WorldWideScience

Sample records for california climate action

  1. Providing farmers, ranchers, and foresters in California with actionable climate information: opportunities and obstacles for California's USDA Regional Climate Sub Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A. C.; Steenwerth, K. L.; Stine, P.; Chambers, J.; Fischer, C.; Kiger, L.; Hedt, T.; Gonzales, O.; Tse, R.; Tse, A.; Gunasekara, A.; Henly, R.; DeLaRosa, J.; Battany, M.; Pathak, T.; Parker, D.; Schwartz, M.; Tjeerdema, R.; Kalansky, J.; Kehmeier, E.; Xides, A.; Marshall, A.; Jagannathan, K.

    2015-12-01

    California is the #1 agricultural state in the US, with output worth $50 billion in 2014. California produces half the nation's specialty crops (fruits, vegetables, and nuts) and is a leader in beef and dairy production. California also has 10% of the forestland west of the Mississippi, including many economically and ecologically important forest types. The USDA Regional Climate Sub Hub for California was created in 2014 to help land users (farmers, ranchers, and forest land owners) cope with climate variability and change, via two-way linkages with producers of climate information. In its first year and a half, the Sub Hub has formed partnerships with California's many other climate-focused organizations, including state and federal government, universities, and NGOs. The Sub Hub coordinates climate-related work among several USDA agencies (ARS, FS, NRCS, and others), which formerly had no mechanism to do so. The Sub Hub also works with other federal climate programs (such as the DOI's CA Landscape Conservation Cooperative, with which the Sub Hub is engaged in a multi-year assessment to balance conservation and agriculture in the Central Valley). State government agencies, such as the Natural Resources Agency and the Department of Food and Agriculture, are key partners for priority-setting and data-sharing. One of the Sub Hub's crucial synergies is with UC Cooperative Extension, which provides insight into land users' needs and provides an outlet to deliver Sub Hub products on the ground. In response to stakeholder concerns, the Sub Hub's 2015-16 emphasis is the ongoing California drought. The Sub Hub's current stakeholder-focused projects include (1) a climate vulnerability assessment of California rangelands, including detailed maps of likely vegetation change and suggestions for location-specific adaptation options; (2) a comprehensive climate-related update of Cooperative Extension's widely used Forest Stewardship Series for private landowners; (3) a study on

  2. Problems, Prescriptions and Potential in Actionable Climate Change Science - A Case Study from California Coastal Marsh Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G. M.; Ambrose, R. F.; Thorne, K.; Takekawa, J.; Brown, L. N.; Fejtek, S.; Gold, M.; Rosencranz, J.

    2015-12-01

    Frustrations regarding the provision of actionable science extend to both producers and consumers. Scientists decry the lack of application of their research in shaping policy and practices while decision makers bemoan the lack of applicability of scientific research to the specific problems at hand or its narrow focus relative to the plethora of engineering, economic and social considerations that they must also consider. Incorporating climate change adds additional complexity due to uncertainties in estimating many facets of future climate, the inherent variability of climate and the decadal scales over which significant changes will develop. Recently a set of guidelines for successful science-policy interaction was derived from the analysis of transboundary water management. These are; 1 recognizing that science is a crucial but bounded input into the decision-making processes, 2 early establishment of conditions for collaboration and shared commitment among participants, 3 understanding that science-policy interactions are enhanced through greater collaboration and social or group-learning processes, 4 accepting that the collaborative production of knowledge is essential to build legitimate decision-making processes, and 5 engaging boundary organizations and informal networks as well as formal stakeholders. Here we present as a case study research on California coastal marshes, climate change and sea-level that is being conducted by university and USGS scientists under the auspices of the Southwest Climate Science Center. We also present research needs identified by a seperate analysis of best practices for coastal marsh restoration in the face of climate change that was conducted in extensive consultation with planners and managers. The initial communication, scientific research and outreach-dissemination of the marsh scientfic study are outlined and compared to best practices needs identified by planners and the science-policy guidelines outlined above

  3. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National

  4. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National

  5. Climate Literacy: Springboard to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, B.; Bader, D.

    2011-12-01

    Research indicates that the public views zoos and aquariums as reliable and trusted sources for information on conservation (Ocean Project, 2009). The Aquarium of the Pacific is using NOAA's Science on a Sphere (SOS)° and linked flat screens to convey climate concepts to the public and serve as a model for how aquariums can promote climate literacy. The Ocean Science Center houses the SOS and is designed to immerse our visitors in an experience that extends from the sphere, to our live animals, and to our public programming. The first SOS exhibit, the sea level rise story, opened as the cornerstone of an aquarium-wide climate literacy strategy. Large panels next to the SOS prompts visitors to pledge actions to reduce their personal carbon footprint. The exhibit objectives were to provide a visual presentation that conveys a dramatic story about sea level rise, and to engage the audience in confronting the impact of sea level rise, and the local implications. The Aquarium utilized Yale's Six Americas survey instrument during summer 2010 to measure our audience interpretations of and responses to climate change. The survey showed that 78% of visitors categorized themselves as either alarmed or concerned about climate change, greater than the national average. Thus our climate literacy programs do not focus on convincing visitors of climate change and its causes, but on encouraging adaptive responses to varying scenarios. University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Hall of Science Center for Research Evaluation and Assessment (REA) conducted a pre-opening evaluation of the exhibit's impact. The participants, 58% of whom were families with children, did not want to know more about climate change, but wanted tangible activities they could engage in to mitigate human induced effects, and more details about the impact of climate change on marine animals. REA stated that, "the sea level rise programs (both facilitated and non-facilitated) are well positioned to be

  6. Climate Action Benefits: Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides background on the relationship between electricity and climate change and describes what the CIRA Electricity analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Electricity Demand and Electricity Supply.

  7. Climate Action Tracker Update. Climate Shuffle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Fekete, H.; Vieweg, M.; Hare, B.; Schaeffer, M.; Rocha, M.; Larkin, J.; Guetschow, J.; Jeffery, L.

    2011-11-15

    The Climate Action Tracker (CAT) compares and assesses national and global action against a range of different climate targets across all relevant time frames, starting with an ongoing analysis of countries' current emission reduction pledges. National action on climate change mitigation appears to be joining the international climate negotiations in the new and ever popular 'climate shuffle' dance. It involves maximum effort and motion while staying in the same spot, or even, in some cases, going backwards. Recent emissions trends and estimates of the effects of those policies in place and proposed lead to a new estimate that warming is likely to approach 4C by 2100, significantly above the warming that would result from full implementation of the pledges (3.3C). The continuous global fossil-fuel intensive development of the past decade suggests that high warming levels of 4C are more plausible than assuming full implementation of current pledges. Evidence is ever increasing that existing and planned policies are not sufficient for countries to meet these pledges.

  8. Integrated Climate Change Impacts Assessment in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change assessments for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three Assessments have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the assessments have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The assessment results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and impacts. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the assessments and recognize the need for a sustained assessment process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.

  9. The 2008 California climate change assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G.

    2008-12-01

    In 2005, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Executive Order S-03-05, which laid the foundation for California's ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation reduction efforts. The 2020 goal is now codified in state law requiring bringing 2020 emissions to the 1990 levels. The Executive Order also mandates the preparation of biennial updates on the latest climate change science, potential impacts, and assessment of the state's efforts to manage its climate change risks through various adaptation options. In 2006, the first of these mandated scientific assessments (The Governor's Scenarios Report) was released. Based on new scientific studies conducted in the interim, the next assessment, the '2008 Governor's Scenarios Report' is currently in preparation. It has three principal goals: (1) to improve the assessment of climate changes for California and associated impacts on key physical and biological indicators; (2) to begin to translate these physical and biological impacts into sectoral economic impacts; and (3) to begin to develop and evaluate strategies for key sectors or regions for adapting to climate changes already underway. Contributors to this session will present some of this new research to the scientific community. Among the most exciting new insights are impacts assessments for the all-important water and agricultural sectors, coastal areas, public health and related air quality and environmental justice issues, the forestry and energy sectors. This presentation will give an overview of the overall effort which will result in about 35 scientific papers from different research institutions in California. All of the studies are interlinked in such a way as to produce a consistent overall assessment.

  10. India's National Action Plan on Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Pandve, Harshal T.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change. Climate change impacts will range from affecting agriculture – further endangering food security – to sea-level rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones, increasing intensity of natural disasters, species extinction, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. India released its much-awaited National Action Plan on Climate C...

  11. Abrupt climate change:Debate or action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Hai

    2004-01-01

    Global abrupt climate changes have been documented by various climate records, including ice cores,ocean sediment cores, lake sediment cores, cave deposits,loess deposits and pollen records. The climate system prefers to be in one of two stable states, i.e. interstadial or stadial conditions, but not in between. The transition between two states has an abrupt character. Abrupt climate changes are,in general, synchronous in the northern hemisphere and tropical regions. The timescale for abrupt climate changes can be as short as a decade. As the impacts may be potentially serious, we need to take actions such as reducing CO2emissions to the atmosphere.

  12. Local climate action plans in climate change mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsø, Tue Noa Jacques; Kjær, Tyge; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the climate action plans (CAPs) of local governments (LGs) in Denmark. Applying a quantitative content analysis approach, all available Danish LG action plans within the climate and energy field has been collected and coded, giving insight into the extent of LG CAPs. We asses...... and scope definition are identified and assessed, and the overall contribution of LGs to the Danish energy transition is discussed....

  13. In Brief: Action on climate change urged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-06-01

    The science academies of the G8 countries-along with those in China, India, Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa-on 10 June issued a joint statement urging leaders at July's G8 Summit in Japan to take action on climate change. The statement indicates, ``Responding to climate change requires both mitigation and adaptation to achieve a transition to a low carbon society and our global sustainability objectives.'' In the statement, the academies urge all nations, and particularly those participating in the summit, to take a series of actions to deal with climate change. The statement is available at http://www.nationalacademies.org/includes/climatechangestatement.pdf.

  14. California Basin Characterization Model Downscaled Climate and Hydrology

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Basin Characterization Model (CA-BCM 2014) dataset provides historical and projected climate and hydrologic surfaces for the region that encompasses...

  15. India's National Action Plan on Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandve, Harshal T

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change. Climate change impacts will range from affecting agriculture - further endangering food security - to sea-level rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones, increasing intensity of natural disasters, species extinction, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. India released its much-awaited National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) to mitigate and adapt to climate change on June 30, 2008, almost a year after it was announced. The NAPCC runs through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change by December 2008. This article briefly reviews the plan and opinion about it from different experts and organizations.

  16. Institutional capacity and climate actions. Summary paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, S. [Global and Structural Policies Division, OECD Environment Directorate, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the role of institutional capacity in selecting the most appropriate climate actions. More specifically, it investigates why, for some countries, institutional capacity may need to be considered as an important criterion for selecting future climate actions, alongside environmental, economic and/or political considerations. This paper is a synthesis of results of an OECD/IEA project undertaken in 2003 for the Annex I Expert Group, which led to several publications, namely a framework paper on Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions, three national cases studies, respectively on Mexico, India and Bulgaria, as well as a paper assessing the status of national inventory preparation in Annex I and non-Annex I Parties (OECD/IEA, 2003). The paper argues that the very nature of a country's institutional development suggests a progressive approach to climate actions, which takes into account the specificity of a country's existing institutional setting. More specifically, substantial changes in a country's existing institutions are likely to be required when particular levels or types of institutional capacities need to be developed, for example when these changes affect public governance as a whole. Finally, particular forms of actions may require significant changes in a country's institutional setting. For example, legally-binding quantified national targets tend to require significant institutional development in all functions of climate policy. With other approaches, such as those based on non-binding targets, sectoral targets or policies and measures, institutional development may be more progressive and targeted. Thus, when considering particular forms of climate actions, countries might benefit from investigating what kind of institutions are likely to be needed and whether they will be able to develop sufficient capacity in time to implement these actions. Overall, this analysis suggests a step

  17. Hungarian climate change action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Arpasi, M. [MOL, Budapest (Hungary); Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T. [Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy, Budapest (Hungary); Harnos, Z. [Univ. of Horticulture, Budapest (Hungary); Lontay, Z. [EGI-Contracting Engineering Co. Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Somogyi, Z. [Forest Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary); Tajthy, T. [Univ. of Technology, Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  18. Approaches to local climate action in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. D.

    2011-12-01

    Though climate change is a global problem, the impacts are felt on the local scale; it follows that the solutions must come at the local level. Fortunately, many cities and municipalities are implementing climate mitigation (or climate action) policies and programs. However, they face many procedural and institutional barriers to their efforts, such of lack of expertise or data, limited human and financial resources, and lack of community engagement (Krause 2011). To address the first obstacle, thirteen in-depth case studies were done of successful model practices ("best practices") of climate action programs carried out by various cities, counties, and organizations in Colorado, and one outside Colorado, and developed into "how-to guides" for other municipalities to use. Research was conducted by reading documents (e.g. annual reports, community guides, city websites), email correspondence with program managers and city officials, and via phone interviews. The information gathered was then compiled into a series of reports containing a narrative description of the initiative; an overview of the plan elements (target audience and goals); implementation strategies and any indicators of success to date (e.g. GHG emissions reductions, cost savings); and the adoption or approval process, as well as community engagement efforts and marketing or messaging strategies. The types of programs covered were energy action plans, energy efficiency programs, renewable energy programs, and transportation and land use programs. Between the thirteen case studies, there was a range of approaches to implementing local climate action programs, examined along two dimensions: focus on climate change (whether it was direct/explicit or indirect/implicit) and extent of government authority. This benchmarking exercise affirmed the conventional wisdom propounded by Pitt (2010), that peer pressure (that is, the presence of neighboring jurisdictions with climate initiatives), the level of

  19. Climate change and tools for collective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    As climate change alters the quality and quantity of water in local ecosystems, we will be faced with management challenges. Research experience in the St. Louis River Area of Concern would indicate that collective action is possible in response to the threat of degraded water qu...

  20. Analysis of the Impact of Climate Change on Extreme Hydrological Events in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf Vaghefi, Saeid; Abbaspour, Karim C.

    2016-04-01

    Estimating magnitude and occurrence frequency of extreme hydrological events is required for taking preventive remedial actions against the impact of climate change on the management of water resources. Examples include: characterization of extreme rainfall events to predict urban runoff, determination of river flows, and the likely severity of drought events during the design life of a water project. In recent years California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing water stress, economic loss, and an increase in wildfires. In this paper we describe development of a Climate Change Toolkit (CCT) and demonstrate its use in the analysis of dry and wet periods in California for the years 2020-2050 and compare the results with the historic period 1975-2005. CCT provides four modules to: i) manage big databases such as those of Global Climate Models (GCMs), ii) make bias correction using observed local climate data , iii) interpolate gridded climate data to finer resolution, and iv) calculate continuous dry- and wet-day periods based on rainfall, temperature, and soil moisture for analysis of drought and flooding risks. We used bias-corrected meteorological data of five GCMs for extreme CO2 emission scenario rcp8.5 for California to analyze the trend of extreme hydrological events. The findings indicate that frequency of dry period will increase in center and southern parts of California. The assessment of the number of wet days and the frequency of wet periods suggests an increased risk of flooding in north and north-western part of California, especially in the coastal strip. Keywords: Climate Change Toolkit (CCT), Extreme Hydrological Events, California

  1. Sensitivity of streamflow to climate change in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, T.; Carlisle, D.; Wolock, D.; McCabe, G. J.; Wieczorek, M.; Howard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Trends of decreasing snowpack and increasing risk of drought are looming challenges for California water resource management. Increasing vulnerability of the state's natural water supplies threatens California's social-economic vitality and the health of its freshwater ecosystems. Despite growing awareness of potential climate change impacts, robust management adaptation has been hindered by substantial uncertainty in future climate predictions for the region. Down-scaled global climate model (GCM) projections uniformly suggest future warming of the region, but projections are highly variable with respect to the direction and magnitude of change in regional precipitation. Here we examine the sensitivity of California surface water supplies to climate variation independently of GCMs. We use a statistical approach to construct predictive models of monthly streamflow based on historical climate and river basin features. We then propagate an ensemble of synthetic climate simulations through the models to assess potential streamflow responses to changes in temperature and precipitation in different months and regions of the state. We also consider the range of streamflow change predicted by bias-corrected downscaled GCMs. Our results indicate that the streamflow in the xeric and coastal mountain regions of California is more sensitive to changes in precipitation than temperature, whereas streamflow in the interior mountain region responds strongly to changes in both temperature and precipitation. Mean climate projections for 2025-2075 from GCM ensembles are highly variable, indicating streamflow changes of -50% to +150% relative to baseline (1980-2010) for most months and regions. By quantifying the sensitivity of streamflow to climate change, rather than attempting to predict future hydrologic conditions based on uncertain GCM projections, these results should be more informative to water managers seeking to assess, and potentially reduce, the vulnerability of surface

  2. Climate Change Adaptation Actions in Tirana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMARBER MALLTEZI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tirana has recently experienced changing weather patterns such as rising temperatures and occurrence of extreme weather events. Such events – in combination with a rapid increase of urban areas and impermeable cement covering the natural soil in the city – have caused increased flooding, riverside erosion, delayed traffic, increased spending for cooling during the summer, increased need for health services, and an urgent need to plan the city smartly. Tirana is preparing a set of Climate Change Adaptation Actions in order to manage the posed risks and adapt to climate change. The city administration should integrate climate change adaptation in their management and planning processes. This exercise was prepared by using the Climate Compass tool and included the vulnerability assessment of different sectors in the city, evaluated the risks posed to vulnerable target groups and proposed feasible adaptation options. It outlines mostly actions to be taken to manage risks and build climate resilience across essential public infrastructure and services. Such actions would require better land use planning to maintain – and where possible increase – the natural areas and leave the natural soil undisturbed. Key to success is integrating adaptation concepts into the city planning and development investments. The result is a novel approach and guidance to better integrate adaptation concepts in city planning and new technologies to prevent heat waves, flood risks in the city, etc.Administrators of the Tirana Municipality should keep in mind and integrate the climate change adaptationactions into daily planning and decision making for several sectors including urban planning, transport, public services, water infrastructure, emergency response, etc. in order to ensure sustainable development for the city.

  3. The Climate Change Action Plan: Technical supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Technical Annex documents the assumptions and parameters used in developing the supporting analysis for the Climate Change Action Plan (the Plan) issued by President Clinton on October 19, 1993. The Annex is intended to meet the needs of independent energy and environmental analysts who wish to better understand the Plan, its analytical underpinnings, and the events that need to transpire for the emissions reductions called for in the Plan to be realized. The Plan documented in this Annex reflects the outcome of a wide-ranging effort by Government agencies and interested members of the public to develop and implement actions that can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions in the year 2000 to their aggregate 1990 level. Based on agency and public input, the Climate Change Mitigation Group, chaired by the White House Office on Environmental Policy, developed the Plan`s content. Many of the actions called for in the Plan are now underway, while others are in advanced planning pending congressional action on the fiscal year 1995 budget. The analysis supporting the Plan represents the results of an interagency effort. The US Department of Energy (DOE) was responsible for the integrated analysis of energy-related options, based on the analysis of individual energy-related options by DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Transportation (DOT). EPA led in providing analysis for actions related to methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) led the analysis of carbon sequestration actions and cooperated with EPA in the analysis of actions to reduce nitrous oxide emissions.

  4. Climate Change and Political Action: the Citizens' Climate Lobby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P. H.; Secord, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recognizing the reality of global warming and its origin in greenhouse gas emissions, what does one do about it? Individual action is commendable, but inadequate. Collective action is necessary--Citizens' Climate Lobby proposes a "fee-and-dividend" approach in which a fee is imposed on carbon-based fuel at its sources of production. The fee increases annually in a predictable manner. The funds collected are paid out to consumers as monthly dividends. The approach is market-based, in that the cost of the fee to producers is passed on to consumers in the cost of carbon-based fuels. Downstream energy providers and consumers then make their choices regarding investments and purchases. Citizens' Climate Lobby (CCL) builds national consensus by growing local Chapters, led and populated by volunteers. The Chapters are charged with public education and presenting the fee-and-dividend proposal to their respective Representatives and Senators. CCL builds trust by its non-partisan approach, meeting with all members of Congress regardless of party affiliation and stance on climate-related issues. CCL also builds trust by a non-confrontational approach, seeking to understand rather than to oppose. CCL works both locally, through its local Chapters, and nationally, with an annual conference in Washington DC during which all Congressional offices are visited. CCL recognizes that a long-term, sustained effort is necessary to address climate change.

  5. Adapting California Water Management to Climate Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, E.; Lund, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    California faces the prospect of significant water management challenges from climate change. The most certain changes are accelerated sea level rise and increased temperatures, which will reduce the Sierra Nevada snowpack and shift more runoff to winter months. These changes will likely cause major problems for flood control, for water supply reservoir operations, and for the maintenance of the present system of water exports through the fragile levee system of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Rising water temperatures also are likely to compromise habitat for some native aquatic species and pose challenges for reservoir operations, which must release cool water to support fish downstream. Although there is as yet little scientific consensus on the effects of climate change on overall precipitation levels, many expect precipitation variability to increase, with more extreme drought and flood events posing additional challenges to water managers. Fortunately, California also possesses numerous assets - including adaptation tools and institutional capabilities - which can limit vulnerability of the state’s residents to changing conditions. Water supply managers have already begun using underground storage, water transfers, conservation, recycling, and desalination to expand their capacity to meet changing demands, and these same tools present cost-effective options for responding to a wide range of climate change scenarios. Many staples of flood management - including reservoir operations, levees, bypasses, insurance, and land-use regulation - are appropriate for the challenges posed by increasing flood flows. Yet actions are also needed to improve response capacity in some areas. For water supply, a central issue is the management of the Delta, where new conveyance and habitat investments and regulations are needed to sustain water supply reliability and ecosystem conditions. For flood management, studies to anticipate required changes have only begun, and

  6. Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily...... invaded. We used a novel, trait-based approach involving two components: identifying differences in trait composition between native and exotic components of the grass flora and evaluating contemporary trait–climate relationships across the state. The combination of trait–climate relationships and trait...

  7. Deglacial climatic oscillations in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigwin, L. D.; Jones, G. A.

    1990-12-01

    A high-resolution, accelerator radiocarbon dated climate record of the interval 8,000-18,000 years B.P. from Deep Sea Drilling Project site 480 (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California) shows geochemical and lithological oscillations of oceanographic and climatic significance during deglaciation. Nonlaminated sediments are associated with cooler climatic conditions during the late glacial (up to 13,000 years B.P.), and from 10,300 to 10,800 years B.P., equivalent to the Younger Dryas event of the North Atlantic region. We propose that the changes from laminated (varved) to nonlaminated sediments resulted from increased oxygen content in Pacific intermediate waters during the glacial and the Younger Dryas episodes, and that the forcing for the latter event was global in scope. Prominent events of low δ18O are recorded in benthic foraminifera from 8,000 to 10,000 and at 12,000 years B.P.; evidence for an earlier event between 13,500 and 15,000 years B.P. is weaker. Maximum δ18O is found to have occurred 10,500, 13,500, and 15,000 years ago (and beyond). Oxygen isotopic variability most likely reflects changing temperature and salinity characteristics of Pacific waters of intermediate depth during deglaciation or environmental changes within the Gulf of California region. Several lines of evidence suggest that during deglaciation the climate of the American southwest was marked by increased precipitation that could have lowered salinity in the Gulf of California. Recent modelling studies show that cooling of the Gulf of Mexico due to glacial meltwater injection, which is believed to have occurred at least twice during deglaciation, would have resulted in increased precipitation with respect to evaporation in the American southwest during summertime. The timing of deglacial events in the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of California supports such an atmospheric teleconnection.

  8. Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhoe, K.; Cayan, D.; Field, C.B.; Frumhoff, P.C.; Maurer, E.P.; Miller, N.L.; Moser, S.C.; Schneider, S.H.; Cahill, K.N.; Cleland, E.E.; Dale, L.; Drapek, R.; Hanemann, R.M.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Lenihan, J.; Lunch, C.K.; Neilson, R.P.; Sheridan, S.C.; Verville, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The magnitude of future climate change depends substantially on the greenhouse gas emission pathways we choose. Here we explore the implications of the highest and lowest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions pathways for climate change and associated impacts in California. Based on climate projections from two state-of-the-art climate models with low and medium sensitivity (Parallel Climate Model and Hadley Centre Climate Model, version 3, respectively), we find that annual temperature increases nearly double from the lower B1 to the higher A1fi emissions scenario before 2100. Three of four simulations also show greater increases in summer temperatures as compared with winter. Extreme heat and the associated impacts on a range of temperature-sensitive sectors are substantially greater under the higher emissions scenario, with some interscenario differences apparent before midcentury. By the end of the century under the B1 scenario, heatwaves and extreme heat in Los Angeles quadruple in frequency while heat-related mortality increases two to three times; alpine/subalpine forests are reduced by 50-75%; and Sierra snowpack is reduced 30-70%. Under A1fi, heatwaves in Los Angeles are six to eight times more frequent, with heat-related excess mortality increasing five to seven times; alpine/subalpine forests are reduced by 75-90%; and snowpack declines 73-90%, with cascading impacts on runoff and streamflow that, combined with projected modest declines in winter precipitation, could fundamentally disrupt California's water rights system. Although interscenario differences in climate impacts and costs of adaptation emerge mainly in the second half of the century, they are strongly dependent on emissions from preceding decades.

  9. California state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of California. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  10. Climate Change and Future Fire Regimes: Examples from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E. Keeley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate and weather have long been noted as playing key roles in wildfire activity, and global warming is expected to exacerbate fire impacts on natural and urban ecosystems. Predicting future fire regimes requires an understanding of how temperature and precipitation interact to control fire activity. Inevitably this requires historical analyses that relate annual burning to climate variation. Fuel structure plays a critical role in determining which climatic parameters are most influential on fire activity, and here, by focusing on the diversity of ecosystems in California, we illustrate some principles that need to be recognized in predicting future fire regimes. Spatial scale of analysis is important in that large heterogeneous landscapes may not fully capture accurate relationships between climate and fires. Within climatically homogeneous subregions, montane forested landscapes show strong relationships between annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation with area burned; however, this is strongly seasonal dependent; e.g., winter temperatures have very little or no effect but spring and summer temperatures are critical. Climate models that predict future seasonal temperature changes are needed to improve fire regime projections. Climate does not appear to be a major determinant of fire activity on all landscapes. Lower elevations and lower latitudes show little or no increase in fire activity with hotter and drier conditions. On these landscapes climate is not usually limiting to fires but these vegetation types are ignition-limited. Moreover, because they are closely juxtaposed with human habitations, fire regimes are more strongly controlled by other direct anthropogenic impacts. Predicting future fire regimes is not rocket science; it is far more complicated than that. Climate change is not relevant to some landscapes, but where climate is relevant, the relationship will change due to direct climate effects on vegetation

  11. Climate change and future fire regimes: Examples from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.

    2016-01-01

    Climate and weather have long been noted as playing key roles in wildfire activity, and global warming is expected to exacerbate fire impacts on natural and urban ecosystems. Predicting future fire regimes requires an understanding of how temperature and precipitation interact to control fire activity. Inevitably this requires historical analyses that relate annual burning to climate variation. Fuel structure plays a critical role in determining which climatic parameters are most influential on fire activity, and here, by focusing on the diversity of ecosystems in California, we illustrate some principles that need to be recognized in predicting future fire regimes. Spatial scale of analysis is important in that large heterogeneous landscapes may not fully capture accurate relationships between climate and fires. Within climatically homogeneous subregions, montane forested landscapes show strong relationships between annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation with area burned; however, this is strongly seasonal dependent; e.g., winter temperatures have very little or no effect but spring and summer temperatures are critical. Climate models that predict future seasonal temperature changes are needed to improve fire regime projections. Climate does not appear to be a major determinant of fire activity on all landscapes. Lower elevations and lower latitudes show little or no increase in fire activity with hotter and drier conditions. On these landscapes climate is not usually limiting to fires but these vegetation types are ignition-limited. Moreover, because they are closely juxtaposed with human habitations, fire regimes are more strongly controlled by other direct anthropogenic impacts. Predicting future fire regimes is not rocket science; it is far more complicated than that. Climate change is not relevant to some landscapes, but where climate is relevant, the relationship will change due to direct climate effects on vegetation trajectories, as well as

  12. Systematic conservation planning for California avifauna in a climate change context (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stralberg, D.; Veloz, S.; Jongsomjit, D.; Gardali, T.; Howell, C.; Alexander, J.; Snyder, M. A.; Nur, N.; Ballard, G.; Wiens, J.

    2010-12-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) based on climate variables are often used to quantify and describe the spatial distributions of species under current and projected future climate conditions. While such models are generally developed at the continental level for the purpose of projecting broad-scale range shifts, there is an increasing demand for projections at scales fine enough to inform land-management decisions and conservation priorities. In a state as topographically complex as California, significant downscaling is required to adapt general circulation model (GCM) projections to conservation planning applications. We used 30-km regional climate model projections for 2038-2070 with boundary conditions taken from two GCMs under the SRES A2 (high CO2 emissions) scenario and downscaled them to an 800-m resolution based on PRISM climate normals for 1970-2000. Bioclimatic variables derived from temperature and precipitation normals were used to model the distributions of 203 California landbird taxa and to identify the species whose distributions are most likely to be affected by climate change. To synthesize the geographic implications of these individual SDM projections, we used the systematic conservation planning software Zonation to identify priority areas for avian conservation based on current and projected future distributions of all taxa. We used the California Bird Species of Special Concern framework to weight species according to conservation status, compared two prioritization algorithms, and incorporated SDM and climate model uncertainty into the prioritization exercise. The resulting areas of high conservation value were intersected with current protected areas to identify conservation gaps. Portions of the north and central coast were identified as consistent yet largely unprotected “hotspots” for current and future bird distributions. This approach illustrates how species distribution modeling, coupled with planning tools such as Zonation

  13. 76 FR 36173 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California... Review of Actions by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 327... 99/ State Route 219 (Kiernan Avenue) interchange in the community of Salida in Stanislaus County,...

  14. 78 FR 25524 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Populations; E.O. 11593 Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural Environment; E.O. 13007 Indian Sacred Sites... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California... Review of Actions by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), pursuant to 23 U.S.C....

  15. 75 FR 3522 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... and Enhancement of the Cultural Environment; E.O. 13007 Indian Sacred Sites; E.O. 13287 Preserve... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California... Review of Actions by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), pursuant to 23 USC...

  16. 75 FR 36466 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Cultural Environment; E.O. 13007 Indian Sacred Sites; E.O. 13287 Preserve America; E.O. 13175 Consultation... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California... Review of Actions by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), pursuant to 23 U.S.C....

  17. Socio-Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberger, M. G.; Cooley, H.; Moore, E.; Garzon, C.

    2011-12-01

    The western United States faces a range of impacts from global climate change, including increases in extreme heat, wildfires, and coastal flooding and erosion; changes are also likely to occur in air quality, water availability, and the spread of infectious diseases. To date, a great deal of research has been done to forecast the physical effects of climate change, while less attention has been given to the factors make different populations more or less vulnerable to harm from such changes. For example, mortality rates from Hurricane Audrey, which struck the coast of Louisiana in 1957, were more than eight times higher among blacks than among whites. While disaster events may not discriminate, impacts on human populations are shaped by "intervening conditions" that determine the human impact of the flood and the specific needs for preparedness, response, and recovery. In this study, we analyze the potential impacts of climate change by using recent downscaled climate model outputs, creating a variety of statistics and visualizations to communicate potential impacts to community groups and decision makers, after several meetings with these groups to ask, "What types of information are most useful to you for planning?" We relate climate impacts to social vulnerability - defined as the intersection of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of a person or group of people - with a focus on the U.S. state of California. Understanding vulnerability factors and the populations that exhibit these factors are critical for crafting effective climate change policies and response strategies. It is also important to the emerging study of climate justice, which is the concept that no group of people should disproportionately bear the burden of climate impacts or the costs of mitigation and adaptation.

  18. Climate controls on valley fever incidence in Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, Charles S.; Talamantes, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Coccidiodomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic infection caused by inhalation of airborne spores from Coccidioides immitis, a soil-dwelling fungus found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Dust storms help disperse C. immitis so risk factors for valley fever include conditions favorable for fungal growth (moist, warm soil) and for aeolian soil erosion (dry soil and strong winds). Here, we analyze and inter-compare the seasonal and inter-annual behavior of valley fever incidence and climate risk factors for the period 1980-2002 in Kern County, California, the US county with highest reported incidence. We find weak but statistically significant links between disease incidence and antecedent climate conditions. Precipitation anomalies 8 and 20 months antecedent explain only up to 4% of monthly variability in subsequent valley fever incidence during the 23 year period tested. This is consistent with previous studies suggesting that C. immitis tolerates hot, dry periods better than competing soil organisms and, as a result, thrives during wet periods following droughts. Furthermore, the relatively small correlation with climate suggests that the causes of valley fever in Kern County could be largely anthropogenic. Seasonal climate predictors of valley fever in Kern County are similar to, but much weaker than, those in Arizona, where previous studies find precipitation explains up to 75% of incidence. Causes for this discrepancy are not yet understood. Higher resolution temporal and spatial monitoring of soil conditions could improve our understanding of climatic antecedents of severe epidemics.

  19. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such

  20. California climate change, hydrologic response, and flood forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2003-11-11

    There is strong evidence that the lower atmosphere has been warming at an unprecedented rate during the last 50 years, and it is expected to further increase at least for the next 100 years. Warmer air mass implies a higher capacity to hold water vapor and an increased likelihood of an acceleration of the global water cycle. This acceleration is not validated and considerable new research has gone into understanding aspects of the water cycle (e.g. Miller et al. 2003). Several significant findings on the hydrologic response to climate change can be reported. It is well understood that the observed and expected warming is related to sea level rise. In a recent seminar at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, James Hansen (Director of the Institute for Space Studies, National Aeronautics and Space Administration) stressed that a 1.25 Wm{sup -2} increase in radiative forcing will lead to an increase in the near surface air temperature by 1 C. This small increase in temperature from 2000 levels is enough to cause very significant impacts to coasts. Maury Roos (Chief Hydrologist, California Department of Water Resources) has shown that a 0.3 m rise in sea level shifts the San Francisco Bay 100-year storm surge flood event to a 10-year event. Related coastal protection costs for California based on sea level rise are shown. In addition to rising sea level, snowmelt-related streamflow represents a particular problem in California. Model studies have indicated that there will be approximately a 50% decrease in snow pack by 2100. This potential deficit must be fully recognized and plans need to be put in place well in advance. In addition, the warmer atmosphere can hold more water vapor and result in more intense warm winter-time precipitation events that result in flooding. During anticipated high flow, reservoirs need to release water to maintain their structural integrity. California is at risk of water shortages, floods, and related ecosystem stresses. More research

  1. Climate Impacts on Irrigated Agriculture in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J.; Young, C. A.; Mehta, V. K.; Davitt, A. W. D.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2015-12-01

    Irrigated farms account for 80%-90% of consumptive water use in the United States and $118.5 billion of US agricultural production. Despite the vast water use and high yields of irrigated croplands, agriculture is typically the lowest value sector in a water resources system, and thus the first to face reductions when water becomes scarce. A major challenge for hydrologic and agricultural communities is assessing the effects of climate change on the sustainability of regional water resources and irrigated agriculture. To explore the interface of water and agriculture in California's Central Valley, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model was coupled to the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) water resources model, deployed over the service area of Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, and forced using both historical and future climate scenarios. This coupling brings water supply constraints to DSSAT and sophisticated agricultural water use, management, and diagnostics to WEAP. Thirty year historical (1980-2009) simulations of WEAP-DSSAT for corn, wheat, and rice were run using a spatially interpolated observational dataset, and contrasted with future simulations using climate scenarios developed by adjusting the spatially interpolated observational dataset with North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program differences between future (2050-2069) and historical (1980-1999) regional climate model simulations of precipitation and temperature. Generally, within the Central Valley temperatures warm by approximately 2°C, precipitation remains constant, and crop water use efficiency increases. On average corn yields decrease, wheat yields increase, and rice yields remain unchanged. Potential adaptations, as well as implications for groundwater pumping, irrigation extent and method, and land use change including fallowing and switching crops, are examined.

  2. Psychological Climates in Action Learning Sets: A Manager's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon-Lee, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Action learning (AL) is often viewed as a process that facilitates professional learning through the creation of a positive psychological climate [Marquardt, M. J. 2000. "Action Learning and Leadership." "The Learning Organisation" 7 (5): 233-240; Schein, E. H. 1979. "Personal Change Through Interpersonal…

  3. California Freshwater Shrimp Project: An Eco-Action Project with Real Life Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Laurette H.

    The California Freshwater Shrimp Project is an example of a student-initiated, eco-action project. Students, from a fourth grade class in the Ross Valley School District in San Rafael, California, were linked to their community and environment through their work in rehabilitating habitat and educating the public. The paper gives an overview of a…

  4. ESTIMATING RISK TO CALIFORNIA ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE FROM PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Dale, Larry; Larsen, Peter; Fitts, Gary; Koy, Kevin; Lewis, Sarah; Lucena, Andre

    2011-06-22

    This report outlines the results of a study of the impact of climate change on the energy infrastructure of California and the San Francisco Bay region, including impacts on power plant generation; transmission line and substation capacity during heat spells; wildfires near transmission lines; sea level encroachment upon power plants, substations, and natural gas facilities; and peak electrical demand. Some end-of-century impacts were projected:Expected warming will decrease gas-fired generator efficiency. The maximum statewide coincident loss is projected at 10.3 gigawatts (with current power plant infrastructure and population), an increase of 6.2 percent over current temperature-induced losses. By the end of the century, electricity demand for almost all summer days is expected to exceed the current ninetieth percentile per-capita peak load. As much as 21 percent growth is expected in ninetieth percentile peak demand (per-capita, exclusive of population growth). When generator losses are included in the demand, the ninetieth percentile peaks may increase up to 25 percent. As the climate warms, California's peak supply capacity will need to grow faster than the population.Substation capacity is projected to decrease an average of 2.7 percent. A 5C (9F) air temperature increase (the average increase predicted for hot days in August) will diminish the capacity of a fully-loaded transmission line by an average of 7.5 percent.The potential exposure of transmission lines to wildfire is expected to increase with time. We have identified some lines whose probability of exposure to fire are expected to increase by as much as 40 percent. Up to 25 coastal power plants and 86 substations are at risk of flooding (or partial flooding) due to sea level rise.

  5. Actionable climate knowledge: from analysis to synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinke, H.B.; Nelson, R.; Kokic, P.; Stone, R.; Selvaraju, R.; Baethgen, W.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional reductionist approach to science has a tendency to create `islands of knowledge in a sea of ignorance¿, with a much stronger focus on analysis of scientific inputs rather than synthesis of socially relevant outcomes. This might be the principal reason why intended end users of climat

  6. India′s National Action Plan on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandve Harshal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change. Climate change impacts will range from affecting agriculture - further endangering food security - to sea-level rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones, increasing intensity of natural disasters, species extinction, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. India released its much-awaited National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC to mitigate and adapt to climate change on June 30, 2008, almost a year after it was announced. The NAPCC runs through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Minister′s Council on Climate Change by December 2008. This article briefly reviews the plan and opinion about it from different experts and organizations.

  7. Producing Scientific and Strategic Guidance for California's Department of Water Resources: The Climate Change Technical Advisory Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyakum, J. R.; Austin, B. N.; Curtis, D. C.; Anderson, M.; Alpert, H.; Young, S.; Herson, A.; Schwarz, A.; Kavvas, M. L.; Langridge, R.; Lynn, E.; Anderson, J.; Redmond, K. T.; Dettinger, M. D.; Correa, M.; Franco, G.; Cayan, D.; Georgakakos, K.

    2015-12-01

    Diverse areas of expertise are needed to describe and assess a changing climate and provide guidance for the agency that runs the largest state-built, multi-purpose water project in the U.S. California's State Water Project provides: drinking water for more than 25 million people, flood control, power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife protection, and water quality improvements. Hydrologic impacts under a changing climate include rising seas, reduced ratio of snow to rain, earlier snowmelt and higher temperatures; all of which are being detected. To improve the scientific basis for decisions and enhance the consistency of climate change approaches, the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) empaneled a Climate Change Technical Advisory Group (CCTAG) for guidance on the scientific aspects of climate change, its impacts on water resources, the use and creation of planning approaches and analytical tools, and the development of adaptation responses. To carry out DWR's mission, incorporation of climate change into DWR's planning, projects, and other activities must be consistent, science-based, and continually improved through an iterative process. Hydrologists, academicians, modelers, planners, lawyers and practitioners convened regularly to tackle these complicated issues in water management policy, including climate change impacts on extreme events. Actions taken in response to the CCTAG recommendations will move California toward more sustainable management of water and related resources. DWR will release a technical report of CCTAG guidance and perspectives in 2015. The process to convene, collaborate and distribute the findings of this CCTAG will be the focus of this presentation. An academician and water resources practitioner will share their perspectives on the processes driving CCTAG's work.

  8. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, Michael; Matthews, H. Scott; Sharrard, Aurora L.; Hendrickson, Chris T.; Lima Azevedo, Inês

    2011-07-01

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  9. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712-0276 (United States); Scott Matthews, H; Hendrickson, Chris T [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sharrard, Aurora L [Green Building Alliance, 333 East Carson Street, Suite 331, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Azevedo, Ines Lima, E-mail: mblackhurst@gmail.com, E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu, E-mail: auroras@gbapgh.org, E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  10. CLIL takes action on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Sonia; Raschi, Antonio; Marandola, Danilo; Ugolini, Francesca

    2010-05-01

    When studying Science goes beyond the coursebook: CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) can be effective and challenging for students cooperating with real scientists in a profitable partnership promoted by CarboSchools. A project funded by the EU Science and Society programme. A great educational adventure researching local and global climate change and acting locally to calculate and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to fascinate and empower young generations' consciousness to such a global pressing issue. The scientific projects under way, the educational impact on students, teachers and scientists, the didactic experiments to reduce the gap in science teaching, seeking solutions to "the biggest uncontrolled scientific experiment in human history", while experimenting a true European dimension.

  11. 78 FR 59085 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... 23 U.S.C. 139 (l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed Interstate 5 Bus/Carpool Lanes Project (Post... the following highway project in the State of California. The Interstate 5 Bus/Carpool Lanes Project... accomplished by adding bus/carpool lanes in the median the entire length of the project. The actions by...

  12. Kenya's Climate Change Action Plan. Low Carbon Climate Resilient Development Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, D.; Sawyer, D.; Stiebert, S.; McFatridge, S. [International Institute for Sustainable Development IISD, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Wuertenberger, L.; Van Tilburg, X.; Hekkenberg, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Owino, T.; Battye, W. [ClimateCare, Nairobi (Kenya); Mutia, T. [Regional Institute for Social Enterprise Kenya RISE, Nairobi (Kenya); Olum, P. [Climate Change Consultant (Kenya)

    2012-12-15

    Kenya Vision 2030 - the long-term development blueprint for the country - aims to transform Kenya into 'a newly industrialising, middle-income country providing a high quality of life to all its citizens in a clean and secure environment'. A low carbon climate resilient development pathway, as set out in this Climate Change Action Plan, can help meet Vision 2030 goals through actions that address both sustainable development and climate change. This pathway can also help the Government achieve the Millennium Development Goals and other internationally agreed development goals without compromising the environment and its natural resources. As Kenya realizes its development aspirations, there will be gains and risks. A growing population and economy with migration to cities will mean increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Resulting environmental and social conditions, including increased competition over resources, could intensify vulnerability to climate risks. Transitioning to a low carbon climate resilient development pathway can address future risks thereby improving Kenya's ability to prosper under a changing climate while reducing the emissions intensity of a growing economy. Moving forward on the 2010 National Climate Change Response Strategy will help Kenya transition to a low carbon climate resilient development pathway that puts people and livelihoods at the forefront. The strategy recognized the importance of climate change and development, and this Climate Change Action Plan is the logical next step. A yearlong multistakeholder participatory process involving the public sector, private sector and civil society resulted in this Action Plan that identifies priority climate change actions for Kenya for the short, medium and long term. The Government of Kenya takes climate change and its impact on development seriously. Climate change is considered a crosscutting issue that will be mainstreamed in the planning process both at the national

  13. Climate Masters of Nebraska: An Innovative Action-Based Approach for Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Tapan B.; Bernadt, Tonya; Umphlett, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Climate Masters of Nebraska is an innovative educational program that strategically trains community volunteers about climate change science and corresponding ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an interactive and action-based teaching environment. As a result of the program, 91% of participants indicated that they made informed changes in…

  14. Distributed Generation to Support Development-Focused Climate Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie; Gagnon, Pieter; Stout, Sherry; Zinaman, Owen; Watson, Andrea; Hotchkiss, Eliza

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores the role of distributed generation, with a high renewable energy contribution, in supporting low emission climate-resilient development. The paper presents potential impacts on development (via energy access), greenhouse gas emission mitigation, and climate resilience directly associated with distributed generation, as well as specific actions that may enhance or increase the likelihood of climate and development benefits. This paper also seeks to provide practical and timely insights to support distributed generation policymaking and planning within the context of common climate and development goals as the distributed generation landscape rapidly evolves globally. Country-specific distributed generation policy and program examples, as well as analytical tools that can inform efforts internationally, are also highlighted throughout the paper.

  15. Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Mexico. Climatic Actions Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, C.; Tejeda, A.; Ferrer, R. M.; Monterroso, A.; Gay, C.

    2007-05-01

    Climatic extreme events have caused in Mexico in the last 20 years ten thousand deaths and around 500 million USD per year in damages. Governmental agencies at different levels have launched several initiatives to face the changing climate and to increase the coping social capacities. In this presentation three initiatives will be discuss. A "National Strategy for Climatic Action" was submitted to public consultation in August 2006. Two authors of this presentations coordinated the discussion related to vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, were NGOs, experts and general public proposed several recommendations. A synthesis of those recommendations will be presented making emphasis on the need to increase the stakeholder's participation, capacity building and climate interdisciplinary research. For vulnerability and adaptation studies performed for the Third National Communication to the UNFCCC, we developed a survey that was answered by the "Advice Councils for Sustainable Development", of the Minister of Environment (SEMARNAT), with the purpose to analyze the perceptions and proposals of different sectors related to climate change. The main results of that survey show the interest and willingness of the different social sectors to reduce vulnerability and increase the adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. Finally, several ongoing regional initiatives to generated action plans and strategies will be presented: The State Action Plan in Veracruz and municipal / local efforts in the states of Tlaxcala and Veracruz.

  16. Workshop on the preparation of climate change action plans. Workshop summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-24

    Over 130 participants from more than 27 countries shared experiences of developing and transition countries in preparation and development of their climate change national action plans. International experts guided countries in preparation of their climate change national action plans.

  17. Land use compounds habitat losses under projected climate change in a threatened California ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Erin Coulter; Rundel, Philip W

    2014-01-01

    Given the rapidly growing human population in mediterranean-climate systems, land use may pose a more immediate threat to biodiversity than climate change this century, yet few studies address the relative future impacts of both drivers. We assess spatial and temporal patterns of projected 21(st) century land use and climate change on California sage scrub (CSS), a plant association of considerable diversity and threatened status in the mediterranean-climate California Floristic Province. Using a species distribution modeling approach combined with spatially-explicit land use projections, we model habitat loss for 20 dominant shrub species under unlimited and no dispersal scenarios at two time intervals (early and late century) in two ecoregions in California (Central Coast and South Coast). Overall, projected climate change impacts were highly variable across CSS species and heavily dependent on dispersal assumptions. Projected anthropogenic land use drove greater relative habitat losses compared to projected climate change in many species. This pattern was only significant under assumptions of unlimited dispersal, however, where considerable climate-driven habitat gains offset some concurrent climate-driven habitat losses. Additionally, some of the habitat gained with projected climate change overlapped with projected land use. Most species showed potential northern habitat expansion and southern habitat contraction due to projected climate change, resulting in sharply contrasting patterns of impact between Central and South Coast Ecoregions. In the Central Coast, dispersal could play an important role moderating losses from both climate change and land use. In contrast, high geographic overlap in habitat losses driven by projected climate change and projected land use in the South Coast underscores the potential for compounding negative impacts of both drivers. Limiting habitat conversion may be a broadly beneficial strategy under climate change. We emphasize

  18. Were Minority Students Discouraged from Applying to University of California Campuses after the Affirmative Action Ban?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonovics, Kate; Backes, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses student-level data to investigate how the college application behavior of underrepresented minorities (URMs) changed in response to the 1998 end of affirmative action in admissions at the University of California (UC). We show that all URMs experienced a drop in their probability of admission to at least one UC campus. However, the…

  19. California: A Case Study in the Loss of Affirmative Action. A Policy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the various efforts undertaken by the University of California to maintain diversity in the institution, and especially at its highly competitive flagship campuses, UCLA and Berkeley, in the face of the loss of affirmative action during the mid-1990s. It demonstrates the continuing decline in representation of…

  20. 78 FR 59412 - Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs; Climate Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs; Climate Action Report AGENCY... Climate Action Report (CAR) on U.S. climate change actions. This draft CAR consists of two documents, the National Communication and the Biennial Report, that respond to reporting requirements under the...

