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Sample records for calice analog hadron

  1. Construction and Commissioning of the CALICE Analog Hadron Calorimeter Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Repond, J; Brandt, A; Brown, H; De, K; Medina, C; Smith, J; Li, J; Sosebee, M; White, A; Yu, J; Buanes, T; Eigen, G; Mikami, Y; Miller, O; Watson, N K; Wilson, J A; Goto, T; Mavromanolakis, G; Thomson, M A; Ward, D R; Yan, W; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A; Khoulaki, Y; Oreglia, M; Benyamna, M; Cârloganu, C; Gay, P; Ha, J; Blazey, G C; Chakraborty, D; Dyshkant, A; Francis, K; Hedin, D; Lima, G; Zutshi, V; Babkin, V A; Bazylev, S N; Fedotov, Yu I; Slepnev, V M; Tiapkin, I A; Volgin, S V; Hostachy, J Y; Morin, L; D'Ascenzo, N; Cornett, U; David, D; Fabbri, R; Falley, G; Feege, N; Gadow, K; Garutti, E; Göttlicher, P; Jung, T; Karstensen, S; Korbel, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lutz, B; Meyer, N; Morgunov, V; Reinecke, M; Schätzel, S; Schmidt, S; Sefkow, F; Smirnov, P; Vargas-Trevino, A; Wattimena, N; Wendt, O; Groll, M; Heuer, R D; Richter, S; Samson, J; Kaplan, A; Schultz-Coulon, H Ch; Shen, W; Tadday, A; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Onel, Y; Kim, E J; Kim, G; Kim, D W; Lee, K; Lee, S C; Kawagoe, K; Tamura, Y; Ballin, J A; Dauncey, P D; Magnan, A M; Yilmaz, H; Zorba, O; Bartsch, V; Postranecky, M; Warren, M; Wing, M; Faucci Giannelli, M; Green, M G; Salvatore, F; Kieffer, R; Laktineh, I; Fouz, M C; Bailey, D S; Barlow, R J; Thompson, R J; Batouritski, M; Dvornikov, O; Shulhevich, Yu; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Starovoitov, P; Tchekhovski, V; Terletski, A; Bobchenko, B; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Markin, O; Mizuk, R; Morgunov, V; Novikov, E; Rusinov, V; Tarkovsky, E; Andreev, V; Kirikova, N; Komar, A; Kozlov, V; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Y; Terkulov, A; Buzhan, P; Dolgoshein, B; Ilyin, A; Kantserov, V; Kaplin, V; Karakash, A; Popova, E; Smirnov, S; Baranova, N; Boos, E; Gladilin, L; Karmanov, D; Korolev, M; Merkin, M; Savin, A; Voronin, A; Topkar, A; Freyk, A; Kiesling, C; Lu, S; Prothmann, K; Seidel, K; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Weuste, L; Bouquet, B; Callier, S; Cornebise, P; Dulucq, F; Fleury, J; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Poeschl, R; Raux, L; Ruan, M; Seguin-Moreau, N; Wicek, F; Anduze, M; Boudry, V; Brient, J C; Gaycken, G; Cornat, R; Jeans, D; Mora de Freitas, P; Musat, G; Reinhard, M; Rougé, A; Vanel, J Ch; Videau, H; Park, K H; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kvasnicka, J; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Arestov, Yu; Ammosov, V; Chuiko, B; Gapienko, V; Gilitski, Y; Koreshev, V; Semak, A; Sviridov, Yu; Zaets, V; Belhorma, B; Belmir, M; Baird, A; Halsall, R N; Nam, S W; Park, I H; Yang, J; Chai, Jong-Seo; Kim, Jong-Tae; Kim, Geun-Bum; Kim, Y; Kang, J; Kwon, Y J; Kim, Ilgoo; Lee, Taeyun; Park, Jaehong; Sung, Jinho; Itoh, S; Kotera, K; Nishiyama, M; Takeshita, T; Weber, S; Zeitnitz, C

    2010-01-01

    An analog hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) prototype of 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths thickness has been constructed by members of the CALICE Collaboration. The AHCAL prototype consists of a 38-layer sandwich structure of steel plates and highly-segmented scintillator tiles that are read out by wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to SiPMs. The signal is amplified and shaped with a custom-designed ASIC. A calibration/monitoring system based on LED light was developed to monitor the SiPM gain and to measure the full SiPM response curve in order to correct for non-linearity. Ultimately, the physics goals are the study of hadron shower shapes and testing the concept of particle flow. The technical goal consists of measuring the performance and reliability of 7608 SiPMs. The AHCAL was commissioned in test beams at DESY and CERN. The entire prototype was completed in 2007 and recorded hadron showers, electron showers and muons at different energies and incident angles in test beams at CERN and Fermilab.

  2. Construction and commissioning of the CALICE analog hadron calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analog hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) prototype of 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths thickness has been constructed by members of the CALICE Collaboration. The AHCAL prototype consists of a 38-layer sandwich structure of steel plates and highlysegmented scintillator tiles that are read out by wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to SiPMs. The signal is amplified and shaped with a custom-designed ASIC. A calibration/ monitoring system based on LED light was developed to monitor the SiPM gain and to measure the full SiPM response curve in order to correct for non-linearity. Ultimately, the physics goals are the study of hadron shower shapes and testing the concept of particle flow. The technical goal consists of measuring the performance and reliability of 7608 SiPMs. The AHCAL was commissioned in test beams at DESY and CERN. The entire prototype was completed in 2007 and recorded hadron showers, electron showers and muons at different energies and incident angles in test beams at CERN and Fermilab. (orig.)

  3. Engineering prototype of the CALICE analog hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new prototype of a tile hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) for the International Linear Collider detector is currently developed within the CALICE collaboration. The aim is to improve the energy resolution by measuring details of the shower development and combining them with the data of the tracking chamber (particle flow). The prototype is based on scintillating tiles that are read out by novel Silicon-Photomultiplier (SiPM). This new prototype will take into account all design aspects that are demanded by the intended operation at the ILC It will contain about 2500 detector channels. This is the first calorimeter design which makes full use of the high integration potential of the novel photo-sensor technology. Main focus of this contribution is the mechanical and electrical integration of the front-end electronics into the calorimeter absorber structure, with the aim of maintaining high-density calorimeter. Integration aspects and scalability to an ILC detector are discussed. For the analog calorimeter the proposal of an integrated light-calibration system for calibration and gain monitoring are presented, addressing temperature and bias dependence of the SiPM gain. First results from the measurements with one prototype module at the DESY test beam are presented, which demonstrate the quality of the readout system, and of the light-calibration system.

  4. Calibration of the CALICE analog hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Sarah; Ramilli, Marco; Laurien, Sebastian; Matysek, Michael; Buhmann, Peter; Garutti, Erika [Institute for Experimental Physics, Hamburg University, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CALICE AHCAL technological prototype is a hadronic calorimeter prototype for a future e{sup +}e{sup -} - collider (ILC and CLIC). It is designed as a sampling calorimeter alternating tungsten or steel absorber plates and active readout layers, segmented in single plastic scintillator tiles of 3 x 3 x 0.3 cm{sup 3} volume. Each tile is individually coupled to a silicon photomultiplier, read out by a dedicated ASIC with energy measurement and time stamping capability. The high granularity is meant to enable imaging and separation of single showers, for a Particle Flow approach to the jet energy measurement. The prototype aims to establish this technology as a scalable solution for an ILC detector. The first 14 layers of this prototype have been assembled and commissioned. The first 10 layers in the stack are used as tracker to determine the position of the first hard interaction of a pion shower in the first interaction length (λ) of the calorimeter. Four full size layers (72 x 72 cm{sup 2}) are distributed between 1 and 3λ depth in the steel absorber. Data has been collected with muon, electron and pion beams at the CERN PS (2014). The first results on energy calibration with muons are presented, together with a comparison to the bench calibration obtained during tile production.

