‐station array at the Holland Marina suggest that they have a phase velocity of about

  15. Evaluating the Performance of a Climate-Driven Mortality Model during Heat Waves and Cold Spells in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lowe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on human health is a serious concern. In particular, changes in the frequency and intensity of heat waves and cold spells are of high relevance in terms of mortality and morbidity. This demonstrates the urgent need for reliable early-warning systems to help authorities prepare and respond to emergency situations. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a climate-driven mortality model to provide probabilistic predictions of exceeding emergency mortality thresholds for heat wave and cold spell scenarios. Daily mortality data corresponding to 187 NUTS2 regions across 16 countries in Europe were obtained from 1998–2003. Data were aggregated to 54 larger regions in Europe, defined according to similarities in population structure and climate. Location-specific average mortality rates, at given temperature intervals over the time period, were modelled to account for the increased mortality observed during both high and low temperature extremes and differing comfort temperatures between regions. Model parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework, in order to generate probabilistic simulations of mortality across Europe for time periods of interest. For the heat wave scenario (1–15 August 2003, the model was successfully able to anticipate the occurrence or non-occurrence of mortality rates exceeding the emergency threshold (75th percentile of the mortality distribution for 89% of the 54 regions, given a probability decision threshold of 70%. For the cold spell scenario (1–15 January 2003, mortality events in 69% of the regions were correctly anticipated with a probability decision threshold of 70%. By using a more conservative decision threshold of 30%, this proportion increased to 87%. Overall, the model performed better for the heat wave scenario. By replacing observed temperature data in the model with forecast temperature, from state-of-the-art European forecasting systems, probabilistic mortality

  16. Evaluating the performance of a climate-driven mortality model during heat waves and cold spells in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rachel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Rodó, Xavier

    2015-01-23

    The impact of climate change on human health is a serious concern. In particular, changes in the frequency and intensity of heat waves and cold spells are of high relevance in terms of mortality and morbidity. This demonstrates the urgent need for reliable early-warning systems to help authorities prepare and respond to emergency situations. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a climate-driven mortality model to provide probabilistic predictions of exceeding emergency mortality thresholds for heat wave and cold spell scenarios. Daily mortality data corresponding to 187 NUTS2 regions across 16 countries in Europe were obtained from 1998-2003. Data were aggregated to 54 larger regions in Europe, defined according to similarities in population structure and climate. Location-specific average mortality rates, at given temperature intervals over the time period, were modelled to account for the increased mortality observed during both high and low temperature extremes and differing comfort temperatures between regions. Model parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework, in order to generate probabilistic simulations of mortality across Europe for time periods of interest. For the heat wave scenario (1-15 August 2003), the model was successfully able to anticipate the occurrence or non-occurrence of mortality rates exceeding the emergency threshold (75th percentile of the mortality distribution) for 89% of the 54 regions, given a probability decision threshold of 70%. For the cold spell scenario (1-15 January 2003), mortality events in 69% of the regions were correctly anticipated with a probability decision threshold of 70%. By using a more conservative decision threshold of 30%, this proportion increased to 87%. Overall, the model performed better for the heat wave scenario. By replacing observed temperature data in the model with forecast temperature, from state-of-the-art European forecasting systems, probabilistic mortality predictions could

  17. [Effectiveness of health education about heat wave hazard prevention in the elderly: a mixed effect model analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W J; Lin, Q X; Lin, H L; Liu, T; Zeng, W L; Xiao, J P; Li, X; Luo, Y

    2016-09-10

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of health education about prevention of heat wave hazard in the elderly. Methods: A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted during the summer of 2015 among a sample of residents aged ≥60 years in Panyu district, Guangzhou. Eight intervention measures for heat wave hazard prevention were taken in intervention group for 3 months (from August to October) and in control group no intervention measures were taken. The comparison of intervention effects was conducted between the intervention group and control group with mixed effect model after the collection of related information with same questionnaire. Results: After adjusting of family per capita income, family air-condition availability, alcohol use, disease history and time, the average score of risk awareness in the intervention group increased by 1.62, while it was 0.51 in the control group, the difference was significant (t=2.76, P=0.006). A significant effect was observed in the intervention group on the reduction of hospitalizations due to chronic diseases. The hospitalization rate due to chronic diseases in resent 3 months in the intervention group decreased from 32.39% (46/142) before intervention to 28.87% (41/142) after intervention; while in the control group, it increased from 26.28% (41/156) before intervention to 36.53% (57/156) after intervention. There was no significant difference between the two groups in awareness of knowledge on heat wave hazard prevention and the score of adaptation to heat wave. Conclusion: Health education programs could improve the risk awareness on heat waves, and reduce the hospitalizations due to chronic diseases in the elderly.

  18. Evaluating the Performance of a Climate-Driven Mortality Model during Heat Waves and Cold Spells in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rachel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate change on human health is a serious concern. In particular, changes in the frequency and intensity of heat waves and cold spells are of high relevance in terms of mortality and morbidity. This demonstrates the urgent need for reliable early-warning systems to help authorities prepare and respond to emergency situations. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a climate-driven mortality model to provide probabilistic predictions of exceeding emergency mortality thresholds for heat wave and cold spell scenarios. Daily mortality data corresponding to 187 NUTS2 regions across 16 countries in Europe were obtained from 1998–2003. Data were aggregated to 54 larger regions in Europe, defined according to similarities in population structure and climate. Location-specific average mortality rates, at given temperature intervals over the time period, were modelled to account for the increased mortality observed during both high and low temperature extremes and differing comfort temperatures between regions. Model parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework, in order to generate probabilistic simulations of mortality across Europe for time periods of interest. For the heat wave scenario (1–15 August 2003), the model was successfully able to anticipate the occurrence or non-occurrence of mortality rates exceeding the emergency threshold (75th percentile of the mortality distribution) for 89% of the 54 regions, given a probability decision threshold of 70%. For the cold spell scenario (1–15 January 2003), mortality events in 69% of the regions were correctly anticipated with a probability decision threshold of 70%. By using a more conservative decision threshold of 30%, this proportion increased to 87%. Overall, the model performed better for the heat wave scenario. By replacing observed temperature data in the model with forecast temperature, from state-of-the-art European forecasting systems, probabilistic mortality predictions could

  19. Modification of land-atmosphere interactions by CO2 effects: Implications for summer dryness and heat wave amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemordant, Léo.; Gentine, Pierre; Stéfanon, Marc; Drobinski, Philippe; Fatichi, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Plant stomata couple the energy, water, and carbon cycles. We use the framework of Regional Climate Modeling to simulate the 2003 European heat wave and assess how higher levels of surface CO2 may affect such an extreme event through land-atmosphere interactions. Increased CO2 modifies the seasonality of the water cycle through stomatal regulation and increased leaf area. As a result, the water saved during the growing season through higher water use efficiency mitigates summer dryness and the heat wave impact. Land-atmosphere interactions and CO2 fertilization together synergistically contribute to increased summer transpiration. This, in turn, alters the surface energy budget and decreases sensible heat flux, mitigating air temperature rise. Accurate representation of the response to higher CO2 levels and of the coupling between the carbon and water cycles is therefore critical to forecasting seasonal climate, water cycle dynamics, and to enhance the accuracy of extreme event prediction under future climate.

  20. CTD, current meter, pressure gauge, and wave spectra data from fixed platforms and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California as part of the Santa Barbara Channel project from 27 April 1983 to 04 January 1985 (NODC Accession 8500177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, current meter, pressure gauge, and wave spectra data were collected from fixed platforms and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California from 27 April...

  1. The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO2 ] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Wertin, Timothy M; Ameye, Maarten; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-02-01

    The frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase. This study investigates whether heat waves would have the same impact as a constant increase in temperature with the same heat sum, and whether there would be any interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] and soil moisture content. We grew Quercus rubra seedlings in treatment chambers maintained at either ambient or elevated [CO2 ] (380 or 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) ) with temperature treatments of ambient, ambient +3 °C, moderate heat wave (+6 °C every other week) or severe heat wave (+12 °C every fourth week) temperatures. Averaged over a 4-week period, and the entire growing season, the three elevated temperature treatments had the same average temperature and heat sum. Half the seedlings were watered to a soil water content near field capacity, half to about 50% of this value. Foliar gas exchange measurements were performed morning and afternoon (9:00 and 15:00 hours) before, during and after an applied heat wave in August 2010. Biomass accumulation was measured after five heat wave cycles. Under ambient [CO2 ] and well-watered conditions, biomass accumulation was highest in the +3 °C treatment, intermediate in the +6 °C heat wave and lowest in the +12 °C heat wave treatment. This response was mitigated by elevated [CO2 ]. Low soil moisture significantly decreased net photosynthesis (Anet ) and biomass in all [CO2 ] and temperature treatments. The +12 °C heat wave reduced afternoon Anet by 23% in ambient [CO2 ]. Although this reduction was relatively greater under elevated [CO2 ], Anet values during this heat wave were still 34% higher than under ambient [CO2 ]. We concluded that heat waves affected biomass growth differently than the same amount of heat applied uniformly over the growing season, and that the plant response to heat waves also depends on [CO2 ] and soil moisture conditions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. CORONAL HEATING BY SURFACE ALFVEN WAVE DAMPING: IMPLEMENTATION IN A GLOBAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS MODEL OF THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R. M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Space Weather Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Opher, M. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Oran, R.; Van der Holst, B.; Sokolov, I. V.; Frazin, R.; Gombosi, T. I. [Center for Space Environment Modeling, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vasquez, A., E-mail: Rebekah.e.frolov@nasa.gov [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and FCEN (UBA), CC 67, Suc 28, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-09-10

    The heating and acceleration of the solar wind is an active area of research. Alfven waves, because of their ability to accelerate and heat the plasma, are a likely candidate in both processes. Many models have explored wave dissipation mechanisms which act either in closed or open magnetic field regions. In this work, we emphasize the boundary between these regions, drawing on observations which indicate unique heating is present there. We utilize a new solar corona component of the Space Weather Modeling Framework, in which Alfven wave energy transport is self-consistently coupled to the magnetohydrodynamic equations. In this solar wind model, the wave pressure gradient accelerates and wave dissipation heats the plasma. Kolmogorov-like wave dissipation as expressed by Hollweg along open magnetic field lines was presented in van der Holst et al. Here, we introduce an additional dissipation mechanism: surface Alfven wave (SAW) damping, which occurs in regions with transverse (with respect to the magnetic field) gradients in the local Alfven speed. For solar minimum conditions, we find that SAW dissipation is weak in the polar regions (where Hollweg dissipation is strong), and strong in subpolar latitudes and the boundaries of open and closed magnetic fields (where Hollweg dissipation is weak). We show that SAW damping reproduces regions of enhanced temperature at the boundaries of open and closed magnetic fields seen in tomographic reconstructions in the low corona. Also, we argue that Ulysses data in the heliosphere show enhanced temperatures at the boundaries of fast and slow solar wind, which is reproduced by SAW dissipation. Therefore, the model's temperature distribution shows best agreement with these observations when both dissipation mechanisms are considered. Lastly, we use observational constraints of shock formation in the low corona to assess the Alfven speed profile in the model. We find that, compared to a polytropic solar wind model, the wave

  3. Climate variability of heat wave and future warming scenario in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-yao

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the heat wave definition and climate variability of HW days according to air temperature are conducted in order to find out the local threshold and variation trends in the past 40 years (1971-2010), in three major cities, Taipei (TP), Taichung (TC) and Kaohsiung (KH) in Taiwan. As for Taiwan's high humidity atmospheric condition, the heat stress index wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is also employed in the past (2003-2012) and future warming scenario in 2075-2099. The simulation WBGT in the past (2003-2012) and future warming projection (2075-2099) are deduced from the results of ECHAM5/MPIOM-WRF (ECW) dynamic downscaling 5-km resolution in these three cities. Box plot analyzing shows the differences between observed and simulated WBGT distribution at 25%, 50% and 75% percentiles are all within 0.7 °C in 2003-2012. Even the extreme values, the differences are all within 0.9 °C. In other words, the ranges of the WBGT variation from observations are reasonably captured by the ECW in three cities. According to the good performance of ECW in the WBGT simulation, the projection of future WBGT in these three cities has been evaluated under IPCC A1B scenario by using ECW. It is estimated that nearly 50% of the days in summer (July and August) are all at the level of danger (WBGT>31 °C ) at the period 2075-2099.It is a significant increase because they are only 10.74%, 4.22% and 11.28% above this level in the past in 2003-2012 in TP, TC and KH, respectively. From public health point of view, the impacts are huge and worthy to pay attention under the global warming trend.

  4. Baroclinic wave laboratory experiment with radial heating and vertical stratification to study IGW emission from baroclinic fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Costanza; Borcia, Ion; Harlander, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The differentially heated rotating annulus is a widely studied experimental apparatus for modelling large- scale features of the mid-latitude atmosphere. In the classic set-up, the instability is studied using a homogeneous fluid. In the present work, we study a modified version of the classical baroclinic experiment where the working fluid consists of sodium-chloride/de-ionized water solution. A continuously stratified salinity profile is initially prepared in the annular cavity with the standard double-bucket technique. The vertical salt stratification opposes the thermal convective motions until the ratio of the (horizontal) thermal density difference and the (vertical) salinity-induced density difference exceeds a certain critical threshold. Then double-diffusive convection rolls develop in thin layers located at top and bottom, where the salt stratification is weaker. This laboratory arrangement mimics the presence of a stratosphere above a baroclinic unstable troposphere. PIV velocity maps describe the wavy flow pattern at different altitudes. A baroclinic wave on top, and one at the bottom arise, but with different azimuthal wave numbers. These waves are decoupled by the presence of the motionless stratified layer between them. In some regimes, small scale wave trains have been detected along the baroclinic wave front. These waves might be traces of Internal Gravity Waves generated by the fluid motions in the baroclinic unstable layers.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM"PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Timothy; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2010-06-01

    The effectiveness of combined heat and power (CHP) systems for power interruption intolerant,"premium power," facilities is the focus of this study. Through three real-world case studies and economic cost minimization modeling, the economic and environmental performance of"premium power" CHP is analyzed. The results of the analysis for a brewery, data center, and hospital lead to some interesting conclusions about CHP limited to the specific CHP technologies installed at those sites. Firstly, facilities with high heating loads prove to be the most appropriate for CHP installations from a purely economic standpoint. Secondly, waste heat driven thermal cooling systems are only economically attractive if the technology for these chillers can increase above the current best system efficiency. Thirdly, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be as high as diesel generators they could replace these generators at little or no additional cost if the thermal to electric (relative) load of those facilities was already high enough to economically justify a CHP system. Lastly, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, the modeled CHP systems provide some degree of decreased emissions, estimated at approximately 10percent for the hospital, the application with the highest relative thermal load in this case

  6. Heat wave phenomenon in southern Slovakia: long-term changes and variability of daily maximum air temperature in Hurbanovo within the 1901-2009 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecho, J.; Výberči, D.; Jarošová, M.; Å¥Astný, P. Å.