  1. Empowering America's Communities to Prepare for the Effects of Climate Change: Developing Actionable Climate Science Under the President's Climate Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P. B.; Colohan, P.; Driggers, R.; Herring, D.; Laurier, F.; Petes, L.; Ruffo, S.; Tilmes, C.; Venkataraman, B.; Weaver, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Effective adaptation to impacts of climate change requires best-available information. To be most useful, this information should be easily found, well-documented, and translated into tools that decision-makers use and trust. To meet these needs, the President's Climate Action Plan includes efforts to develop "actionable climate science". The Climate Data Initiative (CDI) leverages the Federal Government's extensive, open data resources to stimulate innovation and private-sector entrepreneurship in support of actions to prepare for climate change. The Initiative forges commitments and partnerships from the private, NGO, academic, and public sectors to create data-driven tools. Open data from Federal agencies to support this innovation is available on Climate.Data.gov, initially focusing on coastal flooding but soon to expand to topics including food, energy, water, energy, transportation, and health. The Climate Resilience Toolkit (CRT) will facilitate access to data-driven resilience tools, services, and best practices, including those accessible through the CDI. The CRT will also include access to training and tutorials, case studies, engagement forums, and other information sources. The Climate Action Plan also calls for a public-private partnership on extreme weather risk, with the goal of generating improved assessments of risk from different types of extreme weather events, using methods and data that are transparent and accessible. Finally, the U.S. Global Change Research Program and associated agencies work to advance the science necessary to inform decisions and sustain assessments. Collectively, these efforts represent increased emphasis across the Federal Government on the importance of information to support climate resilience.

  2. Impact of climate change on projected runoff from mountain snowpack of the King’s Rivershed in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central Valley of California, like most dryland agricultural areas in the Southwest United States, relies heavily on winter snowpack for water resources. Projections of future climate in the Sierra Mountains of California calls for a warmer climate regime that will impact the snowpack in the Sie...

  3. Impacts of Future Climate Change on California Perennial Crop Yields: Model Projections with Climate and Crop Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobell, D; Field, C; Cahill, K; Bonfils, C

    2006-01-10

    Most research on the agricultural impacts of climate change has focused on the major annual crops, yet perennial cropping systems are less adaptable and thus potentially more susceptible to damage. Improved assessments of yield responses to future climate are needed to prioritize adaptation strategies in the many regions where perennial crops are economically and culturally important. These impact assessments, in turn, must rely on climate and crop models that contain often poorly defined uncertainties. We evaluated the impact of climate change on six major perennial crops in California: wine grapes, almonds, table grapes, oranges, walnuts, and avocados. Outputs from multiple climate models were used to evaluate climate uncertainty, while multiple statistical crop models, derived by resampling historical databases, were used to address crop response uncertainties. We find that, despite these uncertainties, climate change in California is very likely to put downward pressure on yields of almonds, walnuts, avocados, and table grapes by 2050. Without CO{sub 2} fertilization or adaptation measures, projected losses range from 0 to >40% depending on the crop and the trajectory of climate change. Climate change uncertainty generally had a larger impact on projections than crop model uncertainty, although the latter was substantial for several crops. Opportunities for expansion into cooler regions are identified, but this adaptation would require substantial investments and may be limited by non-climatic constraints. Given the long time scales for growth and production of orchards and vineyards ({approx}30 years), climate change should be an important factor in selecting perennial varieties and deciding whether and where perennials should be planted.

  4. Climate action report. 1997 Submission of the United States of America under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Contents: Introduction and Overview; National Circumstances; Greenhouse Gas Inventory; Mitigating Climate Change; Vulnerability and Adaptation; Research and Systematic Observation; Education, Training, and Outreach; International Activities; Appendix A: Climate Plan Actions; Appendix B: IPCC Reporting Tables; and Appendix C: Bibliography.

  5. After the Data: Taking Action on ClimateQUAL® Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Uzelac

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper discusses the actions taken by the staff development and training (SD&T team at the Sheridan Libraries and Johns Hopkins University Museums in response to results of a ClimateQUAL survey.Methods – The team administered the ClimateQUAL Organizational Climate and Diversity Assessment in March 2009 to the 150 staff members of the museums and libraries, and 80% responded. To get at the root of some of the results, the team conducted 23 focus group sessions over the course of two months. In each 90-minute session, 8 open-ended questions were used to probe the staff’s thoughts on the survey results and elicit concrete suggestions for moving forward. Participants were asked to discuss their personal experiences with six areas of concern: procedural justice, distributive justice, structural facilitation of teamwork, psychological safety, communication, and leadership. One year after the original ClimateQUAL survey, the team administered a one-question follow-up survey.Results – The team analyzed and coded the notes taken during the focus group sessions and developed three discrete written summaries for each session: a brief summary of themes, a list of specific actionable suggestions, and a general description of specific scenarios aired in the sessions. From these analyses, the team developed two types of recommendations: quick tactical actions and long-term strategic recommendations. Strategic recommendations were developed in three main areas: fostering a sense of global ownership of organizational issues, improving organizational communication, and improving leadership and facilitation of teamwork. With these recommendations, the team charged managers to take broad ownership of a plan for individual actions. The results of the one-year follow-up survey were mixed. Staff perceived positive change in communication, but indicated that the areas of procedural and distributive justice, psychological safety, and transparency

  6. Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a California Hot Climate Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peng; Yin, Rongxin; Brown, Carrie; Kim, DongEun

    2009-06-01

    The potential for using building thermal mass for load shifting and peak energy demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies. Previous Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory research has demonstrated that the approach is very effective in cool and moderately warm climate conditions (California Climate Zones 2-4). However, this method had not been tested in hotter climate zones. This project studied the potential of pre-cooling the building early in the morning and increasing temperature setpoints during peak hours to reduce cooling-related demand in two typical office buildings in hotter California climates ? one in Visalia (CEC Climate Zone 13) and the other in San Bernardino (CEC Climate Zone 10). The conclusion of the work to date is that pre-cooling in hotter climates has similar potential to that seen previously in cool and moderate climates. All other factors being equal, results to date indicate that pre-cooling increases the depth (kW) and duration (kWh) of the possible demand shed of a given building. The effectiveness of night pre-cooling in typical office building under hot weather conditions is very limited. However, night pre-cooling is helpful for office buildings with an undersized HVAC system. Further work is required to duplicate the tests in other typical buildings and in other hot climate zones and prove that pre-cooling is truly effective.

  7. Regional climate effects of aerosols on precipitation and snowpack in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Su, H.; Jiang, J. H.; Zhao, C.; Qian, Y.; Painter, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Water sources in California are derived predominantly from precipitation (mostly during the winter time) and storage in the snowpack in the Sierra Nevada. With California facing one of the most severe droughts on record, it is important to understand the factors influencing precipitation and snowpack for water management and hydropower operation. Recent observational and numerical modeling studies have shown that aerosol pollutants can substantially change precipitation and snowpack in the Sierra Nevada. However, previous studies focused only on one of the aerosol effects or just focus on a single event. A complete view on regional climate effects of aerosol on precipitation and snowpack in California is not delivered yet. In this study, we use a fully coupled aerosol-meteorology-snowpack model (WRF-Chem-SNICAR) to investigate aerosol impacts on regional climate in California, with a focus on precipitation and snowpack. We will evaluate the performance of the WRF-Chem-SNICAR model on simulating regional climate in California. Sensitivity experiments will be conducted to disentangle the relative roles of each aerosol effect, such as aerosol radiation interaction vs. aerosol cloud interaction and aerosol snowpack interaction, local emission vs. long-range transport etc.

  8. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee T.; Piette, Mary Ann; Faulkner, David; Ghatikar, Girish; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Adesola, Bunmi; Murtishaw, Scott; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-01-31

    In 2006 the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) formed an Industrial Demand Response Team to investigate opportunities and barriers to implementation of Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) systems in California industries. Auto-DR is an open, interoperable communications and technology platform designed to: Provide customers with automated, electronic price and reliability signals; Provide customers with capability to automate customized DR strategies; Automate DR, providing utilities with dispatchable operational capability similar to conventional generation resources. This research began with a review of previous Auto-DR research on the commercial sector. Implementing Auto-DR in industry presents a number of challenges, both practical and perceived. Some of these include: the variation in loads and processes across and within sectors, resource-dependent loading patterns that are driven by outside factors such as customer orders or time-critical processing (e.g. tomato canning), the perceived lack of control inherent in the term 'Auto-DR', and aversion to risk, especially unscheduled downtime. While industry has demonstrated a willingness to temporarily provide large sheds and shifts to maintain grid reliability and be a good corporate citizen, the drivers for widespread Auto-DR will likely differ. Ultimately, most industrial facilities will balance the real and perceived risks associated with Auto-DR against the potential for economic gain through favorable pricing or incentives. Auto-DR, as with any ongoing industrial activity, will need to function effectively within market structures. The goal of the industrial research is to facilitate deployment of industrial Auto-DR that is economically attractive and technologically feasible. Automation will make DR: More visible by providing greater transparency through two-way end-to-end communication of DR signals from end-use customers; More repeatable, reliable, and persistent because the automated

  9. Water Planning and Climate Change: Actionable Intelligence Yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P.

    2008-05-01

    alternative. What is to be done? Is climate-change information of sufficient strength to justify making decisions that differ from those that would be optimal under stationarity? I.e., does climate science provide "actionable intelligence" to water planners? A conservative approach to planning in the presence of climate change would begin with stationarity as a base and then superpose, with quantitative estimates of uncertainties, those model-projected changes that appear to be qualitatively robust. The current state of science suggests that the following changes could be considered robust: (1) reduction in the fraction of precipitation falling as snow and earlier seasonal melting of snow, with consequent seasonal redistribution of runoff and streamflow; (2) gradual sea-level rise with heightened risk of encroachment of saline water into coastal surface- and ground-water-supply sources; and (3) global redistribution of precipitation and resultant runoff, with regional focal points ("hot spots") of desiccation and moistening. Even considering the attendant uncertainties, the available information about these changes can significantly affect the cost-benefit-risk tradeoffs of existing and prospective water projects and, therefore, can rationally inform decisions about future courses of action or inaction.

  10. Climate change in China and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Y.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the first assessment report (FAR of Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC in 1990, the international scientific community has made substantial progresses in climate change sciences. Changes in components of climate system, including the atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere, indicate that global warming is unequivocal. Instrumental records demonstrate that the global mean temperature has a significant increasing trend during the 20th century and in the latest 50 years the warming become faster. In the meantime, the global sea level has a strong increasing trend, as well as the snow coverage of Northern Hemisphere showed an obvious downward trend. Moreover, the global warming plays a key role in significantly affecting the climate system and social-economy on both global and regional scales, such as sea level rise, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, desertification, deforestation, increase of weather extremes (typhoon, hurricane and rainstorm and so on. The state of the art understanding of IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4 was most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in the concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Climate change issues, as a grave challenge to the sustainable development of the human society, have received ever greater attention from the international community. Deeply cognizant of the complexity and extensive influence of these issues and fully aware of the arduousness and urgency of the task of addressing climate change, the Chinese government is determined to address climate change in the process of pursuing sustainable development. The facts of climate change in China and its impacts, and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change are introduced in this paper.

  11. Potential increase in floods in California's Sierra Nevada under future climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Hidalgo, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    California's mountainous topography, exposure to occasional heavily moisture-laden storm systems, and varied communities and infrastructures in low lying areas make it highly vulnerable to floods. An important question facing the state-in terms of protecting the public and formulating water management responses to climate change-is "how might future climate changes affect flood characteristics in California?" To help address this, we simulate floods on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the state's primary catchment, based on downscaled daily precipitation and temperature projections from three General Circulation Models (GCMs). These climate projections are fed into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, and the VIC-simulated streamflows and hydrologic conditions, from historical and from projected climate change runs, allow us to evaluate possible changes in annual maximum 3-day flood magnitudes and frequencies of floods. By the end of the 21st Century, all projections yield larger-than-historical floods, for both the Northern Sierra Nevada (NSN) and for the Southern Sierra Nevada (SSN). The increases in flood magnitude are statistically significant (at p rain and less as snow. Increases in antecedent winter soil moisture also play a role in some areas. Thus, a complex, as-yet unpredictable interplay of several different climatic influences threatens to cause increased flood hazards in California's complex western Sierra landscapes. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Public Health-Related Impacts of Climate Change inCalifornia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drechsler, D.M.; Motallebi, N.; Kleeman, M.; Cayan, D.; Hayhoe,K.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Miller, N.L.; Jin, J.; VanCuren, R.A.

    2005-12-01

    In June 2005 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger issued Executive Order S-3-05 that set greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for California, and directed the Secretary of the California Environmental Protection Agency to report to the governor and the State legislature by January 2006 and biannually thereafter on the impacts to California of global warming, including impacts to water supply, public health, agriculture, the coastline, and forestry, and to prepare and report on mitigation and adaptation plans to combat these impacts. This report is a part of the report to the governor and legislature, and focuses on public health impacts that have been associated with climate change. Considerable evidence suggests that average ambient temperature is increasing worldwide, that temperatures will continue to increase into the future, and that global warming will result in changes to many aspects of climate, including temperature, humidity, and precipitation (McMichael and Githeko, 2001). It is expected that California will experience changes in both temperature and precipitation under current trends. Many of the changes in climate projected for California could have ramifications for public health (McMichael and Githeko, 2001), and this document summarizes the impacts judged most likely to occur in California, based on a review of available peer-reviewed scientific literature and new modeling and statistical analyses. The impacts identified as most significant to public health in California include mortality and morbidity related to temperature, air pollution, vector and water-borne diseases, and wildfires. There is considerable complexity underlying the health of a population with many contributing factors including biological, ecological, social, political, and geographical. In addition, the relationship between climate change and changes in public health is difficult to predict for the most part, although more detailed information is available on temperature

  13. Climate change vulnerability of native and alien freshwater fishes of California: a systematic assessment approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B Moyle

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishes are highly vulnerable to human-caused climate change. Because quantitative data on status and trends are unavailable for most fish species, a systematic assessment approach that incorporates expert knowledge was developed to determine status and future vulnerability to climate change of freshwater fishes in California, USA. The method uses expert knowledge, supported by literature reviews of status and biology of the fishes, to score ten metrics for both (1 current status of each species (baseline vulnerability to extinction and (2 likely future impacts of climate change (vulnerability to extinction. Baseline and climate change vulnerability scores were derived for 121 native and 43 alien fish species. The two scores were highly correlated and were concordant among different scorers. Native species had both greater baseline and greater climate change vulnerability than did alien species. Fifty percent of California's native fish fauna was assessed as having critical or high baseline vulnerability to extinction whereas all alien species were classified as being less or least vulnerable. For vulnerability to climate change, 82% of native species were classified as highly vulnerable, compared with only 19% for aliens. Predicted climate change effects on freshwater environments will dramatically change the fish fauna of California. Most native fishes will suffer population declines and become more restricted in their distributions; some will likely be driven to extinction. Fishes requiring cold water (<22°C are particularly likely to go extinct. In contrast, most alien fishes will thrive, with some species increasing in abundance and range. However, a few alien species will likewise be negatively affected through loss of aquatic habitats during severe droughts and physiologically stressful conditions present in most waterways during summer. Our method has high utility for predicting vulnerability to climate change of diverse fish

  14. Climate change vulnerability of native and alien freshwater fishes of California: a systematic assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Peter B; Kiernan, Joseph D; Crain, Patrick K; Quiñones, Rebecca M

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater fishes are highly vulnerable to human-caused climate change. Because quantitative data on status and trends are unavailable for most fish species, a systematic assessment approach that incorporates expert knowledge was developed to determine status and future vulnerability to climate change of freshwater fishes in California, USA. The method uses expert knowledge, supported by literature reviews of status and biology of the fishes, to score ten metrics for both (1) current status of each species (baseline vulnerability to extinction) and (2) likely future impacts of climate change (vulnerability to extinction). Baseline and climate change vulnerability scores were derived for 121 native and 43 alien fish species. The two scores were highly correlated and were concordant among different scorers. Native species had both greater baseline and greater climate change vulnerability than did alien species. Fifty percent of California's native fish fauna was assessed as having critical or high baseline vulnerability to extinction whereas all alien species were classified as being less or least vulnerable. For vulnerability to climate change, 82% of native species were classified as highly vulnerable, compared with only 19% for aliens. Predicted climate change effects on freshwater environments will dramatically change the fish fauna of California. Most native fishes will suffer population declines and become more restricted in their distributions; some will likely be driven to extinction. Fishes requiring cold water (fishes will thrive, with some species increasing in abundance and range. However, a few alien species will likewise be negatively affected through loss of aquatic habitats during severe droughts and physiologically stressful conditions present in most waterways during summer. Our method has high utility for predicting vulnerability to climate change of diverse fish species. It should be useful for setting conservation priorities in many different

  15. GREENIFY: A Real-World Action Game for Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joey J.; Ceyhan, Pinar; Jordan-Cooley, William; Sung, Woonhee

    2013-01-01

    The literature on climate change education recommends social, accessible action-oriented learning that is specifically designed to resonate with a target audience's values and worldview. This article discusses GREENIFY, a real-world action game designed to teach adult learners about climate change and motivate informed action. A pilot study…

  16. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in California was studied using a climate – air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000–2006 (present climate and 2047–2053 (future climate. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate – air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~35–40% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized.

    Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH, rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV radiation was predicted to decrease in major urban areas in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV and South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. These changes resulted in a ~0.6–1.9 μg m−3 decrease in predicted PM2.5 concentrations in coastal and central Los Angeles. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations were predicted to increase at certain locations within the SJV and the Sacramento Valley due to the

  17. National Action Plan: Priorities for Managing Freshwater Resources in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Action Plan is based on the latest science on climate risks to freshwater resources. The Plan establishes a national goal to have government agencies and citizens collaboratively manage freshwater resources in response to a changing climate.

  18. Prolonged California aridity linked to climate warming and Pacific sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Glen M.; Moser, Katrina A.; Bloom, Amy M.; Potito, Aaron P.; Porinchu, David F.; Holmquist, James R.; Hughes, Julia; Kremenetski, Konstantine V.

    2016-09-01

    California has experienced a dry 21st century capped by severe drought from 2012 through 2015 prompting questions about hydroclimatic sensitivity to anthropogenic climate change and implications for the future. We address these questions using a Holocene lake sediment record of hydrologic change from the Sierra Nevada Mountains coupled with marine sediment records from the Pacific. These data provide evidence of a persistent relationship between past climate warming, Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) shifts and centennial to millennial episodes of California aridity. The link is most evident during the thermal-maximum of the mid-Holocene (~8 to 3 ka ka = 1,000 calendar years before present) and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (~1 ka to 0.7 ka). In both cases, climate warming corresponded with cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific despite differences in the factors producing increased radiative forcing. The magnitude of prolonged eastern Pacific cooling was modest, similar to observed La Niña excursions of 1o to 2 °C. Given differences with current radiative forcing it remains uncertain if the Pacific will react in a similar manner in the 21st century, but should it follow apparent past behavior more intense and prolonged aridity in California would result.

  19. Climate change effects on high-elevation hydropower system in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani Larijani, Kaveh

    The high-elevation hydropower system in California, composed of more than 150 hydropower plants and regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), supplies 74 percent of in-state hydropower. The system has modest reservoir capacities and has been designed to take advantage of snowpack. The expected shift of runoff peak from spring to winter as a result of climate warming, resulting in snowpack reduction and earlier snowmelt, might have important effects on hydropower operations. Estimation of climate warming effects on such a large system by conventional simulation or optimization methods would be tedious and expensive. This dissertation presents a novel approach for modeling large hydropower systems. Conservation of energy and energy flows are used as the basis for modeling high-elevation high-head hydropower systems in California. The unusual energy basis for reservoir modeling allows for development of hydropower operations models to estimate large-scale system behavior without the expense and time needed to develop traditional streamflow and reservoir volume-based models in absence of storage and release capacity, penstock head, and efficiency information. An Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM) is developed to facilitate a practical climate change study based on the historical generation data high-elevation hydropower plants in California. Employing recent historical hourly energy prices, energy generation in California is explored for three climate warming scenarios (dry warming, wet warming, and warming-only) over 14 years, representing a range of hydrologic conditions. Currently, the high-elevation hydropower plants in California have to renew their FERC licenses. A method based on cooperative game theory is developed to explore FERC relicensing process, in which dam owners negotiate over the available instream water with other interest groups downstream. It is discussed how the lack of incentive for cooperation results in long

  20. Complexity in Climatic Controls on Plant Species Distribution: Satellite Data Reveal Unique Climate for Giant Sequoia in the California Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Eric Kindseth

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTComplexity in Climatic Controls on Plant Species Distribution: Satellite Data Reveal Unique Climate for Giant Sequoia in the California Sierra NevadabyEric Kindseth WallerDoctor of Philosophy in Environmental Science, Policy, and ManagementUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Dennis D. Baldocchi, ChairA better understanding of the environmental controls on current plant species distribution is essential if the impacts of such diverse challenges as invasive species, changing fir...

  1. Beyond a warming fingerprint: individualistic biogeographic responses to heterogeneous climate change in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapacciuolo, Giovanni; Maher, Sean P; Schneider, Adam C; Hammond, Talisin T; Jabis, Meredith D; Walsh, Rachel E; Iknayan, Kelly J; Walden, Genevieve K; Oldfather, Meagan F; Ackerly, David D; Beissinger, Steven R

    2014-09-01

    Understanding recent biogeographic responses to climate change is fundamental for improving our predictions of likely future responses and guiding conservation planning at both local and global scales. Studies of observed biogeographic responses to 20th century climate change have principally examined effects related to ubiquitous increases in temperature - collectively termed a warming fingerprint. Although the importance of changes in other aspects of climate - particularly precipitation and water availability - is widely acknowledged from a theoretical standpoint and supported by paleontological evidence, we lack a practical understanding of how these changes interact with temperature to drive biogeographic responses. Further complicating matters, differences in life history and ecological attributes may lead species to respond differently to the same changes in climate. Here, we examine whether recent biogeographic patterns across California are consistent with a warming fingerprint. We describe how various components of climate have changed regionally in California during the 20th century and review empirical evidence of biogeographic responses to these changes, particularly elevational range shifts. Many responses to climate change do not appear to be consistent with a warming fingerprint, with downslope shifts in elevation being as common as upslope shifts across a number of taxa and many demographic and community responses being inconsistent with upslope shifts. We identify a number of potential direct and indirect mechanisms for these responses, including the influence of aspects of climate change other than temperature (e.g., the shifting seasonal balance of energy and water availability), differences in each taxon's sensitivity to climate change, trophic interactions, and land-use change. Finally, we highlight the need to move beyond a warming fingerprint in studies of biogeographic responses by considering a more multifaceted view of climate

  2. Beyond a warming fingerprint: individualistic biogeographic responses to heterogeneous climate change in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapacciuolo, Giovanni; Maher, Sean P; Schneider, Adam C; Hammond, Talisin T; Jabis, Meredith D; Walsh, Rachel E; Iknayan, Kelly J; Walden, Genevieve K; Oldfather, Meagan F; Ackerly, David D; Beissinger, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding recent biogeographic responses to climate change is fundamental for improving our predictions of likely future responses and guiding conservation planning at both local and global scales. Studies of observed biogeographic responses to 20th century climate change have principally examined effects related to ubiquitous increases in temperature – collectively termed a warming fingerprint. Although the importance of changes in other aspects of climate – particularly precipitation and water availability – is widely acknowledged from a theoretical standpoint and supported by paleontological evidence, we lack a practical understanding of how these changes interact with temperature to drive biogeographic responses. Further complicating matters, differences in life history and ecological attributes may lead species to respond differently to the same changes in climate. Here, we examine whether recent biogeographic patterns across California are consistent with a warming fingerprint. We describe how various components of climate have changed regionally in California during the 20th century and review empirical evidence of biogeographic responses to these changes, particularly elevational range shifts. Many responses to climate change do not appear to be consistent with a warming fingerprint, with downslope shifts in elevation being as common as upslope shifts across a number of taxa and many demographic and community responses being inconsistent with upslope shifts. We identify a number of potential direct and indirect mechanisms for these responses, including the influence of aspects of climate change other than temperature (e.g., the shifting seasonal balance of energy and water availability), differences in each taxon's sensitivity to climate change, trophic interactions, and land-use change. Finally, we highlight the need to move beyond a warming fingerprint in studies of biogeographic responses by considering a more multifaceted view of climate

  3. Climatic Action Plan Project for the state of Veracruz (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, A.; Ochoa, C.

    2007-05-01

    With financing of the British Government and support of the National Institute of Ecology, from April of 2006 to March of 2008 an action plan which intends variability effects and climatic change for the state of Veracruz will be made. This plan will be taken to the state government and will be spread out to manufacturers, industrialists and population. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico, the state of Veracruz is a 745 km coast in length with a width that goes from 156 km in the center to 47 km in the north. The state has large mountains, forests, plains, rivers, cascades, lagoons and coasts. Veracruz is the 10th largest state in Mexico with a 72,420 km2 surface, it is located between 17°00' and 22°28' north latitude and between 93°95' and 98°38' west longitude. Because of the orographic effect, the Sierra Madre Oriental causes the existence of many types of climate, from dry to tropical forest, going through snow on the top of the Pico de Orizaba (5747m of altitude). The wind affects the coasts by not allowing to fish during a hundred days a year (particularly in winter), and on summer tropical waves and occasionally hurricanes affect rivers causing overflow and urban floods in fields. These phenomena do not have a regular affectation; they are subject to climate variability effects. Veracruz is the third state with most population in the country (7.1 million people in 2005), only surpassed by the state of Mexico and Mexico City. Although it occupies 3.7% of the national territory, Veracruz has 6.9% of human population in the country, and is the 6th state of PIB national contribution (240 thousands of millions pesos approximately). Of the possible effects of the climatic change the following can be expected: , , : Most of the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico, low and sandy, less of a meter on the sea level, represent the most vulnerable territory of Veracruz. Towns will be affected, the saline water will infiltrate until the phreatic mantles and the coast electrical

  4. Climate Change Challenges of Managing Quality of Drinking Water: Survey Results from Utilities in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, J.; Bedsworth, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Scientists have established that climate change threatens sources of drinking water through many different pathways, both in terms of quantity and quality. Recognizing water utilities will face the brunt of these impacts, this study seeks to better understand the disconnect between the projections produced and the needs of utilities on-the-ground. As part of the first stage of the three-year study, this presentation reports results of a statewide survey evaluating how far along water utilities in California are along in preparing for the projected climate change impacts on water quality, the range in respondents' perspectives (and concerns) of climate change on water quality, and how the state's four-year drought is already presenting treatment challenges. On-going case studies are investigating the needs and capacity of utilities to prepare for and adapt to the projected water quality impacts from increasing extreme events and how or whether climate scientists can help meet these needs.

  5. Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

  6. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Sarah E; Viers, Joshua H; Mount, Jeffrey F

    2010-04-01

    This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.

  7. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Null

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.

  8. Analysis of climatic conditions and preliminary assessment of alternative cooling strategies for houses in California transition climate zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-07-01

    This is a preliminary scoping study done as part of the {open_quotes}Alternatives to Compressive Cooling in California Transition Climates{close_quotes} project, which has the goal of demonstrating that houses in the transitional areas between the coast and the Central Valley of California do not require air-conditioning if they are properly designed and operated. The first part of this report analyzes the climate conditions within the transitional areas, with emphasis on design rather than seasonal conditions. Transitional climates are found to be milder but more variable than those further inland. The design temperatures under the most stringent design criteria, e.g. 0.1 % annual, are similar to those in the Valley, but significantly lower under more relaxed design criteria, e.g., 2% annual frequency. Transition climates also have large day-night temperature swings, indicating significant potential for night cooling, and wet-bulb depressions in excess of 25 F, indicating good potential for evaporative cooling. The second part of the report is a preliminary assessment using DOE-2 computer simulations of the effectiveness of alternative cooling and control strategies in improving indoor comfort conditions in two conventional Title-24 houses modeled in various transition climate locations. The cooling measures studied include increased insulation, light colors, low-emissivity glazing, window overhangs, and exposed floor slab. The control strategies studied include natural and mechanical ventilation, and direct and two-stage evaporative cooling. The results indicate the cooling strategies all have limited effectiveness, and need to be combined to produce significant improvements in indoor comfort. Natural and forced ventilation provide similar improvements in indoor conditions, but during peak cooling periods, these will still be above the comfort zone. Two-stage evaporative coolers can maintain indoor comfort at all hours, but not so direct evaporative coolers.

  9. Interest Groups Vie for Public Support: The Battle Over Anti-Affirmative Action Initiatives in California and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Serena E.

    2016-01-01

    Although affirmative action in college admissions has not been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, the consideration of race in admissions has been banned in nine states--in six of them by public vote. This article analyzes the campaigns to ban affirmative action in California and Michigan as a battle between interest groups. The…

  10. Climate Change Effects on Annual Average Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, M.; Mahmud, A.

    2008-12-01

    California has one of the worst particulate air pollution problems in the nation with some estimates predicting more than 5000 premature deaths each year attributed to air pollution. Climate change will modify weather patterns in California with unknown consequences for PM2.5. Previous down-scaling exercises carried out for the entire United States have typically not resolved the details associated with California's mountain-valley topography and mixture of urban-rural emissions characteristics. Detailed studies carried out for California have identified strong effects acting in opposite directions on PM2.5 concentrations making the net prediction for climate effects on PM2.5 somewhat uncertain. More research is needed to reduce this uncertainty so that we can truly understand climate impacts on PM2.5 and public health. The objective of this research is to predict climate change effects on annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) in California with sufficient resolution to capture the details of California's air basins. Business-as-usual scenarios generated by the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) will be down-scaled to 4km meteorology using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model. The CIT/UCD source-oriented photochemical air quality model will be employed to predict PM2.5 concentrations throughout the entire state of California. The modeled annual average total and speciated PM2.5 concentrations for the future (2047-2049) and the present-day (2004-2006) periods will be compared to determine climate change effects. The results from this study will improve our understanding of global climate change effects on PM2.5 concentrations in California.

  11. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44 global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV, the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events.

    Climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 did not cause a statistically significant change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations within any major sub-region of California in the current study. Climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; −3% and organic carbon (OC; −3% due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (−3% and food cooking (−4%. In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-year period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3. In general, climate change caused increased

  12. 75 FR 17989 - Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs; Climate Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs; Climate Action Report AGENCY... submitted the first U.S. Climate Action Report (CAR) to the UNFCCC Secretariat in 1994, and subsequent reports in 1997, 2002, and 2006. The U.S. Government has prepared an initial draft of the fifth...

  13. Climate Action and Activism: Scientists as Citizens and Communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. B.; Peacock, K.

    2015-12-01

    Humans are not particularly good at being rational, either individually or socially; in the case of climate change, our concerns are chiefly social. The denial of climate change and its costs (ranging from denial of basic principles to using high discount rates to reduce the current value of future losses, and supported by fossil fuel companies and their many political allies) has delayed an effective response to a problem that gets worse and more costly the longer action is delayed. The central role of fossil fuels in our economies and of fossil fuel interests in our politics leads many to worry about the costs of change while denying or ignoring the costs of business as usual. Rational decision makers would not be so selective, either about the evidence or about the costs and benefits that hang in the balance. Effective communication can help call attention to the evidence and to the costs and benefits that have been neglected. Our society has no formal rules requiring scientists to become activists, even when the results of their work provide sound reasons for taking action. But ideals of citizenship and humanitarianism provide strong justification for those who choose to engage with the issues. A reticent scientist might feel that her job is done once the results of her research are published. The rest is arguably the responsibility of others—of politicians, journalists and citizens in general, to learn the relevant facts (now available as part of the published literature) and to bring those facts to bear in decisions ranging from the personal to the political and economic. But I urge scientists who feel this way to reconsider—not because their view of where the real responsibility lies is wrong, but because they are in a position to make a difference. In situations like these, where powerful interests are threatened by inconvenient facts, scientists can be very effective communicators: they have high credibility with the public (as deniers' repeated claims

  14. Maritime climate influence on chaparral composition and diversity in the coast range of central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Michael C; Parker, V Thomas; Holl, Karen D; Loik, Michael E; Hiatt, Seth

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that maritime climatic factors associated with summer fog and low cloud stratus (summer marine layer) help explain the compositional diversity of chaparral in the coast range of central California. We randomly sampled chaparral species composition in 0.1-hectare plots along a coast-to-interior gradient. For each plot, climatic variables were estimated and soil samples were analyzed. We used Cluster Analysis and Principle Components Analysis to objectively categorize plots into climate zone groups. Climate variables, vegetation composition and various diversity measures were compared across climate zone groups using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Differences in climatic variables that relate to summer moisture availability and winter freeze events explained the majority of variance in measured conditions and coincided with three chaparral assemblages: maritime (lowland coast where the summer marine layer was strongest), transition (upland coast with mild summer marine layer influence and greater winter precipitation), and interior sites that generally lacked late summer water availability from either source. Species turnover (β-diversity) was higher among maritime and transition sites than interior sites. Coastal chaparral differs from interior chaparral in having a higher obligate seeder to facultative seeder (resprouter) ratio and by being dominated by various Arctostaphylos species as opposed to the interior dominant, Adenostoma fasciculatum. The maritime climate influence along the California central coast is associated with patterns of woody plant composition and β-diversity among sites. Summer fog in coastal lowlands and higher winter precipitation in coastal uplands combine to lower late dry season water deficit in coastal chaparral and contribute to longer fire return intervals that are associated with obligate seeders and more local endemism. Soil nutrients are comparatively less important in explaining plant

  15. Reinvigorating International Climate Policy: A Comprehensive Framework for Effective Nonstate Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Sander; Asselt, van Harro; Hale, Thomas; Hoehne, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    As countries negotiate a new climate agreement for the United Nations climate conference in December 2015, a groundswell of climate actions is emerging as cities, regions, businesses and civil society groups act on mitigation and adaptation, independently, with each other and with national governmen

  16. Co-benefits of addressing climate change can motivate action around the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bain, Paul G.; Milfont, Taciano L.; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Bilewicz, Michal; Doron, Guy; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B.; Gouveia, Valdiney V.; Guan, Yanjun; Johansson, Lars-Olof; Pasquali, Carlota; Corral-Verdugo, Victor; Aragones, Juan Ignacio; Utsugi, Akira; Demarque, Christophe; Otto, Siegmar; Park, Joonha; Soland, Martin; Steg, Linda; Gonzalez, Roberto; Lebedeva, Nadezhda; Madsen, Ole Jacob; Wagner, Claire; Akotia, Charity S.; Kurz, Tim; Saiz, Jose L.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Einarsdottir, Gro; Saviolidis, Nina M.

    2016-01-01

    Personal and political action on climate change is traditionally thought to be motivated by people accepting its reality and importance. However, convincing the public that climate change is real faces powerful ideological obstacles(1-4), and climate change is slipping in public importance in many c

  17. Second California Assessment: Integrated climate change impacts assessment of natural and managed systems. Guest editorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G.; Cayan, D.R.; Moser, S.; Hanemann, M.; Jones, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006 the scientific community in California, in cooperation with resource managers, has been conducting periodic statewide studies about the potential impacts of climate change on natural and managed systems. This Special Issue is a compilation of revised papers that originate from the most recent assessment that concluded in 2009. As with the 2006 studies that influenced the passage of California's landmark Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), these papers have informed policy formulation at the state level, helping bring climate adaptation as a complementary measure to mitigation. We provide here a brief introduction to the papers included in this Special Issue focusing on how they are coordinated and support each other. We describe the common set of downscaled climate and sea-level rise scenarios used in this assessment that came from six different global climate models (GCMs) run under two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios: B1 (low emissions) and A2 (a medium-high emissions). Recommendations for future state assessments, some of which are being implemented in an on-going new assessment that will be completed in 2012, are offered. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. Investigating the Effects of "Cool" Solar Reflective Pavements on California Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohegh, M.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Levinson, R.; Rosado, P.

    2015-12-01

    Implementing "Cool pavement" is a local mitigation strategy that can reduce urban heat islands. We investigated the climate impacts of widespread deployment of cool pavements by increasing the albedo of the pavements from 0.1 to 0.5 to understand the efficiency of cool pavements in reducing the temperature in California's urban areas. A validated parameterization of WRF model coupled with Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM) is employed to simulate the effects of pavements at the bottom of canopy on urban heat islands. The results show local surface air temperature reductions, peaking at late morning and late evening which coincides with the lowest boundary layer height in the day time. Summer time temperature reductions up to 0.62 K in the evening (20:00 local) and 0.32 K in afternoon (14:00) in California are predicted. The cooling effects of 15 cities in California are sampled and analyzed. The average temperature reductions for the cities in California show 0.32 K temperature reduction per 0.1 total albedo reduction in the afternoon (14:00) which is consistent with the previous works. The linear relation between temperature reductions and the albedo increase is used to estimate the effect of cool pavements in "No Canopy" state, which can be used as an upper bound of the effects of cool pavements.

  19. Ecological strategies in california chaparral: Interacting effects of soils, climate, and fire on specific leaf area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Brian; Rajakaruna, Nishanta; Ackerly, David; Harrison, Susan; Keeley, Jon E.; Vasey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: High values of specific leaf area (SLA) are generally associated with high maximal growth rates in resource-rich conditions, such as mesic climates and fertile soils. However, fire may complicate this relationship since its frequency varies with both climate and soil fertility, and fire frequency selects for regeneration strategies (resprouting versus seeding) that are not independent of resource-acquisition strategies. Shared ancestry is also expected to affect the distribution of resource-use and regeneration traits.Aims: We examined climate, soil, and fire as drivers of community-level variation in a key functional trait, SLA, in chaparral in California.Methods: We quantified the phylogenetic, functional, and environmental non-independence of key traits for 87 species in 115 plots.Results: Among species, SLA was higher in resprouters than seeders, although not after phylogeny correction. Among communities, mean SLA was lower in harsh interior climates, but in these climates it was higher on more fertile soils and on more recently burned sites; in mesic coastal climates, mean SLA was uniformly high despite variation in soil fertility and fire history.Conclusions: We conclude that because important correlations exist among both species traits and environmental filters, interpreting the functional and phylogenetic structure of communities may require an understanding of complex interactive effects.

  20. Assessing climate refugia from a terrestrial vegetation vulnerability assessment for 29 types in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Bjorkman, J.; Boynton, R.; Stewart, J.; Holguin, A.; Schwartz, M.; Albright, W.

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the climate vulnerability of 29 terrestrial macrogroup vegetation types in the National Vegetation Classification Scheme covering 99% of California. Using a 2015 landcover map, we defined current and future climate exposure of each type by assessing conditions at all known locations. This approach identifies both areas of expected high stress and of climate refugia. Species distribution models of the vegetation types proved to over-predict the extent of occupied lands, compared to their mapped extents. Trait based components of the vulnerability assessment were far less influential on level of vulnerability than climate projection. Various cutoffs can be selected to describe refugia. Here we classed refugia as the 20% of climate conditions most frequently occupied by a type. Under CNRM CM5 RCP 4.5, of 70,143 km2 that are the most climate-insulated locations, 46,420 km2 move to higher levels of climate exposure. At the other extreme of climate projections tested, MIROC ESM RCP 8.5, 59,137 km2 are lost. Four macrogroups lose their refugia under CNRM 4.5: Pacific Northwest Conifer Forests, Mountain Riparian Scrub and Wet Meadow, Salt Marsh, and Great Basin Upland Scrub. Under MIROC 8.5 and additional 8 macrogroups lose the most commonly experienced climate: Subalpine Aspen Forests & Pine Woodlands, Non-Native Forest and Woodlands, North Coast Deciduous Scrub and Terrace Prairie, Coastal Dune and Bluff Scrub, Freshwater Marsh, Wet Mountain Meadow, Big Sagebrush Scrub, and Alpine Vegetation. These results raise interesting questions regarding the definition of refugia. We review the results and ask how appropriate they are for different ecosystem types.

  1. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Hu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.-H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000-2006 (present climate with present emissions) and 2047-2053 (future climate with present emissions). Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4-39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized. Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH), rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV) radiation was predicted to decrease

  2. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000–2006 (present climate with present emissions and 2047–2053 (future climate with present emissions. Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4–39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized.

    Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH, rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate

  3. California Getting Wetter to the North, Drier to the South: Natural Variability or Climate Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Killam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Current climate change projections anticipate that global warming trends will lead to changes in the distribution and intensity of precipitation at a global level. However, few studies have corroborated these model-based results using historical precipitation records at a regional level, especially in our study region, California. In our analyses of 14 long-term precipitation records representing multiple climates throughout the state, we find northern and central regions increasing in precipitation while southern regions are drying. Winter precipitation is increasing in all regions, while other seasons show mixed results. Rain intensity has not changed since the 1920s. While Sacramento shows over 3 more days of rain per year, Los Angeles has almost 4 less days per year in the last century. Both the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO greatly influence the California precipitation record. The climate change signal in the precipitation records remains unclear as annual variability overwhelms the precipitation trends.

  4. Effects of climate change on tidal marshes along a latitudinal gradient in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Ambrose, Rich F.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Freeman, Chase M.; Janousek, Christopher N.; Brown, Lauren N.; Holmquist, James R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Powelson, Katherine W.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-08-05

    Public SummaryThe coastal region of California supports a wealth of ecosystem services including habitat provision for wildlife and fisheries. Tidal marshes, mudflats, and shallow bays within coastal estuaries link marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats, and provide economic and recreational benefits to local communities. Climate change effects such as sea-level rise (SLR) are altering these habitats, but we know little about how these areas will change over the next 50–100 years. Our study examined the projected effects of three recent SLR scenarios produced for the West Coast of North America on tidal marshes in California. We compiled physical and biological data, including coastal topography, tidal inundation, plant composition, and sediment accretion to project how SLR may alter these ecosystems in the future. The goal of our research was to provide results that support coastal management and conservation efforts across California. Under a low SLR scenario, all study sites remained vegetated tidal wetlands, with most sites showing little elevation and vegetation change relative to sea level. At most sites, mid SLR projections led to increases in low marsh habitat at the expense of middle and high marsh habitat. Marshes at Morro Bay and Tijuana River Estuary were the most vulnerable to mid SLR with many areas becoming intertidal mudflat. Under a high SLR scenario, most sites were projected to lose vegetated habitat, eventually converting to intertidal mudflats. Our results suggest that California marshes are vulnerable to major habitat shifts under mid or high rates of SLR, especially in the latter part of the century. Loss of vegetated tidal marshes in California due to SLR is expected to impact ecosystem services that are dependent on coastal wetlands such as wildlife habitat, carbon sequestration, improved water quality, and coastal protection from storms.

  5. Using Local Stories as a Call to Action on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Generation: A Will Steger Legacy and the University of Minnesota's Regional Sustainability Development Partnerships (RSDP) have developed a novel approach to engaging rural Minnesotans on climate change issues. Through the use of personal, local stories about individuals' paths to action to mitigate and or adapt to climate change, Climate Generation and RSDP aim to spur others to action. Minnesota's Changing Climate project includes 12 Climate Convenings throughout rural Minnesota in a range of communities (tourism-based, agrarian, natural resources-based, university towns) to engage local populations in highly local conversations about climate change, its local impacts, and local solutions currently occurring. Climate Generation and RSDP have partnered with Molly Phipps Consulting to evaluate the efficacy of this approach in rural Minnesota. Data include pre and post convening surveys examining participants' current action around climate change, attitudes toward climate change (using questions from Maibach, Roser-Renouf, and Leiserowitz, 2009), and the strength of their social network to support their current and ongoing work toward mitigating and adapting to climate change. Although the Climate Convenings are tailored to each community, all include a resource fair of local organizations already engaging in climate change mitigation and adaptation activities which participants can participate in, a welcome from a trusted local official, a presentation on the science of climate change, sharing of local climate stories, and break-out groups where participants can learn how to get involved in a particular mitigation or adaptation strategy. Preliminary results have been positive: participants feel motivated to work toward mitigating and adapting to climate change, and more local stories have emerged that can be shared in follow-up webinars and on a project website to continue to inspire others to act.

  6. Effects of Climate Change on Sardine Productivity in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Auad, G.; Miller, A. J.

    2007-05-01

    The Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) is one of several coastal pelagic, planktivorous species of fish that provide important trophic links within the ecosystems of the major eastern and western boundary currents. Significant and persistent change in sardine productivity has occurred in the California Current over interdecadal periods in response to reorganization of basin-wide, ocean-atmosphere circulation. Less extreme, but still significant changes in sardine productivity are associated with interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. A precipitous decline of the sardine population began in the mid-1940s with a shift in climate leading to cooling of the California Current system. While the decline, and ultimately the collapse of the population, was exacerbated by intensive fishing, the sardine also suffered a severe reduction in productivity with the southward contraction of favorable thermal habitat that led to restriction of the population to the waters off Southern California and Baja California. This southward displacement resulted in geographic separation of the population from the region off central and northern California that is characterized by significantly higher concentrations of zooplankton that supported the previous levels of success in spawning and larval development. The climate shift in 1976-77 led to the recovery of the population and extension of its range of distribution northwards into the waters off British Columbia. The relation of reproductive success of the sardine population to interannual and decadal climate change was examined for the period 1982-2005 using a suite of seasonal indices representing climate processes and habitat conditions (including zooplankton food levels) occurring through the different stages in the sardine life cycle. We used both stepwise regression and EOF analyses to determine the association between levels of recruitment success and seasonal indices of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Ekman

  7. Co-benefits of addressing climate change can motivate action around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Paul G.; Milfont, Taciano L.; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Bilewicz, Michał; Doron, Guy; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B.; Gouveia, Valdiney V.; Guan, Yanjun; Johansson, Lars-Olof; Pasquali, Carlota; Corral-Verdugo, Victor; Aragones, Juan Ignacio; Utsugi, Akira; Demarque, Christophe; Otto, Siegmar; Park, Joonha; Soland, Martin; Steg, Linda; González, Roberto; Lebedeva, Nadezhda; Madsen, Ole Jacob; Wagner, Claire; Akotia, Charity S.; Kurz, Tim; Saiz, José L.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Einarsdóttir, Gró; Saviolidis, Nina M.

    2016-02-01

    Personal and political action on climate change is traditionally thought to be motivated by people accepting its reality and importance. However, convincing the public that climate change is real faces powerful ideological obstacles, and climate change is slipping in public importance in many countries. Here we investigate a different approach, identifying whether potential co-benefits of addressing climate change could motivate pro-environmental behaviour around the world for both those convinced and unconvinced that climate change is real. We describe an integrated framework for assessing beliefs about co-benefits, distinguishing social conditions (for example, economic development, reduced pollution or disease) and community character (for example, benevolence, competence). Data from all inhabited continents (24 countries; 6,196 participants) showed that two co-benefit types, Development (economic and scientific advancement) and Benevolence (a more moral and caring community), motivated public, private and financial actions to address climate change to a similar degree as believing climate change is important. Critically, relationships were similar for both convinced and unconvinced participants, showing that co-benefits can motivate action across ideological divides. These relationships were also independent of perceived climate change importance, and could not be explained by political ideology, age, or gender. Communicating co-benefits could motivate action on climate change where traditional approaches have stalled.

  8. Letter: Climate law: path paved for civil action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Si, Y.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2015-01-01

    The Lancet Commission on Health and Climate Change last month concluded that climate change is a risk to public health (N. Watts et al. Lancet http://doi.org/56b; 2015). In the same week, a Dutch court ordered the government of the Netherlands to improve its reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions to

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Local Climate Change Adaptation Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local governments are beginning to take steps to address the consequences of climate change, such as sea level rise and heat events. However, we do not have a clear understanding of what local governments are doing -- the extent to which they expect climate change to affect their...

  10. The direct radiative forcing effects of aerosols on the climate in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is used to explore the influence of aerosol direct radiative effects on regional climate of California. Aerosol data is provided by the MOZART global chemistry transport model and includes sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust and sea salt. To investigate the sensitivity of aerosol radiative effects to different aerosol species and to the quantity of sulfate and dust, tests are conducted by using different combinations of aerosols and by resetting the quantity of sulfate and dust. The model results show that all the considered aerosols could have a cooling effect of one half to one degree in terms of temperature and that dust and sulfate are the most important aerosols. However, large uncertainties exist. The results suggest that the dust from MOZART is greatly overestimated over the simulation domain. The single scattering albedo (SSA) values of dust used in some global climate models are likely underestimated compared to recent studies on dust optical properties and could result in overestimating the corresponding cooling effects by approximately 0.1 degree. Large uncertainties exist in estimating the roles of different forcing factors which are causing the observed temperature change in the past century in California.