  5. Calibration of the CALICE analog hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CALICE AHCAL technological prototype is a hadronic calorimeter prototype for a future e+e- - collider (ILC and CLIC). It is designed as a sampling calorimeter alternating tungsten or steel absorber plates and active readout layers, segmented in single plastic scintillator tiles of 3 x 3 x 0.3 cm3 volume. Each tile is individually coupled to a silicon photomultiplier, read out by a dedicated ASIC with energy measurement and time stamping capability. The high granularity is meant to enable imaging and separation of single showers, for a Particle Flow approach to the jet energy measurement. The prototype aims to establish this technology as a scalable solution for an ILC detector. The first 14 layers of this prototype have been assembled and commissioned. The first 10 layers in the stack are used as tracker to determine the position of the first hard interaction of a pion shower in the first interaction length (λ) of the calorimeter. Four full size layers (72 x 72 cm2) are distributed between 1 and 3λ depth in the steel absorber. Data has been collected with muon, electron and pion beams at the CERN PS (2014). The first results on energy calibration with muons are presented, together with a comparison to the bench calibration obtained during tile production.

  6. Recent Advances of the Engineering Prototype of the CALICE Analog Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hartbrich, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration is developing an engineering prototype of an analog hadron calorimeter for a future linear collider detector. The prototype has to prove the feasibility of building a realistic detector with fully integrated front-end electronics. The performance goals are driven by the requirement of high jet energy resolution and the measurement of the details of the shower development. The signals are sampled by small scintillating plastic tiles that are read out by silicon photomultipliers. The ASICs are integrated into the calorimeter layers and are optimized for minimal power consumption. For the photodetector calibration an LED system is integrated into each of the detector channels. In this report the status and performance of the realized module are presented. In particular, results from timing measurements are discussed, as well as tests of the calibration system. The new module has also been used in the DESY test beam environment and first results from the electron beam tests are reported.

  7. Particle Identification with Cherenkov detectors in the 2011 CALICE Tungsten Analog Hadronic Calorimeter Test Beam at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Dannheim, D; Klempt, W; Lucaci Timoce, A; van der Kraaij, E

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 the CALICE Tungsten Analog Hadronic Calorimeter prototype (W-AHCAL) was exposed to mixed beams of electrons, pions, kaons and protons with momenta from 10 to 300 GeV in the CERN SPS H8 beam line. The selection of pion, kaon and proton samples is based on the information obtained from two Cherenkov threshold counters. This note presents the strategy for the particle identification, as well as the calibration, operation and analysis of the Cherenkov counters. Efficiency and sample-purity estimates are given for the data selected for the W-AHCAL data analysis.

  8. Status of the CALICE analog calorimeter technological prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Terwort, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration is currently developing engineering prototypes of electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for a future linear collider detector. This detector is designed to be used in particle-flow based event reconstruction. In particular, the calorimeters are optimized for the individual reconstruction and separation of electromagnetic and hadronic showers. They are conceived as sampling calorimeters with tungsten and steel absorbers, respectively. Two electromagnetic calorimeters are being developed, one with silicon-based active layers and one based on scintillator strips that are read out by MPPCs, allowing highly granular readout. The analog hadron calorimeter is based on scintillating tiles that are also read out individually by silicon photomultipliers. The multi-channel, auto-triggered front-end chips are integrated into the active layers of the calorimeters and are designed for minimal power consumption (power pulsing). The goal of the construction of these prototypes is to demonstrate t...

  9. Commissioning and LED system tests of the engineering prototype of the analog hadronic calorimeter of the CALICE collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartbrich, Oskar

    2012-10-15

    This thesis describes measurements on the LED system and commissioning of the AHCAL EPT, to be used as an active layer in an upcoming hadron test beam. The performed tests of the integrated LED system prove, that it can be used to calibrate SiPM gains on the HBU. The performance of calibrating multiple channels at the same time suffers from inhomogeneities in the LED amplitude for different channels. This was initially suspected to be caused by part variances in the LED production process, but the spatial distribution of LED threshold voltages over the HBU suggest a systematic effect, probably depending on the signal distance between the driver OPAMPs and the LED circuit. Compensation of these differences in pulse amplitude via switchable capacities integrated onto the HBU helps to reduce the spread of threshold voltages, but does not fulfill the goal of one single V{sub Calib} value for the whole setup. Further tests on the LED system performed with an upgraded test stand at Wuppertal confirm the spatial distribution of LED amplitudes. Inspection of the trigger signals arriving at the channel pulser circuits show a degraded signal correlated to the observed pulse amplitude. The test stand setup also allows to measure the time offsets between LED pulses on different channels, which has to be incorporated into a possible TDC offset calibration using the LED system. The spatial distribution of timing offsets also shows similar characteristics as for the amplitudes. Ongoing measurements and research with the test stand aim to improve on these issues, yielding a calibration system that meets all performance requirements. From the commissioning phase of the EPT layer, many new insights about the HBU2 and the SPIROC chips arise. Many crucial parameters of the setup have to be calibrated for each channel separately, raising the need for efficient measurement procedures, optimised for automation and short measurement times. Such schemes are proposed for the input DAC setup

  10. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Eigen, G; Watson, N.K.; Marshall, J.S.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H.L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Doren, B.van; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Bonnevaux, A.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Steen, A.; Antequera, J.Berenguer; Alamillo, E.Calvo; Fouz, M.C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Markin, O.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Ilyin, A.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; Kolk, N.van der; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Cizel, J.B.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Magniette, F.; de Freitas, P.Mora; Musat, G.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Taille, Ch.de la; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial development of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam data collected at CERN and FNAL for single positive pions and protons with initial momenta in the range from 10 to 80 GeV/c. Both longitudinal and radial development of hadron showers are parametrised with two-component functions. The parametrisation is fit to test beam data and simulations using the QGSP_BERT and FTFP_BERT physics lists from Geant4 version 9.6. The parameters extracted from data and simulated samples are compared for the two types of hadrons. The response to pions and the ratio of the non-electromagnetic to the electromagnetic calorimeter response, h/e, are estimated using the extrapolation and decomposition of the longitudinal profiles.

  11. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigen, G.; Price, T.; Watson, N. K.; Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H. L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Bonnevaux, A.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J. C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Steen, A.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Markin, O.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Ilyin, A.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cizel, J.-B.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Magniette, F.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; de la Taille, Ch.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The spatial development of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam data collected at CERN and FNAL for single positive pions and protons with initial momenta in the range of 10-80 GeV/c. Both longitudinal and radial development of hadron showers are parametrised with two-component functions. The parametrisation is fit to test beam data and simulations using the QGSP_BERT and FTFP_BERT physics lists from GEANT4 version 9.6. The parameters extracted from data and simulated samples are compared for the two types of hadrons. The response to pions and the ratio of the non-electromagnetic to the electromagnetic calorimeter response, h/e, are estimated using the extrapolation and decomposition of the longitudinal profiles.