    2010-09-01

    Analysis of long-term changes and temporal variability of heat waves incidence in the region of southern Slovakia within the 1901-2009 periods is a goal of the presented contribution. It is expected that climate change in terms of global warming would amplify temporal frequency and spatial extension of extreme heat wave incidence in region of central Europe in the next few decades. The frequency of occurrence and amplitude of heat waves may be impacted by changes in the temperature regime. Heat waves can cause severe thermal environmental stress leading to higher hospital admission rates, health complications, and increased mortality. These effects arise because of one or more meteorology-related factors such as higher effective temperatures, sunshine, more consecutive hot days and nights, stagnation, increased humidity, increased pollutant emissions, and accelerated photochemical smog and particulate formation. Heat waves bring about higher temperatures, increased solar heating of buildings, inhibited ventilation, and a larger number of consecutive warm days and nights. All of these effects increase the thermal loads on buildings, reduce their ability to cool down, and increase indoor temperatures. The paper is focused to analysis of long-term and inter-decadal temporal variability of heat waves occurrence at meteorological station Hurbanovo (time-series of daily maximum air temperature available from at least 1901). We can characterize the heat waves by its magnitude and duration, hence both of these characteristics need to be investigated together using sophisticated statistical methods developed particularly for the analysis of extreme hydrological events. We investigated particular heat wave periods either from the severity point of view using HWI index. In the paper we also present the results of statistical analysis of daily maximum air temperature within 1901-2009 period. Apart from these investigation efforts we also focused on synoptic causes of heat wave

  7. Full-wave simulations of ICRF heating regimes in toroidal plasma with non-Maxwellian distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, N.; Valeo, E. J.; Green, D. L.; Gorelenkova, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Podestà, M.; Lee, J. P.; Wright, J. C.; Jaeger, E. F.

    2017-05-01

    At the power levels required for significant heating and current drive in magnetically-confined toroidal plasma, modification of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian shape is likely (Stix 1975 Nucl. Fusion 15 737), with consequent changes in wave propagation and in the location and amount of absorption. In order to study these effects computationally, both the finite-Larmor-radius and the high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW), versions of the full-wave, hot-plasma toroidal simulation code TORIC (Brambilla 1999 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41 1 and Brambilla 2002 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44 2423), have been extended to allow the prescription of arbitrary velocity distributions of the form f≤ft({{v}\\parallel},{{v}\\bot},\\psi,θ \\right) . For hydrogen (H) minority heating of a deuterium (D) plasma with anisotropic Maxwellian H distributions, the fractional H absorption varies significantly with changes in parallel temperature but is essentially independent of perpendicular temperature. On the other hand, for HHFW regime with anisotropic Maxwellian fast ion distribution, the fractional beam ion absorption varies mainly with changes in the perpendicular temperature. The evaluation of the wave-field and power absorption, through the full wave solver, with the ion distribution function provided by either a Monte-Carlo particle and Fokker-Planck codes is also examined for Alcator C-Mod and NSTX plasmas. Non-Maxwellian effects generally tend to increase the absorption with respect to the equivalent Maxwellian distribution.

  8. A comparison of heat wave climatologies and trends in China based on multiple definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qinglong; Jiang, Zhihong; Kong, Lei; Wu, Zhiwei; Bao, Yutao; Kang, Shichang; Pepin, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Heat waves (HWs) can have disastrous impacts on human activities and natural systems, and are one of the current foci of scientific research, particularly in the context of global warming. However, there is no standard definition of a HW, which makes assessment of temporal trends a challenge. In this study, based on daily mean, maximum and minimum temperature, and relative humidity datasets from China Meteorological Administration, the patterns, trends and variations of HW in China during 1961-2014 are investigated. Sixteen previously published HW indices (HIs) are calculated, which are divided into two types using relative and absolute threshold temperatures, respectively. During 1961-2014, both relative and absolute threshold HIs show the highest number of HW in Jianghua and South China, geographically consistent with the climate characteristics of China. The majority of HIs shows negative/positive trends of HW days before/after 1990 over the whole of China, but especially in Jianghua and South China, which reflects rapid warming since 1990. There are significant correlations among different HIs in the same type (both absolute and relative), but correlations are weak between relative and absolute threshold HIs. Because relative and absolute HIs show contrasting trends, the choice of HI is therefore critical for future analysis

  9. Geothermal space/water heating for Mammoth Lakes Village, California. Quarterly technical progress report, 13 December 1976-12 March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.; Racine, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    During the second three months of this feasibility study to determine the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of heating Mammoth Lakes Village, California using geothermal energy, the following work was accomplished. A saturation survey of the number and types of space and water heaters currently in use in the Village was completed. Electric energy and ambient temperature metering equipment was installed. Peak heating demand for Mammoth Lakes was estimated for the years 1985, 1990 and 2000. Buildings were selected which are considered typical of Mammoth Lakes in terms of their heating systems to be used in estimating the cost of installing hydronic heating systems in Mammoth. Block diagrams and an order of magnitude cost comparison were prepared for high-temperature and low-temperature geothermal district heating systems. Models depicting a geothermal district heating system and a geothermal-electric power plant were designed, built and delivered to ERDA in Washington. Local input to the feasibility study was obtained from representatives of the State of California Departments of Transportation and Fish and Game, US Forest Service, and Mono County Planning Department.

  10. Direct observation of electron-Bernstein wave heating by O-X-B-mode conversion at low magnetic field in the WEGA stellarator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoba, Y Y; Laqua, H P; Warr, G B; Schubert, M; Otte, M; Marsen, S; Wagner, F; Holzhauer, E

    2007-06-22

    The ordinary-extraordinary-Bernstein-mode conversion process for overdense plasma heating with electron-Bernstein waves is demonstrated in the WEGA stellarator at low magnetic field (approximately 50 mT) at 2.45 GHz. For the first time the conversion from an O wave to an X wave is clearly demonstrated by probe measurements of amplitude and phase of the wave field in the conversion region and supported by two-dimensional full-wave calculations. The propagation and resonant absorption of the Bernstein wave is measured in fast power modulation experiments.

  11. Effect of Indoor Temperature on Physical Performance in Older Adults during Days with Normal Temperature and Heat Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Stotz, Anja; Beyer, Nina; Oksa, Juha; Skelton, Dawn A; Becker, Clemens; Rapp, Kilian; Klenk, Jochen

    2017-02-14

    Indoor temperature is relevant with regard to mortality and heat-related self-perceived health problems. The aim of this study was to describe the association between indoor temperature and physical performance in older adults. Eighty-one older adults (84% women, mean age 80.9 years, standard deviation 6.53) were visited every four weeks from May to October 2015 and additionally during two heat waves in July and August 2015. Indoor temperature, habitual gait speed, chair-rise performance and balance were assessed. Baseline assessment of gait speed was used to create two subgroups (lower versus higher gait speed) based on frailty criteria. The strongest effect of increasing temperature on habitual gait speed was observed in the subgroup of adults with higher gait speed (-0.087 m/s per increase of 10 °C; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.136; -0.038). The strongest effects on timed chair-rise and balance performance were observed in the subgroup of adults with lower gait speed (2.03 s per increase of 10 °C (95% CI: 0.79; 3.28) and -3.92 s per increase of 10 °C (95% CI: -7.31; -0.52), respectively). Comparing results of physical performance in absentia of a heat wave and during a heat wave, habitual gait speed was negatively affected by heat in the total group and subgroup of adults with higher gait speed, chair-rise performance was negatively affected in all groups and balance was not affected. The study provides arguments for exercise interventions in general for older adults, because a better physical fitness might alleviate impediments of physical capacity and might provide resources for adequate adaptation in older adults during heat stress.

  12. ELF wave generation in the ionosphere using pulse modulated HF heating: initial tests of a technique for increasing ELF wave generation efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barr

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a preliminary study to determine the effective heating and cooling time constants of ionospheric currents in a simulated modulated HF heating, `beam painting' configuration. It has been found that even and odd harmonics of the fundamental ELF wave used to amplitude modulate the HF heater are sourced from different regions of the ionosphere which support significantly different heating and cooling time constants. The fundamental frequency and its odd harmonics are sourced in a region of the ionosphere where the heating and cooling time constants are about equal. The even harmonics on the other hand are sourced from regions of the ionosphere characterised by ratios of cooling to heating time constant greater than ten. It is thought that the even harmonics are sourced in the lower ionosphere (around 65 km where the currents are much smaller than at the higher altitudes around 78 km where the currents at the fundamental frequency and odd harmonics maximise.Key words. Electromagnetics (antennae · Ionosphere (active experiments · Radio science (non linear phenomena

  13. SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions - Iterated Finite-Orbit Monte Carlo Simulations with Full-Wave Fields for Modeling Tokamak ICRF Wave Heating Experiments - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myunghee [Retired; Chan, Vincent S. [General Atomics

    2014-02-28

    This final report describes the work performed under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-08ER54954 for the period April 1, 2011 through March 31, 2013. The goal of this project was to perform iterated finite-orbit Monte Carlo simulations with full-wall fields for modeling tokamak ICRF wave heating experiments. In year 1, the finite-orbit Monte-Carlo code ORBIT-RF and its iteration algorithms with the full-wave code AORSA were improved to enable systematical study of the factors responsible for the discrepancy in the simulated and the measured fast-ion FIDA signals in the DIII-D and NSTX ICRF fast-wave (FW) experiments. In year 2, ORBIT-RF was coupled to the TORIC full-wave code for a comparative study of ORBIT-RF/TORIC and ORBIT-RF/AORSA results in FW experiments.

  14. Indian summer heat wave of 2015: a biometeorological analysis using half hourly automatic weather station data with special reference to Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath Chandran, M A; Subba Rao, A V M; Sandeep, V M; Pramod, V P; Pani, P; Rao, V U M; Visha Kumari, V; Srinivasa Rao, Ch

    2017-06-01

    Heat wave is a hazardous weather-related extreme event that affects living beings. The 2015 summer heat wave affected many regions in India and caused the death of 2248 people across the country. An attempt has been made to quantify the intensity and duration of heat wave that resulted in high mortality across the country. Half hourly Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), based on a complete heat budget of human body, was estimated using automatic weather station (AWS) data of four locations in Andhra Pradesh state, where the maximum number of deaths was reported. The heat wave characterization using PET revealed that extreme heat load conditions (PET >41) existed in all the four locations throughout May during 2012-2015, with varying intensity. The intensity and duration of heat waves characterized by "area under the curve" method showed good results for Srikakulam and Undi locations. Variations in PET during each half an hour were estimated. Such studies will help in fixing thresholds for defining heat waves, designing early warning systems, etc.

  15. Monitoring ground-surface heating during expansion of the Casa Diablo production well field at Mammoth Lakes, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Evans, William C.; Olsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Long Valley hydrothermal system supports geothermal power production from 3 binary plants (Casa Diablo) near the town of Mammoth Lakes, California. Development and growth of thermal ground at sites west of Casa Diablo have created concerns over planned expansion of a new well field and the associated increases in geothermal fluid production. To ensure that all areas of ground heating are identified prior to new geothermal development, we obtained high-resolution aerial thermal infrared imagery across the region. The imagery covers the existing and proposed well fields and part of the town of Mammoth Lakes. Imagery results from a predawn flight on Oct. 9, 2014 readily identified the Shady Rest thermal area (SRST), one of two large areas of ground heating west of Casa Diablo, as well as other known thermal areas smaller in size. Maximum surface temperatures at 3 thermal areas were 26–28 °C. Numerous small areas with ground temperatures >16 °C were also identified and slated for field investigations in summer 2015. Some thermal anomalies in the town of Mammoth Lakes clearly reflect human activity.Previously established projects to monitor impacts from geothermal power production include yearly surveys of soil temperatures and diffuse CO2 emissions at SRST, and less regular surveys to collect samples from fumaroles and gas vents across the region. Soil temperatures at 20 cm depth at SRST are well correlated with diffuse CO2 flux, and both parameters show little variation during the 2011–14 field surveys. Maximum temperatures were between 55–67 °C and associated CO2 discharge was around 12–18 tonnes per day. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 is fairly uniform across the area ranging between –3.7 to –4.4 ‰. The gas composition of the Shady Rest fumarole however has varied with time, and H2S concentrations in the gas have been increasing since 2009.

