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Sample records for california halibut paralichthys

  1. Ontogeny and distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases in the digestive system of California halibut larvae (Paralichthys californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias-Soto, Magali; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín; Lazo, Juan P

    2013-10-01

    Studies aimed to assess the digestive physiology of marine fish larvae under culture conditions are important to further understand the functional characteristics and digestive capacities of the developing larvae. Most studies to date concentrate on intestinal lumen digestion and little attention to the absorption process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to histochemically detect and quantify some of the enzymes responsible for absorption and intracellular digestion of nutrients in the anterior and posterior intestine of California halibut larvae. Alkaline and acid phosphatases were detected from the first days post-hatch (dph). Alkaline phosphatase maintained a high level of activity during the first 20 dph in both intestinal regions. Thereafter, a clear intestinal regionalization of the activity was observed with the highest levels occurring in the anterior intestine. Acid phosphatase activity gradually increased in both intestinal regions during development, and a regionalization of the activity was not observed until late in development, once the ocular migration began. Highest levels were observed in the anterior intestine at the end of metamorphosis concomitant with the stomach development. The results from this study show some morphological and physiological changes are occurring during larval development and a clear regionalization of the absorption process as the larvae develops. These ontological changes must be considered in the elaboration of diets according to the digestive capacity of the larvae.

  2. IFQ Halibut/Sablefish and CDQ Halibut Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Under the IFQ Halibut/Sablefish Permit Program and CDQ Halibut Permit Program permits are issued for harvesting and receiving/processing halibut, and non-trawl...

  3. Charter Halibut Limited Access Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This limited access system limits the number of charter vessels that may participate in the guided sport fishery for halibut in area 2C and 3A. NMFS issues a charter...

  4. 76 FR 2871 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... management measures that are not implemented through the IPHC. This includes Tribal regulations and the sport...-Halibut/Pacific-Halibut/Index.cfm . Proposed 2011 Sport Fishery Management Measures NMFS is proposing sport fishery management measures that are necessary to implement the Plan in 2011. The annual domestic...

  5. 76 FR 6567 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Guided Sport Charter Vessel Fishery for Halibut; Recordkeeping and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... definition of fishing week. This action is necessary to improve consistency between Federal and State of... to the logbook reporting format. This action is intended to achieve the halibut fishery management goals of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council and to support the conservation and management...

  6. AFSC/FMA/NPRB Halibut Bycatch Video Field Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data arise from a field test of electronic monitoring (EM) of vessels participating in the Pacific halibut fishery off Alaska. A side-by-side comparison was...

  7. 75 FR 56903 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    .... 100503209-0430-02] RIN 0648-AY85 Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels... program for charter vessels in the guided sport fishery for Pacific halibut in the waters of International... necessary to achieve the halibut fishery management goals of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council...

  8. 78 FR 26708 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan; Correcting Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... published on March 15, 2013, that implemented annual management measures governing the Pacific halibut... (78 FR 16423), included annual management measures for managing the harvest of Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) in the sport fishery in International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) Regulatory...

  9. 75 FR 5745 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... management measures that are not implemented through the IPHC. This includes tribal regulations and the sport... the recreational halibut hotline. Proposed 2010 Sport Fishery Management Measures NMFS is proposing sport fishery management measures that are necessary to implement the Plan in 2010. The annual domestic...

  10. 78 FR 16423 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... fishing, the resulting catch of which is sold or bartered; or is intended to be sold or bartered, other... monitoring system transmitter that automatically determines a vessel's position and transmits it to a NMFS... section 13, provided that no person may sell or barter such halibut. (3) The manager of a CDQ organization...

  11. 50 CFR 300.67 - Charter halibut limited access program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicant-selected year; and (2) The angler endorsement number will be six (6) on a charter halibut permit... Logbook with one of the following pieces of information: The statistical area(s) where bottomfish fishing... limit for reporting the trip in effect at the time of the trip with one of the following pieces of...

  12. Vitellogenin, a Marker of Estrogen Mimicking Contaminants in Fishes: Characterization, Quantification and Interference by Anti-Estrogens

    OpenAIRE

    Palumbo, Amanda J.

    2008-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), the estrogen inducible protein precursor to egg yolk, serves as an indicator of exposure to estrogen mimicking environmental contaminants. Vg was isolated by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography from plasma of California halibut (Paralichthys californicus) treated with estrogen. MALDI TOF mass spectrometry (MS) analysis resulted in a molecular mass of 188 kDa. MS/MS de novo sequencing provided evidence that California halibut has more than one form of Vg. Similar ...

  13. Troponin T isoform expression is modulated during Atlantic Halibut metamorphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llewellyn Lynda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flatfish metamorphosis is a thyroid hormone (TH driven process which leads to a dramatic change from a symmetrical larva to an asymmetrical juvenile. The effect of THs on muscle and in particular muscle sarcomer protein genes is largely unexplored in fish. The change in Troponin T (TnT, a pivotal protein in the assembly of skeletal muscles sarcomeres and a modulator of calcium driven muscle contraction, during flatfish metamophosis is studied. Results In the present study five cDNAs for halibut TnT genes were cloned; three were splice variants arising from a single fast TnT (fTnT gene; a fourth encoded a novel teleost specific fTnT-like cDNA (AfTnT expressed exclusively in slow muscle and the fifth encoded the teleost specific sTnT2. THs modified the expression of halibut fTnT isoforms which changed from predominantly basic to acidic isoforms during natural and T4 induced metamorphosis. In contrast, expression of red muscle specific genes, AfTnT and sTnT2, did not change during natural metamorphosis or after T4 treatment. Prior to and after metamorphosis no change in the dorso-ventral symmetry or temporal-spatial expression pattern of TnT genes and muscle fibre organization occurred in halibut musculature. Conclusion Muscle organisation in halibut remains symmetrical even after metamorphosis suggesting TH driven changes are associated with molecular adaptations. We hypothesize that species specific differences in TnT gene expression in teleosts underlies different larval muscle developmental programs which better adapts them to the specific ecological constraints.

  14. 76 FR 44155 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Halibut Fisheries II. History of Management in the Guided Sport Halibut Fisheries III. Proposed Catch... consistency and uniformity in halibut sport fishing regulations in all regulatory areas. At that time, the... (649.5 mt). During that time period, guided sport harvests were approximately 1,750,000 lbs (793.8 mt...

  15. 75 FR 79341 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Harvest of Pacific Halibut by Guided Sport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Harvest of Pacific Halibut by Guided Sport Charter Vessel Anglers off Alaska... halibut fishing effort and harvest by all user groups, including the guided sport charter sector of the... requirements. The State of Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) Division of Sport Fish initiated a...

  16. 75 FR 51741 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and Sablefish Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Program to provide economic stability for the Pacific halibut and sablefish commercial fisheries and.... 0906041011-91012-01 RIN 0648-AX91 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and... designed to maintain the social character and economic benefits of the commercial, fixed-gear fisheries...

  17. 77 FR 29556 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and Sablefish Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... economic stability for the Pacific halibut and sablefish commercial fisheries and improve long-term.... 0906041011-2432-02] RIN 0648-AX91 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and... maintain the social character and economic benefits of the commercial, fixed-gear fisheries that Alaskan...

  18. Mercury concentrations in Alaska Pacific halibut muscle relative to stable isotopes of C and N and other biological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, Rebecca; Castellini, J. Margaret; Gerlach, Robert; Dykstra, Claude; O'Hara, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]), δ 15 N and δ 13 C values were determined in muscle of 693 Pacific halibut caught in International Pacific Halibut Commission setline surveys in Alaska (2002 − 2011). Project goals were to evaluate whether 1) δ 15 N and δ 13 C varied with region, age, sex and length of halibut, and 2) muscle [THg] varied with δ 15 N and δ 13 C (feeding ecology) while accounting for sex, length, and region. Variation in [THg] was explained, in part, by halibut feeding ecology as [THg] increased with trophic position (increasing δ 15 N). Halibut from the western Aleutian Island region were the exception, with overall lower δ 15 N values and significantly higher [THg] than halibut from other Alaskan waters. This [THg] pattern has been observed in other Aleutian biota, possibly the result of northeasterly atmospheric movement of mercury emissions from Asia and/or other local sources and processes. The significantly lower δ 15 N values for these halibut warrants further investigation of halibut prey. - Highlights: • Mercury, δ 15 N, and δ 13 C were determined in muscle of 693 Pacific halibut in Alaska. • Variation in muscle mercury level was explained, in part, by halibut feeding ecology. • Muscle mercury concentration generally increased with relative trophic position (δ 15 N). • Western Aleutian halibut had lower δ 15 N and higher mercury than other regions. • Assessment of mercury and trophic relationships accounted for sex, size, and region.

  19. Histological Study on the Skin of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; ZHANG Xiumei; GAO Tianxiang

    2005-01-01

    Histological development of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus larval skin and ultrastructural difference of skin between reared normal and malpigmented Japanese flounder were studied with light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the skin develops slowly before the metamorphosis, while at the onset of metamorphosis, the skin develops quickly and becomes complete in structure till about 50 d after being hatched. Ultrastructural observation on the normal and malpigmented skins shows that the iridophore and melanophore are adjacent to each other. Profile and structure of the two kinds of pigment cells are more complete in the skin of normal ocular side than in the skin of pigmented blind side. The ultrastructure of typical chloride cell was observed in the skin of Japanese flounder larvae for the first time.

  20. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 679 - Product Recovery Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product Recovery Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut 3 Table 3 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut ER28JA02.074 ER10JY02.000 ER28JA02...

  1. Feeding ecology of Greenland halibut and sandeel larvae off West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenberg, Claus; Munk, Peter; Folkvord, A.

    2006-01-01

    it remained constant for sandeel at a level of 2.7% of larval length. This led to a reduction in prey niche overlap between the two species. The available prey copepod biomass differed distinctly across the shelf area. In May, the prey density of Gr. halibut was the highest in the off-shelf area in Davis...... Strait. In June and July, the prey-rich areas for both species were mainly located at the slopes of the banks and at the shelf break area. Gut fullness was higher in these areas than in neighbouring areas, suggesting that the larval food resource could be scarce. The feeding ecology of Gr. halibut...

  2. Pacific halibut bycatch in Pacific cod fisheries in the Bering Sea: an analysis to evaluate area-time management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlerstein, Sara A.; Trumble, Robert J.

    1998-03-01

    Mortality of discarded Pacific halibut bycatch from Pacific cod fisheries in the Bering Sea leads to significant losses in the halibut setline and in the Pacific cod fisheries. The commercial halibut fishery loses yield because of catch limit reductions to compensate the resource for lost spawning potential and because halibut killed as bycatch will not be available for subsequent harvest, and the cod fisheries may lose harvest if they reach a bycatch mortality limit before reaching allowed catch. In this study, significant differences in Pacific halibut bycatch rates and associated yield losses were found among months and areas of the Bering Sea in the longline and trawl fisheries for Pacific cod in 1990-1992. Bycatch rates were usually highest in late spring and early summer and in areas close to the Unimak Pass. With the exception of 1992, yield loss in the longline fishery was around 1 kg per kg of bycatch mortality, irrespective of where or when bycatch occurred. In the trawl fishery, loss of halibut yield varied from 1 to 4 kg per kg of bycatch mortality. Highest halibut net yield losses per tonne of groundfish harvest usually coincided with highest bycatch rates. When both fisheries operated in one area, trawl bycatch often imposed higher yield losses than longline bycatch, despite lower bycatch rates. Bycatch was affected by the strong 1987 halibut year class. Highest bycatch and yield loss rates occurred in the trawl fishery in 1990 and 1991 when the population was dominated by halibut age-3 and -4, and in the longline fishery in 1992 as fish reached age-5.

  3. Seasonal migration, vertical activity and winter temperature experience of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum) in West Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Jesper; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz

    2014-01-01

    resident in Disko Bay (mean range 2.6°C) than when resident in the ice fjord (mean range 1.4°C). Using the tagged halibut as a 'live tool,' we show that parts of the ice fjord are hundreds of meters deeper than previously thought. We also document the first seawater temperature measurements made beneath......The deep-water flatfish Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum) is common along the West Greenland coast. In the northwestern fjords, Greenland halibut is an important socio-economic resource for the Greenland community, but due to the deep and partly ice-covered environment, very...

  4. Intermingling and seasonal migrations of Greenland halibut ( Reinhardtius hippoglossoides ) populations determined from tagging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    A total of 7244 Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides' Walbaum) were tagged in Greenland waters between 1986 and 1998 to increase information on stock delineations, to clarify migration routes, and to describe the seasonal movements of cord populations. At present 517 recaptured Greenla...

  5. 77 FR 70061 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    .... groundfish sector or the commercial halibut sector. The quality and utility of observer data suffer because... restructured Observer Program is a waste of money and should not be implemented since there are other methods...) increasing the risk that vessels will fish in marginal conditions in order to avoid losing observer coverage...

  6. Sexual maturity cycle and spawning of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Davis Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, A. C.; Stenberg, Claus; Fossen, I.

    2010-01-01

    Female sexual maturation cycle and the main spawning time of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Davis Strait were studied through regularly collected samples during 1 year starting in spring 2003. Samples were collected from the southern slope of the Davis Strait Ridge between...

  7. Transcriptional responses of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus to low temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Hu

    Full Text Available The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an economically important flatfish in marine aquaculture with a broad thermal tolerance ranging from 14 to 23°C. Cold-tolerant flounder that can survive during the winter season at a temperature of less than 14°C might facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of flounder to cold stress (0.7±0.05°C was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform for the cold-tolerant (CT group, which survived under the cold stress; the cold-sensitive (CS group, which could barely survive at the low temperature; and control group, which was not subjected to cold treatment. In all, 29,021 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 410 unigenes were up-regulated and 255 unigenes were down-regulated in the CT group, whereas 593 unigenes were up-regulated and 289 unigenes were down-regulated in the CS group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, lipid metabolism, digestive system, and signaling molecules and interaction were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following four biological functions for flounder that can survive under cold stress: signal response to cold stress, cell repair/regeneration, energy production, and cell membrane construction and fluidity.

  8. Myostatin inhibitory region of fish (Paralichthys olivaceus) myostatin-1 propeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Beum; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Jin, Deuk-Hee; Jin, Hyung-Joo; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, and its activity is suppressed by MSTN propeptide (MSTNpro), the N-terminal part of MSTN precursor cleaved during post-translational MSTN processing. The current study examined which region of flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus) MSTN-1 propeptide (MSTN1pro) is critical for MSTN inhibition. Six different truncated forms of MSTN1pro containing N-terminal maltose binding protein (MBP) as a fusion partner were expressed in Escherichia coli, and partially purified by an affinity chromatography for MSTN-inhibitory activity examination. Peptides covering different regions of flatfish MSTN1pro were also synthesized for MSTN-inhibitory activity examination. A MBP-fused MSTN1pro region consisting of residues 45-100 had the same MSTN-inhibitory potency as the full sequence flatfish MSTN1pro (residues 23-265), indicating that the region of flatfish MSTN1pro consisting of residues 45-100 is sufficient to maintain the full MSTN-inhibitory capacity. A MBP-fused MSTN1pro region consisting of residues 45-80 (Pro45-80) also showed MSTN-inhibitory activity with a lower potency, and the Pro45-80 demonstrated its MSTN binding capacity in a pull-down assay, indicating that the MSTN-inhibitory capacity of Pro45-80 is due to its binding to MSTN. Flatfish MSTN1pro synthetic peptides covering residues 45-65, 45-70, and 45-80 demonstrated MSTN-inhibitory activities, but not the synthetic peptide covering residues 45-54, indicating that residues 45-65 of flatfish MSTN1pro are essential for MSTN inhibition. In conclusion, current study show that like the mammalian MSTNpro, the MSTN-inhibitory region of flatfish MSTN1pro resides near its N-terminus, and imply that smaller sizes of MSTNpro can be effectively used in various applications designed for MSTN inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of the intestinal microbiota of wild-caught and farmed fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus)

    OpenAIRE

    Salas-Leiva, Joan; Opazo, Rafael; Remond, Camille; Uribe, Eduardo; Velez, Antonio; Romero, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the cultivable intestinal microbiota of farmed (AF) and wild-caught (WF) Paralichthys adspersus was performed. The 16S rRNA gene was used for taxa identification, and the ITS region for strain differentiation. We detected the presence of Vibrio, Bacillus, Photobacterium, Staphylococcus and Carnobacterium in AF, and Exiguobacterium, Klebsiella, Arthrobacter, Raoultella, Kluyvera, Myroides, Streptococcus, Vagococcus, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, Lactob...

  10. Exophiala angulospora Causes Systemic Mycosis in Atlantic Halibut: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David P; Groman, David; Giles, Jan; Duffy, Stephanie; Rommens, Mellisa; Johnson, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous black yeasts from the genus Exophiala are ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogens causing both superficial and systemic mycoses in warm- and cold-blooded animals. Infections by black yeasts have been reported relatively frequently in a variety of captive and farmed freshwater and marine fishes. In November 2012, moribund and recently dead, farm-raised Atlantic Halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus were necropsied to determine the cause of death. Histopathology revealed that three of seven fish were affected by a combination of an ascending trans-ductual granulomatous mycotic nephritis, necrotizing histiocytic encephalitis, and in one fish the addition of a fibrogranulomatous submucosal branchitis. Microbial cultures of kidney using selective mycotic media revealed pure growth of a black-pigmenting septated agent. Application of molecular and phenotypic taxonomy methodologies determined that all three isolates were genetically consistent with Exophiala angulospora. This is the first report of E. angulospora as the causal agent of systemic mycosis in Atlantic Halibut.

  11. Comparing survey and assessment data: Consequences for stock evaluation of Northeast Arctic Greenland halibut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Thomas Albert

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on VPA-estimates of abundance, survey data and commercial catch statistics of Northeast Arctic Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides Walbaum, the paper describes trends by year-class and age in the distribution of Greenland halibut between surveyed and not-surveyed areas. Changes in the distribution of I-group around 1990 to areas beyond the Svalbard surveys has previously been described and related to temperature changes in the Spitsbergen Current. This paper shows that this displaced distribution of the 1989-94 year-classes persisted up to age 7. The results indicate that the displacement was an extraordinary situation and other similar distribution shifts have not occurred during the last 30 years or more. Further, the shift co-occurred with extreme levels of the 137 year long time series of the index of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. The results are discussed in relation to stock management and climate change.

  12. Structural and functional maturation of skin during metamorphosis in the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    KAUST Repository

    Alves, Ricardo N.; Sundell, Kristina S.; Anjos, Liliana; Sundh, Henrik; Harboe, Torstein; Norberg, Birgitta; Power, Deborah M.

    2018-01-01

    To establish if the developmental changes in the primary barrier and osmoregulatory capacity of Atlantic halibut skin are modified during metamorphosis, histological, histochemical, gene expression and electrophysiological measurements were made. The morphology of the ocular and abocular skin started to diverge during the metamorphic climax and ocular skin appeared thicker and more stratified. Neutral mucins were the main glycoproteins produced by the goblet cells in skin during metamorphosis. Moreover, the number of goblet cells producing neutral mucins increased during metamorphosis and asymmetry in their abundance was observed between ocular and abocular skin. The increase in goblet cell number and their asymmetric abundance in skin was concomitant with the period that thyroid hormones (THs) increase and suggests that they may be under the control of these hormones. Several mucin transcripts were identified in metamorphosing halibut transcriptomes and Muc18 and Muc5AC were characteristic of the body skin. Na+, K+-ATPase positive (NKA) cells were observed in skin of all metamorphic stages but their number significantly decreased with the onset of metamorphosis. No asymmetry was observed between ocular and abocular skin in NKA cells. The morphological changes observed were linked to modified skin barrier function as revealed by modifications in its electrophysiological properties. However, the maturation of the skin functional characteristics preceded structural maturation and occurred at stage 8 prior to the metamorphic climax. Treatment of Atlantic halibut with the THs disrupter methimazole (MMI) affected the number of goblet cells producing neutral mucins and the NKA cells. The present study reveals that the asymmetric development of the skin in Atlantic halibut is TH sensitive and is associated with metamorphosis and that this barrier’s functional properties mature earlier and are independent of metamorphosis.

  13. Structural and functional maturation of skin during metamorphosis in the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    KAUST Repository

    Alves, Ricardo N.

    2018-02-20

    To establish if the developmental changes in the primary barrier and osmoregulatory capacity of Atlantic halibut skin are modified during metamorphosis, histological, histochemical, gene expression and electrophysiological measurements were made. The morphology of the ocular and abocular skin started to diverge during the metamorphic climax and ocular skin appeared thicker and more stratified. Neutral mucins were the main glycoproteins produced by the goblet cells in skin during metamorphosis. Moreover, the number of goblet cells producing neutral mucins increased during metamorphosis and asymmetry in their abundance was observed between ocular and abocular skin. The increase in goblet cell number and their asymmetric abundance in skin was concomitant with the period that thyroid hormones (THs) increase and suggests that they may be under the control of these hormones. Several mucin transcripts were identified in metamorphosing halibut transcriptomes and Muc18 and Muc5AC were characteristic of the body skin. Na+, K+-ATPase positive (NKA) cells were observed in skin of all metamorphic stages but their number significantly decreased with the onset of metamorphosis. No asymmetry was observed between ocular and abocular skin in NKA cells. The morphological changes observed were linked to modified skin barrier function as revealed by modifications in its electrophysiological properties. However, the maturation of the skin functional characteristics preceded structural maturation and occurred at stage 8 prior to the metamorphic climax. Treatment of Atlantic halibut with the THs disrupter methimazole (MMI) affected the number of goblet cells producing neutral mucins and the NKA cells. The present study reveals that the asymmetric development of the skin in Atlantic halibut is TH sensitive and is associated with metamorphosis and that this barrier’s functional properties mature earlier and are independent of metamorphosis.

  14. Structural and functional maturation of skin during metamorphosis in the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ricardo N; Sundell, Kristina S; Anjos, Liliana; Sundh, Henrik; Harboe, Torstein; Norberg, Birgitta; Power, Deborah M

    2018-06-01

    To establish if the developmental changes in the primary barrier and osmoregulatory capacity of Atlantic halibut skin are modified during metamorphosis, histological, histochemical, gene expression and electrophysiological measurements were made. The morphology of the ocular and abocular skin started to diverge during the metamorphic climax and ocular skin appeared thicker and more stratified. Neutral mucins were the main glycoproteins produced by the goblet cells in skin during metamorphosis. Moreover, the number of goblet cells producing neutral mucins increased during metamorphosis and asymmetry in their abundance was observed between ocular and abocular skin. The increase in goblet cell number and their asymmetric abundance in skin was concomitant with the period that thyroid hormones (THs) increase and suggests that they may be under the control of these hormones. Several mucin transcripts were identified in metamorphosing halibut transcriptomes and Muc18 and Muc5AC were characteristic of the body skin. Na + , K + -ATPase positive (NKA) cells were observed in skin of all metamorphic stages but their number significantly decreased with the onset of metamorphosis. No asymmetry was observed between ocular and abocular skin in NKA cells. The morphological changes observed were linked to modified skin barrier function as revealed by modifications in its electrophysiological properties. However, the maturation of the skin functional characteristics preceded structural maturation and occurred at stage 8 prior to the metamorphic climax. Treatment of Atlantic halibut with the THs disrupter methimazole (MMI) affected the number of goblet cells producing neutral mucins and the NKA cells. The present study reveals that the asymmetric development of the skin in Atlantic halibut is TH sensitive and is associated with metamorphosis and that this barrier's functional properties mature earlier and are independent of metamorphosis.

  15. High-Prevalence and Low-Intensity Ichthyophonus Infections in Pacific Halibut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K; Gregg, Jacob L; Dykstra, Claude L

    2018-03-01

    Ichthyophonus occurred at high prevalence but low intensity in Pacific Halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis throughout the West Coast of North America, ranging from coastal Oregon to the Bering Sea. Infection prevalence in adults was variable on spatial and temporal scales, with the lowest prevalence typically occurring on the edges of the geographic range and highest prevalence consistently occurring inside Prince William Sound, Alaska (58-77%). Additionally, intra-annual differences occurred at Albatross-Portlock, Alaska (71% versus 32% within 2012), and interannual differences occurred along coastal Oregon (50% in 2012 versus 12% in 2015). The infection prevalence was influenced by host age, increasing from 3% or less among the youngest cohorts (age ≤ 6) to 39-54% among age-9-17 cohorts, then decreasing to 27% among the oldest (age-18+) cohorts. There was little indication of significant disease impacts to Pacific Halibut, as the intensity of infection was uniformly low and length at age was similar between infected and uninfected cohorts. These results suggest that Ichthyophonus in Pacific Halibut currently represents a stable parasite-host paradigm in the North Pacific. © 2018 American Fisheries Society.

  16. High prevalence and low intensity Ichthyophonus infections in Pacific Halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K; Gregg, Jacob L; Dykstra, Claude L

    2017-10-13

    Ichthyophonus occurred at high prevalence but low intensity in Pacific Halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) throughout the west coast of North America, ranging from coastal Oregon to the Bering Sea. Infection prevalence in adults was variable on spatial and temporal scales, with the lowest prevalence typically occurring on the edges of the geographic range and highest prevalence consistently occurring inside Prince William Sound, AK (58-77%). Additionally, intra-annual differences occurred at Albatross - Portlock, AK (71% versus 32% within 2012) and inter-annual differences occurred along coastal Oregon (50% versus 12% from 2012 to 2015). The infection prevalence was influenced by host age, increasing from ≤ 3% among the youngest cohorts (≤age 6) to 39-54% among age 9-17 cohorts, then decreasing to 27% among the oldest (age 18+) cohorts. There was little indication of significant disease impacts to Pacific Halibut, as the intensity of infection was uniformly low and length-at-age was similar between infected and uninfected cohorts. These results suggest that Ichthyophonus in Pacific Halibut currently represents a stable parasite-host paradigm in the North Pacific. Received 04 May 2017 accepted 09 Oct 2017 revised 21 Sep 2017.

  17. High‐prevalence and low‐intensity Ichthyophonus infections in Pacific Halibut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul; Gregg, Jacob L.; Dykstra, Claude L.

    2018-01-01

    Ichthyophonus occurred at high prevalence but low intensity in Pacific Halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis throughout the West Coast of North America, ranging from coastal Oregon to the Bering Sea. Infection prevalence in adults was variable on spatial and temporal scales, with the lowest prevalence typically occurring on the edges of the geographic range and highest prevalence consistently occurring inside Prince William Sound, Alaska (58–77%). Additionally, intra‐annual differences occurred at Albatross–Portlock, Alaska (71% versus 32% within 2012), and interannual differences occurred along coastal Oregon (50% in 2012 versus 12% in 2015). The infection prevalence was influenced by host age, increasing from 3% or less among the youngest cohorts (age ≤ 6) to 39–54% among age‐9–17 cohorts, then decreasing to 27% among the oldest (age‐18+) cohorts. There was little indication of significant disease impacts to Pacific Halibut, as the intensity of infection was uniformly low and length at age was similar between infected and uninfected cohorts. These results suggest that Ichthyophonus in Pacific Halibut currently represents a stable parasite–host paradigm in the North Pacific.

  18. Estimates of reproductive potential of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in East Greenland based on an update of maturity status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, James; Hedeholm, Rasmus B.; Gundersen, Agnes C.

    2014-01-01

    When estimating reproductive potential (RP), correct interpretation of the maturity status is essential. It has now become apparent the presence of vitellogenic oocytes within the ovary of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) does not necessarily indicate they will spawn within the next...... twelve months. This has led to a revision of the interpretation of the maturity scale where fish which contain only a developing cohort (DC) of oocytes are considered immature. Comparisons were made of estimates of L50 of female Greenland halibut in East Greenland using the previous interpretation......), respectively. Combining the maturity data with abundance data of Greenland halibut in East Greenland, spawning stock biomass (SSB) and total egg production (TEP) was estimated in four quadrants between 1998 and 2012 using both the previous and current interpretation of the maturity scale. Using the new...

  19. Impact of deep-sea fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) on non-commercial fish species off West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Bastardie, Francois; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, a deep-sea fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) has been developing gradually in West Greenland. Deep-sea fish species are generally long-lived and characterized by late age of maturity, low fecundity, and slow growth, features that probably cause low....... During the period 1988–2011, population abundance and size composition changed as catch and effort in the Greenland halibut fishery increased. Two species showed a significant decrease in abundance, and four populations showed a significant reduction in mean weight of individuals (p , 0.05). Correlation...... analyses show that most of the observed trends in abundance are probably not related to increasing fishing effort for Greenland halibut. The analysis did, however, show that most of the observed decreases in mean weight were significantly correlated with fishing effort during the 24-year period...

  20. Greenland Halibut in Upernavik: a preliminary study of the importance of the stock for the fishing populace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, Alyne E.; Becker Jakobsen, Rikke; Hendriksen, Kåre

    for Greenland halibut in Upernavik. There are up to an additional 75 who also fish, however, without paying the license fee. This means that almost half of working age men fish for halibut in the Upernavik district. Fishing is extremely important in Upernavik for its role in the local, mixed economy. Fishing...... often provides the cash needed for materials needed for work (hunting and fishing equipment such as bullets, nets, snowmobiles, etc.) and daily living (housing, transport, television, food, etc). Fishing also supports the important local cultural practice of meeting social obligations and reciprocity...... of Greenland is currently in the midst of proposing changes to the Halibut management structure, the report focuses specifically on potential social impacts of the fishery management plan to coastal fishers. The degree and consequence of any impact is a function of the characteristics of the fishing community...

  1. Uptake of Iodide From Water in Atlantic Halibut Larvae (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moren, Mari; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Hamre, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    The natural diet of marine fish larvae, copepods, contain 60-350 mg I kg(-1), while live feed used in commercial hatcheries have iodine concentrations in the range of 1 mg kg(-1). Seawater is also considered to be an important source of iodine for marine fish. The question asked in this study is ......M. The uptake was partly blocked by perchlorate (ClO3-) which is a known inhibitor of the sodium iodide symporter. This indicates that the Atlantic halibut larvae accumulate iodide through both specific and non-specific uptake pathways....

  2. 78 FR 39121 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... consistent and uniform halibut sport fishing regulations in all regulatory areas. At that time, the IPHC... sport fisheries in Alaska. In most years, the effective date of the IPHC annual management measures has... Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 125...

  3. 78 FR 75843 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... balance the differing needs of the charter and commercial sectors over a wide range of halibut abundance... Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  4. Parasites of the flatfish Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867 (Pleuronectiformes from northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E Oliva

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Three species of protistan and 22 species of metazoan parasites were obtained from a sample of 179 flatfish, (Paralichthys adspersus taken-off Antofagasta, northern Chile. Prevalence of infection of seven parasites (Protista: 1, Copepoda: 2, Digenea: 1, Acantocephala: 1, Nematoda: 2 was significantly and positively correlated with host size. Host's sex do not seem to affect prevalence of infection, except for Nybelinia surmenicola, Capillaria sp. and Anisakis sp. (prevalence of infection significantly greater in males than females and Philometra sp. (prevalence higher in females. Mean abundance is correlated with size in nine species (Protista: 1, Copepoda: 2, Digenea: 3, Acantocephala: 1, Nematoda: 2. Host's sex do not affect mean abundance, except for Cainocreadium sp. and Philometra sp.(mean abundance higher in females and Nybelinia surmenicola, Capillaria sp. and Anisakis sp. (mean abundance higher in males.

  5. Killer whale depredation and associated costs to Alaskan sablefish, Pacific halibut and Greenland turbot longliners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J Peterson

    Full Text Available Killer whale (Orcinus orca depredation (whales stealing or damaging fish caught on fishing gear adversely impacts demersal longline fisheries for sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria, Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis and Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands and Western Gulf of Alaska. These interactions increase direct costs and opportunity costs associated with catching fish and reduce the profitability of longline fishing in western Alaska. This study synthesizes National Marine Fisheries Service observer data, National Marine Fisheries Service sablefish longline survey and fishermen-collected depredation data to: 1 estimate the frequency of killer whale depredation on longline fisheries in Alaska; 2 estimate depredation-related catch per unit effort reductions; and 3 assess direct costs and opportunity costs incurred by longliners in western Alaska as a result of killer whale interactions. The percentage of commercial fishery sets affected by killer whales was highest in the Bering Sea fisheries for: sablefish (21.4%, Greenland turbot (9.9%, and Pacific halibut (6.9%. Average catch per unit effort reductions on depredated sets ranged from 35.1-69.3% for the observed longline fleet in all three management areas from 1998-2012 (p<0.001. To compensate for depredation, fishermen set additional gear to catch the same amount of fish, and this increased fuel costs by an additional 82% per depredated set (average $433 additional fuel per depredated set. In a separate analysis with six longline vessels in 2011 and 2012, killer whale depredation avoidance measures resulted in an average additional cost of $494 per depredated vessel-day for fuel and crew food. Opportunity costs of time lost by fishermen averaged $522 per additional vessel-day on the grounds. This assessment of killer whale depredation costs represents the most extensive economic evaluation of this issue in Alaska to date and will help

  6. A new species of Entobdella Blainville in Lamarck, 1818 (Monogenea: Capsalidae: Entobdellinae) from the Greenland halibut, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearn, Graham; Karlsbakk, Egil; Evans-Gowing, Richard; Gerasev, Pavel

    2015-09-01

    A previously undescribed species of Entobdella is reported from the skin of the Greenland halibut, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Pleuronectiformes, Pleuronectidae). Entobdella whittingtoni sp. nov. differs from other species of Entobdella, including skin parasites of the related pleuronectids Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Atlantic halibut) and H. stenolepis (Pacific halibut), in lacking papillae on the ventral surface of the haptor. Other characteristics of E. whittingtoni are as follows: the absence of vitelline follicles lateral to the pharynx thereby exposing gut caeca in this region of whole mounts; the presence of a circular feature of unknown function, resembling a rosette in sections, attached to the wall of the internal male accessory reservoir; the lack of eyes. Papillae are also absent from the ventral surface of the haptor of the gill-parasitic entobdelline Branchobdella pugetensis, a gill parasite of the pleuronectid Atheresthes stomias. This raises the question as to whether this gill parasite has evolved from a skin-parasitic ancestor similar to E. whittingtoni. An answer to this question requires a more detailed study of the male reproductive apparatus of B. pugetensis and the use of molecular techniques to explore the relationship between B. pugetensis and E. whittingtoni.

  7. The toxic mechanism of high lethality of herbicide butachlor in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huarong; Yin, Licheng; Zhang, Shicui; Feng, Wenrong

    2010-09-01

    The toxic mechanism of herbicide butachlor to induce extremely high lethality in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys Olivaceus, was analyzed by histopathological examination, antioxidant enzymes activities and ATP content assay. Histopathological examination of gill, liver and kidney of exposed fishes showed that gill was a target organ of butachlor. The butachlor seriously impaired the respiration of gills by a series of lesions such as edema, lifting and detachment of lamellar epithelium, breakdown of pillar cells, and blood congestion. The dysfunction of gill respiration caused suffocation to the exposed flounder with extremely high acute lethality. Antioxidant enzyme activity assay of the in vitro cultured flounder gill (FG) cells exposed to butachlor indicated that butachlor markedly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Furthermore, along with the decline of antioxidant enzyme activities, ATP content in the exposed FG cells decreased, too. This infers that the oxidative stress induced by butachlor can inhibit the production of cellular ATP. Similar decrease of ATP content was also observed in the exposed flounder gill tissues. Taken together, as in FG cells, butachlor possibly induced a short supply of ATP in pillar cells by inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme activities and then affecting the contractibility of the pillar cells, which in turn resulted in the blood congestion and suffocation of exposed flounder.