  12. Pion and proton showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, B; Xia, L.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Lima, J.G.R.; Salcido, R.; Zutshi, V.; Salvatore, F.; Kawagoe, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Tomita, T.; Ueno, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Klempt, W.; Lucaci-Timoce, A. -I.; Ribon, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J. -Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Tran, H.L.; Buhmann, P.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Wing, M.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Eté, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Antequera, J. Berenguer; Alamillo, E. Calvo; Fouz, M. -C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chistov, R.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; di Lorenzo, S. Conforti; Cornebise, P.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Poschl, R.; Raux, L.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; de la Taille, Ch.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Matthieu, A.; de Freitas, P. Mora; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Jeans, D.; Weber, S.

    2015-01-01

    Showers produced by positive hadrons in the highly granular CALICE scintillatorsteel analogue hadronic calorimeter were studied. The experimental data were collected at CERN and FNAL for single particles with initial momenta from 10 to 80 GeV/c. The calorimeter response and resolution and spatial characteristics of shower development for proton- and pion-induced showers for test beam data and simulations using GEANT4 version 9.6 are compared.

  13. Construction and Tests of the Mechanical Structure for a Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter Prototype within the CALICE Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assembly of a mechanical structure used for a semi-digital hadronic calorimeter prototype, conceived and developed by the SDHCAL group within the CALICE collaboration, is presented in this note. CALICE is an international R and D collaboration dedicated to the development of calorimeters for future linear collider experiments. The design, assembly and quality control of this mechanical structure were entirely carried out at CIEMAT. This document contains a description of the prototype and its detectors, focusing on the design and assembly of the mechanical structure, which acts as well as the calorimeter absorber.. (Author)

  14. Commissioning of the new multi-layer integration prototype of the CALICE tile hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2016-01-01

    The basic prototype of a tile hadron calorimeter (HCAL) for the International Linear Collider (ILC) has been realised and extensively tested. A major aspect of the proposed concept is the improvement of the jet energy resolution by measuring details of the shower development and combining them with the data of the tracking system (particle flow). The prototype utilises scintillating tiles that are read out by novel Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) and takes into account all design aspects that are demanded by the intended operation at the ILC. Currently, a new 12 layer prototype with about 3400 detector channels is under development. Alternative architectures for the scintillating tiles with and without wavelength-shifting fibres and tiles with individual wrapping with reflector foil is tested as well as different types of SiPMs. The new prototype was used for the first time at the CERN Proton Synchrotron test facility in fall 2014. Additionally, detector modules for the CALICE scintillator-based Electromagne...

  15. The CALICE Tile Hadron Calorimeter Prototype With SiPM Readout: Design, Construction and First Test Beam Results

    CERN Document Server

    Wattimena, N

    2008-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration has constructed a test beam hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) with 7608 scintillator tiles, individually read out by novel multi-pixel Geiger mode photodiodes, so called SiPMs, and tested it in electron and hadron beams at CERN. This prototype is the first device which uses SiPMs on a large scale; its purpose is to establish the technology and to record hadron shower data with unprecedented granularity for the validation of simulation models and the development of clustering algorithms.

  16. Data acquisition system and link and data aggregator for the CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudron, Julien; Adam, Lennart; Bauss, Bruno; Buescher, Volker; Chau, Phi; Degele, Reinhold; Geib, Karl-Heinrich; Krause, Sascha; Liu, Yong; Masetti, Lucia; Schaefer, Ulrich; Spreckels, Rouven; Tapprogge, Stefan; Wanke, Rainer [Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Analogue Hadron Calorimeter (AHCAL) is one of the several calorimeter designs developed by the CALICE collaboration for future linear colliders. It is a high granularity sampling calorimeter with plastic scintillator tiles of 3 x 3 cm{sup 2}, adding up to ∝8'000'000 sensors. This large amount of channels requires a powerful data acquisition system (DAQ). In this DAQ system, the Link and Data Aggregator module (LDA) acts as an intermediate component to group together several layers units, dispatching control signals and merging data. A first LDA design (mini-LDA), intended to be flexible but limited to a small number of layers, has been successfully used during the end-of-the-year 2014 CERN Test Beam program. A second prototype (wing-LDA), compatible with a complete detector design, is operating during the Test Beam program of 2015. This talk will present the current status of the DAQ and the LDA, with recent results from Test Beam and future plans.

  17. Construction and Tests of the Mechanical Structure for a Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter Prototype within the CALICE Collaboration; Construccion y Pruebas de la Estructura Mecanica para un Prototipo de Calorimetro Hadronico con Lectura Semidigital dentro de la Colaboracion CALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguer, J.

    2014-07-01

    The assembly of a mechanical structure used for a semi-digital hadronic calorimeter prototype, conceived and developed by the SDHCAL group within the CALICE collaboration, is presented in this note. CALICE is an international R and D collaboration dedicated to the development of calorimeters for future linear collider experiments. The design, assembly and quality control of this mechanical structure were entirely carried out at CIEMAT. This document contains a description of the prototype and its detectors, focusing on the design and assembly of the mechanical structure, which acts as well as the calorimeter absorber.. (Author)

  18. Construction and commissioning of the CALICA analog hadron calorimeter prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Karyotakis, Y. [Universite de Savoie, Annecy-le-Vieux (France). Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, CNRS/IN2P3; Repond, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2010-03-15

    An analog hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) prototype of 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths thickness has been constructed by members of the CALICE Collaboration. The AHCAL prototype consists of a 38-layer sandwich structure of steel plates and highlysegmented scintillator tiles that are read out by wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to SiPMs. The signal is amplified and shaped with a custom-designed ASIC. A calibration/ monitoring system based on LED light was developed to monitor the SiPM gain and to measure the full SiPM response curve in order to correct for non-linearity. Ultimately, the physics goals are the study of hadron shower shapes and testing the concept of particle flow. The technical goal consists of measuring the performance and reliability of 7608 SiPMs. The AHCAL was commissioned in test beams at DESY and CERN. The entire prototype was completed in 2007 and recorded hadron showers, electron showers and muons at different energies and incident angles in test beams at CERN and Fermilab. (orig.)

  19. Shower development of particles with momenta from 15 GeV to 150 GeV in the CALICE scintillator-tungsten hadronic calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chefdeville, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Eigen, G.; Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Alipour Tehrani, N.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Roloff, P.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Zutshi, V.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Brianne, E.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Tran, H. L.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Onel, Y.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Thiebault, A.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cizel, J.-B.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Nanni, J.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Shpak, K.; Tran, T. H.; Videau, H.; Yu, D.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Chen, S.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Kozakai, C.; Nakanishi, H.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present a study of showers initiated by electrons, pions, kaons, and protons with momenta from 15 GeV to 150 GeV in the highly granular CALICE scintillator-tungsten analogue hadronic calorimeter. The data were recorded at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron in 2011. The analysis includes measurements of the calorimeter response to each particle type as well as measurements of the energy resolution and studies of the longitudinal and radial shower development for selected particles. The results are compared to Geant4 simulations (version 9.6.p02). In the study of the energy resolution we include previously published data with beam momenta from 1 GeV to 10 GeV recorded at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in 2010.

  20. Shower development of particles with momenta from 15 GeV to 150 GeV in the CALICE scintillator-tungsten hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Chefdeville, M; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Eigen, G.; Marshall, J.S.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Alipour Tehrani, N.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Roloff, P.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Zutshi, V.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Brianne, E.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Tran, H.L.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Onel, Y.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M. -C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Thiebault, A.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Cizel, J-B.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Nanni, J.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Shpak, K.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Yu, D.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Chen, S.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Kozakai, C.; Nakanishi, H.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of showers initiated by electrons, pions, kaons, and protons with momenta from 15 GeV to 150 GeV in the highly granular CALICE analogue scintillator-tungsten hadronic calorimeter. The data were recorded at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron in 2011. The analysis includes measurements of the calorimeter response to each particle type as well as measurements of the energy resolution and studies of the longitudinal and radial shower development for selected particles. The results are compared to Geant4 simulations (version 9.6.p02). In the study of the energy resolution we include previously published data with beam momenta from 1 GeV to 10 GeV recorded at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in 2010.