  16. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Tim; Marnay, Chris; Kammen, Dan

    2008-09-30

    This report analyzes the current economic and environmental performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems in power interruption intolerant commercial facilities. Through a series of three case studies, key trade-offs are analyzed with regard to the provision of black-out ridethrough capability with the CHP systems and the resutling ability to avoid the need for at least some diesel backup generator capacity located at the case study sites. Each of the selected sites currently have a CHP or combined heating, cooling, and power (CCHP) system in addition to diesel backup generators. In all cases the CHP/CCHP system have a small fraction of the electrical capacity of the diesel generators. Although none of the selected sites currently have the ability to run the CHP systems as emergency backup power, all could be retrofitted to provide this blackout ride-through capability, and new CHP systems can be installed with this capability. The following three sites/systems were used for this analysis: (1) Sierra Nevada Brewery - Using 1MW of installed Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells operating on a combination of digestor gas (from the beer brewing process) and natural gas, this facility can produce electricty and heat for the brewery and attached bottling plant. The major thermal load on-site is to keep the brewing tanks at appropriate temperatures. (2) NetApp Data Center - Using 1.125 MW of Hess Microgen natural gas fired reciprocating engine-generators, with exhaust gas and jacket water heat recovery attached to over 300 tons of of adsorption chillers, this combined cooling and power system provides electricity and cooling to a data center with a 1,200 kW peak electrical load. (3) Kaiser Permanente Hayward Hospital - With 180kW of Tecogen natural gas fired reciprocating engine-generators this CHP system generates steam for space heating, and hot water for a city hospital. For all sites, similar assumptions are made about the economic and technological constraints of the

  17. Role of Parallel and Oblique Ion-Cyclotron Waves in Heating Ions in an Inhomogeneous Expanding Solar Wind Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Ozak, N. O.; Vinas, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    In-situ observations of fast solar wind streams at distances of 0.29 AU and beyond by Helios and recently by MESSENGER, and at ~1 AU by STEREO, ACE, and Wind spacecraft provide direct evidence for the presence of turbulent Alfvén wave spectrum and of left-hand polarized ion-cyclotron waves as well as He++ - proton drift in the solar wind plasma. The waves and the super-Alfvénic drift can produce temperature anisotropies by resonant absorption and perpendicular heating of the ions. Measurements indicate that proton velocity distributions are generally non-Maxwellian with evidence for beams, while remote sensing observations of coronal holes have shown that heavy ions are hotter than protons with a temperature anisotropy greater than one (Ti,perp> Ti,||). In addition to the anisotropy, it is expected that the solar wind will be inhomogeneous on decreasing scales approaching the Sun. Here we use a 2.5 D hybrid code and extend previous work to study the heating of solar wind ions (H+, He+) in an inhomogeneous plasma background. We explore the effects of an initial ion drift and of a turbulent wave spectrum on the perpendicular ion heating and cooling and on the spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations in the inhomogeneous background solar wind. Using the 2D hybrid model we find that inhomogeneities in the plasma generate significant power of oblique waves in the solar wind plasma, in addition to enhanced heating compared to the homogenous solar wind case. We find that the cooling effect due to the solar wind expansion is only significant when sub-Alfvénic drifts are explored. On the other hand, the cooling is not significant in the presence of a super-Alfvénic drift, and it is even less significant when we include an inhomogeneous background density. We are able to reproduce the ion temperature anisotropy seen in observations and previous models and find that small-scale inhomogeneities in the inner heliosphere can have a significant impact on resonant wave ion

  18. Geothermal direct heat use: market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region IX (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.; Tang, K. (eds.)

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region IX). The analysis for each state was performed by a different team, located in that state. For each state, the study team was asked to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Each of the four states of interest in this study is unique in its own way. Rather than impose the same assumptions as to growth rates, capture rates, etc. on all of the study teams, each team was asked to use the most appropriate set of assumptions for its state. The results, therefore, should reflect the currently accepted views within each state. The four state reports comprise the main portion of this document. A brief regional overview section was prepared by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, following completion of the state reports.

  19. Susceptibility to mortality related to temperature and heat and cold wave duration in the population of Stockholm County, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Rocklöv

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ambient temperatures can cause an increase in mortality. A better understanding is needed of how health status and other factors modify the risk associated with high and low temperatures, to improve the basis of preventive measures. Differences in susceptibility to temperature and to heat and cold wave duration are relatively unexplored. Objectives: We studied the associations between mortality and temperature and heat and cold wave duration, stratified by age and individual and medical factors. Methods: Deaths among all residents of Stockholm County between 1990 and 2002 were linked to discharge diagnosis data from hospital admissions, and associations were examined using the time stratified case-crossover design. Analyses were stratified by gender, age, pre-existing disease, country of origin, and municipality level wealth, and adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results: The effect on mortality by heat wave duration was higher for lower ages, in areas with lower wealth, for hospitalized patients younger than age 65. Odds were elevated among females younger than age 65, in groups with a previous hospital admission for mental disorders, and in persons with previous cardiovascular disease. Gradual increases in summer temperatures were associated with mortality in people older than 80 years, and with mortality in groups with a previous myocardial infarction and with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the population younger than 65 years. During winter, mortality was associated with a decrease in temperature particularly in men and with the duration of cold spells for the population older than 80. A history of hospitalization for myocardial infarction increased the odds associated with cold temperatures among the population older than 65. Previous mental disease or substance abuse increased the odds of death among the population younger than 65. Conclusion: To increase effectiveness, we suggest preventive efforts

  20. Contribution of mode coupling and phase-mixing of Alfvén waves to coronal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Paolo; De Moortel, Ineke

    2017-04-01

    The solar corona is a million degree plasma that has been investigated for long time to understand the cause of this high heating rate. In particular, phase-mixing of Alfvén waves in the solar corona has been identified as one possible candidate to explain coronal heating by observations of ubiquitous oscillations in the corona carrying sufficient wave energy and by theoretical models that have described the concentration of energy in small scale structures. The aim of this work is to assess how much energy can be converted into thermal energy by a phase-mixing process triggered by the propagation of Alfvénic waves in a cylindric coronal structure, such as a coronal loop, and to estimate the impact of this conversion on the coronal heating and thermal structure of the solar corona plasma. We run 3D MHD simulations of a magnetised cylinder where the Alfvén speed varies through a boundary shell and a footpoint driver is set to trigger kink modes which mode couple to torsional Alfvén modes in the boundary shell. These Alfvén waves are expected to phase-mix and the system allows us to study the following thermal energy deposition on the plasma. We run a reference simulation to explain the main process and then we vary simulation parameters, such as the size of the boundary shell, its structure and the persistence of the driver. Taking into consideration high values of magnetic resistivity and strong footpoint drivers, we find i) that phase-mixing leads to a temperature increase, ii) that this energy is able to balance the radiative losses only in the localised region involved in the heating.

  1. Comparison of blood pressure and thermal responses in rats exposed to millimeter wave energy or environmental heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millenbaugh, Nancy J; Kiel, Johnathan L; Ryan, Kathy L; Blystone, Robert V; Kalns, John E; Brott, Becky J; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lawrence, William S; Soza, Laura L; Mason, Patrick A

    2006-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields at millimeter wave lengths are being developed for commercial and military use at power levels that can cause temperature increases in the skin. Previous work suggests that sustained exposure to millimeter waves causes greater heating of skin, leading to faster induction of circulatory failure than exposure to environmental heat (EH). We tested this hypothesis in three separate experiments by comparing temperature changes in skin, subcutis, and colon, and the time to reach circulatory collapse (mean arterial blood pressure, 20 mmHg) in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to the following conditions that produced similar rates of body core heating within each experiment: (1) EH at 42 degrees C, 35 GHz at 75 mW/cm, or 94 GHz at 75 mW/cm under ketamine and xylazine anesthesia; (2) EH at 43 degrees C, 35 GHz at 90 mW/cm, or 94 GHz at 90 mW/cm under ketamine and xylazine anesthesia; and (3) EH at 42 degrees C, 35 GHz at 90 mW/cm, or 94 GHz at 75 mW/cm under isoflurane anesthesia. In all three experiments, the rate and amount of temperature increase at the subcutis and skin surface differed significantly in the rank order of 94 GHz more than 35 GHz more than EH. The time to reach circulatory collapse was significantly less only for rats exposed to 94 GHz at 90 mW/cm, the group with the greatest rate of skin and subcutis heating of all groups in this study, compared with both the 35 GHz at 90 mW/cm and the EH at 43 degrees C groups. These data indicate that body core heating is the major determinant of induction of hemodynamic collapse, and the influence of heating of the skin and subcutis becomes significant only when a certain threshold rate of heating of these tissues is exceeded.

  2. Colony adaptive response to simulated heat waves and consequences at the individual level in honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, Célia; Dechatre, Hélène; Suchail, Séverine; Peruzzi, Mathilde; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Pioz, Maryline; Pélissier, Michel; Crauser, Didier; Conte, Yves Le; Alaux, Cédric

    2017-06-19

    Since climate change is expected to bring more severe and frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, assessing the physiological and behavioural sensitivity of organisms to temperature becomes a priority. We therefore investigated the responses of honeybees, an important insect pollinator, to simulated heat waves (SHW). Honeybees are known to maintain strict brood thermoregulation, but the consequences at the colony and individual levels remain poorly understood. For the first time, we quantified and modelled colony real-time activity and found a 70% increase in foraging activity with SHW, which was likely due to the recruitment of previously inactive bees. Pollen and nectar foraging was not impacted, but an increase in water foragers was observed at the expense of empty bees. Contrary to individual energetic resources, vitellogenin levels increased with SHW, probably to protect bees against oxidative stress. Finally, though immune functions were not altered, we observed a significant decrease in deformed wing virus loads with SHW. In conclusion, we demonstrated that honeybees could remarkably adapt to heat waves without a cost at the individual level and on resource flow. However, the recruitment of backup foraging forces might be costly by lowering the colony buffering capacity against additional environmental pressures.

  3. Potential Climate Change Health Risks from Increases in Heat Waves: Abnormal Birth Outcomes and Adverse Maternal Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cil, Gulcan; Cameron, Trudy Ann

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the risks presented by heat waves for adverse health conditions for babies and expectant mothers when these mothers have been exposed to heat waves during gestation or during the period just prior to conception. Rather than just birth weight and gestational age, we focus on less common metrics such as abnormal conditions in the newborn (fetal distress, reliance on a ventilator, and meconium aspiration) and adverse health conditions in the mother (pregnancy-related hypertension, uterine bleeding during pregnancy, eclampsia, and incompetent cervix). We use monthly panel data for over 3,000 U.S. counties, constructed from the confidential version of the U.S. Natality Files for 1989-2008. Our models control for sociodemographic factors and include county, month, and state-by-year fixed effects to control for unobserved spatial and timewise heterogeneity in the data. Even within the United States, where there is widespread access to air conditioning, heat waves increase the fraction of babies with abnormal conditions related to maternal stress, as well as the fraction of mothers who experience pregnancy-related adverse health conditions. The scope for these risks in developing countries is likely to be even greater. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Heat waves reduce ecosystem carbon sink strength in a Eurasian meadow steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Luping; Chen, Jiquan; Dong, Gang; Jiang, Shicheng; Li, Linghao; Guo, Jixun; Shao, Changliang

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of global change, intensity and frequency of extreme events such as heat waves (HW) have been increasing worldwide. By using a combination of continuous 60-year meteorological and 6-year tower-based carbon dioxide (CO2) flux measurements, we constructed a clear picture of a HWs effect on the dynamics of carbon, water, and vegetation on the Eurasian Songnen meadow steppe. The number of HWs in the Songnen meadow steppe began increasing since the 1980s and the rate of occurrence has advanced since the 2010s to higher than ever before. HWs can reduce the grassland carbon flux, while net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) will regularly fluctuate for 4-5 days during the HW before decreasing. However, ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross ecosystem production (GEP) decline from the beginning of the HW until the end, where Re and GEP will decrease 30% and 50%, respectively. When HWs last five days, water-use efficiency (WUE) will decrease by 26%, soil water content (SWC) by 30% and soil water potential (SWP) will increase by 38%. In addition, the soil temperature will still remain high after the HW although the air temperature will recover to its previous state. HWs, as an extreme weather event, have increased during the last two decades in the Songnen meadow steppe. HWs will reduce the carbon flux of the steppe and will cause a sustained impact. Drought may be the main reason why HWs decrease carbon flux. At the later stages of or after a HW, the ecosystem usually lacks water and the soil becomes so hot and dry that it prevents roots from absorbing enough water to maintain their metabolism. This is the main reason why this grassland carbon exchange decreases during and after HWs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heat waves frequency analysis and spatial-temporal variability of daily maximum temperature in southern Slovakia within the 1951, respectively 1961-2008 periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Mikulová, K.; Šâstný, P.

    2009-09-01

    Heat waves temporal and spatial analysis at selected meteorological stations in southern part of Slovakia within the 1951, respectively 1961-2008 periods is a goal of the presented contribution. It is expected that climate change in terms of global warming would amplify temporal frequency and spatial extension of extreme heat wave incidence in region of central Europe in the next few decades. The frequency of occurrence and amplitude of heat waves may be impacted by changes in the temperature regime. Heat waves can cause severe thermal environmental stress leading to higher hospital admission rates, health complications, and increased mortality. These effects arise because of one or more meteorology-related factors such as higher effective temperatures, sunshine, more consecutive hot days and nights, stagnation, increased humidity, increased pollutant emissions, and accelerated photochemical smog and particulate formation. Heat waves bring about higher temperatures, increased solar heating of buildings, inhibited ventilation, and a larger number of consecutive warm days and nights. All of these effects increase the thermal loads on buildings, reduce their ability to cool down, and increase indoor temperatures. The paper deals with analysis of temporal and spatial variability of heat waves occurrence at meteorological station Hurbanovo (time series of daily maximum air temperature available from at least 1901) and some other climatological stations in lowlands of southern Slovakia (Žiharec, Bratislava-airport, Jaslovské Bohunice, Kráľová pri Senci, etc.). We can characterize the heat waves by its magnitude and duration, hence both of these characteristics need to be investigated together using sophisticated statistical methods developed particularly for the analysis of extreme hydrological events. These methods are quite similar to the intensity-duration-frequency approach often used in the analysis of extreme precipitation events. The HDF-curves (heatwave

  6. Wheat yield loss attributable to heat waves, drought and water excess at the global, national and subnational scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, M.; Ceglar, A.; Dentener, F.; Toreti, A.

    2017-06-01

    Heat waves and drought are often considered the most damaging climatic stressors for wheat. In this study, we characterize and attribute the effects of these climate extremes on wheat yield anomalies (at global and national scales) from 1980 to 2010. Using a combination of up-to-date heat wave and drought indexes (the latter capturing both excessively dry and wet conditions), we have developed a composite indicator that is able to capture the spatio-temporal characteristics of the underlying physical processes in the different agro-climatic regions of the world. At the global level, our diagnostic explains a significant portion (more than 40%) of the inter-annual production variability. By quantifying the contribution of national yield anomalies to global fluctuations, we have found that just two concurrent yield anomalies affecting the larger producers of the world could be responsible for more than half of the global annual fluctuations. The relative importance of heat stress and drought in determining the yield anomalies depends on the region. Moreover, in contrast to common perception, water excess affects wheat production more than drought in several countries. We have also performed the same analysis at the subnational level for France, which is the largest wheat producer of the European Union, and home to a range of climatic zones. Large subnational variability of inter-annual wheat yield is mostly captured by the heat and water stress indicators, consistently with the country-level result.

  7. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Austin, M. E. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Diem, S. J.; Kaufman, M. C.; Ryan, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Torino (Italy); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Turco, F. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-02-12

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ∼2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. The AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  8. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Austin, M. E.; Diem, S. J.; Doyle, E. J.; Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Jackson, G. L.; Kaufman, M. C.; Luce, T. C.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Politzer, P. A.; Porkolab, M.; Ryan, P. M.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G.; Turco, F.; Zeng, L.