  8. Optimization of the purification methods for recovery of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Mu, Xiaosheng; Liu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to optimize the purification of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus. Recombinant flounder growth hormone (r-fGH) was expressed by Escherichia coli in form of inclusion body or as soluble protein under different inducing conditions. The inclusion body was renatured using two recovery methods, i.e., dilution and dialysis. Thereafter, the refolded protein was purified by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography and r-fGH was obtained by cleavage of thrombin. For soluble products, r-fGH was directly purified from the lysates by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography. ELISA-receptor assay demonstrated that despite its low receptor binding activity, the r-fGH purified from refolded inclusion body had a higher yield (2.605 mg L-1) than that from soluble protein (1.964 mg L-1). Of the tested recovery methods, addition of renaturing buffer (pH 8.5) into denatured inclusion body yielded the best recovery rate (17.9%). This work provided an optimized purification method for high recovery of r-fGH, thus contributing to the application of r-fGH to aquaculture.

  9. Spatial and temporal variability in growth of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler; Arnott, Stephen A.; Biondo, Patrick; Martinez-Andrade, Fernando; Wadsworth, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Delineation of stock structure is important for understanding the ecology and management of many fish populations, particularly those with wide-ranging distributions and high levels of harvest. Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) is a popular commercial and recreational species along the southeast Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico, USA. Recent studies have provided genetic and otolith morphology evidence that the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean stocks differ. Using age and growth data from four states (Texas, Alabama, South Carolina, and North Carolina) we expanded upon the traditional von Bertalanffy model in order to compare growth rates of putative geographic stocks of southern flounder. We improved the model fitting process by adding a hierarchical Bayesian framework to allow each parameter to vary spatially or temporally as a random effect, as well as log transforming the three model parameters (L∞, K, andt0). Multiple comparisons of parameters showed that growth rates varied (even within states) for females, but less for males. Growth rates were also consistent through time, when long-term data were available. Since within-basin populations are thought to be genetically well-mixed, our results suggest that consistent small-scale environmental conditions (i.e., within estuaries) likely drive growth rates and should be considered when developing broader scale management plans.

  10. Protective efficiency of an inactivated vaccine against Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Yong-Uk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a causative agent of hemorrhagic septicemia in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in Korea, resulting in serious economic losses. As a preventive measure, M VAC INIAE (Mastuken, Japan was prepared from the S. iniae F2K strain and tested against the SI-36 strain prevalent on flounder fish farms on Jeju Island, Korea. F2K had a serotype of 38 (− and SI-36 38 (+. The vaccine recognized both serotypes. It showed a very high effective immune response against S. iniae; the challenge test using the S. iniae SI-36 strain resulted in a relative percent survival (RPS of 85.7-87.0% 2 weeks after vaccination and 71.0-80.0% 6 months after vaccination. Field vaccination and clinical challenge tests were performed at local Jeju aquafarms with S. iniae SI-36. These showed significantly reduced cumulative mortality when compared to the control group with RPS rates that ranged between 71-80%. Hence, the present study suggests that this vaccine showed a significant immune response against S. iniae and could be applied in commercial aquafarms as a therapeutic agent against β-hemolytic streptococcosis in cultured P. olivaceus.

  11. LAMP-1-chimeric DNA vaccines enhance the antibody response in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón-Barragán, Iang; Nozaki, Reiko; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro

    2017-08-01

    DNA vaccination is one method to protect farmed fish from viral and bacterial diseases. Chimeric antigens encoded by DNA vaccines have been shown to increase the resistance to viral diseases. Here, we sequenced the gene encoding lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, (JfLAMP-1) and assessed its use in a chimeric DNA vaccine fused with the major capsule protein (MCP) from red seabream iridovirus (RSIV). JfLAMP-1 cDNA has a length of 1248 bp encoding 415 aa, which contains transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. JfLAMP-1 is constitutively expressed in several tissues and its expression in spleen was upregulated following injection of formalin-killed cells (FKC) of Edwardsiella tarda. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that JfLAMP-1 is distributed in the small and large granules in the cytoplasm and groups close to the nucleus. The DNA encoding the luminal domain of JfLAMP-1 was replaced with the gene for the RSIV MCP, and the construct was cloned in an expression vector (pCIneo). Fish vaccinated with pCLAMP-MCP had significantly higher antibody levels than fish vaccinated with pCIneo vector harboring the MCP gene (p day 30 post-vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional modifications associated with gastrointestinal tract organogenesis during metamorphosis in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ana S; Kamisaka, Yuko; Harboe, Torstein; Power, Deborah M; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2014-02-19

    Flatfish metamorphosis is a hormone regulated post-embryonic developmental event that transforms a symmetric larva into an asymmetric juvenile. In altricial-gastric teleost fish, differentiation of the stomach takes place after the onset of first feeding, and during metamorphosis dramatic molecular and morphological modifications of the gastrointestinal (GI-) tract occur. Here we present the functional ontogeny of the developing GI-tract from an integrative perspective in the pleuronectiforme Atlantic halibut, and test the hypothesis that the multiple functions of the teleost stomach develop synchronously during metamorphosis. Onset of gastric function was determined with several approaches (anatomical, biochemical, molecular and in vivo observations). In vivo pH analysis in the GI-tract lumen combined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) of α and β subunits of the gastric proton pump (H+/K+-ATPase) and pepsinogen A2 indicated that gastric proteolytic capacity is established during the climax of metamorphosis. Transcript abundance of ghrelin, a putative orexigenic signalling molecule produced in the developing stomach, correlated (p metamorphosis, and was thus independent of this event. Mechanical breakdown of food and transportation of chyme through the GI-tract was observed in vivo and resulted from phasic and propagating contractions established well before metamorphosis. The number of contractions in the midgut decreased at metamorphic climax synchronously with establishment of the stomach's proteolytic capacity and its increased peristaltic activity. Putative osmoregulatory competence of the GI-tract, inferred by abundance of Na+/K+-ATPase α transcripts, was already established at the onset of exogenous feeding and was unmodified by metamorphosis. The functional specialization of the GI-tract was not exclusive to metamorphosis, and its osmoregulatory capacity and reservoir function were established before first feeding. Nonetheless, acid production and the

  13. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene from olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Jongkyeong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1 is a critical component of interferon (IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling. Although seven isoforms of STAT proteins have been reported from mammals, limited information is available for the STAT genes in fish. We isolated complementary DNA with high similarity to mammalian STAT1 from the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Results A DNA fragment containing the conserved SH2 domain was amplified by RT-PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the highly conserved sequences in the SH2 domains of the zebrafish and mammalian STAT1. The complete cDNA sequence was obtained by 5' and 3' RACE. The flounder STAT1 transcript consisted of 2,909 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 749 amino acids. The overall similarity between flounder STAT1 and other STATs was very high, with the highest amino acid sequence identity to snakehead (89%. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that flounder STAT1 is in the same monophyletic group with snakehead STAT1. Quantitative real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that STAT1 was expressed in almost all examined organs and tissues, with high expression in gill, spleen, kidney, and heart. The accumulation of STAT1 mRNA in different developmental stages, as determined by real time RT-PCR, increased with development. Conclusion Recent cloning of various cytokine genes and the STAT1 gene of olive flounder here suggest that fish also use the highly specialized JAK-STAT pathway for cytokine signaling. Identification of other STAT genes will elucidate in detail the signal transduction system in this fish.

  14. Characterization and functional analysis of the Paralichthys olivaceus prdm1 gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peizhen; Wang, Bo; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Yuezhong; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Xubo

    2017-10-01

    PR domain containing protein 1 (Prdm1) is a transcriptional repressor identified in various species and plays multiple important roles in immune response and embryonic development. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the prdm1 gene. This study aims to characterize the promoter of Paralichthys olivaceus prdm1 (Po-prdm1) gene and determine the regulatory mechanism of Po-prdm1 expression. A 2000bp-long 5'-flanking region (translation initiation site designated as +1) of the Po-prdm1 gene was isolated and characterized. The regulatory elements in this fragment were then investigated and many putative transcription factor (TF) binding sites involved in immunity and multiple tissue development were identified. A 5'-deletion analysis was then conducted, and the ability of the deletion mutants to promote luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in a flounder gill cell line was examined. The results revealed that the minimal promoter is located in the region between -446 and -13bp, and the region between -1415 and -13bp enhanced the promoter activity. Site-directed mutation analysis was subsequently performed on the putative regulatory elements sites, and the results indicated that FOXP1, MSX and BCL6 binding sites play negative functional roles in the regulation of the Po-prdm1 expression in FG cells. In vivo analysis demonstrated that a GFP reporter gene containing 1.4kb-long promoter fragment (-1415/-13) was expressed in the head and trunk muscle fibres of transient transgenic zebrafish embryos. Our study provided the basic information for the exploration of Po-prdm1 regulation and expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  16. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low ( 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As water temperatures in the mid-Atlantic region continue to increase

  17. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  18. Comparative pathogenicity of Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes in juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, T J; Bricknell, I R; Preziosi, B M

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile Atlantic halibut (~100 mg, Hippoglossus hippoglossus) were exposed to Vibrio proteolyticus, a Vibrio spp. isolate, Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five different isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes via an hour-long bath immersion to ascertain their variation in pathogenicity to this fish species. Results were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Analysis of the data from challenges using A. salmonicida ssp. achromogenes revealed three survival values of zero and a spread of values from 0 to 28.43. Challenges using a Vibrio spp isolate, V. proteolyticus and P. damselae resulted in Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of 31.21, 50.41 and 57.21, respectively. As all bacterial species tested could induce juvenile halibut mortalities, they must all be considered as potential pathogens. However, the degree of pathogenicity of A. salmonicida is isolate dependent. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Determination of arsenic concentration in tiger tooth croaker (Otolithes ruber and indian halibut (Psettodes erumei using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rahimi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of their potential risk to human. This study was undertaken to determine the levels of arsenic in two fish type including tiger tooth croaker and Indian halibut  in Esfahan. A total of 42 fish samples including 28 tiger tooth croaker (Otolithes ruber and 14 Indian halibut (Psettodes erumei were collected from retails of Esfahan from May 2010 to January 2011. For detection of arsenic contamination, the edible muscles of  fish samples were analyzed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The arsenic contamination in fish samples were found to be in the range of 11 to 98 µg/kg. Concentration of arsenic in tiger tooth croaker and Indian halibut was 11-56 and 32-98 µg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were below the limit was acceptable to the World Health Organization. According to the results, the concentration of arsenic did not exceed the maximum acceptable intake limit.

  20. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed to mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Lin, Longshan; Chen, Quanzhen; Dou, Shuozeng

    2012-07-01

    To understand mercury (Hg) toxicity in marine fish, we measured Hg accumulation in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and assessed the effects on growth and antioxidant responses. After Hg exposure (control, 5, 40, and 160 μg/L Hg) for 28 d, fish growth was significantly reduced. The accumulation of Hg in fish was dose-dependent and tissue-specific, with the maximum accumulation in kidney and liver, followed by gills, bone, and muscle. Different antioxidants responded differently to Hg exposure to cope with the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), which was also tissue-specific and dosedependent. As Hg concentration increased, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly, whereas glutathione S -transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased significantly in the gills. SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and the GSH level increased significantly in the liver. SOD activity and GSH levels increased significantly, but CAT activity decreased significantly with an increase in Hg concentration in the kidney. LPO was induced significantly by elevated Hg in the gills and kidney but was least affected in the liver. Therefore, oxidative stress biomarkers in gills were more sensitive than those in the liver and kidney to Hg exposure. Thus, the gills have potential as bioindicators for evaluating Hg toxicity in juvenile flounder.

  1. Cadmium accumulation and elimination in tissues of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus after sub-chronic cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Jee, Jung-Hoon; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2004-01-01

    Cd accumulation and elimination in tissue of olive flounder. - Experiments were carried out to investigate the accumulation and elimination of cadmium (Cd) in tissues (gill, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle) of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to sub-chronic concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100 μg l -1 ) of Cd. Cd exposure resulted in an increased Cd accumulation in tissues of flounder with exposure periods and concentration, and Cd accumulation in gill and liver increased linearly with the exposure time. At 20 days of Cd exposure, the order of Cd accumulation in organs was gill > intestine > liver > kidney > muscle and after 30 days of exposure, those were intestine > gill > liver > kidney > muscle. An inverse relationship was observed between the accumulation factor (AF) and the exposure level, but AF showed an increase with exposure time. During the depuration periods, Cd concentration in the gill, intestine and liver decreased immediately following the end of the exposure periods. No significant difference was found Cd in concentration in the kidney and muscle during depuration periods. The order of Cd elimination rate in organs were decreased intestine > liver > gill during depuration periods

  2. Disruption of the thyroid system by the thyroid-disrupting compound Aroclor 1254 in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus.

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    Yifei Dong

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a group of persistent organochlorine compounds that have the potential to disrupt the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs in fish, particularly juveniles. In this study, thyroid histology, plasma TH levels, and iodothyronine deiodinase (IDs, including ID1, ID2, and ID3 gene expression patterns were examined in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus following 25- and 50-day waterborne exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000 ng/L with two-thirds of the test solutions renewed daily. The results showed that exposure to Aroclor 1254 for 50 d increased follicular cell height, colloid depletion, and hyperplasia. In particular, hypothyroidism, which was induced by the administration of 1000 ng/L Aroclor 1254, significantly decreased plasma TT4, TT3, and FT3 levels. Profiles of the changes in mRNA expression levels of IDs were observed in the liver and kidney after 25 and 50 d PCB exposure, which might be associated with a reduction in plasma THs levels. The expression level of ID2 mRNA in the liver exhibited a dose-dependent increase, indicating that this ID isotype might serve as sensitive and stable indicator for thyroid-disrupting chemical (TDC exposure. Overall, our study confirmed that environmentally relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 cause significant thyroid disruption, with juvenile Japanese flounder being suitable candidates for use in TDC studies.

  3. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on metamorphosis of a marine fish Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in relation to thyroid disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yifei; Zhang, Xiaona; Tian, Hua; Li, Xiang; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2017-06-15

    This study examined the influence of environmental concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000ng/L) on metamorphosis of Paralichthys olivaceus, and analyzed the mechanisms in relation to thyroid disruption. Results showed that 100 and 1000ng/L Aroclor 1254 delayed metamorphosis and that 1000ng/L Aroclor 1254 caused abnormal morphology. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels in the control group were significantly elevated at metamorphic climax, but treatment with 100 and 1000ng/L delayed the increase in thyroid hormones (THs) and retarded metamorphic processes. In larvae exposed to 1000ng/L Aroclor 1254, TH levels at metamorphic climax were significantly lower than those of the control group at the same metamorphic stage. We suggest that the effects of Aroclor 1254 on larval metamorphosis can be explained by disruption of thyroid homeostasis. These findings provide a new perspective and biological model for thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) screening and investigating interference of thyroid function by TDCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of lymphocystis disease virus in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and other marine teleosts from northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wenbin; Li, Yongqin; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Tang, Xiaoqian

    2010-11-01

    We isolated a strain of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) from Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) cultured in northern China. Based on published sequences of major capsid protein (MCP) gene of LCDV-cn (GenBank: AF126405), we designed two primer sets P1/P2 and P3/P4. We then used one-step or nested PCR and in-situ hybridization (ISH) to detect LCDV and identify the target tissues or cells in infected Japanese flounder. The PCR products were positive in purified viral supernatant, skin nodules, gut, gill, kidney, spleen, stomach, heart, and liver of Japanese flounder. We compared the DNA sequence with 14 MCP nucleotide sequences from GenBank, including Megalocytivirus (OFIV and RSIV), Iridovirus (CzIV and WIV), Ranavirus (TFV and FV3), and Lymphocystivirus (8 LCDV). Based on the alignment, we confirmed the PCR product was from Lymphocystivirus (GenBank accession number DQ279090 (LCDV-HD)). Using ISH, we noted the presence of LCDV in the skin nodules, gut, gill, spleen, stomach, and heart of spontaneously infected Japanese flounders. We successfully amplified LCDV fragments from Schlegel’s black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli Higendorf), redwing sea robin ( Lepidotrigla microptera Günther) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) using the one-step and nested PCR, suggesting the target genes can be widely detected in fish using this method.

  5. Osteología craneal comparada de tres especies de lenguado del género Paralichthys (Pleuronectiformes, Paralichthyidae del Atlántico suroccidental Comparative cranial osteology of three species of the flatfish genus Paralichthys (Pleuronectiformes, Paralichthyidae from the southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN M. DÍAZ DE ASTARLOA

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un análisis osteológico comparativo del esqueleto craneal en Paralichthys isosceles, P. orbignyanus y P. patagonicus, tres especies de lenguados presentes en el Atlántico suroccidental. Se describen las características de los componentes óseos y se detallan las diferencias morfológicas y morfométricas encontradas, con el fin de aportar elementos diagnósticos para la identificación taxonómica de las tres especies de Paralichthys. Se utilizaron técnicas de desarticulación de esqueletos, tanto en ejemplares frescos congelados, como en especímenes conservados en líquidos fijadores. También fueron usadas técnicas de clareado y tinción diferencial para ejemplares de pequeño tamaño. Se observaron potenciales características diagnósticas para la discriminación de las especies en los huesos paretmoides derecho, lacrimal izquierdo, anguloarticular, mesopterigoides, los otolitos y el número de dientes del dentario. Se discuten las relaciones entre los huesos y se comparan sus características con las halladas en otras especies del género Paralichthys, en particular, y en otros Pleuronectiformes en generalAn osteological analysis of the cranial skeleton of the southwestern Atlantic flatfish species Paralichthys isosceles, P. orbignyanus and P. patagonicus was carried out based on comparative morphology and morphometrics of the bones. The objective was to provide osteological evidence of diagnostic value for a correct identification of the flatfish species. Methods for preparing disarticulated skeletons were used for both dissected fresh-frosen and alcohol-preserved specimens. Also methods of clearing and staining for bone and cartilage were applied for small fish specimens. Potentially diagnostic features were found to distinguish among species in the right parethmoid, left lachrymal, angulo-articular, mesopterygoid, the otoliths, and the number of dentary teeth. Relationships between bones are discussed and bone

  6. Determinação de idades e crescimento do linguado branco Paralichthys patagonicus (Jordan, 1889 no sul do Brasil Age and growth of the white flounder Paralichthys patagonicus (Jordan, 1889 in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Neves de Araújo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A idade e o crescimento do linguado-branco Paralichthys patagonicus (Jordan, 1889 foram estudados a partir de amostras obtidas da pesca comercial no sul do Brasil entre 1989 e 1991. As idades foram determinadas sobre cortes transversais de otólitos de 460 exemplares. A análise do tipo de bordo e dos incrementos marginais dos otólitos mostrou que, a cada ano ocorre a formação de uma zona translúcida e uma zona opaca nos otólitos. As "remeas atingem maiores tamanhos e idades (630 mm, 13 anos do que os machos (527 mm, 11 anos. Os parâmetros da equação de von Bertalanffy que representaram o crescimento em comprimento total das remeas foram: CT∞,= 623,0 mm, K= 0,279 e to= -0,243 anos; dos machos: CT∞,= 534,1 mm, K= 0,214 e t o = -1,589 anos e dos sexos agrupados: CT∞, = 609,1 mm, K = 0,255 to = - 0,462 anos. Os incrementos anuais em peso por idades aumentam até o final do quarto ano de vida quando a maioria já atingiu a primeira maturação sexual e ambos sexos alcançaram cerca de 30% do peso e 70% do comprimento assintóticos. Esta espécie é susceptível à sobrepesca de crescimento porque o redirecionamento do metabolismo do crescimento somático para a reprodução é gradativo e o potencial de crescimento após a maturação sexual é relativamente alto.Age and growth of the white flounder Paralichthys patagonicus (Jordan, 1889 were studied using sliced sagittae otoliths of 460 specimens collected from the commercial fishery along southem Brazil (1989 to 1991. The changes in the type of last band in formation and the marginal increments analysis showed that one translucent and one opaque zone were formed each year. Females attained larger totallength (TL and older ages (630 mm, 13 yr than males (527 mm, 11 yr. The parameters ofthe von Bertalanffy growth equations were: for females - TL∞,= 623.0 mm, K= 0.279 and t o = - 0.243 yr; for males - TL∞,= 534.1 mm, K= 0.214, to = - 1.589 yr and for pooled sexes - TL∞, = 609.1 mm

  7. De Novo assembly of the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus spleen transcriptome to identify putative genes involved in immunity.

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    Lin Huang

    Full Text Available Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an economically important marine fish in Asia and has suffered from disease outbreaks caused by various pathogens, which requires more information for immune relevant genes on genome background. However, genomic and transcriptomic data for Japanese flounder remain scarce, which limits studies on the immune system of this species. In this study, we characterized the Japanese flounder spleen transcriptome using an Illumina paired-end sequencing platform to identify putative genes involved in immunity.A cDNA library from the spleen of P. olivaceus was constructed and randomly sequenced using an Illumina technique. The removal of low quality reads generated 12,196,968 trimmed reads, which assembled into 96,627 unigenes. A total of 21,391 unigenes (22.14% were annotated in the NCBI Nr database, and only 1.1% of the BLASTx top-hits matched P. olivaceus protein sequences. Approximately 12,503 (58.45% unigenes were categorized into three Gene Ontology groups, 19,547 (91.38% were classified into 26 Cluster of Orthologous Groups, and 10,649 (49.78% were assigned to six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Furthermore, 40,928 putative simple sequence repeats and 47, 362 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Importantly, we identified 1,563 putative immune-associated unigenes that mapped to 15 immune signaling pathways.The P. olivaceus transciptome data provides a rich source to discover and identify new genes, and the immune-relevant sequences identified here will facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immune response. Furthermore, the plentiful potential SSRs and SNPs found in this study are important resources with respect to future development of a linkage map or marker assisted breeding programs for the flounder.

  8. Effects of extruded pellet and moist pellet on growth performance, body composition, and hematology of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghan Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two different sizes of extruded pellets (EP (EP1 - 3 mm or EP2 - 5 mm and a moist pellet (MP in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, reared in semi-recirculation system. A total of 450 fish with an average initial weight of 5.0 ± 0.2 g (mean ± SD were fed one of the three experimental diets in triplicate groups. At the end of a 6-week feeding trial, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency of fish fed EP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed MP (P < 0.05. Water quality parameters like turbidity, total ammonia nitrogen, and total phosphorous from tanks of fish fed EP1 and EP2 were significantly lower than those from tanks of fish fed MP. Blood plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glucose concentration were significantly higher in fish fed MP diet compared to fish fed EP diets (P < 0.05. Whole body crude protein contents in fish fed EP diets were higher than those from the fish fed MP diet. Whole body amino acid content like threonine, aspartic acid, serine, tyrosine, and cystine were found to be significantly higher in fish fed EP diets than those in fish fed MP diet. In considering overall performance of olive flounder, EP2 diet could be recommended for the successful aquaculture of this important fish species.

  9. Population discrimination by strontium-calcium concentration ratios of sagittal otoliths taken from the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, I.; Chiba, D.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Iwasaki, S.; Matsuyama, S.

    1999-01-01

    For the purpose of obtaining basic data to understand the population dynamics of the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, inhabiting the Sanriku coastal waters, the concentration ratios of Ca and Sr in otoliths of juvenile fishes being cultivated for releasing to the regions, and those of adult fishes captured in both the Sanriku area (Aomori, Iwate and Miyagi) and Shizuoka prefecture coastal regions (as a comparison) were analysed using a particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The Sr/Ca ratios of otoliths taken from juvenile Japanese flounders had significant differences between Sanriku and Shizuoka sea-farming groups. The differences in otolith Sr/Ca ratios between Sanriku and Shizuoka sea-farming stations would thus differentiate flounder populations. No significant difference in otolith Sr/Ca ratios was observed among the Sanriku group. However, the values for Aomori group formed by small fishes in the Sanriku group seemed to be lower in proportion to their body size. Therefore, genetic characteristics of the juvenile Japanese flounder being reared at the sea-farming stations in Iwate and Miyagi prefectures are possibly different from those at an Aomori station. On the other hand, statistically significant differences in the otolith Sr/Ca ratios among Aomori, Iwate Miyagi and Shizuoka groups were found in the adult Japanese flounder. That is, higher values for the otolith Sr/Ca ratios were found in the groups inhabiting in the northern regions. The differences in otolith Sr/Ca ratios among these groups probably indicate that there are differences in the fish populations among these sample sites. (author)

  10. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on microtubule organization and nucleus changes in gynogenetically activated eggs of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhengmei; Zhu, Xiangping; Zhang, Tingrong; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Cao, Yuanshui

    2016-06-01

    Fluorescent double-labeled technique was used to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure on microtubule organization and nucleus in gynogenetically activated eggs of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The parameter of hydrostatic pressure treatment was 600 kg/cm(2) for 6 minutes at prometaphase of the first mitosis. The data showed that nucleus and microtubule changes of the diploid control were basically similar to those of the haploid one (5 minutes behind those of the diploid control). Nuclear diameter of the haploid embryo was significantly smaller than that of the diploid one (P pressure treatment. Centrosome renucleated microtubule, and a bipolar spindle reassembled 15 minutes after treatment, leading to occurrence of the first cleavage. During the second cell cycle, about 80% treated embryo had a single centrosome and formed a unipolar spindle in both blastomeres. After prometaphase, chromosomes spread around for about 20 minutes instead of aligning on the equatorial plane, then assembled and formed one large nucleus without anaphase separation. The second cleavage was inhibited, and the chromosome set was doubled. The data indicated that the chromosome set doubling of mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment, which performed at prometaphase of the first mitosis, mainly resulted from the inhibition of the second cleavage rather than the first one. This study is the first to adapt fluorescent double-labeled technique to investigate the mechanism on chromosome set doubling of mitotic gynogenesis induction. This study will offer theoretical support for mitogynogenetic diploid induction in marine fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in halibut, cod and prawns by on-line coupled LC-GC/MS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, A.; Schulzki, G.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation-induced hydrocarbons were analysed in a fatty (halibut) and a lean fish (cod) as well as in a prawn species by on-line coupled liquid chromatography (LC) - gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometrical detection. In irradiated halibut which contains mainly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids all expected radiolytic alkanes, alkenes and alkadienes could be detected. The yields of the C n-1 and C n-2:1 hydrocarbons were comparable with those found in irradiated lipids of land animals and plants. However, in cod and the prawn species which contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the C n-1 hydrocarbons were found in concentrations up to tenfold higher whereas the C n-2:1 products were again comparable to those of land animals and plants. The identification of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in fish lipids was achieved by transfer of the hydrocarbons from the LC column to the gas chromatographic column in fractions differing in the degree of unsaturation. For the first time radiation induced hydrocarbons with more than four double bonds generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (20:4ω6 and 20:5ω3) could be identified. (orig.) [de

  12. Effect of pomegranate (Punica granutum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts on shelf-life for chilled Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) fillets in modified atmosphere packaging at 2 ºC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ünalan, U.; Dalgaard, Paw; Korel, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of pomegranate extract (1% v/w) and rosemary extract (1% v/w) as natural preservatives as well as their combination (1% v/w) on shelf life extension of previously frozen and chilled Greenland halibut fillets in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 40%CO2/60%N2...

  13. Salinity mediates the toxic effect of nano-TiO2 on the juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xizhi; Lan, Yawen; Liu, Zekang; Huang, Wei; Guo, Qindan; Liu, Liping; Hu, Menghong; Sui, Yanming; Wu, Fangli; Lu, Weiqun; Wang, Youji

    2018-06-04

    Increased production of engineered nanoparticles has raised extensive concern about the potential toxic effects on marine organisms living in estuarine and coastal environments. Meanwhile, salinity is one of the key environmental factors that may influence the physiological activities in flatfish species inhabiting in those waters due to fluctuations caused by freshwater input or rainfall. In this study, we investigated the oxidative stress and histopathological alteration of the juvenile Paralichthys olivaceus exposed to nano-TiO 2 (1 and 10 mg L -1 ) under salinities of 10 and 30 psu for 4 days. In the gills, Na + -K + -ATPase activity significantly deceased after 4 days 10 psu exposure without nano-TiO 2 compared with 1 day of acclimating the salinity from the normal salinity (30 psu) to 10 psu. Under this coastal salinity, low concentration (1 mg L -1 ) of nano-TiO 2 exerted significant impacts. In the liver, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, the levels of lipid peroxide and malondialdehyde increased with nano-TiO 2 exposed under 30 psu. Such increase indicated an oxidative stress response. The result of the integrated biomarker responses showed that P. olivaceus can be adversely affected by high salinity and high concentration of nano-TiO 2 for a short-term (4 days) exposure. The histological analysis revealed the accompanying severe damages for the gill filaments. Principal component analysis further showed that the oxidative stress was associated with the nano-TiO 2 effect at normal salinity. These findings indicated that nano-TiO 2 and normal salinity exert synergistic effects on juvenile P. olivaceus, and low salinity plays a protective role in its physiological state upon short-term exposure to nano-TiO 2 . The mechanism of salinity mediating the toxic effects of NPs on estuarine fish should be further considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional relevance of three proopiomelanocortin (POMC) genes in darkening camouflage, blind-side hypermelanosis, and appetite of Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Duk-Young; Kim, Hyo-Chan

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether proopiomelanocortin (POMC) genes are involved in darkening color camouflage, blind-side hypermelanosis, and appetite in flatfish, we isolated and cloned three POMC genes from the pituitary of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and compared their amino acid (aa) structures to those of POMC genes from other animals. Next, we examined the relationship of these pituitary POMC genes to camouflage color change, blind-side hypermelanosis, and appetite by quantifying mRNA expression. Olive flounder (of)-POMC1, 2, and 3 cDNAs consisted of 648-bp, 582-bp, and 693-bp open reading frames (ORF) encoding 216 aa, 194 aa, and 231 aa residues, respectively. Structurally, the three of-POMC cDNAs consisted of seven peptides (signal peptide, N-POMC, α-MSH, CLIP, N-β-LPH, β-MSH and β-END [or END-like peptide]) that are similar to those of other fish POMC cDNAs. α-MSH encoded a protein composed of 13 aa and β-MSH encoded a protein composed of 17 aa. The three POMC genes were predominantly expressed in the pituitary gland, but they were also expressed in a variety of tissues, including brain, eye, kidney, heart, testis, and skin. of-POMC2 exhibited the highest expression, while of-POMC3 displayed the lowest expression. The relative levels of of-POMC1 and 3 mRNAs were not influenced by background color and feeding (or fasting), but the relative level of of-POMC2 mRNA significantly increased in response to a dark background and fasting. The relative levels of of-POMC1 and 2 mRNAs were significantly higher in hypermelanic fish; however, we did not determine a direct anorexigenic or orexigenic relationship for the three POMC genes. These results indicate that pituitary POMC genes are related to darkening color change and the differentiation of pigment cells, but they are not directly related to appetite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( P<0.01). Three live organisms were used for raising larvae and juveniles of Paralichthys olivaceus respectively for 15 and 10 d. Then the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of the larvae and juveniles were investigated. The results showed that the larvae and juveniles fed with copepods ( S. poplesia) had significantly higher growth rate than those fed with the other two organisms ( P<0.01). The survival of the flounder larvae fed with copepods was significantly higher than that of the others ( P<0.01), and the survival of the juvenile fish fed with copepods was higher than that fed with Artemia ( P<0.05). The contents of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  16. Evolutionary Conservation of pou5f3 Genomic Organization and Its Dynamic Distribution during Embryogenesis and in Adult Gonads in Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinning Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4 is a member of POU (Pit-Oct-Unc transcription factor family Class V that plays a crucial role in maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Though it has been deeply investigated in mammals, its lower vertebrate homologue, especially in the marine fish, is poorly studied. In this study, we isolated the full-length sequence of Paralichthys olivaceus pou5f3 (Popou5f3, and we found that it is homologous to mammalian Oct4. We identified two transcript variants with different lengths of 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs generated by alternative polyadenylation (APA. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization (ISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC were implemented to characterize the spatial and temporal expression pattern of Popou5f3 during early development and in adult tissues. Our results show that Popou5f3 is maternally inherited, abundantly expressed at the blastula and early gastrula stages, then greatly diminishes at the end of gastrulation. It is hardly detectable from the heart-beating stage onward. We found that Popou5f3 expression is restricted to the adult gonads, and continuously expresses during oogenesis while its dynamics are downregulated during spermatogenesis. Additionally, numerous cis-regulatory elements (CRE on both sides of the flanking regions show potential roles in regulating the expression of Popou5f3. Taken together, these findings could further our understanding of the functions and evolution of pou5f3 in lower vertebrates, and also provides fundamental information for stem cell tracing and genetic manipulation in Paralichthys olivaceus.

  17. Characterization of novel precursor miRNAs using next generation sequencing and prediction of miRNA targets in Atlantic halibut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshome Tilahun Bizuayehu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs are implicated in regulation of many cellular processes. miRNAs are processed to their mature functional form in a step-wise manner by multiple proteins and cofactors in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Many miRNAs are conserved across vertebrates. Mature miRNAs have recently been characterized in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize precursor miRNA (pre-miRNAs and miRNA targets in this non-model flatfish. Discovery of miRNA precursor forms and targets in non-model organisms is difficult because of limited source information available. Therefore, we have developed a methodology to overcome this limitation. METHODS: Genomic DNA and small transcriptome of Atlantic halibut were sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing and SOLiD next generation sequencing (NGS, respectively. Identified pre- miRNAs were further validated with reverse-transcription PCR. miRNA targets were identified using miRanda and RNAhybrid target prediction tools using sequences from public databases. Some of miRNA targets were also identified using RACE-PCR. miRNA binding sites were validated with luciferase assay using the RTS34st cell line. RESULTS: We obtained more than 1.3 M and 92 M sequence reads from 454 genomic DNA sequencing and SOLiD small RNA sequencing, respectively. We identified 34 known and 9 novel pre-miRNAs. We predicted a number of miRNA target genes involved in various biological pathways. miR-24 binding to kisspeptin 1 receptor-2 (kiss1-r2 was confirmed using luciferase assay. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that identification of conserved and novel pre-miRNAs in a non-model vertebrate lacking substantial genomic resources can be performed by combining different next generation sequencing technologies. Our results indicate a wide conservation of miRNA precursors and involvement of miRNA in multiple regulatory pathways, and provide resources for further research on mi

  18. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  19. Evaluation of the inflammatory response to Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 isolated from olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus in Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Meejung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kudoa septempunctata (Myxosporea, Multivalvulida is a parasite of the trunk muscle of cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus. We investigated whether K. septempunctata genotype ST3 spores induce cell damage and the secretion of inflammatory mediators in Caco-2 cells, which exhibit characteristics similar to human intestinal epithelial cells. Purified K. septempunctata spores were heated at 95 °C for 5 min. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release was measured to determine the efficacy of denaturation. Naïve and heated spores, lipopolysaccharide (positive control and vehicle (negative control were added to Caco-2 cells. Cells were subjected to the cytotoxic LDH assay and western blot analysis to examine the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2. Supernatants were collected to measure nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. Most spores were denaturated by heating, and the spore morphology was found to be wrinkled with shell valves and polar capsules. In addition, cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE2, iNOS, and COX-2, remained unchanged in Caco-2 cells following exposure to naïve and heated spores compared with the positive controls. Collectively, the findings of this study imply that spores of K. septempunctata genotype ST3 do not cause inflammation in Caco-2 cells.