  11. Re-shuffling of species with climate disruption: a no-analog future for California birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stralberg

    Full Text Available By facilitating independent shifts in species' distributions, climate disruption may result in the rapid development of novel species assemblages that challenge the capacity of species to co-exist and adapt. We used a multivariate approach borrowed from paleoecology to quantify the potential change in California terrestrial breeding bird communities based on current and future species-distribution models for 60 focal species. Projections of future no-analog communities based on two climate models and two species-distribution-model algorithms indicate that by 2070 over half of California could be occupied by novel assemblages of bird species, implying the potential for dramatic community reshuffling and altered patterns of species interactions. The expected percentage of no-analog bird communities was dependent on the community scale examined, but consistent geographic patterns indicated several locations that are particularly likely to host novel bird communities in the future. These no-analog areas did not always coincide with areas of greatest projected species turnover. Efforts to conserve and manage biodiversity could be substantially improved by considering not just future changes in the distribution of individual species, but including the potential for unprecedented changes in community composition and unanticipated consequences of novel species assemblages.

  12. Rapid climatic signal propagation from source to sink in a southern California sediment-routing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, J.A.; Romans, B.W.; Fildani, A.; McGann, M.; Graham, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial source areas are linked to deep-sea basins by sediment-routing systems, which only recently have been studied with a holistic approach focused on terrestrial and submarine components and their interactions. Here we compare an extensive piston-core and radiocarbon-age data set from offshore southern California to contemporaneous Holocene climate proxies in order to test the hypothesis that climatic signals are rapidly propagated from source to sink in a spatially restricted sediment-routing system that includes the Santa Ana River drainage basin and the Newport deep-sea depositional system. Sediment cores demonstrate that variability in rates of Holocene deep-sea turbidite deposition is related to complex ocean-atmosphere interactions, including enhanced magnitude and frequency of the North American monsoon and El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation cycles, which increased precipitation and fluvial discharge in southern California. This relationship is evident because, unlike many sediment-routing systems, the Newport submarine canyon-and-channel system was consistently linked tothe Santa Ana River,which maintained sediment delivery even during Holocene marine transgression and highstand. Results of this study demonstrate the efficiency of sediment transport and delivery through a spatially restricted, consistently linked routing system and the potential utility of deep-sea turbidite depositional trends as paleoclimate proxies in such settings. ?? 2010 by The University of Chicago.

  13. Climatic modulation of recent trends in ocean acidification in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, G.; Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.; Münnich, M.

    2016-01-01

    We reconstruct the evolution of ocean acidification in the California Current System (CalCS) from 1979 through 2012 using hindcast simulations with an eddy-resolving ocean biogeochemical model forced with observation-based variations of wind and fluxes of heat and freshwater. We find that domain-wide pH and {{{Ω }}}{arag} in the top 60 m of the water column decreased significantly over these three decades by about -0.02 decade-1 and -0.12 decade-1, respectively. In the nearshore areas of northern California and Oregon, ocean acidification is reconstructed to have progressed much more rapidly, with rates up to 30% higher than the domain-wide trends. Furthermore, ocean acidification penetrated substantially into the thermocline, causing a significant domain-wide shoaling of the aragonite saturation depth of on average -33 m decade-1 and up to -50 m decade-1 in the nearshore area of northern California. This resulted in a coast-wide increase in nearly undersaturated waters and the appearance of waters with {{{Ω }}}{arag}\\lt 1, leading to a substantial reduction of habitat suitability. Averaged over the whole domain, the main driver of these trends is the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. However, recent changes in the climatic forcing have substantially modulated these trends regionally. This is particularly evident in the nearshore regions, where the total trends in pH are up to 50% larger and trends in {{{Ω }}}{arag} and in the aragonite saturation depth are even twice to three times larger than the purely atmospheric CO2-driven trends. This modulation in the nearshore regions is a result of the recent marked increase in alongshore wind stress, which brought elevated levels of dissolved inorganic carbon to the surface via upwelling. Our results demonstrate that changes in the climatic forcing need to be taken into consideration in future projections of the progression of ocean acidification in coastal upwelling regions.

  14. Bottom-"wide" Approach to Climate Change - Typology and Analysis on Climate Vulnerability Reduction through Voluntary Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoto Yamaura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change risk is mostly and often unfairly cast upon those who are vulnerable. As one of the effective and spreadable means in reducing human vulnerability to climate change, this paper and its findings address the role, strength and limitations of voluntary actions. Through an extensive review of various climate change literature, projects and interviews among practitioners, the authors looked at thetypes of interventions and results that voluntary actions have achieved. The paperintroducesvarious types of voluntary activities such as awareness raising, community mobilization and empowerment, community-based adaptation and mitigation, and voluntary environmental regulations and schemes. Such bottom-"wide" approach to climate change is closely linked with civil environmentalism with broad focus and also scientifically strengthened by its engagement with civic science. It urges shifting the mind-set of international development agencies to flexibly accommodate and maximize the potential of voluntary, bottom-wide actions in combating climate change. Finally, the paper lists out pieces of recommendation to further improve and fully utilize voluntary actions in reducing vulnerabilityon the ground, by emphasizing long-term orientation, capacity development, monitoring and evaluation and building partnerships at the local level.

  15. Social norms and efficacy beliefs drive the Alarmed segment’s public-sphere climate actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kathryn L.; Webler, Thomas N.

    2016-09-01

    Surprisingly few individuals who are highly concerned about climate change take action to influence public policies. To assess social-psychological and cognitive drivers of public-sphere climate actions of Global Warming’s Six Americas `Alarmed’ segment, we developed a behaviour model and tested it using structural equation modelling of survey data from Vermont, USA (N = 702). Our model, which integrates social cognitive theory, social norms research, and value belief norm theory, explains 36-64% of the variance in five behaviours. Here we show descriptive social norms, self-efficacy, personal response efficacy, and collective response efficacy as strong driving forces of: voting, donating, volunteering, contacting government officials, and protesting about climate change. The belief that similar others took action increased behaviour and strengthened efficacy beliefs, which also led to greater action. Our results imply that communication efforts targeting Alarmed individuals and their public actions should include strategies that foster beliefs about positive descriptive social norms and efficacy.

  16. Trends and Issues in California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard - Learning from Response to Existing Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.

    2015-12-01

    emissions in transportation, as other jurisdictions weigh similar climate policies and debate mechanisms and costs and California announced an ambitious target of halving petroleum use by 2030.

  17. Researching direct action against carbon emissions: a digital ethnography of climate agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Pearse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Global warming poses very directly the question of human agency. In this video ethnography of climate agency we explore dimensions of subjectivity in climate activism. Through a longitudinal study we track activist strategising as a reflexive process of creating climate agency. Activist reflection is presented as a balance between involvement and detachment, and analysed drawing on videoed interviews and on our own participation in organisations and events. Visual artefacts are deployed to deepen insights into the interview process, and into the contexts for climate action. In terms of the analysis, there are three themes. First we look at trajectories – how people come to identify with the climate movement and engage in its direct action wing. Second, we explore the hopes and fears of climate activists in the face of profound challenges. Third, we address political antidotes, and the role of direct action in precipitating large-scale systemic change. Across these themes there is much diversity and debate: what unifies is a common engagement in the broad field of direct climate action. This visual documentation helps us reflect on the conflicts and possibilities that thereby arise in contexts of climate activist praxis.

  18. Motivated for Action and Collaboration: The Abrahamic Religions and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Jame Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    Leaders of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have publicly advocated action to mitigate the adverse effects of human-forced climate change. Particularly prominent prior to, during, and after the 21st Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change were Rabbi Arthur Waskow, Pope Francis, and Patriarch Bartholomew. Also prominent was a group of Islamic clerics, leaders of organizations, and scholars who collaborated in issuing a declaration on climate chang...

  19. Policies, Actions and Effects for China s Forestry Response to Global Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a great concern of various countries, the public and science community, and forest plays an important role in mitigating climate change. The paper made a comprehensive analysis regarding the policy selections of China to promote forestry response to the global climate change, and elaborated the concrete actions and achievements in this regard. Policy selections include: 1) Reinforce tree planting and afforestation, increase the forested area and enhance the capacity of carbon sequestration...

  20. Millennium-scale crossdating and inter-annual climate sensitivities of standing California redwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Allyson L; Sillett, Stephen C; Kramer, Russell D

    2014-01-01

    Extremely decay-resistant wood and fire-resistant bark allow California's redwoods to accumulate millennia of annual growth rings that can be useful in biological research. Whereas tree rings of Sequoiadendron giganteum (SEGI) helped formalize the study of dendrochronology and the principle of crossdating, those of Sequoia sempervirens (SESE) have proven much more difficult to decipher, greatly limiting dendroclimatic and other investigations of this species. We overcame these problems by climbing standing trees and coring trunks at multiple heights in 14 old-growth forest locations across California. Overall, we sampled 1,466 series with 483,712 annual rings from 120 trees and were able to crossdate 83% of SESE compared to 99% of SEGI rings. Standard and residual tree-ring chronologies spanning up to 1,685 years for SESE and 1,538 years for SEGI were created for each location to evaluate crossdating and to examine correlations between annual growth and climate. We used monthly values of temperature, precipitation, and drought severity as well as summer cloudiness to quantify potential drivers of inter-annual growth variation over century-long time series at each location. SESE chronologies exhibited a latitudinal gradient of climate sensitivities, contrasting cooler northern rainforests and warmer, drier southern forests. Radial growth increased with decreasing summer cloudiness in northern rainforests and a central SESE location. The strongest dendroclimatic relationship occurred in our southernmost SESE location, where radial growth correlated negatively with dry summer conditions and exhibited responses to historic fires. SEGI chronologies showed negative correlations with June temperature and positive correlations with previous October precipitation. More work is needed to understand quantitative relationships between SEGI radial growth and moisture availability, particularly snowmelt. Tree-ring chronologies developed here for both redwood species have

  1. Millennium-scale crossdating and inter-annual climate sensitivities of standing California redwoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson L Carroll

    Full Text Available Extremely decay-resistant wood and fire-resistant bark allow California's redwoods to accumulate millennia of annual growth rings that can be useful in biological research. Whereas tree rings of Sequoiadendron giganteum (SEGI helped formalize the study of dendrochronology and the principle of crossdating, those of Sequoia sempervirens (SESE have proven much more difficult to decipher, greatly limiting dendroclimatic and other investigations of this species. We overcame these problems by climbing standing trees and coring trunks at multiple heights in 14 old-growth forest locations across California. Overall, we sampled 1,466 series with 483,712 annual rings from 120 trees and were able to crossdate 83% of SESE compared to 99% of SEGI rings. Standard and residual tree-ring chronologies spanning up to 1,685 years for SESE and 1,538 years for SEGI were created for each location to evaluate crossdating and to examine correlations between annual growth and climate. We used monthly values of temperature, precipitation, and drought severity as well as summer cloudiness to quantify potential drivers of inter-annual growth variation over century-long time series at each location. SESE chronologies exhibited a latitudinal gradient of climate sensitivities, contrasting cooler northern rainforests and warmer, drier southern forests. Radial growth increased with decreasing summer cloudiness in northern rainforests and a central SESE location. The strongest dendroclimatic relationship occurred in our southernmost SESE location, where radial growth correlated negatively with dry summer conditions and exhibited responses to historic fires. SEGI chronologies showed negative correlations with June temperature and positive correlations with previous October precipitation. More work is needed to understand quantitative relationships between SEGI radial growth and moisture availability, particularly snowmelt. Tree-ring chronologies developed here for both redwood

  2. Irrigation impacts on California's climate with the variable-resolution CESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xingying; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-09-01

    The variable-resolution capability within the Community Earth System Model (VR-CESM) is applied to understand the impact of irrigation on the regional climate of California. Irrigation is an important contributor to the regional climate of heavily irrigated regions, and within the U.S. there are few regions that are as heavily irrigated as California's Central Valley, responsible for 25% of domestic agricultural products. A flexible irrigation scheme with relatively realistic estimates of agricultural water use is employed. The impact of irrigation on mean climatology and heat extremes is investigated over the 26 year period 1980-2005 using a relatively fine grid resolution of 0.25° (˜28 km). Three simulations are performed, including an unirrigated control run and two irrigation-enabled runs, with results compared to gridded observations and weather station data sets. During the summer months (when irrigation peaks), irrigation leads to cooling of the daily maximum near-surface temperature field (Tmax) by approximately 1.1 K. Under irrigation, latent heat flux increased by ˜61% during the daytime as a result of increased surface evaporation; specific humidity increased by about 12%; heat stress was reduced by 22% and the average soil moisture exhibited a small (˜4.4%) but statistically significant increase. Compared with observations, irrigation improved the frequency distribution of Tmax, and both length and frequency of hot spells were better represented with irrigation enabled. Consequently, we argue that high-resolution simulations of regional climate in CESM, particularly over heavily irrigated regions, should likely enable the irrigation parameterization to better represent local temperature statistics.

  3. 78 FR 28282 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... 41 Madera Passing Lanes project 0.3 miles north of Road 208 to 2.2 miles north of Road 208 in Madera... of California: The State Route 41 Madera Passing Lanes project in Madera County, California....

  4. Advancing Health Equity and Climate Change Solutions in California Through Integration of Public Health in Regional Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Solange M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant public health danger, with a disproportionate impact on low-income and communities of color that threatens to increase health inequities. Many important social determinants of health are at stake in California climate change policy-making and planning, and the distribution of these will further impact health inequities. Not only are these communities the most vulnerable to future health impacts due to the cumulative impacts of unequal environmental exposures a...

  5. A survey of Registered Dietitians’ concern and actions regarding climate change in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irana W. Hawkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary choices are a viable solution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While Registered Dietitians are on the front lines of food and nutrition recommendations, it is unclear how many are concerned with climate change and take action in practice in the United States. We explored concern about climate change amongst Registered Dietitians, and identified factors that may influence practice-related behaviors. Our study population included a random sample of all Registered Dietitians credentialed in the United States. Primary data was gathered using a cross-sectional survey. Of the 570 survey responses, 75% strongly agreed or agreed that climate change is an important issue while 34% strongly agreed or agreed that dietitians should play a major role in climate change mitigation strategies. Thirty-eight percent engaged in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Vegetarian (p=0.002 and vegan dietitians (p=0.007 were significantly more likely than non-vegetarian and non-vegan dietitians to engage in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Overall, concern for climate change amongst dietitians varied significantly by the region of the country in which the dietitian resided, and awareness that animal products are implicated in climate change. Registered Dietitians in the United States are concerned with climate change. However, there is a discrepancy between concern and practice-based actions. These results suggest the need for educational and experiential opportunities connecting climate change mitigation to dietetics practice.

  6. A Survey of Registered Dietitians' Concern and Actions Regarding Climate Change in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Irana W; Balsam, Alan L; Goldman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Dietary choices are a tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While registered dietitians are on the front lines of food and nutrition recommendations, it is unclear how many are concerned with climate change and take action in practice in the United States. We explored concern about climate change among registered dietitians, and identified factors that may influence practice-related behaviors. Our study population included a random sample of all registered dietitians credentialed in the United States. Primary data were gathered using a cross-sectional survey. Of the 570 survey responses, 75% strongly agreed or agreed that climate change is an important issue while 34% strongly agreed or agreed that dietitians should play a major role in climate change mitigation strategies. Thirty-eight percent engaged in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Vegetarian (p = 0.002) and vegan dietitians (p = 0.007) were significantly more likely than non-vegetarian and non-vegan dietitians to engage in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Overall, concern for climate change among dietitians varied significantly by the region of the country in which the dietitian resided, and awareness that animal products are implicated in climate change. Registered dietitians in the United States are concerned with climate change. However, there is a discrepancy between concern and practice-based actions. These results suggest the need for educational and experiential opportunities connecting climate change mitigation to dietetics practice.

  7. Spatial analysis of plague in California: niche modeling predictions of the current distribution and potential response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker James R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a public and wildlife health concern in California and the western United States. This study explores the spatial characteristics of positive plague samples in California and tests Maxent, a machine-learning method that can be used to develop niche-based models from presence-only data, for mapping the potential distribution of plague foci. Maxent models were constructed using geocoded seroprevalence data from surveillance of California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi as case points and Worldclim bioclimatic data as predictor variables, and compared and validated using area under the receiver operating curve (AUC statistics. Additionally, model results were compared to locations of positive and negative coyote (Canis latrans samples, in order to determine the correlation between Maxent model predictions and areas of plague risk as determined via wild carnivore surveillance. Results Models of plague activity in California ground squirrels, based on recent climate conditions, accurately identified case locations (AUC of 0.913 to 0.948 and were significantly correlated with coyote samples. The final models were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios. These models suggest that by 2050, climate conditions may reduce plague risk in the southern parts of California and increase risk along the northern coast and Sierras. Conclusion Because different modeling approaches can yield substantially different results, care should be taken when interpreting future model predictions. Nonetheless, niche modeling can be a useful tool for exploring and mapping the potential response of plague activity to climate change. The final models in this study were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios, which can help public managers decide where to allocate surveillance resources

  8. Climate change and decadal shifts in the phenology of larval fishes in the California Current ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rebecca G

    2015-07-28

    Climate change has prompted an earlier arrival of spring in numerous ecosystems. It is uncertain whether such changes are occurring in Eastern Boundary Current Upwelling ecosystems, because these regions are subject to natural decadal climate variability, and regional climate models predict seasonal delays in upwelling. To answer this question, the phenology of 43 species of larval fishes was investigated between 1951 and 2008 off southern California. Ordination of the fish community showed earlier phenological progression in more recent years. Thirty-nine percent of seasonal peaks in larval abundance occurred earlier in the year, whereas 18% were delayed. The species whose phenology became earlier were characterized by an offshore, pelagic distribution, whereas species with delayed phenology were more likely to reside in coastal, demersal habitats. Phenological changes were more closely associated with a trend toward earlier warming of surface waters rather than decadal climate cycles, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Species with long-term advances and delays in phenology reacted similarly to warming at the interannual time scale as demonstrated by responses to the El Niño Southern Oscillation. The trend toward earlier spawning was correlated with changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and mesozooplankton displacement volume, but not coastal upwelling. SST and upwelling were correlated with delays in fish phenology. For species with 20th century advances in phenology, future projections indicate that current trends will continue unabated. The fate of species with delayed phenology is less clear due to differences between Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change models in projected upwelling trends.

  9. In-School Sustainability Action: Climate Clever Energy Savers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John; Schuck, Sandy; Aubusson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The mandate for living sustainably is becoming increasingly urgent. This article reports on the Climate Clever Energy Savers (CCES) Program, a student-centred, problem- and project-based program in New South Wales, Australia, aimed at enabling school students to identify ways of reducing their schools' electricity consumption and costs. As part of…

  10. California renewable energy policy and implementation issues: An overview of recent regulatory and legislative action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.; Goldman, C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper has three primary goals: (1) to provide a brief account of recent events in California renewables policy; (2) to outline the California State Legislature`s ultimate decision on renewable energy policy; and (3) to aid other states in their efforts with renewables policy by summarizing some of the key implementation issues and political conflicts that may occur when crafting some of the potential threats and opportunities that electricity restructuring presents to the development of renewable energy. We then outline the renewables policy debate in California since the California Public Utility Commission`s ``Blue Book``, including both regulatory and legislative developments. We also provide some insight into the minimum renewables purchase requirement (MRPR) versus surcharge-based renewables policy debate in California. Finally, we identify and discuss key renewables policy implementation issues that have driven the dialogue and recent decisions in California`s renewables policy.

  11. Coccolithophore response to climate and surface hydrography in Santa Barbara Basin, California, AD 1917–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grelaud

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The varved sedimentary AD 1917–2004 record from the depositional center of the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB, California was analyzed with monthly to annual resolution to yield relative abundances of six coccolithophore species representing at least 96% of the coccolithophore assemblage. Seasonal/annual relative abundances respond to climatic and surface hydrographic conditions in the SBB, whereby (i the three species G. oceanica, H. carteri and F. profunda are characteristic of the strength of the northward flowing warm California Counter Current, (ii the two species G. ericsonii and G. muellerae are associated with the cold equatorward flowing California Current, (iii and E. huxleyi appears to be endemic to the SBB. Spectral analyses on relative abundances of these species show that all are influenced by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO and/or by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO. Increased relative abundances of G. oceanica and H. carteri are associated with warm ENSO events, G. muellerae responds to warm PDO events, and the abundance of G. ericsonii increases during cold PDO events. Morphometric parameters measured on E. huxleyi, G. muellerae and G. oceanica indicate increasing coccolithophore calcification from ~1917 until 2004 concomitant with rising pCO2 and sea surface temperature in the region of the SBB.

  12. Promoting Action on Climate Change through Scientific Storytelling and the Green Ninja Film Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, E.; Metzger, E. P.; Smith, G.

    2013-12-01

    Encouraging student interest on the challenges and opportunities associated with our changing climate can both promote science literacy and enable future reductions in carbon emissions. The goal of the Green Ninja Project is to affect youth culture in ways that promote informed action on climate change. The character and story of the Green Ninja are communicated in a series of quirky short films on YouTube, which focus on actions to reduce human impact. To complement the related underlying science, the films are designed in parallel with a set of engagement experiences that encourage young people to take action on climate change. One such experience is the Green Ninja Film Academy, a classroom experience where students use scientific storytelling to make their own Green Ninja films. Student filmmakers are asked to tell a story related to climate science for a particular audience using the Green Ninja as a storyline. In July 2013, a group of 24 teachers attended a workshop to develop experience using filmmaking to engage their students in climate science topics. The filmmaking experience is designed to promote integrated learning in the sciences, language arts, and technology fields. Students will have the opportunity to submit their films to the Green Ninja Film Festival for possible public screening and awards. Student films will also receive coaching from a panel of scientists and filmmakers. An initial analysis of the effectiveness of this project in engaging student action on climate change will be discussed.

  13. Mapping Cartographic Poster of Sustainability Development Goal "Climate Action"

    OpenAIRE

    Arnež, Maša

    2016-01-01

    Graduating thesis presents a poster project with cartographic perspective which more precisely shows one of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals that were proposed by United Nations (UN) in 2015. Commission on Mountain Cartography from International Association of Cartographers took over the production of cartographic designed shaped poster of the thirteenth Sustainable Development Goal titled “Climate Action”. The aim of creating the content of the poster is to present current sit...

  14. Climate change knowledge and attitudes : links to action in the residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, I. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Environment and Resource Studies; Scott, D. [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada). Adaptation and Impacts Research Group; Parker, P. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2000-07-01

    This paper explored links between public knowledge of, and attitudes toward, anthropogenically-induced global climate change and the public's desire to take action to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the residential sector. In Canada and other nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), home energy consumption is the largest source of GHG emissions that is directly actionable by individuals. The three types of actions that can reduce GHG emissions in the residential sector are energy conservation in the home, willingness to pay for green electricity, and support for energy efficiency and green electricity policies. The cities of Waterloo, Kitchener and Cambridge, Ontario participated in a survey in which 386 respondents were asked about the consistency with which they engaged in 11 energy conservation actions at home. Results showed that individuals undertake energy conservation actions at home about 75 per cent of the time. When the link between climate change attitudes and home energy conservation was examined, a weak but significant positive correlation was found. However, a similar analysis of climate change knowledge and this behavioural measure did not yield a significant correlation coefficient. The data suggests while there is general concern for climate change there are common misperceptions about the causes of human-induced climate change. The study showed that there is little evidence to suggest that the climate change issue will inspire lifestyle changes by Canadians to reduce greenhouse gas emissions related to home energy use. Motivation to improve home energy efficiency is complex and includes co-benefits of economic savings, home comfort, health, and air quality. It was concluded that any communication program to promote individual action in the residential sector solely as a climate change mitigation strategy will likely be ineffective. The study confirms that there is a need to develop strategies to

  15. Climate change knowledge and attitudes : links to action in the residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, I.H. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Environment and Resource Studies; Scott, D.; Parker, P. [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada). Adaptation and Impacts Research Group

    2000-06-01

    This paper explored links between public knowledge of, and attitudes toward, anthropogenically-induced global climate change and the public's desire to take action to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the residential sector. In Canada and other nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), home energy consumption is the largest source of GHG emissions that is directly actionable by individuals. The three types of actions that can reduce GHG emissions in the residential sector are energy conservation in the home, willingness to pay for green electricity, and support for energy efficiency and green electricity policies. The cities of Waterloo, Kitchener and Cambridge, Ontario participated in a survey in which 386 respondents were asked about the consistency with which they engaged in 11 energy conservation actions at home. Results showed that individuals undertake energy conservation actions at home about 75 per cent of the time. When the link between climate change attitudes and home energy conservation was examined, a weak but significant positive correlation was found. However, a similar analysis of climate change knowledge and this behavioural measure did not yield a significant correlation coefficient. The data suggests while there is general concern for climate change there are common misconceptions about the causes of human-induced climate change. The study showed that there is little evidence to suggest that the climate change issue will inspire lifestyle changes by Canadians to reduce greenhouse gas emissions related to home energy use. Motivation to improve home energy efficiency is complex and includes co-benefits of economic savings, home comfort, health, and air quality. It was concluded that any communication program to promote individual action in the residential sector solely as a climate change mitigation strategy will likely be ineffective. The study confirms that there is a need to develop strategies to

  16. Climate Justice: High-Status Ingroup Social Models Increase Pro-Environmental Action Through Making Actions Seem More Moral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Joseph; Whitmarsh, Lorraine E

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that our cognitive biases and moral psychology may pose significant barriers to tackling climate change. Here, we report evidence that through status and group-based social influence processes, and our moral sense of justice, it may be possible to employ such characteristics of the human mind in efforts to engender pro-environmental action. We draw on applied work demonstrating the efficacy of social modeling techniques in order to examine the indirect effects of social model status and group membership (through perceptions of efficacy, pro-environmental social identity and moral judgments of how fair it is for individuals to perform particular pro-environmental actions) on pro-environmental action tendencies. We find evidence that high- (vs. low-) status models increase pro-environmental action, in part, through making such actions seem morally fairer to undertake. This effect of high-status models only occurs when they share a meaningful ingroup membership with the target of influence. Further, we find evidence that this conditional effect of high-status models may also have a direct impact on action tendencies. While the exact behaviors that are influenced may vary across student and non-student samples, we argue that a focus on the "justice pathway" to action and the social-cognitive features of models may offer a good opportunity for cognitive and behavioral scientists to integrate insights from basic research with those stemming from more applied research efforts.

  17. Sedimentary record of recent climate impacts on an insular coastal lagoon in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Martinez, Tomasa; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Alonso-Rodríguez, Rosalba

    2017-03-01

    Sedimentary records are useful to evaluate environmental changes, either from natural or anthropogenic causes, such as global and climate change. The recent changes in accumulation rates and geochemical characteristics (grain size distribution, elemental composition, organic carbon and carbonate concentrations) recorded in a sediment core from San Jose Island Lagoon (SJIL, Gulf of California) were evaluated to determine its relationship with anthropogenic impacts and climatic variability. The 210Pb-derived chronology was corroborated with 239+240Pu and 137Cs stratigraphic markers. The mass accumulation rate increased up to ∼3 times during the past ∼100 years (0.16 ± 0.03 to 0.51 ± 0.06 g cm-2 yr-1). The contents of terrigenous and marine (salinity) indicator elements, as well as fine-grained sediments, also increased considerably, although no anthropization evidences were observed; indeed, the enrichment factor of trace elements indicated that the ecosystem is still a pristine environment. By using multivariate statistical techniques, we inferred that the larger input of fine-grained terrigenous sediments could be related to the enhancement of soil erosion from the catchment, under the influence of higher rainfall rates, especially during the last 20 years. In addition, the higher concentrations of salinity indicator elements most likely resulted from higher evaporation rates in the lagoon, caused by higher minimum atmospheric temperatures. We concluded that recent climate variability has become the main driver for sedimentary geochemical changes in San Jose Island Lagoon. These observations confirmed the usefulness of 210Pb-dated geochemical sediment records to study the impacts of recent climate variability where long-term environmental data is scarce or non-existent.

  18. Valley aggradation in the San Gabriel Mountains, California: climate change versus catastrophic landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherler, D.; Lamb, M. P.; Rhodes, E. J.; Avouac, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The San Gabriel Mountains (SGM) in Southern California, rate amongst the most rapidly uplifting and eroding mountains in the United States. Their steep slopes and sensitivity to wildfires, flash floods, landslides, and debris flows account for imminent hazards to nearby urban areas that might be accentuated by climatic and other environmental changes. Previous studies suggested that river terraces along the North Fork of the San Gabriel River, record temporal variations in sediment supply and river transport capacity that are representative for the SGM and related to climatic changes during the Quaternary. Based on field observations, digital topographic analysis, and dating of Quaternary deposits, we suggest that valley aggradation in the North Fork San Gabriel Canyon was spatially confined and a consequence of the sudden supply of unconsolidated material to upstream reaches by one of the largest known landslides in the SGM. New 10Be-derived surface exposure ages from the landslide deposits, previously assumed to be early to middle Pleistocene in age, indicate at least three Holocene events at ~8-9 ka, ~4-5 ka, and ~0.5-1 ka. The oldest landslide predates the valley aggradation period, which is constrained by existing 14C ages and new luminescence ages to ~7-8 ka. The spatial distribution, morphology, and sedimentology of the river terraces are consistent with deposition from far-travelling debris flows that originated within the landslide deposits. Valley aggradation in the North Fork San Gabriel Canyon therefore resulted from locally enhanced sediment supply that temporarily overwhelmed river capacity but the lack of similar deposits in other parts of the SGM argues against a regional climatic signal. So far, there exists no evidence that in the San Gabriel Mountains, climatic changes can cause sustained increases in hillslope sediment supply that lead to river aggradation and terrace formation.

  19. Motivating Action through Fostering Climate Change Hope and Concern and Avoiding Despair among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Stevenson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to build climate change concern seem warranted to overcome apathy and promote action. However, research suggests that these efforts can backfire by breeding despair, denial and inaction. This may be especially true among younger audiences, as despair is highest among those who view climate challenges as out of their control, and children generally have lower perceived and actual control than adults in political and personal arenas. Though many studies have documented feelings of despair and sadness among younger audiences, few have explored how climate change hope may counteract despair and encourage productive responses to climate change concern. This study examined how climate change hope, despair, and concern predict pro-environmental behavior with a quantitative survey of a random sample of middle school students in North Carolina, USA (n = 1486. We did not find an interaction between climate change hope and concern or despair, but instead found climate change hope and concern independently and positively related to behavior and despair negatively related to behavior. These results suggest that climate change concern among K-12 audiences may be an important antecedent to behavior which does not dampen the positive impacts of hope. Further, rather than mitigating the negative effects of climate change despair, hope may be an independent predecessor to behavior. Students at Title I (a measure of low socioeconomic status schools were less likely to engage in pro-environmental behaviors, suggesting climate literacy efforts should target schools with lower levels of socioeconomic status specifically.

  20. Health, fairness and New Zealand's contribution to global post-2020 climate change action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hayley; Macmillan, Alex; Jones, Rhys

    2015-05-29

    Health and wellbeing have been largely ignored in discussions around climate change targets and action to date. The current public consultation around New Zealand's post-2020 climate target is an opportunity for health professionals to highlight the health implications of climate change. Without urgent global efforts to bring down global GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, the world is heading towards high levels of global warming, which will have devastating impacts on human health and wellbeing. New Zealand's action to bring down GHG emissions (as part of the global effort) has potential to improve health and reduce costs on the health sector, if health and fairness are put at the centre of policies to address climate change. New Zealand should commit to at least 40 % reductions in GHG emissions by 2030, and zero carbon emissions before 2050, with healthy and fair policies across sectors to enable reaching these targets.

  1. If climate action becomes urgent: The importance of response times for various climate strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, D.P.; Stehfest, E.

    2013-01-01

    Most deliberations on climate policy are based on a mitigation response that assumes a gradually increasing reduction over time. However, situations may occur where a more urgent response is needed. A key question for climate policy in general, but even more in the case a rapid response is needed, i

  2. Addressing Climate Change Adaptation in Regional Transportation Plans in California: A Guide and Online Visualization Tool for Planners to Incorporate Risks of Climate Change Impacts in Policy and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.; Tucker, K.; DeFlorio, J.

    2012-12-01

    The reality of a changing climate means that transportation and planning agencies need to understand the potential effects of changes in storm activity, sea levels, temperature, and precipitation patterns; and develop strategies to ensure the continuing robustness and resilience of transportation infrastructure and services. This is a relatively new challenge for California's regional planning agencies - adding yet one more consideration to an already complex and multifaceted planning process. In that light, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) is developing a strategy framework using a module-based process that planning agencies can undertake to incorporating the risks of climate change impacts into their decision-making and long-range transportation plans. The module-based approach was developed using a best practices survey of existing work nationally, along with a set of structured interviews with metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) and regional transportation planning agencies (RTPAs) within California. Findings led to the development of a process, as well as a package of foundational geospatial layers (i.e. the Statewide Transportation Asset Geodatabase - STAG), primarily comprising state and Federal transportation assets. These assets are intersected with a set of geospatial layers for the climate stressors of relevance in the state which are placed in the same reference layers as the STAG; thus providing a full set of GIS layers that can be a starting point for MPOs/RTPAs that want to follow the step-by-step module-based approach in its entirety. The fast-paced changes in science and climate change knowledge requires a flexible platform to display continuously evolving information. To this end, the development of the modules are accompanied by a set of geospatial analysis disseminated using an online web portal. In this way, the information can be relayed to MPO/RTPAs in a easy-to-use fashion that can help them follow the modules

  3. A Survey of Registered Dietitians’ Concern and Actions Regarding Climate Change in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Irana W.; Balsam, Alan L.; Goldman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Dietary choices are a tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While registered dietitians are on the front lines of food and nutrition recommendations, it is unclear how many are concerned with climate change and take action in practice in the United States. We explored concern about climate change among registered dietitians, and identified factors that may influence practice-related behaviors. Our study population included a random sample of all registered dietitians credentialed in the Un...

  4. Adapting Scotland’s forests to climate change using an action expiration chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr, M.; Boerboom, L. G. J.; Ray, D.; van der Veen, A.

    2015-10-01

    The inherent uncertainty of climate change impacts is one of the main challenges for adaptation in environmental management. The lack of knowledge about climate impacts on ecosystem services at high spatial and temporal resolution limits when and what adaptation measures should be taken. We addressed these limits by assessing four ecosystem services—forest production, tree growth, sequestered carbon, and tourism potential—under drought or climate change. To support adaptation, we adapted the existing concept of ‘dynamic adaptive policy pathways’ for forest management by developing an action expiration chart, which helps to define expiry dates for forestry actions using ecosystem services delivery thresholds. We assessed services for Sitka spruce, Scots pine, and pedunculate oak on the National Forest Estate in Scotland for the next 80 years using probabilistic climate change data from the UKCP09 weather generator. Findings showed that drought would have an overall long-term negative impact on the provision of three services with a decrease up to 41%, whereas climate change has a positive impact on tourism potential with up to five times higher frequency of good climate conditions during summer months. Furthermore, the results highlighted when forestry actions, mainly in the lowlands, will reach their environmental limits during the next 80 years. Our findings reduce knowledge uncertainty and highlight when and where adaptation should be implemented to ensure the provision of future forest ecosystem services in Scotland.

  5. The mitigation of the climate change: discourse and actions in APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Guadalupe Figueroa González

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a shared problem that requires concerted action to meet the challenge on the best terms. The social, economic and political issue, pressed implications for designing mechanisms for cooperation on mitigation and adaptation. In Asia Pacific the largest emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs that contribute to climate change are located; therefore becomes important convergence of national policies leading to a regional protocol on sustainable development. The Forum Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC has added to its agenda commitment to sustainable development and addressing climate change from different approaches: energy, agriculture, transport, and from different areas: the city and the region.

  6. Story telling and social action: engaging young people to act on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, E.

    2014-12-01

    The realization that well designed graphs and clearly worded summaries were not enough to spur the public and policy makers towards an appropriate understanding of our planet encouraged me to search for other ways to share climate stories with the general public. After co-authoring a popular book on food and climate change and giving many talks to the general public, it struck me that young people were largely missing from the dialogue, and little meaningful progress was being made to design effective solutions. I then started working with faculty and students from the Film and Animation Departments at San Jose State University to develop stories about climate change that would be engaging to younger audiences. The result was the Green Ninja Project, based around the Green Ninja, a superhero who focuses on solutions to climate change using humor and silliness to soften what can be a somewhat challenging topic. The Project includes a) The Green Ninja Show - a series of YouTube videos (over 1,000,000 views) highlighting actions young people can take to reduce climate change, b) The Green Ninja Film Festival where students tell their own climate solutions stories, and c) a collection of educational resources that help teachers bring climate science topics into their classroom using hands-on activities. A key component to this work is promoting social action experiences, so that young people can understand how their actions can make a difference. Based on these experiences, I will provide my own reflections on the challenges and opportunities of communicating climate change with young people.

  7. Human-Nature for Climate Action: Nature-Based Solutions for Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Santiago Fink

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global climate change agenda proceeds at an incremental pace while the Earth is approaching critical tipping points in its development trajectory. Climate action at this pinnacle juncture needs to be greatly accelerated and rooted in the fundamentals of the problem—human beings’ disconnection from nature. This paper underscores the valuable role nature and nature-based solutions can play in addressing climate change at the city scale and its implications for broader sustainability. Urban ecosystems (nature in cities are seen as an integral part of a proposed local climate action rubric wherein policy measures and integrated planning guide lowcarbon/impact development to create more resilient and sustainable urban environments. The use of green infrastructure is highlighted as a cost-effective means to contribute to mitigation and adaptation needs as well as to promote human wellbeing. The paper takes an exploratory view of the influence of ecosystem services, particularly cultural services, and its economics in relation to the individual and society to understand how biophilia can be nurtured to promote environmental stewardship and climate action.

  8. Mid- and long-term climate projections for fragmented and delayed-action scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, Michiel; Gohar, Laila; Kriegler, Elmar; Lowe, Jason; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the climate consequences of ". delayed near-term action" and ". staged accession" scenarios for limiting warming below 2. °C. The stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations at low levels requires a large-scale transformation of the energy system. Depending on policy choices,

  9. Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions around Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum…

  10. The Practical Integration of Action Research into Building Climate Literacy and Partnership with Key Influentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Education Partners (CEP) has been using an action research approach to build climate literacy and partnership with key influential (KI) leaders in the San Diego community. After identifying 6 key sectors that either (a) could reduce green house gas emissions and adapt to impacts, or (b) would be highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, we conducted 89 interviews with KIs from the San Diego region -- including elected officials, academics, laborers, and representatives from local businesses, non-profits, ethnic and cultural communities, faith-based groups, and special interest groups -- to assess their science knowledge and opinions about climate change and the impacts of climate change. Other questions asked were about KIs' personal efficacy, identity, values and engagement in pro-environmental behaviors related to climate change. The results of the interviews contributed to CEP's action research approach in two ways: 1) it provided critical data regarding which leaders wanted further engagement with CEP and what that engagement should entail (e.g., being a connector to other leaders, a spokesperson, or a participant in future educational activities), and 2) it provided key information about the extent to which "knowledge deficit" is related to use of climate change knowledge to inform engagement in mitigation and adaptive behaviors. Practically, the results were used to create a database that is being used to inform the contact and education of KIs. We were able to show, consistent with previous research and identity theory, that liberal leaders were more likely than conservatives to believe in, feel concern for, and be knowledgeable about climate change. However, engagement in mitigation behaviors- specifically making decisions that would reduce electricity, gas, or water use- were similar for both groups. These results are being used to create resources and direct climate education activities going forward.

  11. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, growing demand for energy and water and the need to address climate change will create huge challenges for energy policy and natural resource management. Synergistic strategies must be developed to conserve and use both resources more efficiently. California (CA) is a prime example of a region where policymakers have began to incorporate water planning in energy infrastructure development. But more must be done as CA transforms its energy system to meet its climate target. We analyze lifecycle water use of current and future transport fuel consumption to evaluate impacts & formulate mitigation strategies for the state at the watershed scale. Four 'bounding cases' for CA's future transportation demand to year 2030 are projected for analysis: two scenarios that only meet the 2020 climate target (business-as-usual, BAU) with high / low water use intensity, and two that meet long-term climate target with high / low water use intensity (Fig 1). Our study focuses on the following energy supply chains: (a) liquid fuels from conventional/unconventional oil & gas, (b) thermoelectric and renewable generation technologies, and (c) biofuels (Fig 2-3). We develop plausible siting scenarios that bound the range of possible water sources, impacts, and dispositions to provide insights into how to best allocate water and limit water impacts of energy development. We further identify constraints & opportunities to improve water use efficiency and highlight salient policy relevant lessons. For biofuels we extend our scope to the entire US as most of the biofuels consumed in California are and will be produced from outside of the state. We analyze policy impacts that capture both direct & indirect land use effects across scenarios, thus addressing the major shortcomings of existing studies, which ignore spatial heterogeneity as well as economic effects of crop displacement and the effects of crop intensification and extensification. We use the agronomic

  12. Ground water/surface water responses to global climate simulations, Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Climate variations can play an important, if not always crucial, role in successful conjunctive management of ground water and surface water resources. This will require accurate accounting of the links between variations in climate, recharge, and withdrawal from the resource systems, accurate projection or predictions of the climate variations, and accurate simulation of the responses of the resource systems. To assess linkages and predictability of climate influences on conjunctive management, global climate model (GCM) simulated precipitation rates were used to estimate inflows and outflows from a regional ground water model (RGWM) of the coastal aquifers of the Santa ClaraCalleguas Basin at Ventura, California, for 1950 to 1993. Interannual to interdecadal time scales of the El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) climate variations are imparted to simulated precipitation variations in the Southern California area and are realistically imparted to the simulated ground water level variations through the climate-driven recharge (and discharge) variations. For example, the simulated average ground water level response at a key observation well in the basin to ENSO variations of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures is 1.2 m/??C, compared to 0.9 m/??C in observations. This close agreement shows that the GCM-RGWM combination can translate global scale climate variations into realistic local ground water responses. Probability distributions of simulated ground water level excursions above a local water level threshold for potential seawater intrusion compare well to the corresponding distributions from observations and historical RGWM simulations, demonstrating the combination's potential usefulness for water management and planning. Thus the GCM-RGWM combination could be used for planning purposes and - when the GCM forecast skills are adequate - for near term predictions.

  13. Global health and climate change: moving from denial and catastrophic fatalism to positive action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Anthony; Maslin, Mark; Montgomery, Hugh; Johnson, Anne M; Ekins, Paul

    2011-05-13

    The health effects of climate change have had relatively little attention from climate scientists and governments. Climate change will be a major threat to population health in the current century through its potential effects on communicable disease, heat stress, food and water security, extreme weather events, vulnerable shelter and population migration. This paper addresses three health-sector strategies to manage the health effects of climate change-promotion of mitigation, tackling the pathways that lead to ill-health and strengthening health systems. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is affordable, and low-carbon technologies are available now or will be in the near future. Pathways to ill-health can be managed through better information, poverty reduction, technological innovation, social and cultural change and greater coordination of national and international institutions. Strengthening health systems requires increased investment in order to provide effective public health responses to climate-induced threats to health, equitable treatment of illness, promotion of low-carbon lifestyles and renewable energy solutions within health facilities. Mitigation and adaptation strategies will produce substantial benefits for health, such as reductions in obesity and heart disease, diabetes, stress and depression, pneumonia and asthma, as well as potential cost savings within the health sector. The case for mitigating climate change by reducing GHGs is overwhelming. The need to build population resilience to the global health threat from already unavoidable climate change is real and urgent. Action must not be delayed by contrarians, nor by catastrophic fatalists who say it is all too late.

  14. From global framing to local action : translation of climate change impacts in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunseitan, O.A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    There is considerable controversy regarding policy and climate change mitigation in Africa. Its resolution will require integrating local knowledge and values into climate impact assessments. Africa's vulnerability to climate change can be traced to the frequency of socio-ecological devastation that comes from major climate variations on the continent. The incidence of famines, homelessness and disease epidemics that require international assistance are reflections of weak policies and institution action frames used to cope with climate and weather related emergencies. However, the valuation of climate change impacts has a subjective dimension that can be gained only through indigenous experience and an understanding of values associated with life-saving intervention programs. A recent study showed that discount rates applied to future life-saving programs by Africans are very different from the rates applied in developed countries, and that the difference should be reflected in national development programs and transnational initiatives for capacity building. The study suggests that if the boundary institutions responsible for public health security have not been too effective in resolving the policy controversy surrounding Africa's participation in climate change assessments, it is due partly to the limitations imposed by cross-scale issues in framing. It was concluded that efforts to reduce Africa's dependence on global emergency health response systems will necessitate the development of autonomous capacity to adapt to natural disasters. Appropriate frame reflection is needed at the local level. 56 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Presenting a Framework to Analyze Local Climate Policy and Action in Small and Medium-Sized Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoppe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local climate actions in SMCs? In this article we present an analytical framework to analyze climate change policy and local climate actions of SMCs. The framework addresses different aspects: policy-input, -throughput, -output, -outcome, characteristics of the local environment, local action arenas, influence by higher government levels, and interaction with climate change issue networks. The framework is used to analyze and compare four case studies of SMCs in the Dutch region of Twente (two urban and two rural municipalities, and addresses both adaptation and mitigation. Results show that both ‘localist’, ‘multi-level’ and issue network membership factors influence local climate policy action. Governance modes discerned concern mostly ‘governing by authority’ and ‘self-governing’. When reflecting on the role of SMCs in climate action the study revealed the importance of local capacity building schemes issued by provincial government, inter-municipal network collaboration, and the potential for local governments to mobilize and organize citizen action.

  16. Marine reserves help preserve genetic diversity after impacts derived from climate variability: Lessons from the pink abalone in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Munguía-Vega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is crucial for the adaptation of exploited species like the pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata, faced with threats from climate change, overfishing and impacts associated with aquaculture production. While marine reserves are commonly used to mitigate risks to marine populations, the duration, size, location and larval connectivity needed for a reserve to help conserve genetic resources is still poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of fishing, reserves, and restocking on the genetic diversity of 10 populations from central Baja California, Mexico, and Southern California, USA. We demonstrate that each population shows characteristic genetic signatures according to recent management decisions. We found high allelic diversity, particularly rare alleles, a larger effective population size and a lack of a recent genetic bottleneck in pink abalones within a small (0.8 km2, recently established (5 years reserve in Baja California, compared to other fished sites after a climatic bottleneck. Higher diversity may result from the presence of older animals in the reserve. Due to its location, the reserve may also act as an important hub connecting distant populations via larval dispersal. In contrast, a population from California showed genetic isolation, loss of allelic diversity and high relatedness, consistent with the collapse of fisheries in the 1990s and their lack of recovery thereafter. In addition, a fished area in Baja California with a history of restocking for over a decade showed an increase in frequency of related individuals and high genetic differentiation from nearby sites that were consistent with the production of larvae from a few adults in the laboratory. A network of strategically placed small marine reserves that considers ocean circulation patterns could help to maintain genetic diversity and connectivity of exploited populations.

  17. State Wildlife Action Plans as Tools for Adapting to a Continuously Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metivier, D. W.; Yocum, H.; Ray, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Public land management plans are potentially powerful policies for building sustainability and adaptive capacity. Land managers are recognizing the need to respond to numerous climate change impacts on natural and human systems. For the first time, in 2015, the federal government required each state to incorporate climate change into their State Wildlife Action Plans (SWAP) as a condition for funding. As important land management tools, SWAPs have the potential to guide state agencies in shaping and implementing practices for climate change adaptation. Intended to be revised every ten years, SWAPs can change as conditions and understanding of climate change evolves. This study asks what practices are states using to integrate climate change, and how does this vary between states? To answer this question, we conducted a broad analysis among seven states (CO, MT, NE, ND, SD, UT, WY) and a more in-depth analysis of four states (CO, ND, SD, WY). We use seven key factors that represent best practices for incorporating climate change identified in the literature. These best practices are species prioritization, key habitats, threats, monitoring, partnerships and participation, identification of management options, and implementation of management options. The in-depth analysis focuses on how states are using climate change information for specific habitats addressed in the plans. We find that states are integrating climate change in many different ways, showing varying degrees of sophistication and preparedness. We summarize different practices and highlight opportunities to improve the effectiveness of plans through: communication tools across state lines and stakeholders, explicit targeting of key habitats, enforcement and monitoring progress and success, and conducting vulnerability analyses that incorporate topics beyond climate and include other drivers, trajectories, and implications of historic and future land-use change.

  18. Conservation issues: California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Richard W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    California chaparral, a sclerophyllous shrub-dominated plant community shaped by a Mediterranean-type climate and infrequent, high-intensity fire, is one of the most biodiverse and threatened habitats on Earth. Distinct forms of chaparral, distinguished by differing species composition, geography, and edaphic characteristics, can cover thousands of hectares with dense vegetation or be restricted to smaller communities identified by the presence of endemic species. To maintain the biodiversity of chaparral, protective land management actions will be required to mitigate the loss due to the impacts of human population growth, development, climate change, and increased fire frequencies.