    2014-02-01

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ˜2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. The AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  9. Contribution of mode-coupling and phase-mixing of Alfvén waves to coronal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, P.; De Moortel, I.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Phase-mixing of Alfvén waves in the solar corona has been identified as one possible candidate to explain coronal heating. While this scenario is supported by observations of ubiquitous oscillations in the corona carrying sufficient wave energy and by theoretical models that have described the concentration of energy in small-scale structures, it is still unclear whether this wave energy can be converted into thermal energy in order to maintain the million-degree hot solar corona. Aims: The aim of this work is to assess how much energy can be converted into thermal energy by a phase-mixing process triggered by the propagation of Alfvénic waves in a cylindric coronal structure, such as a coronal loop, and to estimate the impact of this conversion on the coronal heating and thermal structure of the solar corona. Methods: To this end, we ran 3D MHD simulations of a magnetised cylinder where the Alfvén speed varies through a boundary shell, and a footpoint driver is set to trigger kink modes that mode couple to torsional Alfvén modes in the boundary shell. These Alfvén waves are expected to phase-mix, and the system allows us to study the subsequent thermal energy deposition. We ran a reference simulation to explain the main process and then we varied the simulation parameters, such as the size of the boundary shell, its structure, and the persistence of the driver. Results: When we take high values of magnetic resistivity and strong footpoint drivers into consideration, we find that i) phase-mixing leads to a temperature increase of the order of 105 K or less, depending on the structure of the boundary shell; ii) this energy is able to balance the radiative losses only in the localised region involved in the heating; and iii) we can determine the influence of the boundary layer and the persistence of the driver on the thermal structure of the system. Conclusions: Our conclusion is that as a result of the extreme physical parameters we adopted and the

  10. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Rameez Rameezdeen; Abbas Elmualim

    2017-01-01

    The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers’ health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contr...

  11. The effect of broad-band Alfven-cyclotron waves spectra on the preferential heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneva, Y. G. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, 20064 (United States) and Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ofman, L. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States) and Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Vinas, A. F. [Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-06-13

    In anticipation of results from inner heliospheric missions such as the Solar Orbiter and the Solar Probe we present the results from 1.5D hybrid simulations to study the role of magnetic fluctuations for the heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind. We consider the effects of nonlinear Alfven-cyclotron waves at different frequency regimes. Monochromatic nonlinear Alfven-alpha-cyclotron waves are known to preferentially heat and accelerate He{sup ++} ions in collisionless low beta plasma. In this study we demonstrate that these effects are preserved when higherfrequency monochromatic and broad-band spectra of Alfven-proton-cyclotron waves are considered. Comparison between several nonlinear monochromatic waves shows that the ion temperatures, anisotropies and relative drift are quantitatively affected by the shift in frequency. Including a broad-band wave-spectrum results in a significant reduction of both the parallel and the perpendicular temperature components for the He{sup ++} ions, whereas the proton heating is barely influenced, with the parallel proton temperature only slightly enhanced. The differential streaming is strongly affected by the available wave power in the resonant daughter ion-acoustic waves. Therefore for the same initial wave energy, the relative drift is significantly reduced in the case of initial wave-spectra in comparison to the simulations with monochromatic waves.

  12. Consistent pattern of local adaptation during an experimental heat wave in a pipefish-trematode host-parasite system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne H Landis

    Full Text Available Extreme climate events such as heat waves are expected to increase in frequency under global change. As one indirect effect, they can alter magnitude and direction of species interactions, for example those between hosts and parasites. We simulated a summer heat wave to investigate how a changing environment affects the interaction between the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle as a host and its digenean trematode parasite (Cryptocotyle lingua. In a fully reciprocal laboratory infection experiment, pipefish from three different coastal locations were exposed to sympatric and allopatric trematode cercariae. In order to examine whether an extreme climatic event disrupts patterns of locally adapted host-parasite combinations we measured the parasite's transmission success as well as the host's adaptive and innate immune defence under control and heat wave conditions. Independent of temperature, sympatric cercariae were always more successful than allopatric ones, indicating that parasites are locally adapted to their hosts. Hosts suffered from heat stress as suggested by fewer cells of the adaptive immune system (lymphocytes compared to the same groups that were kept at 18°C. However, the proportion of the innate immune cells (monocytes was higher in the 18°C water. Contrary to our expectations, no interaction between host immune defence, parasite infectivity and temperature stress were found, nor did the pattern of local adaptation change due to increased water temperature. Thus, in this host-parasite interaction, the sympatric parasite keeps ahead of the coevolutionary dynamics across sites, even under increasing temperatures as expected under marine global warming.

  13. Synoptic analysis of heat waves in the Barcelona city (Catalonia, Spain) during 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Jéssica; Peña, Juan Carlos; Miró, Josep Ramon; Aran, Montserrat

    2017-04-01

    The impact of extremely warm episodes on health has been analysed by a large number of studies conducted in different countries and cities, showing that heat waves events (HWE) can cause an abrupt increase in mortality. A HWE was defined as a 7-day sequence following a key-day labelled by the 95th percentile of Barcelona daily mortality (see Peña et al., 2015). The aim of this study is to identify synoptic patterns associated to HWE in Barcelona over the 21st century and evaluate the impact and possible mitigations. To achieve it, a multivariate analysis (MVA) integrating different atmospheric levels (sea level pressure, temperature at 850 hPa and geopotential at 500 hPa) was undertaken. The observed data used for this study was the 20th Century Reanalysis. The Max Planck Institute Earth system model was used to study two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) during the 21st century. The model was calibrated given the variability in the climate scenario, using the Quantile-Quantile mapping transformation (Q-Q). The MVA applied to the observed period (1990-2015) distinguish three main synoptic patterns: two dynamic configurations produced by southern fluxes related to an Atlantic low, associated with HWE recorded in southern Europe, and a third pattern identified by a stagnation situation related to persistent anticyclone periods. These patterns were also detected in the control simulated period (1961-2005) after the Q-Q calibration, preserving, therefore, the climatic variability: the number of HWE during the warm period (1990-2005) is twice more than during the cold period (1976-1989) due to an intensification of the warm masses. In the RCP 4.5 scenario (2006-2100 period) a positive and significant trend is shown in synoptic patterns which provoke HWE in Barcelona, especially during August; in the RCP 8.5 scenario there is no significant trend, but the intensification of the warm masses is higher.

  14. Global model simulations of air pollution during the 2003 European heat wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ordóñez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three global Chemistry Transport Models – MOZART, MOCAGE, and TM5 – as well as MOZART coupled to the IFS meteorological model including assimilation of ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO satellite column retrievals, have been compared to surface measurements and MOZAIC vertical profiles in the troposphere over Western/Central Europe for summer 2003. The models reproduce the meteorological features and enhancement of pollution during the period 2–14 August, but not fully the ozone and CO mixing ratios measured during that episode. Modified normalised mean biases are around −25% (except ~5% for MOCAGE in the case of ozone and from −80% to −30% for CO in the boundary layer above Frankfurt. The coupling and assimilation of CO columns from MOPITT overcomes some of the deficiencies in the treatment of transport, chemistry and emissions in MOZART, reducing the negative biases to around 20%. The high reactivity and small dry deposition velocities in MOCAGE seem to be responsible for the overestimation of O3 in this model. Results from sensitivity simulations indicate that an increase of the horizontal resolution to around 1°×1° and potential uncertainties in European anthropogenic emissions or in long-range transport of pollution cannot completely account for the underestimation of CO and O3 found for most models. A process-oriented TM5 sensitivity simulation where soil wetness was reduced results in a decrease in dry deposition fluxes and a subsequent ozone increase larger than the ozone changes due to the previous sensitivity runs. However this latest simulation still underestimates ozone during the heat wave and overestimates it outside that period. Most probably, a combination of the mentioned factors together with underrepresented biogenic emissions in the models, uncertainties in the modelling of vertical/horizontal transport processes in the proximity of the boundary layer as well as limitations of

  15. Plasma heating by non-linear wave-Plasma interaction | Echi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wave-plasma interaction has a non-conservative Hamiltonian description. The resulting system of Hamilton's equations is integrated numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme. It is found that for wave amplitude α as low as 0.01Bo the response of the plasma is remarkably different from the prediction of linear ...

  16. The ion cyclotron turbulence generated by a low frequency kinetic Alfven wave, and the related turbulent heating of ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhaylenko, Volodymyr S.; Mykhaylenko, Volodymyr V.; Lee, Hae June

    2017-10-01

    The ion cyclotron instability driven by the strong kinetic Alfven wave is investigated as a possible source of the anisotropic heating of ions in the coronal holes and solar wind. We present a novel model of a plasma with coupled inhomogeneous current and the sheared flow, which follows from the studies of the particles motion in the electric field of the kinetic Alfven wave of the finite wavelength. The investigation is performed employing the non-modal kinetic theory grounded on the shearing modes approach. The solution of the governing linear integral equation for the perturbed potential displays that the flow velocity shear, which for the corona conditions may be above the growth rate of the ion cyclotron instability in plasma with steady current, changes the exponential growth of the ion cyclotron potential on the power function of time, that impedes the growth of the unstable ion cyclotron wave and reduces the turbulent heating rate of ions across the magnetic field. This work was funded by National R&D Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (Grant No. NRF-2015R1D1A1A01061160).

  17. Temporal evolution of radar echoes associated with mesospheric dust clouds after turn-on of radio wave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.

    2012-03-01

    The initial perturbation of polar mesospheric summer echoes PMSEs during radio wave heating provides significant diagnostic information about the charged dust layer associated with the irregularity source region. Comparison between the results of computational models and the observation data can be used as a tool to estimate charged dust layer parameters. An analytical model is developed and compared to a more accurate computational model as a reference to investigate the possibilities for diagnostic information as well as insight into the physical processes after heater turn-on. During radio wave heating of the mesosphere, which modifies the background electron temperature, various temporal evolution characteristics of irregularity amplitude may be observed which depend on the background plasma parameters and the characteristics of the dust layer. Turn-on overshoot due to the dominant electron charging process and turn-on undershoot resulting from the dominant ambipolar diffusion process, that can occur simultaneously at different radar frequencies, have been studied. The maximum and minimum of the electron density irregularity amplitude and the time at which this amplitude has been achieved as well as the decay time of irregularity amplitude after the maximum amplitude are unique observables that can shed light on the physical processes after the turn-on of the pump heating and to diagnose the charged dust layer. The agreement between the computational and analytical results are good and indicate the simplified analytical model may be used to provide considerable insight into the heating process and serve as the basis for a diagnostic model after heater turn-on. Moreover, the work proposes that conducting PMSE active experiments in the HF and VHF band simultaneously may allow estimation of the dust density altitude profile, dust charge state variation during pump heating, and ratio of electron temperature enhancement in the irregularity source region.

  18. Wind-wave, and turbidity time-series data from Liberty Island (station LWA), Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Time series data of water surface elevation, wave height, and turbidity were collected in Liberty Island beginning in August 2015 as part of “Wind-wave and...

  19. Measurement of near-surface seismic compressional wave velocities using refraction tomography at a proposed construction site on the Presidio of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is determining the feasibility of constructing a new barracks building on the U.S. Army Presidio of Monterey in Monterey, California. Due to the presence of an endangered orchid in the proposed area, invasive techniques such as exploratory drill holes are prohibited. To aid in determining the feasibility, budget, and design of this building, a compressional-wave seismic refraction survey was proposed by the U.S. Geological Survey as an alternative means of investigating the depth to competent bedrock. Two sub-parallel profiles were acquired along an existing foot path and a fence line to minimize impacts on the endangered flora. The compressional-wave seismic refraction tomography data for both profiles indicate that no competent rock classified as non-rippable or marginally rippable exists within the top 30 feet beneath the ground surface.

  20. Roles of convective heating and boundary-layer moisture asymmetry in slowing down the convectively coupled Kelvin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Mechanisms for an in-phase relationship between convection and low-level zonal wind and the slow propagation of the convectively coupled Kelvin wave (CCKW) are investigated by analyzing satellite-based brightness temperature and reanalysis data and by constructing a simple theoretical model. Observational data analysis reveals an eastward shift of the low-level convergence and moisture relative to the CCKW convective center. The composite vertical structures show that the low-level convergence lies in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) (below 800 hPa), and is induced by the pressure trough above the top of PBL through an Ekman-pumping process. A traditional view of a slower eastward propagation speed compared to the dry Kelvin waves is attributed to the reduction of atmospheric static stability in mid-troposphere due to the convective heating effect. The authors' quantitative assessment of the heating effect shows that this effect alone cannot explain the observed CCKW phase speed. We hypothesize that additional slowing process arises from the effect of zonally asymmetric PBL moisture. A simple theoretical model is constructed to understand the relative role of the heating induced effective static stability effect and the PBL moisture effect. The result demonstrates the important role of the both effects. Thus, PBL-free atmosphere interaction is important in explaining the observed structure and propagation of CCKW.

  1. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  2. Pressure waves in liquid mercury target from pulsed heat loads and the possible way controlling their effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, L.; Skala, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villingen (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    In ESS project liquid metals are selected as the main target for the pulsed spallation neutron source. Since the very high instantaneous energy is deposited on the heavy molten target in a very short period time, pressure waves are generated. They travel through the liquid and cause high stress in the container. Also, additional stress should be considered in the wall which is the result of direct heating of the target window. These dynamic processes were simulated with computational codes with the static response being analized first. The total resulting dynamic wall stress has been found to have exceeded the design stress for the selected container material. Adding a small amount of gas bubbles in the liquid could be a possible way to reduce the pressure waves.