  20. Effects of waterborne nitrite on hematological parameters and stress indicators in olive flounders, Paralichthys olivaceus, raised in bio-floc and seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Young; Lim, Lok-Ji; Kim, Su Kyoung; Choi, Hye Sung; Hur, Young Baek

    2018-06-11

    Juvenile olive flounders, Paralichthys olivaceus (mean weight 2.69 ± 0.31 g), were raised in bio-floc and seawater for six months, these P. olivaceus (mean weight 280.1 ± 10.5 g, mean length 28.37 ± 2.3 cm) were exposed to different concentrations of waterborne nitrite (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg NO 2 - /L) for 7 days. None of the P. olivaceus individuals exposed to bio-floc and seawater containing waterborne nitrite concentrations of 200 mg/L for 7 days survived. Hematological parameters (hemoglobin and hematocrit) were significantly reduced by nitrite exposure. Regarding plasma components, the concentrations of glucose, glutamic oxalate transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) increased significantly in response to nitrite exposure, whereas cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased. Stress indicators, including concentrations of plasma glucose, cortisol, and liver and gill concentrations of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) were significantly increased by nitrite exposure. The results of the study indicate that nitrite exposure affected the hematological parameters and stress indicators of P. olivaceus raised in bio-floc and seawater, and these changes were more prominent in the P. olivaceus raised in seawater than those raised in bio-floc. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes of cytochrome P4501A mRNA expression and physiology responses in the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.Y.; An, K.W.; Shin, H.S.; An, M.I.; Jo, P.G. [Korean Maritime University, Pusan (Republic of Korea). Division of Marine Environmental and Bioscience

    2008-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is generated by the incomplete combustion of organic substances such as oil and coal, and is a widespread organic environmental contaminant in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To determine the effects of BaP on organisms, we investigated its time- and dose-related effects on the levels of cytochrome P4501A (P4501A) mRNA in the liver and gills of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and measured the plasma glucose, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The full-length olive flounder P4501A cDNA consists of 1566 nucleotides and encodes a 521-amino-acid protein. In the liver and gills, the expression of P4501A mRNA was highest 6 h after exposure to both 10 and 30 gl{sup -1} BaP, and then decreased. In addition, the plasma parameters increased with exposure. These results suggest that P4501A plays an important role in the detoxification of BaP, which stressed the olive flounder. Therefore, these physiological parameters may be indicators of BaP-induced stress responses.

  2. Distortion of frontal bones results from cell apoptosis by the mechanical force from the up-migrating eye during metamorphosis in Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingyan; Wei, Fen; Li, Hui; Xu, Juan; Chen, Xinye; Gong, Xiaoling; Tian, Yongsheng; Chen, Songlin; Bao, Baolong

    2015-05-01

    Craniofacial remodeling during flatfish metamorphosis, including eye migration, is perhaps the most striking example of asymmetric postembryonic development in the vertebrate world. The asymmetry of the cranium mainly results from distortion of the frontal bones, which depends on eye migration during metamorphosis. However, it is unclear how the up-migrating eye causes distortion of the frontal bones. In this study, we first show that distortion of the frontal bones during metamorphosis in Paralichthys olivaceus is the result of cell apoptosis, rather than cell autophagy or cell proliferation. Secondly, we report that cell apoptosis in the frontal bones is induced by the mechanical force transferred from the up-migrating eye. The mechanical force from the up-migrating eye signals through FAK to downstream molecules that are integrated into the BMP-2 signal pathway. Finally, it is shown that cell apoptosis in the frontal bones is activated by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway; the extrinsic death receptor is not involved in this process. Moreover, cell apoptosis in frontal bones is not induced directly by thyroid hormones, which are thought to mediate metamorphosis in flatfishes and directly mediate cell apoptosis during amphibian metamorphosis. These findings help identify the major signaling route used during regulation of frontal bone distortion during metamorphosis in flatfish, and indicate that the asymmetry of the cranium, or at least the distortion of frontal bones, is the result of rather than the reason underlying eye migration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Resolution of fine biological structure including small narcomedusae across a front in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchie, Sam; Cowen, Robert; Nieto, Karen; Greer, Adam; Luo, Jessica Y.; Guigand, Cedric; Demer, David; Griffith, David; Rudnick, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    We sampled a front detected by SST gradient, ocean color imagery, and a Spray glider south of San Nicolas Island in the Southern California Bight between 14 and 18 October 2010. We sampled the front with an unusually extensive array of instrumentation, including the Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler (CUFES), the undulating In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) (fitted with temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence sensors), multifrequency acoustics, a surface pelagic trawl, a bongo net, and a neuston net. We found higher fluorescence and greater cladoceran, decapod, and euphausiid densities in the front, indicating increased primary and secondary production. Mesopelagic fish were most abundant in oceanic waters to the west of the front, market squid were abundant in the front associated with higher krill and decapod densities, and jack mackerel were most common in the front and on the shoreward side of the front. Egg densities peaked to either side of the front, consistent with both offshore (for oceanic squid and mesopelagic fish) and shelf origins (for white croaker and California halibut). We discovered unusually high concentrations of predatory narcomedusae in the surface layer of the frontal zone. Potential ichthyoplankton predators were more abundant either in the front (decapods, euphausiids, and squid) or shoreward of the front (medusae, chaetognaths, and jack mackerel). For pelagic fish like sardine, which can thrive in less productive waters, the safest place to spawn would be offshore because there are fewer potential predators.

  4. Inversión ocular en Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867 lenguado de ojos chicos (Pleuronectiformes, Paralichthyidae: un caso del ambiente y un análisis en ejemplares cultivados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Flores

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En diversas especies de Pleuronectiformes se han registrado casos de inversión ocular, fenómeno, en que el individuo reposa en el fondo por el lado contrario al habitual y/o normal. La proporción en que se presenta esta condición es variable y depende de las especies que se analicen. En el género Paralichthys se ha reportado inversión ocular en cuatro especies: P. albigutta, P. orbignyanus, P. californicus y P. dentatus. En el presente trabajo, se informa la captura de un ejemplar silvestre de Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867, con inversión ocular, capturado en Caldera (Chile. También, se han reportado individuos invertidos de esta especie provenientes de un cultivo, a partir de reproductores que fueron capturados en Bahía Coquimbo. En ejemplares diestros y siniestros proveniente de cultivo, se efectuó comparación de relaciones morfométricas. La proporción de peces con inversión ocular y que provienen de un cultivo, representa 2,2% de la población de peces producidos. Se discute la frecuencia de este tipo de anomalías y las probables causas que las estarían produciendo.

  5. Comparative analysis of distinctive transcriptome profiles with biochemical evidence in bisphenol S- and benzo[a]pyrene-exposed liver tissues of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Hyun Jung

    Full Text Available Flounder is a promising model species for environmental monitoring of coastal regions. To assess the usefulness of liver transcriptome profiling, juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were exposed to two pollutants, bisphenol S (BPS and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which have different chemical characteristics and have distinct modes of metabolic action in teleost. Six hours after intraperitoneal injection with BPS (50 mg/kg bw or BaP (20 mg/kg bw, liver transcriptomes were analyzed using the Illumina Hiseq 3000 platform. Interestingly, the transcriptome was highly sensitive and was distinctively expressed in response to each chemical. The primary effect of BPS was significantly increased transcription of egg process and vitellogenesis related genes, including vitellogenins (vtg1, vtg2, zona pellucida sperm-binding proteins (zp3, zp4, and estrogen receptors (erα, erβ, with increases in plasma 17β-estradiol (E2 and vitellogenin (VTG concentrations. Following BaP treatment, detoxification- and biotransformation-related genes such as cyp1a1 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (ugt1a1 were significantly increased, with an increase in EROD activity. In both transcriptomes, mRNA expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense systems was increased, while genes involved in innate immunity were decreased upon BPS or BaP exposure with a decrease in complement activity. This study provides useful insight into the chemical-specific hepatic transcriptional response of P. olivaceus and suggests a basis for further studies examining biomarker application of liver transcriptomes for environmental pollution.

  6. Acute toxicity profile of cadmium revealed by proteomics in brain tissue of Paralichthys olivaceus: Potential role of transferrin in cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jinyong; Huang Heqing; Bao Xiaodong; Lin Qingmei; Cai Zongwei

    2006-01-01

    An analytical approach using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) separated proteins from the brain tissue of the fish Paralichthys olivaceus. Approximately 600 protein spots were detected from the brain sample when applying 600 μg protein to a 2D-PAGE gel in the pH range 3.5-10.0. Compared to a control sample, significant changes of 24 protein spots were observed in the fish tissue exposed to acute toxicity of seawater cadmium (SCAT) at 10 ppm for 24 h. Among these spots, nine were down-regulated, nine were up-regulated, two showed high expression, and four showed low expression. The collected spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and database search, and they were further classified by LOCtree, a hierarchical system of support vector machines which predict their sub-cellular localization. The amount of transferrin expression in brain cells decreased linearly with the increase of SCAT concentration in seawater. Among the 24 proteins identified on a 2D-PAGE gel, 9 demonstrated a synchronous response to acute cadmium, suggesting that they might represent a biomarker profile. Based on their variable levels and trends on the 2D-PAGE gel this protein (likely to be transferrin) suggesting they might be utilized as biomarkers to investigate cadmium pollution levels in seawater and halobios survival, as well as to evaluate the degree of risk of human fatalities. The results indicate that the application of multiple biomarkers has an advantage over a single biomarker for monitoring levels of environmental contamination

  7. Identification of immunogenic proteins and evaluation of four recombinant proteins as potential vaccine antigens from Vibrio anguillarum in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jing; Xu, Hongsen; Wang, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-05-31

    Vibrio anguillarum is a severe bacterial pathogen that can infect a wide range of fish species. Identification of immunogenic proteins and development of vaccine are essential for disease prevention. In this study, immunogenic proteins were screened and identified from V. anguillarum, and then protective efficacy of the immunogenic proteins was evaluated. Immunogenic proteins in V. anguillarum whole cell were detected by Western blotting (WB) using immunized flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) serum, and then identified by Mass spectrometry (MS). The recombinant proteins of four identified immunogenic proteins were produced and immunized to fish, and then percentages of surface membrane immunoglobulin-positive (sIg+) cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), total antibodies, antibodies against V. anguillarum, antibodies against recombinant proteins and relative percent survival (RPS) were measured, respectively. The results showed that five immunogenic proteins, VAA, Groel, OmpU, PteF and SpK, were identified; their recombinant proteins, rOmpU, rGroel, rSpK and rVAA, could induce the proliferation of sIg+ cells in PBL and production of total antibodies, antibodies against V. anguillarum and antibodies against the recombinant proteins; their protection against V. anguillarum showed 64.86%, 72.97%, 21.62% and 78.38% RPS, respectively. The results revealed that the immunoproteomic technique using fish anti-V. anguillarum serum provided an efficient way to screen the immunogenic protein for vaccine antigen. Moreover, the rVAA, rGroel and rOmpU had potential to be vaccine candidates against V. anguillarum infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antigen uptake and expression of antigen presentation-related immune genes in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) after vaccination with an inactivated Edwardsiella tarda immersion vaccine, following hyperosmotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingli; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    Antigen uptake is a critical process for activation of the immune system, and therefore the ability to enhance antigen uptake is a primary consideration in the development of an immersion vaccination of fish. In the present work, flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) were immersed in three hyperosmotic solutions with 40, 50 and 60‰ salinities, then transferred into seawater of normal salinity (i.e. 30‰) containing formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda for 30 min. The antigen uptake in vaccinated flounder was determined using an absolute quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed significantly higher antigen uptake in the tissues of flounders immersed in solutions with 50‰ and 60‰ salinity compared to the control group directly immersed in vaccine (DI) (P immersed in the 50‰ salinity solution, whereas there was no significant difference in antigen uptake between the 40‰ salinity group and the DI group (P > 0.05). A rapid and significant increase in antigen uptake was detected in the mucosal-associated tissues including the gill, skin and intestine (P immersion, which was significantly higher than the levels of uptake measured in the other tissues (P immersion (hpi). The expression profiles of four antigen presentation-related immune genes (MHC Iα, MHC IIα, CD4-1 and CD8α) were investigated after immersion. These four genes showed a significantly stronger response in the immersed flounders exposed to 50‰ salinity compared with the DI group (P immersion, notably 50‰ salinity significantly enhanced antigen uptake and the expression of selected genes associated with antigen presentation, providing evidence for an enhanced immune activation of the fish's immune response by the hyperosmotic immersion treatment prior to vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Juan C; Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1-6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon.

  10. Characteristics of the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) and its expression in response to LCDV and poly I:C challenges in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guo-Bin; Lou, Hui-Min; Dong, Xian-Zhi; Liu, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2012-10-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has been identified as a key transcriptional mediator regulating expression of both type I interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, the cDNA and genomic sequences of IRF5 were isolated from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The gene of Japanese flounder (Jf)IRF5 is 7326 bp long, contains 9 exons and 8 introns and encodes a putative protein of 472 amino acids. The predicted protein sequence shares 61.1-81.9% identity to fish IRF5 and possesses a DNA-binding domain (DBD), a middle region (MR), an IRF association domain (IAD), a virus activated domain (VAD) and two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) conserved in all known IRF5s. Phylogenetic analysis clustered it into the teleost IRF5 subgroup within vertebrate IRF5 group. JfIRF5 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, with higher levels observed in the gills and head kidney. Gene expression of JfIRF5 was analyzed over a 7-day time course in the gills, head kidney, spleen and muscle of Japanese flounders challenged with lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). The data showed that JfIRF5 expression was slightly up-regulated by LCDV, but its induction time was clearly moved up; in contrast, the induction upon poly I:C challenge started not earlier than day 2 post-injection and was stronger and more persistent with a later peak time in all four organs. The late and long-lasting inductive expression of JfIRF5 following poly I:C challenge suggests that it might be an interferon stimulated gene (ISG), the induction of which is driven by poly I:C-induced type I IFNs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclei fluorescence microscopic observation on early embryonic development of mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhengmei; Zhu, Xiangping; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Cao, Yuanshui

    2015-05-01

    Sperm genetic material of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation. The nuclear phase changes during early embryonic development of diploid, haploid, and mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment were observed under fluorescent microscope with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. The parameters of hydrostatic pressure treatment were 600 kg/cm(2) for 6 minutes at prometaphase stage. The data showed that developmental timing sequence of diploid and haploid fertilized eggs was similar. The cell cycle was about 48 minutes, including interphase (about 21 minutes), prophase (about 3 minutes), prometaphase (about 6 minutes), metaphase (about 6 minutes), anaphase (around 9 minutes), and telophase (about 3 minutes). After entering the fertilized egg, ultraviolet-inactivated sperm formed a male pronucleus and became a dense chromatin body in the cytoplasm. Dense chromatin body did not participate in nuclear division and unchanged all the time. For hydrostatic pressure-treated embryos, the first nuclear division and cytokinesis after treatment proceeded normally after about 15 minutes recovery. During the second mitosis, having undergone interphase, prophase, and prometaphase stage, chromosomes began to slowly spread around and scattered in the cell but not entered into metaphase and anaphase. The second nuclear division and cytokinesis was inhibited. The occurrence frequency of developmentally delayed embryos also showed that the second cleavage of about 80% treated eggs was inhibited. The inhibition of the second cleavage resulted to chromosome set doubling. So chromosome set doubling for mitogynogenetic flounder diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment, performed at prometaphase stage, was mainly due to inhibition of the second mitosis rather than the first one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of insulin-like growth factor I receptors at mRNA and protein levels during metamorphosis of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junling; Shi, Zhiyi; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Xiaowu

    2011-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an important regulator of fish growth and development, and its biological actions are initiated by binding to IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). Our previous study has revealed that IGF-I could play an important role during metamorphosis of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The analysis of IGF-IR expression thus helps further elucidate the IGF-I regulation of metamorphic processes. In this study, the spatial-temporal expression of two distinct IGF-IR mRNAs was investigated by real-time RT-PCR. The spatial distribution of two IGF-IR mRNAs in adult tissues is largely overlapped, but they exhibit distinct temporal expression patterns during larval development. A remarkable decrease in IGF-IR-2 mRNA was detected during metamorphosis. In contrast, a significant increase in IGF-IR-1 mRNA was determined from pre-metamorphosis to metamorphic completion. These indicate that they may play different function roles during the flounder metamorphosis. The levels and localization of IGF-IR proteins during larval development were further studied by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactive IGF-IRs were detected throughout larval development, and the IGF-IR proteins displayed a relatively abundant expression during metamorphosis. Moreover, the IGF-IR proteins appeared in key tissues, such as thickened skin beneath the migrating eye, developing intestine, gills and kidney during metamorphosis. These results further suggest that the IGF-I system may be involved in metamorphic development of Japanese flounder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  14. Teale California shoreline

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  15. California Workforce: California Faces a Skills Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2011

    2011-01-01

    California's education system is not keeping up with the changing demands of the state's economy--soon, California will face a shortage of skilled workers. Projections to 2025 suggest that the economy will continue to need more and more highly educated workers, but that the state will not be able to meet that demand. If current trends persist,…

  16. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    addition, several Federal candidate species, the California Hibiscus , California tiger salamander, Sacramento Anthicid Beetle, Sacramento Valley tiger...Board, California Waste Management Board, and Department of Health Services contribute to this list. The Yolo County Health Services Agency maintains and...operation and maintenance of the completed recreational facility. Recreation development is limited to project lands unless health and safety

  17. Sediment transport processes at the head of Halibut Canyon, Eastern Canada margin: An interplay between internal tides and dense shelf water cascading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Greenan, Blair J. W.; Li, Michael Z.; Prescott, Robert H.; Piper, David J. W.

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the processes by which sediment is transported through a submarine canyon incised in a glaciated margin, the bottom boundary layer quadrapod RALPH was deployed at 276-m depth in the West Halibut Canyon (off Newfoundland) during winter 2008-2009. Two main sediment transport processes were identified throughout the deployment. Firstly, periodic increases of near-bottom suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) were recorded associated with the up-canyon propagation of the semidiurnal internal tidal bore along the canyon axis, carrying fine sediment particles resuspended from deeper canyon regions. The recorded SSC peaks, lasting less than one hour, were observed sporadically and were linked to bottom intensified up-canyon flows concomitant with sharp drops in temperature. Secondly, sediment transport was also observed during events of intensified down-canyon current velocities that occurred during periods of sustained heat loss from surface waters, but were not associated with large storms. High-resolution velocity profiles throughout the water column during these events revealed that the highest current speeds (~1 m s-1) were centered several meters above the sea floor and corresponded to the region of maximum velocities of a gravity flow. Such flows had associated low SSC and cold water temperatures and have been interpreted as dense shelf water cascading events channelized along the canyon axis. Sediment transport during these events was largely restricted to bedload and saltation, producing winnowing of sands and fine sediments around larger gravel particles. Analysis of historical hydrographic data suggests that the origin of such gravity flows is not related to the formation of coastal dense waters advected towards the canyon head. Rather, the dense shelf waters appear to be generated around the outer shelf, where convection during winter is able to reach the sea floor and generate a pool of near-bottom dense water that cascades into the canyon

  18. The integrated analysis of RNA-seq and microRNA-seq depicts miRNA-mRNA networks involved in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Wang, Ruoqing; Wang, Renkai; Tian, Yongsheng; Shao, Changwei; Jia, Xiaodong; Chen, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Albinism, a phenomenon characterized by pigmentation deficiency on the ocular side of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), has caused significant damage. Limited mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) information is available on fish pigmentation deficiency. In this study, a high-throughput sequencing strategy was employed to identify the mRNA and miRNAs involved in P. olivaceus albinism. Based on P. olivaceus genome, RNA-seq identified 21,787 know genes and 711 new genes by transcripts assembly. Of those, 235 genes exhibited significantly different expression pattern (fold change ≥2 or ≤0.5 and q-value≤0.05), including 194 down-regulated genes and 41 up-regulated genes in albino versus normally pigmented individuals. These genes were enriched to 81 GO terms and 9 KEGG pathways (p≤0.05). Among those, the pigmentation related pathways-Melanogenesis and tyrosine metabolism were contained. High-throughput miRNA sequencing identified a total of 475 miRNAs, including 64 novel miRNAs. Furthermore, 33 differentially expressed miRNAs containing 13 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated miRNAs were identified in albino versus normally pigmented individuals (fold change ≥1.5 or ≤0.67 and p≤0.05). The next target prediction discovered a variety of putative target genes, of which, 134 genes including Tyrosinase (TYR), Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were overlapped with differentially expressed genes derived from RNA-seq. These target genes were significantly enriched to 254 GO terms and 103 KEGG pathways (p<0.001). Of those, tyrosine metabolism, lysosomes, phototransduction pathways, etc., attracted considerable attention due to their involvement in regulating skin pigmentation. Expression patterns of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNAs were validated in 10 mRNA and 10 miRNAs by qRT-PCR. With high-throughput mRNA and miRNA sequencing and analysis, a series of interested mRNA and miRNAs involved in fish

  19. INTERACTION BETWEEN DIETARY MINERAL AND PHYTASE ON BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF JAPANESE FLOUNDER, Paralichthys olivaceus. PART II. MINERAL DIGESTIBILITY AND VERTEBRAL MINERAL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive effects between dietary inorganic phosphorus (IP and phytase (P on mineral digestibility and vertebral mineral content were investigated in a 30 days feeding trial followed by three weeks digestibility trial with Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight experimental diets were formulated based on two levels of dietary Ca at 0% and 0.2% combined with either 0% or 0.25% of dietary IP and either with 0 and 2,000 fytase unit (FTU/kg of phytase in diet, respectively. Result indicated that digestibility of total phosphorus significantly increased by three dietary compounds where the highest was observed in fish fed diet contained 0.25% IP and 2,000 FTU phytase/kg and dietary Ca also included in diet. Significant interaction was only detected between dietary IP and P on this parameter. Supplementation of IP and Ca not phytase significantly improved Ca digestibility. Ca digestibility was very poor when dietary IP and Ca were not supplemented in diet even with when phytase supplemented in diet. There was significant interaction between dietary IP and Ca on Ca digestibility. Vertebral total phosphorus, Ca, and Mg content as well as Ca:P ratio were significantly enhanced by dietary IP and phytase. Dietary Ca has significant effect only on vertebral total phosphorus. Interaction between dietary IP and Ca was significantly found on vertebral Ca content and Ca:P ratio. No significant second-order interaction was observed among the three dietary mineral on overall parameters. Based on total phosphorus and Ca digestibility as well vertebral phosphorus content found in this study, dietary IP, Ca, and phytase at rate of 0.25%, 0.2%, and 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet, respectively are needed to supplement in diet for a better mineral absorption and bone mineralization.

  20. Natural copepods are superior to enriched artemia nauplii as feed for halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) in terms of survival, pigmentation and retinal morphology: relation to dietary essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, R J; Bell, J G; Luizi, F S; Gara, B; Bromage, N R; Sargent, J R

    1999-06-01

    Replicate groups of halibut larvae were fed to d 71 post-first feeding (PFF) either the marine copepod, Eurytemora velox, or Artemia nauplii doubly enriched with the marine chromist or golden algae, Schizochytrium sp., (Algamac 2000) and a commercial oil emulsion (SuperSelco). The fatty acid compositions of eyes, brains and livers from larvae fed the two diets were measured, and indices of growth, eye migration and skin pigmentation were recorded along with histological examinations of eye and liver. The docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3); DHA]/eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5(n-3); EPA] ratios in Artemia nauplii enriched with the SuperSelco and Algamac 2000 were 0.4 and 1.0, respectively. The E. velox copepods were divided into two size ranges (125-250 and 250-400 microm) with the smaller size range containing the highest level of (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). The DHA/EPA ratios for the two size ranges of copepods were 2.0 and 0.9, respectively. The total lipids of eyes, brains and livers of larvae fed copepods had higher levels of DHA and lower levels of EPA than those of larvae fed enriched Artemia. The percentage of survival of the halibut larvae was significantly higher when copepods rather than enriched Artemia nauplii were fed, but larval specific growth rates did not differ. The indices of eye migration were high and not significantly different in larvae fed the two diets, but the percentage of larvae undergoing successful metamorphosis (complete eye migration and dorsal pigmentation) was higher in larvae fed copepods (40%) than in larvae fed enriched Artemia (4%). The rod/cone ratios in histological sections of the retina were 2.5 +/- 0.7 in larvae fed copepods and 1.3 +/- 0.6 in larvae fed enriched Artemia (P < 0.01). Histological examination of the livers and intestines of the larvae were consistent with better assimilation of lipid from copepods than lipid from Artemia nauplii up to 46 d post-first feeding. Thus, marine copepods are superior to

  1. Paralichthys patagonicus spawning areas and reproductive potential in the Bonaerense Coastal Zone, Argentina (34°-42°S Áreas de desove y potencial reproductivo de Paralichthys patagonicus en la Zona Costera Bonaerense, Argentina (34°-42°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Militelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Patagonian flounder (Paralichthys patagonicus was studied in the Bonaerense Coastal Zone (34°-42°S using samples collected in December 2003 and 2005. According to the literature, the data were analyzed considering two population groups: one in the northern zone (34°-38°S and another in El Rincón (38°-42°S. The estimated size at first maturity for both sexes in 2003 was 31.57 cm TL for the northern zone and 29.58 cm TL for El Rincón. In 2005, the L50 was only estimated for the northern zone, and the value obtained was less than that of 2003 (27.82 cm TL. In December 2003, the greatest reproductive activity took place in El Rincón. However, in December 2005, the highest proportions of hydrated fe-males were observed in the northern area. This could be due to the cooler temperatures recorded for this zone, as compared with 2003. Batch fecundity showed a potential fit to size and a lineal fit to weight and ranged from 14,685 (30 cm TL to 153,717 ( 59 cm TL hydrated oocytes. Relative fecundity oscillated between 24 and 170 hydrated oocytes/g. The values of these parameters differed between years and among population groups. These differences could be attributed in part to the difference in seawater temperature between the two years, especially the high temperatures observed in 2005.Se estudió la biología reproductiva del lenguado (Paralichthys patagonicus en la Zona Costera Bonaerense (34°-42°S. El material provino de muestreos realizados durante diciembre de 2003 y 2005. En base a la bibliografía los datos fueron analizados teniendo en cuenta dos grupos poblacionales, uno en el norte (34-38°S y otro en El Rincón (38-42°S. La estimación de la talla de primera madurez en 2003 para ambos sexos fue de 31.57 cm. LT para la zona norte y de 29.58 cm LT para El Rincón. En 2005 solo se pudo estimar el L50 para la zona norte y el valor obtenido fue menor al 2003 (27.82 cm. LT. En diciembre del 2003 la mayor

  2. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete set of 40S ribosomal proteins in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes): phylogeny and tissue- and development-specific expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, Jose Pedro; Douglas, Susan E

    2007-07-03

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs) are key components of ribosomes, the cellular organelle responsible for protein biosynthesis in cells. Their levels can vary as a function of organism growth and development; however, some RPs have been associated with other cellular processes or extraribosomal functions. Their high representation in cDNA libraries has resulted in the increase of RP sequences available from different organisms and their proposal as appropriate molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis. The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), two commercially important flatfish species, has made possible the identification and systematic analysis of the complete set of RP sequences for the small (40S) ribosome subunit. Amino acid sequence comparisons showed a high similarity both between these two flatfish species and with respect to other fish and human. EST analysis revealed the existence of two and four RPS27 genes in Senegalese sole and Atlantic halibut, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis clustered RPS27 in two separate clades with their fish and mammalian counterparts. Steady-state transcript levels for eight RPs (RPS2, RPS3a, RPS15, RPS27-1, RPS27-2, RPS27a, RPS28, and RPS29) in sole were quantitated during larval development and in tissues, using a real-time PCR approach. All eight RPs exhibited different expression patterns in tissues with the lowest levels in brain. On the contrary, RP transcripts increased co-ordinately after first larval feeding reducing progressively during the metamorphic process. The genomic resources and knowledge developed in this survey will provide new insights into the evolution of Pleuronectiformes. Expression data will contribute to a better understanding of RP functions in fish, especially the mechanisms that govern growth and development in larvae, with implications in aquaculture.

  3. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete set of 40S ribosomal proteins in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes: phylogeny and tissue- and development-specific expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañavate Jose

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribosomal proteins (RPs are key components of ribosomes, the cellular organelle responsible for protein biosynthesis in cells. Their levels can vary as a function of organism growth and development; however, some RPs have been associated with other cellular processes or extraribosomal functions. Their high representation in cDNA libraries has resulted in the increase of RP sequences available from different organisms and their proposal as appropriate molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis. Results The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus, two commercially important flatfish species, has made possible the identification and systematic analysis of the complete set of RP sequences for the small (40S ribosome subunit. Amino acid sequence comparisons showed a high similarity both between these two flatfish species and with respect to other fish and human. EST analysis revealed the existence of two and four RPS27 genes in Senegalese sole and Atlantic halibut, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis clustered RPS27 in two separate clades with their fish and mammalian counterparts. Steady-state transcript levels for eight RPs (RPS2, RPS3a, RPS15, RPS27-1, RPS27-2, RPS27a, RPS28, and RPS29 in sole were quantitated during larval development and in tissues, using a real-time PCR approach. All eight RPs exhibited different expression patterns in tissues with the lowest levels in brain. On the contrary, RP transcripts increased co-ordinately after first larval feeding reducing progressively during the metamorphic process. Conclusion The genomic resources and knowledge developed in this survey will provide new insights into the evolution of Pleuronectiformes. Expression data will contribute to a better understanding of RP functions in fish, especially the mechanisms that govern growth and development in larvae, with implications in aquaculture.

  4. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  5. California Institute for Water Resources - California Institute for Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Skip to Content Menu California Institute for Water Resources Share Print Site Map Resources Publications Keep in Touch QUICK LINKS Our Blog: The Confluence Drought & Water Information University of California California Institute for Water Resources California Institute for Water Resources

  6. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  7. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  8. California Harpoon Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data from harpoon vessels that fish within 200 miles of the California coast, from 1974 to present. The harpoon...

  9. Kelp distribution off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set delineates kelp beds (Nereocystis leutkeana and Macrocystis spp.) along the Pacific Coast of California. Multiple years of kelp mapping data for the...

  10. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  11. California Watershed Hydrologic Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is intended to be used as a tool for water-resource management and planning activities, particularly for site-specific and localized studies requiring a...

  12. Insight into the heat resistance of fish via blood: Effects of heat stress on metabolism, oxidative stress and antioxidant response of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunliang; Wu, Zhihao; Song, Zongcheng; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Peijun; You, Feng

    2016-11-01

    High temperature has direct confinement on fish survival and growth, especially under the background of global warming. Selection of fish line with heat resistance is an important means to address this problem. In the present study, we analyzed the difference in heat resistance between families of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and turbot Scophthalmus maximus, two flatfish species occupying slightly different thermal niches. Then the chosen families were tested to determine their differential response to heat stress (ΔT = +8 °C and +12 °C) in blood, including anaerobic metabolism (lactate), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation) and antioxidant enzymes. Results showed a difference in heat resistance between families of the two species. Among the chosen parameters, growth traits had a significant effect on contents of lactate and malondialdehyd (MDA), and activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase in flounder (P heat-sensitive family of each species, levels of all studied parameters were lower and more stable in heat-resistant families after heat stress. What's more, heat resistance of fish significantly influenced contents of lactate and MDA and activity of CAT in flounder (P heat-resistance, being potentially valuable in fish breeding. However, these markers should be applied with more caution when there is a growth discrepancy between fish families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Private Schools, California, 2009, California Department of Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — California law (California Education Code Section 33190) requires private schools offering or conducting a full-time elementary or secondary level day school for...

  14. The California Hazards Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  15. The Story of California = La Historia de California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nick

    "The Story of California" is a history and geography of the state of California, intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The book is designed with the left page in English and the right page in Spanish to facilitate student transition into…

  16. LLWPA: Implementation in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.; Romano, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    US Ecology has been designated by the State of California to locate, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In early 1986, the firm identified eighteen desert basins in southeastern California for siting considerations. Three candidate sites were selected for detailed field characterization work in February, 1987. A preferred site for licensing purposes will be identified in late 1987. California is currently ahead of the siting milestone schedule mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act. It is likely that a license application will be filed in mid-1988, well before the 1990 milestone date. It is anticipated that the site will be constructed around that milestone date. This paper describes the process undertaken by US Ecology to identify three candidate sites for characterization, and the public involvement program supporting this decision. Future activities leading to a final site development are also described

  17. Transit performance measures in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This research is the result of a California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) request to assess the most commonly : available transit performance measures in California. Caltrans wanted to understand performance measures and data used by : Metr...

  18. Solar: California, not dreaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-03-15

    The California Solar Initiative (CSI) was approved by the California Public Utilities Commission (PUC) in January 2006. The CSI is the largest solar programme of this kind ever in the USA and provides for $3.2 billion in incentives for solar projects between 2007 and 2017. The PUC will oversee a $2.5 billion programme to provide funding for solar installations on commercial and existing residential buildings, while the California Energy Commission (CEC) will manage a separate $350 million fund targeted at new residential building. Existing solar programmes operated by the PUC and CEC will be consolidated into the CSI. The CEC programme will use already allocated funding, but the PUC programme will be funded through revenues collected from customers of the main gas and electric utilities in California. Funds will be distributed via rebates to householders or companies that install solar. As well as solar photovoltaics (PV), rebates will also go to solar thermal power (concentrating solar power) and solar heating and cooling. CSI funding can be used in combination with existing federal tax credits. The aim is a gradual increase from installation of 40 MW of PV in 2005 to 100 MW by 2009. The CSI is also expected to create favourable market conditions for PV manufacturers in California and to encourage investment in production of solar-grade silicon in or near California. Objections from the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) appear to have been overcome but a number of other potential snags remain. CSI is expected to be replicated in other US states.

  19. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  20. California Budget Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The California Budget Challenge produced by Next10 provides a useful and intuitive tool for instructors to introduce students to public budgeting. Students will reason through a series of budgeting decisions using information provided on the fiscal and practical implications of their choices. The Challenge is updated with each budget cycle, so it…

  1. Oak management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb. Timothy R.; Philip M. McDonald

    1981-01-01

    Native oak species grow on 15 to 20 million acres (6 to 8 million ha) of California land, and have an estimated net volume of about 3 billion ft3 (85 million m3). This resource, valuable not only for traditional wood products, but also for wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreational-esthetic values, is not...

  2. California's Perfect Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, David

    2010-01-01

    The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…

  3. FELLOWS ADDRESS California Dreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van Kees

    2017-01-01

    California was the first jurisdiction to mandate a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. This target was subsequently endorsed by the G8 in 2009 and the European Commission in 2014, and is the guiding principle of the 2015 Paris Agreement. To achieve these

  4. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  5. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  6. 78 FR 77447 - California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation, Southern...), California Wind Energy Association and First Solar, Inc. (collectively, Complainants) filed a formal complaint against the California Independent System Operator Corporation (CAISO) and Southern California...

  7. Biomonitoring in California Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Leslie; McNeel, Sandra; Voss, Robert; Wang, Miaomiao; Gajek, Ryszard; Park, June-Soo; Harwani, Suhash; Barley, Frank; She, Jianwen; Das, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 μg/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 μg/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Conclusions: Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals. PMID:25563545

  8. SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines, quarries, and prospects the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, California, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or energy resources. Units of carbonate rock and graphitic schist have demonstrated resources of magnesian marble and graphite. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rock are present in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area.