  1. Status of the CALICE AHCAL engineering prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldwan, Brianne [DESY (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    In the CALICE Collaboration are developed calorimeters for a future e{sup +}e{sup -} Linear Collider. One approach is called Particle Flow which requires highly granular calorimeters thus to achieve a jet energy resolution of 3-4%. The CALICE Collaboration is developing concepts and prototypes for Particle Flow optimized calorimeters with various readout technologies. The Analog Hadronic Calorimeter (AHCAL) is one of the concepts based on 3 x 3 cm{sup 2} scintillator tiles with Silicon Photomultipliers. The performance and suitability has been proven in the former physics prototype. The current focus of the second generation engineering prototype is on the full scalability of the detector. In 2014, two test beam periods happened at the PS at CERN, with an iron stack structure designed for the final detector (1 m{sup 3}) and 15 active layers (including 3 ScECAL layers). This talk focuses on the engineering prototype commissioning phase before testbeam, the monitoring of the calorimeter during data taking and a first look into the data taken at the PS.

  2. Calorimetry for ILC Experiments: CALICE Collaboration R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, D.S.; Collaboration, for the CALICE

    2008-01-01

    The CALICE Collaboration is carrying out research and development into calorimetry for a detector at the International Linear Collider (ILC). CALICE is investigating a range of technologies for both electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. An overview of the prototypes and selected test-beam results are presented.

  3. CALICE results and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CALICE Collaboration is carrying out R for a highly granular calorimeter system, optimised for particle flow calorimetry at a future linear collider. Starting in 2006, a complete calorimeter chain (ECAL, HCAL and tail catcher) has been tested in muon, electron and hadron beams at CERN and Fermilab. Two electromagnetic calorimeters were tested, both based on tungsten absorber - one using ∼10000 1x1 cm2 silicon diode pads as the sensitive medium, and the other using small (1x4 cm2) scintillator strips. The hadron calorimeter had an iron-scintillator sandwich structure, using ∼10000 scintillator tiles read out using silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). We report here on the analysis of shower data, and the comparison of the results with GEANT4 simulations. Muons are used to calibrate all the detectors, and the study of the response to electrons is a crucial first step in the understanding of all the detectors. One of the main objectives of the analysis is the study of the hadron response, since this can be more difficulty to simulate reliably. Amongst the topics discussed will be the energy response of the system to hadrons, and the use of techniques of software compensation to improve the energy resolution. The high granularity of the calorimeters permit the comparison between data and simulations in unprecedented resolution; for example, individual tracks within the shower can be reconstructed, the start of the shower can be identified with high precision, and the longitudinal and transverse distributions of energy studied. These measurements provide interesting new ways of assessing the accuracy of the various physics models available in GEANT4. We also use the data to test features of the showers which are important for particle flow algorithms. Much of the current work is now directed towards second generation prototypes in which more realistic mechanical designs and readout systems are employed. In 2010-11 a cubic prototype of a digital HCAL based on RPCs

  4. First results of the CALICE SDHCAL technological prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Buridon, V; Caponetto, L; Eté, R; Garillot, G; Grenier, G; Han, R; Ianigro, J C; Kieffer, R; Laktineh, I; Lumb, N; Mathez, H; Mirabito, L; Petrukhin, A; Steen, A; Antequera, J Berenguer; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M -C; Marin, J; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Verdugo, A; Gil, E Cortina; Mannai, S; Cauwenbergh, S; Tytgat, M; Pingault, A; Anduze, N Zaganidis M; Balagura, V; Belkadhi, K; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R; Frotin, M; Gastaldi, F; Haddad, Y; Ruan, M; Shpak, K; Videau, H; Yu, D; Callier, S; di Lorenzo, S Conforti; Dulucq, F; Martin-Chassard, G; de la Taille, Ch; Raux, L; Seguin-Moreau, N; Boumediene, D; Carloganu, C; Français, V; Bonis, J; Bouquet, B; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Faucci-Giannelli, M; Frisson, T; Guilhem, G; Li, H; Richard, F; Pöschl, R; Rouëné, J; Wicek, F; Zhang, Z; Deng, Z; Li, Y; Wang, Y; Yue, Q; Yang, Z; Cho, G; Kim, D-W; Lee, S C; Park, W; Vallecorsa, S; Brianne, E; Ebrahimi, A; Gadow, K; Göttlicher, P; Günter, C; Hartbrich, O; Hermberg, B; Irles, A; Krivan, F; Krüger, K; Kvasnicka, J; Lu, S; Lutz, B; Morgunov, V; Provenza, C Neubüser A; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Schuwalow, S; Tran, H L; Garutti, E; Laurien, S; Matysek, M; Ramilli, M; Schroeder, S; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Northacker, D; Onel, Y; Kirikova, N; Kozlov, V; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Y; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Gabriel, M; Goecke, P; Kiesling, C; van der Kolk, N; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Szalay, M; Weuste, L; Jeans, D; Komamiya, S; Nakanishi, H; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A; Khoulaki, Y

    2016-01-01

    The CALICE Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter (SDHCAL) prototype, built in 2011, was exposed to beams of hadrons, electrons and muons in two short periods in 2012 on two different beam lines of the CERN SPS. The prototype with its 48 active layers, made of Glass Resistive Plate Chambers and their embedded readout electronics, was run in triggerless and power-pulsing mode. The performance of the SDHCAL during the test beam was found to be very satisfactory with an efficiency exceeding 90% for almost all of the 48 active layers. A linear response (within 5%) and a good energy resolution are obtained for a large range of hadronic energies (5-80GeV) by applying appropriate calibration coefficients to the collected data for both the Digital (Binary) and the Semi-Digital (Multi-threshold) modes of the SDHCAL prototype. The Semi-Digital mode shows better performance at energies exceeding 30GeV

  5. Production of the bottom analogs and the spin partner of the X(3872) at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Monte Carlo event generator tools Pythia and Herwig, we simulate the production of bottom/charm meson and antimeson pairs at hadron colliders in proton-proton/antiproton collisions. With these results, we derive an order-of-magnitude estimate for the production rates of the bottom analogs and the spin partner of the X(3872) as hadronic molecules at the LHC and Tevatron experiments. We find that the cross sections for these processes are at the nb level, so that the current and future data sets from the Tevatron and LHC experiments offer a significant discovery potential. We further point out that the Xb/Xb2 should be reconstructed in the γΥ(nS)(n = 1, 2, 3), Υ(1S)π+π-π0, or χbJπ+π- instead of the Υ(nS)π+π- final states. (orig.)

  6. Analogy of QCD hadronization and Hawking-Unruh radiation at NICA

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2016-01-01

    The proposed analogy of particle production from high-energy collisions and Hawking-Unruh radiation from black holes is extended to finite density (collisions) and finite-electric charge (black holes). Assuming that the electric charge is directly proportional to the density (or the chemical potential), it becomes clear that for at least two freezeout conditions; constant $s/T^3$ and $E/N$, the proposed analogy works very well. Dependence of radiation (freezeout) temperature on finite electric-charge leads to an excellent estimation for Kaon-to-pion ratio, for instance, especially in the energy range covered by NICA. The precise and complete measurements for various light-flavored particle yields and ratios are essential in characterizing Hawing-Unruh radiation from charged black holes and the QCD hadronization at finite density, as well.