  3. Excitation of Alfvén waves by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere, with application to FAST observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kolesnikova

    Full Text Available During the operation of the EISCAT high power facility (heater at Tromsø, Norway, on 8 October 1998, the FAST spacecraft made electric field and particle observations in the inner magnetosphere at 0.39 Earth radii above the heated ionospheric region. Measurements of the direct current electric field clearly exhibit oscillations with a frequency close to the modulated frequency of heater ( ~ 3 Hz and an amplitude of ~ 2 - 5 mV m-1. Thermal electron data from the electrostatic analyser show the modulation at the same frequency of the downward electron fluxes. During this period the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar, sited also at Tromsø, measured a significant enhancement of the electron density in E-layer up to 2 · 1012 m-3. These observations have prompted us to make quantitative estimates of the expected pulsations in the inner magnetosphere caused by the modulated HF heating of lower ionosphere. Under the conditions of the strong electron precipitation in the ionosphere, which took place during the FAST observations, the primary current caused by the perturbation of the conductivity in the heated region is closed entirely by the parallel current which leaks into the magnetosphere. In such circumstances the conditions at the ionosphere-magnetosphere boundary are most favourable for the launching of an Alfvén wave: it is launched from the node in the gradient of the scalar potential which is proportional to the parallel current. The parallel electric field of the Alfvén wave is significant in the region where the electron inertial length is of order of the transverse wavelength of the Alfvén wave or larger and may effectively accelerate superthermal electrons downward into the ionosphere.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionosphere – magnetosphere interactions; particle acceleration

  4. Excitation of Alfvén waves by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere, with application to FAST observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kolesnikova

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available During the operation of the EISCAT high power facility (heater at Tromsø, Norway, on 8 October 1998, the FAST spacecraft made electric field and particle observations in the inner magnetosphere at 0.39 Earth radii above the heated ionospheric region. Measurements of the direct current electric field clearly exhibit oscillations with a frequency close to the modulated frequency of heater ( ~ 3 Hz and an amplitude of ~ 2 - 5 mV m-1. Thermal electron data from the electrostatic analyser show the modulation at the same frequency of the downward electron fluxes. During this period the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar, sited also at Tromsø, measured a significant enhancement of the electron density in E-layer up to 2 · 1012 m-3. These observations have prompted us to make quantitative estimates of the expected pulsations in the inner magnetosphere caused by the modulated HF heating of lower ionosphere. Under the conditions of the strong electron precipitation in the ionosphere, which took place during the FAST observations, the primary current caused by the perturbation of the conductivity in the heated region is closed entirely by the parallel current which leaks into the magnetosphere. In such circumstances the conditions at the ionosphere-magnetosphere boundary are most favourable for the launching of an Alfvén wave: it is launched from the node in the gradient of the scalar potential which is proportional to the parallel current. The parallel electric field of the Alfvén wave is significant in the region where the electron inertial length is of order of the transverse wavelength of the Alfvén wave or larger and may effectively accelerate superthermal electrons downward into the ionosphere.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionosphere – magnetosphere interactions; particle acceleration

  5. Reanalysis of the 1893 heat wave in France through offline data assimilation in a downscaled ensemble meteorological reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devers, Alexandre; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Lauvernet, Claire; Graff, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of historical French weather has recently been improved through the development of the SCOPE (Spatially COherent Probabilistic Extended) Climate reconstruction, a probabilistic high-resolution daily reconstruction of precipitation and temperature covering the period 1871-2012 and based on the statistical downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (Caillouet et al., 2016). However, historical surface observations - even though rather scarce and sparse - do exist from at least the beginning of the period considered, and this information does not currently feed SCOPE Climate reconstructions. The goal of this study is therefore to assimilate these historical observations into SCOPE Climate reconstructions in order to build a 150-year meteorological reanalysis over France. This study considers "offline" data assimilation methods - Kalman filtering methods like the Ensemble Square Root Filter - that have successfully been used in recent paleoclimate studies, i.e. at much larger temporal and spatial scales (see e.g. Bhend et al., 2012). These methods are here applied for reconstructing the 8-24 August 1893 heat wave in France, using all available daily temperature observations from that period. Temperatures reached that summer were indeed compared at the time to those of Senegal (Garnier, 2012). Results show a spatially coherent view of the heat wave at the national scale as well as a reduced uncertainty compared to initial meteorological reconstructions, thus demonstrating the added value of data assimilation. In order to assess the performance of assimilation methods in a more recent context, these methods are also used to reconstruct the well-known 3-14 August 2003 heat wave by using (1) all available stations, and (2) the same station density as in August 1893, the rest of the observations being saved for validation. This analysis allows comparing two heat waves having occurred 100 years apart in France with different associated uncertainties, in

  6. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  7. On the propagation of elasto-thermodiffusive surface waves in heat-conducting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, J. N.; Sharma, Y. D.; Sharma, P. K.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper deals with the study of the propagation of Rayleigh surface waves in homogeneous isotropic, thermodiffusive elastic half-space. After developing the formal solution of the model, the secular equations for stress free, thermally insulated or isothermal, and isoconcentrated boundary conditions of the half-space have been obtained. The secular equations have been solved by using irreducible Cardano's method with the help of DeMoivre's theorem in order to obtain phase velocity and attenuation coefficient of waves under consideration. The motion of the surface particles during the Rayleigh surface wave propagation is also discussed and found to be elliptical in general. The inclinations of wave normal with the major axis of the elliptical path of a typical particle have also been computed. Finally, the numerically simulated results regarding phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, specific loss and thermo-mechanical coupling factors of thermoelastic diffusive waves have been obtained and presented graphically. Some very interesting and useful characteristics of surface acoustic waves have been obtained, which may help in improving the fabrication quality of optical and electronic devices in addition to construction and design of materials such as semiconductors and composite structures. Therefore, this work finds applications in the geophysics and electronics industry.

  8. The influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles on wave-driven sea-floor sediment mobility along the central California continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Reid, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Ocean surface waves are the dominant temporally and spatially variable process influencing sea floor sediment resuspension along most continental shelves. Wave-induced sediment mobility on the continental shelf and upper continental slope off central California for different phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events was modeled using monthly statistics derived from more than 14 years of concurrent hourly oceanographic and meteorologic data as boundary input for the Delft SWAN wave model, gridded sea floor grain-size data from the usSEABED database, and regional bathymetry. Differences as small as 0.5 m in wave height, 1 s in wave period, and 10° in wave direction, in conjunction with the spatially heterogeneous unconsolidated sea-floor sedimentary cover, result in significant changes in the predicted mobility of continental shelf surficial sediment in the study area. El Niño events result in more frequent mobilization on the inner shelf in the summer and winter than during La Niña events and on the outer shelf and upper slope in the winter months, while La Niña events result in more frequent mobilization on the mid-shelf during spring and summer months than during El Niño events. The timing and patterns of seabed mobility are addressed in context of geologic and biologic processes. By understanding the spatial and temporal variability in the disturbance of the sea floor, scientists can better interpret sedimentary patterns and ecosystem structure, while providing managers and planners an understanding of natural impacts when considering the permitting of offshore activities that disturb the sea floor such as trawling, dredging, and the emplacement of sea-floor engineering structures.

  9. Detecting Crop Functional Response to a Heat Wave using Airborne Reflectance and Sun-induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Van der Tol, C.; Rascher, U.; Damm, A.; Schickling, A.; Verhoef, W.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents an analysis of airborne measured reflectance (R) and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) as indicators of high temperature stress in agricultural crops. We used atmospherically corrected R and retrievals of SIF in the O2-A band as obtained from HyPlant data over C3 crops (rapeseed, wheat and barley) and a C4 crop (corn) in Germany before (30th June) and during (2nd July) a heat wave in 2015. The availability of airborne data during this heat wave allowed us to detect fluorescence emission efficiency changes as an indicator of crop photosynthetic performance in response to temperature fluctuations. We found that SIF is affected relatively stronger by heat stress than R. This is according to expectation, because the R spectrum is determined by leaf properties and canopy structure, whereas top-of-canopy (TOC) SIF is also affected by the temperature dependent efficiencies of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching of fluorescence. With the model 'Soil Canopy Observation of Photosynthesis and Energy fluxes (SCOPE), we differentiated leaf optical parameters and canopy structure from the fluorescence quantum emission efficiency (FQE), i.e. the ratio of fluorescence production to light absorption of photosystems. The leaf optical and canopy structure parameters were retrieved from R by inversion of the radiative transfer module 'RTMo' of SCOPE. The retrieved parameters were further used to estimate the FQE from SIF measurements. It appeared that both the leaf water content CW and the FQE responded to the heat wave, but the responses were different for C3 and C4 crops. A slight reduction of CW occurred in C3 crops between the two days, but not in the C4 crop. The reduction of FQE was only significant in C3 crops, and ranged from 18% to 31% for various C3 species. These findings agree with the general knowledge that C4 plants are better adapted to high temperature than C3 plants, and comply with simulations from a biochemical model for C3

  10. An exact solution for nonlinear electron heat conduction equation in thermal wave propagation from an instantaneous DT plane source

    CERN Document Server

    Pourtalari, A Mohammadian

    2011-01-01

    A one-dimensional nonlinear electron heat conduction equation is used to investigate the propagation of thermal wave in the solid density deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas, which occurs when a giant laser pulse impinges onto a DT solid target. A realistic finite temperature for the electrons at the initial instant(t =0)based on Mayer-McGrath-Steele similarity solution [1] is presented. This solution corresponds to the physical problem of rapid heating of a boundary layer of material which the energy is released in a finite initial thickness. Our computations are particularly useful for the understanding of the electron temperature space profile at the initial instant(t =0), electron and ion temperature space profiles at different instants of time(t >0), maximum ion temperature, heat flux, and heating domain in the DT plasmas of inertial confinement fusion. Our results examined in view of the important effects. One of these effects is the quantum correction of the collision frequency of electrons with ions. The o...

  11. The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources. III - Efficiency of plasma heating by dissipation of far-field waves. [in solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William

    1992-01-01

    The fraction of radiation emitted by Alfven waves is calculated by using two separate methods to determine whether the Alfven flux generated in the photosphere is sufficient to heat the corona. One method employs a set of scaling laws for the fluxes as functions of plasma and source parameters; the second method consist of a procedure for calculating the flux in each waveband from the interaction of vector-harmonic components of an arbitrary applied forcing. Both methods indicate that the Alfven flux accounts roughly for half of the total emission. The need to reexamine estimates of the amount of Alfven flux reaching the corona based on observations of plasma disturbances in the photosphere is emphasized.

  12. A Note on the Effect of Wind Waves on Vertical Mixing in Franks Tract, Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Jones

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional numerical model that simulates the effects of whitecapping waves was used to investigate the importance of whitecapping waves to vertical mixing at a 3-meter-deep site in Franks Tract in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta over an 11-day period. Locally-generated waves of mean period approximately 2 s were generated under strong wind conditions; significant wave heights ranged from 0 to 0.3 m. A surface turbulent kinetic energy flux was used to model whitecapping waves during periods when wind speeds > 5 m s-1 (62% of observations. The surface was modeled as a wind stress log-layer for the remaining 38% of the observations. The model results demonstrated that under moderate wind conditions (5–8 m s-1 at 10 m above water level, and hence moderate wave heights, whitecapping waves provided the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy to only the top 10% of the water column. Under stronger wind (> 8 m s-1, and hence larger wave conditions, whitecapping waves provided the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy over a larger portion of the water column; however, this region extended to the bottom half of the water column for only 7% of the observation period. The model results indicated that phytoplankton concentrations close to the bed were unlikely to be affected by the whitecapping of waves, and that the formation of concentration boundary layers due to benthic grazing was unlikely to be disrupted by whitecapping waves. Furthermore, vertical mixing of suspended sediment was unlikely to be affected by whitecapping waves under the conditions experienced during the 11-day experiment. Instead, the bed stress provided by tidal currents was the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy over the bottom half of the water column for the majority of the 11-day period.

  13. Emergency department visits, ambulance calls, and mortality associated with an exceptional heat wave in Sydney, Australia, 2011: a time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From January 30-February 6, 2011, New South Wales was affected by an exceptional heat wave, which broke numerous records. Near real-time Emergency Department (ED and ambulance surveillance allowed rapid detection of an increase in the number of heat-related ED visits and ambulance calls during this period. The purpose of this study was to quantify the excess heat-related and all-cause ED visits and ambulance calls, and excess all-cause mortality, associated with the heat wave. Methods ED and ambulance data were obtained from surveillance and administrative databases, while mortality data were obtained from the state death registry. The observed counts were compared with the average counts from the same period from 2006/07 through 2009/10, and a Poisson regression model was constructed to calculate the number of excess ED visits, ambulance and deaths after adjusting for calendar and lag effects. Results During the heat wave there were 104 and 236 ED visits for heat effects and dehydration respectively, and 116 ambulance calls for heat exposure. From the regression model, all-cause ED visits increased by 2% (95% CI 1.01-1.03, all-cause ambulance calls increased by 14% (95% CI 1.11-1.16, and all-cause mortality increased by 13% (95% CI 1.06-1.22. Those aged 75 years and older had the highest excess rates of all outcomes. Conclusions The 2011 heat wave resulted in an increase in the number of ED visits and ambulance calls, especially in older persons, as well as an increase in all-cause mortality. Rapid surveillance systems provide markers of heat wave impacts that have fatal outcomes.

  14. Stage-specific heat effects: timing and duration of heat waves alter demographic rates of a global insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rudolf, Volker H W; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-12-01

    The frequency and duration of periods with high temperatures are expected to increase under global warming. Thus, even short-lived organisms are increasingly likely to experience periods of hot temperatures at some point of their life-cycle. Despite recent progress, it remains unclear how various temperature experiences during the life-cycle of organisms affect demographic traits. We simulated hot days (daily mean temperature of 30 °C) increasingly experienced under field conditions and investigated how the timing and duration of such hot days during the life cycle of Plutella xylostella affects adult traits. We show that hot days experienced during some life stages (but not all) altered adult lifespan, fecundity, and oviposition patterns. Importantly, the effects of hot days were contingent on which stage was affected, and these stage-specific effects were not always additive. Thus, adults that experience different temporal patterns of hot periods (i.e., changes in timing and duration) during their life-cycle often had different demographic rates and reproductive patterns. These results indicate that we cannot predict the effects of current and future climate on natural populations by simply focusing on changes in the mean temperature. Instead, we need to incorporate the temporal patterns of heat events relative to the life-cycle of organisms to describe population dynamics and how they will respond to future climate change.

  15. Directional wave and temperature data from eight wave-rider buoys at locations along the California coast, June 2002 - December 2003 (NODC Accession 0001298)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) is an extensive network for monitoring waves along the coastlines of the United States, with a strong emphasis on our...

  16. Directional wave and temperature data from five wave-rider buoys at locations along the California coast, January - December 2003 (NODC Accession 0001306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) is an extensive network for monitoring waves along the coastlines of the United States, with a strong emphasis on our...