  9. Medical marijuana: California update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1996-08-23

    The Cannabis Buyers' Club in San Francisco remains closed after it was raided by the office of California Attorney General Dan Lungren. Many individuals with serious illnesses such as AIDS and cancer are without safe access to medical marijuana to relieve the symptoms of their diseases. The need for access to medicinal marijuana, the return of the confiscated confidential medical records held at the buyers' club, and the passage of California Proposition 215 in the November election, which allows for the legitimate use of marijuana for medical purposes are of immediate concern. Since the raid, the Cannabis Buyers' Club has denied charges that it sold marijuana to teenagers, saying the drug was sold to a teen's mother, an undercover narcotics officer. However, the club admitted to sales to non-medical individuals who used fraudulent documents in order to obtain the drug and acknowledges the need to tighten procedures. Individuals may be able to obtain marijuana at other buyers' clubs if they have documentation of a medical need. While literature on the medical use of marijuana is lacking, the Federal government continues to block any efforts toward medical research on this issue. A list of other cannabis buyers' clubs in California is included, as well as a list of organizations working for Proposition 215.

  10. Ecoregions of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Smith, David W.; Cook, Terry D.; Tallyn, Ed; Moseley, Kendra; Johnson, Colleen B.

    2016-02-23

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance (Bryce and others, 1999). These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across Federal agencies, State agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources in the same geographical areas (Omernik and others, 2000).The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions are hierarchical and can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity (Wiken, 1986; Omernik, 1987, 1995). These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997, map revised 2006). At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2013). Level IV, depicted here for California, is a further refinement of level III ecoregions. Explanations of the methods used to define these ecoregions are given in Omernik (1995), Omernik and others

  11. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  12. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  13. Conservation issues: California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Richard W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    California chaparral, a sclerophyllous shrub-dominated plant community shaped by a Mediterranean-type climate and infrequent, high-intensity fire, is one of the most biodiverse and threatened habitats on Earth. Distinct forms of chaparral, distinguished by differing species composition, geography, and edaphic characteristics, can cover thousands of hectares with dense vegetation or be restricted to smaller communities identified by the presence of endemic species. To maintain the biodiversity of chaparral, protective land management actions will be required to mitigate the loss due to the impacts of human population growth, development, climate change, and increased fire frequencies.

  14. California quake assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuethrich, Bernice

    On January 17, at 4:31 A.M., a 6.6 magnitude earthquake hit the Los Angeles area, crippling much of the local infrastructure and claiming 51 lives. Members of the Southern California Earthquake Network, a consortium of scientists at universities and the United States Geological Survey (USGS), entered a controlled crisis mode. Network scientists, including David Wald, Susan Hough, Kerry Sieh, and a half dozen others went into the field to gather information on the earthquake, which apparently ruptured an unmapped fault.

  15. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  16. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  17. Herpetofauna Surveys, Northern California - 2010 [ds694

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We recorded all incidental herpetofauna encountered during visual encounter and dipnet surveys in northern California. Surveys took place from April 2, 2010 to...

  18. Hydrogen energy system in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweig, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Results of experiences on the use of hydrogen as a clean burning fuel in California and results of the South Coast Air Quality Management district tests using hydrogen as a clean burning environmentally safe fuel are given. The results of Solar Hydrogen Projects in California and recent medical data documentation of human lung damage of patients living in air polluted urban areas are summarized

  19. Experts Question California's Algebra Edict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Business leaders from important sectors of the American economy have been urging schools to set higher standards in math and science--and California officials, in mandating that 8th graders be tested in introductory algebra, have responded with one of the highest such standards in the land. Still, many California educators and school…

  20. Chromium carcinogenicity: California strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, G V; Satin, K; Painter, P; Zeise, L; Popejoy, C; Murchison, G

    1989-10-01

    Hexavalent chromium was identified by California as a toxic air contaminant (TAC) in January 1986. The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) concurred with the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer that there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the carcinogenicity of chromium in both animals and humans. CDHS did not find any compelling evidence demonstrating the existence of a threshold with respect to chromium carcinogenesis. Experimental data was judged inadequate to assess potential human reproductive risks from ambient exposures. Other health effects were not expected to occur at ambient levels. The theoretically increased lifetime carcinogenic risk from a continuous lifetime exposure to hexavalent chromium fell within the range 12-146 cancer cases per nanogram hexavalent chromium per cubic meter of air per million people exposed, depending on the potency estimate used. The primary sources found to contribute significantly to the risk of exposure were chrome platers, chromic acid anodizing facilities and cooling towers utilizing hexavalent chromium as a corrosion inhibitor. Evaluation of genotoxicity data, animal studies and epidemiological studies indicates that further consideration should be given to the potential carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium via the oral route.

  1. Biomass resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangco, V.M.; Sethi, P.S. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The biomass resources in California which have potential for energy conversion were assessed and characterized through the project funded by the California Energy Commission and the US Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP). The results indicate that there is an abundance of biomass resources as yet untouched by the industry due to technical, economic, and environmental problems, and other barriers. These biomass resources include residues from field and seed crops, fruit and nut crops, vegetable crops, and nursery crops; food processing wastes; forest slash; energy crops; lumber mill waste; urban wood waste; urban yard waste; livestock manure; and chaparral. The estimated total potential of these biomass resource is approximately 47 million bone dry tons (BDT), which is equivalent to 780 billion MJ (740 trillion Btu). About 7 million BDT (132 billion MJ or 124 trillion Btu) of biomass residue was used for generating electricity by 66 direct combustion facilities with gross capacity of about 800 MW. This tonnage accounts for only about 15% of the total biomass resource potential identified in this study. The barriers interfering with the biomass utilization both in the on-site harvesting, collection, storage, handling, transportation, and conversion to energy are identified. The question whether these barriers present significant impact to biomass {open_quotes}availability{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} remains to be answered.

  2. Copulation by California condors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, S.R.; Borneman, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    Koford (Res. Rept. No. 3, Natl. Audubon Soc., 1953) observed sexual display among California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) on more than 30 occasions, yet only once did he see what he thought was copulation. Some of the displays he watched were quite intricate, with considerable posturing and "male" aggression, but no such activity preceded this copulation. The birds sat several feet apart for over 1 hour, then one climbed onto the other's back, staying there 1/2 minute and flapping gently at the apparent moment of coition. Afterward they sat quietly 1/2 hour before flying away. This led Koford to state (p. 79) that "possibly in Gymnogyps copulation is not immediately preceded by display." We have records of 8 California Condor copulations, 5 of which are similar to that described above. The three other occasions began similarly, with the birds sitting quietly, but then the "male" displayed briefly before the "female" with wings half spread and head drooping forward. This elicited no apparent response, but the male immediately walked behind and mounted the female. The apparent moment of coition was accompanied by gentle wing flapping in all instances.

  3. biofuel development in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaprasad Bandaru

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are expected to play a major role in meeting California's long-term energy needs, but many factors influence the commercial viability of the various feedstock and production technology options. We developed a spatially explicit analytic framework that integrates models of plant growth, crop adoption, feedstock location, transportation logistics, economic impact, biorefinery costs and biorefinery energy use and emissions. We used this framework to assess the economic potential of hybrid poplar as a feedstock for jet fuel production in Northern California. Results suggest that the region has sufficient suitable croplands (2.3 million acres and nonarable lands (1.5 million acres for poplar cultivation to produce as much as 2.26 billion gallons of jet fuel annually. However, there are major obstacles to such large-scale production, including, on nonarable lands, low poplar yields and broad spatial distribution and, on croplands, competition with existing crops. We estimated the production cost of jet fuel to be $4.40 to $5.40 per gallon for poplar biomass grown on nonarable lands and $3.60 to $4.50 per gallon for biomass grown on irrigated cropland; the current market price is $2.12 per gallon. Improved poplar yields, use of supplementary feedstocks at the biorefinery and economic supports such as carbon credits could help to overcome these barriers.

  4. The effects of IL-1β, IL-8, G-CSF and TNF-α as molecular adjuvant on the immune response to an E. tarda subunit vaccine in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2018-06-01

    Cytokines play vital roles in mounting immune responses and activating host defense network. In this study, the expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 (pcN3) encoding four flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8 or G-CSF (pcIL-1β, pcTNF-α, pcIL-8 and pcG-CSF) were successfully constructed, and their adjuvant potential on an Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) subunit vaccine OmpV (rOmpV) were comparatively analyzed in vaccinated flounder model. Results revealed that flounder vaccinated with rOmpV plus pcIL-1β, pcIL-8 or pcG-CSF produced the relative percent survivals (RPS) of 71%, 65% and 49% respectively, which were higher than that in flounder vaccinated with rOmpV plus pcTNF-α (39%) or pcN3 (36%, the control group). Immunological analysis showed that: (1) except pcTNF-α, higher levels of anti-E. tarda serum antibodies and sIg + lymphocytes in spleen, head kidney and peripheral blood were significantly enhanced by pcIL-1β, pcIL-8 or pcG-CSF, however, pcIL-8 and pcIL-1β enhanced higher levels of sIg + lymphocytes and anti-E. tarda antibodies than pcG-CSF; (2) pcTNF-α could promote the up-regulation of genes participated in cellular immunity (MHCIα, IFN-γ, CD8α and CD8β), pcIL-1β could enhance the expression of genes related to humoral immunity (CD4-1, CD4-2, MHCIIα and IgM), and all the detected genes were augmented by pcIL-8 and pcG-CSF; Among the four cytokines, pcIL-8 and pcIL-1β could strengthen the highest levels of genes participated in cellular immunity and humoral immunity, respectively. These results demonstrated that pcIL-8 and pcIL-1β could enhance stronger cellular and/or humoral immunity induced by rOmpV than pcG-CSF and pcTNF-α, and evoked higher RPS against E. tarda challenge in flounder, which indicated that pcIL-8 and pcIL-1β are promising adjuvants of vaccines in controlling E. tarda infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Lactococcus lactis BFE920 feed vaccine expressing a fusion protein composed of the OmpA and FlgD antigens from Edwardsiella tarda was significantly better at protecting olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) from edwardsiellosis than single antigen vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bo Ram; Lee, Soon Ho; Kim, Daniel; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kwon, San-Sung; Lee, Kwan Hee; Lee, Jae Il; Song, Seong Kyu

    2017-09-01

    Edwardsiellosis is a major fish disease that causes a significant economic damage in the aquaculture industry. Here, we assessed vaccine efficacy after feeding oral vaccines to olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), either L. lactis BFE920 expressing Edwardsiella tarda outer membrane protein A (OmpA), flagellar hook protein D (FlgD), or a fusion antigen of the two. Feed vaccination was done twice with a one-week interval. Fish were fed regular feed adsorbed with the vaccines. Feed vaccination was given over the course of one week to maximize the interaction between the feed vaccines and the fish intestine. Flounder fed the vaccine containing the fusion antigen had significantly elevated levels T cell genes (CD4-1, CD4-2, and CD8α), type 1 helper T cell (Th1) subset indicator genes (T-bet and IFN-γ), and antigen-specific antibodies compared to the groups fed the single antigen-expressing vaccines. Furthermore, the superiority of the fusion vaccine was also observed in survival rates when fish were challenged with E. tarda: OmpA-FlgD-expressing vaccine (82.5% survival); FlgD-vaccine (55.0%); OmpA-vaccine (50%); WT L. lactis BFE920 (37.5%); Ctrl (10%). In addition, vaccine-fed fish exhibited increased weight gain (∼20%) and a decreased feed conversion ratio (∼20%) during the four week vaccination period. Flounder fed the FlgD-expressing vaccine, either the single or the fusion form, had significantly increased expression of TLR5M, IL-1β, and IL-12p40, suggesting that the FlgD may be a ligand of olive flounder TLR5M receptor or closely related to the TLR5M pathway. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that olive flounder fed L. lactis BFE920 expressing a fusion antigen composed of E. tarda OmpA and FlgD showed a strong protective effect against edwardsiellosis indicating this may be developed as an E. tarda feed vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pellet feed adsorbed with the recombinant Lactococcus lactis BFE920 expressing SiMA antigen induced strong recall vaccine effects against Streptococcus iniae infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Beck, Bo Ram; Lee, Sun Min; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae Il; Song, Seong Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a fish feed vaccine that provides effective disease prevention and convenient application. A lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Lactococcus lactis BFE920, was modified to express the SiMA antigen, a membrane protein of Streptococcus iniae. The antigen was engineered to be expressed under the nisin promoter, which is induced by nisin produced naturally by the host LAB. Various sizes (40 ± 3.5 g, 80 ± 2.1 g, and 221 ± 2.4 g) of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were vaccinated by feeding the extruded pellet feed, onto which the SiMA-expressing L. lactis BFE920 (1.0 × 10(7) CFU/g) was adsorbed. Vaccine-treated feed was administered twice a day for 1 week, and priming and boosting were performed with a 1-week interval in between. The vaccinated fish had significantly elevated levels of antigen-specific serum antibodies and T cell marker mRNAs: CD4-1, CD4-2, and CD8a. In addition, the feed vaccine significantly induced T cell effector functions, such as the production of IFN-γ and activation of the transcription factor that induces its expression, T-bet. When the flounder were challenged by intraperitoneal infection and bath immersion with S. iniae, the vaccinated fish showed 84% and 82% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively. Furthermore, similar protective effects were confirmed even 3 months after vaccination in a field study (n = 4800), indicating that this feed vaccine elicited prolonged duration of immunopotency. In addition, the vaccinated flounder gained 21% more weight and required 16% less feed to gain a unit of body weight compared to the control group. The data clearly demonstrate that the L. lactis BFE920-SiMA feed vaccine has strong protective effects, induces prolonged vaccine efficacy, and has probiotic effects. In addition, this LAB-based fish feed vaccine can be easily used to target many different pathogens of diverse fish species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Public Schools, California, 2009, California Department of Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This set of data represents the most current public schools in the State of California as of June, 2009. Information about each public school includes: school name,...

  8. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  9. The California Fuel Tax Swap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In early 2010, California faced another of its seemingly routine budget crises, this time mostly the result of outstanding debt due on state general obligation (GO) highway and rail bonds.2 For several years, the Legislature had been diverting ...

  10. NEXRAD Rainfall Data: Eureka, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 (WSR-88D) measurements were used to support AMSR-E rainfall validation efforts in Eureka, California,...

  11. The California cogeneration success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiggemann, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter describes the involvement of Southern California Gas Company(SoCalGas) in the promotion and demonstration of the benefits of cogeneration in California. The topics covered in this chapter are market strategy, cogeneration program objectives, cogeneration program, incentive cofunding, special gas rate, special service priority, special gas pressure and main options, advertising, promotional brochures and handbooks, technical support, program accomplishments, cogeneration outlook, and reasons for success of the program

  12. California Gnatcatcher Observations - 2004-2009 [ds457

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In southern California, the coastal California gnatcatcher (CAGN) has become both the flagship species and an umbrella species identified with conservation, where...

  13. Fire risk in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  14. Climate scenarios for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Maurer, Ed; Dettinger, Mike; Tyree, Mary; Hayhoe, Katharine; Bonfils, Celine; Duffy, Phil; Santer, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Possible future climate changes in California are investigated from a varied set of climate change model simulations. These simulations, conducted by three state-of-the-art global climate models, provide trajectories from three greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios. These scenarios and the resulting climate simulations are not “predictions,” but rather are a limited sample from among the many plausible pathways that may affect California’s climate. Future GHG concentrations are uncertain because they depend on future social, political, and technological pathways, and thus the IPCC has produced four “families” of emission scenarios. To explore some of these uncertainties, emissions scenarios A2 (a medium-high emissions) and B1 (low emissions) were selected from the current IPCC Fourth climate assessment, which provides several recent model simulations driven by A2 and B1 emissions. The global climate model simulations addressed here were from PCM1, the Parallel Climate Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) group, and CM2.1 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluids Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL).

  15. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 200 m) subsurface geology.

  16. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  17. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  18. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Pacifica, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Bretz, Carrie K.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Chinn, John L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Cochran, Susan A.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. 

  19. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  20. Teale Urband and rural areas of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  1. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  2. Teale California Office of Emergency Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  3. Teale California Office of Emergency Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  4. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  5. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  6. Baja California: literatura y frontera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Trujillo Muñoz

    2014-06-01

    Baja California is a region that not only has migration problems and criminal violence because of the war of drugs or is a space of border conflicts in close neighborhood with the United States of America. Baja California is too a geographic space of culture and art, of creative writing and struggle to narrate the things and persons that here live, a plain sight, like their house, like their home, like a center of creation. This text give a cultural context of the border literature in the north of Mexico like a phenomenon in notice because his own merits, books and writers.

  7. Transhumant Ranchers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, A.; Forero, L.; Huntsinger, L.

    2009-04-01

    There is a strong link between some of the richest, most productive lands of the western United States, including California's oak woodlands, and the traditional "transhumance" of ranchers using public ranges. Oak woodland ranchers with government grazing leases report that about half of their income stems from using government -owned montane ranges. For many, loss of these leases reduces their ranch productive capacity to a level insufficient for sustainability, augmenting the sale of ranch lands for development. Many thousands of hectares of oak woodlands are linked to the fate of government leases in this way, and this linkage limits the opportunities for conservation of oak woodlands as "working landscapes" via conservation easements. This type of conservation is the fastest growing type in California today. The first case study shows that over the past 100 years there has been a reduction in access to the natural resources needed for transhumance from three sources: competition from use of the pastures for recreation and nature preservation, management practices that have brought about change in the character of the natural resources themselves, and urban sprawl. Ranchers are leasing other properties, purchasing feed, and transporting animals to other regions to compensate. Most had increased their privately leased land over the previous five years. Though they desire to stay on their ranches, transhumant ranching is becoming increasingly difficult because of land use changes on both public and private lands and a third of ranchers believe that they may need to sell the property for development if they lose their summer permits. There are many "line camps" on Forest Service range—cabins that families or workers would stay in during the summer to tend the cattle. However, the need to support the ranch with work in town limits the ability of the household to participate in transhumance or even travel into the mountains to check on the animals. For ranching to

  8. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in

  9. Killing tanoak in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. F. Roy

    1956-01-01

    Residual tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Rehd.) trees and tanoak sprouts often are an important component of the vegetation which competes with conifer reproduction in northwestern California. Sometimes enough tanoak is present in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands to dominate the...

  10. Genetic variation in California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Diane L. Delany; Lawrence A. Riggs

    1990-01-01

    In forestry the importance of genetic variation for successful reproduction, survival and growth has been widely documented for commercial conifers; until recently, little genetic work has been done on the California oaks. Even before the nature of genetic variation was scientifically investigated, its importance was suspected in operational forestry. Many failures of...

  11. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  12. Revamping California's Education Finance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brett

    2003-01-01

    Describes reasons for California's budget deficits and their impact on school finance. Offers five possible solutions to the school funding crises: Restructure the state's tax and revenue system, restore school district revenue-sharing abilities, initiate a top-to-bottom mandate review, provide greater fiscal and program flexibility, and revamp…

  13. The California Baseline Methane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.

  14. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by California single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  15. California Amusement Rides and Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three-year-old Cristina Moreno traveled from Spain to California for her honeymoon in 2000. As part of her visit, she rode the Indiana Jones amusement ride at Disneyland with her new husband. On June 25, 2000, she suffered a brain injury, and she eventually died on September 1, 2000, as a result of injuries allegedly sustained while riding…

  16. Special Education Finance in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura; Warren, Paul; Murphy, Patrick; Ugo, Iwunze; Pathak, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    California's system of special education served about 718,000 students in 2014-15, or about 11.5 percent of the K-12 population. It is expensive, consuming some $12 billion in federal, state, and local dollars annually. Special education operates within a legal framework that sets it apart from the rest of the K-12 system. The state's enactment of…

  17. California Endangered Species Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.

    This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community…

  18. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  19. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  20. Fumigation success for California facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Robert

    2010-02-01

    As Robert Hacker, at the time director of facilities management at the St John's Regional Medical Center in Oxnard, California, explains, the hospital, one of the area's largest, recently successfully utilised a new technology to eliminate mould, selecting a cost and time-saving fumigation process in place of the traditional "rip and tear" method. Although hospital managers knew the technology had been used extremely effectively in other US buildings, this was reportedly among the first ever healthcare applications.

  1. Global climate change and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.; Scheuring, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    In the fall of 1988 the University of California organized a new public-service initiative on global climate change in response to inquiries and requests from members of Congress and the Department of Energy (DOE). This new systemwide initiative involved all of the University of California campuses and the University's three national laboratories at Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Livermore. The goal of this Greenhouse Initiative was to focus the multidisciplinary resources of the UC campuses and the team-oriented research capabilities of the laboratories on the prospect of global warming and its associated effects on the planet and its nations. In consultation with the DOE, the organizers proposed a series of workshops to focus University of California research resources on the issue of global warming, to contribute to the congressionally mandated DOE studies on options for the US to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20% by the year 2000, and to begin building a long-term research base contributing to an improved understanding of global change in all of its complexity and diverse discipline implications. This volume contains papers from the first of these workshops. Individual papers are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  2. Accessing northern California earthquake data via Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Neuhauser, Douglas; Bogaert, Barbara; Oppenheimer, David

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) provides easy access to central and northern California digital earthquake data. It is located at the University of California, Berkeley, and is operated jointly with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Menlo Park, Calif., and funded by the University of California and the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. It has been accessible to users in the scientific community through Internet since mid-1992.The data center provides an on-line archive for parametric and waveform data from two regional networks: the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) operated by the USGS and the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) operated by the Seismographic Station at the University of California, Berkeley.

  3. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  4. California's experience with alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.

    1993-01-01

    California is often referred to as a nation-state, and in many aspects fits that description. The state represents the seventh largest economy in the world. Most of California does not have to worry about fuel to heat homes in the winter. What we do worry about is fuel for our motor vehicles, approximately 24 million of them. In fact, California accounts for ten percent of new vehicle sales in the United States each year, much of it used in the transportation sector. The state is the third largest consumer of gasoline in the world, only exceeded by the United States as a whole and the former Soviet Union. California is also a leader in air pollution. Of the nine worst ozone areas in the country cited in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, two areas the Los Angeles Basin and San Diego are located in California. Five of California's cities made the top 20 smoggiest cities in the United States. In reality, all of California's major metropolitan areas have air quality problems. This paper will discuss the beginnings of California's investigations of alternative fuels use in vehicles; the results of the state's demonstration programs; and future plans to improve California's air quality and energy security in the mobile sector

  5. California Attorney General opines: California's nuclear legislation unconstitutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabin, V.

    1979-01-01

    The California Attorney General found three sections of the state's nuclear regulation code to be in violation of Federal authority and the State Constitution. Legislation and court cases since 1946 are quoted to support the Attorney General's position. The Warren--Alquist Act, which requires a demonstrated technology for reprocessing fuel rods or disposing of high-level wastes before a nuclear plant can be licensed, is unconstitutional because it usurps Federal control and allows the state to permanently block nuclear facility construction and certification. States' rights in the area of radiological health and safety are supplanted by the Federal government

  6. California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) - Impaired Waterbodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset contains California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list which is submitted by the California State Water Resources Control Board. The layer has...

  7. Vegetation (MCV / NVCS) Mapping Projects - California [ds515

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This metadata layer shows the footprint of vegetation mapping projects completed in California that have used the Manual California of Vegetation ( MCV 1st edition)...

  8. SWFSC/MMTD/CCE: California Harbor Porpoise Survey (CAHPS) 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A ship-based marine mammal survey in California from Point Conception, California to the California-Oregon border, with the survey extent limited to waters from the...

  9. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  10. 75 FR 22070 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Guided Sport Charter Vessel Fishery for Halibut; Recordkeeping and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... period for submission of Alaska Department of Fish and Game Saltwater Sport Fishing Charter Trip Logbook... of Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) Saltwater Sport Fishing Charter Trip Logbook (charter... fishery. To avoid duplicative surveys of, and reporting by, industry, NMFS depends on data gathered by the...

  11. The carbon budget of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government's recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by 115 MMTCE per year in fossil fuel emissions of CO 2 (>85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries (7%), livestock-based agriculture (5%), and waste treatment activities (2%). The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) was used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s (estimated by CASA at 120 MMTCE per year) was roughly equivalent to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of about 24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon estimated by CASA to be stored in forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the importance of protection of the natural NPP capacity of California ecosystems cannot be overemphasized.

  12. California energy flow in 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1995-04-01

    Energy consumption in the state of California decreased about 3% in 1993 reflecting continuation of the recession that was manifest in a moribund construction industry and a high state unemployment that ran counter to national recovery trends. Residential/commercial use decreased slightly reflecting a mild winter in the populous southern portion of the state, a decrease that was offset to some extent by an increase in the state population. Industrial consumption of purchased energy declined substantially as did production of self-generated electricity for in-house use. Consumption in the transportation sector decreased slightly. The amount of power transmitted by the utilities was at 1992 levels; however a smaller proportion was produced by the utilities themselves. Generation of electricity by nonutilities, primarily cogenerators and small power producers, was the largest of any state in the US. The growth in the number of private power producers combined with increased amounts of electricity sold to the public utilities set the stage for the sweeping proposals before the California Public Utility Commission to permit direct sales from the nonutilities to retail customers. California production of both oil and natural gas declined; however, to meet demand only the imports of natural gas increased. A break in the decade-long drought during the 1992--1993 season resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of hydroelectricity generated during the year. Geothermal energy`s contribution increased substantially because of the development of new resources by small power producers. Decline in steam production continued at The Geysers, the state`s largest field, principally owned and managed by a public utility. Increases in windpower constituted 1--1/2% of the total electric supply--up slightly from 1992. Several solar photo voltaic demonstration plants were in operation, but their contribution remained small.

  13. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  14. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  15. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  16. California Red-Legged Frog Range - CWHR [ds587

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  17. Sonoma Ecology Center Northern California Arundo Distribution Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from numerous sources, including Arundo...

  18. Case study : The California Digital Library

    OpenAIRE

    Ober, John

    2002-01-01

    The California Digital Library was founded in 1997 as a digital “co-library” of the 10 Universities of California campuses. Responses to crisis in scholarly communication and the opportunity presented by digital technologies and the Web. Charged to create a comprehensive system for the management of digital scholarly information.

  19. Outlook for California's electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes how the Southern California Edison Company deals with revolutionary change as the state's electricity industry reinvents itself. The topics of the article include how competition has make things better for SCEC's employees, customers, and shareholders, and an outline of the principal features of the electric utility industry in California

  20. Quercus kelloggii Newb., California black oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) exceeds all other California oaks in volume, distribution, and altitudinal range. Yet this deciduous hardwood has had little sustained commercial use and almost no management, even though its wood closely resembles that of its valuable, managed, and heavily used counterpart-northern red oak (...

  1. A Brief History of California School Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, the governor proposed a new funding model for California school districts called the Local Control Funding Formula. As the Legislature debates the proposed new funding model for schools, which is expected to start in the 2013-14 fiscal year, the author thought it would be a good time for a history lesson in California school…

  2. Inequalities in School Climate in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.; Huang, Kevin; Hanson, Thomas L.; Austin, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: School climate, or the physical and social conditions of the learning environment, has implications for academic achievement. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors examine how school climate varies by school-level characteristics in California using administrative data and the California School…

  3. California Indian ethnomycology and associated forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kat M. Anderson; Frank K. Lake

    2013-01-01

    Many California Indian tribes utilized mushrooms for food, medicine, and/or technological purposes. This paper summarizes which mushrooms were important to different California Indian tribes in historic and modern times and how they were harvested, prepared, and stored. Oral interviews were conducted and the ethnographic literature reviewed to detail the extent and...

  4. Home range characteristics of fishers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Zielinski; R. L. Truex; G. A. Schmidt; F. V. Schlexer; K. N. Schmidt; R. H. Barrett

    2004-01-01

    The fisher (Martes pennanti) is a forest mustelid that historically occurred in California from the mixed conifer forests of the north coast, east to the southern Cascades, and south throughout the Sierra Nevada. Today fishers in California occur only in 2 disjunct populations in the northwestern mountains and the...

  5. California Contradictions: Creating Your Own Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    California state policies and regulations that force teacher education programs to limit enrollment because of insufficient resources, and discourage immigration of out-of-state teachers contribute to California's critical shortage of teachers. In addition, the quality of elementary instruction is jeopardized by regulations that diminish…

  6. Collaborative monitoring in Walnut Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Ballard; Ralph Kraetsch; Lynn Huntsinger

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 and 2000, a monitoring program was designed and implemented to track oak regeneration and native grass populations in target management areas in the four Open Space Preserves of the City of Walnut Creek, California. The program resulted from a collaboration of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, a group of interested citizens known as the...

  7. Supporting Continuous Improvement in California's Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda; Plank, David N.

    2015-01-01

    California's new accountability system originated in the radical decentralization of power and authority from Sacramento to local schools and their communities brought about by the Legislature's adoption of the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) in 2013. Under California's previous accountability policies and the federal "No Child Left…

  8. California-Mexico gas exports eyed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that two California utilities have proposed providing natural gas transportation services to Mexico. The arrangement would provide a second U.S. export sales point at the U.S.-Mexico border and perhaps help alleviate an expected surplus of gas pipeline capacity available to California. Mexico currently imports about 200 MMcfd of U.S. gas via pipelines in Texas

  9. California energy flow in 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. K.; Borg, I. Y.

    1981-03-01

    Energy use in California during 1979 differed significantly from 1978. Overall use of natural gas in the state increased substantially (14.3%) due principally to greater use for electrical power production; 4% more gas was used for electrical power generation in 1979 than in 1978 and 21% more than in 1977. Use of fuel oil for electrical generation remained at the 1978 level but below the high 1977 level, which reflected substitution of oil for hydroelectric power during the 1976 to 1977 drought. Together, oil and gas accounted for 80% of the fuels used to generate electricity. Crude-oil imports principally from Indonesia fell substantially; however, use of Alaskan North Slope oil increased so that the net increase in crude oil use was up about 4%. The transportation end-use sector consumed about as much as in 1978 despite shortages in early 1979 associated with the Iranian revolution. While sales fell slightly, sales of high-sulfur residual oils (Bunker C) increased markedly. Transportation represents 38% of total energy consumption in California.

  10. Transport woes threaten California production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    California oil producers face a loss of production this year because of constraints on pipeline and tanker transportation to Los Angeles area refineries. The potential bottleneck is occurring at a time when Outer Continental Shelf production is near capacity from Chevron Corp.'s Point Arguello project at the same time production is increasing from Exxon Corp.'s nearby Santa Ynex Unit (SYU) expansion. Both megaprojects must compete for pipeline space with onshore crude producers, notably in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Recent development limiting transportation options include: An indefinite shutdown of Four Corners Pipe Line Co.'s 50,000 b/d Line No. 1, damaged by the Jan. 17 earthquake; Loss of a tanker permit by Chevron and partners for offshore Point Arguello production; Permanent shutdown of Exxon's offshore storage and treatment (OST) facility, which since 1981 has used tankers to transport about 20,000 b/d of SYU production from the Santa Barbara Channel to Los Angeles. The OST, the first commercial floating production system in the US -- placed in the Santa Barbara Channel in 1981 after a decade of precedent setting legal and political battles -- was shut down Apr. 4. The paper discusses these production concerns, available options, the OST shutdown, and the troubled history of the OST

  11. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Toro, Ligeia [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico); Heckel, Gisela [Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gheckel@cicese.mx; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Apdo. Postal 453, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico); Schramm, Yolanda [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. {sigma}DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 {mu}g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCBs, 2.96 {mu}g/g), chlordanes (0.12 {mu}g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 {mu}g/g). The {sigma}DDTs/{sigma}PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA.

  12. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Toro, Ligeia; Heckel, Gisela; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F.; Schramm, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. ΣDDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 μg/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs, 2.96 μg/g), chlordanes (0.12 μg/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 μg/g). The ΣDDTs/ΣPCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA

  13. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Monterey map area in central California is located on the Pacific Coast, about 120 km south of San Francisco. Incorporated cities in the map area include Seaside, Monterey, Marina, Pacific Grove, Carmel-by-the-Sea, and Sand City. The local economy receives significant resources from tourism, as well as from the Federal Government. Tourist attractions include the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman’s Wharf, and the many golf courses near Pebble Beach, and the area serves as a gateway to the spectacular scenery and outdoor activities along the Big Sur coast to the south. Federal facilities include the Army’s Defense Language Institute, the Naval Postgraduate School, and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (operated by the Navy). In 1994, Fort Ord army base, located between Seaside and Marina, was closed; much of former army base land now makes up the Fort Ord National Monument, managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. In addition, part of the old Fort Ord is now occupied by California State University, Monterey Bay.The offshore part of the map area lies entirely within the Monterey Bay National

  14. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Ventura map area lies within the Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the Ventura Basin, in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The city of Ventura is the major cultural center in the map area. The Ventura River cuts through Ventura, draining the Santa Ynez Mountains and the coastal hills north of Ventura. Northwest of Ventura, the coastal zone is a narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors and a few small residential clusters. Rincon Island, an island constructed for oil and gas production, lies offshore of Punta Gorda. Southeast of Ventura, the coastal zone consists of the mouth and broad, alluvial plains of the Santa Clara River

  15. Regeneration of native California oaks in the forest zone [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1999-01-01

    The two native California oaks in the forest zone of California are California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.) and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus [Hook. and Arn.] Rehd.). Both are ancient species with many adaptations to withstand California's Mediterranean climate, but some weaknesses as well. Both sprout vigorously...

  16. Mortality among California highway workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, N; Beaumont, J; Singleton, J

    1988-01-01

    Standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMR) were computed for a population of highway workers. Hazards of highway maintenance work include exposure to solvents, herbicides, asphalt and welding fumes, diesel and auto exhaust, asbestos, abrasive dusts, hazardous material spills, and moving motor vehicles. Underlying cause of death was obtained for 1,570 workers who separated from the California Department of Transportation between 1970 and 1983, and who died in California between 1970 and 1983 (inclusive). Among 1,260 white males, the major findings were statistically significant excesses of cancers of digestive organs (PMR = 128), skin (PMR = 218), lymphopoietic cancer (PMR = 157), benign neoplasms (PMR = 343), motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 141), and suicide (PMR = 154). Black males (N = 66) experienced nonsignificant excesses of cancer of the digestive organs (PMR = 191) and arteriosclerotic heart disease (PMR = 143). Among 168 white females, deaths from lung cancer (PMR = 189) and suicide (PMR = 215) were elevated. White male retirees, a subgroup with 5 or more years of service, experienced excess mortality due to cancers of the colon (PMR = 245), skin (PMR = 738), brain (PMR = 556), and lymphosarcomas and reticulosarcomas (PMR = 514). Deaths from external causes (PMR = 135) and cirrhosis of the liver (PMR = 229) were elevated among white males with a last job in landscape maintenance. White males whose last job was highway maintenance experienced a deficit in mortality from circulatory diseases (PMR = 83) and excess mortality from emphysema (PMR = 250) and motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 196). Further epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies are needed to confirm the apparent excess mortality and to quantify occupational and nonoccupational exposures. However, reduction of recognized hazards among highway maintenance workers is a prudent precautionary measure.