  7. Shower development of particles with momenta from 10 to 100 GeV in the CALICE Scintillator-Tungsten HCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Lucaci-Timoce, A

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the showers initiated by high momentum (10 ≤ pbeam ≤ 100 GeV) electrons, pions and protons in the highly granular CALICE analogue scintillator-tungsten hadronic calorimeter. The data were taken at the CERN SPS in 2011. The analysis includes measurements of the calorimeter response to each particle type and studies of the longitudinal and radial shower development. The results are compared to several GEANT4 simulation models.

  8. The CALICE Software Framework and Operational Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Terwort, Mark; collaboration, Angela Lucaci-Timoce for the CALICE

    2010-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration is developing calorimeters for a future linear collider, and has collected a large amount of physics data during test beam efforts. For the analysis of these data, standard software available for linear collider detector studies is applied. This software provides reconstruction of raw data, simulation, digitization and data management, which is based on grid tools. The data format for analysis is compatible with the general linear collider software. Moreover, existing...

  9. Testing Hadronic Interaction Models using a Highly Granular Silicon-Tungsten Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    van der Kolk, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration has published a detailed study of hadronic interactions using data recorded with the highly granular CALICE silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (Si-W ECAL). Approximately 350,000 selected negative pion events at energies between 2 and 10 GeV have been studied. The predictions of several physics models available within the Geant4 simulation tool kit are compared to this data. A reasonable overall description of the data is observed; the Monte Carlo predictions...

  10. Calorimetry for Lepton Collider Experiments – CALICE results and activities

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Bilki, B.; Cundiff, T.; De Lurgio, P.; Drake, G.; Francis, K.; Haberichter, B.; Guarino, V.; Kreps, A.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Skrzecz, F.; Smith, J.; Underwood, D.; Wood, K.; Xia, L.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, A.; Price, T.; Watson, N.K.; Marshall, J.S.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Arfaoui, S.; Benoit, M.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A.; Duarte Ramos, F.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; Lam, C.B.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Muennich, A.; Nardulli, J.; Poss, S.; Roloff, P.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Speckmayer, P.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Soumpholphakdy, X.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G.C.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Lima, J.G.R.; Salcido, R.; Zutshi, V.; Astakhov, V.; Babkin, V.A.; Bazylev, S.N.; Golovatyuk, S.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, N.; Malakhov, A.; Slepnev, S.; Tyapkin, I.; Volgin, S.V.; Zanevski, Y.; Zintchenko, A.; Dzahini, D.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Menu, J.; Rarbi, F-E.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Gottlicher, P.; Gunter, C.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Kruger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Ramilli, M.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Oishi, K.; Sudo, Y.; Ueno, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Postranecky, M.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Bonnevaux, A.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Steen, A.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Buscher, V.; Masetti, L.; Schafer, U.; Tapprogge, S.; Wanke, R.; Welker, A.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Andreev, V.; Kirikova, N.; Komar, A.; Kozlov, V.; Negodaev, M.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Terkulov, A.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Smirnov, S.; Baranova, N.; Boos, E.; d; Gladilin, L.; Karmanov, D.; Korolev, M.; Merkin, M.; Savin, A.; Voronin, A.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Augustin, J-E.; David, J.; Ghislain, P.; Lacour, D.; Lavergne, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Conforti, S.; Cornebise, P.; Dulucq, F.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; Guilhem, G.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; Poeschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouene, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Zhang, Z.; Anduze, M.; Belkadhi, K.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Cerutti, M.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Decotigny, D.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Jeans, D.; Magniette, F.; Matthieu, A.; Mora, P.; Musat, G.; Roche, N.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Carna, M.; Gallus, P.; Lednicky, D.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Cvach, J.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Gapienko, V.; Semak, A.; Ukhanov, M.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Hamasaki, R.; Ide, H.; Inayoshi, S.; Itoh, S.; Kawakami, Y.; Kobayashi, A.; Kotera, K.; Nishiyama, M.; Obe, S.; Ono, H.; Ogawa, T.; Ohtsuka, N.; Sakuma, T.; Sato, H.; Takeshita, T.; Totsuka, S.; Tsubokawa, T.; Yanagida, K.; Yamaura, W.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Uozumi, S.; Yang, Y.; Fuchi, R.; Ukegawa, F.; Gotze, M.; Hartbrich, O.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2012-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration conducts calorimeter R&D for highly granular calorimeters, mainly for their application in detectors for a future lepton collider at the TeV scale. The activities ranges from generic R&D with small devices up to extensive beam tests with prototypes comprising up to several 100000 calorimeter cells. CALICE has validated the performance of particle flow algorithms with test beam data and delivers the proof of principle that highly granular calorimeters can be built, operated and understood. The successes achieved in the past years allows the step from prototypes to calorimeter systems for particle physics detectors to be addressed.

  11. Track segments in hadronic showers in a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Amjad, M S; Anduze, M; Apostolakis, J; Balagura, V; Baldolemar, E; Bartsch, V; Baulieu, G; Belhorma, B; Benchekroun, D; Bilki, B; Blaising, J J; Blazey, G C; Bobchenko, B; Bonis, J; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Briggl, K; Bulanek, B; Buzhan, P; Calabria, P; Callier, S; Caponetto, L; Cârloganu, C; Chadeeva, M; Chefdeville, M; Combaret, C; Cornat, R; Cornebise, P; Cornett, U; Corriveau, F; Cvach, J; Danilov, M; Dannheim, D; Dauncey, P D; David, D; Dotti, A; Doublet, Ph; Drancourt, C; Dulucq, F; Dyshkant, A; Eckert, P; Eigen, G; Epifantsev, A; Falley, G; Feege, N; Fleury, J; Folger, G; Fouz, M.-C; Francis, K; Frisson, T; Frotin, M; Gadow, K; Gaglione, R; Gallus, P; Garutti, E; Gastaldi, F; Gay, P; Geffroy, N; Ghazlane, H; Gil, E.Cortina; Göttlicher, P; Götze, M; Grenier, G; Guliyev, E; Günter, C; Haddad, Y; Han, R; Harion, T; Hartbrich, O; Havranek, M; Hermberg, B; Hostachy, J.-Y; Hoummada, A; Ianigro, J-C; Ilyin, A; Ivantchenko, V; Janata, M; Jeans, D; Kantserov, V; Kaplin, V; Karakash, A; Karstensen, S; Karyotakis, Y; Kawagoe, K; Khoulaki, Y; Kieffer, R; Kiesling, C; Kirikova, N; Klempt, W; Koletsou, I; Kolk, N.van der; Kotera, K; Kozlov, V; Krivan, F; Krüger, K; Kvasnicka, J; Laktineh, I; Laurien, S; Lednicky, D; Li, H; Li, J; Lima, J G G R; Lorenzo, S.Conforti di; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I; Lumb, N; Lu, S; Magnan, A.-M; Magniette, F; Manen, S; Mannai, S; Marchesini, I; Marcisovsky, M; Markin, O; Martin-Chassard, G; Mathez, H; Matysek, M; Mavromanolakis, G; Mikami, Y; Mirabito, L; Mizuk, R; Morgunov, V; Morin, L; Morozov, S; Musat, G; Negra, R.Della; Norbeck, E; Novikov, E; Onel, Y; Park, S T; Petrukhin, A; Polak, I; Popova, E; Popov, V; Popule, J; Pöschl, R; Prast, J; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Ramilli, M; Raux, L; Reinecke, M; Repond, J; Ribon, A; Richard, F; Rouëné, J; Royer, L; Ruan, M; Rusinov, V; Ruzicka, P; Salvatore, F; Sauer, J; Schlatter, D; Schlereth, J; Schultz-Coulon, H-Ch; Sefkow, F; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seidel, K; Shen, W; Sicho, P; Simon, F; Smirnov, P; Smirnov, P; Smith, J; Smolik, J; Soldner, C; Soloviev, Y; Sosebee, M; Stamen, R; Steen, A; Sudo, Y; Szalay, M; Taille, Ch de la; Takeshita, T; Tarkovsky, E; Terwort, M; Tesar, M; Thomson, M A; Tikhomirov, V; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Tran, T H; Tromeur, W; Tytgat, M; Uozumi, S; Uzhinskiy, V; Vander Donckt, M; van der Kraaij, E; Videau, H; Vouters, G; Vrba, V; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Weber, S; Weuste, L; White, A P; Wilson, G G W; Wing, M; Xia, L; Yan, W; Yoshioka, T; Yu, J; Zacek, J; Zaganidis, N; Zalesak, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zoccarato, Y; Zutshi, V