  17. Influence of the gaseous form on the precursor heating layer of a laser-supported detonation wave using half self-emission half shadowgraph visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Michigami, Keisuke; Ofoso, Joseph; Komursaki, Kimiya

    2012-10-01

    After breakdown one of the possible mechanisms of occurrence of laser-produced plasma is noted as laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave. This wave consisting of the shock wave and the beam absorbing plasma travels at 1-10 km/s along the beam channel in the direction opposite to the laser incidence. The laser heating structure is recognized as the ZND model of chemical detonation. However, Shimamura et. al, showed that the plasma proceeds the shock wave during LSD regime. The role of shock compression is relatively smaller than preheating by laser. The conventional model is inconsistent with our paper. To investigate the heating structure of a LSD wave, half self-emission half shadowgraph (HSHS) methods provides the self-emission image from the plasma on the top half and the shadowgraph image of the induced shock wave on the bottom half simultaneously. A TEA CO2 laser was used at 10 J incident energy. The locations of both wave fronts were detected from the brightness distribution of the HSHS images. As a result, the propagation of ionization front precedes that of shock wave front by the order of 10-4 m in air and N2. Preheating layer of N2 is shorter than that of air because O2 in air has the lowest ionization energy. Thus, a characteristic of preionization layer depends on the ionization properties because photoionization by the UV radiation generate the seed electrons ahead of shock wave.

  18. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-06-29

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35-44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3-5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves.

  19. Buoyancy-driven convection heat transfer of copper–water nanofluid in a square enclosure under the different periodic oscillating boundary temperature waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilian Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates natural convective heat transfer of copper–water nanofluids in a square enclosure with alternating temperature at one vertical wall, relatively low temperature at the opposite sidewall and adiabatic at the other walls. The transport equations are solved numerically with finite volume approach using SIMPLEC algorithm. Calculations are performed for nanoparticle volume fractions from 0 to 0.2 and dimensionless amplitude from 0 to 1.0 with consideration of three typical alternating waves (trapezoid wave, sine wave and triangle wave. Results show the utilization of nanoparticles enhances heat transfer and the percentage increase in the time-averaged Nusselt number is around 38% d from ϕ=0 to ϕ=0.2 under the certain conditions. The oscillating waveform has a degree effect on the heat transfer enhancement and the trapezoid wave is more conducive to the enhancement of heat transfer than sine and triangle waves. And the oscillating area is introduced to combine the oscillating waveform and its amplitude and the percentage increase in the time-averaged Nusselt number is around 14.5% from S=0 to S=0.075. In the end, the regression equation about the time-averaged Nusselt number is obtained as parameters of the solid volume fraction and the oscillating area.

  20. Reduction in lateral thermal damage using heat-conducting templates: a comparison of continuous wave and pulsed CO2 lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Nicole; Spector, Jared; Ellis, Darrel L; Reinisch, Lou

    2003-01-01

    The advantages of the continuous wave (c.w.) CO(2) laser are offset by the delay in laser wound healing secondary to thermal damage. We have developed novel heat-conducting templates to reduce laser thermal damage. Because shortened pulse durations also decrease thermal damage, we tested the effectiveness of heat-conducting templates with a c.w. CO(2) clinical laser and a short-pulsed CO(2) laser to determine the best method and mechanism to minimize thermal damage. Comparison of 0.2-second shuttered c.w. and 5-microsecond pulsed CO(2) lasers were made by doing incisions on 150 tissue samples from reduction mammoplasties and abdominoplasties. Copper, aluminum, glass, and Plexiglass heat-conducting templates were tested against no template (air) with both lasers. Histological samples were evaluated using computerized morphometrics analysis. Statistically significant reductions in lateral thermal damage were seen with the copper (50%) and aluminum (39%) templates used with the c.w. CO(2) laser. Only the copper template (39%) significantly reduced thermal damage when used with the pulsed CO(2) laser. Less thermal damage was seen using the pulsed CO(2) laser compared to the c.w. CO(2) laser with each template. Heat-conducting templates significantly reduced the amount of lateral thermal damage when used with the c.w. CO(2) laser (copper and aluminum) and short-pulsed CO(2) laser (copper). The c.w. CO(2) laser with the copper template compared favorably to the short-pulsed CO(2) laser without a template. Therefore, both heat conductive templates and short-pulse structure provide successful methods for reducing lateral thermal damage, and a combination of the two appears to provide optimal results.

  1. Time-Dependent Simulations of Fast-Wave Heated High-Non-Inductive-Fraction H-Mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gary; Bertelli, Nicola; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Hosea, Joel C.; Mueller, Dennis; Perkins, Rory J.; Poli, Francesca M.; Wilson, James R.; Raman, Roger

    2017-10-01

    30 MHz fast-wave heating may be an effective tool for non-inductively ramping low-current plasmas to a level suitable for initiating up to 12 MW of neutral beam injection on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U). Previously on NSTX 30 MHz fast wave heating was shown to efficiently and rapidly heat electrons; at the NSTX maximum axial toroidal magnetic field (BT(0)) of 0.55 T, 1.4 MW of 30 MHz heating increased the central electron temperature from 0.2 to 2 keV in 30 ms and generated an H-mode plasma with a non-inductive fraction (fNI) ˜ 0.7 at a plasma current (Ip) of 300 kA. NSTX-U will operate at BT(0) up to 1 T, with up to 4 MW of 30 MHz power (Prf). Predictive TRANSP free boundary transport simulations, using the TORIC full wave spectral code to calculate the fast-wave heating and current drive, have been run for NSTX-U Ip = 300 kA H-mode plasmas. Favorable scaling of fNI with 30 MHz heating power is predicted, with fNI ≥ 1 for Prf ≥ 2 MW.

  2. The heating and acceleration actions of the solar plasma wave by QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    solar plasma will left-right separate by Lorentz force and by the feedback mechanism of Lorentz force the positive - negative charge will left-right vibrate. The plasma on the move will accompany with up-down and left-right vibrating and become the wave. Though the frequent of the plasma wave is not high, but its heating and acceleration actions will be not less then that of the microwave and laser because of its mass and energy far large then that of the microwave and laser.

  3. Comment on "Parametric Instability Induced by X-Mode Wave Heating at EISCAT" by Wang et al. (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2017-12-01

    In their recent article Wang et al. (2016) analyzed observations from EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter) Scientific Association Russian X-mode heating experiments and claimed to explain the potential mechanisms for the parametric decay instability (PDI) and oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI). Wang et al. (2016) claim that they cannot separate the HF-enhanced plasma and ion lines excited by O or X mode in the EISCAT UHF radar spectra. Because of this they distinguished the parametric instability excited by O-/X-mode heating waves according to their different excitation heights. Their reflection heights were determined from ionosonde records, which provide a rough measure of excitation altitudes and cannot be used for the separation of the O- and X-mode effects. The serious limitation in their analysis is the use of a 30 s integration time of the UHF radar data. There are also serious disagreements between their analysis and the real observational facts. The fact is that it is the radical difference in the behavior of the X- and O-mode plasma and ion line spectra derived with a 5 s resolution, which provides the correct separation of the X- and O-mode effects. It is not discussed and explained how the parallel component of the electric field under X-mode heating is generated. Apart from the leakage to the O mode, results by Wang et al. (2016) do not explain the potential mechanisms for PDI and OTSI and add nothing to understanding the physical factors accounting for the parametric instability generated by an X-mode HF pump wave.

  4. Fast wave current drive in neutral beam heated plasmas on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, C.C.; Forest, C.B.; Pinsker, R.I.; deGrassie, J.S. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Baity, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Callis, R.W.; Cary, W.P.; Chiu, S.C.; Freeman, R.L.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Ikezi, H. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Jaeger, E.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lin-Liu, Y.R. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Murakami, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Prater, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Rice, B.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The physics of non-inductive current drive and current profile control using the fast magnetosonic wave has been demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak. In non-sawtoothing discharges formed by neutral beam injection (NBI), the radial profile of the fast wave current drive (FWCD) was determined by the response of the loop voltage profile to co, counter, and symmetric antenna phasings, and was found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. The application of counter FWCD increased the magnetic shear reversal of the plasma and delayed the onset of sawteeth, compared to co FWCD. The partial absorption of fast waves by energetic beam ions at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency was also evident from a build up of fast particle pressure near the magnetic axis and a correlated increase in the neutron rate. The anomalous fast particle pressure and neutron rate increased with increasing NBI power and peaked when a harmonic of the deuterium cyclotron frequency passed through the center of the plasma. The experimental FWCD efficiency was highest at 2 T where the interaction between the fast waves and the beam ions was weakest; as the magnetic field strength was lowered, the FWCD efficiency decreased to approximately half of the maximum theoretical value. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Evaluation of approaches for modeling temperature wave propagation in district heating pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielaitiene, I.; Bøhm, Benny; Sunden, B.

    2008-01-01

    code ANSYS and a node method, was examined for a low turbulent Reynolds number regime and small velocity fluctuations. Both approaches are found to have limitations in predicting the temperature response time and predicting the peak values of the temperature wave, which is further hampered by the fact...

  6. Long-Wave Instability of Advective Flows in Inclined Layer with Solid Heat Conductive Boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Sagitov, R V

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the stability of the steady convective flow in a plane tilted layer with ideal thermal conductivity of solid boundaries in the presence of uniform longitudinal temperature gradient. Analytically found the stability boundary with respect to the long-wave perturbations, find the critical Grashof number for the most dangerous among them of even spiral perturbation.

  7. Testing wave-function-collapse models using parametric heating of a trapped nanosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Daniel; Paternostro, Mauro; Barker, P. F.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a mechanism for testing the theory of collapse models such as continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) by examining the parametric heating rate of a trapped nanosphere. The random localizations of the center of mass for a given particle predicted by the CSL model can be understood as a stochastic force embodying a source of heating for the nanosphere. We show that by utilizing a Paul trap to levitate the particle and optical cooling, it is possible to reduce environmental decoherence to such a level that CSL dominates the dynamics and contributes the main source of heating. We show that this approach allows measurements to be made on the time scale of seconds and that the free parameter λcsl which characterizes the model ought to be testable to values as low as 10-12 Hz.

  8. Electron-ion temperature ratio estimations in the summer polar mesosphere when subject to HF radio wave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, H.; La Hoz, C.; Havnes, O.; Rietveld, M.

    2014-10-01

    We have inferred the electron temperature enhancements above mesospheric altitudes under Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) conditions when the ionosphere is exposed to artificial HF radio wave heating. The proposed method uses the dependence of the radar cross section on the electron-to-ion temperature ratio to infer the heating factor from incoherent scatter radar (ISR) power measurements above 90 km. Model heating temperatures match our ISR estimations between 90 and 130 km with 0.94 Pearson correlation index. The PMSE strength measured by the MORRO MST radar is about 50% weaker during the heater-on period when the modeled electron-to-ion mesospheric temperature is approximately 10 times greater than the unperturbed value. No PMSE weakening is found when the mesospheric temperature enhancement is by a factor of three or less. The PMSE weakening and its absence are consistent with the modeled mesospheric electron temperatures. This consistency supports to the proposed method for estimating mesospheric electron temperatures achieved by independent MST and ISR radar measurements.

  9. Generation of Non-Inductive H-Mode Plasmas with 30 MHz Fast Wave Heating in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Bertelli, N.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Hosea, J. C.; Mueller, D.; Perkins, R. J.; Poli, F. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Raman, R.

    2016-10-01

    A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility based on a spherical tokamak must generate the plasma current (Ip) with little or no central solenoid field. The NSTX-U non-inductive (NI) plasma research program is addressing this goal by developing NI start-up, ramp-up and sustainment scenarios separately. 4 MW of 30 MHz fast wave power is predicted to ramp Ip to 400 kA, a level sufficient to avoid significant shine-through of 90 keV ions from neutral beam injection. In 2010, experiments in NSTX demonstrated that 1.4 MW of 30 MHz high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power could generate an Ip = 300 kA H-mode discharge with a NI Ip fraction, fNI, around 0.7 at the maximum axial toroidal field (BT(0)) in NSTX of 0.55 T. NSTX-U is a major upgrade of NSTX that will eventually allow the generation of plasmas with BT(0) up to 1 T. Full wave simulations of 30 MHz HHFW heating in NSTX-U predict reduced FW power loss in the plasma edge as BT(0) is increased. HHFW experiments this year aim to couple 3 - 4 MW of 30 MHz HHFW power into an Ip = 250 - 350 kA plasma with BT(0) up to 0.75 T to generate a fNI = 1 H-mode plasma. These experiments should benefit from the improved fast wave coupling predicted at higher BT(0) in NSTX-U. Work supported by USDOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  10. Heat

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to make heat by rubbing your hands together? Why does an ice cube melt when you hold it? In this title, students will conduct experiments to help them understand what heat is. Kids will also investigate concepts such as which materials are good at conducting heat and which are the best insulators. Using everyday items that can easily be found around the house, students will transform into scientists as they carry out step-by-step experiments to answer interesting questions. Along the way, children will pick up important scientific skills. Heat includes seven experiments with detailed, age-appropriate instructions, surprising facts and background information, a "conclusions" section to pull all the concepts in the book together, and a glossary of science words. Colorful, dynamic designs and images truly put the FUN into FUN-damental Experiments.