  17. The california electricity reform debacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccard, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, California launched a dramatic reform of its electricity sector, vertically de-integrating its major utilities and establishing a competitive generation market, with separate entities responsible for grid control and power exchange. After two uneventful years, wholesale prices rose dramatically in the summer of 2000 and have remained high into 2001. An imbalance between the high wholesale prices and frozen retail rates caused a financial crisis for the electric utilities and power shortages have been a chronic threat. Several factors contributed to this crisis: capacity has not expanded in step with demand either in California or its larger trading region; extreme weather and poorly timed plant outages further increased demand and decreased supply; market design flaws allowed significant suppliers to influence the market while frozen retail rates limited the demand response that would have mitigated the supply-demand imbalance. State and federal agencies have taken corrective action but the situation may remain critical for some time. Longer term solutions involve recognizing the special characteristics of electricity in designing marking reform. Because electricity supply and demand must be instantaneously balanced at all times, market reform must ensure that someone has the responsibility and effective tools to ensure that this occurs, in spite of unforeseen circumstances, and to prevent the exercise of market power. Because a competitive commodity market must work in concert with a monopoly delivery system, someone must be responsible and have the means to develop and operate the grid in ways that are amenable to effective competition. Finally, reform design must ensure that the cyclical investment and price patterns of normal commodity markets are minimized in the electricity market and that when they do occur, market volatility does not compromise reliability and price stability for those who value these highly and would pay a premium for them

  18. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively

  19. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Carpinteria map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The small city of Carpinteria is the most significant onshore cultural center in the map area; the smaller town of Summerland lies west of Carpinteria. These communities rest on a relatively flat coastal piedmont that is surrounded on the north, east, and west by hilly relief on the flanks of the Santa Ynez Mountains. El Estero, a salt marsh on the coast west of Carpinteria, is an ecologically important coastal estuary. Southeast of Carpinteria, the coastal zone is narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors

  20. California Geothermal Forum: A Path to Increasing Geothermal Development in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Katherine R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The genesis of this report was a 2016 forum in Sacramento, California, titled 'California Geothermal Forum: A Path to Increasing Geothermal Development in California.' The forum was held at the California Energy Commission's (CEC) headquarters in Sacramento, California with the primary goal being to advance the dialogues for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) and CEC technical research and development (R&D) focuses for future consideration. The forum convened a diverse group of stakeholders from government, industry, and research to lay out pathways for new geothermal development in California while remaining consistent with critical Federal and State conservation planning efforts, particularly at the Salton Sea.

  1. Contraceptive use and risk of unintended pregnancy in California

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Diana; Bley, Julia; Mikanda, John; Induni, Marta; Arons, Abigail; Baumrind, Nikki; Darney, Philip D.; Stewart, Felicia

    2004-01-01

    Abstract California is home to more than one out of eight American women of reproductive age. Because California has a large, diverse and growing population, national statistics do not necessarily describe the reproductive health of California women. This article presents risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among women in California based on the California Women’s Health Survey. Over 8900 women of reproductive age who participated in this survey between 1998 and 2001 pr...

  2. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  3. Gravity Data for California and Southern Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity data (88,514 records) were compiled largely from a state-wide regional gravity study program organized by the California Division of Mines and Geology in...

  4. Pneumocystosis in wild small mammals from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Cyst forms of the opportunistic fungal parasite Pneumocystis carinii were found in the lungs of 34% of the desert shrew, Notiosorex crawfordi (n = 59), 13% of the ornate shrew, Sorex ornatus (n = 55), 6% of the dusky-footed wood rat, Neotoma fuscipes (n = 16), 2.5% of the California meadow vole,Microtus californicus (n = 40), and 50% of the California pocket mouse, Chaetodipus californicus (n= 2) caught from southern California between February 1998 and February 2000. Cysts were not found in any of the harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys megalotis (n = 21), California mouse,Peromyscus californicus (n = 20), brush mouse, Peromyscus boylii (n = 7) or deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (n = 4) examined. All infections were mild; extrapulmonary infections were not observed. Other lung parasites detected were Hepatozoon sp./spp. from M. californicus andNotiosorex crawfordi, Chrysosporium sp. (Emmonsia) from M. californicus, and a nematode from S. ornatus.

  5. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  6. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  7. Humboldt, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second Humboldt, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  8. Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates, California, USA, 2011

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-26

    Dr. Charlotte Wheeler discusses Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates in California.  Created: 2/26/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  9. Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) complex in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, F R; Tabachnick, W J

    1995-07-01

    Genetic relationships were examined among 24 collections, representing 23 populations of Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) using isozyme electrophoresis of 11 protein encoding loci. The populations were collected from alkaline or fresh water larval habitats in California. Distance analysis demonstrated that C. v. occidentalis Wirth and Jones and C. v. sonorensis Wirth and Jones are genetically distinct. All C. v. occidentalis were geographically isolated from each other in highly alkaline or saline larval habitats, whereas C. v. sonorensis populations were collected from artificial freshwater habitats that were polluted with organic wastes. Higher levels of gene flow were found between C. v. sonorensis populations than from C. v. sonorensis populations to nearby C. v. occidentalis populations, indicative of genetic isolation between subspecies. Northern California C. v. sonorensis were genetically distinguishable from southern California C. v. sonorensis. The relationship between this variation and bluetongue disease epidemiology in California is discussed.

  10. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  11. Historical Fire Perimeters - Southern California [ds384

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — CDF, USDA Forest Service Region 5, BLM, NPS, Contract Counties and other agencies jointly maintain a comprehensive fire perimeter GIS layer for public and private...

  12. Programs that work : California case examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgrigues, G. [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Examples of programs that work in California with respect to greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. Specifically, Southern California Edison (SCE) was noted as one of the country's largest investor-owned utilities that has provided environmental leadership in this area. Energy, environment, economy, and community were mentioned as being the four value propositions for demand side management (DSM) programs. The environmental benefits of California investor-owned utilities programs were also discussed. Customer participation in SCE's energy efficiency programs was defined as an important measure of success. Other topics that were addressed in the presentation included energy efficiency in the long-term resource plan; ratcheting codes and standards; effective marketing and outreach; residential and non-residential programs; partnership programs; and competitively-selected programs. Measurement, verification and evaluation were noted as being real savings. Initiatives on the horizon such as the California solar initiative and Edison smartconnect were presented. tabs., figs.

  13. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  14. Northern California 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  15. Ecosystems past: prehistory of California vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.I. Millar; W.B. Woolfenden

    2016-01-01

    The history of California's vegetation, from origins in the Mesozoic through Quaternary is outlined. Climatic and geologic history and the processes driving changes in vegetation over time are also described. 

  16. Programs that work : California case examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgrigues, G.

    2007-01-01

    Examples of programs that work in California with respect to greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. Specifically, Southern California Edison (SCE) was noted as one of the country's largest investor-owned utilities that has provided environmental leadership in this area. Energy, environment, economy, and community were mentioned as being the four value propositions for demand side management (DSM) programs. The environmental benefits of California investor-owned utilities programs were also discussed. Customer participation in SCE's energy efficiency programs was defined as an important measure of success. Other topics that were addressed in the presentation included energy efficiency in the long-term resource plan; ratcheting codes and standards; effective marketing and outreach; residential and non-residential programs; partnership programs; and competitively-selected programs. Measurement, verification and evaluation were noted as being real savings. Initiatives on the horizon such as the California solar initiative and Edison smartconnect were presented. tabs., figs

  17. Northern California 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  18. Botaanikud Chamisso ja Eschscholtz Californias / Tiiu Speek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Speek, Tiiu, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    Loodusteadlaste A. von Chamisso ja J. Fr. Eschscholtzi osalemisest O. von Kotzebue ekspeditsioonidel (1815-1818 ning 1823-1826); reisidel kogutud ja kirjeldatud USA lääneosa ja California taimeliikidest ning neist koostatud herbaariumite saatusest

  19. Tobacco Use In California 1990-1991

    OpenAIRE

    University of California, San Diego; California Department of Health Services; Westat, Inc.; Los Angels County Department of Health Services

    1991-01-01

    Summary This report presents data from a survey of cigarette smoking behaviors and attitudes among Californians conducted between June, 1990 and July, 1991. The prevalence of current smoking among adults in California was 22.2%, with males (25.5%) smoking more than females (19.1%). This represents a sharp decline in smoking following the increase in the tobacco excise tax and implementation of a comprehensive tobacco control program by the State of California. The decline in preva...

  20. Southern California Coastal Processes Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    05/01/71 TITLE : Avalon Transportation Wharf CITATION : Journal of Waterways, Harbors and Coastal Engineering Division, ASCE, N. Y., Vol. 97, No. WW2 ...105, No. WW2 ; ASCE, N. Y., pp. 131-147 DESCRIPTION s Effect of various offshore structures as significant barriers to normal wave progress...California, 33 pp. DESCRIPTION Infrared satellite images are shown for each of two areas near +- the California coast, Cape Mendocino and Point

  1. Energy subsidies in California's electricity market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritschel, Alexander; Smestad, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation and re-regulation of California's electricity market not only failed in terms of anticipated cost reductions, improved customer service and higher competition, it also led to the introduction of various additional energy subsidies. This paper analyzes California's electricity market deregulation process from a subsidy viewpoint. Under deregulation in California, investor-owned utilities were not allowed to pass their energy procurement costs fully on to their customers, and therefore subsequently, and inevitably, ran into severe financial problems. Such retail price regulation is an energy subsidy that is both economically and environmentally unfavorable, because it veils true price signals to electricity consumers and, in this way, discourages energy conservation. Other policies implemented in California that represent perverse energy subsidies are the purchase of power by the state of California, the suspension of retail competition, and the potential misuse of money from the recovery of stranded costs. Many interventions implemented by the state to smooth out the impacts of the energy crisis insulated electricity consumers from market realities, supported the existing structure of California's electricity market, which is predominantly based on fossil fuels, and suppressed market incentives to improve energy conservation

  2. 75 FR 69910 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, California Air Resources Board-Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ...'s national Consumer Products rule. The TSD has more information on our evaluation. C. Public Comment... the California State Implementation Plan, California Air Resources Board--Consumer Products AGENCY... revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from consumer products. We are approving a local...

  3. 76 FR 62004 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, California Air Resources Board-Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products. B. Does the rule meet the evaluation criteria... the California State Implementation Plan, California Air Resources Board--Consumer Products AGENCY... revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from consumer products. We are approving a local...

  4. The Story of California. Teacher's Guide = Guia del Maestro de La Historia de California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray (Naomi) Associates, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The teacher's guide is designed to accompany "The Story of California," a Spanish-English bilingual history and geography of the state intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The guide describes classroom activities coordinated with the student's…

  5. 77 FR 50500 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL 9716-8] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression Ignition Engines--In-Use Fleets; Authorization Request... emissions control of new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1). The section 209(e) rule and its...

  6. Silviculture-ecology of three native California hardwoods on high sites in north central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1978-01-01

    Pacific madrone, tanoak, and California black oak are the most economically promising native California hardwoods. Volume and value data indicate upward trends in growing stock levels and prices received for their products. These trends are likely to continue. They suggest research is particularly needed for: (1) seed fall and regeneration, (2) sprout growth and...

  7. Transfer and Articulation Issues between California Community Colleges and California State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to discover common transfer and articulation practices and to determine what practices aid in the implementation of the STAR Act between California Community Colleges and the California State University. The review of literature revealed a lack of research on the application of practices in transfer…

  8. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Gaviota, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2018-04-20

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The offshore part of the map area lies south of the steep south flank of the Santa Ynez Mountains. The crest of the range, which has a maximum elevation of about 760 m in the map area, lies about 4 km north of the shoreline.Gaviota is an unincorporated community that has a sparse population (less than 100), and the coastal zone is largely open space that is locally used for cattle grazing. The Union Pacific railroad tracks extend westward along the coast through the entire map area, within a few hundred meters of the shoreline. Highway 101 crosses the eastern part of the map area, also along the coast, then turns north (inland) and travels through Cañada de la Gaviota and Gaviota Pass en route to Buellton. Gaviota State Park lies at the mouth of Cañada de la Gaviota. West of Gaviota, the onland coastal zone is occupied by the Hollister Ranch, a privately owned

  9. Fogwater chemistry at Riverside, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, J. William; Collett, Jeff; Daube, Bruce; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    Fog, aerosol, and gas samples were collected during the winter of 1986 at Riverside, California. The dominant components of the aerosol were NH 4+, NO 3-, and SO 42-. Gaseous NH 3 was frequently present at levels equal to or exceeding the aerosol NH 4+. Maximum level were 3800, 3100, 690 and 4540 neq m -3 for NH 4+, NO 32- and NH 3(g), respectively. The fogwater collected at Riverside had very high concentrations, particularly of the major aerosol components. Maximum concentrations were 26,000 29,000 and 6200 μM for NH 4+, NO 3- and SO 42-, respectively. pH values in fogwater ranged from 2.3 to 5.7. Formate and acetate concentrations as high as 1500 and 580 μM, respectively, were measured. The maximum CH 2O concentration was 380 μM. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal were found in all the samples; their maximum concentrations were 280 and 120 μM, respectively. Comparison of fogwater and aerosol concentrations indicates that scavenging of precursor aerosol by fog droplets under the conditions at Riverside is less than 100% efficient. The chemistry at Riverside is controlled by the balance between HNO 3 production from NO x emitted throughout the Los Angeles basin and NH 3 emitted from dairy cattle feedlots just west of Riverside. The balance is controlled by local mixing. Acid fogs result at Riverside when drainage flows from the surrounding mountains isolate the site from the NH 3 source. Continued formation of HNO 3(g) in this air mass eventually depletes the residual NH 3(g). A simple box model that includes deposition, fog scavenging, and dilution is used to assess the effect of curtailing the dairy cattle feedlot operations. The calculations suggest that the resulting reduction of NH 3 levels would decrease the total NO 3- in the atmosphere, but nearly all remaining NO 3- would exist as HNO 3. Fogwater in the basin would be uniformly acidic.

  10. Pockmarks off Big Sur, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N.; Greene, H. Gary; Rehder, G.; Lorenson, T.; Lee, H.

    2002-01-01

    A pockmark field was discovered during EM-300 multi-beam bathymetric surveys on the lower continental slope off the Big Sur coast of California. The field contains ??? 1500 pockmarks which are between 130 and 260 m in diameter, and typically are 8-12 m deep located within a 560 km2 area. To investigate the origin of these features, piston cores were collected from both the interior and the flanks of the pockmarks, and remotely operated vehicle observation (ROV) video and sampling transects were conducted which passed through 19 of the pockmarks. The water column within and above the pockmarks was sampled for methane concentration. Piston cores and ROV collected push cores show that the pockmark field is composed of monotonous fine silts and clays and the cores within the pockmarks are indistinguishable from those outside the pockmarks. No evidence for either sediment winnowing or diagenetic alteration suggestive of fluid venting was obtained. 14C measurements of the organic carbon in the sediments indicate continuous sedimentation throughout the time resolution of the radiocarbon technique ( ??? 45000 yr BP), with a sedimentation rate of ??? 10 cm per 1000 yr both within and between the pockmarks. Concentrations of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon, sulfate, chloride, and ammonium in pore water extracted from within the cores are generally similar in composition to seawater and show little change with depth, suggesting low biogeochemical activity. These pore water chemical gradients indicate that neither significant accumulations of gas are likely to exist in the shallow subsurface ( ??? 100 m) nor is active fluid advection occurring within the sampled sediments. Taken together the data indicate that these pockmarks are more than 45000 yr old, are presently inactive, and contain no indications of earlier fluid or gas venting events. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Organochloride pesticides in California sea lions revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Shinsuke

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been banned in most countries, but considerable amounts continue to cycle the ecosphere. Top trophic level predators, like sea birds and marine mammals, bioaccumulate these lipophilic compounds, reflecting their presence in the environment. Results We measured concentrations of tDDT (p,p' - DDT + p,p' - DDD + p,p' - DDE and PCBs in the blubber of dead California sea lions stranded along the California coast. tDDT and PCB concentrations were 150 ± 257 ug/g lipid weight (mean ± SD and 44 ± 78 ug/g lipid weight, respectively. There were no differences in tDDT or PCB concentrations between animal categories varying in sex or age. There was a trend towards a decrease in tDDT and PCB concentrations from northern to southern California. The lipid content of the blubber was negatively correlated with levels of tDDT and PCBs. tDDT concentrations were approximately 3 times higher than PCB concentrations. Conclusions tDDT levels in the blubber of California sea lions decreased by over one order of magnitude from 1970 to 2000. PCB level changes over time were unclear owing to a paucity of data and analytical differences over the years. Current levels of these pollutants in California sea lions are among the highest among marine mammals and exceed those reported to cause immunotoxicity or endocrine disruption.

  12. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  13. Current depression among women in California according to residence in the California-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Epstein, Joan Faith; Induni, Marta; Wright, Michael A

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of current depression; examine the relationship between current depression and immigration, health status, health care access, and health behaviors; and assess differences by California-Mexico border region (Imperial and San Diego Counties) among women in California. Using a cross-sectional, representative sample of adult women from the California Women's Health Survey (n = 13 454), a statewide telephone survey, prevalence of current depression and predictors of depression were examined in California and according to border region residence. Depression was assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire. The prevalence of current depression for women in California was 12.0%. It was similar in the border (13.0%) and the nonborder (11.9%) regions. Odds of current depression in women were lower among recent immigrants (depression and health status, health care access, and binge drinking were larger in the border region than outside the border region. Similar prevalences of current depression were observed among those who live in the border region of California and in those who do not, but the relationship between depression and health status, health care access, and binge drinking varied by border region residence. Ideally, future surveillance of depression and its predictors along the Mexico-California border will be conducted binationally to inform interventions and tracking such as the Healthy Border Program's objectives.

  14. Overview of the Inland California Translational Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkas, Linda H.

    2017-05-01

    The mission of the Inland California Translational Consortium (ICTC), an independent research consortium comprising a unique hub of regional institutions (City of Hope [COH], California Institute of Technology [Caltech], Jet Propulsion Laboratory [JPL], University of California Riverside [UCR], and Claremont Colleges Keck Graduate Institute [KGI], is to institute a new paradigm within the academic culture to accelerate translation of innovative biomedical discoveries into clinical applications that positively affect human health and life. The ICTC actively supports clinical translational research as well as the implementation and advancement of novel education and training models for the translation of basic discoveries into workable products and practices that preserve and improve human health while training and educating at all levels of the workforce using innovative forward-thinking approaches.

  15. The optimal gas tax for California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Prince, Lea

    2009-01-01

    This paper calculates the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California. According to our analysis, the optimal gasoline tax in California is $1.37/gal, which is over three times the current California tax when excluding sales taxes. The Pigovian tax is the largest part of this tax, comprising $0.85/gal. Of this, the congestion externality is taxed the most heavily, at $0.27, followed by oil security, accident externalities, local air pollution, and finally global climate change. The other major component, a Ramsey tax, comprises a full $0.52 of this tax, reflecting the efficiency in raising revenues from a tax on gasoline consumption due to the inelastic demand of this consumption good.

  16. What went wrong in California's electricity market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikeung Woo

    2001-01-01

    The California electricity market reform promised to deliver reliable service at low and stable prices. Frequent capacity shortages and the ensuing rolling black-outs, price spikes, and large price volatility since Summer 2000 raise a simple but substantive question: what went wrong? The answer to this question will help countries contemplating electricity market reform not to commit similar mistakes. We find the answer by identifying the major factors that have turned the California dream into a nightmare. Such factors include poor market design, market power, sustained demand growth not matched by new capacity, rising marginal cost, and financial insolvency. Proposed remedies include an alternative market settlement process, long-term contract, fast licensing and siting process for new generation and transmission, conservation and energy-efficiency, distributed resources, rate options, and debt restructuring. The California experience suggests that a reversible regulatory reform is a safe alternative to an irreversible market reform. (Author)

  17. The optimal gas tax for California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Prince, Lea [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    This paper calculates the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California. According to our analysis, the optimal gasoline tax in California is USD1.37/gal, which is over three times the current California tax when excluding sales taxes. The Pigovian tax is the largest part of this tax, comprising USD0.85/gal. Of this, the congestion externality is taxed the most heavily, at USD0.27, followed by oil security, accident externalities, local air pollution, and finally global climate change. The other major component, a Ramsey tax, comprises a full USD0.52 of this tax, reflecting the efficiency in raising revenues from a tax on gasoline consumption due to the inelastic demand of this consumption good. (author)

  18. Fire Perimeters - Southern California, Fall 2007 [ds385

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Southern Callifornia fire perimeters for the Fall 2007 wildfires. The perimeters were assembled from various sources by California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  19. California community water systems quarterly indicators dataset, 1999-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains quarterly measures of arsenic and nitrates in public drinking water supplies. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW)...

  20. The potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, V.

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy forms to provide future sources of energy for California is considered. Marginal desert lands in southeastern California are proposed for the siting of energy farms using acacia, eucalyptus, euphorbia, guayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk.

  1. The Class of 2014 Preserving Access to California Higher Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, George

    1998-01-01

    For over 35 years, California's policy of providing a college education to all citizens who could benefit from it has enabled California to lead the nation in making public higher education available...

  2. California community water systems annual indicators dataset, 1999-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains annual measures of arsenic and nitrates in public drinking water supplies. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW)...

  3. Williamson Act - The California Land Conservation Act of 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Land Conservation Act of 1965 - commonly referred to as the Williamson Act - is the State's primary program for the conservation of private land in...

  4. Integrated Climate Change Impacts Assessment in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change assessments for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three Assessments have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the assessments have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The assessment results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and impacts. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the assessments and recognize the need for a sustained assessment process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.

  5. Tobacco Control in California 2003-2007: Missed Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, MPH, Mi-Kyung; Barnes,, Richard L JD; Glantz,, Stanton PhD

    2007-01-01

    While smoking prevalence in California continued its decline (reaching an historic low of 13.3% in 2006), this rate was slower than in earlier years, reflecting the fact that tobacco control efforts in California in the period 2003-2007 continued to drift, with no clear indications that California would regain its international leadership in tobacco control. Neither the Schwarzenegger Administration nor the California Legislature sought to divert the Proposition 99 funding allocation...

  6. USA: California rejects mandatory GMO labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2012-01-01

    Buying organic remains the best strategy for US consumers to avoid eating GM food. The voters of California have rejected the proposal to label GMO food. The proposition was narrowly lost, 47% to 53% (4,326,770 ‘Yes’ votes vs. 4,884,961 ‘No’ votes). Proposition 47 was supported by the organic sector but opposed by a coalition of GMO companies and US multinational food companies. Californians were invited to vote into law ‘The California Right to Know Genetically Engineered Food Act’. Section ...

  7. Organic matter in central California radiation fogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Lee, Taehyoung; Trenary, Laurie; Kang, Gongunn; Chang, Hui; Collett, Jeffrey L

    2002-11-15

    Organic matter was studied in radiation fogs in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the California Regional Particulate Air Quality Study (CRPAQS). Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations ranged from 2 to 40 ppm of C. While most organic carbon was found in solution as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 23% on average was not dissolved inside the fog drops. We observe a clear variation of organic matter concentration with droplet size. TOC concentrations in small fog drops (fogwater, consistent with the enrichment of the organic matter in smaller fog drops with lower terminal settling velocities.

  8. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Survival Rate of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California from 1987-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains initial capture and marking data for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups at San Miguel Island, California and subsequent...

  9. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Natality rates of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California during 1987-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of California sea lions (Zalophus...

  10. California Women: Activities Guide, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Marie

    Women have always been an integral part of California's history as shamans, settlers, wives, mothers, workers, inventors, and reformers. Yet the names of California women may not be familiar to many students. This activities guide, which was designed to accompany the poster, "California Women: Courage, Compassion, Conviction," provides…

  11. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan. 52.274 Section 52.274 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.274 California air pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the...

  12. Electric energy demand and supply prospects for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A recent history of electricity forecasting in California is given. Dealing with forecasts and regulatory uncertainty is discussed. Graphs are presented for: (1) Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Pacific Gas and Electric present and projected reserve margins; (2) California electricity peak demand forecast; and (3) California electricity production.

  13. Trouble Brewing: The Disaster of California State Pensions. State Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    California has promised its public employees lavish pensions and retiree health benefits without setting aside nearly enough money to pay for those benefits. As a result, California already admits to a $75.5 billion shortfall in paying for these promises to public employees--$40.5 billion for the teachers' retirement plan (California State…

  14. California Integrated Service Delivery Evaluation Report. Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard W.; Rossy, Gerard; Roberts, William; Chapman, Kenneth; Sanchez, Urte; Hanley, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study is a formative evaluation of the OneStop Career Center Integrated Service Delivery (ISD) Model within the California Workforce System. The study was sponsored by the California Workforce Investment Board. The study completed four in-depth case studies of California OneStops to describe how they implemented the ISD model which brings…

  15. Pathways for School Finance in California. Technical Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in California" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in California" simulates alternatives to California's current school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes…

  16. Effects of fragmentation on the spatial ecology of the California Kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano, Michael P.; Diffendorfer, James E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the spatial ecology of the California Kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae) in unfragmented and fragmented habitat with varying patch sizes and degrees of exposure to urban edges. We radiotracked 34 Kingsnakes for up to 3 yr across four site types: interior areas of unfragmented ecological reserves, the urbanized edge of these reserves, large habitat fragments, and small habitat fragments. There was no relationship between California Kingsnake movements and the degree of exposure to urban edges and fragmentation. Home range size and movement patterns of Kingsnakes on edges and fragments resembled those in unfragmented sites. Average home-range size on each site type was smaller than the smallest fragment in which snakes were tracked. The persistence of California Kingsnakes in fragmented landscapes may be related directly to their small spatial movement patterns, home-range overlap, and ability to use urban edge habitat.

  17. Sedimentation Study and Flume Investigation, Mission Creek, Santa Barbara, California; Corte Madera Creek, Marin County, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copeland, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    .... An existing concrete-lined flood control channel on Corte Madera Creek in Marin County, California lacks a debris basin at its upstream terminus and carries significant bed load through a supercritical flow reach...

  18. Marine Protected Area Polygons, California, 2010, State of California Department of Fish and Game

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data include all of California's marine protected areas (MPAs) as of May 2010. This dataset reflects the Department of Fish and Game's best representation of...

  19. California coast sablefish - Reproductive Life History Analysis of Sablefish Populations off the Washington and California Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) have a wide distribution along the Pacific coast, extending from Baja California to Alaska, the Bering Sea and through to the eastern...

  20. 76 FR 55413 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-legged Frog, California Tiger Salamander, Smith...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ...] Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-legged Frog, California Tiger Salamander, Smith's Blue... endangered Smith's blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as..., California tiger salamander, Smith's blue butterfly, and Yadon's piperia on the property subject to the...

  1. Final Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    rooted , mesophylic plant species that Chapter 3. Affected Environment Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air...Chapter 3. Affected Environment 3-12 Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air Force Base the root and debris zone of the...protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e. insects

  2. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Spokas, Kurt; Bogner, Jean; Corcoran, Meg; Walker, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local GHG mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for landfill CH4 generation (methanogenesis), but does not explicitly consider climate or soil dependencies for emissions. Relying on a comprehensive California landfill database, a field-validated process-based m...

  3. California Digital Library in Twitter-Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In October 2009, California Digital Library (CDL), where the author serves as manager of strategic and project planning, jumped into the world of social networking by joining Twitter. From Twitter, the CDL staff publish the content of their monthly newsletter, "CDLINFO News," and also additional content created by CDL programs and…

  4. Welcome to the California State Web Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitors Guide View a digital guide or request a printed copy. csac California Student Aid Commission Visiting Find a State Park Locate by name, feature, and location. Get a Visitors Guide View a digital guide Services Get Citizenship Services Get DACA Legal Help Get Legal Help cdss Find Recycling location

  5. 40 CFR 131.37 - California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... criteria are applicable to waters specified in the Water Quality Control Plan for Salinity for the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary, adopted by the California State Water Resources Control... increased mortality and loss of habitat from increased water salinity; or for plants, significant reduction...

  6. Louse flies on birds of Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  7. Charter School Spending and Saving in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sherrie; Rose, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Examining resource allocation practices, including savings, of charter schools is critical to understanding their financial viability and sustainability. Using 9 years of finance data from California, we find charter schools spend less on instruction and pupil support services than traditional public schools. The lower spending on instruction and…

  8. Economic impacts of a California tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Wing, Ian Sue; Wei, Dan; Wein, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The economic consequences of a tsunami scenario for Southern California are estimated using computable general equilibrium analysis. The economy is modeled as a set of interconnected supply chains interacting through markets but with explicit constraints stemming from property damage and business downtime. Economic impacts are measured by the reduction of Gross Domestic Product for Southern California, Rest of California, and U.S. economies. For California, total economic impacts represent the general equilibrium (essentially quantity and price multiplier) effects of lost production in industries upstream and downstream in the supply-chain of sectors that are directly impacted by port cargo disruptions at Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach (POLA/POLB), property damage along the coast, and evacuation of potentially inundated areas. These impacts are estimated to be $2.2 billion from port disruptions, $0.9 billion from property damages, and $2.8 billion from evacuations. Various economic-resilience tactics can potentially reduce the direct and total impacts by 80–85%.

  9. Group Differences in California Community College Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Deborah; Stowers, Genie N. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which community colleges succeed in assisting students to transfer to four-year colleges. The study uses data from the California Community College system to test hypotheses about overall transfers and transfers of underrepresented students, It utilizes a framework based upon social reproduction theory (Bowles…

  10. Bases tratadas con cemento, en California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available El uso de bases tratadas con cemento para autopistas se inició en el Estado de California en 1938, empleándose para carreteras con determinadas condiciones de tráfico. Inicialmente, se especificó el uso obligatorio de plantas mezcladoras para asegurar el debido control de las proporciones adecuadas.

  11. MANPOWER FOR CALIFORNIA HOSPITALS, 1964-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Commission on Manpower, Automation, and Technology, Sacramento.

    AN EXAMINATION OF THE HOSPITAL AND NURSING AND CONVALESCENT HOME INDUSTRY IN 1964 AND EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS ARE PRESENTED AS AN INITIAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ONGOING MANPOWER INFORMATION PROGRAM IN THE STATE. DATA WERE COMPILED FROM POPULATION PROJECTIONS BY THE CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE, WAGE SURVEY STUDIES BY THE…

  12. California Makes the Case for Pay Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses results of a California Library Association study that investigated library employees' salaries as compared to salaries of employees in comparable public jobs. Highlights include reasons for unfair library employee compensation; comparisons of support staff supervisor salaries and executive salaries; and how to use the data to improve…

  13. Managing air pollution impacted forests of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Arbaugh; Trent Proctor; Annie Esperanza

    2009-01-01

    Fuel treatments (prescribed fire and mechanical removal) on public lands in California are critical for reducing fuel accumulation and wildfire frequency and severity and protecting private property located in the wildland–urban interface. Treatments are especially needed in forests impacted by air pollution and subject to climate change. High ambient ozone (O

  14. Faculty Internships in California Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Charlie; Peralez, Jose

    In response to a request from the Board of Governors, the California Community Colleges' Office of the Chancellor undertook a study to determine the extent and characteristics of faculty internship programs in system colleges. In April 1995, surveys were mailed to human resource directors and chief instructional officers at all 106 community…

  15. Geothermal energy in California: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citron, O.; Davis, C.; Fredrickson, C.; Granit, R.; Kerrisk, D.; Leibowitz, L.; Schulkin, B.; Wornack, J.

    1976-06-30

    The potential for electric energy from geothermal resources in California is currently estimated to be equivalent to the output from 14 to 21 large (1000 MW) central station power plants. In addition, since over 30 California cities are located near potential geothermal resources, the non-electric applications of geothermal heat (industrial, agriculture, space heating, etc.) could be enormous. Therefore, the full-scale utilization of geothermal resources would have a major impact upon the energy picture of the state. This report presents a summary of the existing status of geothermal energy development in the state of California as of the early part of 1976. The report provides data on the extent of the resource base of the state and the present outlook for its utilization. It identifies the existing local, state, and federal laws, rules and regulations governing geothermal energy development and the responsibilities of each of the regulatory agencies involved. It also presents the differences in the development requirements among several counties and between California and its neighboring states. Finally, it describes on-going and planned activities in resource assessment and exploration, utilization, and research and development. Separate abstracts are prepared for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) for Sections II--VI and the three Appendixes.

  16. Assessing estuarine biota in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin D. Lafferty

    2005-01-01

    In southern California, most estuarine wetlands are gone, and what little habitat remains is degraded. For this reason, it is often of interest to assess the condition of estuaries over time, such as when determining the success of a restoration project. To identify impacts or opportunities for restoration, we also may want to know how a particular estuary, or area...

  17. Mycobacteria in nail salon whirlpool footbaths, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugia, Duc J; Jang, Yvonne; Zizek, Candi; Ely, Janet; Winthrop, Kevin L; Desmond, Edward

    2005-04-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis affected customers using whirlpool footbaths at a nail salon. We swabbed 30 footbaths in 18 nail salons from 5 California counties and found mycobacteria in 29 (97%); M. fortuitum was the most common. Mycobacteria may pose an infectious risk for pedicure customers.

  18. California Considers Adding Gays' Contributions to Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2006-01-01

    A bill that has been sent to the floor of the California Senate would require textbooks used in public schools to include information on the roles and contributions of gay people throughout history, a move that could affect the content of instructional materials throughout much of the country. The measure would help build tolerance of diverse…

  19. California's Drought - Stress test for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The current California drought is in its third dry years, with this year being the third driest years in a 106-year record. This drought occurs at a time when urban, agricultural, and environmental water demands have never been greater. This drought has revealed the importance of more quantitative evaluation and methods for water assessment and management. All areas of water and environmental management are likely to become increasingly stressed, and have essentially drought-like conditions, in the future, as California's urban, agricultural, and environmental demands continue to expand and as the climate changes. In the historical past, droughts have pre-viewed stresses developing in the future and helped focus policy-makers, the public, and stakeholders on preparing for these developing future conditions. Multi-decade water management strategies are often galvinized by drought. Irrigation was galvanized by California droughts in the 1800s, reservoir systems by the 1928-32 drought, urban water conservation by the 1976-77 drought, and water markets by the 1988-92 drought. With each drought, demands for tighter accounting, rights, and management have increased. This talk reviews the prospects and challenges for increased development and use of water data and systems analysis in the service of human and environmental water demands in California's highly decentralized water management system, and the prospects if these challenges are not more successfully addressed.

  20. Global climate change and California's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaux, H.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter records the deliberations of a group of California water experts about answers to these and other questions related to the impact of global warming on California's water resources. For the most part, those participating in the deliberations believe that the current state of scientific knowledge about global warming and its impacts on water resources is insufficient to permit hard distinctions to be made between short- and long-term changes. consequently, the ideas discussed here are based on a number of assumptions about specific climatic manifestations of global warming in California, as described earlier in this volume. Ultimately, however, effective public responses to forestall the potentially costly impacts of global climate change will probably depend upon the credible validation of the prospects of global climate warming. This chapter contains several sections. First, the likely effects of global warming on California's water resources and water-supply systems are identified and analyzed. Second, possible responses to mitigate these effects are enumerated and discussed. Third, the major policy issues are identified. A final section lists recommendations for action and major needs for information

  1. Economic regulation of ambulance services in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narad, R A

    1997-01-01

    This study was intended to identify economic regulatory programs used by California counties (including ambulance franchising and rate setting), to inventory their foci and application, and to identify differences around the state. By studying the variety of programs used in one state, this study establishes a framework for evaluation of state and local regulatory programs elsewhere. This study surveyed all California local EMS agencies (LEMSAs); these are California's equivalent of regional EMS organizations. The survey achieved a 100% response rate, and all data involve population parameters obviating the need for inferential statistics. Seventy-three percent of California counties use economic regulations. Large-population counties and those that operate their own LEMSAs are more likely to use economic regulations than are small counties and those that participate in multicounty EMS agencies. Despite a preference for competition in the authorizing statute, most franchises were granted without competition to existing providers. The majority of franchises in the state were granted to public services. Most ambulance rate setting occurs outside of a competitive process. Economic regulations that were intended to provide a structured marketplace are often being used to protect existing providers, particularly public services, from competition. The growing interest by fire departments in entering the market for emergency ambulance service, along with the existing bias toward them in granting of franchises, does not bode well for use of the competitive process. The growth of managed care may change or eliminate the need for economic regulations but, if they are to continue, more state oversight should be considered.