  19. Middle-late Holocene climate variability in La Paz Basin, southern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Lizárraga, L. E.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2013-12-01

    flux to deeper layers that increase the susbsurface-intermediate radiolarians food supply. Major changes in all records suggests four climate scenarios for the past 7300 years and a multi-centennial drought from ca 2100 to 1500 cal yr BP is suggested. From ca 7300 to 5300 cal yr BP, in general, productivity is high but shows some changes, probable related to the persistence of warm and oligotrophic tropical waters. Between ca 5300 and 4000 cal yr BP seems that the primary productivity induced by upwelling decrease abruptly, however some species of radiolarians are favored probably by turbulence and mesoscale gyres, terrigenous recorded a gradual change from wetter to dryer conditions. The interval from ca 4000 to 2700 cal yr BP is in general characterized by fluctuations in productivity. Radiolarian assemblages suggest that two different physical mechanisms could promote the productivity in the region (upwelling and gyres). From ca 2700 to 1000 cal yr BP it seems that the productivity is driven mainly by the east-west gradient across the Gulf of California due to the intensification of NW winds in the region.

  20. Using the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to Analyze Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystems within Northern California Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, K.; Little, M.; Loewenstein, M.; Iraci, L. T.; Milesi, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    The projected impacts of climate change on Northern California ecosystems using model outputs from the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) for the period 1950-2099 based on 1km downscaled climate data from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model are analyzed in this study. The impacts are analyzed for the Special Report Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2, both maintaining present levels of urbanization constant and under projected urban expansion. The analysis is in support of the Climate Adaptation Science Investigation at NASA Ames Research Center. A statistical analysis is completed for time series of temperature, precipitation, gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration, soil runoff, and vapor pressure deficit. Trends produced from this analysis show that increases in maximum and minimum temperatures lead to declines in peak GPP, length of growing seasons, and overall declines in runoff within the watershed. For Northern California, GPP is projected under the A2 scenario to decrease by 18-25% by the 2090 decade as compared to the 2000 decade. These trends indicate a higher risk to crop production and other ecosystem services, as conditions would be less hospitable to vegetation growth. The increase in dried out vegetation would then lead to a higher risk of wildfire and mudslides in the mountainous regions.

  1. National technology needs assessment for the preparation and implementation of climate change action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkel, C.W.M. van; Blonk, T.J.; Westra, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) it is recognised that developed countries have a responsibility in assisting developing countries and countries in economic transition in building a national capacity for the development, acquisition and transfer of Climate-related Technologies (CTs). Such assistance is most likely to be successful once it is tailored to the results of a sound assessment of the country`s development needs and once the results of this assessment have been endorsed by the most important stakeholders in the country. Recent insight in the opportunities and constraints for National (technology) Needs Assessments (NNAs) as planning tool for both capacity building and technology transfer regarding Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) is applied here to propose a participatory Climate Change Action Planning (CCAP) process. This participatory planning process is thought to serve the dual objective of defining a national Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) while at the same time contributing to the creation of a broad supportive basis for its acceptance and implementation among stakeholders in the developing country.

  2. Mid-term evaluation of the Climate Change Action Fund : Public education and outreach (PEO) Block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    In February 1998, the Government of Canada established the Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) to assist Canada in meeting its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CCAF managed a budget of 150 million dollars over three years, and the Public Education and Outreach (PEO) Block was allocated 30 million dollars of that total for its operations. Its mandate was to increase public awareness and understanding on the topic of climate change, as well as providing the required information to effect reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases and adapt to climate change. An evaluation into this program was conducted, and it covered the period September 2000 to January 20, 2001. To date, 152 projects have been approved, which represents an investment of approximately 17.5 million dollars. Approximately 6 million dollars have been spent on the awareness component, while government communication activities used approximately 3.1 million dollars. Staff and project management fees in support of the program account for the remaining funds. This report addressed the performance to date in meeting the objectives, and also included recommendations for improved effectiveness. PEO files and records, a report entitled Interim review of the Climate Change Action Fund PEO Program, interviews with Departmental representatives, and interviews with external stakeholder groups formed the basis for the findings and recommendations. It was determined that future direction represents the most critical issue facing the PEO block. 1 tab.

  3. EU and international policies for hydrometeorological risks:Operational aspects and link to climate action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philippe QUEVAUVILLER; Marco GEMMER

    2015-01-01

    Changes in hydrometeorological characteristics and risks have been observed and are projected to increase under climate change. These considerations are scientifically well studied and led to the development of a complex policy framework for adaptation and mitigation for hydrometeorological risks. Awareness for policy actions is growing worldwide but no legal framework is in place to tackle climate change impacts on water at a global scale. With the example of international frameworks and the legislation on EU-level, this article elaborates that hydrometeorological risks are not considered in the framework of one single policy. However, various policy instruments are directly or indirectly considering these risks at different operational levels. It is discussed that a tailor-made framework for hydrometeorological risks would improve coordination at international or national level. A major drawback for a single operational framework is that hydrometeorological risks are scientifically tackled in two large communities:the disaster risk reduction community and the climate change adaptation community, both of which are bound to different research and operational funding budgets. In future, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation will need been seen as a complementary set of actions that requires collaboration.

  4. Incorporating anthropogenic influences into fire probability models: Effects of development and climate change on fire activity in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, M.; Moritz, M.; Batllori, E.; Waller, E.; Krawchuk, M.; Berck, P.

    2014-12-01

    The costly interactions between humans and natural fire regimes throughout California demonstrate the need to understand the uncertainties surrounding wildfire, especially in the face of a changing climate and expanding human communities. Although a number of statistical and process-based wildfire models exist for California, there is enormous uncertainty about the location and number of future fires. Models estimate an increase in fire occurrence between nine and fifty-three percent by the end of the century. Our goal is to assess the role of uncertainty in climate and anthropogenic influences on the state's fire regime from 2000-2050. We develop an empirical model that integrates novel information about the distribution and characteristics of future plant communities without assuming a particular distribution, and improve on previous efforts by integrating dynamic estimates of population density at each forecast time step. Historically, we find that anthropogenic influences account for up to fifty percent of the total fire count, and that further housing development will incite or suppress additional fires according to their intensity. We also find that the total area burned is likely to increase but at a slower than historical rate. Previous findings of substantially increased numbers of fires may be tied to the assumption of static fuel loadings, and the use of proxy variables not relevant to plant community distributions. We also find considerable agreement between GFDL and PCM model A2 runs, with decreasing fire counts expected only in areas of coastal influence below San Francisco and above Los Angeles. Due to potential shifts in rainfall patterns, substantial uncertainty remains for the semiarid deserts of the inland south. The broad shifts of wildfire between California's climatic regions forecast in this study point to dramatic shifts in the pressures plant and human communities will face by midcentury. The information provided by this study reduces the

  5. Impacts of sea level rise and climate change on coastal plant species in the central California coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra L. Garner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Local increases in sea level caused by global climate change pose a significant threat to the persistence of many coastal plant species through exacerbating inundation, flooding, and erosion. In addition to sea level rise (SLR, climate changes in the form of air temperature and precipitation regimes will also alter habitats of coastal plant species. Although numerous studies have analyzed the effect of climate change on future habitats through species distribution models (SDMs, none have incorporated the threat of exposure to SLR. We developed a model that quantified the effect of both SLR and climate change on habitat for 88 rare coastal plant species in San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Ventura Counties, California, USA (an area of 23,948 km2. Our SLR model projects that by the year 2100, 60 of the 88 species will be threatened by SLR. We found that the probability of being threatened by SLR strongly correlates with a species’ area, elevation, and distance from the coast, and that 10 species could lose their entire current habitat in the study region. We modeled the habitat suitability of these 10 species under future climate using a species distribution model (SDM. Our SDM projects that 4 of the 10 species will lose all suitable current habitats in the region as a result of climate change. While SLR accounts for up to 9.2 km2 loss in habitat, climate change accounts for habitat suitability changes ranging from a loss of 1,439 km2 for one species to a gain of 9,795 km2 for another species. For three species, SLR is projected to reduce future suitable area by as much as 28% of total area. This suggests that while SLR poses a higher risk, climate changes in precipitation and air temperature represents a lesser known but potentially larger risk and a small cumulative effect from both.

  6. Actionable Science Lessons Emerging from the Department of Interior Climate Science Center Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, G.; Meadow, A. M.; Mikels-Carrasco, J.

    2015-12-01

    The DOI Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science (ACCCNRS) has recommended that co-production of actionable science be the core programmatic focus of the Climate Science Center enterprise. Efforts by the Southeast Climate Science Center suggest that the complexity of many climate adaptation decision problems (many stakeholders that can influence implementation of a decision; the problems that can be viewed at many scales in space and time; dynamic objectives with competing values; complex, non-linear systems) complicates development of research-based information that scientists and non-scientists view as comprehensible, trustworthy, legitimate, and accurate. Going forward, organizers of actionable science efforts should consider inclusion of a broad set of stakeholders, beyond formal decisionmakers, and ensure that sufficient resources are available to explore the interests and values of this broader group. Co-produced research endeavors should foster agency and collaboration across a wide range of stakeholders. We recognize that stakeholder agency may be constrained by scientific or political power structures that limit the ability to initiate discussion, make claims, and call things into question. Co-production efforts may need to be preceded by more descriptive assessments that summarize existing climate science in ways that stakeholders can understand and link with their concerns. Such efforts can build rapport and trust among scientists and non-scientists, and may help stakeholders and scientists alike to frame adaptation decision problems amenable to a co-production effort. Finally, university and government researchers operate within an evaluation structure that rewards researcher-driven science that, at the extreme, "throws information over the fence" in the hope that information users will make better decisions. Research evaluation processes must reward more consultative, collaborative, and collegial research approaches if

  7. Institutional capacity and climate actions. Case studies on Mexico, India and Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudela, F. [El Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gupta, S. [Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Peeva, V. [Eneffect, Center for Energy Efficiency, Sofia (Bulgaria); Willems, S. [Global and Structural Policies Division, OECD Environment Directorate, Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Institutional capacity is increasingly considered as a key factor in implementing current climate actions in different parts of the world as well as in preparing for future actions in the medium term. The companion paper to this document, 'Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions' attempts to provide a general assessment of the institutional challenges to climate mitigation (and, to a lesser extent, adaptation). However, institutional capacity assessments are essentially country-specific. The case studies included in this document present initial capacity assessments for three different countries, namely Mexico, India and Bulgaria. These country-specific capacity assessments provide useful insights on each country's institutional challenges and how they might affect the development of current and future actions. These three case studies also represent different ways to analyse the links between institutional capacity and climate actions. The Mexican case study analyses the recent evolution in the development of capacity for climate change mitigation in Mexico. First, capacity is analyzed in terms of seven clusters of functions, each one with different levels of performance. The document also provides a background of national circumstances that frame the capacity building process in the case of Mexico. A description follows of the recent evolution of the performance of each one of the seven identified functional clusters in Mexico. Both progress and regressions are shown. One of the salient features is the recently acquired capacity to develop in an autonomous way regular inventories of greenhouse gases, particularly in the energy-related sectors. The document also identifies some institutional or political bottlenecks or obstacles that should be overcome if the country is to proceed at a faster pace toward the adoption of quantifiable targets. Finally, the Mexican case study presents some ideas on the relationships between changes in the

  8. Southwest regional climate hub and California subsidiary hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the potential vulnerability of specialty crops, field crops, forests, and animal agriculture to climate-driven environmental changes. Here, vulnerability is defined as a function of exposure to climate change effects, sensitivity to these effects, and adaptive capacity. The exp...

  9. National climate change action plans: Interim report for developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, R.; Ness, E.; Hirst, J. [eds.

    1997-10-01

    Under its Support for National Action Plans (SNAP) initiative, the U.S. Country Studies Program is providing financial and technical assistance to 18 countries for the development of climate change action plans. Although most of the countries have not yet completed their plans, the important lessons learned thus far are valuable and should be shared with other countries and international institutions that have an interest in the process of action plan development. This interim report describes the experience of 11 countries that are the furthest along in their planning activity and who have offered to share their results to date with the larger community of interested nations. These action plans delineate specific mitigation and adaptation measures that the countries will implement and integrate into their ongoing development programs. This report focuses on the measures the countries have selected and the methods they used to prepare their action plans. This executive summary presents key lessons and common themes using a structure similar to that used in the individual country chapters.

  10. Lessons in Safety Climate and Safety Practices from a California Hospital Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research (CHP/PCOR) and the Patient Safety Culture Institute (PSCI) at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Palo Alto Health...Table 1. Problematic responses to questions included in both survey implementations Patient Safety Culture in 12 California Hospitals 2001–2002...Problematic responses to questions included in both survey implementations, cont. Patient Safety Culture in 12 California Hospitals 2001–2002 Question

  11. Collapse of the California Current during glacial maxima linked to climate change on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, T D; Schuffert, J D; Andreasen, D; Heusser, L; Lyle, M; Mix, A; Ravelo, A C; Stott, L D; Herguera, J C

    2001-07-06

    Time series of alkenone unsaturation indices gathered along the California margin reveal large (4 degrees to 8 degrees C) glacial-interglacial changes in sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 550,000 years. Interglacial times with SSTs equal to or exceeding that of the Holocene contain peak abundances in the pollen of redwood, the distinctive component of the temperate rainforest of the northwest coast of California. In the region now dominated by the California Current, SSTs warmed 10,000 to 15,000 years in advance of deglaciation at each of the past five glacial maxima. SSTs did not rise in advance of deglaciation south of the modern California Current front. Glacial warming along the California margin therefore is a regional signal of the weakening of the California Current during times when large ice sheets reorganized wind systems over the North Pacific. Both the timing and magnitude of the SST estimates suggest that the Devils Hole (Nevada) calcite record represents regional but not global paleotemperatures, and hence does not pose a fundamental challenge to the orbital ("Milankovitch") theory of the Ice Ages.

  12. From Science to Action: Teaching and Talking about Climate Change in a Museum Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, H.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of Earth Revealed, a permanent exhibition at the Museum of Science and Industry (MSI) is to teach the science behind climate change by making the data accessible, personable, and relevant. In live science experiences guided by an MSI facilitator, guests discuss, vote, share knowledge, ideas, and action items that individuals can take to help reduce climate change. Through a partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), MSI receives the data sets and images that are projected onto a spherical display system. Using the Science on a Sphere, facilitators engage guests in a live participatory show up to five times a day to discuss climate change. Facilitators are trained to use inquiry based learning strategies and positive reinforcement engagement strategies. In the 20 minute live science experience, audience members participate and the facilitator is expected to tailor content according to the group's responses. The theme of Earth Revealed is climate change, and there are multiple stories that facilitators use to engage guests. Based on images from NOAA and through current science news research facilitators discuss content ranging from sea surface temperature to the earth's atmosphere. CO2 + You is the title of the longest running live science experience in Earth Revealed, and is dedicated to teaching how CO2 relates to climate change and how guests can reduce carbon dioxide emissions and thus help mitigate climate change. Participants in this session will learn a bit more in depth about the structure of MSI's Earth Revealed Live Science Experiences, and learn the teaching and participation strategies applied to increase guest participation, discussion, and learning. Session attendees will have an opportunity to participate in the inquiry process and explore various types of positive reinforcement strategies MSI facilitators are trained to implement.

  13. The 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, T. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Angevine, W. M.; Bates, T. S.; Brock, C. A.; Cairns, B.; Cohen, R. C.; Cooper, O. R.; Gouw, J. A.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fischer, M. L.; Flagan, R. C.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hair, J. W.; Hardesty, R. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Langford, A. O.; McCauley, E.; McKeen, S. A.; Molina, L. T.; Nenes, A.; Oltmans, S. J.; Parrish, D. D.; Pederson, J. R.; Pierce, R. B.; Prather, K.; Quinn, P. K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Senff, C. J.; Sorooshian, A.; Stutz, J.; Surratt, J. D.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.; Williams, E. J.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2013-06-01

    The California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study was conducted throughout California in May, June, and July of 2010. The study was organized to address issues simultaneously relevant to atmospheric pollution and climate change, including (1) emission inventory assessment, (2) atmospheric transport and dispersion, (3) atmospheric chemical processing, and (4) cloud-aerosol interactions and aerosol radiative effects. Measurements from networks of ground sites, a research ship, tall towers, balloon-borne ozonesondes, multiple aircraft, and satellites provided in situ and remotely sensed data on trace pollutant and greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol chemical composition and microphysical properties, cloud microphysics, and meteorological parameters. This overview report provides operational information for the variety of sites, platforms, and measurements, their joint deployment strategy, and summarizes findings that have resulted from the collaborative analyses of the CalNex field study. Climate-relevant findings from CalNex include that leakage from natural gas infrastructure may account for the excess of observed methane over emission estimates in Los Angeles. Air-quality relevant findings include the following: mobile fleet VOC significantly declines, and NOx emissions continue to have an impact on ozone in the Los Angeles basin; the relative contributions of diesel and gasoline emission to secondary organic aerosol are not fully understood; and nighttime NO3 chemistry contributes significantly to secondary organic aerosol mass in the San Joaquin Valley. Findings simultaneously relevant to climate and air quality include the following: marine vessel emissions changes due to fuel sulfur and speed controls result in a net warming effect but have substantial positive impacts on local air quality.

  14. Understanding Climate Change on the California Coast: Accounting for Extreme Daily Events among Long-Term Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Potter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The majority of weather station records indicate that surface air temperatures have been warming in California between 1950 and 2005. Temperature data from the mid-1990s to the present were analyzed for stations on California Central Coast near Big Sur (Monterey County to better understand potential for climate change in this biologically unique region. Results showed that daily temperatures in both the winter and summer seasons have cooled the Big Sur coast, particularly after 2003. A current hypothesis is that observed coastal California cooling derives from greenhouse gas-induced regional warming of the inland Central Valley and Sierra Nevada foothill areas, resulting in stronger sustained on-shore sea-breeze flow. Closer examination of daily temperature records at a station location near the Big Sur coast revealed that, even as average monthly maximum temperatures (Tmax have decreased gradually, the number of extreme warm summer days (Tmax > 37 °C has also increased by several fold in frequency. Overall patterns in the station records since the mid-1990s indicated that diurnal temperature ranges are widening on the Big Sur coast, with markedly cooler nighttime temperatures (frequently in the wet winter season followed by slightly higher-than-average daytime temperatures, especially during the warm, dry summer season.

  15. Motivated for Action and Collaboration: The Abrahamic Religions and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jame Schaefer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaders of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have publicly advocated action to mitigate the adverse effects of human-forced climate change. Particularly prominent prior to, during, and after the 21st Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change were Rabbi Arthur Waskow, Pope Francis, and Patriarch Bartholomew. Also prominent was a group of Islamic clerics, leaders of organizations, and scholars who collaborated in issuing a declaration on climate change three months prior to COP 21. Informed by the Earth sciences, these leaders shared their faith-based rationales for acting locally to internationally as indicated in the documents explored in this article. Examples of organizations motivated by their leaders’ faith perspectives demonstrate their readiness to act informed by scientists. To work effectively, these religious leaders and activist groups require well-substantiated conclusions from data collected to counter unsubstantiated claims by climate skeptics. Earth scientists will find among the religious leaders and groups allies in the quest for a flourishing planet.

  16. Territories climate plans: territories in action 21 collectivities involved in the climatic change challenge. 1. experiences collection 2007; Plans climat territoriaux: des territoires en action 21 collectivites engagees dans la releve du defi climatique. 1. recueil d'experiences 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The climate plan invites the collectivities to implement actions of greenhouse reduction. This collection presents the first collectivities involved in a climate approach: towns, natural parks, syndicates, general and regional council. (A.L.B.)

  17. Restoring Summer Base Flow under a Decentralized Water Management Regime: Constraints, Opportunities, and Outcomes in Mediterranean-Climate California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Deitch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal rainfall dynamics in Mediterranean-climate coastal California place pressures on humans and aquatic ecosystems. Without rainfall during summer, residents and land managers commonly turn to streams and adjacent shallow aquifers to meet domestic, irrigation, and recreational water needs, often depleting the water necessary to support stream biota. The potential for adverse ecological impacts within this coupled natural-human system has led to interest in restoring summer base flow (especially for federally protected steelhead and coho salmon, which depend on flow through the summer dry season for juvenile survival through methods such as reducing dry-season water abstractions. Characterizing constraints and opportunities has proven useful for planning streamflow restoration in Mediterranean-climate coastal California. Biophysical parameters such as ample rainfall and very low summer discharge are critical considerations, but institutional parameters are equally important: regional management practices and state laws can inhibit streamflow restoration, and implementation is dependent on interrelationships among residents, agency staff, and other stakeholders (which we term the egosystem within each watershed. Additionally, while watershed-scale spatial analysis and field-based evaluations provided a solid foundation for exploring streamflow restoration needs, adaptation based on information from local stakeholders was often essential for prioritizing projects and understanding whether projects will have their intended benefits.

  18. Conditions for Emergence, Stability and Change in New Organizations in the Field of Citizens Climate Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina

    expanding worldwide the weight of expectations can be boiled down to two: One refers to their potential for delivering specific mitigation/adaptation goals; the second refers to their organizational potential, stability and the manner in which they can ultimately affect societal transformational change....... This contribution is concerned with the latter. It proposes that using field analysis it is possible to understand conditions of emergence, stability and change in citizen engagement in climate action. The present contribution offers only a preliminary exploration of possibilities for how using field theory can...

  19. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco bay-delta-river system in a century of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Knowles, N.; Brown, L.R.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Morgan, T.L.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Stacey, M.T.; van der Wegen, M.; Wagner, R.W.; Jassby, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings: We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010-2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance: Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community

  20. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a century of continuing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Knowles, Noah; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Dettinger, Michael D.; Morgan, Tara L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; van der Wegen, Mick; Wagner, R. Wayne; Jassby, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community

  1. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-river system in a century of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Cloern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010-2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21(st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1 an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2 varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3 inevitability of

  2. Does Education Plus Action Lead to Leadership on Climate? Preliminary Results from the ACE Leadership Development Longitudinal Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. K.; Qusba, L.; Lappe, M.; Flora, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Through education and leadership development, Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) is building a generation of confident and capable youth driving climate solutions now throughout their lives. In 2011-12, a random sample of 2,800 high school students across the country was surveyed before and after seeing the ACE Assembly on climate science and solutions. The survey showed that the ACE Assembly resulted in a 27% increase in climate science knowledge scores, with 59% of students increasing their intentions to take action on climate and a doubling of the number of students talking to parents and peers about climate change. Students were also compared to the Global Warming's Six Americas classification of Americans' views on climate. Following the ACE Assembly, 60% of students were alarmed or concerned about climate change. Building off these results, in 2014 ACE began to assess the results of its leadership development program that follows the ACE Assembly. The goal of this survey project is to measure ACE's long-term impact on students' college and career pathways, civic engagement and climate action. Preliminary results show that a majority of students in ACE's leadership development program are alarmed about global warming and are having conversations about global warming. A majority of these students also feel confident in their ability to lead a climate-related campaign in their school and community. These students will continue to be surveyed through 2015.

  3. Assessing the geologic and climatic forcing of biodiversity and evolution surrounding the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolby, Greer; Bennett, Scott E K.; Lira-Noriega, Andres; Wilder, Benjamin T.; Munguia-Vega, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    For almost a century the Baja California peninsula (Peninsula), Gulf of California (Gulf), and broader Sonoran Desert region (figure 1) have drawn geologists and biologists alike to study its unique physical and evolutionary processes (e.g., Wittich 1920; Darton 1921; Nelson 1921; Johnston 1924; Beal 1948; Durham and Allison 1960). The challenge remains to untangle the long, intricate, and at times enigmatic geological and climatological histories that have shaped the high levels of endemism and biodiversity observed in the region today (Van Devender 1990; Grismer 2000; Riddle et al. 2000).

  4. How do radical climate movements negotiate their environmental and their social agendas? A study of debates within the Camp for Climate Action (UK)

    OpenAIRE

    Schlembach, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    This is a case study of the Camp for Climate Action, which has held several high-profile protest events in the UK since its inception in 2006. It analyses the Camp as a contested space where different emphases on environmental and social priorities have to be negotiated by its activists. The article considers areas of contestation where concerns over climate change meet questions of social justice. These are structured around tangible issues of campaigning, such as opposition to new coal-fire...

  5. 75 FR 27384 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Management; E.O. 12898 Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low Income Populations; E.O. 11593 Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural Environment; E.O. 13007 Indian...]; American Indian Religious Freedom Act ; and The Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property...

  6. 76 FR 53996 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    .... 12898 Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low Income Populations; E.O. 11593 Protection and Enhancement of Cultural Resources; E.O. 13112 Invasive Species... of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000(d)-2000(d) (1)]; The Uniform Relocation Assistance Act and Real...

  7. Communicating climate change: alerting versus stimulating action, a few "philosophical" interrogations from a marine biogeochemist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragueneau, O.

    2009-04-01

    I'm a marine biogeochemist, working on diatoms and their role in the oceanic biological pump and climate. Since a few years, I'm placing a lot of time and energy in communicating science about climate change because I feel that, in addition to the remarkable work performed by the IPCC which has major implications on the political agenda, we also need to talk to each citizen to stimulate action towards mitigation. While doing so, many questions arise and I think it is very important that we share our experiences, so that each of us can continue the best he can. First, I try to experience different forms of communication. Science cafés, conferences, seminars with a group of adults to explore scientific controversies (e.g. carbon compensation, biofuels…), work with teachers to bring climate change in classes. My objectives are double: convey the most recent scientific information on climate change and stimulate action. And here arises the first question: what is the frontier between outreach and a more "political" engagement? Is there any difference between working with professionals towards integrated coastal zone management, and talking to citizens, which is an important scale, when addressing climate change? During these interventions, I have realized the need to communicate about "numbers". Global numbers, in terms of gigatons emitted by human activities. But also individual numbers, to address questions such as: how important are personal emissions compared to the industry for example? And what about my own emissions? Compared to those of my neighbour… The mean individual emissions in France compared to England or Germany. In Europe compared to the US or Africa… And if I want to do something, should I act on my transport, the energy I use at home, my food? In fact, do I even know there is CO2 in my plate? To help answering some of these questions, I have developed a calculator of personal CO2 emissions, that I use in a "conference-workshop" where people

  8. Making short-term climate forecasts useful: Linking science and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizer, James; Jacobs, Katharine; Cash, David

    2016-04-26

    This paper discusses the evolution of scientific and social understanding that has led to the development of knowledge systems supporting the application of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecasts, including the development of successful efforts to connect climate predictions with sectoral applications and actions "on the ground". The evolution of "boundary-spanning" activities to connect science and decisionmaking is then discussed, setting the stage for a report of outcomes from an international workshop comprised of producers, translators, and users of climate predictions. The workshop, which focused on identifying critical boundary-spanning features of successful boundary organizations, included participants from Australia, Hawaii, and the Pacific Islands, the US Pacific Northwest, and the state of Ceará in northwestern Brazil. Workshop participants agreed that boundary organizations have multiple roles including those of information broker, convenor of forums for engagement, translator of scientific information, arbiter of access to knowledge, and exemplar of adaptive behavior. Through these roles, boundary organizations will ensure the stability of the knowledge system in a changing political, economic, and climatic context. The international examples reviewed in this workshop demonstrated an interesting case of convergent evolution, where organizations that were very different in origin evolved toward similar structures and individuals engaged in them had similar experiences to share. These examples provide evidence that boundary organizations and boundary-spanners fill some social/institutional roles that are independent of culture.

  9. Health impacts of climate change in Vanuatu: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne; McIver, Lachlan

    2013-01-30

    Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges and Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable due to, among other factors, their geography, demography and level of economic development. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used as a basis for the consideration of the potential health impacts of changes in the climate on the population of Vanuatu, to assess the risks and propose a range of potential adaptive responses appropriate for Vanuatu. The HIA process involved the participation of a broad range of stakeholders including expert sector representatives in the areas of bio-physical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food, who provided informed comment and input into the understanding of the potential health impacts and development of adaptation strategies. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed with the application of a qualitative process that considered both the consequences and the likelihood of each of the potential health impacts occurring. Potential adaptation strategies and actions were developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by the various sectors in Vanuatu to contribute to future decision making processes associated with the health impacts of climate change.

  10. Dissecting the Influences of Climate and Demography on the Dynamics of Leptospirosis in California Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection of global importance, yet its population dynamics remain poorly understood. We present the first empirically-motivated study of the dynamics of leptospirosis, drawing on a unique 24-year time series of disease in California sea lions (CSLs). Since the early 19...

  11. Investigating the climate impacts of urbanization and the potential for cool roofs to counter future climate change in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Sun, F.; Hall, A.; Ban-Weiss, G.

    2016-12-01

    The climate warming effects of accelerated urbanization along with projected global climate change raise an urgent need for sustainable mitigation and adaptation strategies to cool urban climates. Our modeling results show that historical urbanization in the Los Angeles and San Diego metropolitan areas has increased daytime urban air temperature by 1.3 °C, in part due to a weakening of the onshore sea breeze circulation. We find that metropolis-wide adoption of cool roofs can meaningfully offset this daytime warming, reducing temperatures by 0.9 °C relative to a case without cool roofs. Residential cool roofs were responsible for 67% of the cooling. Nocturnal temperature increases of 3.1 °C from urbanization were larger than daytime warming, while nocturnal temperature reductions from cool roofs of 0.5 °C were weaker than corresponding daytime reductions. We further show that cool roof deployment could partially counter the local impacts of global climate change in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Assuming a scenario in which there are dramatic decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in the 21st century (RCP2.6), mid- and end-of-century temperature increases from global change relative to current climate are similarly reduced by cool roofs from 1.4 °C to 0.6 °C. Assuming a scenario with continued emissions increases throughout the century (RCP8.5), mid-century warming is significantly reduced by cool roofs from 2.0 °C to 1.0 °C. The end-century warming, however, is significantly offset only in small localized areas containing mostly industrial/commercial buildings where cool roofs with the highest albedo are adopted. We conclude that metropolis-wide adoption of cool roofs can play an important role in mitigating the urban heat island effect, and offsetting near-term local warming from global climate change. Global-scale reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are the only way of avoiding long-term warming, however. We further suggest that both climate

  12. Potential impacts of climate warming on water supply reliability in the Tuolumne and Merced River Basins, California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kiparsky

    Full Text Available We present an integrated hydrology/water operations simulation model of the Tuolumne and Merced River Basins, California, using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP platform. The model represents hydrology as well as water operations, which together influence water supplied for agricultural, urban, and environmental uses. The model is developed for impacts assessment using scenarios for climate change and other drivers of water system behavior. In this paper, we describe the model structure, its representation of historical streamflow, agricultural and urban water demands, and water operations. We describe projected impacts of climate change on hydrology and water supply to the major irrigation districts in the area, using uniform 2 °C, 4 °C, and 6 °C increases applied to climate inputs from the calibration period. Consistent with other studies, we find that the timing of hydrology shifts earlier in the water year in response to temperature warming (5-21 days. The integrated agricultural model responds with increased water demands 2 °C (1.4-2.0%, 4 °C (2.8-3.9%, and 6 °C (4.2-5.8%. In this sensitivity analysis, the combination of altered hydrology and increased demands results in decreased reliability of surface water supplied for agricultural purposes, with modeled quantity-based reliability metrics decreasing from a range of 0.84-0.90 under historical conditions to 0.75-0.79 under 6 °C warming scenario.

  13. Potential impacts of climate warming on water supply reliability in the Tuolumne and Merced River Basins, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiparsky, Michael; Joyce, Brian; Purkey, David; Young, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We present an integrated hydrology/water operations simulation model of the Tuolumne and Merced River Basins, California, using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) platform. The model represents hydrology as well as water operations, which together influence water supplied for agricultural, urban, and environmental uses. The model is developed for impacts assessment using scenarios for climate change and other drivers of water system behavior. In this paper, we describe the model structure, its representation of historical streamflow, agricultural and urban water demands, and water operations. We describe projected impacts of climate change on hydrology and water supply to the major irrigation districts in the area, using uniform 2 °C, 4 °C, and 6 °C increases applied to climate inputs from the calibration period. Consistent with other studies, we find that the timing of hydrology shifts earlier in the water year in response to temperature warming (5-21 days). The integrated agricultural model responds with increased water demands 2 °C (1.4-2.0%), 4 °C (2.8-3.9%), and 6 °C (4.2-5.8%). In this sensitivity analysis, the combination of altered hydrology and increased demands results in decreased reliability of surface water supplied for agricultural purposes, with modeled quantity-based reliability metrics decreasing from a range of 0.84-0.90 under historical conditions to 0.75-0.79 under 6 °C warming scenario.

  14. Holocene dinoflagellate cyst record of climate and marine primary productivity change in the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospelova, Vera; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Hendy, Ingrid, L.; Pedersen, Thomas F.

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts and other marine palynomorphs from the Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A) demonstrate large variability of primary productivity during the Holocene, as the California Current System responded to climate change. Throughout the sequence, dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are characterized by the dominance of cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and particularly by Brigantedinium, accompanied by other upwelling-related taxa such as Echinidinium and cysts of Protoperidinium americanum. During the early Holocene (~12-7 ka), the species richness is relatively low (16 taxa) and genius Brigantedinium reaches the highest relative abundance, thus indicating nutrient-rich and highly productive waters. The middle Holocene (~7-3.5 ka) is characterized by relatively constant cyst concentrations, and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are indicative of a slight decrease in sea-surface temperature. A noticeable increase and greater range of fluctuations in the cyst concentrations during the late Holocene (~3.5-1 ka) indicate enhanced marine primary productivity and increased climatic variability, most likely related to the intensification of El Niño-like conditions. Keywords: dinoflagellate cysts, Holocene, North Pacific, climate, primary productivity.

  15. A robust impact assessment that informs actionable climate change adaptation: future sunburn browning risk in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Leanne; Darbyshire, Rebecca; Erwin, Tim; Goodwin, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Climate change impact assessments are predominantly undertaken for the purpose of informing future adaptation decisions. Often, the complexity of the methodology hinders the actionable outcomes. The approach used here illustrates the importance of considering uncertainty in future climate projections, at the same time providing robust and simple to interpret information for decision-makers. By quantifying current and future exposure of Royal Gala apple to damaging temperature extremes across ten important pome fruit-growing locations in Australia, differences in impact to ripening fruit are highlighted, with, by the end of the twenty-first century, some locations maintaining no sunburn browning risk, while others potentially experiencing the risk for the majority of the January ripening period. Installation of over-tree netting can reduce the impact of sunburn browning. The benefits from employing this management option varied across the ten study locations. The two approaches explored to assist decision-makers assess this information (a) using sunburn browning risk analogues and (b) through identifying hypothetical sunburn browning risk thresholds, resulted in varying recommendations for introducing over-tree netting. These recommendations were location and future time period dependent with some sites showing no benefit for sunburn protection from nets even by the end of the twenty-first century and others already deriving benefits from employing this adaptation option. Potential best and worst cases of sunburn browning risk and its potential reduction through introduction of over-tree nets were explored. The range of results presented highlights the importance of addressing uncertainty in climate projections that result from different global climate models and possible future emission pathways.

  16. The Construction of Scrub in California and the Mediterranean Borderlands: Climatic and Edaphic Climax Mosaic or Anthropogenic Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    There is a marked difference in the representation of Mediterranean scrub vegetation (e.g., chaparral, maquis) in North American and European literature in biogeography and ecology. Authors discussing this vegetation in the California context accept that it is a natural response to the Mediterranean climates, with their late summer and fall fires, and steep terrain. Debate here focusses on the extent to which humans have modified or, indeed, can modify "natural" fire regimes. European authors frame this vegetation instead as a secondary successional formation in a landscape that "should" be dominated by oak woodland and forest. The widespread presence of Mediterranean scrub is cast as an artifact of human disturbance over thousands of years, mediated through overgrazing, deforestation, accelerated erosion, and anthropogenic fire. This poster will present a content analysis of the Mediterranean scrub literature, in order to engage both traditions in the construction of a unified framework for these pyrogenic formations.

  17. Vegetation response to southern California drought during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and early Little Ice Age (AD 800–1600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Linda E.; Hendy, Ingrid L.; Barron, John A.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution studies of pollen in laminated sediments deposited in Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) core SPR0901-02KC reflect decadal-scale fluctuations in precipitation spanning the interval from AD 800–1600. From AD 800–1090 during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) SBB sediments were dominated by xeric vegetation types (drought-resistant coastal sagebrush and chaparral) implying reduced precipitation in the southern California region. Drought-adapted vegetation abruptly decreased at AD 1090 and was rapidly replaced by mesic oak (Quercus) woodlands associated with an increased pollen flux into the basin. After a mesic interval lasting ∼100 years, pollen flux and the relative abundance of Quercus pollen dropped abruptly at AD 1200 when the rapid rise of chaparral suggests a significant drought similar to that of the MCA (∼AD 800–1090). This brief resurgence of drought-adapted vegetation between AD 1200–1270 marked the end of the MCA droughts. A gradual increase in mesic vegetation followed, characterizing cool hydroclimates of the Little Ice Age (LIA) in coastal southern California.

  18. Integrated climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for assessing threats to ecosystem services on California rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Flint, L. E.; Casey, C. F.; Alvarez, P.; Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T.

    2013-12-01

    In California there are over 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley and the interior Coast Range, most of which are privately owned and managed for livestock production. Ranches provide extensive wildlife habitat and generate multiple ecosystem services that carry considerable market and non-market values. These rangelands are under pressure from urbanization and conversion to intensive agriculture, as well as from climate change that can alter the flow of these services. To understand the coupled and isolated impacts of land use and climate change on rangeland ecosystem services, we developed six spatially explicit (250 m) coupled climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for the Central Valley and oak woodland regions of California consistent with three IPCC emission scenarios - A2, A1B and B1. Three land use land cover (LULC) change scenarios were each integrated with two downscaled global climate models (GCMs) (a warm, wet future and a hot, dry future) and related hydrologic data. We used these scenarios to quantify wildlife habitat, water supply (recharge potential and streamflow) and carbon sequestration on rangelands and to conduct an economic analysis associated with changes in these benefits. The USGS FOREcasting SCEnarios of land-use change model (FORE-SCE), which runs dynamically with downscaled GCM outputs, was used to generate maps of yearly LULC change for each scenario from 2006 to 2100. We used the USGS Basin Characterization Model (BCM), a regional water balance model, to generate change in runoff, recharge, and stream discharge based on land use change and climate change. Metrics derived from model outputs were generated at the landscape scale and for six case-study watersheds. At the landscape scale, over a quarter of the million acres set aside for conservation in the B1 scenario would otherwise be converted to agriculture in the A2 scenario, where temperatures increase by up to 4.5 °C compared to 1.3 °C in the B1 scenario

  19. Restoring Lands - Coordinating Science, Politics and Action Complexities of Climate and Governance

    CERN Document Server

    Scarlett, Lynn; Vargas-Moreno, Juan; Flaxman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues, vast and varied in their details, unfold at the confluence of people and place. They present complexities in their biophysical details, their scope and scale, and the dynamic character of human action and natural systems. Addressing environmental issues often invokes tensions among battling interests and competing priorities. Air and water pollution, the effects of climate change, ecosystem transformations—these and other environmental issues involve scientific, social, economic, and institutional challenges. This book analyzes why tackling many of these problems is so difficult and why sustainability involves more than adoption of greener, cleaner technologies. Sustainability, as discussed in this book, involves knowledge flows and collaborative decision processes that integrate scientific and technological methods and tools, political and governance structures and regimes, and social and community values. The authors synthesize a holistic and adaptive approach to rethinking the frame...

  20. Climate change impacts on California vegetation: physiology, life history, and ecosystem change.

    OpenAIRE

    Cornwell, William K.; Stuart, Stephanie A.; Ramirez, Aaron; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Thorne, James H.; Ackerly, David D

    2012-01-01

    Dominant plant species mediate many ecosystem services, including carbon storage, soil retention, and water cycling. One of the uncertainties with climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems is understanding where transitions in dominant vegetation, often termed state change, will occur. The complex nature of state change requires multiple lines of evidence. Here, we present four lines of inquiry into climate change effects on dominant vegetation, focu...

  1. Narrowing the gap between climate science and adaptation action: The role of boundary chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J. Kirchhoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Boundary organizations play a critical role at the interface between science and decision making. They create, protect and sustain an interactive space for co-production of science and decision-making while simultaneously bridging the two domains. In this special issue we advance the concept of boundary chains, whereby two or more boundary organizations link together synergistically to influence one another and to leverage each other’s resources and strengths to achieve shared goals. In this process both the level of complementary and embeddedness between these organizations is critical for achieving these goals. Through a series of case studies focusing primarily but not exclusively on climate information use in the United States, we aim to advance scholarship in the field by examining innovation among boundary organizations and testing the boundary chain concept. In doing so, we focus on boundary chains both as a theoretical construct to re-think the structure, function, and adaptability of boundary organizations and as a practical strategy to further increase the usability of climate knowledge for adaptation action across a wider range of users.

  2. Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Barrett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1 improve personal health and well-being; (2 decrease energy use; (3 reduce automobile use; (4 increase active transport; (5 shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6 reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.

  3. Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Grabow, Maggie; Middlecamp, Cathy; Mooney, Margaret; Checovich, Mary M; Converse, Alexander K; Gillespie, Bob; Yates, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA) curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1) improve personal health and well-being; (2) decrease energy use; (3) reduce automobile use; (4) increase active transport; (5) shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6) reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.

  4. Impact of global climate change on ozone, particulate matter, and secondary organic aerosol concentrations in California: A model perturbation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jeremy R.; Dabdub, Donald

    2017-03-01

    Air quality simulations are performed to determine the impact of changes in future climate and emissions on regional air quality in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) of California. The perturbation parameters considered in this study include (1) temperature, (2) absolute humidity, (3) biogenic VOC emissions due to temperature changes, and (4) boundary conditions. All parameters are first perturbed individually. In addition, the impact of simultaneously perturbing more than one parameter is analyzed. Air quality is simulated with meteorology representative of a summertime ozone pollution episode using both a baseline 2005 emissions inventory and a future emissions projection for the year 2023. Different locations within the modeling domain exhibit varying degrees of sensitivity to the perturbations considered. Afternoon domain wide average ozone concentrations are projected to increase by 13-18% as a result of changes in future climate and emissions. Afternoon increases at individual locations range from 10 to 36%. The change in afternoon particulate matter (PM) levels is a strong function of location in the basin, ranging from -7.1% to +4.7% when using 2005 emissions and -8.6% to +1.7% when using 2023 emissions. Afternoon secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations for the entire domain are projected to decrease by over 15%, and the change in SOA levels is not a strong function of the emissions inventory utilized. Temperature increases play the dominant role in determining the overall impact on ozone, PM, and SOA concentrations in both the individual and combined perturbation scenarios.

  5. Climatic consequences of adopting drought-tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Ban-Weiss, G.

    2016-08-01

    During 2012-2014, drought in California resulted in policies to reduce water consumption. One measure pursued was replacing lawns with landscapes that minimize water consumption, such as drought-tolerant vegetation. If implemented at broad scale, this strategy would result in reductions in irrigation and changes in land surface characteristics. In this study, we employ a modified regional climate model to assess the climatic consequences of adopting drought-tolerant vegetation over the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Transforming lawns to drought-tolerant vegetation resulted in daytime warming of up to 1.9°C, largely due to decreases in irrigation that shifted surface energy partitioning toward higher sensible and lower latent heat flux. During nighttime, however, adopting drought-tolerant vegetation caused mean cooling of 3.2°C, due to changes in soil thermodynamic properties and heat exchange dynamics between the surface and subsurface. Our results show that nocturnal cooling effects, which are larger in magnitude and of great importance for public health during heat events, could counterbalance the daytime warming attributed to the studied water conservation strategy. A more aggressive implementation, assuming all urban vegetation was replaced with drought-tolerant vegetation, resulted in an average daytime cooling of 0.2°C, largely due to strengthened sea breeze patterns, highlighting the important role of land surface roughness in this coastal megacity.

  6. Coccolithophore export production in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California: response to climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziveri, P.; Thunell, R. C.

    The flux and taxonomic composition of coccolithophores has been determined for sediment trap samples collected over a two-year period from Guaymas Basin, central Gulf of California. The Gulf of California is a subtropical marginal sea with exceptionally high rates of primary productivity. The annual biogenic sediment fluxes are largely dominated by silica, with diatoms as the major contributor to the opal flux. For the July 1990 through November 1992 study period, the total coccolithophore export production in Guaymas varied in response to the strength of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Coccolithophore production follows the general surface primary productivity pattern with relatively high fluxes from late fall to late winter, and low production in the summer when the water column is highly stratified and nutrient depleted. High fluxes of up to 10 9 coccoliths m -2 day-1 and 3×10 6 coccospheres m -2 day-1 indicate that coccolithophores are an important component of the phytoplankton population in Guaymas Basin. The intensification of ENSO conditions during 1992 altered the typical hydrography of the Gulf of California by increasing SST and reducing the strength of spring upwelling. This is reflected in reduced opal and diatom fluxes during this period. Conversely, these more oligotrophic conditions resulted in higher total coccolithophore fluxes during spring and summer 1992. Gephyrocapsa oceanica is present in the Gulf throughout the study period, but is dominant during weak or non-ENSO times. Emiliania huxleyi and, to a lesser degree, Florisphaera profunda are abundant during strong ENSO periods. Two major coccolithophore signals are indicative of strong ENSO conditions and could be used as paleo-ENSO indicators in the Gulf of California: (a) the switch in dominance between G. oceanica and E. huxleyi and (b) high abundances of the deep dwelling species F. profunda. The abundance of this latter species shows a strong inverse relationship with opal fluxes. A

  7. A year without summer for California, or a harbinger of a climate shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Frank; Moore, Chris

    Mark Twain once remarked “The coldest winter I ever spent was a summer in San Francisco.”If residents and visitors along the California coast think the summer of 1999 was even cooler than usual, they are right. Several air temperature records were set (R. Renard, pers. comm., 2000). October 1999 marked a 13-month run of below-normal temperatures at Monterey, and the March-July mean was 1.4°C below the long-term average.

  8. SCENARIOS FOR MEETING CALIFORNIA'S 2050 CLIMATE GOALS California's Carbon Challenge Phase II Volume I: Non-Electricity Sectors and Overall Scenario Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey; Donovan, Sally; Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This study provides an updated analysis of long-term energy system scenarios for California consistent with the State meeting its 2050 climate goal, including detailed analysis and assessment of electricity system build-out, operation, and costs across the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region. Four key elements are found to be critical for the State to achieve its 2050 goal of 80 percent greenhouse (GHG) reductions from the 1990 level: aggressive energy efficiency; clean electricity; widespread electrification of passenger vehicles, building heating, and industry heating; and large-scale production of low-carbon footprint biofuels to largely replace petroleum-based liquid fuels. The approach taken here is that technically achievable energy efficiency measures are assumed to be achieved by 2050 and aggregated with the other key elements mentioned above to estimate resultant emissions in 2050. The energy and non-energy sectors are each assumed to have the objective of meeting an 80 percent reduction from their respective 1990 GHG levels for the purposes of analysis. A different partitioning of energy and non-energy sector GHG greenhouse reductions is allowed if emission reductions in one sector are more economic or technically achievable than in the other. Similarly, within the energy or non-energy sectors, greater or less than 80 percent reduction from 1990 is allowed for sub-sectors within the energy or non-energy sectors as long as the overall target is achieved. Overall emissions for the key economy-wide scenarios are considered in this report. All scenarios are compliant or nearly compliant with the 2050 goal. This finding suggests that multiple technical pathways exist to achieve the target with aggressive policy support and continued technology development of largely existing technologies.

  9. Connecting Knowledge, Belief, Values and Action: Informing Climate Literacy by Using Autobiographies to Articulate Environmental Worldviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate literacy is evolving as a specific subset of science and environmental literacy. Through a longitudinal analysis of environmental autobiographies of an internationally and religiously diverse group of environmental sciences majors at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the southern U.S., this presentation will explore: 1) sources and impact of religious beliefs on students' environmental worldview; 2) conflicts between religious, community and scientific values; and 3) navigating the tensions between trust in a religious deity as well as scientific methods and processes. Lester Milbrath states that "beliefs empower and deceive us." The media, as well as significant people and institutions, including religious institutions, socialize us and contribute to individual and societal worldviews. "We so thoroughly accept our culture's beliefs about how the world works that we hardly ever think about them even though they underlie everything we think and do." Beliefs, attitudes, and values comprise an important component of environmental literacy, a praxis-oriented concept from the field of environmental education, which is defined as: [T]he capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems . . . Environmental literacy should be defined in terms of observable behaviors. (Disinger and Roth 1992, 2). Environmental literacy draws upon six areas: environmental sensitivity; knowledge; skills; beliefs, attitudes and values; personal investment and responsibility; and active involvement. It involves particular ways of thinking, acting, and valuing (Roth 1992). Religious beliefs, or lack thereof, shape worldviews, thereby influencing individual and societal environmental and more specifically, climate literacy. For example, Western Christianity espouses a hierarchical anthropocentric worldview, putting God infinitely above human beings, and

  10. Ecosystem feedbacks to climate change in California: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subin, Z.M.; Riley, W.J.; Kueppers, L.M.; Jin, J.; Christianson, D.S.; Torn, M.S.