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the three dimensional substructure of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel hadronic calorimeter. The high granularity of the detector is used to find track segments of minimum ionising particles within hadronic showers, providing sensitivity to the spatial structure and the details of secondary particle production in hadronic cascades. The multiplicity, length and angular distribution of identified track segments are compared to GEANT4 simulations with several different shower models. Track segments also provide the possibility for in-situ calibration of highly granular calorimeters.

  12. Hadronic Imaging Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Alexander; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Dubbers, Dirk

    This thesis focuses on a prototype of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter at the planned International Linear Collider optimized for the Particle Flow Approach. The 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths deep sandwich calorimeter was built by the CALICE collaboration and consists of 38 active plastic scintillator layers. Steel is used as absorber material and the active layers are subdivided into small tiles. In total 7608 tiles are read out individually via embedded Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The prototype is one of the first large scale applications of these novel and very promising miniature photodetectors. The work described in this thesis comprises the commissioning of the detector and the data acquisition with test beam particles over several months at CERN and Fermilab. The calibration of the calorimeter and the analysis of the recorded data is presented. A method to correct for the temperature dependent response of the SiPM has been developed and implemented. Its successful application shows that it...

  13. [Percutaneous treatment of calculosis in caliceal diverticulosis: 13-year experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancini, V; Liatsikos, E N; Bernardo, N O; Dinlenc, C Z; Kapoor, R; Smith, A D

    2000-06-01

    We report our experience with the composition and management of caliceal diverticular stones for the past 13 years at our institution. Fourty patients with caliceal diverticular stones were treated percutaneously at Long Island Jewish Medical Center. The size of the diverticula ranged from 1 to 4.8 cm, with a mean size of 2.27 cm. The stone size ranged from 0.2 to 4.5 cm in diameter with an average of 1.7 cm. Twenty patients underwent a metabolic evaluation. Follow-up ranged from 8 months to 140 months with a mean of 72.5 months. We achieved a stone free rate of 95%. All 40 patients were free of pain and infection. The chemical composition of stones was identified in 38 patients. Twelve patients were found to have mainly calcium phosphate stones, 16 mainly calcium oxalate stones, 7 mainly uric acid stones and 3 were found with milk of calcium in their diverticulum. Thirty-five patients had complete resolution of their diverticula with normal urograms. The remaining 5 patients had at least 50% diminution of the diverticulum size. No one of the latter patients was found to have stone recurrence. Metabolic evaluation of the 40 patients showed in the 75% of the cases any metabolic abnormality, an absorptive hypercalciuria type II in two patients (10%), hyperuricosuric hypercalciuria in two cases (10%) and hyperoxaluria in one (5%). Percutaneous management of caliceal diverticular stones is a safe and effective modality compared to the existing alternative procedures reported in the literature.

  14. The Time Structure of Hadronic Showers in Imaging Calorimeters with Scintillator and RPC Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The intrinsic time structure of hadronic showers has been studied to evaluate its influence on the timing capability and on the required integration time of highly granular hadronic calorimeters in future collider experiments. The experiments have been carried with systems of 15 detector cells, using both scintillator tiles with SiPM readout and RPCs, read out with fast digitizers and deep buffers. These were installed behind the CALICE scintillator - Tungsten and RPC - Tungsten calorimeters as well as behind the CALICE semi-digital RPC - Steel calorimeter during test beam periods at the CERN SPS. We will discuss the technical aspects of these systems, and present results on the measurement of the time structure of hadronic showers in steel and tungsten calorimeters. These are compared to GEANT4 simulations, providing important information for the validation and the improvement of the physics models. In addition, a comparison of the observed time structure with scintillator and RPC active elements will be pre...

  15. SPIROC: design and performances of a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC Analog Hadronic CALorimeter (AHCAL) prototype with SiPM read-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti Di Lorenzo, S.; Callier, S.; Fleury, J.; Dulucq, F.; De la Taille, C.; Chassard, G. Martin; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.

    2013-01-01

    For the future e+ e- International Linear Collider (ILC) the ASIC SPIROC (Silicon Photomultiplier Integrated Read-Out Chip) was designed to read out the Analog Hadronic Calorimeter (AHCAL) equipped with Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM). It is an evolution of the FLC_SiPM chip designed by the OMEGA group in 2005. SPIROC2 [1] was realized in AMS SiGe 0.35 μm technology [2] and developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of read-out channels. This ASIC is a very front-end read-out chip that integrates 36 self triggered channels with variable gain to achieve charge and time measurements. The charge measurement must be performed from 1 up to 2000 photo-electrons (p.e.) corresponding to 160 fC up to 320 pC for SiPM gain 106. The time measurement is performed with a coarse 12-bit counter related to the bunch crossing clock (up to 5 MHz) and a fine time ramp based on this clock (down to 200 ns) to achieve a resolution of 1 ns. An analog memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. The analog memory content (time and charge) is digitized thanks to an internal 12-bit Wilkinson ADC. The data is then stored in a 4kbytes RAM. A complex digital part is necessary to manage all these features and to transfer the data to the DAQ. SPIROC2 is the second generation of the SPIROC ASIC family designed in 2008 by the OMEGA group. A very similar version (SPIROC2c) was submitted in February 2012 to improve the noise performance and also to integrate a new TDC (Time to Digital Converter) structure. This paper describes SPIROC2 and SPIROC2c ASICs and illustrates the main characteristics thank to a series of measurements.

  16. Mass measurement of right-handed scalar quarks and time measurement of hadronic showers for the compact linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Weuste, Lars

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a concept for a 48.3km long e+ e- accelerator with a center-of-mass energy of 3TeV. Its purpose is the precise measurement of particles discovered by the LHC as well as the discovery of yet unknown particles. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of its detector concepts which was specifically designed for the usage of the Particle Flow Algorithm. This thesis is divided into two parts, both within the context of CLIC. In the first part of this thesis the unprecedented measurement on time structure of hadronic showers in calorimeters with tungsten absorber material, which is used in the ILD concept for CLIC, will be presented. It shows the development and the construction of a small testbeam experiment called Tungsten Timing Testbeam (T3B) which consists of only 15 scintillator tiles of 30mm x 30mm x 5mm, read out with Silicon Photomultipliers which in turn were connected to USB oscilloscopes. T3B was placed downstream of the CALICE tungsten analog hadron calorimet...