  2. California School Accounting Manual, 1988 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This report presents the procedure for the accounting methods employed by California school districts for income and expenditures in instructional and support programs. The report has seven parts: (1) an introduction to accounting in local educational agencies; (2) general and subsidiary ledger accounting; (3) revenues and other financing sources;…

  3. Special Education Finance in California. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura; Warren, Paul; Murphy, Patrick; Ugo, Iwunze; Pathak, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the technical appendices that accompany the full report, "Special Education Finance in California." The appendices include: (1) Problems with AB 602 and Other State Funding Programs for Special Education; (2) Additional Figures for Analysis of Distribution of Students with Disabilities; (3) Using Supplemental and…

  4. Evaluating Options for Improving California's Drought Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. A.; Schwarz, A.; Wi, S.; Correa, M.; Brown, C.

    2015-12-01

    Through a unique collaborative arrangement, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) have together performed a baseline climate change analysis of the California state (State Water Project) and federal (Central Valley Project) water systems. The first step in the baseline analysis was development of an improved basinwide hydrologic model covering a large area of California including all major tributaries to the state and federal water systems. The CalLite modeling system used by DWR for planning purposes allowed simulation of the system of reservoirs, rivers, control points, and deliveries which are then used to create performance metrics that quantify a wide range of system characteristics including water deliveries, water quality, and environmental/ecological factors. A baseline climate stress test was conducted to identify current vulnerabilities to climate change through the linking of the modeling chain with Decision Scaling concepts through the UMass bottom-up climate stress-testing algorithm. This procedure allowed the first comprehensive climate stress analysis of the California state and federal water systems not constrained by observed historical variability and wet-dry year sequences. A forward-looking drought vulnerability and adaptation assessment of the water systems based on this workflow is ongoing and preliminary results will be presented. Presentation of results will include discussion of the collaborative arrangement between DWR and UMass, which is instrumental to both the success of the research and the education of policy makers.

  5. California School Accounting Manual. 1984 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Janet, Ed.

    California's official school accounting procedures, amended in 1984 to clarify definitions and improve program cost accounting, are presented. Following an introduction that discusses general characteristics of school accounting, the manual explains the following areas of accounting practice: (1) financial reporting; (2) income; (3) expenditures;…

  6. Managing the Impacts of Freight in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    With annual gross domestic product (GDP) of more than 2.4 trillion dollars, the State of California plays a major role in the nations economic growth and international trade. It is the largest state economy in the US and accounts for about 14% of ...

  7. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  8. The literature of the California black rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Sanford R.

    1974-01-01

    Few birds have remained so little known as the California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus). Although first collected in 1859 or before and reported in 1874 (Ridgway 1874), its life history, distribution, and status have remained so obscure that even a sight record of the bird is deemed worthy of a report in some ornithological publications. Because degradation and loss of freshwater and saltwater marshlands in California may be detrimentally affecting the black rail, both the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (1973) and the California Department of Fish and Game (1972) have classified it as rare and worthy of further study. The 84 papers and notes both summarized in this report and included in its bibliography include essentially all that is currently known about the California black rail. Only 11 of these papers consider the life history of this rail in any detail. The rest are distribution notes and some of the more important papers on the closely related eastern black rail (L. j. jamaicensis). The latter are included for comparative purposes, or because they may lend clues to currently unknown facets of the life history of the western race.

  9. Projected reformulated gasoline and AFV use in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemis, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    In the spring to summer of 1996, California will switch from conventional and oxygenated gasolines to reformulated gasoline. This gasoline will be a designer fuel, and generally not available from sources outside California, since California's fuel specifications then will be unique. Thus, it will be important for California refiners to be able to meet the California reformulated gasoline (Cal-RFG) demand. California refiners are investing over $4 billion to upgrade their facilities for Cal-RFG. This represents approximately 40% of the total cost of making Cal-RFG, and is expected to cost 5--15 cents/gallon more than conventional gasoline to produce. Starting in the year 2000, EPA will require use of a similar fuel in seven geographical areas outside of California. The discussion below focuses on the supply, demand and price projections for Cal-RFG

  10. The October 1992 Parkfield, California, earthquake prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J.

    1992-01-01

    A magnitude 4.7 earthquake occurred near Parkfield, California, on October 20, 992, at 05:28 UTC (October 19 at 10:28 p.m. local or Pacific Daylight Time).This moderate shock, interpreted as the potential foreshock of a damaging earthquake on the San Andreas fault, triggered long-standing federal, state and local government plans to issue a public warning of an imminent magnitude 6 earthquake near Parkfield. Although the predicted earthquake did not take place, sophisticated suites of instruments deployed as part of the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment recorded valuable data associated with an unusual series of events. this article describes the geological aspects of these events, which occurred near Parkfield in October 1992. The accompnaying article, an edited version of a press conference b Richard Andrews, the Director of the California Office of Emergency Service (OES), describes governmental response to the prediction.   

  11. Letter: California's position on pregnancy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, G C

    1976-07-01

    The dangers of do-it-yourself pregnancy testing have been recognized in California resulting in the passing of legislation. Pregnancy is a c ondition which requires skill, medical assistance, and occasionally inte rvention or objective counseling. There are 4 arguments against do-it-y ourself testing: 1) it may be inaccurate or inexpertly done, 2) reagents can be hazardous to the health of users or small children, 3) it fails to save money because confirmation by health professionals is usually required, and 4) the individual may not have access to appropriate healt h care resources. California counties have been providing an increasing volume of tests that have served to encourage earlier prenatal care, earlier and safer pregnancy termination, or attendance at family planning clinics. The success of this program warrants implementation by other state governments.

  12. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  13. Interpretation of Recent Temperature Trends in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, P B; Bonfils, C; Lobell, D

    2007-09-21

    Regional-scale climate change and associated societal impacts result from large-scale (e.g. well-mixed greenhouse gases) and more local (e.g. land-use change) 'forcing' (perturbing) agents. It is essential to understand these forcings and climate responses to them, in order to predict future climate and societal impacts. California is a fine example of the complex effects of multiple climate forcings. The State's natural climate is diverse, highly variable, and strongly influenced by ENSO. Humans are perturbing this complex system through urbanization, irrigation, and emission of multiple types of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Despite better-than-average observational coverage, we are only beginning to understand the manifestations of these forcings in California's temperature record.

  14. Retrofit California Overview and Final Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Howard; Rosales, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (also called upgrades) are widely recognized as a critical component to achieving energy savings in the building sector to help lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, however, upgrades have accounted for only a small percentage of aggregate energy savings in building stock, both in California and nationally. Although the measures and technologies to retrofit a building to become energy efficient are readily deployed, establishing this model as a standard practice remains elusive. Retrofit California sought to develop and test new program models to increase participation in the energy upgrade market in California. The Program encompassed 24 pilot projects, conducted between 2010 and mid-2013 and funded through a $30 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The broad scope of the Program can be seen in the involvement of the following regionally based Grant Partners: Los Angeles County (as prime grantee); Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), consisting of: o StopWaste.org for Alameda County o Regional Climate Protection Authority (RCPA) for Sonoma County o SF Environment for the City and County of San Francisco o City of San Jose; California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE) for the San Diego region; Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD). Within these jurisdictions, nine different types of pilots were tested with the common goal of identifying, informing, and educating the people most likely to undertake energy upgrades (both homeowners and contractors), and to provide them with incentives and resources to facilitate the process. Despite its limited duration, Retrofit California undoubtedly succeeded in increasing awareness and education among home and property owners, as well as contractors, realtors, and community leaders. However, program results indicate that a longer timeframe will be needed to

  15. Global climate change and California's natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botkin, D.B.; Nisbet, R.A.; Woodhouse, C.; Ferren, W.; Bicknell, S.; Bentley, B.

    1991-01-01

    If projections of global climate models are correct, the natural ecosystems of California might undergo major changes during the next century. Such changes might include large economic losses in timber, fisheries, and recreation; major changes in our national and state parks and forests and in our nature preserves and conservation areas; increase in extinction of endangered species; loss of large areas of existing habitats; and development of new habitats whose location and areal extent can only be surmised. Many areas currently set aside for the conservation of specific ecosystems might no longer be suitable to them. Yet, in spite of the potential seriousness of these problems, which could dwarf all other environmental changes, California is at present in a poor situation to project what the effects of global change on its natural ecosystems might be

  16. Loading rates in California inferred from aftershocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narteau

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the loading rate in southern California and the change in stress induced by a transient slip event across the San Andreas fault (SAF system in central California, using a model of static fatigue. We analyze temporal properties of aftershocks in order to determine the time delay before the onset of the power law aftershock decay rate. In creep-slip and stick-slip zones, we show that the rate of change of this delay is related to seismic and aseismic deformation across the SAF system. Furthermore, we show that this rate of change is proportional to the deficit of slip rate along the SAF. This new relationship between geodetic and seismological data is in good agreement with predictions from a Limited Power Law model in which the evolution of the duration of a linear aftershock decay rate over short time results from variations in the load of the brittle upper crust.

  17. Kino en California: 1681-1686

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gómez Padilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea un doble pro - pósito: exponer la participación del jesuita en la expedición de Isidro Atondo y Anti - llón a la Baja California y rendir tributo académico a la memoria de Miguel Mathes por su labor documental sobre Eusebio Francisco Kino. Se tratan los intentos de la Corona española por colonizar California y también se ofrece una breve biografía de Atondo para contextuar los documentos usados, los cuales van desde las capitulaciones de Atondo hasta la implementación del proyecto seri , ideado por Kino para luchar por el derecho de los californios a ser evangelizados.

  18. Modeling Gas Dynamics in California Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    W. and Fahlman, A. (2009). Could beaked whales get the bends?. Effect of diving behaviour and physiology on modelled gas exchange for three species...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Modeling Gas Dynamics in California Sea Lions Andreas...to update a current gas dynamics model with recently acquired data for respiratory compliance (P-V), and body compartment size estimates in

  19. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  20. Oligocene cetaceans from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Cisneros, Atzcalli Ehécatl; González Barba, Gerardo; Fordyce, Robert Ewan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Baja California Sur has an important Cenozoic marine fossil record which includes diverse but poorly known Oligocene cetaceans from Mexico. Here we review the cetacean fossil record including new observations from materials that elucidate the evolution of the Neoceti in the Pacific basin. Fossils were collected from outcrops of the El Cien Formation (Oligocene-Early Miocene) and from San Gregorio Formation (Late Oligocene). The specimens belong to the paleontological collection of Mu...

  1. Music and Culture Areas of Native California

    OpenAIRE

    Keeling, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This paper sketches the principal music and culture areas of native California and identifies general characteristics that distinguish the region in the overall sphere of Native American music. Rather than provide notations or detailed analyses I describe the music according to a set of general parameters that I have found useful in previous comparative research. The following elements are considered: (1) vocal quality or timbre; (2) presence of words or vocables, text-setting, and repetition...

  2. Granite Exfoliation, Cosumnes River Watershed, Somerset, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, I. Q.; Neiss-Cortez, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California there are many exposed granite plutons within the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. As with most exposed parts of the batholith, these granite slabs exfoliate. It is important to understand exfoliation for issues of public safety as it can cause rock slides near homes, roads, and recreation areas. Through observation, measuring, and mapping we characterize exfoliation in our Cosumnes River watershed community.

  3. Predictability of the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur J.; Chereskin, T.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Niiler, P. P.; Moisan, J. R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The physical and biological oceanography of the Southern California Bight (SCB), a highly productive subregion of the California Current System (CCS) that extends from Point Conception, California, south to Ensenada, Mexico, continues to be extensively studied. For example, the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has sampled this region for over 50 years, providing an unparalleled time series of physical and biological data. However, our understanding of what physical processes control the large-scale and mesoscale variations in these properties is incomplete. In particular, the non-synoptic and relatively coarse spatial sampling (70km) of the hydrographic grid does not completely resolve the mesoscale eddy field (Figure 1a). Moreover, these unresolved physical variations exert a dominant influence on the evolution of the ecosystem. In recent years, additional datasets that partially sample the SCB have become available. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements, which now sample upper-ocean velocity between stations, and sea level observations along TOPEX tracks give a more complete picture of the mesoscale variability. However, both TOPEX and ADCP are well-sampled only along the cruise or orbit tracks and coarsely sampled in time and between tracks. Surface Lagrangian drifters also sample the region, although irregularly in time and space. SeaWiFS provides estimates of upper-ocean chlorophyll-a (chl-alpha), usually giving nearly complete coverage for week-long intervals, depending on cloud coverage. Historical ocean color data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) has been used extensively to determine phytoplankton patterns and variability, characterize the primary production across the SCB coastal fronts, and describe the seasonal and interannual variability in pigment concentrations. As in CalCOFI, these studies described much of the observed structures and their variability over relatively large space and

  4. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  6. Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Klamath Mountains constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. Stigma Among California's Medical Marijuana Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2015-01-01

    The enactment of California's Proposition 215 stipulates that patients may use marijuana for medical reasons, provided that it is recommended by a physician. Yet, medical marijuana patients risk being stigmatized for this practice. This paper examines the way in which medical marijuana patients perceive and process stigma, and how it affects their interactions and experiences with others. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of medical marijuana patients were carried out using a semi-structure...

  8. Perspectives on cultural values of California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Starrs

    2002-01-01

    The status and prospects of oaks—those native to California and the many elsewhere—are insufficiently known, despite historical volumes of work done in the past and more ongoing today. That globally there is a blistering diversity of oaks in different environments, and put to distinct uses, is beyond dispute. Less agreed upon, though, is their complex history and the...

  9. California and Irony in Mad Men

    OpenAIRE

    Taveira, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    The combination of melodramatic and art cinematic techniques and influences in AMC’s television series Mad Men (2007¬–) reveals how a melodramatic televisuality can image novel modes of social and intimate relations and an alternative to the archetypal American narrative of the self-made man. Set in 1960s’ America, the series uses a contemporaneous and cosmopolitan California to triangulate the formal and narrative insistence of the past on the present. This triangulation is played out by Don...

  10. Teledentistry in rural California: a USC initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Wen; Plotkin, Daniel R; Mulligan, Roseann; Polido, José C; Mah, James K; Meara, John G

    2003-08-01

    Dentistry, in a synergistic combination with telecommunications technology and the Internet, has yielded a relatively new and exciting field that has endless potential. "Teledentistry" emerges from the fusion of dental practice and technology and can take on two forms--real-time consultation and "store and forward." The first entity to put teledentistry into practice was the Army, which, in 1994, successfully undertook consultations between dentists and service personnel located more than 100 miles apart. Since then, various institutions and organizations in the United States and farther afield have practiced teledentistry, with varying degrees of success. The Children's Hospital Los Angeles Teledentistry Project, being run in association with the University of Southern California's Mobile Dental Clinic, seeks to increase and enhance the quality of oral health care that is provided to children living in remote rural areas of California, areas often severely underserved by dental health providers. The project has three phases: Phase I involves the establishment and organization of the teledentistry network; Phase II will introduce technologies to provide orthodontic consultation and treatment; and Phase III will expand the network and provide increased specialty care into further areas of California and beyond, providing services to more children in desperate need of dental health care.

  11. California Basin Studies (CaBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsline, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    The California Continental Borderland's present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 10 6 years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 10 6 years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation

  12. Microsatellite analysis of medfly bioinfestations in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoni, M; Zheng, L; Guglielmino, C R; Haymer, D S; Gasperi, G; Gomulski, L M; Malacrida, A R

    2001-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is a destructive agricultural pest with a long history of invasion success. This pest has been affecting different regions of the United States for the past 30 years, but a number of studies of medfly bioinfestations has focused on the situation in California. Although some progress has been made in terms of establishing the origin of infestations, the overall status of this pest in this area remains controversial. Specifically, do flies captured over the years represent independent infestations or the persistence of a resident population? We present an effort to answer this question based on the use of multilocus genotyping. Ten microsatellite loci were used to analyse 109 medflies captured in several infestations within California between 1992 and 1998. Using these same markers, 242 medflies from regions of the world having 'established' populations of this pest including Hawaii, Guatemala, El Salvador, Ecuador, Brazil, Argentina and Peru, were also analysed. Although phylogenetic analysis, amova analysis, the IMMANC assignment test and geneclass exclusion test analysis suggest that some of the medflies captured in California are derived from independent invasion events, analysis of specimens from the Los Angeles basin provides support for the hypothesis that an endemic population, probably derived from Guatemala, has been established.

  13. Africanized bees extend their distribution in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; McBroome, Jakob; Rehman, Mahwish; Johnson, Brian R

    2018-01-01

    Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) arrived in the western hemisphere in the 1950s and quickly spread north reaching California in the 1990s. These bees are highly defensive and somewhat more difficult to manage for commercial purposes than the European honey bees traditionally kept. The arrival of these bees and their potentially replacing European bees over much of the state is thus of great concern. After a 25 year period of little systematic sampling, a recent small scale study found Africanized honey bees in the Bay Area of California, far north of their last recorded distribution. The purpose of the present study was to expand this study by conducting more intensive sampling of bees from across northern California. We found Africanized honey bees as far north as Napa and Sacramento. We also found Africanized bees in all counties south of these counties. Africanized honey bees were particularly abundant in parts of the central valley and Monterey. This work suggests the northern spread of Africanized honey bees may not have stopped. They may still be moving north at a slow rate, although due to the long gaps in sampling it is currently impossible to tell for certain. Future work should routinely monitor the distribution of these bees to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  14. Demographic trajectories of Baja California and California, 1900-2000. Contrasts and parallelisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Piñera Ramírez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to analyze migration processes that have occurred in two neighboring states, pointing out the characteristics acquired in each of them, especially regarding their origin and type of labor relations they have produced. Therefore, the migration as the thematic axis and following the guidelines of comparative history, it is shown that both in California and in Baja California, migration flows have played a fundamental role. The comparative appro­ach also leads to the search for similarities and differences represented in different moments, such as the impact of "Prohibition", the Great Depression and two World Wars, or specific phenomena as the arrival of the railroad. But above all, the common thread is migration with its two key issues mentioned above, the origin of migration flows and labor relations that they have generated in the two Californias.

  15. Uncinariasis in northern fur seal and California sea lion pups from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Melin, S R; Tolliver, S C

    1997-10-01

    Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) (n = 25) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) (n = 53) pups, found dead on rookeries on San Miguel Island (California, USA), were examined for adult Uncinaria spp. Prevalence of these nematodes was 96% in fur seal pups and 100% in sea lion pups. Mean intensity of Uncinaria spp. per infected pup was 643 in fur seals and 1,284 in sea lions. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. from dead sea lion pups underwent embryonation in an incubator; development to the free-living third stage larva occurred within the egg. This study provided some specific information on hookworm infections in northern fur seal and California sea lion pups on San Miguel Island. High prevalence rate of Uncinaria spp. in both species of pinnipeds was documented and much higher numbers (2X) of hookworms were present in sea lion than fur seal pups.

  16. Families in the making: gestational surrogate mothers in California

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørn, Henriette Hårseide

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is based on a field work I conducted in California from January to June 2012, where I explore how gestational surrogate mothers experience the process of surrogacy and how California law has dealt with ART-cases. Through exploring surrogacy from different view point, and in particular from the view of surrogate mothers, this has given an insightful view into surrogacy in California. I have identified two court cases which are important for the establishment of parental rights in s...

  17. California statewide model for high-speed rail

    OpenAIRE

    Outwater, Maren; Tierney, Kevin; Bradley, Mark; Sall, Elizabeth; Kuppam, Arun; Modugala, Vamsee

    2010-01-01

    The California High Speed Rail Authority (CHSRA) and the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) have developed a new statewide model to support evaluation of high-speed rail alternatives in the State of California. This statewide model will also support future planning activities of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). The approach to this statewide model explicitly recognizes the unique characteristics of intraregional travel demand and interregional travel demand. A...

  18. Restructuring and renewable energy developments in California: using Elfin to simulate the future California power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshner, Dan; Kito, Suzie; Marnay, Chris; Pickle, Steve; Schumacher, Katja; Sezgen, Osman; Wiser, Ryan

    1998-01-01

    We provide some basic background information on support for renewable in California on the expected operation of the power pool and bilateral markets, and on the three key policy types modeled here. We discuss the Elfin production cost and expansion planning model as well as key assumptions that we made to model the future California pool. We present results from the successful Elfin models runs. We discuss the implications of the study, as well as key areas for future research. Additional information on results, Elfin's expansion planning logic, and resource options can be found in the appendices

  19. 77 FR 5473 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... regulations in one Federal Register notice. Section 300.63(b)(1) of the current regulations provides that NMFS... primary directed sablefish fishery north of Point Chehalis, WA, in 2012 under the current preliminary IPHC... of the ESA because of the listing of yelloweye, canary, and bocaccio rockfish of the Puget Sound...

  20. 77 FR 16740 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ...; (d) ``commercial fishing'' means fishing, the resulting catch of which is sold or bartered; or is intended to be sold or bartered, other than (i) sport fishing, (ii) treaty Indian ceremonial and... monitoring system transmitter that automatically determines a vessel's position and transmits it to a NMFS...

  1. 75 FR 13024 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... system for guided charter vessels (75 FR 554) was also established January 5, 2010, for Areas 2C and 3A... resulting catch of which is sold or bartered; or is intended to be sold or bartered, other than (i) sport... fish processor; (t) ``VMS transmitter'' means a NMFS-approved vessel monitoring system transmitter that...

  2. 76 FR 14300 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... a final rule implementing a Limited Access System for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska for... fishing, the resulting catch of which is sold or bartered; or is intended to be sold or bartered, other... monitoring system transmitter that automatically determines a vessel's position and transmits it to a NMFS...

  3. 78 FR 9660 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sarah... the Sekiu River mouth, as defined by a line extending from 48[deg]17.30' N. lat., 124[deg]23.70' W... changes will have a disproportionate negative effect on small entities versus large entities. Based on the...

  4. FTA figures in Alberta-California gas price tiff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Canadian government and industry officials are considering a grievance procedure under the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement in a natural gas price conflict with California regulators. Industry groups and the federal and Alberta governments are considering action under the FTA and other possible responses to recent rulings by the California Public Utilities Commission. Other options being considered are appeals against the CPUC policy to the U.S. energy secretary and the governor of California or court challenges. Meantime, Alberta's government the new export volumes of gas sales to California will be approved only after existing contracts with the 190 Alberta producers have been filled

  5. License application approach for the California LLRW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.; Romano, S.A.; Hanrahan, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    US Ecology, Inc. is the State of California's license designee to site, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility to serve member states of the Southwestern Compact. US Ecology identified a proposed site in the Ward Valley of southeastern California in March 1988. Following proposed site selection, US Ecology undertook studies required to prepare a license application. US Ecology's license application for this desert site was deemed complete for detailed regulatory review by the California Department of Health Services (DHS) in December 1989. By mutual agreement, disposal of mixed waste is not proposed pending the State of California's decision on appropriate management of this small LLRW subset

  6. Proceedings of the symposium on multiple-use managementof California's hardwood resources; November 12-14, 1986; San Luis Obispo, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy R. Plumb; Norman H. Pillsbury

    1987-01-01

    The Symposium on the Ecology, Management, and Utilization of California Oaks held in June 1979 at Claremont, California, was the first to take a comprehensive look at California's native oak resource. At that time, interest in several species of California oaks was rapidly growing with particular concern about their regeneration, preservation, and wildlife...

  7. California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) - Impaired Streams and Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset contains California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list which is submitted by the California State Water Resources Control Board. The layer has...

  8. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Availability Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification... Energy (DOE) announces the availability of the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification... potential environmental impacts associated with the Hydrogen Energy California's (HECA) Integrated...

  9. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published... California submitted the ``South Coast Air Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the...

  10. Framework for Developing Economic Competitiveness Measures for the California Sustainable Freight Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    The METRANS Transportation Center has been providing technical assistance to the California Governors Office of Business and Economic Development (GO-Biz) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in support of implementing the California Sust...

  11. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  12. 75 FR 11880 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9126-4] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... to the control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles... other requirements relating to emissions control of new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1). The...

  13. The Labor Market in the Central California Raisin Industry: Five Years after IRCA. California Agricultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Andrew; And Others

    This report examines the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) on the raisin industry's labor market, and provides educators with background on California migrant workers and their deteriorating working conditions. Because the raisin harvest lasts only 3-4 weeks but employs 40,000-50,000 workers, any effects of IRCA on…

  14. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for land...

  15. Learning from California and the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tussing, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy oils are found in 10 of the 14 largest oilfields in Alaska and California. In the US west coast region, petroleum demand is dominated by light transport fuels, and there is a lack of a discrete and conspicuous heavy oil market. The structure and behavior of west coast petroleum markets, and their interactions with crude-oil and petroleum product markets elsewhere on the Pacific Rim are discussed with regard to how the market for growing volumes of western Canadian heavy oils might evolve. An analysis of crude oil prices versus API gravity demonstrates the price penalties on oil of low gravity, high sulfur, and high transport cost. Prices at the high gravity end tend to correlate closely with Asian light crude and unfinished gasoline prices. The heaviest crudes are priced in competition with other chemically similar residual oils for direct fuel use, blending, or refinery feedstock. The biggest component of the west coast heavy oil market is bunker fuel. The market value of heavy crudes in the west coast is thus determined by regional supply and demand for heavy hydrocarbon molecules, whatever the source. The west coast is not a promising market for Canadian heavy crudes, and exports to Asia would have to compete both with residual oils from Asia and the US west coast and with California heavy crudes. US west coast production peaked in 1989 and regional production can be expected to decline further in average gravity. New production from known but undeveloped heavy oil pools near Prudhoe Bay or in the California offshore could be expected to postpone the need for imports to the west coast and to depress prices. A removal of the Alaska crude oil export ban could improve the west coast heavy oil market. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. The 2008 California climate change assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G.

    2008-12-01

    In 2005, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Executive Order S-03-05, which laid the foundation for California's ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation reduction efforts. The 2020 goal is now codified in state law requiring bringing 2020 emissions to the 1990 levels. The Executive Order also mandates the preparation of biennial updates on the latest climate change science, potential impacts, and assessment of the state's efforts to manage its climate change risks through various adaptation options. In 2006, the first of these mandated scientific assessments (The Governor's Scenarios Report) was released. Based on new scientific studies conducted in the interim, the next assessment, the '2008 Governor's Scenarios Report' is currently in preparation. It has three principal goals: (1) to improve the assessment of climate changes for California and associated impacts on key physical and biological indicators; (2) to begin to translate these physical and biological impacts into sectoral economic impacts; and (3) to begin to develop and evaluate strategies for key sectors or regions for adapting to climate changes already underway. Contributors to this session will present some of this new research to the scientific community. Among the most exciting new insights are impacts assessments for the all-important water and agricultural sectors, coastal areas, public health and related air quality and environmental justice issues, the forestry and energy sectors. This presentation will give an overview of the overall effort which will result in about 35 scientific papers from different research institutions in California. All of the studies are interlinked in such a way as to produce a consistent overall assessment.

  17. Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2004-12-01

    Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

  18. Building the Southern California Earthquake Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.; Henyey, T.; McRaney, J. K.

    2004-12-01

    Kei Aki was the founding director of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a multi-institutional collaboration formed in 1991 as a Science and Technology Center (STC) under the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Aki and his colleagues articulated a system-level vision for the Center: investigations by disciplinary working groups would be woven together into a "Master Model" for Southern California. In this presentation, we will outline how the Master-Model concept has evolved and how SCEC's structure has adapted to meet scientific challenges of system-level earthquake science. In its first decade, SCEC conducted two regional imaging experiments (LARSE I & II); published the "Phase-N" reports on (1) the Landers earthquake, (2) a new earthquake rupture forecast for Southern California, and (3) new models for seismic attenuation and site effects; it developed two prototype "Community Models" (the Crustal Motion Map and Community Velocity Model) and, perhaps most important, sustained a long-term, multi-institutional, interdisciplinary collaboration. The latter fostered pioneering numerical simulations of earthquake ruptures, fault interactions, and wave propagation. These accomplishments provided the impetus for a successful proposal in 2000 to reestablish SCEC as a "stand alone" center under NSF/USGS auspices. SCEC remains consistent with the founders' vision: it continues to advance seismic hazard analysis through a system-level synthesis that is based on community models and an ever expanding array of information technology. SCEC now represents a fully articulated "collaboratory" for earthquake science, and many of its features are extensible to other active-fault systems and other system-level collaborations. We will discuss the implications of the SCEC experience for EarthScope, the USGS's program in seismic hazard analysis, NSF's nascent Cyberinfrastructure Initiative, and other large collaboratory programs.

  19. The Cost of Smoking in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Wendy; Sung, Hai-Yen; Shi, Yanling; Stark, Brad

    2016-05-01

    The economic impact of smoking, including healthcare costs and the value of lost productivity due to illness and mortality, was estimated for California for 2009. Smoking-attributable healthcare costs were estimated using a series of econometric models that estimate expenditures for hospital care, ambulatory care, prescriptions, home health care, and nursing home care. Lost productivity due to illness was estimated using an econometric model predicting how smoking status affects the number of days lost from work or other activities. The value of lives lost from premature mortality due to smoking was estimated using an epidemiological approach. Almost 4 million Californians still smoke, including 146 000 adolescents. The cost of smoking in 2009 totaled $18.1 billion, including $9.8 billion in healthcare costs, $1.4 billion in lost productivity from illness, and $6.8 billion in lost productivity from premature mortality. This amounts to $487 per California resident and $4603 per smoker. Costs were greater for men than for women. Hospital costs comprised 44% of healthcare costs. Despite extensive efforts at tobacco control in California, healthcare and lost productivity costs attributable to smoking remain high. Compared to costs for 1999, the total cost was 15% greater in 2009. However, after adjusting for inflation, real costs have fallen by 13% over the past decade, indicating that efforts have been successful in reducing the economic burden of smoking in the state. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  1. Municipal water powers small hydro in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, C.W.

    1985-07-01

    The city council of San Luis Obispo, California approved a scheme in 1984 to install a hydropower plant into an existing water distribution network. The Stenner Canyon project is under construction on the site of an abandoned water treatment plant. A 750 kW Pelton turbine will be fed via a 20 km pipeline from the Salimas Reservoir. A remote telemetry system will control turbine output. The primary objectives are to generate extra power for the area and provide additional revenue for the city. Computer simulation helped hydraulics engineers design the system. Tax-exempt industrial development bonds will finance the $1.5 million project. 2 figures.

  2. Prospects for coal slurry pipelines in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The coal slurry pipeline segment of the transport industry is emerging in the United States. If accepted it will play a vital role in meeting America's urgent energy requirements without public subsidy, tax relief, or federal grants. It is proven technology, ideally suited for transport of an abundant energy resource over thousands of miles to energy short industrial centers and at more than competitive costs. Briefly discussed are the following: (1) history of pipelines; (2) California market potential; (3) slurry technology; (4) environmental benefits; (5) market competition; and (6) a proposed pipeline.

  3. Urban sprawl and flooding in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, S.E.

    1970-01-01

    The floods of January 1969 in south-coastal California provide a timely example of the effect of urban sprawl on flood damage. Despite recordbreaking, or near recordbreaking, stream discharges, damage was minimal in the older developed areas that are protected against inundation and debris damage by carefully planned flood-control facilities, including debris basins and flood-conveyance channels. By contrast, heavy damage occurred in areas of more recent urban sprawl, where the hazards of inundation and debris or landslide damage have not been taken into consideration, and where the improvement and development of drainage or flood-control facilities have not kept pace with expanding urbanization.

  4. Wind to Hydrogen in California: Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonia, O.; Saur, G.

    2012-08-01

    This analysis presents a case study in California for a large scale, standalone wind electrolysis site. This is a techno-economic analysis of the 40,000 kg/day renewable production of hydrogen and subsequent delivery by truck to a fueling station in the Los Angeles area. This quantity of hydrogen represents about 1% vehicle market penetration for a city such as Los Angeles (assuming 0.62 kg/day/vehicle and 0.69 vehicles/person) [8]. A wind site near the Mojave Desert was selected for proximity to the LA area where hydrogen refueling stations are already built.

  5. Puente Willow Creek en Monterrey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the 10 awards given every year by the Prestressed Concrete Institute for the most outstanding prestressed concrete projects, two have been awarded in California this year, one of them to the Willow Creek bridge, near Monterrey. The prestressed, double T girders of this bridge were made at a workshop, a great distance from the bridge site. These are 24 m long, 1.35 m high, and are stabilized by transversal diaphragms, 20 cm in thickness. The table deck is of reinforced concrete, being 8.85 m wide and 20 cm thick. The structure is straightforward, slender, and adapts itself pleasantly to the background. It has seven spans and crosses over a secondary road, in addition to bridging the Willow stream. The supporting piles are hollow, of rectangular cross section, and over them a cross beam carries the five girders and the deck itself. The end abutments consist of vertical reinforced concrete walls, and supporting, soil filled, structures. The above information was supplied by the California Road Department.De los diez premios que anualmente concede el Prestressed Concrete Institute para las obras de hormigón pretensado más notables, dos han correspondido a California y uno de ellos al puente de Willow Creek, situado en la región de Monterrey. Las vigas de hormigón pretensado, con sección en forma de doble T, se prefabricaron en un taller situado a gran distancia del puente. Tienen 24 m de longitud y 1,35 m de canto, estando arriostradas con diafragmas transversales de 20 cm de espesor. La losa del tablero, de hormigón armado, tiene 8,85 m de anchura y 20 cm de espesor. La estructura es sencilla, esbelta y armoniza perfectamente con el paisaje que la circunda. Tiene siete tramos y salva un paso inferior secundario y el arroyo Willow. Los soportes, se apoyan sobre pilotes, algunos de gran altura; son huecos, de sección rectangular y terminan en una cruceta que sirve de sostén a las cinco vigas que soportan la losa del tablero. Los estribos

  6. Pioneering in wind energy: the California experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righter, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    In California today nearly 16,000 wind generators are spinning, providing for the electrical needs of roughly one million residents. Yet in 1980, just sixteen years ago, the state was without wind generators, save for a few experimental models. It is time to reflect on this remarkable growth. What caused it? What transformed a ''soft energy path'' dream into reality? This paper will focus on four central factors: (1) political climate, (2) tax incentives, (3) the PURPA Act of 1978, and (4) a sympathetic public utility commission. (author)

  7. Misunderstood markets: The case of California gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer Ruth

    In 1996, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) implemented a new benchmark for cleaner burning gasoline that is unique to California. Since then, government officials have often expressed concern that the uniqueness of petroleum products in California segregates the industry, allowing for gasoline prices in the State that are too high and too volatile. The growing concern about the segmentation of the California markets lends itself to analysis of spatial pricing. Spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline within the state exhibit some characteristics that seem, on the surface, inconsistent with spatial price theory. Particularly, some spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline appear larger than accepted transportation rates and other spreads are negative, giving a price signal for transportation against the physical flow of product. Both characteristics suggest some limitation in the arbitrage process. Proprietary data, consisting of daily product prices for the years 2000 through 2002, disaggregated by company, product, grade, and location is used to examine more closely spatial price patterns. My discussion of institutional and physical infrastructure outlines two features of the industry that limit, but do not prohibit, arbitrage. First, a look into branding and wholesale contracting shows that contract terms, specifically branding agreements, reduces the price-responsiveness of would-be arbitrageurs. Second, review of maps and documents illustrating the layout of physical infrastructure, namely petroleum pipelines, confirms the existence of some connections among markets. My analysis of the day-of-the-week effects on wholesale prices demonstrates how the logistics of the use of transportation infrastructure affect market prices. Further examination of spatial price relationships shows that diesel prices follow closely the Augmented Law of One Price (ALOP), and that branding agreements cause gasoline prices to deviate substantially ALOP. Without branding

  8. H2 fuelling infrastructure in Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasato, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is the local air agency covering the majority of southern California, and the entity legislatively responsible for bringing the region into compliance with the federal Clean Air standards by 2010. One of the tools used by the SCAQMD to accelerate achieving cleaner air is the funding of research, development, and demonstration projects for advanced, clean air technologies. One major focus has been on hydrogen and fuel cells for both stationary and mobile applications. The presentation will discuss the SCAQMD strategy and deployment efforts regarding the development and expansion of hydrogen fueling infrastructure in the South Coast Air Basin. (author)

  9. Global climate change and California agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.; Rains, W.; Kennedy, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper has highlighted some of the impacts that a warmer climate may have on agriculture in California. Because of the state's diverse geomorphology it is difficult to predict what crops will grow in which locations under future climate regimes. However, the potential interactions between warmer temperatures, higher CO 2 concentrations, and the factors that affect plant and animal growth may have major consequences for the competitive position of the state's agriculture. Forward-thinking research and public policies are required to assure that responses to climate change will optimize production systems under future constraints

  10. Anticipating PHEV Energy Impacts in California

    OpenAIRE

    Axsen, John; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    To explore the potential energy impacts of widespread PHEV use, an innovative, three-part survey instrument collected data from 877 new vehicle buyers in California. This analysis combines all the available information from each respondent—driving, recharge potential, and PHEV design priorities—to estimate the energy impacts of the respondents’ existing travel and understandings of PHEVs under a variety of recharging scenarios. Results suggest that the use of PHEV vehicles could halve g...