    2010-11-01

    A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future California land-cover changes. The impact was evaluated on California's climate of changes in natural vegetation under climate change and of intentional afforestation. The ability of WRF3 to simulate California's climate was assessed by comparing simulations by WRF3-CLM3.5 and WRF3-Noah to observations from 1982 to 1991. Using WRF3-CLM3.5, the authors performed six 13-yr experiments using historical and future large-scale climate boundary conditions from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The land-cover scenarios included historical and future natural vegetation from the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System-Century 1 (MC1) dynamic vegetation model, in addition to a future 8-million-ha California afforestation scenario. Natural vegetation changes alone caused summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature changes of -0.7 to +1 C in regions without persistent snow cover, depending on the location and the type of vegetation change. Vegetation temperature changes were much larger than the 2-m air temperature changes because of the finescale spatial heterogeneity of the imposed vegetation change. Up to 30% of the magnitude of the summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature increase and 70% of the magnitude of the 1600 local time (LT) vegetation temperature increase projected under future climate change were attributable to the climate-driven shift in land cover. The authors projected that afforestation could cause local 0.2-1.2 C reductions in summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature and 2.0-3.7 C reductions in 1600 LT vegetation temperature for snow-free regions, primarily because of increased evapotranspiration. Because some of these temperature changes are of comparable magnitude to those

  11. Potential Impacts of Climate Warming on Water Supply Reliability in the Tuolumne and Merced River Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiparsky, Michael; Joyce, Brian; Purkey, David; Young, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We present an integrated hydrology/water operations simulation model of the Tuolumne and Merced River Basins, California, using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) platform. The model represents hydrology as well as water operations, which together influence water supplied for agricultural, urban, and environmental uses. The model is developed for impacts assessment using scenarios for climate change and other drivers of water system behavior. In this paper, we describe the model structure, its representation of historical streamflow, agricultural and urban water demands, and water operations. We describe projected impacts of climate change on hydrology and water supply to the major irrigation districts in the area, using uniform 2°C, 4°C, and 6°C increases applied to climate inputs from the calibration period. Consistent with other studies, we find that the timing of hydrology shifts earlier in the water year in response to temperature warming (5–21 days). The integrated agricultural model responds with increased water demands 2°C (1.4–2.0%), 4°C (2.8–3.9%), and 6°C (4.2–5.8%). In this sensitivity analysis, the combination of altered hydrology and increased demands results in decreased reliability of surface water supplied for agricultural purposes, with modeled quantity-based reliability metrics decreasing from a range of 0.84–0.90 under historical conditions to 0.75–0.79 under 6°C warming scenario. PMID:24465455

  12. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital

  13. Changes of seasonal storm properties in California and Nevada from an ensemble of climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongbo; Jiang, Peng; Gautam, Mahesh R.; Zhang, Yong; Acharya, Kumud

    2015-04-01

    Precipitation characteristics, such as intensity, frequency, duration, and event pattern, are changing due to the increases in greenhouse gases, transition of ocean oscillation phases, etc. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of 11 realizations from multiple regional climate model (RCM)/global climate model pairs in the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) to simulate the seasonal variability and magnitude of storm properties, including storm duration, interstorm period, and storm intensity. The results indicate that NARCCAP RCMs simulate the seasonal variability better in the Greater Sacramento and San Joaquin than in Las Vegas, which may be due to the RCMs' inability to simulate local convective precipitation associated with the North American Monsoon. We also investigate the impacts of climate change on these storm characteristics by comparing the percentage change and absolute change of storm properties determined from NARCCAP historical runs and future runs. We find that individual RCMs exhibit great uncertainty in the percentage changes in storm duration, interstorm period, and average storm intensity. The ensemble means of storm properties across 11 future NARCCAP RCM projections show different responses to climate change in different locations. Our analyses provide guidelines for selecting the appropriate RCMs for hydrologic studies related to storm properties and provide forecasters and water managers with detailed information of future changes in storm properties so that they can sustainably manage water resources. Our results may also contribute to the nonstationary precipitation scenario development by incorporating the percentage changes of storm properties caused by human-induced warming into the stochastic precipitation model.

  14. Understanding How and Why Cities Engage with Climate Policy: An Analysis of Local Climate Action in Spain and Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia De Gregorio Hurtado

    2015-10-01

    The results of the analysis show a trend towards an increasing awareness on climate mitigation (highly focused on energy efficiency and the promotion of cleaner energy sources, while adaptation remains an incipient local policy area in both countries. The analysis identifies also the beneficial influence of national and international climate city networks.

  15. Subsidence of the Laguna Salada Basin, northeastern Baja California, Mexico, inferred from Milankovitch climatic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Juan; Martin-Barajas, Arturo [Departamento de Geologia, CICESE, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico); Herguera, Juan Carlos [Division de Oceanologia, CICESE, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    Laguna Salada in northern Baja California, Mexico, is an active half-graben product of the trans-tensional tectonics of the Gulf of California. It is sensitive to changes in sediment supply from the Colorado River basin. We present a time series analysis of the upper 980 m of a gamma-ray log from a borehole drilled near the Laguna Salada fault. The power spectrum of the gammaray log resembles the spectrum of {delta}{sup 1}8{omicron} Pleistocene isotopic variations from ice cores and from the deep ocean, known to be strongly controlled by Milankovitch cycles. We correlate {delta}{sup 1}8{omicron} stages with silty and sandy intervals in the log. Downcore ages for the last 780 ky are constrained within {approx}10 kyr. We derive a simple time vs. depth calibration relation for the basin over this time interval. Estimated sedimentation rates at the drill site appear to be constant with a value of {approx}1.6 mm/yr. We propose that this subsidence rate is produced by the Laguna Salada fault. [Spanish] La cuenca de Laguna Salada en el norte de Baja California, Mexico, es un semigraben activo producto de la tectonica ranstensional del Golfo de California. Esta cuenca endorreica es sensible a cambios en sedimentacion por variaciones en el aporte e sedimentos de fuentes cercanas y distales transportados por arroyos de las sierras adyacentes y por el Rio Colorado. Esta cuenca es un sitio excepcional para explorar el uso de cambios climaticos ciclicos como herramienta de datacion y estimar tasas de sedimentacion y subsidencia en el area. Para demostrar esto se presenta un analisis de series de tiempo de un registro de rayos de gama de un pozo geotermico exploratorio perforado adyacente a la falla de Laguna Salada, la cual limita el margen oriental de la cuenca. Los resultados del analisis indican que el espectro de los primeros 980 m del registro de rayos gama tiene una alta coherencia con el espectro de registros isotopicos paleoclimaticos de {delta}{sup 1}8{omicron} del

  16. Providing Decision-Relevant Information for a State Climate Change Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, C.; Frades, M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Magnusson, M.; Gittell, R.; Skoglund, C.; Morin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon Solutions New England (CSNE), a public-private partnership formed to promote collective action to achieve a low carbon society, has been working with the Governor appointed New Hampshire Climate Change Policy Task Force (NHCCTF) to support the development of a state Climate Change Action Plan. CSNE's role has been to quantify the potential carbon emissions reduction, implementation costs, and cost savings at three distinct time periods (2012, 2025, 2050) for a range of strategies identified by the Task Force. These strategies were developed for several sectors (transportation and land use, electricity generation and use, building energy use, and agriculture, forestry, and waste).New Hampshire's existing and projected economic and population growth are well above the regional average, creating additional challenges for the state to meet regional emission reduction targets. However, by pursuing an ambitious suite of renewable energy and energy efficiency strategies, New Hampshire may be able to continue growing while reducing emissions at a rate close to 3% per year up to 2025. This suite includes efficiency improvements in new and existing buildings, a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation, avoiding forested land conversion, fuel economy gains in new vehicles, and a reduction in vehicle miles traveled. Most (over 80%) of these emission reduction strategies are projected to provide net economic savings in 2025.A collaborative and iterative process was developed among the key partners in the project. The foundation for the project's success included: a diverse analysis team with leadership that was committed to the project, an open source analysis approach, weekly meetings and frequent communication among the partners, interim reporting of analysis, and an established and trusting relationship among the partners, in part due to collaboration on previous projects.To develop decision-relevant information for the Task Force, CSNE addressed

  17. Overview Of Cal-Mex 2010: US-Mexico Collaborative Project On Air Quality And Climate Change In The California-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The composition of the atmosphere over the US-Mexico border region is affected by cross-border transport of emissions in both directions. Air quality issues in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border are associated with air masses originating in the portion of the border region adjacent to California, which includes two of the sister city pairs (Tijuana-San Diego and Mexicali-Calexico) that have the most severe air pollution problems, posing a serious health threat to their inhabitants as well as affecting ecosystem viability and regional climate for large downwind distances. During May-June 2010, an intensive field study was undertaken by US-Mexico collaborative teams to characterize the major sources of primary and secondary particulate matter and precursor gases in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border region, their transport and transformation, and the impact of these emissions on regional air quality and climate. The ground-based measurements included a central fixed site located in Tijuana that housed state-of-the-science instruments to measure gases, aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters; a mobile eddy covariance laboratory that measured surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle number; several mobile units for criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters; and measurements of fine particles and trace gases at the border crossing areas. Preliminary results from the field study will be presented. Cal-Mex Science Team includes: Molina Center for Energy and the Environment, Texas A & M University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/University of California at San Diego, Virginia Tech, San Diego State University, National University of Mexico, National Institute of Ecology/Mexican Ministry of the Environment, University of the State of Morelos, LT Consulting Group, University of Baja California (Mexicali, Tijuana, Ensenada, Valle de Las Palmas campuses), Secretary of the Environment of Baja California

  18. Nordic workshop on action related to short-lived climate forcers. Organised by the Nordic Council of Ministers Climate and Air Quality Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skotte Moeller, H. (ed.)

    2013-02-15

    Nordic Ministers of Environment adopted in March 2012 the ''Svalbard Declaration'' with decisions to reduce the negative impacts of the climate changes and air pollution caused by the emission of the so-called Short-lived Climate Forcers (SLCFs) such as black carbon (soot) and methane. Along with CO{sub 2}, they are the main reasons why the ice in the Arctic now is melting rapidly. At a workshop organised by the Nordic Group on Climate and Air Quality in June 2012 researchers and policy-makers discussed the recent scientific findings, the national experiences with emission inventories, identification of cost-effective measures to cut emissions and the drawing up of national action plans as well as the development in the field of international co-operation on SLCFs. The report presents policy recommendations, conclusions and recommendations on scientific research and monitoring. (Author)

  19. Innoversity in knowledge-for-action and adaptation to climate change: the first steps of an 'evidence-based climatic health' transfrontier training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Lapaige

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Véronique Lapaige1–3, Hélène Essiembre41Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Fernand-Seguin Research Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Quebec National Public Health Institute; 4Industrial and Organizational Program, Department of Psychology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: It has become increasingly clear to the international scientific community that climate change is real and has important consequences for human health. To meet these new challenges, the World Health Organization recommends reinforcing the adaptive capacity of health systems. One of the possible avenues in this respect is to promote awareness and knowledge translation in climatic health, at both the local and global scales. Within such perspective, two major themes have emerged in the field of public health research: 1 the development of advanced training adapted to 'global environment' change and to the specific needs of various groups of actors (doctors, nurses, public health practitioners, health care managers, public service managers, local communities, etc and 2 the development of strategies for implementing research results and applying various types of evidence to the management of public health issues affected by climate change. Progress on these two fronts will depend on maximum innovation in transdisciplinary and transsectoral collaborations. The general purpose of this article is to present the program of a new research and learning chair designed for this double set of developmental objectives – a chair that emphasizes 'innoversity' (the dynamic relationship between innovation and diversity and 'transfrontier ecolearning for adaptive actions'. The Écoapprentissages, santé mentale et climat collaborative research chair (University of Montreal and Quebec National Public Health Institute based in Montreal is a center for 'transdisciplinary research' on the transfrontier knowledge-for-action that can aid

  20. Can We Mitigate Climate Extremes using Managed Aquifer Recharge: Case Studies California Central Valley and South-Central Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Faunt, C. C.; Pool, D. R.; Uhlman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Frequent long-term droughts interspersed with intense floods in the southwestern U.S. underscore the need to store more water to manage these climate extremes. Here we show how managed aquifer recharge can enhance drought resilience in the southwestern U.S. with ~ 70% of California under extreme drought and 75% of Arizona under moderate drought. Data on water sources, transportation, and users were compiled for managed aquifer recharge systems in the Central Valley and south-central Arizona. Groundwater depletion of 115 to 145 km3 in the 1900s created large subsurface reservoirs in thick alluvial basins in these regions. Large canals and aqueducts up to several 100 km long allow water to be imported from reservoirs, mostly in more humid regions. Imported water is either used instead of groundwater or is applied in surface spreading basins primarily during wet periods (≤1.3 km3/yr Central Valley, ≤0.7 km3/yr Arizona) and is extracted during droughts. The dominant water users include irrigators and municipalities both within and outside the managed aquifer recharge systems. Groundwater modeling indicates that recharge basins significantly increase groundwater storage in the Central Valley. Managed aquifer recharge systems significantly enhance drought resilience and increase sustainability of water resources in semiarid regions, complementing surface water reservoirs and conjunctive surface water/groundwater use by providing longer term storage.

  1. Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Ok

    The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas of the State with coastal and transitional climates. This fact makes that the electric peak demand be dominated by air conditioning use of residential buildings in the summer time. This extra peak demand caused by the use of air conditioning equipment lasts only a few days out of the year. As a result, unavoidable power outages have occurred when electric supply could not keep up with such electric demand. This thesis proposed a possible solution to this problem by using building thermal mass via phase change materials to reduce peak air conditioning demand loads. This proposed solution was tested via a new wall called Phase Change Frame Wall (PCFW). The PCFW is a typical residential frame wall in which Phase Change Materials (PCMs) were integrated to add thermal mass. The thermal performance of the PCFWs was first evaluated, experimentally, in two test houses, built for this purpose, located in Lawrence, KS and then via computer simulations of residential buildings located in coastal and transitional climates in California. In this thesis, a hydrated salt PCM was used, which was added in concentrations of 10% and 20% by weight of the interior sheathing of the walls. Based on the experimental results, under Lawrence, KS weather, the PCFWs at 10% and 20% of PCM concentrations reduced the peak heat transfer rates by 27.0% and 27.3%, on average, of all four walls, respectively. Simulated results using California climate data indicated that PCFWs would reduce peak heat transfer rates by 8% and 19% at 10% PCM concentration and 12.2% and 27% at 20% PCM concentration for the coastal and transitional climates, respectively. Furthermore, the PCFWs, at 10% PCM concentration, would reduce the space cooling load and the annual energy consumption by 10.4% and 7.2%, on average in both climates, respectively.

  2. Climate and upper ocean variability off Baja California, Mexico: 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazo, Reginaldo

    2009-12-01

    Temperature and salinity anomalies derived from observations obtained in the period 1997-2008 are used to study the changes in physical properties off the Baja California west coast (24-31 N). Near surface anomalies were used to characterize four periods of distinctive variability: (1) a warm and saline phase of El Niño 1997-1998, (2) a saline period from 1999 to 2002, (3) fresh subarctic water in 2002-2006, and (4) a saline-fresh (El Niño-La Niña) phase in late 2006 to early 2008. Subsurface (200 m) salinity anomalies depicted a trend towards saltier conditions (ΔS ∼ 0.1) from 2001 onwards, and did not show the four periods discernible near surface. EOF analysis of sea surface wind stress and wind stress curl suggested that after the intense westerly winds in late 2001, freshening during late 2002-2006 was due to the weakening (strengthening) of the North Pacific Current (Aleutian Low), and to a decrease of wind stress curl produced upwelling. Data also showed differences in the timing and magnitude of anomalies observed between the north (poleward of 28 N) and the south (equatorward of 28 N). Subsurface geostrophic currents demonstrated the existence of two large scale cyclonic gyres, one associated with a subarctic domain in the northern region, and another having tropical characteristics. The likely role of subsurface cyclonic pairs in the definition of a provincial boundary, and the importance in influencing the CCS ecosystem, are discussed.

  3. Alien plant dynamics following fire in mediterranean-climate California shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Baer-Keeley, M.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Over 75 species of alien plants were recorded during the first five years after fire in southern California shrublands, most of which were European annuals. Both cover and richness of aliens varied between years and plant association. Alien cover was lowest in the first postfire year in all plant associations and remained low during succession in chaparral but increased in sage scrub. Alien cover and richness were significantly correlated with year (time since disturbance) and with precipitation in both coastal and interior sage scrub associations. Hypothesized factors determining alien dominance were tested with structural equation modeling. Models that included nitrogen deposition and distance from the coast were not significant, but with those variables removed we obtained a significant model that gave an R2 = 0.60 for the response variable of fifth year alien dominance. Factors directly affecting alien dominance were (1) woody canopy closure and (2) alien seed banks. Significant indirect effects were (3) fire intensity, (4) fire history, (5) prefire stand structure, (6) aridity, and (7) community type. According to this model the most critical factor influencing aliens is the rapid return of the shrub and subshrub canopy. Thus, in these communities a single functional type (woody plants) appears to the most critical element controlling alien invasion and persistence. Fire history is an important indirect factor because it affects both prefire stand structure and postfire alien seed banks. Despite being fire-prone ecosystems, these shrublands are not adapted to fire per se, but rather to a particular fire regime. Alterations in the fire regime produce a very different selective environment, and high fire frequency changes the selective regime to favor aliens. This study does not support the widely held belief that prescription burning is a viable management practice for controlling alien species on semiarid landscapes. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of

  4. A High Resolution Record of Recent Climate Change From Isla Isabela in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebrecht, A.; Ingram, L.; Byrne, R.; Kienel, U.; Boehnel, H.; Haug, G.

    2007-05-01

    Here we report on the stable isotopic composition (oxygen and carbon) and pollen content of seasonally laminated lake sediments from Isla Isabela (21°52' N, 105°54' W) to reconstruct the history of recent climate change in northwestern Mexico. Isabela crater lake is located approximately 30km offshore the state of Nayarit, and is in the precipitation region of the Mexican Monsoon (also called North American Monsoon). Work on an initial short core indicates coherent periodicities in δ13C and δ18O of bulk inorganic carbonate throughout the past two centuries. Most notably, strong excursions in δ13C and observable sedimentological changes occur at depths in the core corresponding to the years 1973-74, 1950s, 1860s, 1810s, and 1780s A.D.-recognized periods of historical drought in Mexico. Further downcore work reveals additional periods of reduced water availability that may correspond to variations in the Mexican Monsoon.

  5. High-resolution climate of the past ∼7300 years of coastal northernmost California: Results from diatoms, silicoflagellates, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, John D.; Heusser, Linda E.; Addison, Jason A.; Alexander, Clark R.

    2017-01-01

    Piston core TN062-O550, collected about 33 km offshore of Eureka, California, contains a high-resolution record of the climate and oceanography of coastal northernmost California during the past ∼7.34 kyr. Chronology established by nine AMS ages on a combination of planktic foraminifers, bivalve shell fragments, and wood yields a mean sedimentation rate of 103 cm kyr−1. Marine proxies (diatoms and silicoflagellates) and pollen transported by the nearby Eel River reveal a stepwise development of both modern offshore surface water oceanography and coastal arboreal ecosystems. Beginning at ∼5.4 cal ka the relative abundance of coastal redwood pollen, a proxy for coastal fog, displays a two fold increase suggesting enhanced coastal upwelling. A decline in the relative contribution of subtropical diatoms at ∼5.0 cal ka implies cooling of sea surface temperatures (SSTs). At ∼3.6 cal ka an increase in the relative abundance of alder and oak at the expense of coastal redwood likely signals intensified riverine transport of pollen from inland environments. Cooler offshore SSTs and increased precipitation characterize the interval between ∼3.6 and 2.8 cal ka. A rapid, stepwise change in coastal climatology and oceanography occurs between ∼2.8 and 2.6 cal ka that suggests an enhanced expression of modern Pacific Decadal Oscillation-like (PDO) cycles. A three-fold increase in the relative abundance of the subtropical diatom Fragilariopsis doliolus at 2.8 cal ka appears to mark an abrupt warming of winter SSTs. Soon afterwards at 2.6 cal ka, a two fold increase in the relative abundance of coastal redwood pollen is suggestive of an abrupt intensification of spring upwelling. After ∼2.8 cal ka a sequence of cool-warm, PDO-like cycles occurs wherein cool cycles are characterized by relative abundance increases in coastal redwood pollen and decreased contributions of subtropical diatoms, whereas opposite proxy trends distinguish warm cycles.

  6. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting agricultural management for climate change in developing countries: providing the basis for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Lini; Rosenstock, Todd; Tubiello, Francesco; Paustian, Keith; Buendia, Leandro; Nihart, Alison; Smith, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture in developing countries has attracted increasing attention in international negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for both adaptation to climate change and greenhouse gas mitigation. However, there is limited understanding about potential complementarity between management practices that promote adaptation and mitigation, and limited basis to account for greenhouse gas emission reductions in this sector. The good news is that the global research community could provide the support needed to address these issues through further research linking adaptation and mitigation. In addition, a small shift in strategy by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and ongoing assistance from agricultural organizations could produce a framework to move the research and development from concept to reality. In turn, significant progress is possible in the near term providing the basis for UNFCCC negotiations to move beyond discussion to action for the agricultural sector in developing countries.

  7. A Science-Faith Partnership to Provide Education and Facilitate Action on Climate Change and Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenec, J. M.; Hitzhusen, G.; Ward, S.; Foster, C.

    2014-12-01

    In 2009, the Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) and Ohio Interfaith Power and Light (OhIPL) collaborated on a climate change education summit for scientists and clergy. Since that first program, a robust partnership has been nurtured where researchers at the center regularly contribute to events within the faith community. In 2014 alone, BPRC supported OhIPL in hosting a Teach-In event on climate change before a live audience that was simultaneously broadcast to three remote sites across Ohio; a State of the Climate event at the Ohio Statehouse that featured presentations by a scientist, a policymaker, and a member of the faith community; and an Earthkeeping Summit to bring together members of the faith community from across Ohio. OhIPL has helped BPRC fulfill one of our mission objectives of communicating science to a broad community. OhIPL engages houses of worship of all denominations through faith and education with a goal of moving them towards actions that reduce energy consumption. Houses of worship take actions for various reasons - including creation care, concerns of social justice related to climate change, or a desire to save money through building efficiency.

  8. Corporate action on climate change: an independent review focusing on Canada's electric and natural gas utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This independent report on corporate action on climate change is the fourth in a series of studies undertaken by the Pembina Institute, a citizen-based organization involved in environmental education, research, policy development and consulting. The objective of the report is to identify the key elements that are required to produce a credible and effective corporate action plan to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; to create a standardized mechanism to assess the credibility and effectiveness of corporate action plans to reduce GHG emissions; and to provide Canadians with as comparative assessment of the climate change performance of individual companies, by providing the means to identify the leaders and laggards within different industry sectors. The report focuses on the quality of actions being taken to reduce GHG emissions specifically by the electric and natural gas utility companies. Future reviews will concentrate on the climate protection performers of companies in other sectors of industry. Criteria for inclusion in this report require that the company must be a participant in Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program; must have submitted a corporate climate change report to the VCR between Sept. 1998 and March 31, 1999, including the GHG inventory that presents recent emissions data, identifies at least one activity that has been taken to reduce GHG emissions, and quantifying the benefits of that activity in tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions per year. While Ontario alone has over 300 companies that fit into the electricity and natural gas utility sector, only 16 companies across the country have met all the criteria. These companies (listed in Section 2.1) must be recognized as the leaders in the country in addressing the climate change issue. Other companies that report to VCR but did not meet all the criteria and the reason for their exclusion are listed in Appendix D. The report describes the methodology

  9. Environmental fate of metalaxyl and chlorothalonil applied to a bentgrass putting green under southern California climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Liu, G; Yates, M V; Green, R L; Pacheco, P; Gan, J; Yates, S R

    2002-04-01

    Putting greens usually receive high inputs of fertilizers and pesticides to meet the high demand for visual quality and to overcome the stress from close mowing and traffic. In this study, two commonly used fungicides, metalaxyl (methyl N-(methoxyacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate) and chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile), were evaluated for their partitioning and persistence in a bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds) putting green under southern California climatic conditions. The putting green site was constructed according to the US Golf Association (USGA) specifications. Lysimeter assemblies installed at the center of each plot were used to monitor the leachate, flux chambers were used to measure volatilization, clippings were collected to determine the residues on grass, and soil cores were sampled to determine residues in the soil profile. Results showed that cumulative volatilization loss accounted for 0.10 and 0.02%, clipping removal 0.11 and 0.13%, and cumulative leaching 0.71 and 0.002% of the applied metalaxyl and chlorothalonil, respectively. The two fungicides were mainly found in the top 10 cm of the soil profile due to the high organic carbon content in the thatch and mat layers. The dissipation half-life was 1.4 days for metalaxyl and 4.9 days for chlorothalonil on grass, shorter than those found in agricultural fields. This study showed that, under normal turf management practices, the offsite transport of the parent fungicides was minimal. Future research should focus on investigating the fate and mobility of the metabolites of the fungicides.

  10. Climate-smart agriculture global research agenda: scientific basis for action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenwerth, K.L.; Hodson, A.K.; Bloom, A.J.; Carter, M.R.; Cattaneo, A.; Chartres, C.; Leemans, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) addresses the challenge of meeting the growing demand for food, fibre and fuel, despite the changing climate and fewer opportunities for agricultural expansion on additional lands. CSA focuses on contributing to economic development, poverty reduction and

  11. Concerted action of target-site mutations and high EPSPS activity in glyphosate-resistant junglerice (Echinochloa colona) from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is the most widely used non-selective herbicide and Echinochloa colona is an annual weed affecting field crops and orchards in California. A population carrying a glyphosate-resistance-endowing mutation in the EPSPS gene was found in the Northern Sacramento Valley. We used selfed lines ...

  12. Bakke v. Regents of University of California: Potential Implications for Income Tax Exemptions and Affirmative Action in Private Educational Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed are the position of the Internal Revenue Service on racial discrimination and federal income tax exemptions for private educational organizations and possible impacts of the Bakke decision on the issue. (Journal availability: School of Law, Martin Luther King, Jr. Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.) (MSE)

  13. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Framework for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay Simane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has become warmer over the past century and human induced climate change will bring further warming over the next century at unprecedented rates. On the average, climate models show a tendency for higher mean annual rainfall and for wetter conditions, in particular during October, November and December, but there is much uncertainty about the future amount, distribution, timing and intensity of rainfall. Ethiopia’s low level of economic development, combined with its heavy dependence on agriculture and high population growth rate make the country particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of climate change. Nearly 90% of Ethiopia’s population lives in the Highlands, which include the critical Blue Nile (Abay Highlands—a region that holds special importance due to its role in domestic agricultural production and international water resources. A five year study of climate vulnerability and adaptation strategies in communities of Choke Mountain, located in the center of the Abay Highlands, has informed a proposed framework for enhancing climate resilience in communities across the region. The framework is motivated by the critical need to enhance capacity to cope with climate change and, subsequently, to advance a carbon neutral and climate resilient economy in Ethiopia. The implicit hypothesis in applying a research framework for this effort is that science-based information, generated through improved understanding of impacts and vulnerabilities of local communities, can contribute to enhanced resilience strategies. We view adaptation to climate change in a wider context of changes, including, among others, market conditions, the political-institutional framework, and population dynamics. From a livelihood perspective, culture, historical settings, the diversity of income generation strategies, knowledge, and education are important factors that contribute to adaptive capacities. This paper reviews key findings of the Choke

  14. Building climate resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: a framework for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simane, Belay; Zaitchik, Benjamin F; Mesfin, Desalegn

    2012-02-01

    Ethiopia has become warmer over the past century and human induced climate change will bring further warming over the next century at unprecedented rates. On the average, climate models show a tendency for higher mean annual rainfall and for wetter conditions, in particular during October, November and December, but there is much uncertainty about the future amount, distribution, timing and intensity of rainfall. Ethiopia's low level of economic development, combined with its heavy dependence on agriculture and high population growth rate make the country particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of climate change. Nearly 90% of Ethiopia's population lives in the Highlands, which include the critical Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands--a region that holds special importance due to its role in domestic agricultural production and international water resources. A five year study of climate vulnerability and adaptation strategies in communities of Choke Mountain, located in the center of the Abay Highlands, has informed a proposed framework for enhancing climate resilience in communities across the region. The framework is motivated by the critical need to enhance capacity to cope with climate change and, subsequently, to advance a carbon neutral and climate resilient economy in Ethiopia. The implicit hypothesis in applying a research framework for this effort is that science-based information, generated through improved understanding of impacts and vulnerabilities of local communities, can contribute to enhanced resilience strategies. We view adaptation to climate change in a wider context of changes, including, among others, market conditions, the political-institutional framework, and population dynamics. From a livelihood perspective, culture, historical settings, the diversity of income generation strategies, knowledge, and education are important factors that contribute to adaptive capacities. This paper reviews key findings of the Choke Mountain study, describes

  15. An integrated climate service strategy for African drought monitoring and prediction: linking information to action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M.

    2008-12-01

    For 23 years, the US Agency for International Development's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has applied climate data analysis in support of timely food insecurity mitigation and adaptation in Africa. FEWS NET, therefore, provides a compelling example of a sector-specific climate service. We briefly review the phases, successes and shortcomings of the FEWS NET climate service, describe an improved long term climate service strategy, and present new research supporting an improved, integrated drought monitoring approach. Our new monitoring system emphasizes seamless links between historical precipitation archives, near real-time rainfall estimates, and 1-to-4 month statistical predictions. Assessment of forecast skill shows useful levels of accuracy for many regions during key periods of the growing season. Integrating these forecasts with near real time blended satellite-gauge precipitation observations facilitates early identification of mid-season agricultural drought. Integrated historical climate archives (1979-present) permit analysis of observed and forecast climate conditions in terms of historical probabilities and analogs. Tools specific to staple crops and pastoralist settings are then used to assess the likely impacts of hydrometeorological anomalies. These are geographically integrated with livelihoods information and interpreted in terms of current food security conditions and timelines to determine human consequences. A client-server web-mapping data portal will allow users to dynamically access the climate anomaly information, and visualize the results in conjunction with livelihood information.

  16. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    on aggregated reserve numbers. Electric power generation consumes 92 percent of U.S. coal production. Natural gas competes with coal as a baseload power generation fuel with similar or slightly better generation efficiency. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, described in Chapter 2, creates transportation fuel from coal with an efficiency of less than 45 percent. Claims of higher efficiencies are based on waste heat recovery, since this is a highly exothermic process. The yield of liquid fuel as a proportion of the energy content of the coal input is always less than 45 percent. Compressed natural gas can be used for vehicle fuel with efficiency greater than 98 percent. If we view Fischer-Tropsch synthesis as a form of arbitrage between markets for electricity and transportation fuel, coal cannot simultaneously compete with natural gas for both transportation fuel and electric power. This is because Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a way to turn power generation fuel into transportation fuel with low efficiency, while natural gas can be converted to transportation fuel with much greater efficiency. For this reason, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis will be an uneconomic source of transportation fuel as long as natural gas is economic for power generation. This conclusion holds even without the very high capital cost of coal-to-liquids plants. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has generated forty carbon production and emissions scenarios, see the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (2000). Chapter 4 develops a base-case scenario for global coal production based on the physical multi-cycle Hubbert analysis of historical production data. Areas with large resources but little production history, such as Alaska or Eastern Siberia, can be treated as sensitivities on top of this base case. The value of our approach is that it provides a reality check on the magnitude of carbon emissions in a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. The resulting base case is significantly

  17. Initial generation of sand across climate zones of the Mojave, Sierra Nevada, and Klamath Batholiths in California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Angela M.; Lowe, Donald R.

    2017-03-01

    The generation of modern, plutoniclastic sediment across California varies with climate, resulting in significant mineralogical and geochemical differences between parent rock, weathering profile material, and low-order stream sand. With average precipitation of 15 cm/yr in the arid zones and 120 cm/yr in the temperate zones, feldspar is relatively decreased in stream sand (compared to parent rock) by paleoclimate studies, where a moderate precipitation shift is capable of producing a significant loss of feldspar. The differential response of common minerals to chemical weathering should be considered for studies and modeling related to bedrock erodibility, sediment supply, and landscape evolution.

  18. Obama Calls for More Action on Climate Change During State of the Union Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-02-01

    President Barack Obama called for "meaningful progress" on climate change during his State of the Union address on 12 February, saying that "for the sake of our children and our future, we must do more to combat climate change." Noting that "the 12 hottest years on record have all come in the last 15," he said that there could be meaningful progress on the issue while also driving economic growth.

  19. Climate Change and Children: Health Risks of Abatement Inaction, Health Gains from Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J McMichael

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As human-driven climate change advances, many adults fret about the losses of livelihoods, houses and farms that may result. Children fret about their parents’ worries and about information they hear, but do not really understand about the world’s climate and perhaps about their own futures. In chronically worried or anxious children, blood cortisol levels rise and adverse changes accrue in various organ systems that prefigure adult-life diseases. Meanwhile, for many millions of children in poor countries who hear little news and live with day-to-day fatalism, climate change threatens the fundamentals of life—food sufficiency, safe drinking water and physical security—and heightens the risks of diarrhoeal disease, malaria and other climate-sensitive infections. Poor and disadvantaged populations, and especially their children, will bear the brunt of climate-related trauma, disease and premature death over the next few decades and, less directly, from social disruption, impoverishment and displacement. The recent droughts in Somalia as the Indian Ocean warmed and monsoonal rains failed, on top of chronic civil war, forced hundreds of thousands of Somali families into north-eastern Kenya’s vast Dadaab refugee camps, where, for children, shortages of food, water, hygiene and schooling has endangered physical, emotional and mental health. Children warrant special concern, both as children per se and as the coming generation likely to face ever more extreme climate conditions later this century. As children, they face diverse risks, from violent weather, proliferating aeroallergens, heat extremes and mobilised microbes, through to reduced recreational facilities, chronic anxieties about the future and health hazards of displacement and local resource conflict. Many will come to regard their parents’ generation and complacency as culpable.

  20. The lived experience of climate change knowledge, science and public action

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Dina

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the idea that daily lived experiences of climate change are a crucial missing link in our knowledge that contrasts with scientific understandings of this global problem. It argues that both kinds of knowledge are limiting: the sciences by their disciplines and lived experiences by the boundaries of everyday lives.  Therefore each group needs to engage the other in order to enrich and expand understanding of climate change and what to do about it. Complemented by a rich collection of examples and case studies, this book proposes a novel way of generating and analysing knowl

  1. Reconciling collaborative action research with existing institutions: insights from Dutch and German climate knowledge programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Buuren, van A.; Knieling, J.; Gottschick, M.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers increasingly aim to set up collaborative research programmes to address the challenges of adaptation to climate change. This does not only apply for technical knowledge, but for governance knowledge also. Both the Netherlands and Germany have set up large scale collabora

  2. Zika virus: A call to action for physicians in the era of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Sarfaty, Mona

    2016-12-01

    In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the mosquito-borne Zika virus to be a "public health emergency of international concern" as the disease linked to thousands of birth defects in Brazil spreads rapidly. The distribution of the Aedes mosquitos has drastically increased over the past few decades, which have been the hottest decades on Earth in more than 1000 years based on climate proxy measures. Although a combination of factors explains the current Zika virus outbreak, it's highly likely that the changes in the climate contribute to the spread of Aedes vector carrying the Zika virus, the pathogen causing serious birth defects. Physicians, both individually and collectively, as trusted and educated members of society have critical roles to play. In addition to clinical management and prevention of Zika, physicians should communicate about the health benefits of addressing climate change in straightforward evidence-based language to their local communities and policymakers, and make clear their support for policies mitigating climate change.

  3. Mid- and long-term climate projections for fragmented and delayed-action scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, M.; Gohar, Laila; Kriegler, Elmar; Lowe, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the climate consequences of “delayed near-termaction” and “staged accession” scenarios for limiting warming below 2 °C. The stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations at low levels requires a large-scale transformation of the energy system. Depending on policy choices, there

  4. Action, an "Encompassing Ethic" and Academics in the Midst of the Climate Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In the midst of a crisis like the climate crisis and calls for "all hands on deck", what do academics, as a microcosm of humanity, see? In Hannah Arendt's terms, an "abyss of freedom" to act or a paralysing "abyss of nothingness"? Some from the academy themselves, including Tamboukou, Apple and Bourdieu, make…

  5. Zika virus: A call to action for physicians in the era of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tony Yang, Sc.D., LL.M., M.P.H.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the mosquito-borne Zika virus to be a “public health emergency of international concern” as the disease linked to thousands of birth defects in Brazil spreads rapidly. The distribution of the Aedes mosquitos has drastically increased over the past few decades, which have been the hottest decades on Earth in more than 1000 years based on climate proxy measures. Although a combination of factors explains the current Zika virus outbreak, it's highly likely that the changes in the climate contribute to the spread of Aedes vector carrying the Zika virus, the pathogen causing serious birth defects. Physicians, both individually and collectively, as trusted and educated members of society have critical roles to play. In addition to clinical management and prevention of Zika, physicians should communicate about the health benefits of addressing climate change in straightforward evidence-based language to their local communities and policymakers, and make clear their support for policies mitigating climate change.

  6. Protocols, treaties, and action: the 'climate change process' viewed through gender spectacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret M.; Masika, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    This paper starts by assessing the extent to which gender considerations have been taken into account in the international processes concerning the development of climate change policy. Finding that there has been very little attention to gender issues, neither in the protocols and treaties nor in t

  7. The Promise of Using Energy Tracking Data to Promote Home-School Connections and Youth Agency in Climate Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E.; Jenkins, D.; Cordero, E.

    2015-12-01

    Formal classroom learning experiences that support energy conservation behaviors outside the classroom necessarily must bridge students' home and school lives, as knowledge and practice learned in the classroom is implemented outside of school. To this end, we study the impact of the Green Ninja Energy Tracker curriculum, which uses students' home energy data in the classroom to promote engagement in climate change and conservation behaviors. Data is drawn from class observations, a focus group, and pre- and post- surveys of a pilot implementation of this curriculum in a diverse 12th-grade Earth Science classroom at an alternative school. We investigate what factors contributed to student engagement in learning about and participating in energy conservation behaviors. We found that students were engaged by the immediacy of tracking their energy use in near-real time, and were motivated by the economic benefits experienced as a direct result of changing their behaviors. In addition, students reported discussing and problem-solving energy use with their families, and surfaced considerations that informed which energy behaviors were implemented and why. Students also reported high levels of personal agency in taking action on climate change, but were pessimistic about the likelihood of society as a whole taking action. We suggest that this pilot demonstrates that potential power of connecting students' home and school lives through energy tracker software as a catalyst for developing scientific expertise and engagement, and supporting energy conservation behaviors.

  8. Energy experts agree: Action needed NOW if climate change is to be reduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2007-01-01

    Risø has concluded a three-day international energy conference attended by 140 energy experts from around the world. The conclusion was clear: The world is facing a gigantic energy challenge, but we can handle it if action is taken NOW.......Risø has concluded a three-day international energy conference attended by 140 energy experts from around the world. The conclusion was clear: The world is facing a gigantic energy challenge, but we can handle it if action is taken NOW....

  9. Gene movement and genetic association with regional climate gradients in California valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in the face of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sork, Victoria L.; Davis, Frank W.; Westfall, Robert; Flint, Alan L.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Wang, Hongfang; Grivet, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Rapid climate change jeopardizes tree populations by shifting current climate zones. To avoid extinction, tree populations must tolerate, adapt, or migrate. Here we investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata N??e, to assess how underlying genetic structure of populations might influence this species' ability to survive climate change. First, to understand how genetic lineages shape spatial genetic patterns, we examine historical patterns of colonization. Second, we examine the correlation between multivariate nuclear genetic variation and climatic variation. Third, to illustrate how geographic genetic variation could interact with regional patterns of 21st Century climate change, we produce region-specific bioclimatic distributions of valley oak using Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) models based on downscaled historical (1971-2000) and future (2070-2100) climate grids. Future climatologies are based on a moderate-high (A2) carbon emission scenario and two different global climate models. Chloroplast markers indicate historical range-wide connectivity via colonization, especially in the north. Multivariate nuclear genotypes show a strong association with climate variation that provides opportunity for local adaptation to the conditions within their climatic envelope. Comparison of regional current and projected patterns of climate suitability indicates that valley oaks grow in distinctly different climate conditions in different parts of their range. Our models predict widely different regional outcomes from local displacement of a few kilometres to hundreds of kilometres. We conclude that the relative importance of migration, adaptation, and tolerance are likely to vary widely for populations among regions, and that late 21st Century conditions could lead to regional extinctions. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Community benthic paleoecology from high-resolution climate records: Mollusca and foraminifera in post-glacial environments of the California margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Sarah E.; Kroeker, Kristy J.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter; Kennett, James P.

    2017-01-01

    Paleoecological reconstructions of past climate are often based on a single taxonomic group with a consistent presence. Less is known about the relationship between multi-taxon community-wide change and climate variability. Here we reconstruct paleoecological change in a Late Quaternary (16.1-3.4 ka) sediment core from the California margin (418 m below sea level) of Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), USA, using Mollusca (Animalia) and Foraminifera (Rhizaria) microfossils. Building upon previous investigations, we use multivariate ordination and cluster analyses to interpret community-scale changes in these distinctly different taxonomic groups across discrete climate episodes. The strongest differences between seafloor biological communities occurred between glacial (prior to Termination IA, 14.7 ka) and interglacial climate episodes. Holocene communities were well partitioned, indicating that sub-millennial oceanographic variability was recorded by these microfossils. We document strong evidence of chemosynthetic trophic webs and sulfidic environments (from gastropod Alia permodesta and bivalve Lucinoma aequizonata), which characterized restricted intervals previously interpreted as well oxygenated (such as the Pre-Bølling Warming). Mollusc records indicate first-order trophic energetic shifts between detrital and chemosynthetically-fixed carbon. Molluscs associated with widely different physiological preferences occur here within single, decadal intervals of sediment, and as such mollusc assemblages may reflect significant inter-decadal oceanographic variability. Foraminifera assemblages provide exceptional records of the sequential, chronological progression of the deglacial climatic and oceanographic events, whereas mollusc assemblages reflect non-chronological similarities in reoccurring communities. Foraminifera taxa that drive community similarity here are also independently recognized as marker species for seafloor hypoxia regimes, which provides support for the

  11. Complexity in Climatic Controls on Plant Species Distribution: Satellite Data Reveal Unique Climate for Giant Sequoia in the California Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Eric Kindseth

    A better understanding of the environmental controls on current plant species distribution is essential if the impacts of such diverse challenges as invasive species, changing fire regimes, and global climate change are to be predicted and important diversity conserved. Climate, soil, hydrology, various biotic factors fire, history, and chance can all play a role, but disentangling these factors is a daunting task. Increasingly sophisticated statistical models relying on existing distributions and mapped climatic variables, among others, have been developed to try to answer these questions. Any failure to explain pattern with existing mapped climatic variables is often taken as a referendum on climate as a whole, rather than on the limitations of the particular maps or models. Every location has a unique and constantly changing climate so that any distribution could be explained by some aspect of climate. Chapter 1 of this dissertation reviews some of the major flaws in species distribution modeling and addresses concerns that climate may therefore not be predictive of, or even relevant to, species distributions. Despite problems with climate-based models, climate and climate-derived variables still have substantial merit for explaining species distribution patterns. Additional generation of relevant climate variables and improvements in other climate and climate-derived variables are still needed to demonstrate this more effectively. Satellite data have a long history of being used for vegetation mapping and even species distribution mapping. They have great potential for being used for additional climatic information, and for improved mapping of other climate and climate-derived variables. Improving the characterization of cloud cover frequency with satellite data is one way in which the mapping of important climate and climate-derived variables can be improved. An important input to water balance models, solar radiation maps could be vastly improved with a

  12. Zika virus: A call to action for physicians in the era of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Tony Yang, Sc.D., LL.M., M.P.H.; Mona Sarfaty, M.D., M.P.H., FAAFP

    2016-01-01

    In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the mosquito-borne Zika virus to be a “public health emergency of international concern” as the disease linked to thousands of birth defects in Brazil spreads rapidly. The distribution of the Aedes mosquitos has drastically increased over the past few decades, which have been the hottest decades on Earth in more than 1000 years based on climate proxy measures. Although a combination of factors explains the current Zika virus outbreak, i...

  13. Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models: COST Action ES0905 Final Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun–Ichi Yano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research network “Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models” was organized with European funding (COST Action ES0905 for the period of 2010–2014. Its extensive brainstorming suggests how the subgrid-scale parameterization problem in atmospheric modeling, especially for convection, can be examined and developed from the point of view of a robust theoretical basis. Our main cautions are current emphasis on massive observational data analyses and process studies. The closure and the entrainment–detrainment problems are identified as the two highest priorities for convection parameterization under the mass–flux formulation. The need for a drastic change of the current European research culture as concerns policies and funding in order not to further deplete the visions of the European researchers focusing on those basic issues is emphasized.

  14. The 2003 and 2007 wildfires in southern California: Chapter 5 in Natural Disasters and Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Boulter, Sarah; Palutikof, Jean; Karoly, David John; Guitart, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Although many residents of southern California have long recognised that wildfires in the region are an ongoing, constant risk to lives and property, the enormity of the regional fire hazard caught the world’s attention during the southern California firestorms of 2003 (Figure 5.1). Beginning on 21 October, a series of fourteen wildfires broke out across the five-county region under severe Santa Ana winds, and within two weeks, more than 300,000 ha had burned (Keeley et al., 2004). The event was one of the costliest in the state’s history, with more than 3,600 homes damaged or destroyed and twenty-four fatalities. Suppression costs for the 12,000 firefighters have been estimated at US$120 million, and the total response and damage cost has been estimated at more than US$3 billion (COES, 2004). [Excerpt

  15. Evidence For Decadal and Century Scale Climate and Oceanic Variability in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, Over the Last Millenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, L.; Ravelo, A. C.; Aiello, I. W.; Stewart, Z.; Sauthoff, W.

    2015-12-01

    Linda Pineda1Ana Christina Ravelo2Ivano Aiello3Zach Stewart2Wilson Sauthoff2 Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, UCSC Ocean Sciences Department, UCSC Moss Landing Marine Lab Natural climate change affects coastal water resources, human land use, and marine biological productivity. In particular, the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is influenced by changes in global-scale temperature and pressure gradients and is responsible for spatial changes in summertime rainfall in Mesoamerica impacting regional water resources and the strength of upwelling. In October 2014, aboard the Research Vessel El Puma, a 3.9 meter long core (G14-P12) was recovered from the Northeast flank of the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California within the oxygen minimum zone (27˚52.11'N, 111˚41.51'W, water depth of 677m) to investigate changes in seasonal upwelling and Central Mexico rainfall over the last ~1000 years. The age model was developed using Pb210, C14 and lamination counting. The time interval includes the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period. Biological productivity and precipitation proxy records were produced using an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) core-scanner and a color line scanner to generate a record of bulk chemistry and color reflectance. The records indicate marked decadal and centennial scale variability in the lithologic composition of the sediment superimposed on millimeter-scale variability that reflects the presence of seasonally laminated sediments. Nitrogen isotopic and nitrogen weight % measurements were used, in combination with the scanned data, to interpret changes in nitrate utilization and biological productivity. These new records will have broad implications on the link between regional coastal environmental conditions in the Gulf of California and global climate change.

  16. Implementing Local Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Actions: The Role of Various Policy Instruments in a Multi-Level Governance Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.; Juhola, Sirkku; Baron, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Recently, considerable focus, e.g., in the fifth IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Assessment Report (2014) has been trained on why adaptation and mitigation have not been developed more than at present, with relatively few local government actions taken compared with, for example......, more discursive policy agreement on the importance of the issue of climate change. Going beyond a focus on general limits and barriers, this comment suggests that one important issue is that climate change has not yet been sufficiently integrated into the state regulative structure of legislation....... This constitutes an important consideration for the development of adaptation and mitigation as policy areas, including on the local level....

  17. Energy and climate effects of second-life use of electric vehicle batteries in California through 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathre, Roger; Scown, Corinne D.; Kavvada, Olga; Hendrickson, Thomas P.