  11. Carbon uptake and water use in woodlands and forests in southern Australia during an extreme heat wave event in the "Angry Summer" of 2012/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorsel, Eva; Wolf, Sebastian; Cleverly, James; Isaac, Peter; Haverd, Vanessa; Ewenz, Cäcilia; Arndt, Stefan; Beringer, Jason; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Evans, Bradley J.; Griebel, Anne; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Keenan, Trevor; Kljun, Natascha; Macfarlane, Craig; Meyer, Wayne S.; McHugh, Ian; Pendall, Elise; Prober, Suzanne M.; Silberstein, Richard

    2016-11-01

    As a result of climate change warmer temperatures are projected through the 21st century and are already increasing above modelled predictions. Apart from increases in the mean, warm/hot temperature extremes are expected to become more prevalent in the future, along with an increase in the frequency of droughts. It is crucial to better understand the response of terrestrial ecosystems to such temperature extremes for predicting land-surface feedbacks in a changing climate. While land-surface feedbacks in drought conditions and during heat waves have been reported from Europe and the US, direct observations of the impact of such extremes on the carbon and water cycles in Australia have been lacking. During the 2012/2013 summer, Australia experienced a record-breaking heat wave with an exceptional spatial extent that lasted for several weeks. In this study we synthesised eddy-covariance measurements from seven woodlands and one forest site across three biogeographic regions in southern Australia. These observations were combined with model results from BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2013a, b) to investigate the effect of the summer heat wave on the carbon and water exchange of terrestrial ecosystems which are known for their resilience toward hot and dry conditions. We found that water-limited woodland and energy-limited forest ecosystems responded differently to the heat wave. During the most intense part of the heat wave, the woodlands experienced decreased latent heat flux (23 % of background value), increased Bowen ratio (154 %) and reduced carbon uptake (60 %). At the same time the forest ecosystem showed increased latent heat flux (151 %), reduced Bowen ratio (19 %) and increased carbon uptake (112 %). Higher temperatures caused increased ecosystem respiration at all sites (up to 139 %). During daytime all ecosystems remained carbon sinks, but carbon uptake was reduced in magnitude. The number of hours during which the ecosystem acted as a carbon sink was also reduced

  12. The role of natural E-region plasma turbulence in the enhanced absorption of HF radio waves in the auroral ionosphere:Implications for RF heating of the auroral electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical processes which affect the absorption of radio waves passing through the auroral E-region when Farley-Buneman irregularities are present are examined. In particular, the question of whether or not it is legitimate to include the anomalous wave-enhanced collision frequency, which has been used successfully to account for the heating effects of Farley-Buneman waves in the auroral E-region, in the usual expression for the radio-wave absorption coefficient is addressed. Effects also considered are those due to wave coupling between electromagnetic waves and high-frequency electrostatic waves in the presence of Farley-Buneman irregularities. The implications for radio-wave heating of the auroral electrojet of these processes are also discussed. In particular, a new theoretical model for calculating the effects of high-power radio-wave heating on the electron temperature in an electrojet containing Farley-Buneman turbulence is presented.

  13. Long term climatology and trends of heat and cold waves over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    risks. Some of the strategies developed to manage year-to-year climate variability can go a long way towards building resilience and managing the risks of climate. Some of the strategies which have been tasted under local conditions to mitigate the heat stress are (1) Adjustment of planting dates (early or late sowing) to ...

  14. Notes on wave theory in heat conduction: a new boundary condition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronberg, Alexandre E.; Benneker, A.H.; Benneker, A.H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The physical basis behind the simple hyperbolic heat transport model is discussed. The model equations are interpreted as energy equations for a system in a state of local nonequilibrium. On this basis a new boundary condition for the hyperbolic model is proposed when the temperature of a surface is

  15. Solitary heat waves in nonlinear lattices with squared on-site potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    developed a Born–Oppenheimer type formalism. They have found that the vibrational or electronic energy dynamics could be described in a new way by incorporating quantum effects and nonlinearities. However, the quantum heat conduction in nonlinear lattices based on analytical studies is not fully explored compared to ...

  16. Surface thermal analysis of North Brabant cities and neighbourhoods during heat waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echevarria Icaza, L.; van der Hoeven, F.D.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2016-01-01

    The urban heat island effect is often associated with large metropolises. However, in the Netherlands even small cities will be affected by the phenomenon in the future (Hove et al., 2011), due to the dispersed or mosaic urbanisation patterns in particularly the southern part of the country: the

  17. Low temperature specific heat of the spin-density-wave compound (TMTSF)2PF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odin, J.; Lasjaunias, J.C.; Biljakovic, K.

    1994-01-01

    We report on specific heat measurements of the SDW compound (TMTSF)2PF6 between 2 and 25 K, performed by two different techniques. We discuss the two successive transitions which occur in this T-range : the SDW ordering transition at T = 12.1 K, and a glass transition around-3-3.5 K. The latter...

  18. Heat transfer analysis of Rabinowitsch fluid flow due to metachronal wave of cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Sher Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation concerns with the mechanical properties of a Rabinowitsch fluid model and the effects of thermal conductivity over it. Flow is considered to be occurring due to metachronal wave produced as a result of constant beating of cilia at the walls of a horizontal circular tube. The expressions for flow characteristics have been derived results are analyzed graphically and discussed briefly.

  19. Impact of Anthropogenic Land Cover Change on Warm Temperature Extremes : the summer 2003 heat waves as a testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stéfanon, M.

    2013-12-01

    Events similar to the 2003 mega heat wave will be likely more frequent, intense and longer by the end of the 21st century owing to enhanced atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations. Policies for climate mitigation privileges carbon sequestration techniques while land cover change (LCC) may be a preferred alternative in terms of environmental impact, where geography permits. Biogeophysical factors such as albedo, evapotranspiration, and surface roughness may have locally the potential to offset the biogeochemical impact of increased greenhouse-gas. However, so far the set of existing (but not consistent) LCC impact studies conducted in the Mediterranean have contradictory results on summer temperature (cooling or warming). Using the Model of the Regional Coupled Earth system (MORCE), the impact of an afforestation scenario (POT) is conducted for both 2002 and 2003 years, and compared to an agricultural scenario (CUR). The favorable meteorological conditions in spring 2003 fasten the development of agricultural vegetation in CUR compared to a) conditions in 2002, and b) to the development of trees in POT. This greater photosynthetic capacity of crops, followed by larger evapotranspiration rates, dampens the extreme values of temperature from April to the end of June 2003 (locally by 3°C) and more specifically during the June heat-wave (locally by 1.6°C). It contributes to increase the differences between POT and CUR in 2003 compared to 2002. In July vegetation starts to get limited by soil moisture, and agricultural plants are most affected than trees because of their shallower roots. From early July to October, trees are not too water limited. They can still evaporate, while water stress in CUR makes croplands contribute to enhance the warm summer temperatures, especially in 2003. The very hot summer 2003 July-August temperatures are therefore amplified (resp. dampened) by the presence of crops (resp. trees) in CUR (resp. POT). However this cooling capacity of

  20. Integrating multiple stressors across life stages and latitudes: Combined and delayed effects of an egg heat wave and larval pesticide exposure in a damselfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniegula, Szymon; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    To understand the effects of pollutants in a changing world we need multistressor studies that combine pollutants with other stressors associated with global change such as heat waves. We tested for the delayed and combined impact of a heat wave during the egg stage and subsequent sublethal exposure to the pesticide esfenvalerate during the larval stage on life history and physiology in the larval and adult stage of the damselfly Lestes sponsa. We studied this in a common garden experiment with replicated central- and high latitude populations to explore potential effects of local thermal adaptation and differences in life history shaping the multistressor responses. Exposure of eggs to the heat wave had no effect on larval traits, yet had delayed costs (lower fat and flight muscle mass) in the adult stage thereby crossing two life history transitions. These delayed costs were only present in central-latitude populations potentially indicating their lower heat tolerance. Exposure of larvae to the pesticide reduced larval growth rate and prolonged development time, and across metamorphosis reduced the adult fat content and the flight muscle mass, yet did not affect the adult heat tolerance. The pesticide-induced delayed emergence was only present in the slower growing central-latitude larvae, possibly reflecting stronger selection to keep development fast in the more time-constrained high-latitude populations. We observed no synergistic interactions between the egg heat wave and the larval pesticide exposure. Instead the pesticide-induced reduction in fat content was only present in animals that were not exposed to the egg heat wave. Our results based on laboratory conditions highlight that multistressor studies should integrate across life stages to fully capture cumulative effects of pollutants with other stressors related to global change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in the Intensity and Frequency of Atmospheric Blocking and Associated Heat Waves During Northern Summer Over Eurasia in the CMIP5 Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, K. M.; Wu, H. T.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, Chunho

    2012-01-01

    The Russia heat wave and wild fires of the summer of 2010 was the most extreme weather event in the history of the country. Studies show that the root cause of the 2010 Russia heat wave/wild fires was an atmospheric blocking event which started to develop at the end of June and peaked around late July and early August. Atmospheric blocking in the summer of 2010 was anomalous in terms of the size, duration, and the location, which shifted to the east from the normal location. This and other similar continental scale severe summertime heat waves and blocking events in recent years have raised the question of whether such events are occurring more frequently and with higher intensity in a warmer climate induced by greenhouse gases. We studied the spatial and temporal distributions of the occurrence and intensity of atmospheric blocking and associated heat waves for northern summer over Eurasia based on CMIPS model simulations. To examine the global warming induced change of atmospheric blocking and heat waves, experiments for a high emissions scenario (RCP8.S) and a medium mitigation scenario (RCP4.S) are compared to the 20th century simulations (historical). Most models simulate the mean distributions of blockings reasonably well, including major blocking centers over Eurasia, northern Pacific, and northern Atlantic. However, the models tend to underestimate the number of blockings compared to MERRA and NCEPIDOE reanalysis, especially in western Siberia. Models also reproduced associated heat waves in terms of the shifting in the probability distribution function of near surface temperature. Seven out of eight models used in this study show that the frequency of atmospheric blocking over the Europe will likely decrease in a warmer climate, but slightly increase over the western Siberia. This spatial pattern resembles the blocking in the summer of 2010, indicating the possibility of more frequent occurrences of heat waves in western Siberia. In this talk, we will also

  2. Mortalities of kelp-forest fishes associated with large oceanic waves off central California, 1982-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Jameson, Ronald J.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of three incidents of the mass mortality of nearshore fishes are reported; each corresponded to periods of high-amplitude, long-period swells during the 1982-1983 El Niño event along the coast of central California. Members of the nearshore kelp forest fish assemblage, primarily of the genus Sebastes, accounted for 96% of the observed mortalities and S. mystinus (blue rockfish) alone accounted for 72%.

  3. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability:A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

    2008-12-01

    In past work, Berkeley Lab has developed the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). Given end-use energy details for a facility, a description of its economic environment and a menu of available equipment, DER-CAM finds the optimal investment portfolio and its operating schedule which together minimize the cost of meeting site service, e.g., cooling, heating, requirements. Past studies have considered combined heat and power (CHP) technologies. Methods and software have been developed to solve this problem, finding optimal solutions which take simultaneity into account. This project aims to extend on those prior capabilities in two key dimensions. In this research storage technologies have been added as well as power quality and reliability (PQR) features that provide the ability to value the additional indirect reliability benefit derived from Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid capability. This project is intended to determine how attractive on-site generation becomes to a medium-sized commercial site if economical storage (both electrical and thermal), CHP opportunities, and PQR benefits are provided in addition to avoiding electricity purchases. On-site electrical storage, generators, and the ability to seamlessly connect and disconnect from utility service would provide the facility with ride-through capability for minor grid disturbances. Three building types in both California and New York are assumed to have a share of their sensitive electrical load separable. Providing enhanced service to this load fraction has an unknown value to the facility, which is estimated analytically. In summary, this project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York; (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and

  4. Development of satellite green vegetation fraction time series for use in mesoscale modeling: application to the European heat wave 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented for development of satellite green vegetation fraction (GVF) time series for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GVF data is in the WRF model used to describe the temporal evolution of many land surface parameters, in addition to the evolution...... of vegetation. Several high-resolution GVF products, derived from high-quality satellite retrievals from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer images, were produced and their performance was evaluated in long-term WRF simulations. The atmospheric conditions during the 2006 heat wave year over Europe...... were simulated since significant interannual variability in vegetation seasonality was found. Such interannual variability is expected to increase in the coming decades due to climatic changes. The simulation using a quadratic normalized difference vegetation index to GVF relationship resulted...

  5. Application of zero eigenvalue for solving the potential, heat, and wave equations using a sequence of special functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the solution of boundary value problems, usually zero eigenvalue is ignored. This case also happens in calculating the eigenvalues of matrices, so that we would often like to find the nonzero solutions of the linear system A X = λ X when λ ≠ 0 . But λ = 0 implies that det A = 0 for X ≠ 0 and then the rank of matrix A is reduced at least one degree. This comment can similarly be stated for boundary value problems. In other words, if at least one of the eigens of equations related to the main problem is considered zero, then one of the solutions will be specified in advance. By using this note, first we study a class of special functions and then apply it for the potential, heat, and wave equations in spherical coordinate. In this way, some practical examples are also given.

  6. Nonlinear interactions in superfluid dynamics: Nonstationary heat transfer due to second sound shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepmann, H. W.; Torczynski, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Second sound techniques were used to study superfluid helium. Second sound shock waves produced relative velocities in the bulk fluid. Maximum counterflow velocities produced in this way are found to follow the Langer-Fischer prediction for the fundamental critical velocity in its functional dependence on temperature and pressure. Comparison of successive shock and rotating experiments provides strong evidence that breakdown results in vorticity production in the flow behind the shock. Schlieren pictures have verified the planar nature of second sound shocks even after multiple reflections. The nonlinear theory of second sound was repeatedly verified in its prediction of double shocks and other nonlinear phenomena.

  7. Development of Scientific Simulation 3D Full Wave ICRF Code for Stellarators and Heating/CD Scenarios Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vdovin V.L.

    2005-08-15

    In this report we describe theory and 3D full wave code description for the wave excitation, propagation and absorption in 3-dimensional (3D) stellarator equilibrium high beta plasma in ion cyclotron frequency range (ICRF). This theory forms a basis for a 3D code creation, urgently needed for the ICRF heating scenarios development for the operated LHD, constructed W7-X, NCSX and projected CSX3 stellarators, as well for re evaluation of ICRF scenarios in operated tokamaks and in the ITER . The theory solves the 3D Maxwell-Vlasov antenna-plasma-conducting shell boundary value problem in the non-orthogonal flux coordinates ({Psi}, {theta}, {var_phi}), {Psi} being magnetic flux function, {theta} and {var_phi} being the poloidal and toroidal angles, respectively. All basic physics, like wave refraction, reflection and diffraction are self consistently included, along with the fundamental ion and ion minority cyclotron resonances, two ion hybrid resonance, electron Landau and TTMP absorption. Antenna reactive impedance and loading resistance are also calculated and urgently needed for an antenna -generator matching. This is accomplished in a real confining magnetic field being varying in a plasma major radius direction, in toroidal and poloidal directions, through making use of the hot dense plasma wave induced currents with account to the finite Larmor radius effects. We expand the solution in Fourier series over the toroidal ({var_phi}) and poloidal ({theta}) angles and solve resulting ordinary differential equations in a radial like {Psi}-coordinate by finite difference method. The constructed discretization scheme is divergent-free one, thus retaining the basic properties of original equations. The Fourier expansion over the angle coordinates has given to us the possibility to correctly construct the ''parallel'' wave number k{sub //}, and thereby to correctly describe the ICRF waves absorption by a hot plasma. The toroidal harmonics are tightly

  8. Evidence of local power deposition and electron heating by a standing electromagnetic wave in electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher-Jean, A; Stafford, L; Dap, S; Makasheva, K; Clergereaux, R

    2014-09-01

    Microwave plasmas excited at electron-cyclotron resonance were studied in the 0.5-15 mTorr pressure range. In contrast with low-limit pressure conditions where the plasma emission highlights a fairly homogeneous spatial structure, a periodic spatial modulation (period ∼6.2 cm) appeared as pressure increased. This feature is ascribed to a local power deposition (related to the electron density) due to the presence of a standing electromagnetic wave created by the feed electromagnetic field (2.45 GHz) in the cavity formed by the reactor walls. Analysis of the electron energy probability function by Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy further revealed the presence of a high-energy tail that showed strong periodic spatial modulation at higher pressure. The spatial evolution of the electron density and of the characteristic temperature of these high-energy electrons coincides with the nodes (maximum) and antinodes (minimum) of the standing wave. These spatially-modulated power deposition and electron heating mechanisms are then discussed.