  11. Southern California Regional Technology Acceleration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa, Rosibel [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Jacobs School of Engineering; Rasochova, Lada [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Rady School of Management

    2014-09-30

    UC San Diego and San Diego State University are partnering to address these deficiencies in the renewable energy space in the greater San Diego region, accelerating the movement of clean energy innovation from the university laboratory into the marketplace, building on the proven model of the William J. von Liebig Center’s (vLC’s) Proof of Concept (POC) program and virtualizing the effort to enable a more inclusive environment for energy innovation and expansion of the number of clean energy start-ups and/or technology licenses in greater California.

  12. The Tenebrionidae of California: A Time Sensitive Snapshot Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Aalbu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to a diversity of habitats and its geologic history, the US state of California hosts a spectacular assemblage of darkling beetle species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. In addition to being part of the California Floristic Province, one of 34 global biodiversity hotspots identified by Conservation International, California also has additional areas which are parts of the Great Basin, Mojave, and Sonoran deserts. California is divided into nine floristic regions. Each region is assessed in terms of faunal composition and endemism. A “snapshot” of our present knowledge of the Tenebrionidae indicates that 447 currently recognized species, representing 108 genera, occur in California of which one hundred and ninety are endemic. California is compared to other nearby regions in diversity and endemism. An analysis of currently valid species vs a more realistic species account based on unpublished records of likely synonyms and known species yet to be described in the scientific literature is presented. The California Floristic Region, rather than other more arid parts of California, has the highest number of total and endemic species. Because of their high diversity and endemism, tenebrionids could potentially provide a valuable tool for monitoring the environment for conservation purposes.

  13. Opportunities to Align California's PreK-3 Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policy Analysis for California Education, PACE, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "PreK-3 Alignment in California's Education System: Obstacles and Opportunities" by Rachel Valentino and Deborah J. Stipek reviews the opportunities and challenges that must be addressed to better align PreK-3 education in California. The report describes policies and practices that districts have implemented to strengthen alignment, and…

  14. Chemistry in California: How it Started and How it Grew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Arthur L.

    1976-01-01

    Gives a brief history of chemistry in California during the last 100 years, including the foundation of chemical industries, the development of chemistry departments in universities and their respective specialities, and the role of California laboratories in World War II. (MLH)

  15. 33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... call sign “PATCOM”. Table 1 Del Rey to Puerto Vallarta Race Sponsor: Del Rey Yacht Club Date: February... of the race only. California Cup Sponsor: California Yacht Club Date: Late May (4 day event) Location... Yacht Race (Transpac) Sponsor: Transpacific Yacht Club Date: 4 July (biennially) Location: San Pedro...

  16. Digital Learning in California's K-12 Schools. Just the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Niu

    2015-01-01

    This fact page briefly discusses the following facts on digital learning in California's K-12: (1) As California implements new tests in its K-12 schools, technology infrastructure is a key concern; (2) Many districts are confident that they had enough bandwidth for online field tests; (3) Digital learning will require significantly greater…

  17. California mild CTV strains that break resistance in Trifoliate Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the final report of a project to characterize California isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) that replicate in Poncirus trifoliata (trifoliate orange). Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of viral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and assembly of full-length sequences of mild California CTV i...

  18. THE TOXOSTOMA THRASHERS OF CALIFORNIA: SPECIES AT RISK?

    Science.gov (United States)

    WILLIAM F. LAUDENSLAYER; A. SIDNEY ENGLAND; SAM FITTON; LARRY SASLAW

    1992-01-01

    Four of the 10 described species of Toxostoma thrasher breed in California-California thrasher (T. redivivum), Bendire's thrasher (T. bendirei), Crissal thrasher (T. crissale), and Le Conte's thrasher (T. fecontei). Urbanization, agricultural development, fire management, and livestock grazing are among the land uses that affect large tracts of the habitats...

  19. Proceedings of the Binational Conference on Libraries in California and Baja California (1st, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, January 13-14, 1984) = Memorias de la Primera Conferencia Binacional de Bibliotecas de las Californias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Marta Stiefel, Ed.; And Others

    This document includes the text of presentations given at the First Binational Conference on Libraries in California and Baja California, as well as minutes from four roundtables held at the conference. Following a prologue and a brief background on the conference, the following presentations are included: (1) "State Support for Public…

  20. Is There Room for Biliteracy? Credentialing California's Future Bilingual Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivos, Edward M.; Sarmiento, Lilia E.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the ethnic and linguistic diversity found in California's public schools, or because of it, in 1998 voters approved Proposition 227, a ballot initiative designed to dismantle bilingual education programs in the state. By the 2003-2004 school year, the California Department of Education reports that statewide 8,908 teachers were providing…

  1. A field guide to insects and diseases of California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth A. Bernhardt

    2006-01-01

    California has more than twenty-five native species, natural hybrids, and varieties of oaks (Quercus species). The form of these oaks ranges from large trees, up to about 25 m tall, to shrubs no taller than about 1.5 m. California's native oaks include representatives of three oak subgroups or subgenera (Table 1). Hybridization only occurs...

  2. The tenebrionidae of california: a time sensitive snapshot assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbu, Rolf L; Smith, Aaron D

    2014-01-01

    DUE TO A DIVERSITY OF HABITATS AND ITS GEOLOGIC HISTORY, THE US STATE OF CALIFORNIA HOSTS A SPECTACULAR ASSEMBLAGE OF DARKLING BEETLE SPECIES (COLEOPTERA: Tenebrionidae). In addition to being part of the California Floristic Province, one of 34 global biodiversity hotspots identified by Conservation International, California also has additional areas which are parts of the Great Basin, Mojave, and Sonoran deserts. California is divided into nine floristic regions. Each region is assessed in terms of faunal composition and endemism. A "snapshot" of our present knowledge of the Tenebrionidae indicates that 447 currently recognized species, representing 108 genera, occur in California of which one hundred and ninety are endemic. California is compared to other nearby regions in diversity and endemism. An analysis of currently valid species vs a more realistic species account based on unpublished records of likely synonyms and known species yet to be described in the scientific literature is presented. The California Floristic Region, rather than other more arid parts of California, has the highest number of total and endemic species. Because of their high diversity and endemism, tenebrionids could potentially provide a valuable tool for monitoring the environment for conservation purposes.

  3. Q&A: The Basics of California's School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In a state as large and complex as California, education financing can become as complicated as rocket science. This two-page Q&A provides a brief, easy-to-understand explanation of California's school finance system and introduces the issues of its adequacy and equity. A list of resources providing additional information is provided.

  4. The Opportunity Illusion: Subsidized Housing and Failing Schools in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program has funded the bulk of subsidized development nationwide, enabling the construction of over 100,000 units targeted to lower income households in California alone (California Tax Credit Allocation Committee 2009c). Yet, by not encouraging the siting of projects in racially…

  5. EXPOSURES AND HEALTH OF FARM WORKER CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA STAR Program Center of Excellence in Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research at the University of California at Berkeley is currently conducting exposure and health studies for children of farm workers in the Salinas Valley of California. The Exp...

  6. California Dreaming - Sustaining American Lifestyle and the Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2001-01-01

    California has for several years supported new innovation in zero-emission and low emission cars and set measures for the reduction of emissions in the state for the coming years.......California has for several years supported new innovation in zero-emission and low emission cars and set measures for the reduction of emissions in the state for the coming years....

  7. 77 FR 14349 - Availability of Report: California Eelgrass Mitigation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... contributed to these losses, impacts from human population expansion and associated pollution and upland... aquatic site under the 404(b)(1) guidelines of the Clean Water Act (40 CFR 230.43). Pursuant to the... California (U.S./Mexico border to Pt. Conception), central California (Point Conception to San Francisco Bay...

  8. Provenance variation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.M. Emery; F. Thomas Ledig

    1987-01-01

    In California, the Lake Albacutya provenance of river red gum was clearly superior in volume growth to 22 other provenances collected throughout the range of the species in Australia. It had at least 2.5 times the volume of the plantation mean at 5.5 years, consistent with its performance in other countries with Mediterranean climates like California's. Other...

  9. Regional Planning in California: Objectives, Obstacles, and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; Alford, Janis C.

    1976-01-01

    At the direction of the California State Legislature, the authors explored regional planning in other states as well as in California in an effort to determine the advantages and disadvantages of voluntary versus mandated interinstitutional cooperation. In this revised report the current state of regional planning and various alternatives for…

  10. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0089; FV10-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  11. 76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California walnut handlers are subject to... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0062; FV11-984-1 FR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  12. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive handlers are... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  13. The health of California's immigrant hired farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo, Don; McCurdy, Stephen A; Bade, Bonnie; Samuels, Steve; Lighthall, David; Williams, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Hispanic immigrant workers dominate California's hired farm workforce. Little is known about their health status; even less is known about those lacking employment authorization. The California Agricultural Workers Health Survey (CAWHS) was a statewide cross-sectional household survey conducted in 1999. Six hundred fifty-four workers completed in-person interviews, comprehensive physical examinations, and personal risk behavior interviews. The CAWHS PE Sample is comprised mostly of young Mexican men who lack health insurance and present elevated prevalence of indicators of chronic disease: overweight, obesity, high blood pressure, and high serum cholesterol. The self-reported, cumulative, farm work career incidence of paid claims for occupational injury under workers compensation was 27% for males and 11% for females. The survey finds elevated prevalence of indicators of chronic disease but lack of health care access. Participants without employment authorization reported a greater prevalence of high-risk behaviors, such as binge drinking, and were less knowledgeable about workplace protections. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Fish larvae from the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Aceves-Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic composition of fish larvae was analysed from 464 plankton samples obtained during 10 oceanographic surveys in the Gulf of California between 1984 and 1988. We identified 283 taxa: 173 species, 57 genera, and 53 families. Tropical and subtropical species predominated except during the winter, when temperate-subarctic species were dominant. The most abundant species were the mesopelagic Benthosema panamense, Triphoturus mexicanus and Vinciguerria lucetia, but the coastal pelagic species Engraulis mordax, Opisthonema spp., Sardinops caeruleus and Scomber japonicus were also prominent. The taxonomic composition of the ichthyoplankton shows the seasonality of the Gulf as well as environmental changes that occurred between the 1984-1987 warm period and the 1956-1957 cool period previously reported. The presence of E. mordax larvae as one of the most abundant species in the Gulf provides evidence of the reproduction of this species two years before the development of the northern anchovy fishery and the decline of the sardine fishery in the Gulf of California.

  15. Surgical malpractice in California: res judicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Erik R; Stabile, Bruce E; Plurad, David; Kim, Dennis; Neville, Angela; Bricker, Scott; Putnam, Brant; Bongard, Fred

    2014-10-01

    Medical negligence claims are of increasing concern to surgeons. Although noneconomic damage awards in California are limited by the Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act (MICRA) law to $250,000, the total amount of such settlements can increase significantly based on claims for economic damages. We reviewed negligence litigation involving California surgeons to determine outcomes and monetary awards through retrospective review of surgical malpractice cases published in a legal journal. This review was limited to actions involving general surgeons. Such litigation was voluntarily reported by either defense's or plaintiff's counsel at the conclusion of the litigation. Data reviewed included alleged damages incurred by the plaintiff; plaintiff's pretrial settlement demand, plaintiff or defense verdict, use of alternate means of resolution such as arbitration or mediation, and total monetary award to the plaintiff. A total of 69 cases were reported over a 20-month period: 32 (46%) were plaintiffs' verdicts, whereas 37 (54%) were in favor of the surgeon. Only 10 (31%) of the plaintiff verdicts were by jury trial, whereas the rest were settled by pretrial agreement, mediation, or arbitration. Of cases settled by alternate dispute resolution, the median settlement was $820,000 (n = 22) compared with a median jury trial award of $300,000 (n = 10).

  16. California's disposal plan goes nowhere fast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.

    1994-01-01

    California desperately needs a place to store as much as 5.5 million cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste over the next 30 years. Ward Valley, a barren stretch of the Mojave Desert located some 250 miles east of Los Angeles, was supposed to be that place. Last year, trenches dug in the arid, seismically stable valley were supposed to be that place. Last year, trenches dug in the arid, seismically stable valley were supposed to begin holding wastes like the gadolinium-153 used to detect osteoporosis and the selenium-75 used to study proteins, as well as wastes from nuclear power plants. But construction crews haven't even begun to dig, because Ward Valley has become ground zero in the fierce national debate over radioactive waste disposal. Lawsuits filed by opponents, who fear the waste will contaminate the environment, and the intervention of influential politicians such as Sen. Barbara Boxer (D-CA) have blocked the Interior Department from selling the federally owned Ward Valley land to California to begin construction. As a result, universities, biotechnology companies, and hospitals may be stuck with wastes piling up at their institutions, which could have repercussions

  17. Auspicious birth dates among Chinese in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan

    2015-07-01

    The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A nitrogen mass balance for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptzin, D.; Dahlgren, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Human activities have greatly altered the global nitrogen cycle and these changes are apparent in water quality, air quality, ecosystem and human health. However, the relative magnitude of the sources of new reactive nitrogen and the fate of this nitrogen is not well established. Further, the biogeochemical aspects of the nitrogen cycle are often studied in isolation from the economic and social implications of all the transformations of nitrogen. The California Nitrogen Assessment is an interdisciplinary project whose aim is evaluating the current state of nitrogen science, practice, and policy in the state of California. Because of the close proximity of large population centers, highly productive and diverse agricultural lands and significant acreage of undeveloped land, California is a particularly interesting place for this analysis. One component of this assessment is developing a mass balance of nitrogen as well as identifying gaps in knowledge and quantifying uncertainty. The main inputs of new reactive nitrogen to the state are 1) synthetic nitrogen fertilizer, 2) biological nitrogen fixation, and 3) atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Permanent losses of nitrogen include 1) gaseous losses (N2, N2O, NHx, NOy), 2) riverine discharge, 3) wastewater discharge to the ocean, and 4) net groundwater recharge. A final term is the balance of food, feed, and fiber to support the human and animal populations. The largest input of new reactive nitrogen to California is nitrogen fertilizer, but both nitrogen fixation and atmospheric deposition contribute significantly. Non-fertilizer uses, such as the production of nylon and polyurethane, constitutes about 5% of the synthetic N synthesized production. The total nitrogen fixation in California is roughly equivalent on the 400,000 ha of alfalfa and the approximately 40 million ha of natural lands. In addition, even with highly productive agricultural lands, the large population of livestock, in particular dairy cows

  19. 40 CFR 80.617 - How may California diesel fuel be distributed or sold outside of the State of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation... California diesel fuel redesignates it as motor vehicle diesel meeting the 15 ppm sulfur standard; and (vi) The terminal includes the volumes of California diesel fuel redesignated as motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  20. The Story of California. Student Workbook. Teacher's Edition = Libro de Trabajo de La Historia de California. Edicion del Maestro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray (Naomi) Associates, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The workbook is designed to accompany a textbook, "The Story of California," a Spanish-English bilingual history and geography of the state intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The teacher's edition, presented here, consists of reproductions of 51…

  1. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  2. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  3. Groundwater quality in the Mojave area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Mojave River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Mojave study area is approximately 1,500 square miles (3,885 square kilometers) and includes four contiguous groundwater basins: Upper, Middle, and Lower Mojave River Groundwater Basins, and the El Mirage Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Mojave study area has an arid climate, and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 82 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 4% agricultural, and 14% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Victorville, Hesperia, and Apple Valley (2010 populations of 116,000, 90,000 and 69,000, respectively). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Mojave study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Mojave study area are completed to depths between 200 and 600 feet (18 to 61 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 to 420 feet (40 to 128 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the mountains to the south, mostly through the Mojave River channel. The primary sources

  4. Prediabetes in California: Nearly Half of California Adults on Path to Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L; Goldstein, Harold

    2016-03-01

    In California, more than 13 million adults (46 percent of all adults in the state) are estimated to have prediabetes or undiagnosed diabetes. An additional 2.5 million adults have diagnosed diabetes. Altogether, 15.5 million adults (55 percent of all California adults) have prediabetes or diabetes. Although rates of prediabetes increase with age, rates are also high among young adults, with one-third of those ages 18-39 having prediabetes. In addition, rates of prediabetes are disproportionately high among young adults of color, with more than one-third of Latino, Pacific Islander, American Indian, African-American, and multiracial Californians ages 18-39 estimated to have prediabetes. Policy efforts should focus on reducing the burden of prediabetes and diabetes through support for prevention and treatment.

  5. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Erin R. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States)]. E-mail: erin-harper@hotmail.com; St Leger, Judy A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Westberg, Jody A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Mazzaro, Lisa [Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Schmitt, Todd [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Reidarson, Tom H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Tucker, Melinda [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Cross, Dee H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Puschner, Birgit [California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring.

  6. Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    shallow- rooted , mesophylic plant species that Chapter 3. Affected Environment Final Draft Environmental Assessment - California Space Center...buckwheat flowers and buds where the larvae feed until maturation. Upon maturation larvae burrow into the soil and pupate, usually within the root and...terrain, sharp or protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle

  7. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Spokas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local GHG mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for landfill CH4 generation (methanogenesis, but does not explicitly consider climate or soil dependencies for emissions. Relying on a comprehensive California landfill database, a field-validated process-based model for landfill CH4 emissions (CALMIM, and select field measurements at 10 California sites with a variety of methods, we support the contrary position: Limited climate dependency for methanogenesis, but strong climate dependency for landfill CH4 emissions. Contrary to the historic IPCC empirical model for methanogenesis with kinetic constants related to climate, we demonstrate a simpler and more robust linear empirical relationship (r2 = 0.85; n=128 between waste mass and landfill biogas recovery [126 × 10-6 Nm3 CH4 hr-1 Mgwaste-1]. More interestingly, there are no statistically significant relationships with climate, site age, or status (open/closed for landfill biogas recovery. The current IPCC methodology does not consider soil or climate drivers for gaseous transport or seasonal methanotrophy in different cover soils. On the other hand, we illustrate strong climate and soil dependencies for landfill emissions—e.g., average intermediate cover emissions below 20 g CH4 m-2 d-1 when the site’s mean annual precipitation is >500 mm y-1. Thereby, for the California landfill CH4 inventory, the highest-emitting sites shift from landfills containing the largest mass of waste to sites dominated by intermediate cover types having a reduced rate of soil CH4 oxidation during the annual cycle. These differences have profound implications for developing more realistic, science-based urban and regional scale GHG inventories for landfill CH4 while reducing

  8. Sandia National Laboratories, California: site environmental report for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condouris, R.A.; Holland, R.C.

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is committed to conducting its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner. It is mandatory that activities at SNL/California comply with all applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards. Moreover, SNL/California continuously strives to reduce risks to employees, the public, and the environment to the lowest levels reasonably possible. To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, SNL/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site external radiation monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California's Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of hazardous materials in groundwater, stormwater, and sewage. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. The Site Environmental Report describes the results of SNL/California's environmental protection activities during the calendar year. It also summarizes environmental monitoring data and highlights major environmental programs. Overall, it evaluates SNL/California's environmental management performance and documents the site's regulatory compliance status

  9. Sandia National Laboratories/California site environmental report for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condouris, R.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Holland, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is committed to conducting its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner. It is mandatory that activities at SNL/California comply with all applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards. Moreover, SNL/California continuously strives to reduce risks to employees, the public, and the environment to the lowest levels reasonably possible. To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, SNL/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site external radiation monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California`s Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of hazardous materials in groundwater, stormwater, and sewage. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. The Site Environmental Report describes the results of SNL/California`s environmental protection activities during the calendar year. It also summarizes environmental monitoring data and highlights major environmental programs. Overall, it evaluates SNL/California`s environmental management performance and documents the site`s regulatory compliance status.

  10. Tribal Energy Program for California Indian Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-10

    A strategic plan is needed to catalyze clean energy in the more than 100 California Indian tribal communities with varying needs and energy resources. We propose to conduct a scoping study to identify tribal lands with clean energy potential, as well as communities with lack of grid-tied energy and communications access. The research focus would evaluate the energy mixture and alternatives available to these tribal communities, and evaluate greenhouse gas emissions associated with accessing fossil fuel used for heat and power. Understanding the baseline of energy consumption and emissions of communities is needed to evaluate improvements and advances from technology. Based on this study, we will develop a strategic plan that assesses solutions to address high energy fuel costs due to lack of electricity access and inform actions to improve economic opportunities for tribes. This could include technical support for tribes to access clean energy technologies and supporting collaboration for on-site demonstrations.

  11. PROBLEMS OF GENERAL PRACTICE IN RURAL CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hollis L.; Andrews, Carroll B.

    1949-01-01

    Medical care for rural populations is an important problem facing the medical profession nationally and locally. The mechanism for solution lies in the existing American Medical Association and California Medical Association committees on rural medical service and further development of “local health councils.” Additional emphasis on training of physicians for general practice is essential through medical school graduate and postgraduate periods. The problem of providing additional adequately equipped and staffed hospitals must receive much consideration. Recognizing that passiveness invites aggressive non-medical agencies to foster bureaucratic dictation inimical to the practice of medicine, the rural physician must act through medical and community organizations to correct weaknesses in the structure of medical practice. PMID:18116230

  12. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

  13. Learning in Baja California micro-enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Texis Flores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexico’s business structure has been characterized by the presence of microenterprises, particularly those averaging two workers, representing 65% of establishments in 2008 and 18% of employment. This makes them important for equity and welfare improvement of their members. This paper analyzes the performance of a group of 227 microenterprises in the state of Baja California, by the use of a practical application of the concept of learning curve arranged to incorporate returns to scale. The results indicate that in 48% of cases there is evidence of learning processes and 58% exhibited increasing returns to scale. This allows evaluating the development potential of these microenterprises and the design and implementation of proactive programs that encourage their learning and consolidation in the market.

  14. Centroamericanas menores de edad prostituidas en california

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La migración irregular de menores a través de la frontera sureste de los Estados Unidos se ha incrementado de modo preocupante en los últimos años. Algunas de estas menores son niñas transportadas por redes de tráfico sexual. Este artículo, fundamentado en entrevistas cualitativas realizadas en 2015 y 2016, examina cómo las redes de tráfico sexual captan a las menores centroamericanas para explotarlas en centros de entretenimiento adulto de California, y analiza los abusos que sufren las menores. Finalmente, el artículo concluye que los traficantes utilizan la ley migratoria para lograr una mayor sumisión de las menores.

  15. Tijuana, Baja California, 1999-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Fuentes Romero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el perfil de las muertes violentas en las mujeres de Tijuana, Baja California. Los datos provienen de fuentes forense, hemerográfica y del análisis derivado de los expedientes de homicidios dolosos. Se encontró que el rango de edad con mayor frecuencia en los homicidios de mujeres se da entre los 20 y los 34 años (42 por ciento. Sin embargo, en las mujeres el riesgo de morir víctima de un asesinato es más alto en menores de 15 años (20 por ciento. Las formas y medios de mayor frecuencia para asesinar a las mujeres son: heridas por lesiones y golpes (42.3 por ciento, disparo con arma de fuego (28 por ciento, asfixia mecánica y herida por arma blanca (28.8 por ciento.

  16. Developing a LLW disposal facility in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, S.A.; Gaynor, R.K.; Hanrahan, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    US Ecology has been designated by the State of California to site and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The firm identified three sites for detailed characterization work in February, 1987. Ecological and archaeological studies and related environmental assessments were undertaken to obtain land use permits from the Bureau of Land Management, which holds title to the sites. Geophysics investigations, exploratory borings, well drilling and weather station installation followed. Local Committees were established for each site to assist US Ecology in evaluating socio-economic impacts, and Native Americans were consulted regarding cultural resources. The project's Citizens Advisory Committee assisted in evaluating the three candidate sites. US Ecology systematically integrated citizen involvement into the technical studies leading to selection of the two site finalists. This approach furthered two objectives. Community leaders and the public received accurate information on the nature of low-level radioactive waste and the environmental conditions appropriate for its disposal

  17. Southern California Edison instrument setpoint program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockhorst, R.M.; Quinn, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    In November of 1989, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted an electrical safety system functional inspection (ESSFI) at the San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS), which was followed by an NRC audit on instrument setpoint methodology in January 1991. Units 2 and 3 at SONGS are 1100-MW(electric) Combustion Engineering (C-E) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) operated by Southern California Edison (SCE). The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the NRC audit and SCE's follow-up activities. The NRC team inspection reinforced the need to address several areas relative to the SCE setpoint program. The calculations withstood the intensive examination of four NRC inspectors for 2 weeks and only a few minor editorial-type problems were noted. Not one of the calculated plant protections system setpoints will change as a result of the audit. There were no questions raised relative to setpoint methodology

  18. Bioenergy Potential from Food Waste in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Jin, Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Scown, Corinne D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This paper presents the first detailed analysis of monthly food waste generation in California at a county level, and its potential contribution to the state's energy production. Scenarios that rely on excess capacity at existing anaerobic digester (AD) and solid biomass combustion facilities, and alternatives that allow for new facility construction, are developed and modeled. Potential monthly electricity generation from the conversion of gross food waste using a combination of AD and combustion varies from 420 to 700 MW, averaging 530 MW. At least 66% of gross high moisture solids and 23% of gross low moisture solids can be treated using existing county infrastructure, and this fraction increases to 99% of high moisture solids and 55% of low moisture solids if waste can be shipped anywhere within the state. Biogas flaring practices at AD facilities can reduce potential energy production by 10 to 40%.

  19. Stigma among California's Medical Marijuana Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2015-01-01

    The enactment of California's Proposition 215 stipulates that patients may use marijuana for medical reasons, provided that it is recommended by a physician. Yet, medical marijuana patients risk being stigmatized for this practice. This article examines the way in which medical marijuana patients perceive and process stigma, and how it affects their interactions and experiences with others. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of medical marijuana patients were carried out using a semi-structured interview guide. Most patients circumvented their own physicians in obtaining a recommendation to use medicinal marijuana, and also used a host of strategies in order to justify their medical marijuana use to family, friends, and colleagues in order to stave off potential stigma. The stigmatization of medical marijuana thus has a profound effect on how patients seek treatment, and whether they seek medical marijuana treatment at all.

  20. Measuring ecological function on California's rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzig, E.

    2016-12-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of ecosystem processes on rangelands and how management decisions influence these processes on scales that are both ecologically and socially relevant. Point Blue Conservation Science's Rangeland Monitoring Network is a coordinated effort to collect standardized data on birds, vegetation, and soils on rangelands throughout California. We work with partners, including private landowners, land trusts, state and federal agencies, and others, to measure bird and plant abundance and diversity and three soil dynamic properties (water infiltration, bulk density, and organic carbon). Here, we present data from our first two years of monitoring on over 50 ranches in 17 counties. By collecting data on the scope and scale of variation in ecological function across rangelands and the relationship with management practices, we aim to advance rangeland management, restoration, and conservation.

  1. Market dynamics of biomass fuel in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, W.F.; Zane, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The California market for biomass fuel purchased by independent power producers has grown substantially since 1980. The PURPA legislation that based power purchase rates upon the 'avoided cost' of public utilities resulted in construction of nearly 900 Megawatts of capacity coming online by 1991. Until 1987, most powerplants were co-sited at sawmills and burned sawmill residue. By 1990 the installed capacity of stand-alone powerplants exceeded the capacity co-sited at wood products industry facilities. The 1991 demand for biomass fuel is estimated as 6,400,000 BDT. The 1991 market value of most biomass fuel delivered to powerplants is from $34 to $47 per BDT. Biomass fuel is now obtained from forest chips, agriculture residue and urban wood waste. The proportion of biomass fuel from the wood products industry is expected to decline and non-traditional fuels are expected to increase in availability

  2. Sustainability partnerships and viticulture management in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Vicken; Lubell, Mark; Hoffman, Matthew

    2018-07-01

    Agricultural regions in the United States are experimenting with sustainability partnerships that, among other goals, seek to improve growers' ability to manage their vineyards sustainably. In this paper, we analyze the association between winegrape grower participation in sustainability partnership activities and practice adoption in three winegrowing regions of California. Using data gathered from a survey of 822 winegrape growers, we find a positive association between participation and adoption of sustainable practices, which holds most strongly for practices in which the perceived private benefits outweigh the costs, and for growers with relatively dense social networks. We highlight the mechanisms by which partnerships may catalyze sustainable farm management, and discuss the implications of these findings for improving sustainability partnerships. Taken together, we provide one of the most comprehensive quantitative analyses to date regarding the effectiveness of agricultural sustainability partnerships for improving farm management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10 degrees to 20 degrees API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources

  4. Fire management of California shrubland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2002-01-01

    Fire management of California shrublands has been heavily influenced by policies designed for coniferous forests, however, fire suppression has not effectively excluded fire from chaparral and coastal sage scrub landscapes and catastrophic wildfires are not the result of unnatural fuel accumulation. There is no evidence that prescribed burning in these shrublands provides any resource benefit and in some areas may negatively impact shrublands by increasing fire frequency. Therefore, fire hazard reduction is the primary justification for prescription burning, but it is doubtful that rotational burning to create landscape age mosaics is a cost effective method of controlling catastrophic wildfires. There are problems with prescription burning in this crown-fire ecosystem that are not shared by forests with a natural surface-fire regime. Prescription weather conditions preclude burning at rotation intervals sufficient to effect the control of fires ignited under severe weather conditions. Fire management should focus on strategic placement of prescription burns to both insure the most efficient fire hazard reduction and to minimize the amount of landscape exposed to unnaturally high fire frequency. A major contributor to increased fire suppression costs and increased loss of property and lives is the continued urban sprawl into wildlands naturally subjected to high intensity crown fires. Differences in shrubland fire history suggest there may be a need for different fire management tactics between central coastal and southern California. Much less is known about shrubland fire history in the Sierra Nevada foothills and interior North Coast Ranges, and thus it would be prudent to not transfer these ideas too broadly across the range of chaparral until we have a clearer understanding of the extent of regional variation in shrubland fire regimes.

  5. Earthquakes and faults in southern California (1970-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.; Walter, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The map depicts both active and inactive faults and earthquakes magnitude 1.5 to 7.3 in southern California (1970–2010). The bathymetry was generated from digital files from the California Department of Fish And Game, Marine Region, Coastal Bathymetry Project. Elevation data are from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Database. Landsat satellite image is from fourteen Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper scenes collected between 2009 and 2010. Fault data are reproduced with permission from 2006 California Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey data. The earthquake data are from the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center.

  6. Status of Biomass Power Generation in California, July 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, G.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the development of the biomass power industry in California over the past quarter century, and examines its future outlook. The development of a state biomass policy, which has been under discussion in California for the better part of the past decade, has never gotten off the ground, but a number of smaller initiatives have helped to keep the biomass power industry afloat and have promoted the use of some targeted types of residues. In this report we analyze the prospects for policy development and the application of new biomass technologies in California.

  7. California's minimum-nurse-staffing legislation and nurses' wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Barbara; Harless, David W; Spetz, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, California became the first state to implement minimum-nurse-staffing ratios in acute care hospitals. We examined the wages of registered nurses (RNs) before and after the legislation was enacted. Using four data sets-the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and the Occupational Employment Statistics Survey-we found that from 2000 through 2006, RNs in California metropolitan areas experienced real wage growth as much as twelve percentage points higher than the growth in the wages of nurses employed in metropolitan areas outside of California.

  8. The California Seafloor Mapping Program — Providing science and geospatial data for California's State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. Y.; Cochrane, G. R.; Golden, N. E.; Dartnell, P.; Hartwell, S. R.; Cochran, S. A.; Watt, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP) is a collaborative effort to develop comprehensive bathymetric, geologic, and habitat maps and data for California's State Waters, which extend for 1,350 km from the shoreline to 5.6 km offshore. CSMP began in 2007 when the California Ocean Protection Council and NOAA allocated funding for high-resolution bathymetric mapping to support the California Marine Life Protection Act and update nautical charts. Collaboration and support from the USGS and other partners has led to development and dissemination of one of the world's largest seafloor-mapping datasets. CSMP data collection includes: (1) High-resolution bathymetric and backscatter mapping using swath sonar sensors; (2) "Ground-truth" imaging from a sled mounted with video and still cameras; (3) High-resolution seismic-reflection profiling at 1 km line spacing. Processed data are all publicly available. Additionally, 25 USGS map and datasets covering one third of California's coast have been published. Each publication contains 9 to 12 pdf map sheets (1:24,000 scale), an explanatory pamphlet, and a catalog of digital geospatial data layers (about 15 to 25 per map area) with web services. Map sheets display bathymetry, backscatter, perspective views, habitats, groundtruth imagery, seismic profiles, sediment distribution and thickness, and onshore-offshore geology. The CSMP goal is to serve a large constituency, ranging from senior GIS analysts in large agencies, to local governments with limited resources, to non-governmental organizations, the private sector, and concerned citizens. CSMP data and publications provide essential science and data for ocean and coastal management, stimulate and enable research, and raise public education and awareness of coastal and ocean issues. Specific applications include: Delineation and designation of marine protected areas Characterization and modeling of benthic habitats and ecosystems Updating nautical charts Earthquake hazard

  9. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Half Moon Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Watt, Janet T.; Endris, Charles A.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Chin, John L.; Bretz, Carrie K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 40 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The city of Half Moon Bay, which is situated on the east side of the Half Moon Bay embayment, is the nearest significant onshore cultural center in the map area, with a population of about 11,000. The Pillar Point Harbor at the north edge of Half Moon Bay offers a protected landing for boats and provides other marine infrastructure. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The flat coastal area, which is the most recent of numerous marine terraces, was formed by wave erosion about 105 thousand years ago. The higher elevation of this same terrace west of the Half Moon Bay Airport is caused by uplift on the Seal Cove Fault, a splay of the San Gregorio Fault Zone. Although originally incised into the rising terrain horizontally, the ancient terrace surface has been gently folded into a northwest-plunging syncline by

  10. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Santa Cruz map area is located in central California, on the Pacific Coast about 98 km south of San Francisco. The city of Santa Cruz (population, about 63,000), the largest incorporated city in the map area and the county seat of Santa Cruz County, lies on uplifted marine terraces between the shoreline and the northwest-trending Santa Cruz Mountains, part of California’s Coast Ranges. All of California’s State Waters in the map area is part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.The map area is cut by an offshore section of the San Gregorio Fault Zone, and it lies about 20 kilometers southwest of the San Andreas Fault Zone. Regional folding and uplift along the coast has been attributed to a westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone and to right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault Zone. Most of the coastal zone is characterized by low, rocky cliffs and sparse, small pocket beaches backed by low, terraced hills. Point Santa Cruz, which forms the north edge of Monterey Bay, provides protection for the beaches in the easternmost part of the map area by sheltering them from the predominantly northwesterly waves.The shelf in the map area is underlain by variable amounts (0 to 25 m) of

  11. Proposition 13 and the Future of California's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the California legislature's education-related response to Proposition 13 and analyzes the likely long-range effects of that response--including its effect on revenue stability, expenditure equality, and school governance. (Author/IRT)

  12. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-01-01

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database

  13. Public Transportation and Industrial Location Patterns in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    This project investigated how changes in rail transit service in California metropolitan areas (Los Angeles, the San Francisco Bay Area, and San Diego) are associated with the concentration of firms and commercial property values. A mixed-methods app...