    2015-08-01

    As the use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) further increases in the coming decades, a growing stream of batteries will reach the end of their service lives. Here we study the potential of those batteries to be used in second-life applications to enable the expansion of intermittent renewable electricity supply in California through the year 2050. We develop and apply a parametric life-cycle system model integrating battery supply, degradation, logistics, and second-life use. We calculate and compare several metrics of second-life system performance, including cumulative electricity delivered, energy balance, greenhouse gas (GHG) balance, and energy stored on invested. We find that second-life use of retired PEV batteries may play a modest, though not insignificant, role in California's future energy system. The electricity delivered by second-life batteries in 2050 under base-case modeling conditions is 15 TWh per year, about 5% of total current and projected electricity use in California. If used instead of natural gas-fired electricity generation, this electricity would reduce GHG emissions by about 7 million metric tons of CO2e per year in 2050.

  18. Prospects for future climate change and the reasons for early action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCracken, Michael C

    2008-06-01

    Combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas, and to a lesser extent deforestation, land-cover change, and emissions of halocarbons and other greenhouse gases, are rapidly increasing the atmospheric concentrations of climate-warming gases. The warming of approximately 0.1-0.2 degrees C per decade that has resulted is very likely the primary cause of the increasing loss of snow cover and Arctic sea ice, of more frequent occurrence of very heavy precipitation, of rising sea level, and of shifts in the natural ranges of plants and animals. The global average temperature is already approximately 0.8 degrees C above its preindustrial level, and present atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases will contribute to further warming of 0.5-1 degrees C as equilibrium is re-established. Warming has been and will be greater in mid and high latitudes compared with low latitudes, over land compared with oceans, and at night compared with day. As emissions continue to increase, both warming and the commitment to future warming are presently increasing at a rate of approximately 0.2 degrees C per decade, with projections that the rate of warming will further increase if emission controls are not put in place. Such warming and the associated changes are likely to result in severe impacts on key societal and environmental support systems. Present estimates are that limiting the increase in global average surface temperature to no more than 2-2.5 degrees C above its 1750 value of approximately 15 degrees C will be required to avoid the most catastrophic, but certainly not all, consequences of climate change. Accomplishing this will require reducing emissions sharply by 2050 and to near zero by 2100. This can only be achieved if: (1) developed nations move rapidly to demonstrate that a modem society can function without reliance on technologies that release carbon dioxide (CO2) and other non-CO2 greenhouse gases to the atmosphere; and (2) if developing nations act in the near-term to sharply

  19. Evolution in action: climate change, biodiversity dynamics and emerging infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Eric P; Brooks, Daniel R

    2015-04-01

    Climatological variation and ecological perturbation have been pervasive drivers of faunal assembly, structure and diversification for parasites and pathogens through recurrent events of geographical and host colonization at varying spatial and temporal scales of Earth history. Episodic shifts in climate and environmental settings, in conjunction with ecological mechanisms and host switching, are often critical determinants of parasite diversification, a view counter to more than a century of coevolutionary thinking about the nature of complex host-parasite assemblages. Parasites are resource specialists with restricted host ranges, yet shifts onto relatively unrelated hosts are common during phylogenetic diversification of parasite lineages and directly observable in real time. The emerging Stockholm Paradigm resolves this paradox: Ecological Fitting (EF)--phenotypic flexibility and phylogenetic conservatism in traits related to resource use, most notably host preference--provides many opportunities for rapid host switching in changing environments, without the evolution of novel host-utilization capabilities. Host shifts via EF fuel the expansion phase of the Oscillation Hypothesis of host range and speciation and, more generally, the generation of novel combinations of interacting species within the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution. In synergy, an environmental dynamic of Taxon Pulses establishes an episodic context for host and geographical colonization.

  20. EcoHomeHelper: An Expert System to Empower End-Users in Climate Change Action

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Climate change has been a popular topic for a number of years now. Computer Science has contributed to aiding humanity in reducing energy requirements and consequently global warming. Much of this work is through calculators which determine a user's carbon footprint. However there are no expert systems which can offer advice in an efficient and time saving way. There are many publications which do offer advice on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions but to find the advice the reader seeks will involve reading a lot of irrelevant material. This work built an expert system (which we call EcoHomeHelper) and attempted to show that it is useful in changing people's behaviour with respect to their GHG emissions and that they will be able to find the information in a more efficient manner. Twelve participants were used. Seven of which used the program and five who read and attempted to find advice by reading from a list. The application itself has current implementations and the concept further developed, has app...

  1. A stitch in time saves nine. The costs of postponing action in climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinshamn, Stein Ivar; Kvamsdal, Sturla F.; Sandal, Leif K.

    2011-07-01

    The main purpose of this report is to investigate the effects of postponing implementation of a carbon tax assuming that externalities associated with climate change and global warming is real. Failing to internalize these externalities will only lead to a suboptimal situation. The model applied to investigate these externalities starts with the basic relationships, namely supply and demand for fossil fuel, and an added damage term that accounts for the externality. The objective is then to maximize the sum of consumers' and producers' surplus adjusted for the externality. This must be done subject to the dynamic constraint derived from emissions of carbon associated with extraction and consumption of fossil fuel and the natural assimilation of carbon in the atmosphere. The model is solved as a closed loop feedback policy. First the optimal emission path is calculated, and then the corresponding tax path is found. As the externality dealt with here is a pure stock externality it turns out that the optimal tax is equal to the shadow cost of the pollutant. The dynamic equation for assimilation, or natural decay, of carbon is specified using a fairly sophisticated method, namely the ensemble Kalman filter. Given the relative simplicity of the model with only one type of production and one type of pollutant, this method is supposed to give a best possible estimate of the parameters in the assimilation function.The main message in this report is that it may possibly be very expensive to postpone implementation of a carbon tax as the tax rate may have to increase by up to 30 per cent and more for each year implementation is postponed in order to recover optimality in the most pessimistic cases. In the more optimistic cases an increase of down to 0.5 per cent per year may be sufficient.(eb)

  2. Mind the gap : a blueprint for climate action in British Columbia : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailie, A.; Campbell, K.; Horne, M.; Jamison, A.; MacNab, J.; Picketts, I.; Wong, R.

    2007-11-15

    While the premier of British Columbia (BC) has stated that GHG emissions will be cut by 33 per cent by 2020, emissions in the province are continuing to rise. This paper provided recommendations for reducing the province's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by a further 31 million tonnes. The report suggested that in order to achieve its GHG reduction goals, the province must take action by implementing emission pricing through carbon taxes and a trade system within business and industry. Aggressive emission pricing and regulation is required in the oil and gas industry. Efficiency improvements in vehicles must be accompanied by a reduction in driving demand. Energy efficiency and renewable energy programs for residential buildings should be accelerated. The province should also consider imposing stricter regulations on methane in both the waste and agricultural sectors. Innovations in all sectors may contribute up to 16 million tonnes of GHG reductions. It was concluded that strong leadership is required to ensure that GHG reductions in the province are achieved. 14 refs., 9 tabs.

  3. Correlation of Late-Pleistocene Lake-Level Oscillations in Mono Lake, California, with North Atlantic Climate Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.; Lund, S.P.; Burdett, J.W.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Rose, T.P.; Smoot, J.P.; Schwartz, M.

    1998-01-01

    Oxygen-18 (18O) values of sediment from the Wilson Creek Formation, Mono Basin, California, indicate three scales of temporal variation (Dansgaard-Oeschger, Heinrich, and Milankovitch) in the hydrologic balance of Mono Lake between 35,400 and 12,900 14C yr B.P. During this interval, Mono Lake experienced four lowstands each lasting from 1000 to 2000 yr. The youngest low-stand, which occurred between 15,500 and 14,000 14C yr B.P., was nearly synchronous with a desiccation of Owens Lake, California. Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) data indicate that three of four persistent lowstands occurred at the same times as Heinrich events H1, H2, and H4. 18O data indicate the two highest lake levels occurred ???18,000 and ???13,100 14C yr B.P., corresponding to passages of the mean position of the polar jet stream over the Mono Basin. Extremely low values of total inorganic carbon between 26,000 and 14,000 14C yr B.P. indicate glacial activity, corresponding to a time when summer insolation was much reduced. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  4. Future perspectives for climate action. How economics can prescribe more than an energy charge. An essay on how economics can contribute to resolving the climate problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.

    2013-07-15

    How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.

  5. Exploring the Multifaceted Topic of Climate Change in Our Changing Climate and Living With Our Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Kauffman, C.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Stimach, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    As the effects of climate change become more profound, climate literacy becomes increasingly important. The American Meteorological Society (AMS) responds to this need through the publication of Our Changing Climate and Living With Our Changing Climate. Both publications incorporate the latest scientific understandings of Earth's climate system from reports such as IPCC AR5 and the USGCRP's Third National Climate Assessment. Topic In Depth sections appear throughout each chapter and lead to more extensive, multidisciplinary information related to various topics. Additionally, each chapter closes with a For Further Exploration essay, which addresses specific topics that complement a chapter concept. Web Resources, which encourage additional exploration of chapter content, and Scientific Literature, from which chapter content was derived can also be found at the conclusion of each chapter. Our Changing Climate covers a breadth of topics, including the scientific principles that govern Earth's climate system and basic statistics and geospatial tools used to investigate the system. Released in fall 2015, Living With Our Changing Climate takes a more narrow approach and investigates human and ecosystem vulnerabilities to climate change, the role of energy choices in affecting climate, actions humans can take through adaption, mitigation, and policy to lessen vulnerabilities, and psychological and financial reasons behind climate change denial. While Living With Our Changing Climate is intended for programs looking to add a climate element into their curriculum, Our Changing Climate is part of the AMS Climate Studies course. In a 2015 survey of California University of Pennsylvania undergraduate students using Our Changing Climate, 82% found it comfortable to read and utilized its interactive components and resources. Both ebooks illuminate the multidisciplinary aspect of climate change, providing the opportunity for a more sustainable future.

  6. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  7. Synthesis of Remote Sensing and Field Observations to Model and Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of Oregon & Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverly Law; David Turner; Warren Cohen; Mathias Goeckede

    2008-05-22

    The goal is to quantify and explain the carbon (C) budget for Oregon and N. California. The research compares "bottom -up" and "top-down" methods, and develops prototype analytical systems for regional analysis of the carbon balance that are potentially applicable to other continental regions, and that can be used to explore climate, disturbance and land-use effects on the carbon cycle. Objectives are: 1) Improve, test and apply a bottom up approach that synthesizes a spatially nested hierarchy of observations (multispectral remote sensing, inventories, flux and extensive sites), and the Biome-BGC model to quantify the C balance across the region; 2) Improve, test and apply a top down approach for regional and global C flux modeling that uses a model-data fusion scheme (MODIS products, AmeriFlux, atmospheric CO2 concentration network), and a boundary layer model to estimate net ecosystem production (NEP) across the region and partition it among GPP, R(a) and R(h). 3) Provide critical understanding of the controls on regional C balance (how NEP and carbon stocks are influenced by disturbance from fire and management, land use, and interannual climate variation). The key science questions are, "What are the magnitudes and distributions of C sources and sinks on seasonal to decadal time scales, and what processes are controlling their dynamics? What are regional spatial and temporal variations of C sources and sinks? What are the errors and uncertainties in the data products and results (i.e., in situ observations, remote sensing, models)?

  8. Storm surges and climate change implications for tidal marshes: Insight from the San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Swanson, Kathleen; Takekawa, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal marshes are dynamic ecosystems, which are influenced by oceanic and freshwater processes and daily changes in sea level. Projected sea-level rise and changes in storm frequency and intensity will affect tidal marshes by altering suspended sediment supply, plant communities, and the inundation duration and depth of the marsh platform. The objective of this research was to evaluate if regional weather conditions resulting in low-pressure storms changed tidal conditions locally within three tidal marshes. We hypothesized that regional storms will increase sea level heights locally, resulting in increased inundation of the tidal marsh platform and plant communities. Using site-level measurements of elevation, plant communities, and water levels, we present results from two storm events in 2010 and 2011 from the San Francisco Bay Estuary (SFBE), California, USA. The January 2010 storm had the lowest recorded sea level pressure in the last 30 years for this region. During the storm episodes, the duration of tidal marsh inundation was 1.8 and 3.1 times greater than average for that time of year, respectively. At peak storm surges, over 65% in 2010 and 93% in 2011 of the plant community was under water. We also discuss the implications of these types of storms and projected sea-level rise on the structure and function of the tidal marshes and how that will impact the hydro-geomorphic processes and marsh biotic communities.

  9. Using a map-based assesment tool for the development of cost-effective WFD river basin action programmes in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Vammen Jacobsen, Torsten; Brian Butts, Michael

    2016-01-01

    status’ in all water bodies in Denmark requires Programmes of Measures (PoMs) to reduce nitrogen (N) pollution from point and diffuse sources. Denmark is among the world's most intensively farmed countries and in spite of thirty years of significant policy actions to reduce diffuse nutrient emissions......, there is still a need for further reductions. In addition, the impacts of climate change are projected to lead to a situation where nutrient loads will have to be reduced still further in comparison to current climate conditions. There is an urgent need to address this challenge in WFD action programmes in order...... to develop robust and cost-effective adaptation strategies for the next WFD RBMP cycles. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate and discuss how a map-based PoMs assessment tool can support the development of adaptive and cost-effective strategies to reduce N losses in the Isefjord and Roskilde Fjord River...

  10. Implications for future survival of delta smelt from four climate change scenarios for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; Bennett, William A.; Wagner, R. Wayne; Morgan-King, Tara; Knowles, Noah; Feyrer, Frederick; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; Dettinger, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the position of the low salinity zone, a habitat suitability index, turbidity, and water temperature modeled from four 100-year scenarios of climate change were evaluated for possible effects on delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, which is endemic to the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. The persistence of delta smelt in much of its current habitat into the next century appears uncertain. By mid-century, the position of the low salinity zone in the fall and the habitat suitability index converged on values only observed during the worst droughts of the baseline period (1969–2000). Projected higher water temperatures would render waters historically inhabited by delta smelt near the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers largely uninhabitable. However, the scenarios of climate change are based on assumptions that require caution in the interpretation of the results. Projections like these provide managers with a useful tool for anticipating long-term challenges to managing fish populations and possibly adapting water management to ameliorate those challenges.

  11. Developing a Long-Term Forest Gap Model to Predict the Behavior of California Pines, Oaks, and Cedars Under Climate Change and Other Disturbance Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. L.; Moran, E.

    2015-12-01

    Many predictions about how trees will respond to climate change have been made, but these often rely on extrapolating into the future one of two extremes: purely correlative factors like climate, or purely physiological factors unique to a particular species or plant functional group. We are working towards a model that combines both phenotypic and genotypic traits to better predict responses of trees to climate change. We have worked to parameterize a neighborhood dynamics, individual tree forest-gap model called SORTIE-ND, using open data from both the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory & Analysis (FIA) datasets in California and 30-yr old permanent plots established by the USGS. We generated individual species factors including stage-specific mortality and growth rates, and species-specific allometric equations for ten species, including Abies concolor, A. magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus contorta, P. jeffreyi, P. lambertiana, P. monticola, P. ponderosa, and the two hardwoods Quercus chrysolepis and Q. kelloggii. During this process, we also developed two R packages to aid in parameter development for SORTIE-ND in other ecological systems. MakeMyForests is an R package that parses FIA datasets and calculates parameters based on the state averages of growth, light, and allometric parameters. disperseR is an R package that uses extensive plot data, with individual tree, sapling, and seedling measurements, to calculate finely tuned mortality and growth parameters for SORTIE-ND. Both are freely available on GitHub, and future updates will be available on CRAN. To validate the model, we withheld several plots from the 30-yr USGS data while calculating parameters. We tested for differences between the actual withheld data and the simulated forest data, in basal area, seedling density, seed dispersal, and species composition. The similarity of our model to the real system suggests that the model parameters we generated with our R packages accurately represent

  12. Integrating Climate Change Scenarios and Co-developed Policy Scenarios to Inform Coastal Adaptation: Results from a Tillamook County, Oregon Knowledge to Action Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiec, E.; Ruggiero, P.; Serafin, K.; Bolte, J.; Mills, A.; Corcoran, P.; Stevenson, J.; Lach, D.

    2014-12-01

    Local decision-makers often lack both the information and tools to reduce their community's overall vulnerability to current and future climate change impacts. Managers are restricted in their actions by the scale of the problem, inherent scientific uncertainty, limits of information exchange, and the global nature of available data, rendering place-based strategies difficult to generate. Several U.S. Pacific Northwest coastal communities are already experiencing chronic erosion and flooding, hazards only to be exacerbated by sea level rise and changing patterns of storminess associated with climate change. To address these issues, a knowledge to action network (KTAN) consisting of local Tillamook County stakeholders and Oregon State University researchers, was formed to project future flooding and erosion impacts and determine possible adaptation policies to reduce vulnerability. Via an iterative scenario planning process, the KTAN has developed four distinct adaptation policy scenarios, including 'Status Quo', 'Hold The Line', 'ReAlign', and 'Laissez-Faire'. These policy scenarios are being integrated with a range of climate change scenarios within the modeling framework Envision, a multi-agent GIS-based tool, which allows for the combination of physical processes data, probabilistic climate change information, coastal flood and erosion models, and stakeholder driven adaptation strategies into distinct plausible future scenarios. Because exact physical and social responses to climate change are impossible to ascertain, information about the differences between possible future scenarios can provide valuable information to decision-makers and the community at large. For example, the fewest projected coastal flood and erosion impacts to buildings occur under the 'ReAlign' policy scenario (i.e., adaptation strategies that move dwellings away from the coast) under both low and high climate change scenarios, especially in comparison to the 'Status Quo' or 'Hold The

  13. Numerical simulation of groundwater artificial recharge in a semiarid-climate basin of northwest Mexico, case study the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer, Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Gaytan, J. R.; Herrera-Oliva, C. S.

    2013-05-01

    In this study was analyzed through a regional groundwater flow model the effects on groundwater levels caused by the application of different future groundwater management scenarios (2007-2025) at the Guadalupe Valley, in Baja California, Mexico. Among these studied alternatives are those scenarios designed in order to evaluate the possible effects generated for the groundwater artificial recharge in order to satisfy a future water demand with an extraction volume considered as sustainable. The State of Baja California has been subject to an increment of the agricultural, urban and industrials activities, implicating a growing water-demand. However, the State is characterized by its semiarid-climate with low surface water availability; therefore, has resulted in an extensive use of groundwater in local aquifer. Water level measurements indicate there has been a decline in water levels in the Guadalupe Valley for the past 30 years. The Guadalupe Valley aquifer represents one the major sources of water supply in Ensenada region. It supplies about 25% of the water distributed by the public water supplier at the city of Ensenada and in addition constitutes the main water resource for the local wine industries. Artificially recharging the groundwater system is one water resource option available to the study zone, in response to increasing water demand. The existing water supply system for the Guadalupe Valley and the city of Ensenada is limited since water use demand periods in 5 to 10 years or less will require the construction of additional facilities. To prepare for this short-term demand, one option available to water managers is to bring up to approximately 3.0 Mm3/year of treated water of the city of Ensenada into the valley during the low-demand winter months, artificially recharge the groundwater system, and withdraw the water to meet the summer demands. A 2- Dimensional groundwater flow was used to evaluate the effects of the groundwater artificial recharge

  14. Interagency collaboration in the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains: Federal-university climate service networks for producing actionable information for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A. J.; McNie, E.; Averyt, K.; Morisette, J. T.; Derner, J. D.; Ojima, D. S.; Dilling, L.; Barsugli, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Several federal agencies in north-central United States are each working to develop and disseminate useful climate information to enhance resilience to climate change. This talk will discuss how the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) the North Central Climate Science Center, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Western Water Assessment RISA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Climate Hub, are building and managing a collaborative research and climate-service network in the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. This presentation will describe the evolution of the interagency collaboration and the partnership with universities to build a climate service network. Such collaboration takes time and intention and must include the right people and organizations to effectively bridge the gap between use-inspired research and application. In particular, we will discuss a focus on the Upper Missouri Basin, developing research to meet needs in a basin that has had relatively less attention on risks of climate change and adaptation to those risks. Each organization has its own mission, stakeholders, and priorities, but there are many commonalities and potential synergies. Together, these organizations, and their agency scientists and university partners, are fostering cross-agency collaboration at the regional scale to optimize efficient allocation of resources while simultaneously enabling information to be generated at a scale that is relevant to decision makers. By each organization knowing the others needs and priorities, there are opportunities to craft research agendas and strategies for providing services that take advantage of the strengths and skills of the different organizations. University partners are key components of each organization, and of the collaboration, who bring in expertise beyond that in the agencies, in particular connections to social scientists, extension services.

  15. Relative impact of sea level rise, wave climate and anthropogenic actions on the recent shoreline changes of the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, M.; Baills, A.; Yates, M.; Le Cozannet, G.; Bulteau, T.; Salai, E.; Sauter, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level rise is nowadays one of a major concern for many low-lying and highly populated areas in the world. However, it is difficult to forecast the consequences of sea levels rise in terms of erosion, due to the interactions with many forcing factors of the evolution of coastline mobility. Indeed, climatic factors such as sea level rise are combined with internal and external geodynamic processes, biological factors, wave forcing and anthropogenic actions which can also play an important role in coastline mobility. Understanding the whole system and its past evolutions is necessary to anticipate future changes. Within the on-going CECILE project, our goal is to evaluate the impact of future sea level change on some emblematic coasts located in different part of the world in order to assess their sensitivity and the variability of their response to different change rise rates. This work presents the study conducted on coastlines of two regions of the Pacific: French Polynesia (SW Pacific) and New Caledonia. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the coastlines to sea level rise, we firstly analysed the response of each coastline during the sea level rise of the past 50 years, using a diachronic analysis of ancient and recent remote sensing images. Then we also took into account the evolution of anthropogenic actions contributing to modifications of the sedimentary budget at the coast, and finally, sea level variations, using the sea level reconstruction of Becker et al. (2012) of the 2nd half of the XXth century. Two atolls of French Polynesia (Manihi and Scilly) and six coastal stretches of New Caledonia have been studied. Although Manihi and Scilly experienced a sea level rise rate twice as important as the global mean according to Becker et al. (2012), wave forcing was, during the last 50 years, the dominant factor controlling the shoreline evolution and aggradation/erosion processes on the atolls. On the contrary, on the main island of New Caledonia, the

  16. An Interdisciplinary and Intersectoral Action-research Method: Case-Study of Climate Change Adaptation by Cities Using Participatory Web 2.0 Urban Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève VACHON

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the last segment of a three-year interdisciplinary and intersectoral action research on climate change and urban transformation. The project had, as one of its core missions, the role of imagining urban and architectural adaptations for urban neighbourhoods that would contribute to minimizing the negative impacts of climate change on people’s comfort, health and safety. The first part of the paper describes the collaborative design and augmented participation method used in the context of Québec City, Canada. These include the design process conducted to imagine adaptation scenarios, the visual strategies undertaken to make these understandable for the population, and the Web 2.0 crowdsourcing approach forwarded to measure feasibility and social acceptability of the design and visualization strategies. The second part discusses three positive outcomes of the process. First, collaborative design conducted with intersectoral groups of experts constitutes a promising avenue to identify adaptations and evaluate their relevance. Second, crowdsourcing is a powerful tool to inform the general public about climate change including both negative and potential aspects. As well, the crowdsource model allows access to particular knowledge which empowered users to make changes around their homes and neighbourhoods or advocating action from their local government. Crowdsourcing is also an efficient tool to help understand what people know about the potential impact of climate change and how it bears on their comfort, health and safety. Third and finally, the design proposals and the evaluation comments generated by working closely with various stakeholders, along with the public on-line consultation, allow for the induction of pragmatic recommendations that can be used as decision aids by elected officials and civil servants to better prepare their municipalities for climate change. 

  17. From Principle to Action. An Analysis of the Financial Sector's Approach to Addressing Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudde, P.; Abadie, A. [Sustainable Finance, Shrewsbury, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    The Ministry of the Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment of the Netherlands (VROM), has taken the initiative to commission a study to determine best practice approaches within the financial sector regarding climate change. This study focuses on the indirect climate change footprint of the financial sector, i.e. the impact of the financial sector's clients on climate change. The study sets out to further the body of knowledge relating to the financial sector's approach to understanding and managing the effects of climate change on their clients' business. Specifically, it offers recommendations and potential next steps for both the financial sector and the Dutch government to enable a more focused and definitive approach to understanding, addressing and incorporating climate change considerations into decision-making procedures and policy development. The paper comprises the following analysis: Chapter 1 is an introduction describing why climate change is relevant to the financial sector, and introduces 18 financial institutions which were selected as the basis for the study. Chapter 2 elaborates on challenges for the financial sector regarding the incorporation of climate change considerations into enhanced risk analysis and decision making. Chapter 3 provides a comprehensive overview of the main international business initiatives regarding climate change and sustainability. It can be seen as a summary of Annex I to this report, which identifies which initiatives the 18 financial institutions are involved in. Chapter 4 highlights selected best practices amongst the 18 financial institutions assessed. Chapter 5 provides the main conclusions of the study and puts forward general and specific recommendations and potential next steps for the Dutch government and the financial sector. The Annexes contain fact sheets containing information about the climate change strategy and main activities of these organisations.

  18. COST Action ES1206: Advanced GNSS Tropospheric Products for Monitoring Severe Weather Events and Climate (GNSS4SWEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan; Guerova, Guergana; Dousa, Jan; Dick, Galina; de Haan, Siebren; Pottiaux, Eric; Bock, Olivier; Pacione, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    GNSS is a well established atmospheric observing system which can accurately sense water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60-70% of atmospheric warming. Water vapour observations are currently under-sampled in operational meteorology and obtaining and exploiting additional high-quality humidity observations is essential to improve severe weather forecasting and climate monitoring. Inconsistencies introduced into long-term time series from improved GNSS processing algorithms make climate trend analysis challenging. Ongoing re-processing efforts using state-of-the-art models are underway which will provide consistent time series' of tropospheric data, using 15+ years of GNSS observations and from over 600 stations worldwide. These datasets will enable validation of systematic biases from a range of instrumentation, improve the knowledge of climatic trends of atmospheric water vapour, and will potentially be of great benefit to global and regional NWP reanalyses and climate model simulations (e.g. IPCC AR5)

  19. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Arne [Humboldt State Univ., MN (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lam, Nicholoas L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Hultman, Nathan [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  20. LEDS Global Partnership in Action: Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-11-01

    Many countries around the globe are designing and implementing low emission development strategies (LEDS). These LEDS seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing resiliency to climate change impacts. The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) harnesses the collective knowledge and resources of more than 120 countries and international donor and technical organizations to strengthen climate-resilient low emission development efforts around the world.

  1. Layoff Time Training: A Key to Upgrading Workforce Utilization and EEOC Affirmative Action. A Case Study in the Northern California Canning Industry. R & D Monograph 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Curtis C.; And Others

    An experimental and demonstration project was conducted over a five-year period in California to test the concept of lay-off time training to enable workers to qualify for promotion and increase their earnings. The canning industry was found to be a suitable area for this type of training since it had annual lay-offs followed by assured recalls to…

  2. WRF dynamically downscaling PCM data for climate change impacts in California & application of a signal technique to the source-receptor relationship in WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhan

    2009-12-01

    My dissertation consists of three parts. Parts I and II are focused on the climate change impacts on meteorology and air quality conditions in California (CA), while Part III is focused on the source-receptor relationship. The WRF model is applied to dynamically downscaled PCM data, with a horizontal resolution of approximately 2.8°x2.8°, to 4km resolution under the Business as Usual (BAU) scenario. The dynamical downscaling method could retain the large-scale features of the global simulations with more meso-scale details. A seven year simulation is conducted for both present (2000˜2006) and future (2047˜2053) in order to avoid the El Nino related inter-annual variation. In order to assess the PCM data quality and estimate the simulation error inherited from the PCM data bias, the present seven year simulations are driven by NCEP's Global Forecast System (GFS) data with the same model configuration. Part I is focused on the comparisons of the present time climatology from the two sets of simulations and the driving global datasets (i.e., PCM vs. GFS), which illustrate that the biases of the downscaling results are mostly inherited from the driving GCM. The imprecise prediction for the location and strength of the Pacific Subtropical High (PSH) is a main source of the PCM data bias. The analysis also implies that using the simulation results driven by PCM data as the input of the air quality model will underrate the air pollution problems in CA. The regional averaged statistics of the downscaling results compared to observational data show that both the surface temperature and wind speed were overestimate for most times of the year, and WRF preformed better during summer than winter. The low summer PBLH in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) is addressed, and two reasons causing this are the dominance of a high pressure system over the valley and, to a lesser extent, the valley wind at daytime during summer. Part II is focused on the future change of meteorology and

  3. Testing a participatory integrated assessment(PIA) approach to select climate change adaptation actions to enhance wetland sustainability: The case of Poyang Lake region in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Li; YIN; Yongyuan; DU; De-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The necessity of mainstreaming climate adaptation strategies or policies into natural resource management plans has been recognized by the UNFCCC.The IPCC AR5 report suggests a growing demand for research to provide information for a deeper and more useful understanding of climate adaptation options,and indicates a lack of effective methods to meet this increasing demand of policymakers.In this respect,a participatory integrated assessment(PIA) approach is presented in this paper to provide an effective means to mainstream wetland climate change adaptation in rural sustainable development strategies,and thus to reduce climate vulnerability and to enhance rural community livelihood.The PIA approach includes a series of research activities required to assess climate impacts on wetland ecosystems,and to prioritize adaptation responses.A range of adaptation options that address key aspects of the wetland ecosystem resilience and concerns are evaluated against community based on sustainable development indicators.The PIA approach is able to identify desirable adaptation options which can then be implemented to improve wetland ecosystem health and to enhance regional sustainable development in a changing climate.For illustration purpose,the PIA was applied in a case study in Poyang Lake(PYL) region,a critical wetland and water ecosystem in central China with important international biodiversity linkages,and a locale for key policy experiments with ecosystem rehabilitation.The PIA was used to facilitate the integration of wetland climate change adaptation in rural sustainable development actions with multi-stakeholders participation.In particular,the case shows how the PIA can be designed and implemented to select effective and practical climate change adaptation options to enhance ecosystem services management and to reduce resource use conflicts and rural poverty.Worked in partnership with multi-stakeholders and assisted with a multi-criteria decision making tool

  4. Action research for the development of the organizational climate in nuclear power plants. Review of the 6-year research and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michio [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education; Misumi, Jyuji; Misumi, Emiko; Kotani, Fumio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Sakurai, Yukihiro

    1998-09-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Incorporated and the Japan Institute for Group Dynamics have conducted action research for the development of the organizational climate in nuclear power plants. First, two types of scales were completed. One is for measuring the leadership behavior of leaders working at nuclear power plants and the other is for measuring the safety consciousness of workers. After having diagnosed the reality of actual nuclear power plants using those scales developed, leadership training courses were developed and implemented successfully. Analyses of the commitment to organization and self-efficacy and the relationship between leadership and personality were conducted as well. (author)

  5. Transports and climate change: framework for public action; Transports et changement climatique: cadre de reference pour l'action publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, D. [Ministere de l' Ecologie, de l' Energie, du Developpement Durable et de l' Amenagement du territoire (MEEDDAT), 92 - La Defense (France)

    2008-07-01

    The author proposes an analysis of instruments to be implemented within the frame of a 'transports and climate change' sector-based plan. This analysis is based on a modelling of this sector, and includes some of the instruments proposed in the Stern report. After a presentation of this analysis framework, the author comments the issue of articulating technological policies and those aiming at the modification of behaviours through the setting of an appropriate price-signal. This aspect is further studied by taking a pre-existing substantial fuel taxing into account. Then the issue of articulation with transport policy is examined for the assessment of infrastructures which would be alternative to roads.

  6. Geothermal Program Review XII: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the President's Climate Change Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    Geothermal Program Review XII, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of US Department of Energy, was held April 25--28, 1994, in San Francisco, California. This annual conference is designed to promote effective technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal energy developers; suppliers of geothermal goods and services; representatives from federal, state, and local agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. In-depth reviews of the latest technological advancements and research results are presented during the conference with emphasis on those topics considered to have the greatest potential to impact the near-term commercial development of geothermal energy.

  7. Seasonal and spatial variation of bug flux in a northern California drainage network under a Mediterranean climate: implications for reciprocal subsidies between coupled ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M. E.; Moreno-Mateos, D.; Uno, H.; Bode, C.; Rainey, W.

    2010-12-01

    Background/Question/Methods. Network configuration of river drainages affects ecological exchange between mainstem channels and smaller tributaries, and between coupled terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Seasonal complementarity of fluxes may enhance predator densities and persistence in linked habitats under continental climate regimes (Nakano and Murakami 2001). In a Mediterranean watershed (the upper South Fork Eel River of Northern California (39°44’N, 123°37’W)), we studied spatial and seasonal patterns in insect fluxes among river, wetland, and forest habitats. We quantified insect emergence with vertical traps, and lateral fluxes between six wetland and eight river reaches and the upland forest adjacent to each. Insect horizontal fluxes were sampled using sticky traps along 50-150 m transects from the moister to the dryer habitats. We also studied vertical gradients of insect fluxes over rivers (up to 7 m) and in the forest (up to 40 m). Ca. 1800 traps and 40,000 insects were quantified. Results/Conclusions. In contrast to linked forest-river ecosystems in Hokkaido, peaks of insect fluxes in aquatic versus terrestrial habitats of the Eel River basin were less offset, and the seasonality of terrestrial versus river peaks was reversed. From late April through May, when the whole landscape was moist, there was no spatial variation in insect abundance-activity along forest, wetland, or river transects, and abundances averaged 315 insects m-2d-1. As the uplands dried out, from June to September, insect abundance peaked in wetlands and near the river, but dropped in the forest to average 32 insects m-2d-1 . The wetlands, with three abundance peaks distributed through spring, summer, and fall, maintained insect fluxes when river and forest fluxes were low. Vertically arrayed sticky traps over the river documented maximal insect activity-abundance near the water surface. In some positions, movements appeared random (equal downstream and upstream fluxes), but at

  8. School climate and teachers' beliefs and attitudes associated with implementation of the positive action program: a diffusion of innovations model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan C; Li, Kin-Kit; Allred, Carol

    2008-12-01

    Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a school's administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness, characteristics of a school's climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs' curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to school-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary schools completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and school-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers' attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers' beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers' perceptions of school climate. Perceptions of school climate were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of school-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful school leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a climate promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support.

  9. Participatory action research (PAR) as an entry point for supporting climate change adaptation by smallholder farmers in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapfumo, P.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Mtambanengwe, F.; Chikowo, R.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging trends of a changing and increasingly variable climate have introduced new livelihood challenges in rain-fed smallholder agricultural systems that predominate in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The capacity of local farming communities and their institutions to respond to the new and emerging imp

  10. University of Colorado at Boulder: Energy and Climate Revolving Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder's student run Environmental Center leads the campus' sustainability efforts. The Center created the Energy and Climate Revolving Fund (ECRF) in 2007 to finance energy-efficiency upgrades. The ECRF functions as a source of funding for project loans and provides a method of financing projects that seeks to save…

  11. Effectiveness of Action to Reduce Exposure of Free-Ranging California Condors in Arizona and Utah to Lead from Spent Ammunition

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Rhys E.; W Grainger Hunt; Christopher N Parish; Ian Newton

    2008-01-01

    California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) released into the wild in Arizona ranged widely in Arizona and Utah. Previous studies have shown that the blood lead concentrations of many of the birds rise because of ingestion of spent lead ammunition. Condors were routinely recaptured and treated to reduce their lead levels as necessary but, even so, several died from lead poisoning. We used tracking data from VHF and satellite tags, together with the results of routine testing of blood lead co...

  12. Development of an indicator system for the German action plan to global climate change (DAS); Entwicklung eines Indikatorensystems fuer die Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie an den Klimawandel (DAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Nickel, Darla [Ecologic gGmbH Institut fuer Internationale und Europaeische Umweltpolitik, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (DAS: Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie) (BUNDESREGIERUNG 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and foremost, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide guidance for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in the process. The Strategy is divided into 13 action fields and two cross-sectional fields (=14+15). (1) Human health (2) Building sector (3) Water regime, water management, coastal and marine protection (4) Soil (5) Biological diversity (6) Agriculture (7) Woodland and forestry (8) Fishery (9) Energy industry (conversion, transport and supply) (10) Financial services industry (11) Transport, transport infrastructure (12) Trade and industry (13) Tourism industry (14) Spatial, regional and physical development planning (15) Civil protection. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and implement the DAS. This will be made available for download from www.anpassung.net. An integral part of this will be the 'Tatenbank' (www.tatenbank.anpassung.net), the 'Klimalotse' (www.klimalotse.anpassung.net), FISKA (special information system 'Adaptation') and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far as the Indicator System is concerned, it has been decided to prepare a Report on Indicators for the challenges facing Germany and the

  13. Simulated performance of CIEE's 'Alternatives to Compressive Cooling' prototype house under design conditions in various California climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu Joe

    1999-12-01

    To support the design development of a compressorless house that does not rely on mechanical air-conditioning, the author carried out detailed computer analysis of a prototypical house design to determine the indoor thermal conditions during peak cooling periods for over 170 California locations. The peak cooling periods are five-day sequences at 2{percent} frequency determined through statistical analysis of long-term historical weather data. The DOE-2 program was used to simulate the indoor temperatures of the house under four operating options: windows closed, with mechanical ventilation, evaporatively-cooled mechanical ventilation, or a conventional 1 1/2-ton air conditioner. The study found that with a 1500 CFM mechanical ventilation system, the house design would maintain comfort under peak conditions in the San Francisco Bay Area out to Walnut Creek, but not beyond. In southern California, the same system and house design would maintain adequate comfort only along the coast. With the evaporatively-cooled ventilation system, the applicability of the house design can be extended to Fairfield and Livermore in northern California, but in southern California a larger 3000 CFM system would be needed to maintain comfort conditions over half of the greater Los Angeles area, the southern half of the Inland Empire, and most of San Diego county. With the 1 1/2-ton air conditioner, the proposed house design would perform satisfactorily through most of the state, except in the upper areas of the Central Valley and the hot desert areas in southern California. In terms of energy savings, the simulations showed that the prototypical house design would save from 0.20 to 0.43 in northern California, 0.20 to 0.53 in southern California, and 0.16 to 0.35 in the Central Valley, the energy used by the same house design built to Title-24 requirements.

  14. Managing and Mitigating the Health Risks of Climate Change: Calling for Evidence-Informed Policy and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shilu; Confalonieri, Ulisses; Ebi, Kristie; Olsen, Jorn

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Climate change affects many natural and social systems and processes that are essential for life. It disrupts the Earth’s life-support systems that underpin the world’s capacity to supply adequate food and fresh water, and it disturbs the eco-physical buffering against natural disasters. Epidemiologists need to develop and improve research and monitoring programs to better understand the scale and immediacy of the threat of climate change to human health and to act within a much larger and more comprehensive framework. To address one of the greatest environmental issues of our lifetime, the scientific and policy-making communities should work together to formulate evidence-informed public policy to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to its inevitable impacts in this generation and, more importantly, in future generations to come. PMID:27689449

  15. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  16. Climate change and the development of mountain areas: what do we need to know and for what types of action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Richard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is today a reality at both the international and more local levels. Recent studies have focussed mainly on analysing the consequences of climate change. The present article seeks to examine and qualify the impact of climate change in the mountain areas of the Alps. A first line of enquiry concerns the changing level of danger in the mountain environment. Are mountain areas becoming more dangerous and, if so, in terms of what types of risks and to what degree? However, adopting an approach based on an analysis of natural hazards and their dynamics in response to climate change cannot ignore the economic activities and types of development that already exist in these areas. In this respect, the tourism economy is predominant in mountain regions. Its durability and vitality undoubtedly constitute a priority for local actors. It is not surprising therefore that the latter have set up strategies for adapting to climate change. For planners and decision-makers to ensure integrated approaches in dealing with climate change, it is important that the complex links between natural risks and the types of development in mountain areas are better understood, which calls for a more detailed analysis of the environment in terms of territorial vulnerability.Le changement climatique est aujourd’hui une réalité au niveau international comme à celui des territoires locaux. Les travaux récents mettent préférentiellement l’accent sur l’analyse des conséquences du changement climatique. Cet article se propose de questionner et de qualifier l’impact du changement climatique dans les territoires montagnards des Alpes. Un premier axe de réflexion concerne l’évolution de la dangerosité de la montagne. Une montagne plus dangereuse se profile-t-elle ? Selon quels types de risques et avec quelles intensités ? Cependant, l’approche des risques naturels et de leur dynamique face au changement climatique ne saurait occulter le type d

  17. Adapting California’s ecosystems to a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Chornesky,; David Ackerly,; Paul Beier,; Frank Davis,; Flint, Lorraine E.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Moyle, Peter B.; Moritz, Max A.; Scoonover, Mary; Byrd, Kristin B.; Alvarez, Pelayo; Heller, Nicole E.; Micheli, Elisabeth; Weiss, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Significant efforts are underway to translate improved understanding of how climate change is altering ecosystems into practical actions for sustaining ecosystem functions and benefits. We explore this transition in California, where adaptation and mitigation are advancing relatively rapidly, through four case studies that span large spatial domains and encompass diverse ecological systems, institutions, ownerships, and policies. The case studies demonstrate the context specificity of societal efforts to adapt ecosystems to climate change and involve applications of diverse scientific tools (e.g., scenario analyses, downscaled climate projections, ecological and connectivity models) tailored to specific planning and management situations (alternative energy siting, wetland management, rangeland management, open space planning). They illustrate how existing institutional and policy frameworks provide numerous opportunities to advance adaptation related to ecosystems and suggest that progress is likely to be greatest when scientific knowledge is integrated into collective planning and when supportive policies and financing enable action.

  18. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  19. Innovating Science Teaching by Participatory Action Research – Reflections from an Interdisciplinary Project of Curriculum Innovation on Teaching about Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Feierabend

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a three-year curriculum innovation project on teaching about climate change. The innovation for this study focused on a socio-critical approach towards teaching climate change in four different teaching domains (biology, chemistry, physics and politics. The teaching itself explicitly aimed at general educational objectives, i.e., fostering students’ communication and evaluation abilities as essential components for preparing young people for active participation in society. Participatory Action Research has been used as a collaborative strategy of cyclical curriculum innovation and research. Using past experiences and selected results from accompanying research, this project and its methodology will be reflected upon from the viewpoint of the chemistry group taking part in the project. Core issues reflected upon include how the project contributed to the creation of feasible curriculum materials, how it led to innovative structures in practice, and whether it supported experienced teachers’ ongoing professional development. General considerations for the process of curriculum innovation will also be derived.

  20. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Hueffer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1 determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2 conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3 improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4 improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5 improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations.

  1. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J; Gerlach, Robert; Berner, James

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations.

  2. Mitigating Climate Change at the Carbon Water Nexus: A Call to Action for the Environmental Engineering Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarens, Andres F; Peters, Catherine A

    2016-10-01

    Environmental engineers have played a critical role in improving human and ecosystem health over the past several decades. These contributions have focused on providing clean water and air as well as managing waste streams and remediating polluted sites. As environmental problems have become more global in scale and more deeply entrenched in sociotechnical systems, the discipline of environmental engineering must grow to be ready to respond to the challenges of the coming decades. Here we make the case that environmental engineers should play a leadership role in the development of climate change mitigation technologies at the carbon-water nexus (CWN). Climate change, driven largely by unfettered emissions of fossil carbon into the atmosphere, is a far-reaching and enormously complex environmental risk with the potential to negatively affect food security, human health, infrastructure, and other systems. Solving this problem will require a massive mobilization of existing and innovative new technology. The environmental engineering community is uniquely positioned to do pioneering work at the CWN using a skillset that has been honed, solving related problems. The focus of this special issue, on "The science and innovation of emerging subsurface energy technologies," provides one example domain within which environmental engineers and related disciplines are beginning to make important contributions at the CWN. In this article, we define the CWN and describe how environmental engineers can bring their considerable expertise to bear in this area. Then we review some of the topics that appear in this special issue, for example, mitigating the impacts of hydraulic fracturing and geologic carbon storage, and we provide perspective on emergent research directions, for example, enhanced geothermal energy, energy storage in sedimentary formations, and others.

  3. Climate Change Schools Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

  4. Climate Change Schools Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools…

  5. 76 FR 20433 - California Disaster #CA-00169

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00169 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 04/05/2011. Incident: Center Fire. Incident Period: 03/18/2011 through 03/20/2011. Effective Date:...

  6. 78 FR 55771 - California Disaster #CA-00207

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00207 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of CALIFORNIA dated 08/26/2013. Incident: Silver Fire. Incident Period: 08/07/2013 through 08/14/2013. Effective Date:...

  7. 76 FR 62132 - California Disaster #CA-00176

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00176 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 09/29/2011. Incident: Canyon Fire. Incident Period: 09/04/2011 through 09/11/2011. Effective Date:...

  8. 78 FR 60366 - California Disaster #CA-00212

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00212 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 09/24/2013. Incident: Clover Fire Incident Period: 09/09/2013 through 09/15/2013. Effective Date:...

  9. 77 FR 1971 - California Disaster #CA-00183

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00183 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 01/05/2012. Incident: 1502 Golden Gate Fire. Incident Period: 12/22/2011. Effective Date:...

  10. 78 FR 39821 - California Disaster #CA-00202

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00202 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 06/25/2013. Incident: Powerhouse Fire. Incident Period: 05/30/2013 through 06/11/2013. Effective Date:...

  11. 78 FR 77195 - California Disaster #CA-00214

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00214 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of California (FEMA- 4158-DR), dated 12/13/2013. Incident: Rim Fire. Incident Period:...

  12. 76 FR 16029 - CALIFORNIA Disaster #CA-00165

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION CALIFORNIA Disaster CA-00165 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of CALIFORNIA dated 03/16/2011. Incident: Garden Breeze Apartment Complex Fire. Incident Period: 02/20/2011. DATES:...

  13. 76 FR 79751 - California Disaster #CA-00181

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00181 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 12/14/2011. Incident: Sequoia Apartment Complex Fire. Incident Period: 11/18/2011. Effective Date:...

  14. 75 FR 8414 - California Disaster # CA-00150

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00150 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated...

  15. 76 FR 7622 - California Disaster #CA-00162

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00162 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated...

  16. 76 FR 18614 - California Disaster #CA-00167

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00167 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated...

  17. 76 FR 24555 - California Disaster #CA-00171

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00171 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of CALIFORNIA dated...

  18. 77 FR 58901 - California Disaster #CA-00190

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00190 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated...

  19. 75 FR 22872 - California Disaster # CA-00154

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00154 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated...

  20. Global Education in California: The Tasks Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Presents agenda for action determined by a needs assesment conference of California educators. Recommendations are made for improving the conceptualization of global education, developing policy support, retraining teachers, expanding and improving exemplary efforts, and improving access to content resources. (KC)

  1. Current Status , Problems and Suggestions on Climate Change Adaptation Actions in Sichuan Province%四川省气候变化适应行动现状、问题和建议研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田梅; 冉春红; 李映果; 赵毅峰; 杨光炜

    2016-01-01

    The effective development of local climate change adaptation action is an important guarantee to ensure the imple-mentation of climate change adaptation strategies and objectives.As one of the more serious province which suffering from the ad-verse effects of climate change, Sichuan province is facing the challenge of enhancing the ability of sustainable development and responding the new climate change risk, how to maintain the economic development while establishing a low carbon development model of climate change is a realistic and urgent task for the economic and social development of our province .Based on the brief description of climate change impacts on Sichuan province as well as the Sichuan province's climate change adaptation achieve-ments, the paper further analyzed the problems about the adaptation to climate change , it was found that the policies and work mechanism for adaptation work had not been perfected, the lack of funding was difficult to provide long -term security mecha-nisms, infrastructure construction could not meet the needs of the adaptation, foundation support capacity was relatively weak, etc.Finally, several suggestions were put forward for further strengthening Sichuan province's climate change adaptation actions, such as:Strengthening policies and regulations for climate change adaptation;accelerating the improvement of institutional mecha-nisms for climate change adaptation; Increasing financial investment and financial support; enhancing the construction of the in-frastructure and condition platform to adapt for climate change; strengthening capacity building for climate change adaptation.%作为遭受气候变化不利影响较为严重的省份之一,四川省面临着可持续发展能力提升和应对新增气候变化风险的挑战.文章在简要介绍气候变化对四川省的影响、系统梳理其在适应气候变化中取得成效的基础上,进一步剖析了存在的问题,最后结合四川省省情和气候变

  2. Effectiveness of action to reduce exposure of free-ranging California condors in Arizona and Utah to lead from spent ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rhys E; Hunt, W Grainger; Parish, Christopher N; Newton, Ian

    2008-01-01

    California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) released into the wild in Arizona ranged widely in Arizona and Utah. Previous studies have shown that the blood lead concentrations of many of the birds rise because of ingestion of spent lead ammunition. Condors were routinely recaptured and treated to reduce their lead levels as necessary but, even so, several died from lead poisoning. We used tracking data from VHF and satellite tags, together with the results of routine testing of blood lead concentrations, to estimate daily changes in blood lead level in relation to the location of each bird. The mean daily increment in blood lead concentration depended upon both the location of the bird and the time of year. Birds that spent time during the deer hunting season in two areas in which deer were shot with lead ammunition (Kaibab Plateau (Arizona) and Zion (Utah)) were especially likely to have high blood lead levels. The influence upon blood lead level of presence in a particular area declined with time elapsed since the bird was last there. We estimated the daily blood lead level for each bird and its influence upon daily mortality rate from lead poisoning. Condors with high blood lead over a protracted period were much more likely to die than birds with low blood lead or short-term elevation. We simulated the effect of ending the existing lead exposure reduction measures at Kaibab Plateau, which encourage the voluntary use of non-lead ammunition and removal of gut piles of deer and elk killed using lead ammunition. The estimated mortality rate due to lead in the absence of this program was sufficiently high that the condor population would be expected to decline rapidly. The extension of the existing lead reduction program to cover Zion (Utah), as well as the Kaibab plateau, would be expected to reduce mortality caused by lead substantially and allow the condor population to increase.