  17. Simulations and Measurements for a concept of powering CALICE-AHCAL at a train-cycled accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving calorimetry by usage of the particle-flow algorithm requires to record the details of the shower development. Therefore a high granularity analogue readout hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) with small sensors and with electronics handling the enormous amount of channels, ≈ 40 000/m3, is required. Homogeneity is maintained by avoiding cooling tubes in the active volume and only cooling at the service end. For this concept low power consumption per channel, 40 μW, is essential. Future linear e+e−− collider designs, ILC or CLIC, foresee duty cycles for the bunch delivery. At ILC bunch trains of 1 ms duration are followed by long breaks of 200 ms. Power cycling the front end electronics with the train structure can reduce power consumption by a factor 100. However for a full scale CALICE-AHCAL switched currents reach magnitudes of kilo-amperes. This paper describes the design chain from front end PCB's through to external power supplies. By simulations a concept is developed, in which effects of electromagnetic interferences are kept small and localized. The goal is to keep current loops small, to limit the switched current to the region near the switched consumer and to allow only small frequency currents to spread out further into the system. By that analogue performance can be kept high and parasitic couplings to the surrounding metal structures and other sub-detectors will be minimized. Measurements with existing prototypes support the validity of the simulations.

  18. Low-energetic hadron interactions in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feege, Nils

    2011-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration develops imaging calorimeters for precision measurements at a future electron-positron linear collider. These calorimeters feature a fine granularity in both longitudinal and transverse direction, which is needed to fulfill the shower separation requirement of Particle Flow reconstruction algorithms. CALICE has constructed prototypes for several design options for electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters and has successfully operated these detectors during combined test-beam programs at DESY, CERN, and Fermilab since 2005. The focus of this dissertation is on the prototype for a hadron calorimeter with analog readout (AHCAL), which is a 1m{sup 3} scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter with 38 sensitive layers and a depth of 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths. Each scintillator layer is pieced together from separate tiles with embedded silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for measuring the scintillation light. With a total of 7608 readout channels, the AHCAL prototype represents the first large-scale application of SiPMs. This thesis covers the commissioning and operation of the AHCAL and other detectors for several months at the Fermilab Test-beam Facility in 2008 and 2009 and the analysis of electron and pion data collected during these measurements. The analysis covers energies from 1 GeV to 30 GeV and is the first analysis of AHCAL data at energies below 8 GeV. Because the purity of the recorded data is not sufficient for analysis, event selection procedures for electrons and pions at these energies and a method to estimate the purities of these data samples are developed. The calibration of detectors employing SiPMs requires parameters that change with operating voltage and temperature. The correction of these parameters for the effects of temperature variations during data collection and their portability to different operating conditions are evaluated using the AHCAL as an example. This is important for the use of this technology in a

  19. Particle ID Studies in a Highly Granular Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reichelt, Christian Günther

    2013-01-01

    CERN Summer Student Report: Highly granular hadronic calorimeters optimized for the Particle Flow Paradigm are being developed for future linear colliders. A new algorithm for identifying shower starts has been developed for analyses of data from the CALICE tungsten DHCAL prototype. The new algorithm improves the linearity between the reconstructed and generated interaction layers in Monte Carlo simulations, and it is applied as part of the particle identification of muons and pions. Additionally, the effective nuclear interaction length for pions in the DHCAL is estimated by analysing the distribution of interaction layers.

  20. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calices on Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: A Triple-masked Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Ataei, Ehsan; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghannadi, Alireza; Soltani, Rasool; Badri, Shirinsadat; Shirani, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Objective We aimed to evaluate the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calices on controlling dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. Methodology In this triple blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was registered in the Iranian registry for clinical trials (IRCT201109122306N2), 90 obese adolescents aged 12-18 years with documented dyslipidemia were randomly assigned in two groups of cases who received 2 grams of fine powdered calices of Hibi...

  1. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  2. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  3. Resistive Plate Chamber Digitization in a Hadronic Shower Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Z; Wang, Y; Yue, Q; Yang, Z; Apostolakis, J; Folger, G; Grefe, C; Ivantchenko, V; Ribon, A; Uzhinskiy, V; Boumediene, D; Carloganu, C; Français, V; Cho, G; Kim, D-W; Lee, S C; Park, W; Vallecorsa, S; Cauwenbergh, S; Tytgat, M; Pingault, A; Zaganidis, N; Brianne, E; Ebrahimi, A; Gadow, K; Göttlicher, P; Günter, C; Hartbrich, O; Hermberg, B; Irles, A; Krivan, F; Krüger, K; Kvasnicka, J; Lu, S; Lutz, B; Morgunov, V; Neubüser, C; Provenza, A; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Schuwalow, S; Tran, H L; Garutti, E; Laurien, S; Matysek, M; Ramilli, M; Schroeder, S; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Northacker, D; Onel, Y; Chang, S; Khan, A; Kim, D H; Kong, D.J; Oh, Y D; Kawagoe, K; Hirai, H; Sudo, Y; Suehara, T; Sumida, H; Yoshioka, T; Gil, E Cortina; Mannai, S; Buridon, V; Combaret, C; Caponetto, L; Eté, R; Garillot, G; Grenier, G; Han, R; Ianigro, J C; Kieffer, R; Laktineh, I; Lumb, N; Mathez, H; Mirabito, L; Petrukhin, A; Steen, A; Antequera, J Berenguer; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M-C; Marin, J; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Verdugo, A; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Gabriel, M; Goecke, P; Kiesling, C; vanderKolk, N; Simon, F; Szalay, M; Bilokin, S; Bonis, J; Cornebise, P; Richard, F; Pöschl, R; Rouëné, J; Thiebault, A; Zerwas, D; Anduze, M; Balagura, V; Belkadhi, K; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R; Frotin, M; Gastaldi, F; Haddad, Y; Magniette, F; Ruan, M; Rubio-Roy, M; Shpak, K; Videau, H; Yu, D; Callier, S; di Lorenzo, S Conforti; Dulucq, F; Martin-Chassard, G; de la Taille, Ch; Raux, L; Seguin-Moreau, N; Kotera, K; Ono, H; Takeshita, T; Corriveau, F

    2016-01-01

    The CALICE Semi-Digital Hadron Calorimeter (SDHCAL) technological prototype is a sampling calorimeter using Glass Resistive Plate Chamber detectors with a three-threshold readout as the active medium. This technology is one of the two options proposed for the hadron calorimeter of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The prototype was exposed to beams of muons, electrons and pions of different energies at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. To be able to study the performance of such a calorimeter in future experiments it is important to ensure reliable simulation of its response. In this paper we present our prototype simulation performed with GEANT4 and the digitization procedure achieved with an algorithm called SimDigital. A detailed description of this algorithm is given and the methods to determinate its parameters using muon tracks and electromagnetic showers are explained. The comparison with hadronic shower data shows a good agreement up to 50 GeV. Discrepancies are ...

  4. Hadron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain invited lectures and papers presente at the symposium. Attention was devoted to hadron interactions a high energy in QCD, to the structure and decay of hadrons, the production of hadrons and supersymmetric particles in e+e- and ep collisions, to perturbation theory in quantum field theory, and new supersymmetric extensions of relativistic algebra. (Z.J

  5. Commissioning of the readout electronics for the prototypes of a hadronic calorimeter and a tailcatcher and muon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, B.