  14. California's Proposition 15: the what and why of its defeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This analysis of the June 8, 1976 California Nuclear Initiative was prepared by the Pacific Gas and Electric Co. The defeat of Proposition 15 in the California election was successful for several reasons. A record 70 percent of the voters in California went to the polls and 97 percent of those voted on the nuclear issue with the results showing defeat by two-to-one. Apparently, the voters perceived the Nuclear Initiative as being too drastic. The campaign for defeat of the initiative stressed the consequences of closing down existing plants and closing off the nuclear option in California, namely: higher costs, job losses, and less-desirable alternatives. The campaign waged for the Initiative seems to have suffered from weak management and lack of consistent messages

  15. DEMOGRAPHY AND SPATIAL POPULATION STRUCTURE IN CALIFORNIA TIGER SALAMANDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the causes of many amphibian declines remain mysterious, there is general agreement that human habitat alteration represents the greatest threat to amphibian populations. In January 2000 the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed listing Santa Barbara County California Ti...

  16. California Drug and Alcohol Treatment Assessment (CALDATA-1991-1993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The California Drug and Alcohol Treatment Assessment (CALDATA) was designed to study the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of the state's alcohol and drug treatment...

  17. San Diego, California 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second San Diego, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  18. Arena Cove, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arena Cove, California Forecast Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  19. Emmonsia helica Infection in HIV-Infected Man, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofael, Martin; Schwartz, Ilan S; Sigler, Lynne; Kong, Li K; Nelson, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Emmonsia-like fungi have rarely been reported from North America. We report a fatal case of E. helica infection in a man with advanced HIV infection from California, USA, who had progressive respiratory failure and a brain abscess.

  20. Temperature impacts on the water year 2014 drought in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Safeeq, Mohammad; AghaKouchak, Amir; Guan, Kaiyu; Funk, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    California is experiencing one of the worst droughts on record. Here we use a hydrological model and risk assessment framework to understand the influence of temperature on the water year (WY) 2014 drought in California and examine the probability that this drought would have been less severe if temperatures resembled the historical climatology. Our results indicate that temperature played an important role in exacerbating the WY 2014 drought severity. We found that if WY 2014 temperatures resembled the 1916–2012 climatology, there would have been at least an 86% chance that winter snow water equivalent and spring-summer soil moisture and runoff deficits would have been less severe than the observed conditions. We also report that the temperature forecast skill in California for the important seasons of winter and spring is negligible, beyond a lead-time of one month, which we postulate might hinder skillful drought prediction in California.

  1. Crescent City, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crescent City, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  2. 2013 NOAA Coastal California TopoBathy Merge Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project merged recently collected topographic, bathymetric, and acoustic elevation data along the entire California coastline from approximately the 10 meter...

  3. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI)Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains icthyoplankton data collected as part of the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program and other cruises...

  4. Measles outbreak--California, December 2014-February 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipprich, Jennifer; Winter, Kathleen; Hacker, Jill; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James; Harriman, Kathleen

    2015-02-20

    On January 5, 2015, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified about a suspected measles case. The patient was a hospitalized, unvaccinated child, aged 11 years with rash onset on December 28. The only notable travel history during the exposure period was a visit to one of two adjacent Disney theme parks located in Orange County, California. On the same day, CDPH received reports of four additional suspected measles cases in California residents and two in Utah residents, all of whom reported visiting one or both Disney theme parks during December 17-20. By January 7,seven California measles cases had been confirmed, and CDPH issued a press release and an Epidemic Information Exchange (Epi-X) notification to other states regarding this outbreak. Measles transmission is ongoing.

  5. National Inventory of Dams Coastal California Extract 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The National Inventory of Dams (NID) is a congressionally authorized database, which documents dams in the U.S. and its territories. The NID was most recently...

  6. Los Angeles, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Los Angeles, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  7. Turning Paris into reality at the University of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David G.; Abdulla, Ahmed; Auston, David; Brase, Wendell; Brouwer, Jack; Brown, Karl; Davis, Steven J.; Kappel, Carrie V.; Meier, Alan; Modera, Mark; Zarin Pass, Rebecca; Phillips, David; Sager, Jordan; Weil, David; TomKat Natural Gas Exit Strategies Working Group

    2018-03-01

    The Paris Agreement highlights the need for local climate leadership. The University Of California's approach to deep decarbonization offers lessons in efficiency, alternative fuels and electrification. Bending the emissions curve globally requires efforts that blend academic insights with practical solutions.

  8. Monitoring guidelines improve control of walnut husk fly in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, Susan B.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Pickel, Carolyn; Olson, William

    2000-01-01

    The walnut husk fly (WHF), Rhagoletis completa Cresson, is a key pest of walnuts (Juglans spp.) in California, where over 95% of the US and approximately two-thirds of the world's commercial walnuts are produced. The primary hosts of this monophagous fruit fly are J. regia L. (commercially grown English walnut), J. californica S. Wats. var. hindsii (northern California black walnut), J. californica var. californica (southern California black walnut) and J. nigra Thunb. (eastern black walnut). Some cultivars of the English walnut are more susceptible than others; the most heavily infested varieties of English walnut include Eureka, Franquette, Hartley, Mayette and Payne. Neither English walnuts nor the walnut husk fly are native to California. So-called 'English' walnuts are sometimes more appropriately called 'Persian' walnuts, in reference to Persia, the origin of J. regia. English walnuts were first planted in southern California in the 1860s. In contrast, the native range of WHF is the mid- and south-central United States where it attacks J. nigra (Boyce 1934). The fly was likely to have been introduced into southern California in the mid-1920s by tourists travelling from Kansas, New Mexico, Texas or Oklahoma. WHF was first documented in California in 1926 in the San Bernardino County when maggots were found in the husks of English walnuts (Boyce 1929). The fly gradually spread throughout walnut growing regions of California. In 1928, only three or four orchards in the San Bernardino County were known to be infested. By 1932, the fly was also found in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties (Boyce 1933), and by 1954, it was found in Ventura, Riverside, and the San Diego Counties, in addition to the northern California county of Sonoma (Anonymous 1966). The spread of the fly in northern California was rapid. By 1958, WHF was found in San Joaquin County; in 1963, the fly was in Amador, Lake, Solano, Tulare and Yolo Counties; in 1964, it was found in Fresno, Mendocino

  9. Aligning California's Transportation Funding with Its Climate Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    California has established itself as a leader in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation. At the same time, the state has not reflected its ambitious policies for GHG reduction and climate action in its practices for allo...

  10. CALCOM Database for managing California Commercial Groundfish sample data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CALCOM database is used by the California Cooperative Groundfish Survey to store and manage Commercial market sample data. This data is ultimately used to...

  11. Benefits Assessment of Two California Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities (1983)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of RCRA regulations, comparing the results before and after new regulations at two existing hazardous waste sites previously regulated under California state law

  12. Santa Barbara, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Santa Barbara, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  13. Point Reyes, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Point Reyes, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  14. Port San Luis, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Port San Luis, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  15. Eureka, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Eureka, California Forecast Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  16. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Non-Consumptive sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  17. Crescent City, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second Crescent City, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  18. California's K-12 Public Schools. How Are They Doing?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Stephen J; Krop, Cathy; Arkes, Jeremy; Morrison, Peter A; Flanagan, Ann

    2005-01-01

    ... are no longer performing as well as they did previously or as well as schools in other states. The primary objective of our study was to look closely at California's public system of kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12...

  19. California-Wyoming Grid Integration Study: Phase 1 -- Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Schwabe, P.; Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.; Brinkman, G.; Paduru, A.; Diakov, V.; Hand, M.

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of two different renewable energy options for the California energy market between 2017 and 2020: 12,000 GWh per year from new California in-state renewable energy resources; and 12,000 GWh per year from Wyoming wind delivered to the California marketplace. Either option would add to the California resources already existing or under construction, theoretically providing the last measure of power needed to meet (or to slightly exceed) the state's 33% renewable portfolio standard. Both options have discretely measurable differences in transmission costs, capital costs (due to the enabling of different generation portfolios), capacity values, and production costs. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the two different options to provide additional insight for future planning.

  20. San Francisco Bay, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second San Francisco Bay, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  1. CCIEA data and model output - California Current Integrated Ecosystem Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The California Current Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (CCIEA) is a joint project between staff at the NWFSC, SWFSC, NMML, ONMS, and WCRO to provide managers and...

  2. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California... marketing year. The proposed assessment rate would continue in effect indefinitely unless modified..., August 16, 2011 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 50703

  3. Monterey, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monterey, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  4. San Francisco, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The San Francisco, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  5. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-05-17

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database.

  6. National Inventory of Dams Coastal California Extract 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The National Inventory of Dams (NID) is a congressionally authorized database, which documents dams in the U.S. and its territories. The NID was most recently...

  7. Community exposure to tsunami hazards in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Ratliff, Jamie; Peters, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of past events and modeling of potential events suggest that tsunamis are significant threats to low-lying communities on the California coast. To reduce potential impacts of future tsunamis, officials need to understand how communities are vulnerable to tsunamis and where targeted outreach, preparedness, and mitigation efforts may be warranted. Although a maximum tsunami-inundation zone based on multiple sources has been developed for the California coast, the populations and businesses in this zone have not been documented in a comprehensive way. To support tsunami preparedness and risk-reduction planning in California, this study documents the variations among coastal communities in the amounts, types, and percentages of developed land, human populations, and businesses in the maximum tsunami-inundation zone. The tsunami-inundation zone includes land in 94 incorporated cities, 83 unincorporated communities, and 20 counties on the California coast. According to 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data, this tsunami-inundation zone contains 267,347 residents (1 percent of the 20-county resident population), of which 13 percent identify themselves as Hispanic or Latino, 14 percent identify themselves as Asian, 16 percent are more than 65 years in age, 12 percent live in unincorporated areas, and 51 percent of the households are renter occupied. Demographic attributes related to age, race, ethnicity, and household status of residents in tsunami-prone areas demonstrate substantial range among communities that exceed these regional averages. The tsunami-inundation zone in several communities also has high numbers of residents in institutionalized and noninstitutionalized group quarters (for example, correctional facilities and military housing, respectively). Communities with relatively high values in the various demographic categories are identified throughout the report. The tsunami-inundation zone contains significant nonresidential populations based on 2011 economic

  8. An integrated study of earth resources in the State of California using remote sensing techniques. [supply, demand, and impact of California water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.; Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The supply, demand, and impact relationships of California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan are discussed.

  9. Development of Radiation-Sterilized Sea Food Products. I. Enzyme-Inactivated Cod and Halibut Patties; Essais de Radiosterilisation des Produits Alimentaires d'Origine Marine. I. Pates de Morue et de Fletan a Enzymes Inactives; Primenenie izlucheniya dlya sterilizatsii morskikh pishchevykh produktov; Preparacion de Alimentos de Origen Marino Esterilizados por Irradiacion. I. Pastelillos de Bacalao y de Hipogloso con Enzimas Inactivadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnhuber, R. O.; Landers, Mary K.; Yu, T. C. [Department of Food Science And Technology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Simon, M.; Heiligman, F. [United States Army Natick Laboratories, Natick, MA (United States)

    1966-11-15

    Radiation-sterilized enzyme-inactivated cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepsis) patties or cakes were developed which show promise as commercial products. They were prepared by incorporating the comminuted fish with white corn meal, gelatin, and salt and forming the mixture into sausages. Enzymes were inactivated by heating the sausages in a boiling water-bath. After cooling overnight to set the protein, the sausages were sliced into 3/8-in-thick patties, packed in cans and given a radiation dose of 4.5 Mrad. The radiation sterilized products were stored for 12 months at 72 Degree-Sign F with periodic evaluations to assess the quality and the effect of various treatments. The treatments included vacuum packing, the addition of various antioxidants, and the use of charcoal packets. The products just prior to serving were dipped in batter and breading and deep-fried. The fish patties were evaluated by flavorpanels and objective measurements, such as total volatile bases, 2-thiobarbituric acid number, pH and colorrreflectance values. The products received acceptable flavor scores from preference panels (140 to 170 judges) during twelve months of storage at 72 Degree-Sign F. Although the panels preferred the non-irradiated control samples to the irradiated samples after 12 months, all stored irradiated patties scored on the ''like'' side of the 9-point hedonic scale. The color-reflectance values of radiation-sterilized seafood products can be used as a measure of the radiation-induced browning and seemed to correlate with length of storage. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont mis au point des pates ou hachis de morue (Gadus macrocephalus) et de fletan (Hippoglossus stenolepsis) a enzymes inactives, sterilises par rayonnement, qui semblent pouvoir etre commercialises. Ils ont ete prepares par malaxage du poisson finement hache avec de la farine de mais blanche, de la gelatine et du sel, le melange etant debite sous forme de saucisses. Les enzymes

  10. Wine market in the United States and in the California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes wine market in the United States and in the California. The paper is focused on characteristic of winegrowing, wine-production, wine-consumption and wine export too. Export of California wine is growing and wine is exported to the EU for the first. We can expect to grow of interest of our consumers too. California wine will compete in high quality and low prices. California is the fourth largest wine producer in the world after France, Italy and Spain. It accounted for $ 643 million in wine exports in 2003 from $ 537 million in 1998. Wine grapes were grown in 46 of California’s 58 counties, covering 529000 acres in 2003. California produced 444 million gallons of wine in 1998 it is 90 percent of all U.S. wine production, making California the leading wine producing state in America. The California wine industry has an annual impact of $ 45.4 billion on the state’s economy. An important California employer, the wine industry provides 207550 full-time equivalent jobs in wineries, vineyards or other affiliated businesses throughout the state. There are at least 1294 bricks and mortar commercial wineries in California. But the wine consumption is very low in California.Because California together with South Africa and another countries that so-called New World are important producers with growing export, is very necessary to analyse these markets because they are great competitors for Czech producers. These problems solved in another foreigner markets Černíková, Žufan (2004, Duda (2004, Hrabalová (2004, Kudová (2005, Lišková (2004, Tomšík, Chládková (2005.The paper is a part of solution of the grant focused on analysis and formulation of further development of winegrowing and wine-production in the Czech Republic provided by the Ministry of Agriculture (No. QF 3276, and it is also a part of solution of the research plan of the Faculty of Business and Economics, MUAF in Brno (No. MSM 6215648904.

  11. Evaluating transport in the WRF model along the California coast

    OpenAIRE

    C. E. Yver; H. D. Graven; D. D. Lucas; P. J. Cameron-Smith; R. F. Keeling; R. F. Weiss

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a step in the development of a top-down method to complement the bottom-up inventories of halocarbon emissions in California using high frequency observations, forward simulations and inverse methods. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography high-frequency atmospheric halocarbons measurement sites are located along the California coast and therefore the evaluation of transport in the chosen Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model at these sites is crucial fo...

  12. Evaluating transport in the WRF model along the California coast

    OpenAIRE

    C. Yver; H. Graven; D. D. Lucas; P. Cameron-Smith; R. Keeling; R. Weiss

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a step in the development of a top-down method to complement the bottom-up inventories of halocarbon emissions in California using high frequency observations, forward simulations and inverse methods. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography high-frequency atmospheric halocarbon measurement sites are located along the California coast and therefore the evaluation of transport in the chosen Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model at these sites is crucial for inverse mo...

  13. Groundwater quality in the Tahoe and Martis Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tahoe and Martis Basins and surrounding watersheds constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  14. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Southern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  15. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tehachapi-Cummings Valley and Kern River Valley basins and surrounding watersheds in the Southern Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  16. Groundwater quality in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Two small watersheds of the Fresno and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  17. Groundwater quality in the Northern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Northern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  18. Barking News Story: Media Perceptions of the California Sea Lion

    OpenAIRE

    Purdy, Canon

    2015-01-01

    A growing California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) population close to a large human population in southern California has lead to increasing human/sea lion interactions. These interactions range widely from positive impacts on people (e.g. tourism benefits, increased education) and on sea lions (e.g. marine protected areas, rescue efforts) to negative impacts on people (e.g. depredation, attacks, nuisances) and negative impacts on sea lions (e.g. entanglement in fishing gear, intentional...

  19. Labor Law Enforcement in California, 1970-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Bar-Cohen, Limor; Carrillo, Deana Milam

    2002-01-01

    This chapter examines the record of two state agencies within the California Department of Industrial Relations, the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement (DLSE) and the California Occupational Safety and Health Program (Cal/OSHA), over the 1970-2000 period. Although the data available on the performance of these agencies are severely limited - in most cases consisting only of enforcement activity measures, without any valid measures of enforcement outcomes, it is possible to draw some conc...

  20. Working and Learning Among California Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietje, B.; Gingg, B.; Zingo, J.; Huntsinger, L.

    2009-04-01

    children and their families, "Working Among the Oaks" has focused on connecting with the agricultural and environmental communities. For example, the Ranching Sustainability Self-Assessment Program is an ambitious, long-range project with tremendous potential to aid private landowners throughout California in implementing sustainable ranching practices. We've made great progress through the efforts of an impressive committee of local private landowners, ranch managers and resource professionals. They believe that this can be a powerful non-regulatory tool to guide private landowners through everyday decision-making processes. Most importantly, this is a tool that could be adapted for use throughout California oak woodland. The Self Assessment Program, along with the supporting Workshops, have stimulated discussion and interest in sustainable ranching among people with diverse experiences and backgrounds. "Learning and Working Among the Oaks" together reach the full spectrum of oak conservation stakeholders, from kids to grandparents, town residents to ranching families, environmental groups to farm and vineyard managers, and more. The diversity of these stakeholders helps us identify collaborative education and research opportunities to support education and management of the 3 million ha of California oak woodlands.

  1. An evaluation of the California Instructional School Garden Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Eric L; Moreno, Elizabeth; Beall, Deborah L; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2012-02-01

    California Assembly Bill 1535 awarded $US 15 million to California public schools to promote, develop and sustain instructional school gardens through the California Instructional School Garden Program (CISGP). The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the CISGP at assisting schools in implementing, maintaining and sustaining an academic school garden programme, determine how schools utilized the funding they received and assess the impact of the California state budget crisis on the CISGP. A mid-term evaluation was used to assess the degree to which schools achieved their instructional garden-related goals. California. Only schools that applied for the CIGSP grant as part of a school district and also provided a contact email and had a unique contact person were included in the study (n 3103, 80·6 %). In general, many schools reported not achieving their predicted goals with regard to the CISGP grant. Only 39·4 % of schools reported accomplishing all of their garden-related goals. Over one-third (37·8 %) of schools reported that their school gardens were negatively affected by the California budget deficit. The difference between predicted and actual utilization of the CISGP grants may be due to a combination of the effects of budget shortfall and insufficiency of the grant award amount.

  2. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  3. Contraceptive use and risk of unintended pregnancy in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Diana G; Bley, Julia; Mikanda, John; Induni, Marta; Arons, Abigail; Baumrind, Nikki; Darney, Philip D; Stewart, Felicia

    2004-07-01

    California is home to more than one out of eight American women of reproductive age. Because California has a large, diverse and growing population, national statistics do not necessarily describe the reproductive health of California women. This article presents risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among women in California based on the California Women's Health Survey. Over 8900 women of reproductive age who participated in this survey between 1998 and 2001 provide estimates of access to care and use of family-planning methods in the state. We find that 49% of the female population aged 18-44 in California is at risk of unintended pregnancy. Nine percent (9%) of women at risk of an unintended pregnancy are not using any method of contraception, primarily for method-related reasons, such as a concern about side effects or a dislike of available contraceptive methods. Among women at risk for unintended pregnancy, we find disparities by race/ethnicity and education in use of contraceptive methods.

  4. Using energy scenarios to explore alternative energy pathways in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca; Koomey, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops and analyzes four energy scenarios for California that are both exploratory and quantitative. The business-as-usual scenario represents a pathway guided by outcomes and expectations emerging from California's energy crisis. Three alternative scenarios represent contexts where clean energy plays a greater role in California's energy system: Split Public is driven by local and individual activities; Golden State gives importance to integrated state planning; Patriotic Energy represents a national drive to increase energy independence. Future energy consumption, composition of electricity generation, energy diversity, and greenhouse gas emissions are analyzed for each scenario through 2035. Energy savings, renewable energy, and transportation activities are identified as promising opportunities for achieving alternative energy pathways in California. A combined approach that brings together individual and community activities with state and national policies leads to the largest energy savings, increases in energy diversity, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Critical challenges in California's energy pathway over the next decades identified by the scenario analysis include dominance of the transportation sector, dependence on fossil fuels, emissions of greenhouse gases, accounting for electricity imports, and diversity of the electricity sector. The paper concludes with a set of policy lessons revealed from the California energy scenarios

  5. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Abrams, Laura S.; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one. Paper type Conceptual paper PMID:28299968

  6. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  7. Climate change impacts on high-elevation hydroelectricity in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh; Guégan, Marion; Uvo, Cintia B.

    2014-03-01

    While only about 30% of California's usable water storage capacity lies at higher elevations, high-elevation (above 300 m) hydropower units generate, on average, 74% of California's in-state hydroelectricity. In general, high-elevation plants have small man-made reservoirs and rely mainly on snowpack. Their low built-in storage capacity is a concern with regard to climate warming. Snowmelt is expected to shift to earlier in the year, and the system may not be able to store sufficient water for release in high-demand periods. Previous studies have explored the climate warming effects on California's high-elevation hydropower by focusing on the supply side (exploring the effects of hydrological changes on generation and revenues) ignoring the warming effects on hydroelectricity demand and pricing. This study extends the previous work by simultaneous consideration of climate change effects on high-elevation hydropower supply and pricing in California. The California's Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM 2.0) is applied to evaluate the adaptability of California's high-elevation hydropower system to climate warming, considering the warming effects on hydroelectricity supply and pricing. The model's results relative to energy generation, energy spills, reservoir energy storage, and average shadow prices of energy generation and storage capacity expansion are examined and discussed. These results are compared with previous studies to emphasize the need to consider climate change effects on hydroelectricity demand and pricing when exploring the effects of climate change on hydropower operations.

  8. Human influence on California fire regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D; Radeloff, Volker C; Keeley, Jon E; Hawbaker, Todd J; Clayton, Murray K; Stewart, Susan I; Hammer, Roger B

    2007-07-01

    Periodic wildfire maintains the integrity and species composition of many ecosystems, including the mediterranean-climate shrublands of California. However, human activities alter natural fire regimes, which can lead to cascading ecological effects. Increased human ignitions at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) have recently gained attention, but fire activity and risk are typically estimated using only biophysical variables. Our goal was to determine how humans influence fire in California and to examine whether this influence was linear, by relating contemporary (2000) and historic (1960-2000) fire data to both human and biophysical variables. Data for the human variables included fine-resolution maps of the WUI produced using housing density and land cover data. Interface WUI, where development abuts wildland vegetation, was differentiated from intermix WUI, where development intermingles with wildland vegetation. Additional explanatory variables included distance to WUI, population density, road density, vegetation type, and ecoregion. All data were summarized at the county level and analyzed using bivariate and multiple regression methods. We found highly significant relationships between humans and fire on the contemporary landscape, and our models explained fire frequency (R2 = 0.72) better than area burned (R2 = 0.50). Population density, intermix WUI, and distance to WUI explained the most variability in fire frequency, suggesting that the spatial pattern of development may be an important variable to consider when estimating fire risk. We found nonlinear effects such that fire frequency and area burned were highest at intermediate levels of human activity, but declined beyond certain thresholds. Human activities also explained change in fire frequency and area burned (1960-2000), but our models had greater explanatory power during the years 1960-1980, when there was more dramatic change in fire frequency. Understanding wildfire as a function of the

  9. Nearshore marine fish diversity in southern California using trawl information from the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of mean fish diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water Research...

  10. Who is food-insecure in California? Findings from the California Women's Health Survey, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lucia; Baumrind, Nikki; Dumbauld, Sheila

    2007-06-01

    To identify factors associated with food insecurity in California women. The California Women's Health Survey is an ongoing annual telephone survey that collects data about health-related attitudes and behaviours from a randomly selected sample of women. Food insecurity of the women was measured by a 6-item subset of the Food Security Module. Statistical procedures included chi-square tests, t-tests, logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance. California, USA. Four thousand and thirty-seven women (18 years or older). Prevalence of food insecurity was 25.7%. After controlling for income, factors associated with greater food insecurity were Hispanic or Black race/ethnicity; less than a 12th grade education; being unmarried; less than 55 years old; being Spanish-speaking; having spent less than half of one's life in the USA; sadness/depression; feeling overwhelmed; poor physical/mental health interfering with activities; and fair to poor general health. Among Food Stamp Program (FSP) participants, 71% were food-insecure. Among FSP-eligible women who had not applied for the programme, the prevalence of food insecurity was lower among women responding that they did not need food stamps than in women giving other reasons for not applying (23.9% vs. 66.9%, P < 0.001). Factors associated with food insecurity in FSP recipients included being unable to make food stamps last for 30 days, feeling overwhelmed, and having a birthplace in Mexico or Central America. Along with several socio-economic variables, poor physical and mental health is associated with food insecurity. Whether food insecurity is a cause or effect of poor health remains in question.

  11. Coast of California Storm and Tidal Waves Study. Southern California Coastal Processes Data Summary,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    1950-76 (from Brownlie and Taylor, 1981). -42- U r4 P4 V - (1 ,i UU~ll ,,It,,. * *** *i .o o9 o4V4 cc ",,,.I ,- %4 6P atar 4 P40.U0 41 u 1 ඄ 4 .1...Each of these summaries reviews hundreds of scientific papers dealing with California shelf marine geology, chemistry, biology , climatology and...wave action, rain, water, and wind processes, natural or induced landslides, and animal and human activity. Erosion related to animals consists primarily

  12. Effectiveness of the California State Ban on the Sale of Caulerpa Species in Aquarium Retail Stores in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Stephanie; Smith, Jayson R.; Zaleski, Susan F.; Murray, Steven N.

    2012-07-01

    The invasion of the aquarium strain of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and subsequent alteration of community structure in the Mediterranean Sea raised awareness of the potential for non-native seaweeds to impact coastal communities. An introduction of C. taxifolia in southern California in 2000, presumably from the release of aquarium specimens, cost ~7 million for eradication efforts. Besides C. taxifolia, other Caulerpa species being sold for aquarium use also may have the potential to invade southern Californian and U.S. waters. Surveys of the availability of Caulerpa species in southern California aquarium retail stores in 2000-2001 revealed that 26 of 50 stores sold at least one Caulerpa species (52 %) with seven stores selling C. taxifolia. In late 2001, California imposed a ban on the importation, sale, or possession of nine Caulerpa species; the City of San Diego expanded these regulations to include the entire genus. To determine the effectiveness of the California ban, we resurveyed Caulerpa availability at 43 of the 50 previously sampled retail stores in southern California in ~2006, ~4 years following the ban. Of the 43 stores, 23 sold Caulerpa (53 %) with four stores selling C. taxifolia. A χ2 test of frequency of availability before and after the California ban suggests that the ban has not been effective and that the aquarium trade continues to represent a potential vector for distributing Caulerpa specimens, including C. taxifolia. This study underscores the need for increased enforcement and outreach programs to increase awareness among the aquarium industry and aquarium hobbyists.

  13. Multiwavelength EDM measurements in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, L.E.; McGarr, A.; Langbein, J.O.; Linker, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    We installed a precise geodetic network along the San Andreas fault near Pearblossom, California in November, 1980. The network is within the region frequently referred to as the "Palmdale Uplift" and consists of 13 lines radiating from a central benchmark. The lines range in length from 3.2 to 8.1 km are generally measured several times each week. The multiwavelength distance measuring (MWDM) instrument is located at the central benchmark and is housed in a small protective shelter. The MWDM instrument has demonstrated a capability to make measurements to a precision of 1 part in 10 million. Using a coordinate system whose x-axis is parallel to the local trace of the San Andreas fault the following strain rates were observed during the first 10 months of this effort: {greater-than with dot}exx = -0.180 ?? 0.025 ??str/yr{greater-than with dot}eyy = -0.031 ?? 0.029 ??str/yr{greater-than with dot}exy = +0.077 ?? 0.024 ??str/yr?? = -0.213 ?? 0.039 ??str/yr. The observed strain rates do not appear to be constant in time, much of the deformation occurs in fairly well defined episodes. These changes in strain rate are particularly obvious in the \\ ??.geyy component. ?? 1983.

  14. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Bioenergy Potential from Food Waste in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Hanna M; Jin, Ling; Robinson, Alastair; Scown, Corinne D

    2017-02-07

    Food waste makes up approximately 15% of municipal solid waste generated in the United States, and 95% of food waste is ultimately landfilled. Its bioavailable carbon and nutrient content makes it a major contributor to landfill methane emissions, but also presents an important opportunity for energy recovery. This paper presents the first detailed analysis of monthly food waste generation in California at a county level, and its potential contribution to the state's energy production. Scenarios that rely on excess capacity at existing anaerobic digester (AD) and solid biomass combustion facilities, and alternatives that allow for new facility construction, are developed and modeled. Potential monthly electricity generation from the conversion of gross food waste using a combination of AD and combustion varies from 420 to 700 MW, averaging 530 MW. At least 66% of gross high moisture solids and 23% of gross low moisture solids can be treated using existing county infrastructure, and this fraction increases to 99% of high moisture solids and 55% of low moisture solids if waste can be shipped anywhere within the state. Biogas flaring practices at AD facilities can reduce potential energy production by 10 to 40%.

  16. Hunger in California: what interventions are needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, A B; Fujii, M L; Garcia, L; Lamp, C; Sutherlin, J; Williamson, E

    1994-07-01

    Although research exists on the nutritional status of individuals and families who seek emergency food, there is little guidance on what to do about it. Our purpose was to develop effective nutrition interventions to assist individuals and families seeking emergency food. Two survey instruments were used to collect data on 697 emergency food providers and 3,365 emergency food clients in 20 California counties between 1986 and 1990. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Information from the food providers who staff the emergency food sites revealed insufficient food to meet the growing demand, client difficulties in using the donated food, and the need for information to improve the safety and nutritional quality of the donated food. Information from the emergency food clients documented that 70.4% of them were families with children, 84% had incomes below the poverty level, and 20% reported no income at all. In addition, most clients (70%) were not enrolled in the food stamp program. In response to the surveys, counties initiated a variety of interventions, including public awareness campaigns, community development activities, and nutrition education programs. Important strategies are to teach recipients ways to optimize food resources, encourage eligible individuals to enroll in federal nutrition programs, and link individuals with agencies that offer assistance.

  17. Uranium occurence in California near Bucaramanga (Columbia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heider Polania, J.

    1980-01-01

    The mining district of California, Bucaramanga, is on the west side of the Cordillera Oriental in the Santander massif region. The oldest rocks of the area form a complex of metamorphites and migmatites of the predevonic age. Amphibolite various types of paragneiss and orthogneiss are represented. Several stages of metamorphism can be documented in some rocks, as well as double anatexis. Triassic to jurassic quarz diorites and leukogranites show wide distribution. Porphyric rocks of granodioritic to granitic composition, to which the uranium mineralization is mainly bonded, intruded into the sediments of the lower cretaceous. Atomic absorption spectral analyses were carried out for the elements Cu, Zn and Li, as well as the uranium contents of some samples using fluorimetry. Uranium is primarily bonded to pitch blende and coffinite. The latter mostly occur in fine distribution grown in quarz and belong to the most recent mineralization phase. Autunite, meta-autunite, torbernite, meta-torbernite, zeunerite, meta-zeunerite and meta uranocircite detected as secondary uranium minerals. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Deep Energy Retrofits - Eleven California Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisher, Jeremy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This research documents and demonstrates viable approaches using existing materials, tools and technologies in owner-conducted deep energy retrofits (DERs). These retrofits are meant to reduce energy use by 70% or more, and include extensive upgrades to the building enclosure, heating, cooling and hot water equipment, and often incorporate appliance and lighting upgrades as well as the addition of renewable energy. In this report, 11 Northern California (IECC climate zone 3) DER case studies are described and analyzed in detail, including building diagnostic tests and end-use energy monitoring results. All projects recognized the need to improve the home and its systems approximately to current building code-levels, and then pursued deeper energy reductions through either enhanced technology/ building enclosure measures, or through occupant conservation efforts, both of which achieved impressive energy performance and reductions. The beyond-code incremental DER costs averaged $25,910 for the six homes where cost data were available. DERs were affordable when these incremental costs were financed as part of a remodel, averaging a $30 per month increase in the net-cost of home ownership.

  19. Native peoples’ relationship to the California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. Kat; Keeley, Jon E.; Underwood, Emma C.; Safford, Hugh D.; Molinari, Nicole A.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2018-01-01

    Ethnographic interviews and historical literature reviews provide evidence that for many tribes of California, chaparral plant communities were a rich source of food, medicines, and technologies and that they supplemented natural fires with deliberate burning of chaparral to maximize its ability to produce useful products. Many of the most important chaparral plant species used in the food and material culture have strong adaptations to fire. Particularly useful were many annual and perennial herbs, which proliferate after fire from seed and bulb banks, shrub resprouts that made superb cordage and basketry material, as well as animals that were more readily caught in postfire environments. The reasons for burning in chaparral are grouped into seven ecological categories, each relying on a known response to fire of the chaparral community. The authors posit that tribes employed intentional burning to maintain chaparral in different ages and size classes to meet diverse food and material needs, tracking the change in plant and animal abundance and diversity, and shifts in shrub architecture and habitat structure during the recovery of the chaparral community. Areas were burned in ways designed to create a mosaic of open grassland and recently burned, young and mature stands of chaparral with different combinations of species and densities. This management conferred on chaparral plant communities a degree of spatial, structural, successional, and biotic diversity that exceeded what would have been the case in the absence of human intervention. These impacts are still evident on contemporary landscapes.

  20. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.