  9. Relative contributions of external SST forcing and internal atmospheric variability to July-August heat waves over the Yangtze River valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-08-01

    The Yangtze River valley (YRV), located in central-eastern China, has witnessed increased numbers of heat waves in the summer since 1951. Knowing what factors control and affect the interannual variability of heat waves, especially distinguishing the contributions of anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) forcings and those of internal modes of variability, is important to improving heat wave prediction. After evaluating 70 members of the atmospheric model intercomparison project (AMIP) experiments from the 25 models that participated in the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5), 13 high-skill members (HSMs) are selected to estimate the SST-forced variability. The results show that approximately 2/3 of the total variability of the July-August heat waves in the YRV during 1979-2008 can be attributed to anomalous SST forcings, whereas the other 1/3 are due to internal variability. Within the SST-forced component, one-half of the influence is from the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the other half is from non-ENSO related SST forcings, specifically, the SST anomalies in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Both the decaying El Niño and developing La Niña accompanied by a warm Indian Ocean and cold central Pacific, respectively, are favorable to hotter summers in the YRV because these patterns strengthen and extend the western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH) westwards, for which the decaying ENSO plays a dominant role. The internal variability shows a circumglobal teleconnection in which Rossby waves propagate southeastwards over the Eurasian Continent and strengthen the WNPSH. Atmospheric model sensitivity experiments confirm that non-ENSO SST forcings can modulate the WNPSH and heat wave variability by projecting their influences onto the internal mode.

  10. Experimental study of quasi-periodic on-off phenomena in a small-scale traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Ju, Y. L.

    2017-07-01

    Periodic and spontaneous on-off oscillation belongs to the onset and damping behaviors of thermoacoustic engines, and investigations on this phenomenon lead to better operation of the thermoacoustic engines with stable performances. In this paper, the quasi- periodic on-off oscillation in a small-scale traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engine with a resonator length of only 1 m was experimentally investigated. The type of working media, mean pressure and the input heating power are the main operating parameters, which significantly affect the formation of the periodic on-off oscillation. The experimental results demonstrated there was a critical charge pressure over which the periodic on-off oscillation could happen. For the small- scale engine with helium gas as the working media, the mean pressure threshold value was about 1.4 MPa and the on-off oscillation occurred with a single frequency. Using nitrogen and argon gas as the working media, the on-off oscillation was not observed. The reason was qualitatively analyzed as well.

  11. Effect of heat-induced pain stimuli on pulse transit time and pulse wave amplitude in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Marit H N; Loeve, Arjo J; Kortekaas, Minke C; Niehof, Sjoerd P; Mik, Egbert G; Stolker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Pain is commonly assessed subjectively by interpretations of patient behaviour and/or reports from patients. When this is impossible the availability of a quantitative objective pain assessment tool based on objective physiological parameters would greatly benefit clinical practice and research beside the standard self-report tests. Vasoconstriction is one of the physiological responses to pain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pulse transit time (PTT) and pulse wave amplitude (PWA) decrease in response to this vasoconstriction when caused by heat-induced pain. The PTT and PWA were measured in healthy volunteers, on both index fingers using photoplethysmography and electrocardiography. Each subject received 3 heat-induced pain stimuli using a Temperature-Sensory Analyzer thermode block to apply a controlled, increasing temperature from 32.0 °C to 50.0 °C to the skin. After reaching 50.0 °C, the thermode was immediately cooled down to 32.0 °C. The study population was divided into 2 groups with a time-interval between the stimuli 20s or 60s. The results showed a significant (p  induced pain causes a decrease of PTT and PWA. Consequently, it is expected that, in the future, PTT and PWA may be applied as objective indicators of pain, either beside the standard self-report test, or when self-report testing is impossible.

  12. Reduction of the heat leak in superconducting system at half-wave-rectified current mode by peltier current lead

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, T; Nakamura, K; Yamaguchi, S; Hasegawa, Y

    2002-01-01

    Experiments of Peltier current lead (PCL) were performed by the way of half-wave-rectified current (HWRC) for an evaluation of the PCL system in the drive with the large-rippled current. The current ripple of the HWRC is large, and we discussed the cooling capability of the current ripple. The experimental results revealed that the temperature difference of the thermoelectric-element (TE) increased with the magnitude of the current in the PCL system, despite the large current ripple. Calorimetric measurements revealed that the PCL reduced the heat leak of 60% for the peak current 90A. We compared the PCL systems of the direct current (dc) mode and the HWRC mode. The results showed that the current dependence of the temperature difference in the HWRC mode did not match that of the dc mode, but those of the heat leak matched well. The performance of the Peltier cooling in the HWRC mode is reduced to be 2/pi time of the Seebeck coefficient for the dc mode by using the time-average method. (author)

  13. Heat transfer analysis of skin during thermal therapy using thermal wave equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashcooli, Meisam; Salimpour, Mohammad Reza; Shirani, Ebrahim

    2017-02-01

    Specifying exact geometry of vessel network and its effect on temperature distribution in living tissues is one of the most complicated problems of the bioheat field. In this paper, the effects of blood vessels on temperature distribution in a skin tissue subjected to various thermal therapy conditions are investigated. Present model consists of counter-current multilevel vessel network embedded in a three-dimensional triple-layered skin structure. Branching angles of vessels are calculated using the physiological principle of minimum work. Length and diameter ratios are specified using length doubling rule and Cube law, respectively. By solving continuity, momentum and energy equations for blood flow and Pennes and modified Pennes bioheat equations for the tissue, temperature distributions in the tissue are measured. Effects of considering modified Pennes bioheat equation are investigated, comprehensively. It is also observed that blood has an impressive role in temperature distribution of the tissue, especially at high temperatures. The effects of different parameters such as boundary conditions, relaxation time, thermal properties of skin, metabolism and pulse heat flux on temperature distribution are investigated. Tremendous effect of boundary condition type at the lower boundary is noted. It seems that neither insulation nor constant temperature at this boundary can completely describe the real physical phenomena. It is expected that real temperature at the lower levels is somewhat between two predicted values. The effect of temperature on the thermal properties of skin tissue is considered. It is shown that considering temperature dependent values for thermal conductivity is important in the temperature distribution estimation of skin tissue; however, the effect of temperature dependent values for specific heat capacity is negligible. It is seen that considering modified Pennes equation in processes with high heat flux during low times is significant

  14. The Spanish tourist sector facing extreme climate events: a case study of domestic tourism in the heat wave of 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, M. Belén; Armesto-López, Xosé A.; Martínez-Ibarra, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    This research explores, by means of a questionnaire-based survey, public knowledge and perception as well as the behaviour of young Spanish tourists before, during and after the summer holiday period affected by an episode of extreme heat in 2003. The survey was administered between November and December 2004. The extraordinary heat wave of the summer of 2003 can be seen as an example of a normal episode in terms of the predicted intensity and duration of European summers towards the end of the twenty-first century. It can therefore be used as the laboratory setting for this study. In this context, the use of the climate analogue approach allows us to obtain novel perspectives regarding the future impact that this type of event could have on tourist demand, based on a real experience. Likewise, such an approach allows the strategies of adaptation implemented by the different elements in the tourist system in order to cope with the atmospheric episode to be evaluated. Such strategies could prove useful in reducing vulnerability when faced with similar episodes in the future. The main results indicate that Spanish tourists (young segment market) are flexible in adapting to episodes of extremely high temperatures. Their personal perception of the phenomenon, their behaviour and the adaptation measures implemented to a greater or lesser extent before that time, reduce the vulnerability of the sector when faced with this type of event, at least from the point of view of this young segment of the internal national market. In Spain, the episode of extreme heat of 2003 has led to the implementation or improvement of some adaptive measures after the event, especially in the fields of management, policy and education.

  15. Numerical Study of a Three Dimensional Interaction between two bow Shock Waves and the Aerodynamic Heating on a Wedge Shaped Nose Cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N.; Wang, J. H.; Shen, L.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation on the three-dimensional interaction between two bow shock waves in two environments, i.e. ground high-enthalpy wind tunnel test and real space flight, using Fluent 15.0. The first bow shock wave, also called induced shock wave, which is generated by the leading edge of a hypersonic vehicle. The other bow shock wave can be deemed objective shock wave, which is generated by the cowl clip of hypersonic inlet, and in this paper the inlet is represented by a wedge shaped nose cone. The interaction performances including flow field structures, aerodynamic pressure and heating are analyzed and compared between the ground test and the real space flight. Through the analysis and comparison, we can find the following important phenomena: 1) Three-dimensional complicated flow structures appear in both cases, but only in the real space flight condition, a local two-dimensional type IV interaction appears; 2) The heat flux and pressure in the interaction region are much larger than those in the no-interaction region in both cases, but the peak values of the heat flux and pressure in real space flight are smaller than those in ground test. 3) The interaction region on the objective surface are different in the two cases, and there is a peak value displacement of 3 mm along the stagnation line.

  16. Short baseline variations in site response and wave-propagation effects and their structural causes: Four examples in and around the santa clara valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Carver, D.; Liu, P.

    2010-01-01

    Ground motion records of local and regional events from a portable array are used to investigate the structural causes of variations in ground motion over distances of a few hundred meters to a few kilometers in the sedimentary basin environment of the Santa Clara Valley, California, and its margins. Arrays of portable seismic stations are used to target four study areas with different ground motion patterns: (1) an edge of the alluvial basin extending up onto a marginal ridge (Blossom Hill), (2) a Cenozoic basin with a nearly flat bottom (Cupertino Basin), (3) a long, narrow Cenozoic basin with a steep V profile (Evergreen Basin), and (4) a line perpendicular to the trace of the Hayward fault. Average peak velocities on Blossom Hill from local earthquakes are a factor of 2.5 times higher than nearby valley sites. Three-dimensional (3D) modeling is used to conclude that the majority of the amplification is due to lower shear-wave velocities along a local fault zone (Shannon–Berrocal). Site amplification over the Cupertino Basin in the frequency band 0.5–4 Hz is generally low (less than 2.0 relative to a Mesozoic rock site) and spatially uniform. This response is attributed to the shallow, flat-bottomed shape of the basin and the uniform, flat-laying sedimentary fill. In contrast, site amplification in the Evergreen Basin generally exceeds 3.0 and is attributed to the deep, V-shaped geometry of the basin and younger sedimentary fill. 3D waveform modeling shows the elongated shape of the Evergreen Basin causes more efficient trapping of long-period waves for sources along the long axis of the basin. A low-velocity zone is postulated along the Hayward fault with a width between 100 and 200 m, based on elevated site response along the fault trace and 4.5-Hz fault zone guided waves on the horizontal components of stations near the fault.

  17. Low-threshold parametric excitation of the upper hybrid wave in experiments on electron-cyclotron resonance heating by an ordinary wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sysoeva, E. V., E-mail: tinlit@yandex.ru; Gusakov, E. Z. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Simonchik, L. V.; Usachenok, M. S. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus)

    2016-07-15

    The possibility of the low-threshold decay of an ordinary wave into an upper hybrid wave localized in a plasma column (or in an axisymmetric plasma filament) and a low-frequency wave is analyzed. It is shown that the threshold for such a decay, accompanied by the excitation of an ion-acoustic wave, can easily be overcome for plasma parameters typical of model experiments on the Granit linear plasma facility.

  18. Propagation of Torsional Alfvén Waves from the Photosphere to the Corona: Reflection, Transmission, and Heating in Expanding Flux Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón; Ballester, José Luis, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2017-05-01

    It has been proposed that Alfvén waves play an important role in the energy propagation through the solar atmospheric plasma and its heating. Here we theoretically investigate the propagation of torsional Alfvén waves in magnetic flux tubes expanding from the photosphere up to the low corona and explore the reflection, transmission, and dissipation of wave energy. We use a realistic variation of the plasma properties and the magnetic field strength with height. Dissipation by ion–neutral collisions in the chromosphere is included using a multifluid partially ionized plasma model. Considering the stationary state, we assume that the waves are driven below the photosphere and propagate to the corona, while they are partially reflected and damped in the chromosphere and transition region. The results reveal the existence of three different propagation regimes depending on the wave frequency: low frequencies are reflected back to the photosphere, intermediate frequencies are transmitted to the corona, and high frequencies are completely damped in the chromosphere. The frequency of maximum transmissivity depends on the magnetic field expansion rate and the atmospheric model, but is typically in the range of 0.04–0.3 Hz. Magnetic field expansion favors the transmission of waves to the corona and lowers the reflectivity of the chromosphere and transition region compared to the case with a straight field. As a consequence, the chromospheric heating due to ion–neutral dissipation systematically decreases when the expansion rate of the magnetic flux tube increases.

  19. Channeling of high-power radio waves under conditions of strong anomalous absorption in the presence of an averaged electron heating source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas'kov, V. V.; Ryabova, N. A.

    2010-02-01

    Strong anomalous absorption of a high-power radio wave by small-scale plasma inhomogeneities in the Earth’s ionosphere can lead to the formation of self-consistent channels (solitons) in which the wave propagates along the magnetic field, but has a soliton-like intensity distribution across the field. The structure of a cylindrical soliton as a function of the wave intensity at the soliton axis is analyzed. Averaged density perturbations leading to wave focusing were calculated using the model proposed earlier by Vas’kov and Gurevich (Geomagn. Aéron. 16, 1112 (1976)), in which an averaged electron heating source was used. It is shown that, under conditions of strong electron recombination, the radii of individual solitons do not exceed 650 m.

  20. Phase coherence of parametric-decay modes during high-harmonic fast-wave heating in the National Spherical Torus Experiment