  3. Effectiveness of action to reduce exposure of free-ranging California condors in Arizona and Utah to lead from spent ammunition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys E Green

    Full Text Available California condors (Gymnogyps californianus released into the wild in Arizona ranged widely in Arizona and Utah. Previous studies have shown that the blood lead concentrations of many of the birds rise because of ingestion of spent lead ammunition. Condors were routinely recaptured and treated to reduce their lead levels as necessary but, even so, several died from lead poisoning. We used tracking data from VHF and satellite tags, together with the results of routine testing of blood lead concentrations, to estimate daily changes in blood lead level in relation to the location of each bird. The mean daily increment in blood lead concentration depended upon both the location of the bird and the time of year. Birds that spent time during the deer hunting season in two areas in which deer were shot with lead ammunition (Kaibab Plateau (Arizona and Zion (Utah were especially likely to have high blood lead levels. The influence upon blood lead level of presence in a particular area declined with time elapsed since the bird was last there. We estimated the daily blood lead level for each bird and its influence upon daily mortality rate from lead poisoning. Condors with high blood lead over a protracted period were much more likely to die than birds with low blood lead or short-term elevation. We simulated the effect of ending the existing lead exposure reduction measures at Kaibab Plateau, which encourage the voluntary use of non-lead ammunition and removal of gut piles of deer and elk killed using lead ammunition. The estimated mortality rate due to lead in the absence of this program was sufficiently high that the condor population would be expected to decline rapidly. The extension of the existing lead reduction program to cover Zion (Utah, as well as the Kaibab plateau, would be expected to reduce mortality caused by lead substantially and allow the condor population to increase.

  4. Pollutant transport among California regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angevine, Wayne M.; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart; Holloway, John S.; Lerner, Brian M.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guha, Abhinav; Andrews, Arlyn; Nowak, John B.; Evan, Stephanie; Fischer, Marc L.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Bon, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Several regions within California have significant air quality issues. Transport of pollutants emitted in one region to another region may add to the impact of local emissions. In this work, Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations show the amounts of tracers that are transported within and among four regions, Southern California, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Central Valley, and the rest of the state. The simulations cover May and June of 2010, the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change experiment period. Tracers of automobile emissions and one type of agricultural emission are used. Tracer mixing ratios are compared to airborne and ground-based measurements. The age of tracers in each location is also presented. Vertical profiles and diurnal cycles help to clarify the transport process. As is well known, Southern California emissions are transported to the east and affect the desert areas, and Bay Area automobile emissions are an important source of pollutants in the San Joaquin Valley. A novel result is that the Southern California Bight is filled with a mixture of well-aged carbon monoxide tracer from Southern California and the Bay Area. Air over the Bight is also affected by the agricultural emissions represented by the agricultural tracer, dominantly from the Central Valley where its sources are largest. There is no indication of transport from Southern California to the Central Valley. Emissions from the Central Valley do make their way to Southern California, as shown by the agricultural tracer, but automobile emissions from the Valley are insignificant in Southern California.

  5. Simulation of climate change in San Francisco Bay Basins, California: Case studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of ongoing changes in climate, hydrologic and ecologic effects are being seen across the western United States. A regional study of how climate change affects water resources and habitats in the San Francisco Bay area relied on historical climate data and future projections of climate, which were downscaled to fine spatial scales for application to a regional water-balance model. Changes in climate, potential evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and climatic water deficit were modeled for the Bay Area. In addition, detailed studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains, which are on the northern and southern extremes of the Bay Area, respectively, were carried out in collaboration with local water agencies. Resource managers depend on science-based projections to inform planning exercises that result in competent adaptation to ongoing and future changes in water supply and environmental conditions. Results indicated large spatial variability in climate change and the hydrologic response across the region; although there is warming under all projections, potential change in precipitation by the end of the 21st century differed according to model. Hydrologic models predicted reduced early and late wet season runoff for the end of the century for both wetter and drier future climate projections, which could result in an extended dry season. In fact, summers are projected to be longer and drier in the future than in the past regardless of precipitation trends. While water supply could be subject to increased variability (that is, reduced reliability) due to greater variability in precipitation, water demand is likely to steadily increase because of increased evapotranspiration rates and climatic water deficit during the extended summers. Extended dry season conditions and the potential for drought, combined with unprecedented increases in precipitation, could serve as additional stressors on water quality and habitat. By focusing on the

  6. CRABS IN CRISIS:BIOGEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS, ABUNDANCES, AND VULNERABILITIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE OF BRACHYURAN AND LITHODID CRABS FROM THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA TO THE BEAUFORT SEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    To predict the relative vulnerability of near-coastal species to climate change we analyzed the biogeographic and abundance patterns of the brachyuran or ‘True’ crabs (n=368) and lithodid or ‘King’ crabs (n=20) that are found in the twelve MEOW (“Mar...

  7. BIOGEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS, ABUNDANCES, AND VULNERABILITIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE OF BRACHYURAN AND LITHODID CRABS FROM THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA TO THE BEAUFORT SEA - 9-19-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an EPA/USGS project to predict the relative vulnerability of near-coastal species to climate change we analyzed the biogeographic and abundance patterns of the brachyuran or ‘True’ crabs (n=368) and lithodid or ‘King’ crabs (n=20) that are found...

  8. BIOGEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS, ABUNDANCES, AND VULNERABILITIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE OF BRACHYURAN AND LITHODID CRABS FROM THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA TO THE BEAUFORT SEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an EPA/USGS project to predict the relative vulnerability of near-coastal species to climate change we analyzed the biogeographic and abundance patterns of the brachyuran or ‘True’ crabs (n=368) and lithodid or ‘King’ crabs (n=20) that are found...

  9. Oligocene tectonics and sedimentation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    During the Oligocene epoch, California was marked by extensive nonmarine sedimentation, in contrast to its pre-Oligocene and post-Oligocene depositional history. The Oligocene continental deposits are especially widespread in southern California and fill a number of small and generally partly restricted basins. Fluvial facies in many basins prograded over previously deposited lower Tertiary turbidites. Volcanism, from widespread centers, was associated with the nonmarine sedimentation. However, some basins remained marine and a few contain Oligocene turbidites and pelagic sediments deposited at bathyal depths. The Oligocene redbeds of California do not form a post-orogenic molasse sequence comparable to the Old Red Sandstone or Alpine molasse. They are synorogenic and record local uplift of basins and surrounding source areas. Late Cretaceous to contemporary orogenesis in California has been generally characterized by the formation of small restricted basins of variable depth adjacent to small upland areas in response to strike-slip faulting. Deposition of Oligocene redbeds was associated with climatic change from warm and humid to cold and semiarid, and a global lowering of sea level. Oligocene tectonism occurred during the transition from subduction of the Farallon Plate to initiation of the modern San Andreas transform system. However, the major influence that caused uplift, formation of fault-bounded basins, and extensive redbed deposition, especially in southern California, was the approach of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge to the western margin of California. ?? 1984.

  10. Taking Action against Global Warming - An Overview of the German Climate Policy; Agir contre le rechauffement de la planete. Une vue d'ensemble de la politique climatique Allemande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The climatic change is a reality. The Germany objective is to limit the increase of the earth temperature to 2 degree. The climatology studies show that this represents a limit level to stay in a controlled situation. This paper presents the international and european response to the climatic change and more especially the german approach. It details the revolution of the energy production, the energy efficiency, the problem of the transports and the new energy policy. The legislative framework, the actions of the regions and the financial program are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  11. Description of the effort sharing approaches as presented in the Ecofys' policy brief The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Hagemann, M.; Fekete, H. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The paper 'The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030' explains how setting 2030 targets will reinvigorate the ETS and will put EU emissions on track to limit global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius (2C). The paper describes four key findings for EU policymakers engaged in preparing EU energy and climate measures for 2030 and for the longer term. This document aims to provide background information on the effort sharing approaches, as presented in fore-mentioned paper.

  12. Interpretation of Recent Temperature Trends in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, P B; Bonfils, C; Lobell, D

    2007-09-21

    Regional-scale climate change and associated societal impacts result from large-scale (e.g. well-mixed greenhouse gases) and more local (e.g. land-use change) 'forcing' (perturbing) agents. It is essential to understand these forcings and climate responses to them, in order to predict future climate and societal impacts. California is a fine example of the complex effects of multiple climate forcings. The State's natural climate is diverse, highly variable, and strongly influenced by ENSO. Humans are perturbing this complex system through urbanization, irrigation, and emission of multiple types of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Despite better-than-average observational coverage, we are only beginning to understand the manifestations of these forcings in California's temperature record.

  13. Host, habitat and climate preferences of Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae) and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Wong, Johnny; Foley, Janet

    2016-10-01

    The Holarctic tick Ixodes angustus is a competent vector for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, and possibly Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the etiologic agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, as well. From 2005 to 2013, we collected host-feeding I. angustus individuals from live-trapped small mammals and by flagging vegetation from 12 study sites in northern and central California, and tested for B. burgdorferi sensu lato, A. phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. DNA by real-time PCR. Among 261 I. angustus collected (259 from hosts and two by flagging), the most common hosts were tree squirrels (20 % of ticks) and chipmunks (37 %). The PCR-prevalence for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi in ticks was 2 % and zero, respectively. The minimum infection prevalence on pooled DNA samples was 10 % for Rickettsia spp. DNA sequencing of the ompA gene identified this rickettsia as Candidatus Rickettsia angustus, a putative endosymbiont. A zero-inflated negative binomial mixed effects model was used to evaluate geographical and climatological predictors of I. angustus burden. When host species within study site and season within year were included in the model as nested random effects, all significant variables revealed that I. angustus burden increased as temperature decreased. Together with published data, these findings suggest that I. angustus is a host generalist, has a broad geographic distribution, is more abundant in areas with lower temperature within it's range, and is rarely infected with the pathogens A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi.

  14. Climate and hydrology of the last interglaciation (MIS 5) in Owens Basin, California: Isotopic and geochemical evidence from core OL-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.-C.; Bischoff, J.L.; Ku, T.-L.; Zhu, Z.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    ??18O, ??13C, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, and acid-leachable Li, Mg and Sr concentrations on 443 samples from 32 to 83 m depth in Owens Lake core OL-92 were analyzed to study the climatic and hydrological conditions between 60 and 155 ka with a resolution of ???200 a. The multi-proxy data show that Owens Lake overflowed during wet/cold conditions of marine isotope stages (MIS) 4, 5b and 6, and was closed during the dry/warm conditions of MIS 5a, c and e. The lake partially overflowed during MIS 5d. Our age model places the MIS 4/5 boundary at ca 72.5 ka and the MIS 5/6 boundary (Termination II) at ca 140 ka, agreeing with the Devils Hole chronology. The diametrical precipitation intensities between the Great Basin (cold/wet) and eastern China (cold/dry) on Milankovitch time scales imply a climatic teleconnection across the Pacific. It also probably reflects the effect of high-latitude ice sheets on the southward shifts of both the summer monsoon frontal zone in eastern Asia and the polar jet stream in western North America during glacial periods. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Politics of climate change belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Donald Trump's actions during the election and his first weeks as US president-elect send a strong message about his belief in climate change, or lack thereof. However, these actions may reflect polarization of climate change beliefs, not climate mitigation behaviour.

  16. Response of diatom and silicoflagellate assemblages in the central Gulf of California to regional climate change during the past 55 kyrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David; Cheshire, Heather

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution studies of diatoms and silicoflagellates of the past 55 kyrs in cores MD02-2517/2515 from the central Gulf of California (GoC) reveal profound changes in GoC surface waters. Roperia tesselata, a diatom proxy for late winter–early spring upwelling, and Dictyocha stapedia, a subtropical silicoflagellate indicative of GoC sea surface temperatures (SSTs) > 24 °C, are common during the Holocene but rare during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and most of MIS 3, a relationship that likely reflects a more northerly position of the North Pacific High (NPH) during the Holocene. In contrast during most of MIS 2 (~ 27–15 ka), the persistent presence of Distephanus speculum, a silicoflagellate associated with SSTs During MIS 3 (~ 55–27 ka), increased dominance of Azpeitia nodulifera (diatom) implies that stratified, tropical waters were present year round, whereas silicoflagellate assemblages suggest that stratified tropical conditions alternated with more productive, upwelling conditions on millennial timescales. Reduced biosiliceous productivity during Heinrich events likely reflected a reduction in both surface water nutrient levels and in the strength of northwest winds due to a weakened and more southerly NPH. Conversely, enhanced biosiliceous productivity during MIS 3 interstadials was probably linked to heightened nutrient levels and a strengthened NPH. Abrupt relative abundance increases of the silicoflagellate, Dictyocha aculeata, approximate the termination of MIS3 Heinrich events and may signal times when nutrient-rich deep waters associated with the resumption of enhanced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation penetrated into the central Gulf.

  17. Combined climate- and prey-mediated range expansion of Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), a large marine predator in the California Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Julia S; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Foley, David G; Gilly, William F; Robison, Bruce H; Field, John C

    2014-06-01

    Climate-driven range shifts are ongoing in pelagic marine environments, and ecosystems must respond to combined effects of altered species distributions and environmental drivers. Hypoxic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in midwater environments are shoaling globally; this can affect distributions of species both geographically and vertically along with predator-prey dynamics. Humboldt (jumbo) squid (Dosidicus gigas) are highly migratory predators adapted to hypoxic conditions that may be deleterious to their competitors and predators. Consequently, OMZ shoaling may preferentially facilitate foraging opportunities for Humboldt squid. With two separate modeling approaches using unique, long-term data based on in situ observations of predator, prey, and environmental variables, our analyses suggest that Humboldt squid are indirectly affected by OMZ shoaling through effects on a primary food source, myctophid fishes. Our results suggest that this indirect linkage between hypoxia and foraging is an important driver of the ongoing range expansion of Humboldt squid in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

  18. Serving California's Science and Governance Needs through Crisis-driven Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, L.

    2015-12-01

    Due to its magnitude, the ongoing drought in California (USA) serves as an experimental space for innovative resource management and will define responses to predicted widespread drought. Due to the magnitude of its effect on humans and natural ecosystems and the water resources on which they depend, governmental programs are granting support to scientifically-valid, locally-produced solutions to water scarcity. Concurrently, University of California Water (UC Water) Security and Sustainability Research Initiative is focused on strategic research to build the knowledge base for better water resources management. This paper examines how a team of transdisciplinary scientists are engaged in water governance and information, providing examples of actionable research successfully implemented by decision makers. From a sociology of science perspective, UC Water scientists were interviewed about their engagement practices with California water decision makers. Their "co-production of knowledge" relationships produce effective responses to climatic, landcover and population changes by expanding from singularly information-based, unidirectional communication to governance-relevant, co-constructed knowledge and wisdom. This is accomplished by serving on decision making organizational boards and developing information in a productive format. The perceived crisis of California's drought is an important impetus in cross-sector collaborations, and in combination with governance and institution parameters, defines the inquiry and decision space. We conclude by describing a process of clear problem-solution definition made possible through transparent communication, salient and credible information, and relevant tools and techniques for interpreting scientific findings.

  19. Nature-based solutions to climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban areas: Perspectives on indicators, knowledge gaps, barriers, and opportunities for action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kabisch (Nadja); N. Frantzeskaki (Niki); S. Pauleit (Stephan); Naumann, S. (Sandra); Davis, M. (McKenna); M. Artmann (Martina); D. Haase (Dagmar); Knapp, S. (Sonja); Korn, H. (Horst); Stadler, J. (Jutta); Zaunberger, K. (Karin); Bonn, A. (Aletta)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractNature-based solutions promoting green and blue urban areas have significant potential to decrease the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of cities in light of climatic change. They can thereby help to mitigate climate change-induced impacts and serve as proactive adaptation option

  20. Possible Weakening Processes Imposed on California's Earthen Levees under Protracted Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. D.; Vahedifard, F.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    California is currently suffering from a multiyear extreme drought and the impacts of the drought are anticipated to worsen in a warming climate. The resilience of critical infrastructure under extreme drought conditions is a major concern which has not been well understood. Thus, there is a crucial need to improve our understanding about the potential threats of drought on infrastructure and take subsequent actions in a timely manner to mitigate these threats and adopt our infrastructure for forthcoming extreme events. The need is more pronounced for earthen levees, since their functionality to protect limited water resources and dryland is more critical during drought. A significant amount of California's levee systems are currently operating under a high risk condition. Protracted drought can further threaten the structural competency of these already at-risk levee systems through several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes that undermine their stability. Viable information on the implications of these weakening processes, particularly on California's earthen levees, is relatively incomplete. This article discusses, from a geotechnical engineering perspective, how California's protracted drought might threaten the integrity of levee systems through the imposition of several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes. Pertinent facts and statistics regarding the drought in California are presented and discussed. Catastrophic levee failures and major damages resulting from drought-induce weakening processes such as shear strength reduction, desiccation cracking, land subsidence and surface erosion, fissuring and soil softening, and soil carbon oxidation are discussed to illustrate the devastating impacts that the California drought might impose on existing earthen levees. This article calls for further research in light of these potential drought-inducing weakening mechanisms to support mitigation strategies for reducing future catastrophic levee failures.

  1. 77 FR 14349 - Availability of Report: California Eelgrass Mitigation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... potentially increasing degradation and loss from climate change, highlights the need to protect, maintain, and... entrance), San Francisco Bay, and northern California (San Francisco Bay to the California/Oregon border... manipulation of the environment has permanently altered site suitability for eelgrass or a change in...

  2. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  3. Tracking recent climate and anthropogenic change in Central America in sediments form the lower fan of the Rio Yaqui, Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, I. W.; Ravelo, A. C.; Moraes, R.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of preliminary sedimentologic analyses of a ~3.3m long piston core (P13) collected in the lower fan of the Rio Yaqui (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California; depth, 1859m) by UNAM's (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) research ship El Puma in 2014. The core was collected to test the potential for high-resolution reconstructions of basin-scale paleoclimate in the Pacific and the Mesoamerican region. Shipboard and post-cruise analyses include magnetic susceptibility (MS), smear slide counts and laser diffraction particle size analysis. The core is being analyzed for X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and color reflectance, and a 210Pb age model is being constructed. Preliminary results show that Rio Yaqui lower fan sediment differs significantly from that in the Guaymas Basin, which is dominantly diatom ooze. The lower ~2m of core P13 show prominent alternations (~10-20cm) between very-fine-grained, clay intervals characterized by higher MS and mixed diatom and clay intervals, with coarser grain size and lower MS values. In contrast, the upper ~1m has distinctive high MS sand turbidites alternating with diatom-rich layers. Previous core studies from nearby ODP Leg 64 site show sedimentation rates of ~1.2 m/ka; as these sites are further away from the Yaqui delta the sedimentation rates for core P13 should be higher possibly recording only the last few hundred years of sedimentation. Clay/diatom cycles in the lower part of the core could record decadal- or ENSO-scale wet/aridity cycles in the Sonoran Mainland. Conversely, the coarser siliciclastic intervals and the diatom layers in the upper part of the core could reflect the last few decades of land usage in the watershed of the Rio Yaqui, the most important river in the state of Sonora, Mexico. These include large modifications to the river's hydrography (e.g. construction of dams and aqueducts), rapidly expanding mass agricultural practices in the region, and increased eutrophication in the Gulf.

  4. Sacramento, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Sacramento, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  5. San Jose, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Jose, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  6. Visitor center at the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve, Lancaster, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colyer, R.D.; Freeman, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    The Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve contains the largest remaining stand of the California Poppy (Eschschozia Californica), the state flower of California. To welcome the thousands of people viewing the desert wildflowers each spring, the State of California decided to build a visitor/interpretive center. This building deals primarily with the question of fit; a building's fit aesthetically with its site and the fit of a building's design response to the climate of the site. In this case, both aspects of this question led the client and architects to seek an earth sheltered solution using materials at least metaphorically indigenous to the region. On both a technical and formal level, this building seeks to fit the unique climate and historical heritage of its site.

  7. Climate Change and Water Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    To take action on climate impacts, practitioners must understand how climate change will effect their region, and the country. Training provided here by EPA and partners allow users to better grasp the issues and make decisions based on current science.

  8. Testing a participatory integrated assessment (PIA approach to select climate change adaptation actions to enhance wetland sustainability: The case of Poyang Lake region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2015-06-01

    It should be noted that while the case study evaluated adaptation policies or options to climate change, it was not completed in terms of discussing in detail all the key components of the PIA approach. However, the case study represents the state-of-the-arts research in climate change impact assessment and adaptation option evaluation, particularly in linking with wetland ecosystem sustainability. Findings of the case study have indicated that the potential effects of climate change on wetland sustainability are quite significant. The case has also identified adaptation measures considered by stakeholders to be potentially effective for reducing vulnerability of wetland ecosystems. It is clear that wetland ecosystem sustainability goals will be unachievable without mainstreaming adaptation measures into wetland conservation and health programs under a changing climate.

  9. Ecoregions of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Smith, David W.; Cook, Terry D.; Tallyn, Ed; Moseley, Kendra; Johnson, Colleen B.

    2016-02-23

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance (Bryce and others, 1999). These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across Federal agencies, State agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources in the same geographical areas (Omernik and others, 2000).The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions are hierarchical and can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity (Wiken, 1986; Omernik, 1987, 1995). These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997, map revised 2006). At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2013). Level IV, depicted here for California, is a further refinement of level III ecoregions. Explanations of the methods used to define these ecoregions are given in Omernik (1995), Omernik and others

  10. To widen the action tools against the climatic change by domestic projects. Evaluation report; Elargir les instruments d'action contre le changement climatique grace aux projets domestiques. Rapport d'evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, E.; Dominicis, A. de; Leguet, B.; Leseur, A.; Perthuis, Ch. de

    2005-11-15

    In the framework of the climatic change fight, each country aims to implement tools of emissions reduction. In France, the european system of CO{sub 2} quotas exchange, applied on the more emitted installations, covers less than 30% of the national carbon emissions. The other 70% are free of taxes. The 'climate mission' realized an evaluation of the emission reduction in the case of a new policy aiming to develop domestic projects of emission control. This report presents the study and its conclusions: the domestic projects, the possibilities of these projects in the transportation agriculture and forests and building sectors, the implementing conditions.

  11. California Simulation of Evapotranspiration of Applied Water and Agricultural Energy Use in California

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza N Orang; Richard L Snyder; Shu Geng; Quinn J Hart; Sara Sarreshteh; Matthias Falk; Dylan Beaudette; Scott Hayes; Simon Eching

    2013-01-01

    The California Simulation of Evapotranspiration of Applied Water (Cal-SIMETAW) model is a new tool developed by the California Department of Water Resources and the University of California, Davis to perform daily soil water balance and determine crop evapotranspiration (ETc), evapotranspiration of applied water (ETaw), and applied water (AW) for use in California water resources planning. ETaw is a seasonal estimate of the water needed to irrigate a crop assuming 100%irrigation efficiency. The model accounts for soils, crop coefficients, rooting depths, seepage, etc. that influence crop water balance. It provides spatial soil and climate information and it uses historical crop and land-use category information to provide seasonal water balance estimates by combinations of detailed analysis unit and county (DAU/County) over California. The result is a large data base of ETc and ETaw that will be used to update information in the new California Water Plan (CWP). The application uses the daily climate data, i.e., maximum (Tx) and minimum (Tn) temperature and precipitation (Pcp), which were derived from monthly USDA-NRCS PRISM data (PRISM Group 2011) and daily US National Climate Data Center (NCDC) climate station data to cover California on a 4 km×4 km change grid spacing. The application uses daily weather data to determine reference evapotranspiration (ETo), using the Hargreaves-Samani (HS) equation (Hargreaves and Samani 1982, 1985). Because the HS equation is based on temperature only, ETo from the HS equation were compared with CIMIS ETo at the same locations using available CIMIS data to determine correction factors to estimate CIMIS ETo from the HS ETo to account for spatial climate differences. Cal-SIMETAW also employs near real-time reference evapotranspiration (ETo) information from Spatial CIMIS, which is a model that combines weather station data and remote sensing to provide a grid of ETo information. A second database containing the available soil

  12. Generating relevant climate adaptation science tools in concert with local natural resource agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, L.; Flint, L. E.; Veloz, S.; Heller, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    To create a framework for adapting to climate change, decision makers operating at the urban-wildland interface need to define climate vulnerabilities in the context of site-specific opportunities and constraints relative to water supply, land use suitability, wildfire risks, ecosystem services and quality of life. Pepperwood's TBC3.org is crafting customized climate vulnerability assessments with selected water and natural resource agencies of California's Sonoma, Marin, Napa and Mendocino counties under the auspices of Climate Ready North Bay, a public-private partnership funded by the California Coastal Conservancy. Working directly with managers from the very start of the process to define resource-specific information needs, we are developing high-resolution, spatially-explicit data products to help local governments and agency staff implement informed and effective climate adaptation strategies. Key preliminary findings for the region using the USGS' Basin Characterization Model (at a 270 m spatial resolution) include a unidirectional trend, independent of greater or lesser precipitation, towards increasing climatic water deficits across model scenarios. Therefore a key message is that managers will be facing an increasingly arid environment. Companion models translate the impacts of shifting climate and hydrology on vegetation composition and fire risks. The combination of drought stress on water supplies and native vegetation with an approximate doubling of fire risks may demand new approaches to watershed planning. Working with agencies we are exploring how to build capacity for protection and enhancement of key watershed functions with a focus on groundwater recharge, facilitating greater drought tolerance in forest and rangeland systems, and considering more aggressive approaches to management of fuel loads. Lessons learned about effective engagement include the need for extended in-depth dialog, translation of key climate adaptation questions into

  13. Assessing Crop Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Southwest Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub is one of ten Climate Hubs and Sub-hubs established in 2014. The Hub region includes Arizona, California (partnering with the California Sub-Hub), Nevada, New Mexico and Utah.  Beyond the mainland States, the SW hub also serves Hawaii and the US affiliated Pac...

  14. The water footprint of California's energy system, 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Julian; Cooley, Heather

    2015-03-17

    California's energy and water systems are interconnected and have evolved in recent decades in response to changing conditions and policy goals. For this analysis, we use a water footprint methodology to examine water requirements of energy products consumed in California between 1990 and 2012. We combine energy production, trade, and consumption data with estimates of the blue and green water footprints of energy products. We find that while California's total annual energy consumption increased by just 2.6% during the analysis period, the amount of water required to produce that energy grew by 260%. Nearly all of the increase in California's energy-related water footprint was associated with water use in locations outside of California, where energy products that the state consumes were, and continue to be, produced. We discuss these trends and the implications for California's future energy system as it relates to climate change and expected water management challenges inside and outside the state. Our analysis shows that while California's energy policies have supported climate mitigation efforts, they have increased vulnerability to climate impacts, especially greater hydrologic uncertainty. More integrated analysis and planning are needed to ensure that climate adaptation and mitigation strategies do not work at cross purposes.

  15. California Report Card 2011: Setting the Agenda for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindnich, Jessica; Kennedy, Brian; Schutjer-Mance, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    This year's "Report Card" breaks new ground by providing "The Children's Agenda", which details the top ten high-priority, high-impact actions California policymakers should take to reverse the declining status of children. It's clear any sound plan to revitalize the state must prioritize children's development. California's history backs this up,…

  16. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate... California, hereinafter referred to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural...

  17. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate... California, hereinafter referred to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural...

  18. Territorial action plans against the climatic change. Good practices of european towns. State of lthe art 2002; Les plans d'action territoriaux contre le changement climatique. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes. Etat de l'art 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    By their actions and their choices in matter of public buildings and wastes management or electric power production and distribution, the collectivities aim to be an example and to bring information to make the public aware of the greenhouse effect. A collectivity which builds an action plan to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions begins to realize an inventory which includes an energy accounting and the CO{sub 2} emissions evaluation. Objectives can then be decided. In a second part the towns realize cooperations and organize the management and the evaluation of the projects. Some examples of european towns are described to illustrate the study. (A.L.B.)

  19. Climate Observations from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    The latest Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Status Report on global climate observations, delivered to the UNFCCC COP21 in November 2016, showed how satellite data are critical for observations relating to climate. Of the 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) identified by GCOS as necessary for understanding climate change, about half are derived only from satellite data while half of the remainder have a significant input from satellites. Hence data from Earth observing satellite systems are now a fundamental requirement for understanding the climate system and for managing the consequences of climate change. Following the Paris Agreement of COP21 this need is only greater. Not only will satellites have to continue to provide data for modelling and predicting climate change but also for a much wider range of actions relating to climate. These include better information on loss and damage, resilience, improved adaptation to change, and on mitigation including information on greenhouse gas emissions. In addition there is an emerging need for indicators of the risks associated with future climate change which need to be better quantified, allowing policy makers both to understand what decisions need to be taken, and to see the consequences of their actions. The presentation will set out some of the ways in which satellite data are important in all aspects of understanding, managing and predicting climate change and how they may be used to support future decisions by those responsible for policy related to managing climate change and its consequences.

  20. Transfer and Articulation in the 1990s: California in the Larger Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This report puts California's current efforts to find solutions to its problems of transfer and articulation in the broader context of national concerns. Following a brief summary and overview, part 1 sets forth a seris of conclusions and six recommendations for action by the University of California, the California State University, the…

  1. Addressing Climate Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ A series of extreme global weather events,like floods in Pakistan and droughts in Russia,should serve as a call to the world to take action against climate change.But worries have been mounting since global climate talks stalled,partly due to rifts between developed and developing countries.What efforts should be made to force progress in the negotiating process? What role has China played in combating climate change? Su Wei,China's chief climate negotiator and Director-General of the Climate Change Department of the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue to answer these questions and more.

  2. Natural Climate Variability and Future Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, K.; Caldeira, K.

    2013-12-01

    Individual beliefs about climate change and willingness-to-pay for its mitigation are influenced by local weather and climate. Large ensemble climate modeling experiments have demonstrated the large role natural variability plays in local weather and climate on a multidecadal timescale. Here we illustrate how if support for global climate policies and subsequent implementation of those policies are determined by citizens' local experiences, natural variability could influence the timeline for implementation of emissions reduction policies by decades. The response of complex social systems to local and regional changes in weather and climate cannot be quantitatively predicted with confidence. Both the form and timing of the societal response can be affected by interactions between social systems and the physical climate system. Here, to illustrate one type of influence decadal natural variability can have on climate policy, we consider a simple example in which the only question is when, if ever, the different parties will support emissions reduction. To analyze the potential effect that unpredictable extreme events may have on the time to reach a global agreement on climate policy, we analyzed the output from a 40-member Community Climate System Model version 3 simulation ensemble to illustrate how local experiences might affect the timing of acceptance of strong climate policy measures. We assume that a nation's decision to take strong actions to abate emissions is contingent upon the local experiences of its citizens and then examine how the timelines for policy action may be influenced by variability in local weather. To illustrate, we assume that a social 'tipping point' is reached at the national level occurs when half of the population of a nation has experienced a sufficiently extreme event. If climate policies are driven by democratic consensus then variability in weather could result in significantly disparate times-to-action. For the top six CO2 emitters

  3. Nature-based solutions to climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban areas: perspectives on indicators, knowledge gaps, barriers, and opportunities for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Kabisch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based solutions promoting green and blue urban areas have significant potential to decrease the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of cities in light of climatic change. They can thereby help to mitigate climate change-induced impacts and serve as proactive adaptation options for municipalities. We explore the various contexts in which nature-based solutions are relevant for climate mitigation and adaptation in urban areas, identify indicators for assessing the effectiveness of nature-based solutions and related knowledge gaps. In addition, we explore existing barriers and potential opportunities for increasing the scale and effectiveness of nature-based solution implementation. The results were derived from an inter- and transdisciplinary workshop with experts from research, municipalities, policy, and society. As an outcome of the workshop discussions and building on existing evidence, we highlight three main needs for future science and policy agendas when dealing with nature-based solutions: (i produce stronger evidence on nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation and mitigation and raise awareness by increasing implementation; (ii adapt for governance challenges in implementing nature-based solutions by using reflexive approaches, which implies bringing together new networks of society, nature-based solution ambassadors, and practitioners; (iii consider socio-environmental justice and social cohesion when implementing nature-based solutions by using integrated governance approaches that take into account an integrative and transdisciplinary participation of diverse actors. Taking these needs into account, nature-based solutions can serve as climate mitigation and adaptation tools that produce additional cobenefits for societal well-being, thereby serving as strong investment options for sustainable urban planning.

  4. Economic costs of achieving current conservation goals in the future as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M Rebecca; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Cameron, D Richard; Mackenzie, Jason; Roehrdanz, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Conservation of biologically diverse regions has thus far been accomplished largely through the establishment and maintenance of protected areas. Climate change is expected to shift climate space of many species outside existing reserve boundaries. We used climate-envelope models to examine shifts in climate space of 11 species that are representative of the Mount Hamilton Project area (MHPA) (California, U.S.A.), which includes areas within Alameda, Santa Clara, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, and San Benito counties and is in the state's Central Coast ecoregion. We used Marxan site-selection software to determine the minimum area required as climate changes to achieve a baseline conservation goal equal to 80% of existing climate space for all species in the MHPA through 2050 and 2100. Additionally, we assessed the costs associated with use of existing conservation strategies (land acquisition and management actions such as species translocation, monitoring, and captive breeding) necessary to meet current species-conservation goals as climate changes. Meeting conservation goals as climate changes through 2050 required an additional 256,000 ha (332%) of protected area, primarily to the south and west of the MHPA. Through 2050 the total cost of land acquisition and management was estimated at US$1.67-1.79 billion, or 139-149% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. To maintain 80% of climate space through 2100 required nearly 380,000 additional hectares that would cost $2.46-2.62 billion, or 209-219% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. Furthermore, maintaining 80% of existing climate space within California for 27% of the focal species was not possible by 2100 because climate space for these species did not exist in the state. The high costs of conserving species as the climate changes-that we found in an assessment of one conservation project-highlights the need for tools that will aid

  5. Critical Time Span and Nonlinear Action Structure of Climatic Atmosphere and Ocean%气候大气和海洋的临界时间跨度与非线性作用结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志仁; 吴德星; 陈大可; 吴辉碇; 宋学家; 张占海

    2002-01-01

    研究了气候海洋与大气的临界时间跨度及其非线性作用的大致结构.与预报的空间分辩率及系统的非线性强度相联系,气候大气和海洋的临界时间跨度可反映系统可预报的相对时间尺度.对于具有同样空间特征尺度的大气和海洋,海洋的最小临界时间跨度约是大气的9倍(可达数日至数十日).一般(外源变化缓慢的)气候海洋与大气的一阶非线性越强,其临界时间跨度越小.气候海洋与大气非线性作用的大致结构是:通常与科里奥利力对流体运动的规范作用(如地转运动)有关,非线性作用随纬度增加而减弱.距平流场的切变结构及其沿经向与纬向上强度的比较直接改变气候大气和海洋的非线性作用(比如,向东的距平环流强度与经向环流强度相当时,非线性作用最强),较强的外部驱动(风应力和压强梯度力)使非线性作用加大等等.%This paper studies the critical time span and the approximate nonlinear action structure of climatic atmosphere and ocean. The critical time span of the climatic atmosphere and ocean, which is related to the spatial resolution required, the strength of nonlinear action, and the calculation exactness, may represent the relative temporal scale of predictability. As far as the same characteristic spatial scale is concerned, the minimum critical time span of the ocean is about 9 times of that of atmosphere, several days or more. Usually,the stronger the nonlinear action, the shorter the critical time span with smooth changes of external forces.The approximate structure of nonlinear action of climatic atmosphere and ocean is: the nonlinear action decreases usually with increasing latitude, which is related to the role of the Coriolis force in fluid motion (forming geostrophic current); the nonlinear action changes with the anomalous cyclonic or anticyclonic circulation shear, for instance, when the strength of anomalous eastward zonal circulation

  6. Final report of the advisory council on climate and energy of the town of Muenster, 1995. Pt. 1. Action recommendations; Endbericht des Beirates fuer Klima und Energie der Stadt Muenster 1995. T. 1. Handlungsempfehlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertis, K.; Bach, W.; Deiters, J.; Klopfer, T.; Schallaboeck, K.O.; Weick, H.; Krasutzki, J. [ed.

    1995-06-01

    This report concludes three years of work of the advisory council on climate and energy at Muenster and contains the results of the investigations. It points out carbon dioxide reduction potentials for the individual sectors and derives recommendations for corresponding action, specifying in greater detail and in part extending the measures proposed by the interim report. By implementing these action recommendations, the target postulated by the federal German government of cutting down carbon dioxide emissions by 25 to 30 per cent by the year 2005 is to be attained at the municipal level. By joining the international climate league, the town of Muenster, moreover, has committed itself to halving per-capita carbon dioxide emissions by 2010 as compared to 1987, thereby even increasing the need for action in the energy and transport sectors of the local government and at the management level of the Muenster town works.- The recommendations of the advisory council on climate and energy submitted in this report form the basis for further action to be taken by the town of Muenster in order to cut down carbon dioxide emissions (orig./KW). [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Bericht schliesst die dreijaehrige Arbeit des Beirates fuer Klima und Energie in Muenster ab und stellt die Ergebnisse seiner Untersuchungen dar. Fuer die einzelnen Sektoren sind hier CO{sub 2}-Reduktionspotentiale aufgezeigt und daraus Handlungsempfehlungen abgeleitet, wobei die bereits im Zwischenbericht enthaltenen Massnahmenvorschlaege praezisiert und z.T. erweitert worden sind. Die Umsetzung dieser Handlungsempfehlungen soll dazu fuehren, auf kommunaler Ebene das von der Bundesregierung postulierte Ziel, einer 25 bis 30%-igen CO{sub 2}-Minderung bis zum Jahr 2005 zu erreichen. Mit dem Beitritt zum Klimabuendnis hat sich die Stadt Muenster darueber hinaus verpflichtet, bis zum Jahr 2010 die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen (pro Einwohner) im Vergleich mit dem Jahr 1987 zu halbieren, was den Handlungsbedarf im Bereich

  7. The Challenge of Affirmative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Valerie Ooka; Strom, David; Young, Russell L.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the challenges of using affirmative action programs when competing groups of underrepresented people vie for limited school resources. The case study of a San Francisco (California) high school illustrates the difficulties of balancing competing goals when affirming diversity and addressing patterns of discrimination conflict with equal…

  8. Assessing the Effect of Climate Change in Two Snow-Dominated Mountainous Basins in the California Sierra Nevada Using CMIP5 data and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M.; Sultana, R.

    2014-12-01

    American River and Upper Merced basins are located on the snow-dominated area in the California's Sierra Nevada mountain range. American River basin, located north of the Sierra Nevada, is 4,781.2 km2 and snowmelt runoff from the basin feeds the Folsom Lake reservoir which is primarily used to generate hydroelectric power as part of the Central-Valley project. To the south of the mountain range, 5,252.8 km2 Upper Merced basin is located and streamflow from the watershed is mainly used for irrigation. Because of the importance of the two basins to the state water resources, we have studied the future projected change in streamflow of the basins. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was calibrated (R2 and NSE values of 0.93 and 0.91 at American River basin and 0.86 and 0.85 at Upper Merced River basin, respectively) to simulate the hydrologic response of the basins. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from the Centre National de RecherchésMeteorologiques (CNRM) and NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) outputs were collected from World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP) downscaled and bias corrected CMIP5 dataset. The watersheds were studied using RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 future projections for 50 year period (2015-2065). Compared to the baseline (1965-1999), peak discharge in Upper Merced basin is projected to increase by 7% to 57% at the USGS stream gauge site located upstream in the basin. At the basin outlet, peak discharge in July decreases by 15% for RCP 4.5 scenariobut increases by 30% for RCP 8.5 scenarios. Winter streamflow increases for both RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios by 50-125%. At the American River basin,there is no change in projected summer streamflow but 30-68% increase is projected in winter streamflow at the basin outlet. Overall, the high elevated mountain zones are projected to have small change compared to the lower elevated downstream zones of the basins. Based on the selected GCM outputs from the CMIP5 dataset, winter

  9. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Spokas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local GHG mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for landfill CH4 generation (methanogenesis, but does not explicitly consider climate or soil dependencies for emissions. Relying on a comprehensive California landfill database, a field-validated process-based model for landfill CH4 emissions (CALMIM, and select field measurements at 10 California sites with a variety of methods, we support the contrary position: Limited climate dependency for methanogenesis, but strong climate dependency for landfill CH4 emissions. Contrary to the historic IPCC empirical model for methanogenesis with kinetic constants related to climate, we demonstrate a simpler and more robust linear empirical relationship (r2 = 0.85; n=128 between waste mass and landfill biogas recovery [126 × 10-6 Nm3 CH4 hr-1 Mgwaste-1]. More interestingly, there are no statistically significant relationships with climate, site age, or status (open/closed for landfill biogas recovery. The current IPCC methodology does not consider soil or climate drivers for gaseous transport or seasonal methanotrophy in different cover soils. On the other hand, we illustrate strong climate and soil dependencies for landfill emissions—e.g., average intermediate cover emissions below 20 g CH4 m-2 d-1 when the site’s mean annual precipitation is >500 mm y-1. Thereby, for the California landfill CH4 inventory, the highest-emitting sites shift from landfills containing the largest mass of waste to sites dominated by intermediate cover types having a reduced rate of soil CH4 oxidation during the annual cycle. These differences have profound implications for developing more realistic, science-based urban and regional scale GHG inventories for landfill CH4 while reducing

  10. FISHING FROM THE SAME POOL: THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE ON LOCAL CLIMATE CHANGE ACTIONS IN SCOTLAND AND THE US PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    OpenAIRE

    ANTHONY JACKSON; BARBARA ILLSLEY; WILLIAM LYNCH

    2012-01-01

    The impact of environmental governance on the delivery of local climate change plans is examined by comparing two transatlantic sub-national jurisdictions which have adopted stringent targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Scotland and the Pacific Northwest region of the United States of America. The former relies on dirigiste top-down environmental governance, through which central government sets targets and imposes statutory duties that apply equally to all local councils. In the l...

  11. From vision to action: roadmapping as a strategic method and tool to implement climate change adaptation - the example of the roadmap 'water sensitive urban design 2020'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, J U; Weingaertner, D E

    2016-01-01

    As the central product of the BMBF-KLIMZUG-funded Joint Network and Research Project (JNRP) 'dynaklim - Dynamic adaptation of regional planning and development processes to the effects of climate change in the Emscher-Lippe region (North Rhine Westphalia, Germany)', the Roadmap 2020 'Regional Climate Adaptation' has been developed by the various regional stakeholders and institutions containing specific regional scenarios, strategies and adaptation measures applicable throughout the region. This paper presents the method, elements and main results of this regional roadmap process by using the example of the thematic sub-roadmap 'Water Sensitive Urban Design 2020'. With a focus on the process support tool 'KlimaFLEX', one of the main adaptation measures of the WSUD 2020 roadmap, typical challenges for integrated climate change adaptation like scattered knowledge, knowledge gaps and divided responsibilities but also potential solutions and promising chances for urban development and urban water management are discussed. With the roadmap and the related tool, the relevant stakeholders of the Emscher-Lippe region have jointly developed important prerequisites to integrate their knowledge, to clarify vulnerabilities, adaptation goals, responsibilities and interests, and to foresightedly coordinate measures, resources, priorities and schedules for an efficient joint urban planning, well-grounded decision-making in times of continued uncertainties and step-by-step implementation of adaptation measures from now on.

  12. Dialogic action in climate change discussions: An international study of high school students in China, New Zealand, Norway and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J. Arya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global efforts to prepare young developing minds for solving current and future challenges of climate change have advocated interdisciplinary, issues-based instructional approaches in order to transform traditional models of science education as delivering conceptual facts (UNESCO, 2014. This study is an exploration of the online interactions in an international social network of high school students residing in Norway, China, New Zealand and the United States (N=141. Students participated in classroom-based and asynchronous online discussions about adapted versions of seminal scientific studies with facilitative support from seven scientists across various fields. Grounded in a language-in-use frame for investigating facilitation and demonstrations of problem-based and evidence-based reasoning (Kelly & Chen, 1999, we traced the varied questions, assertions, and evidentiary sources within student-led online discussions. We found that questions from scientific experts in the form of unconstrained, open-ended invitations for exploration were followed by students’ acknowledgement and consideration of complex and, at times, conflicting sociopolitical and economic positions about climate change issues. These findings suggest that broadening science classroom discussions to include socially relevant, unsolved issues like climate change could open potential entry points for a dialogic approach that fosters a scientific community in the classroom.

  13. Loss of Biodiversity and Climate Change as Presented in Biology Curricula for Ethiopian Schools: Implications for Action-Oriented Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    Schools, as institutions for general education, are believed to have a responsibility to equip their students with the knowledge and commitment to take personally meaningful decisions and action to address the challenges posed by both lifestyle and societal conditions. Achieving this goal requires, among other things, adequate integration of the…

  14. 77 FR 61815 - California Disaster #CA-00190

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00190 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of...

  15. 76 FR 38263 - California Disaster #CA-00172

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office Small Business Administration California Disaster CA-00172 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  16. 75 FR 17792 - California Disaster # CA-00150

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00150 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Administrative declaration of disaster for the State of...

  17. 76 FR 5856 - California Disaster #CA-00164

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00164 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  18. 75 FR 13144 - California Disaster #CA-00151

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00151 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  19. 76 FR 11307 - California Disaster #CA-00162

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00162 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of...

  20. 76 FR 80446 - California Disaster #CA-00182

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 247 (Friday, December 23, 2011)] [Notices] [Pages 80446-80447] [FR Doc No: 2011-32952] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12967 and 12968] California Disaster CA-00182 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is...

  1. 75 FR 27846 - California Disaster # CA-00155

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 95 (Tuesday, May 18, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 27846] [FR Doc No: 2010-11746] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12166 and 12167] California Disaster CA-00155 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of...

  2. 75 FR 69733 - California Disaster #CA-00161

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 219 (Monday, November 15, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 69733] [FR Doc No: 2010-28587] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12373 and 12374] California Disaster CA-00161 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice...

  3. Human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; González-Suárez, Manuela; Young, Julie K; Durham, Susan; Gerber, Leah R

    2011-03-16

    The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive rate, and body condition, and growth rate of neonate pups) for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive rates, which translated into reduced long-term population growth rates and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body growth rates in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased growth rates in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive rates (e.g., decreased competition for resources). Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations.

  4. Human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah S French

    Full Text Available The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive rate, and body condition, and growth rate of neonate pups for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive rates, which translated into reduced long-term population growth rates and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body growth rates in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased growth rates in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive rates (e.g., decreased competition for resources. Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations.

  5. Sustainability as Moral Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  6. China’s Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country’s policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China’s efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by

  7. Quantifying and qualifying terroir: Empirical evidence linking climate, vineyards, and people across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Kimberly

    2014-05-01

    Climate affects the geographic range, yield, price, and biochemical composition of winegrapes. At the regional scale, historical climate and yield data were successfully used to develop simple models of crop yields using two or three monthly climate parameters for twelve major California crops, including winegrapes. These crop models were used to project the impact of future climate change on crop yields, showing that greater warming would increasingly push highly suitable areas for viticulture outside of their current range. Correlating temperature with price for Pinot noir throughout its growing range in California demonstrated higher prices for grapes grown in cooler climates, whereas prices dropped off rapidly above a ripening temperature threshold, indicating the vulnerability of grape price to climate change. At the vineyard scale, a three-year field study of eleven Pinot noir vineyards in California's North Coast showed that warm temperatures early in the growing season were correlated with increased phenolic compounds (anthocyanins and tannins), which likely benefits wine quality, but warmer periods later in the ripening process appeared to offset these effects. At the microclimate scale, high light intensities were measured on Pinot noir fruit in vertically shoot positioned vineyards, indicating a potential for changing canopy management to provide more optimal ripening conditions. Vineyards are highly managed, and there are many opportunities for viticulturists to shape the micro- and meso-climate that vines experience, thereby influencing the biophysical drivers of terroir through their site selection and vineyard planting and farming choices. An analysis of the precision agriculture and management strategies used by winegrowers in California and Australia showed that growers tend to rely more on short-term farming actions for adapting to environmental stresses; these may have considerable potential to enhance adaptive capacity, and are easier to

  8. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  9. Climate for Change?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejs, Anja

    around international networks. Despite the many initiatives taken by cities, existing research shows that the implementation of climate change actions is lacking. The reasons for this scarcity in practice are limited to general explanations in the literature, and studies focused on explaining...... and to investigate the institutional dynamics new institutional theory is used with an emphasis on examining institutional mechanisms in relation to building legitimacy for action. The concept of mechanisms can help explain how and why constraints on action occur, and the concept of legitimacy is useful to clarify...... the strategies used by officials to enable climate change action. A long running criticism of institutional theory is the emphasis on how institutions constrain actions rather than act as productive phenomena that facilitate action. Emergent strands within new institutional theory emphasise the role of agency...

  10. Climate change and rising energy costs will change everything: a new mindset and action plan for 21st century public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, G; Hanlon, P; Romanes, F

    2008-07-01

    Western governments currently prioritize economic growth and the pursuit of profit above alternative goals of sustainability, health and equality. Climate change and rising energy costs are challenging this consensus. The realization of the transformation required to meet these challenges has provoked denial and conflict, but could lead to a more positive response which leads to a health dividend; enhanced well-being, less overconsumption and greater equality. This paper argues that public health can make its best contribution by adopting a new mindset, discourse, methodology and set of tasks.

  11. Analysis and Review on the US President’s Climate Action Plan%美国奥巴马总统“气候行动计划”解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲平

    2014-01-01

    2013 年 6 月,美国总统奥巴马在华盛顿乔治城大学发表关于应对气候变化的讲话,发布了“总统气候行动计划”,重申到 2020 年美国实现在 2005 年基础上减排温室气体 17% 的承诺,并从减少温室气体排放、应对气候变化的不利影响和领导国际合作三个方面系统阐释了美国联邦政府将采取的一系列举措,这是迄今为止美国政府最全面综合的气候政策。通过分析和梳理该“气候行动计划”推出的背景、主要内容以及美国各界的反应等,指出了该计划的实质和存在的一些问题,包括在实施范围、执行力度、持续性和有效性等方面的局限性。%In June 2013, U.S. president Barack Obama unveiled the President’s Climate Action Plan, which reiterated his previous commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the range of 17%below 2005 level by 2020, and released a series of actions and targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prepare for the climate impacts domestically, and to strengthen its international leadership in addressing the issue jointly. The plan was considered to be the most comprehensive climate policy in the U.S. to date. The paper analyzes the background of the plan, summarizes the main contents and instruments in the plan, collects various views from different stakeholders on the plan, and concludes by pointing out the constraints and weakness of the plan.

  12. CLIMATE CHANGE, Change International Negociations?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xiaosheng

    2009-01-01

    @@ Climate change is one of key threats to human beings who have to deal with.According to Bali Action Plan released after the 2007 Bali Climate Talk held in Indonesia,the United Nations Framework on Climate Change(UNFCCC) has launched a two-year process to negotiate a post-2012 climate arrangement after the Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012 and the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference will seal a final deal on post-2012 climate regime in December,2009.For this,the United Nation Chief Ban Ki Moon called 2009"the year ofclimate change".

  13. Climate Change and Poverty Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-08-15

    Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to achieve and sustain development goals. This is largely because climate effects on poverty remain poorly understood, and poverty reduction strategies do not adequately support climate resilience. Ensuring effective development in the face of climate change requires action on six fronts: investing in a stronger climate and poverty evidence base; applying the learning about development effectiveness to how we address adaptation needs; supporting nationally derived, integrated policies and programmes; including the climate-vulnerable poor in developing strategies; and identifying how mitigation strategies can also reduce poverty and enable adaptation.

  14. Gauging climate preparedness to inform adaptation needs: local level adaptation in drinking water quality in CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, Julia A; Bedsworth, Louise; Fencl, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Understanding resource managers' perceptions of climate change, analytic capacity, and current adaptation activities can provide insight into what can help support adaptation processes at the local level. In California, where a major drought currently demonstrates some of the hardships that could be regularly encountered under a changing climate, we present results from a survey of drinking water utilities about the perceived threat, analytic capacity, and adaptation actions related to maintaining water quality in the face of climate change. Among surveyed utilities (n = 259), awareness is high in regard to climate change occurring and its potential impacts on water quality globally, but perceived risk is lower with regard to climate impacts on local drinking water quality. Just over half of surveyed utilities report at least some adaptation activity to date. The top three variables that most strongly correlated with reported adaptation action were (1) perceived risk on global and local water quality, (2) surface water reliance, and (3) provision of other services beyond drinking water. Other tested variables significantly correlated with reported adaptation action were (4) degree of impact from the current drought and (5) communication with climate change experts. Findings highlight that smaller groundwater-reliant utilities may need the most assistance to initiate climate adaptation processes. Trusted information sources most frequently used across respondents were state government agencies, followed by colleagues in the same utilities. The finding that frequently used sources of information are similar across utilities presents a promising opportunity for training and disseminating climate information to assist those systems needing the most support.

  15. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  16. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miola, A., E-mail: apollonia.miola@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Marra, M., E-mail: Marleenmarra@gmail.com [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Ciuffo, B., E-mail: biagio.ciuffo@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: > Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. > How to combine ambitious CO{sub 2} reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. > Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. > Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  17. Climate mission: territory action and climatic change; Mission climat: action territoriale et changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perthuis, Ch. de

    2005-04-15

    The France will reach with difficulties the Kyoto objectives concerning the greenhouse gases emission reduction, if only the emissions from the industry are concerned. Thus the local collectivities have a great role to play. The author explains the importance of the local communities initiatives, details the example of the United States where the federal structure leaves many rooms for manoeuvre, points out the importance of the transportation sector in the greenhouse gases emission and discusses the local collectivities policy facing the renewable energies development, the energy conservation and the energy efficiency of the buildings. (A.L.B.)

  18. Water use in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Justin; Sneed, Michelle; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Metzger, Loren F.; Rewis, Diane; House, Sally F.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the USGS National Water Use Compilation, the California Water Science Center works in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies as well as academic and private organizations to collect and report total water withdrawals for California. The 2010 California water use data are aggregated here, in this website, for the first time. The California Water Science Center released these data ahead of the online USGS National Water Use Compilation circular report, in response to increased interest associated with current drought conditions. The national report is expected to be released late in 2014. The data on this website represents the most current California water use data available in the USGS National Water Use Compilation. It contains a section on water use in California for 2010. Water-use estimates are compiled by withdrawal source type, use category, and county. Withdrawal source types include groundwater, both fresh and saline,

  19. Climate Literacy Ambassadors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Mooney, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Literacy Ambassadors program is a collaborative effort to advance climate literacy led by the Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. With support from NASA, CIMSS is coordinating a three-tiered program to train G6-12 teachers to be Ambassadors of Climate Literacy in their schools and communities. The complete training involves participation at a teacher workshop combined with web-based professional development content around Global and Regional Climate Change. The on-line course utilizes e-learning technology to clarify graphs and concepts from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Summary for Policy Makers with content intricately linked to the Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Educators who take the course for credit can develop lesson plans or opt for a project of their choosing. This session will showcase select lesson plans and projects, ranging from a district-wide action plan that engaged dozens of teachers to Ambassadors volunteering at the Aldo Leopold Climate Change Nature Center to a teacher who tested a GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign (SCRC) learning project with plans to participate in the SCRC program. Along with sharing successes from the CIMSS Climate Literacy Ambassadors project, we will share lessons learned related to the challenges of sustaining on-line virtual educator communities.

  20. Climate Summit in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delman, Jørgen

      Together with the United States, China has moved to centre stage in the running up to the Climate Summit in Copenhagen 7-18 December 2009. To make the Summit a success, the two countries have started signalling positive commitment to formulation of quantitative targets and engage constructively...... in elaborating a reasonably ambitious, yet realistic framework for the implementation of a new global post-Kyoto regime that will have to take effect from 2012. China's leadership has already acknowledged that climate change may exacerbate an exceedingly unsustainable development path over the next decades...... if action is not taken to change its course dramatically. The challenges are formidable, yet the window of opportunity to take action is quite narrow. For these reasons and due to international pressure, China's position on climate change has been made gradually clearer as the climate negotiations have...

  1. 75 FR 19994 - Green Diamond Resource Company, California Timberlands Division, Forest Management Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ..., global climate change, and environmental justice. Please direct any comments to the USFWS contact listed... Fish and Wildlife Service Green Diamond Resource Company, California Timberlands Division, Forest Management Habitat Conservation Plan and Incidental Take Permit, Del Norte and Humboldt Counties,...

  2. Southern California Particle Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the Southern California Particle Center, center researchers will investigate the underlying mechanisms that produce the health effects associated with exposure to...

  3. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  4. Climate plan 2004; Plan climat 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Climate Plan is an action plan drawn up by the French Government to respond to the climate change challenge, first by 2010 (complying with the Kyoto Protocol target), and, secondly, beyond this date. Projections for France show that national emissions could be 10% higher than the Kyoto target in 2010 if no measures are taken. This is particularly due to increasing emissions in the sectors affecting daily life (residential-tertiary sectors, transport, etc.). For this reason, the Climate Plan contains measures affecting all sectors of the economy and the daily life of all French citizens with a view to economizing the equivalent of 54 million tonnes of CO{sub 2} each year by the year 2010, which will help to reverse the trend significantly. Beyond 2010, the Climate Plan sets out a strategy for technological research which will enable France to meet a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions four or fivefold by 2050. (author)

  5. Authentic Assessment in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Leadership, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes the teacher-developed California Assessment Program (CAP) writing measure, designed to support California's reform curriculum and based on matrix sampling techniques. This program will be supplemented by literature and mathematics assessments. The greatest challenge is designing an assessment to match the state's new history and social…

  6. Addressing Climate Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of extreme global weather events,like floods in Pakistan and droughts in Russia,should serve as a call to the world to take action against climate change.But worries have been mounting since global climate talks stalled,partly due to rifts between developed and developing countries.What efforts should be made to force progress in the negotiating process?What role has China played in combating climate change?Su Wei,China’s chief climate negotiator and Director-General of the Climate Change Department of the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue to answer these questions and more.Edited excerpts follow

  7. Sociology: Shaping US climate opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechin, Steven R.

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to scientific information cannot explain entirely the levels of public concern about global warming in the United States. Now research shows that US views on climate change are largely affected by the actions of political groups.

  8. Action physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  9. Complementary Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person. Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i to simulate another person’s movements, (ii to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  10. Achievements and opportunities from ESF Research Networking Programme: Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes, and COST Action 639: Greenhouse gas budget of soils under changing climate and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckx, P.; Rasse, D.; Jandl, R.

    2009-04-01

    soils under changing climate and land use" (BurnOut) (www.cost.esf.org/domains_actions/essem/Actions/changing_climate or bfw.ac.at/rz/bfwcms.web?dok=5906) BurnOut aims at improving the management of greenhouse gas emissions from European soils under different regimes of ecosystem disturbances and land-use change. This will allow the identification of soil and site conditions (hot spots) that are vulnerable to greenhouse gas emissions. The specific objectives are: - Identification of hot spots of greenhouse gas emissions from soils; - Identification of soil and site conditions that are vulnerable to GHG emissions; - Development of an advanced greenhouse gas reporting concept across different of land forms, land use and land use changes; - Communication of policy relevant GHG reporting concepts; Burnout covers the following activities: - Organisation of specific topical workshops; - Short-term scientific visits for scientists. Participating countries in BurnOut are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, Russian Federation, and Bosnia Herzegovina. During this oral presentation, possible lines of cooperation, opportunities and recent achievements will be exemplified and the audience will be invited to contribute their views on these initiatives.

  11. The Power of Metaphor in Communicating Risk in Climate Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, T.; Gann, T. M.; Bergmann, T.

    2014-12-01

    Risk messages are intended to capture attention whether danger is almost certain or only a remote possibility. When used the right way, metaphor is an effective tool for getting people to pay attention to hazard and take the right course of action. Metaphor is effective because it immediately grounds what is unknown and abstract in terms what is known and concrete. For instance, when talking about a wildfire that is "swallowing up homes" we instantly understand that it is dangerous and destructive (not literally eating homes), or when talking about a drought "crippling California" we instantly know that it is leading to suboptimal agricultural and economic conditions. TV journalists often use metaphor in reporting climate information because it can vivify information. In contrast, government officials who work with risk are inclined to avoid it. The aim of this presentation is twofold: 1) to analyze and characterize types metaphors in climate discourse, especially messages about extreme wildfires and severe drought conditions, and 2) to discuss the utility of metaphor to framing risk messages for varied stakeholders across varied timescales. Many examples of risk messages in natural discourse about climate are analyzed and discussed, including examples from the TV News Archive.

  12. Towards a new climate diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Angel; Moffat, Andrew S.; Weinfurter, Amy J.; Schwartz, Jason D.

    2015-06-01

    A new kind of climate politics is emerging, as national actions prove insufficient to address the changing climate. Subnational actors -- ranging from provinces and cities, to civil sector organizations and private companies -- are acting alongside nation states, making up for lost ground and missed opportunities.

  13. Prevalence and incidence of postharvest diseases of blueberries in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent establishment of low-chill southern highbush blueberry cultivars in California’s warm climate has significantly increased the acreage of blueberry production in the Central Valley of California, which is now a major southern highbush blueberry production region in the United States. The vast ...

  14. Using Water Footprints to Identify Alternatives for Conserving Local Water Resources in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Marrin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a management tool for addressing water consumption issues, footprints have become increasingly utilized on scales ranging from global to personal. A question posed by this paper is whether water footprint data that are routinely compiled for particular regions may be used to assess the effectiveness of actions taken by local residents to conserve local water resources. The current California drought has affected an agriculturally productive region with large population centers that consume a portion of the locally produced food, and the state’s arid climate demands a large volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports most of its food products, enough is consumed within the state so that residents shifting their food choices and/or habits could save as much or more local blue water as their reduction of household or office water use. One of those shifts is reducing the intake of animal-based products that require the most water of any food group on both a gravimetric and caloric basis. Another shift is reducing food waste, which represents a shared responsibility among consumers and retailers, however, consumer preferences ultimately drive much of this waste.

  15. 76 FR 38572 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air...

  16. 78 FR 65578 - Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AY65 Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We revise the regulations that allow control of depredating birds in California. We specify the counties...

  17. 77 FR 58901 - California Disaster #CA-00192; Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00192; Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of California, dated 09/14/2012. Incident: Ocean Avenue Fire. Incident Period:...

  18. 78 FR 53492 - California Disaster #CA-00208 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00208 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of California, dated 08/19/2013. Incident: Mountain Fire. Incident Period:...

  19. 77 FR 58901 - California Disaster #CA-00193; Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00193; Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of California, dated 09/14/2012. Incident: Chips Fire. Incident Period:...

  20. 78 FR 61442 - California Disaster #CA-00213 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00213 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of California, dated 09/26/2013. Incident: Rim Fire. Incident Period: 08/17/2013...

  1. Affirmative Action Programs: A Current Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Habibah P.

    Recent lawsuits and judgments brought against colleges and universities for enacting affirmative action policies are threatening to dismantle the core principles of the Bakke decision (Regents of the University of California v. Bakke) and undermine the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This paper discusses current issues and challenges that pertain to…

  2. Climate Change Mitigation A Balanced Approach to Climate Change

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a fresh and innovative perspective on climate change policy. By emphasizing the multiple facets of climate policy, from mitigation to adaptation, from technological innovation and diffusion to governance issues, it contains a comprehensive overview of the economic and policy dimensions of the climate problem. The keyword of the book is balance. The book clarifies that climate change cannot be controlled by sacrificing economic growth and many other urgent global issues. At the same time, action to control climate change cannot be delayed, even though gradually implemented. Therefore, on the one hand climate policy becomes pervasive and affects all dimensions of international policy. On the other hand, climate policy cannot be too ambitious: a balanced approach between mitigation and adaptation, between economic growth and resource management, between short term development efforts and long term innovation investments, should be adopted. I recommend its reading. Carlo Carraro, President, Ca�...

  3. 77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule....

  4. 78 FR 18936 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA...

  5. 77 FR 65133 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... Identification of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (379) * * * (i) * * * (E) Mojave Desert Air Quality Management... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA...

  6. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene,...

  7. Recovery plan for the California Red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this plan is to reduce threats and improve the population status of the California red-legged frog sufficiently to warrant delisting. Actions...

  8. 75 FR 8008 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These... construction sites, unpaved roads, and disturbed soils in open and agricultural areas. We are proposing...

  9. 76 FR 31295 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is withdrawing the notice soliciting comments on its request for...

  10. Permafrost and gas hydrate related methane release in the Arctic and its impact on climate change - European cooperation for long-term monitoring: COST Action PERGAMON (www.cost-pergamon.eu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Jens; Treude, Tina; Members, Pergamon

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic is a key area in our warming world as massive releases of terrestrial and oceanic methane could increase atmospheric methane concentrations much faster than expected. The vast Arctic shelf might become a major emitter of methane in the future. Only a few projects are engaged in research on methane seepage in this area. The exchange of information about ongoing and planned activities in the Arctic with respect to gas hydrate destabilization and permafrost thawing is low within the EU and almost non-existent at an international level. The aim of the COST Action PERGAMON is to promote networking internationally within the EU and beyond: data integration of terrestrial studies from wetlands and permafrost regions marine research on gas release from seeps due to decomposing gas hydrate and/or permafrost melting and atmospheric investigations carried out by monitoring stations and via satellite is urgently needed to achieve a better understanding of methane emission processes in high latitude areas. The "official" main objective of PERGAMON is to quantify the methane input from marine and terrestrial sources into the atmosphere in the Arctic region, and ultimately to evaluate the impact of Arctic methane seepage on the global climate. This will be achieved by studying the origin and type of occurrence (dissolved/free gas, gas hydrate) of different methane sources (both on land and in the sub-seabed) as well as methane migration mechanisms, biogeochemical turnover, release mechanisms, and finally by quantifying the flux into the atmosphere. Biannual meetings and open workshops/conferences that will be announced throughout the scientific community serve as a platform to exchange and proliferate knowledge on methane in the Arctic. At present, fourteeen European countries are partners in PERGAMON, several non-COST country institutions are currently applying to participate (e.g. the US and Russia). PERGAMON aims to be open for new members, suggestions and input at

  11. California Harpoon Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data from harpoon vessels that fish within 200 miles of the California coast, from 1974 to present. The harpoon...

  12. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  13. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  14. California Data Exchange Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make July &28;Water Smart Month.&29; &28;Conserving ... Remote sensors today indicate that statewide, snowpack water content is 54 percent of ... California ranked first, along with Texas, on ...

  15. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  16. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  17. California Watershed Hydrologic Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is intended to be used as a tool for water-resource management and planning activities, particularly for site-specific and localized studies requiring a...

  18. Cooperation and discord in global climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Robert O.; Victor, David G.

    2016-06-01

    Effective mitigation of climate change will require deep international cooperation, which is much more difficult to organize than the shallow coordination observed so far. Assessing the prospects for effective joint action on climate change requires an understanding of both the structure of the climate change problem and national preferences for policy action. Preferences have become clearer in light of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties in December 2015. Although deep cooperation remains elusive, many partial efforts could build confidence and lead to larger cuts in emissions. This strategy of decentralized policy coordination will not solve the climate problem, but it could lead incrementally to deeper cooperation.

  19. Action framework for climate change adaptation:an agriculture case in Ningxia Hui nationality autonomous region%气候变化适应行动实施框架——宁夏农业案例实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居煇; 陈晓光; 王涛明; 姜帅

    2011-01-01

    Ningxia Hui nationality autonomous region is one of the ecological fragile and poor regions in China, sothis region could be used as representative and model sample for adaptation demonstration of agriculture system in China. According to climate change adaptation action framework,drought risk and water resource shortage will increase in future. At the same time, frequency and intensity of extreme climate events will also strengthen. High efficient water-saving irrigation technology and high efficient planting patterns should be developed in the north, facility agriculture and husbandry in the middle and characteristic agriculture in the south of Ningxia Hui nationality autonomous region in future. People working in meteorology and water resource fields think that adaptation effect will be good, while people in agriculture and forestry fields think it should be considered carefully. The primary criterion for adaptation implementation is to meet with the local and state policies. The second is the cost-effectiveness. Public awareness to climate risk and flexibility of measures requirement are relatively weakened in the course of implementation. In general, meteorological services and planting structure adjustment are preferred adaptation measures. In spite of the traditional and regular technologies such as concrete mulching and water-saving are good,their applications face certain limitations for adaptation implementing in first-class choice.%宁夏是我国生态脆弱区和贫困区之一,以宁夏为例开展农业适应行动实践具有一定的代表性和示范作用.根据气候变化适应行动实施框架,研究结果表明:宁夏未来气候干旱风险将增加,水资源短缺矛盾加剧,极端气候事件频率和强度加大.未来宁夏北部灌区农业应以发展节水灌溉和高效种植为主,中部以设施农业和牧业为主,南部以发展特色农业为主.气象部门和水利部门对适应技术的适应效果持乐观态度,农牧

  20. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  1. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, C.D.

    1977-11-15

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a significant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospect in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  2. Historic drought puts the brakes on earthflows in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G. L.; Roering, J. J.; Mackey, B. H.; Handwerger, A. L.; Schmidt, D. A.; Guillod, B. P.

    2016-06-01

    California's ongoing, unprecedented drought is having profound impacts on the state's resources. Here we assess its impact on 98 deep-seated, slow-moving landslides in Northern California. We used aerial photograph analysis, satellite interferometry, and satellite pixel tracking to measure earthflow velocities spanning 1944-2015 and compared these trends with the Palmer Drought Severity Index, a proxy for soil moisture and pore pressure that governs landslide motion. We find that earthflow velocities reached a historical low in the 2012-2015 drought, but that their deceleration began at the turn of the century in response to a longer-term moisture deficit. Our analysis implies depth-dependent sensitivity of earthflows to climate forcing, with thicker earthflows reflecting longer-term climate trends and thinner earthflows exhibiting less systematic velocity variations. These findings have implications for mechanical-hydrologic interactions that link landslide movement with climate change as well as sediment delivery in the region.

  3. Integrated Hydrosystem Modeling of the California Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, J. H.; Hwang, H. T.; Sudicky, E. A.; Mallia, D.; Lin, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Western United States is facing one of the worst droughts on record. Climate change projections predict warmer temperatures, higher evapotranspiration rates, and no foreseeable increase in precipitation. California, in particular, has supplemented their decreased surface water supplies by mining deep groundwater. However, this supply of groundwater is limited, especially with reduced recharge. These combined factors place California's water-demanding society at dire risk. In an effort to quantify California's risks, we present a fully integrated water cycle model that captures the dynamics of the subsurface, land surface, and atmospheric domains over the entire California basin. Our water cycle model combines HydroGeoSphere (HGS), a 3-D control-volume finite element model that accommodates variably-saturated subsurface and surface water flow with evapotranspiration processes to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a 3-D finite difference nonhydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric simulator. The two-way coupling within our model, referred to as HGS-WRF, tightly integrates the water cycling processes by passing precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data from WRF to HGS, while exchanging actual evapotranspiration and soil saturation data from HGS to WRF. Furthermore, HGS-WRF implements a flexible coupling method that allows each model to use a unique mesh while maintaining mass conservation within and between domains. Our simulation replicated field measured evapotranspiration fluxes and showed a strong correlation between the soil saturation (depth to groundwater table) and latent heat fluxes. Altogether, the HGS-WRF California basin model is currently the most complete water resource simulation framework as it combines groundwater, surface water, the unsaturated zone, and the atmosphere into one coupled system.

  4. Canada`s progress towards implementing the science and adaptation component of the National Action Program on Climate Change - a report to the federal, provincial and territorial ministers of environment and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, J.A. [ed.

    1996-11-01

    The Canadian Climate Program (CCP) was created in 1979 as a national effort to understand global climate variability and changes as they affect Canada and the adjacent oceans. The CCP was also intended as a contribution to the World Climate Programme. A review of Canada` progress to date in improving its commitments to science and adaptation regarding climatic change was provided, including improvements in evaluation and coordination of systematic observations, in the creation of improved statistical and analytical tools, and tools to assess Canadian options and opportunities aimed at reducing risks of climate change. Boreal forests, permafrost-saturated Arctic tundra, and snow-and ice-covered areas were identified as areas of special Canadian concern. Climate change impacts and adaptations in Canada were also reviewed.

  5. 76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ..., these costs are offset by the benefits derived by the operation of the marketing order. In addition, the... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment...

  6. 76 FR 13443 - California Disaster Number CA-00164

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster Number CA-00164 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for...

  7. 75 FR 41558 - California Disaster Number CA-00155

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster Number CA-00155 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for...

  8. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601-674), hereinafter referred to as...

  9. 78 FR 77327 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate..., hereinafter referred to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing...

  10. 78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 981 Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a... referred to as the ``order,'' and the applicable provisions of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act...

  11. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-12-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  12. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-08-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  13. Future Climate Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Houseworth

    2001-10-12

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada (Figure 1), the site of a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this AMR provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the infiltration model (USGS 2000) and for the total system performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) at YM. Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one method, among many, of establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog. Revision 00 of this AMR was prepared in accordance with the ''Work Direction and Planning Document for Future Climate Analysis'' (Peterman 1999) under Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-97NV12033 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The planning document for the technical scope, content, and management of ICN 01 of this AMR is the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (BSC 2001a). The scope for the TBV resolution actions in this ICN is described in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical

  14. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  15. The Story of California = La Historia de California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nick

    "The Story of California" is a history and geography of the state of California, intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The book is designed with the left page in English and the right page in Spanish to facilitate student transition into comfortable use of…

  16. The Story of California = La Historia de California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nick

    "The Story of California" is a history and geography of the state of California, intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The book is designed with the left page in English and the right page in Spanish to facilitate student transition into…

  17. Climate-smart agriculture for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Leslie; Thornton, Philip; Campbell, Bruce M.; Baedeker, Tobias; Braimoh, Ademola; Bwalya, Martin; Caron, Patrick; Cattaneo, Andrea; Garrity, Dennis; Henry, Kevin; Hottle, Ryan; Jackson, Louise; Jarvis, Andrew; Kossam, Fred; Mann, Wendy; McCarthy, Nancy; Meybeck, Alexandre; Neufeldt, Henry; Remington, Tom; Sen, Pham Thi; Sessa, Reuben; Shula, Reynolds; Tibu, Austin; Torquebiau, Emmanuel F.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change. Widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, which includes most of the world's poor. Climate change disrupts food markets, posing population-wide risks to food supply. Threats can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity of farmers as well as increasing resilience and resource use efficiency in agricultural production systems. CSA promotes coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways through four main action areas: (1) building evidence; (2) increasing local institutional effectiveness; (3) fostering coherence between climate and agricultural policies; and (4) linking climate and agricultural financing. CSA differs from 'business-as-usual' approaches by emphasizing the capacity to implement flexible, context-specific solutions, supported by innovative policy and financing actions.

  18. Post-2020 climate agreements in the major economies assessed in the light of global models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavoni, M.; Kriegler, E.; Riahi, K.; van Vuuren, D.F.; Aboumahboub, T.; Bowen, A.; Calvin, K.; Campiglio, E.; Kober, T.; Jewell, J.; Luderer, G.; Marangoni, G.; McCollum, D.; van Sluisveld, M.; Zimmer, A.; van der Zwaan, B.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated assessment models can help in quantifying the implications of international climate agreements and regional climate action. This paper reviews scenario results from model intercomparison projects to explore different possible outcomes of post-2020 climate negotiations, recently announced

  19. Post-2020 climate agreements in the major economies assessed in the light of global models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavoni, Massimo; Kriegler, Elmar; Riahi, Keywan; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Aboumahboub, Tino; Bowen, Alex; Calvin, Katherine; Campiglio, Emanuele; Kober, Tom; Jewell, Jessica; Luderer, Gunnar; Marangoni, Giacomo; Mccollum, David; Van Sluisveld, Mariësse; Zimmer, Anne; Van Der Zwaan, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Integrated assessment models can help in quantifying the implications of international climate agreements and regional climate action. This paper reviews scenario results from model intercomparison projects to explore different possible outcomes of post-2020 climate negotiations, recently announced

  20. Tracking Middle Grades Climate Data to Inform School Change. REL West Research Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory West, 2015

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that positive school climate is a key lever for students' academic and social development and success. This research digest shows how an alliance of California schools and districts, school climate experts, and state education agency personnel have teamed up to use school climate data to drive a continuous cycle of…

  1. Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) : Key messages - What is it about?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, A.; Neijenhuis, F.; Jarvis, T.; Jackson, L.; Caron, P.; Lipper, L.; Fernandes, E.; Entsuah-Mensa, R.; Vermeulen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change fundamentally shifts the agricultural development agenda. Changing temperature and precipitation, sea level rise, and the rising frequency of extreme climate events will significantly reduce global food production in this century unless action is taken. Major investments, private and

  2. Curriculum Development in Remote Sensing at California State University, Monterery, Seaside, California 93955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ravi; Geol, P.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA-Ames Research Center and the California State University, Monterey Bay, California (CSUMB), have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to develop and provide cooperative programs between the Ecosystem Science and Technology Branch of NASA (ECOSAT) and the University (CSUMB). The agreement is to carry out educational, research, and technology goals in ecological and environmental sciences and related disciplines, with particular emphasis on changing environmental and climatic conditions occurring worldwide due to the anthropogenic causes affecting the balance within ecological systems and the health and well-being of humans. The preparation of the Curriculum for Remote Sensing at CSUMB was undertaken at the request of the Center as a result of the above agreement.

  3. Process heat in California: Applications and potential for solar energy in the industrial, agricultural and commercial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Bartera, R. E.; Davis, E. S.; Hlavka, G. E.; Pivirotto, D. S.; Yanow, G.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the results of a survey of potential applications of solar energy for supplying process heat requirements in the industrial, agricultural, and commercial sectors of California is presented. Technical, economic, and institutional characteristics of the three sectors are examined. Specific applications for solar energy are then discussed. Finally, implications for California energy policy are discussed along with recommendations for possible actions by the State of California.

  4. The politics of climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkonen, J. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Regional Studies; Wilenius, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Inst. for Cooperative Studies

    1996-12-31

    One of the aims of SILMU, the Finnish Research Programme for Climate Change, was to produce information for decision-makers concerning climate change and its mitigation. One integrative project for this purpose was PAATE, an inquiry into the present state and future possibilities of interaction between researchers and decision-makers. The aims of the PAATE project can be summarised as follows: (1) to conduct a survey of the state of climate change research and climate policy in Finland, (2) to develop the interaction between climate research, policy makers and different societal organisations, (3) to acquire methodological experiences on the realisation of projects of this type, (4) to provide material for the final report of the SILMU project and for further action, and (5) to promote the rational development of climate policy. Methodologically, the PAATE project used the Delphi technique employed chiefly in futurological research. A method based on expert knowledge, the Delphi technique assesses the possibilities and conditions of future development through e.g. panel discussions between experts. Also the experiences of the similar project conducted in Netherlands were utilised

  5. Arts and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    Arts and climate science have more in common points than it appears at first glance. Artistic works can help us to directly or indirectly learn about climatic conditions and weather events in the past, but are also very efficient in raising awareness about climate change nowadays. Long scientific articles get very little response among general public, because most people don't want to read long articles. There is a need to communicate climate change issues more powerfully and more directly, with simple words, pictures, sculptures, installations. Artistic works can inspire people to take concrete action. A number of communication media can fit this purpose. Artists can speak to people on an emotional and intellectual level; they can help people to see things from another perspective and in new ways. Artists can motivate change; they have the freedom to weave facts, opinions, thoughts, emotion and colour all together. Paintings are witnesses of the past climatic conditions. We can learn from paintings, architectural constructions and sculptures about the vegetation, weather events, animals, and way of living. Mentioning only some few examples: old paintings in caves, also Flemish painters are often shown for their winter landscapes, and paintings are very useful to illustrate how fast glaciers are melting. At the end, we shall not forget that dilapidation of art masterpieces often depends on climatic conditions.

  6. Dynamical Downscaling of GCM Simulations: Toward the Improvement of Forecast Bias over California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, H S

    2008-09-24

    The effects of climate change will mostly be felt on local to regional scales. However, global climate models (GCMs) are unable to produce reliable climate information on the scale needed to assess regional climate-change impacts and variability as a result of coarse grid resolution and inadequate model physics though their capability is improving. Therefore, dynamical and statistical downscaling (SD) methods have become popular methods for filling the gap between global and local-to-regional climate applications. Recent inter-comparison studies of these downscaling techniques show that both downscaling methods have similar skill in simulating the mean and variability of present climate conditions while they show significant differences for future climate conditions (Leung et al., 2003). One difficulty with the SD method is that it relies on predictor-predict and relationships, which may not hold in future climate conditions. In addition, it is now commonly accepted that the dynamical downscaling with the regional climate model (RCM) is more skillful at the resolving orographic climate effect than the driving coarser-grid GCM simulations. To assess the possible societal impacts of climate changes, many RCMs have been developed and used to provide a better projection of future regional-scale climates for guiding policies in economy, ecosystem, water supply, agriculture, human health, and air quality (Giorgi et al., 1994; Leung and Ghan, 1999; Leung et al., 2003; Liang et al., 2004; Kim, 2004; Duffy et al., 2006). Although many regional climate features, such as seasonal mean and extreme precipitation have been successfully captured in these RCMs, obvious biases of simulated precipitation remain, particularly the winter wet bias commonly seen in mountain regions of the Western United States. The importance of regional climate research over California is not only because California has the largest population in the nation, but California has one of the most

  7. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  8. Women of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harry

    This publication points out the achievements of women who contributed to the development and history of California from the 16th century, when the Spanish Conquistadores moved westward into the San Francisco Bay area, to the gold rush of 1848, and during the following period when women helped stabilize society on the rugged frontier. Women not…

  9. Serious Simulation Role-Playing Games for Transformative Climate Change Education: "World Climate" and "Future Climate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.; Jones, A.; Merhi, H.; Hunt, C.

    2012-12-01

    results of the earlier decisions, as simulated by C-ROADS. Preliminary evaluations show that both exercises have the potential to provide powerful learning experiences. University students who played World Climate in a climate change course cited it as one of the course activities "promoting the most learning." Students' responses on anonymous surveys and open-ended questions revealed that the experience affected them at visceral, as well as intellectual levels. All of the students recommended that the exercise be continued in future years and many felt that it was the most important learning experience of the semester. Similarly, understanding of climate change and the dynamics of the climate improved for the majority of Future Climate participants, and 90% of participants stated that they were more likely to take action to address climate change on a personal level because of their experience.

  10. Persistence and Graduation of UC Davis Undergraduates Admitted by Special Action: 1975-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Celeste M.

    Persistence and graduation rates of University of California, Davis, special action students admitted in any fall quarter from 1975 to 1985 were studied. Special action students show academic potential but do not meet admission requirements of completed course work and academic achievement. The number of special action students during this 10-year…

  11. Responsible Reaction To Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China calls for turning UNFCCC provisions into concrete actions Never before has climate change been as prominent on the public agenda as it is today.Its rele- vance was highlighted once again when more than 10,000 delegates from over 180 countries flocked to Bali early this month to discuss the topic.Environment officials as well as representatives from intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations gath- ered on the Indonesian island on December 3-14 for the UN Climate Change Conference.

  12. An Action Research Project's Impact on Teachers' Leadership Attitudes and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nancy; Dillard, Benita R.

    2013-01-01

    California Lutheran University is a regional site for the California Reading and Literature Project (CRLP). In 2010, CRLP began a two-year longitudinal study to examine the effects of participating in an institute called Reframing Teacher Leadership: Action Research Study Group had on PreK-12 teachers' attitudes and perceptions. The foundation…

  13. Health risk assessment and applied action level of toluene. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, N.R.; Reed, W.A.; Weir, K.; Encomienda, I.; Beltran, L.M.

    1989-05-16

    The purpose of the document is to provide information on the toxicity of toluene and to estimate Applied Action Levels (AALs) for toluene in water, air, and soil. The information provided will aid the California Dept. of Health Services manage hazardous waste sites and protect the health of California residents.

  14. 75 FR 46845 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management...

  15. 75 FR 32293 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management...

  16. 76 FR 41717 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management...

  17. 77 FR 32398 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management...

  18. Equal Opportunity in Higher Education: The Past and Future of California's Proposition 209

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodsky, Eric, Ed.; Kurlaender, Michal, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This timely book examines issues pertaining to equal opportunity--affirmative action, challenges to it, and alternatives for improving opportunities for underrepresented groups--in higher education today. Its starting point is California's Proposition 209, which ended race-based affirmative action in public education and the workplace in 1996. The…

  19. Contesting climate justice in the city: examining politics and practice in urban climate change experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Bulkeley, Harriet; Edwards, Gareth; Fuller, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on work undertaken through Harriet Bulkeley's ESRC Climate Change Fellowship, Urban Transitions: climate change, global cities and the transformation of socio-technical systems (ESRC RES-066-27-0002) Debates about climate justice have mainly occurred at the international scale, and have focussed on the rights and responsibilities of nation-states to either be protected from the effects of climate change, or to take action to reduce emissions or support adaptation. In this ...

  20. 78 FR 36823 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-in Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board California High-Speed Rail Authority--Construction Exemption--in Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties, Cal AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  1. Tracking federal land management: Report No. 3 on federal land management actions impacting geothermal commecialization at selected target prospects in the five Pacific Rim states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-20

    Generic land management actions affecting geothermal commerializtion in Pacific River states are reviewed. Specific federal land management actions affecting geothermal prospects in California and the Pacific Northwest are described. (MHR)

  2. Cinematic climate change, a promising perspective on climate change communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Previous research findings display that after having seen popular climate change films, people became more concerned, more motivated and more aware of climate change, but changes in behaviors were short-term. This article performs a meta-analysis of three popular climate change films, The Day after Tomorrow (2005), An Inconvenient Truth (2006), and The Age of Stupid (2009), drawing on research in social psychology, human agency, and media effect theory in order to formulate a rationale about how mass media communication shapes our everyday life experience. This article highlights the factors with which science blends in the reception of the three climate change films and expands the range of options considered in order to encourage people to engage in climate change mitigation actions.

  3. Atmospheric Rivers, Floods and the Water Resources of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Cayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available California’s highly variable climate and growing water demands combine to pose both water-supply and flood-hazard challenges to resource managers. Recently important efforts to more fully integrate the management of floods and water resources have begun, with the aim of benefitting both sectors. California is shown here to experience unusually large variations in annual precipitation and streamflow totals relative to the rest of the US, variations which mostly reflect the unusually small average number of wet days per year needed to accumulate most of its annual precipitation totals (ranging from 5 to 15 days in California. Thus whether just a few large storms arrive or fail to arrive in California can be the difference between a banner year and a drought. Furthermore California receives some of the largest 3-day storm totals in the country, rivaling in this regard the hurricane belt of the southeastern US. California’s largest storms are generally fueled by landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs. The fractions of precipitation and streamflow totals at stations across the US that are associated with ARs are documented here and, in California, contribute 20–50% of the state’s precipitation and streamflow. Prospects for long-lead forecasts of these fractions are presented. From a meteorological perspective, California’s water resources and floods are shown to derive from the same storms to an extent that makes integrated flood and water resources management all the more important.

  4. Risk communication on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2004-10-01

    For the title study use has been made of available scientific literature, results of new surveys and interviews. In the first part of the study attention is paid to the exchange of information between parties involved in climate change and differences in supply and demand of information. In the second part citizens' views on climate change, problems with communication on climate change, and the resulting consequences and options for communication are dealt with. In this second part also barriers to action that are related or influenced by communication are taken into consideration.

  5. Climate Resiliency Planning: Making Extreme Event Science Useful for Managers and Planners in Northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M.; Kenneston, A.; Wall, T. U.; Brown, T. J.; Redmond, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    Effective climate resiliency planning at the regional level requires extensive interactive dialogue among climate scientists, emergency managers, public health officials, urban planners, social scientists, and policy makers. Engaging federal, tribal, state, local governments and private sector business and infrastructure owners/operators in defining, assessing and characterizing the impacts of extreme events allows communities to understand how different events "break the system" forcing local communities to seek support and resources from state/federal governments and/or the private sector and what actions can be taken proactively to mitigate consequences and accelerate recovery. The Washoe County Regional Resiliency Study was prepared in response to potential climate variability related impacts specific to the Northern Nevada Region. The last several decades have seen dramatic growth in the region, coupled with increased resource demands that have forced local governments to consider how those impacts will affect the region and may, in turn, impact the region's ability to provide essential services. The Western Regional Climate Center of the Desert Research Institute provided a synthesis of climate studies with predictions regarding plausible changes in the local climate of Northern California and Nevada for the next 50 years. In general, these predictions indicate that the region's climate is undergoing a gradual shift, which will primarily affect the frequency, amount, and form of precipitation in the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin. Changes in water availability and other extreme events may have serious and long lasting effects in the Northern Nevada Region, and create a variety of social, environmental and economic concerns. A range of extreme events were considered including Adverse Air Quality, Droughts, Floods, Heat Waves, High Wind, Structure Fires, Wildland Fires, and Major Winter Storms. Due to the complexity of our climate systems, and the difficulty in

  6. (De)-Localising the Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazu, Irina; Scheele, Christian Elling

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a device-centred approach to the concept of climate engagement through a qualitative analysis of two websites: www.klimabevidst.dk and www.mapmyclimate.dk. While www.klimabevidst.dk represents a down-to-earth take on individual engagement with the climate, providing users...... with hands-on guides to green home improvements, www.mapmyclimate.dk seeks to increase the user’s awareness of the phenomenon of global climate change by demonstrating how the user’s actions impact the earth’s future. Through conversations with six individuals centred on these green technologies, we...... investigate how the scaling techniques employed by the websites impact the user’s sense of agency vis-à-vis the climate. The analysis suggests that scales can indeed be changed or redefined in a way conducive to climate engagement....

  7. Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...... and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate......This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...

  8. Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...... and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...... and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate...

  9. Rethinking climate change as a security threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch, Corinne

    2011-10-15

    Once upon a time climate change was a strictly environment and development issue. Today it has become a matter of national and international security. Efforts to link climate change with violent conflict may not be based on solid evidence, but they have certainly captured the attention of governments. They have played a vital role in raising the much-needed awareness of climate change as an issue that deserves global action. But at what cost? Focusing on climate change as a security threat alone risks devolving humanitarian responsibilities to the military, ignoring key challenges and losing sight of those climate-vulnerable communities that stand most in need of protection.

  10. VENTANA WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R.C.; Fillo, P.V.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Ventana Primitive Area (now the Ventana Wilderness) in California was made. On the basis of known mineral occurrences and geologic and geochemical studies, this part of the Coast Ranges of central California contains little evidence for the existence of mineral resources. Small bodies of good quality marble are scattered through parts of the wilderness. Because of their small size these marble occurrences are not considered as having resource potential. Detailed mapping and sampling of the sulfide-bearing gneiss and schist will be needed to determine the grade and extent of these rocks and the possibility that they, in fact, could represent significant resources. The numerous thermal springs in and near the area suggest a high geothermal gradient and that geothermal-energy resources should be investigated.

  11. Nitrogen deposition in California forests: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A; Fenn, M E

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of the major nitrogenous (N) compounds and their biological effects in California forests are reviewed. Climatic characteristics of California are summarized in light of their effects on pollutant accumulation and transport. Over large areas of the state dry deposition is of greater magnitude than wet deposition due to the arid climate. However, fog deposition can also be significant in areas where seasonal fogs and N pollution sources coincide. The dominance of dry deposition is magnified in airsheds with frequent temperature inversions such as occur in the Los Angeles Air Basin. Most of the deposition in such areas occurs in summer as a result of surface deposition of nitric acid vapor (HNO3) as well as particulate nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+). Internal uptake of gaseous N pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), HNO3, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), ammonia (NH3), and others provides additional N to forests. However, summer drought and subsequent lower stomatal conductance of plants tend to limit plant utilization of gaseous N. Nitrogen deposition is much greater than S deposition in California. In locations close to photochemical smog source areas, concentrations of oxidized forms of N (NO2, HNO3, PAN) dominate, while in areas near agricultural activities the importance of reduced N forms (NH3, NH4+) significantly increases. Little data from California forests are available for most of the gaseous N pollutants. Total inorganic N deposition in the most highly-exposed forests in the Los Angeles Air Basin may be as high as 25-45 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Nitrogen deposition in these highly-exposed areas has led to N saturation of chaparral and mixed conifer stands. In N saturated forests high concentrations of NO3- are found in streamwater, soil solution, and in foliage. Nitric oxide emissions from soil and foliar N:P ratios are also high in N saturated sites. Further research is needed to determine the

  12. Retrofit California Overview and Final Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Howard; Rosales, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (also called upgrades) are widely recognized as a critical component to achieving energy savings in the building sector to help lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, however, upgrades have accounted for only a small percentage of aggregate energy savings in building stock, both in California and nationally. Although the measures and technologies to retrofit a building to become energy efficient are readily deployed, establishing this model as a standard practice remains elusive. Retrofit California sought to develop and test new program models to increase participation in the energy upgrade market in California. The Program encompassed 24 pilot projects, conducted between 2010 and mid-2013 and funded through a $30 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The broad scope of the Program can be seen in the involvement of the following regionally based Grant Partners: Los Angeles County (as prime grantee); Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), consisting of: o StopWaste.org for Alameda County o Regional Climate Protection Authority (RCPA) for Sonoma County o SF Environment for the City and County of San Francisco o City of San Jose; California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE) for the San Diego region; Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD). Within these jurisdictions, nine different types of pilots were tested with the common goal of identifying, informing, and educating the people most likely to undertake energy upgrades (both homeowners and contractors), and to provide them with incentives and resources to facilitate the process. Despite its limited duration, Retrofit California undoubtedly succeeded in increasing awareness and education among home and property owners, as well as contractors, realtors, and community leaders. However, program results indicate that a longer timeframe will be needed to

  13. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  14. The Rancho Period (Rancho San Pedro). Grade 3 Model Lesson for Unit 4, Standard 3. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Mark; Porter, Priscilla; Grenier, Judd

    Prior to the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810, California was under Spanish rule. Mexico controlled California in 1822, beginning the Rancho period. The Mexican governors distributed large tracts of land to people of influence. Ranching conditions were almost perfect because the climate was mild enough to allow animals to live…

  15. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  16. Libraries in California: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library → Libraries in California URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/california.html Libraries in California ... Alameda, CA 94501 510-522-3700 ext. 3331 http://www.alamedahospital.org Anaheim Anaheim Regional Medical Center ...

  17. A Model for Pre-Service Teachers' Climate Change Awareness and Willingness to Act for Pro-Climate Change Friendly Behavior: Adaptation of Awareness to Climate Change Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal, Burçkin; Alper, Umut; Özdem-Yilmaz, Yasemin; Öztürk, Nilay; Sönmez, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Public awareness of the negative effects of climate change is vital since it leads to collective action for prevention and adaptation. However, investigations on to what extent people are aware of the climate change issue are rare in the literature. The present study reported the adaptation process of awareness to climate change questionnaire into…

  18. Challenging conflicting discourses of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Aysha; Vanclay, Frank; Hiller, Claire; Wilson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The influence of language on communication about climate change is well recognised, but this understanding is under-utilised by those seeking to increase uptake of action for climate change. We discuss the terms, discourse, resistance, and agency, to assist in developing ways to progress social acti

  19. Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, K.; Steffen, W.; Liverman, D.; Barker, T.; Jotzo, F.; Kammen, D.M.; Leemans, R.; Lenton, T.M.; Munasinghe, M.; Osman-Elasha, B.; Schellnhuber, H.J.; Stern, N.; Vogel, C.; Waever, O.

    2011-01-01

    Providing an up-to-date synthesis of knowledge relevant to the climate change issue, this book ranges from the basic science documenting the need for policy action to the technologies, economic instruments and political strategies that can be employed in response to climate change. Ethical and cultu

  20. Climate change: Update on international negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Policy

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines the following: United Nations` framework convention on climatic change; the United States` climate change action plan; current issues to be resolved (targets/timetables, policies, advancing commitments of all parties, and compliance); and implications for clean coal technologies.