    2006-12-15

    The goal of the CALICE collaboration is to develop and design a highly granular calorimeter for an experiment at the future international linear collider. In an integrated study all parts of the calorimeter are considered. Within this project a hadronic calorimeter prototype, built at DESY, and a tailcatcher and muon tracker prototype, built at NIU and Fermilab, are developed. The subject of this thesis is the combined readout electronics for these prototypes. In a set of measurements it is demonstrated that the individual components answer their purposes. This includes the classification of noise, linearity and signal to noise ratio of the amplifier and a study of the differential nonlinearity of the analog to digital converter in the data acquisition. In addition to these measurements of common parameters, some attributes are measured that are special to the use of the combined system, including the influence of the limited time resolution of the hold signal and the consequences of signals with variable input signal shape. Furthermore, an algorithm is developed for the determination of the SiPM gain from single photoelectron spectra that are recorded with the detector readout electronics. Particular effort is made to ensure that the developed method can be run independently from human intervention, as a 8000 channel system demands. The accuracy and stability of the gain measurement is checked with actual data from the first available hadronic calorimeter modules and a set of requirements for a measurement of 1% accuracy is fixed. Finally, the established gain measurement is used in the calibration of modules with cosmic muons. And the temperature dependence of the SiPM gain is verified. (orig.)

  6. Commissioning of the readout electronics for the prototypes of a hadronic calorimeter and a tailcatcher and muon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the CALICE collaboration is to develop and design a highly granular calorimeter for an experiment at the future international linear collider. In an integrated study all parts of the calorimeter are considered. Within this project a hadronic calorimeter prototype, built at DESY, and a tailcatcher and muon tracker prototype, built at NIU and Fermilab, are developed. The subject of this thesis is the combined readout electronics for these prototypes. In a set of measurements it is demonstrated that the individual components answer their purposes. This includes the classification of noise, linearity and signal to noise ratio of the amplifier and a study of the differential nonlinearity of the analog to digital converter in the data acquisition. In addition to these measurements of common parameters, some attributes are measured that are special to the use of the combined system, including the influence of the limited time resolution of the hold signal and the consequences of signals with variable input signal shape. Furthermore, an algorithm is developed for the determination of the SiPM gain from single photoelectron spectra that are recorded with the detector readout electronics. Particular effort is made to ensure that the developed method can be run independently from human intervention, as a 8000 channel system demands. The accuracy and stability of the gain measurement is checked with actual data from the first available hadronic calorimeter modules and a set of requirements for a measurement of 1% accuracy is fixed. Finally, the established gain measurement is used in the calibration of modules with cosmic muons. And the temperature dependence of the SiPM gain is verified. (orig.)

  7. Hadron shower decomposition in a highly granular calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadeeva, Marina; CALICE Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The spatial development of showers induced by positive hadrons with momenta 10-80 GeV in the highly granular CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadronic calorimeter is analysed. The parametrisation of both longitudinal and radial shower profiles with the two- component functions are fit to the test beam data and simulations using the physics lists QGSP_BERT and FTFP_BERT from GEANT4 version 9.6 patch 01. The shower parameters, describing the longitudinal tail and radial halo, are in good agreement between data and simulations and are similar for pions and protons. For the longitudinal development, the most significant difference between data and simulations is in the relative containment of the separated components. For the radial development, the core slope parameter is underestimated by simulations. The physics list FTFP_BERT gives a very good description of proton showers in the studied energy range and gives better predictions of the pion shower development than QGSP_BERT.

  8. Laparoscopic surgery for renal urolithiasis: pyelolithotomy, caliceal diverticulectomy, and treatment of stones in a pelvic kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakumar, S; Segura, J W

    2000-12-01

    Laparoscopic techniques may be considered for the uncommon patient in whom open stone surgery is considered. Stones in caliceal diverticula not accessible percutaneously may be approached transperitoneally. Pelvic stones in ectopic kidneys can be retrieved laparoscopically through a pyelotomy created with scissors or a knife. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy under laparoscopic guidance can be used if the stone extends beyond the renal pelvis. In the patient with difficult stone disease, laparoscopy does not replace other minimally invasive techniques but rather complements them. It should be the rare patient in the future who needs open surgery for stone removal regardless of its location or the presence of anatomic variants. PMID:11206616

  9. Hadron showers in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Benjamin

    2010-11-15

    A future electron-positron collider like the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) needs excellent detectors to exploit the full physics potential. Different detector concepts have been evaluated for the ILC and two concepts on the particle-flow approach were validated. To make particle-flow work, a new type of imaging calorimeters is necessary in combination with a high performance tracking system, to be able to track the single particles through the full detector system. These calorimeters require an unprecedented level of both longitudinal and lateral granularity. Several calorimeter technologies promise to reach the required readout segmentation and are currently studied. This thesis addresses one of these: The analogue hadron calorimeter technology. It combines work on the technological aspects of a highly granular calorimeter with the study of hadron shower physics. The analogue hadron calorimeter technology joins a classical scintillator-steel sandwich design with a modern photo-sensor technology, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The SiPM is a millimetre sized, magnetic field insensitive, and low cost photo-sensor, that opens new possibilities in calorimeter design. This thesis outlines the working principle and characteristics of these devices. The requirements for an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read the SiPM are discussed; the performance of a prototype chip for SiPM readout, the SPIROC, is quantified. Also the SiPM specific reconstruction of a multi-thousand channel prototype calorimeter, the CALICE AHCAL, is explained; the systematic uncertainty of the calibration method is derived. The AHCAL does not only offer a test of the calorimeter technology, it also allows to record hadron showers with an unprecedented level of details. Test-beam measurements have been performed with the AHCAL and provide a unique sample for the development of novel analysis techniques and the validation of hadron shower simulations. A method to

  10. Hadron showers in a highly granular calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A future electron-positron collider like the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) needs excellent detectors to exploit the full physics potential. Different detector concepts have been evaluated for the ILC and two concepts on the particle-flow approach were validated. To make particle-flow work, a new type of imaging calorimeters is necessary in combination with a high performance tracking system, to be able to track the single particles through the full detector system. These calorimeters require an unprecedented level of both longitudinal and lateral granularity. Several calorimeter technologies promise to reach the required readout segmentation and are currently studied. This thesis addresses one of these: The analogue hadron calorimeter technology. It combines work on the technological aspects of a highly granular calorimeter with the study of hadron shower physics. The analogue hadron calorimeter technology joins a classical scintillator-steel sandwich design with a modern photo-sensor technology, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The SiPM is a millimetre sized, magnetic field insensitive, and low cost photo-sensor, that opens new possibilities in calorimeter design. This thesis outlines the working principle and characteristics of these devices. The requirements for an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read the SiPM are discussed; the performance of a prototype chip for SiPM readout, the SPIROC, is quantified. Also the SiPM specific reconstruction of a multi-thousand channel prototype calorimeter, the CALICE AHCAL, is explained; the systematic uncertainty of the calibration method is derived. The AHCAL does not only offer a test of the calorimeter technology, it also allows to record hadron showers with an unprecedented level of details. Test-beam measurements have been performed with the AHCAL and provide a unique sample for the development of novel analysis techniques and the validation of hadron shower simulations. A method to

  11. Hadrons-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings contain the contributions to the Workshop HADRONS-94,held in Uzhgorod between September 7-11,1994. They covers the topics: - elastic and diffractive scattering of hadrons and nuclei; -small-x and spin physics; - meson and baryon spectroscopy; - dual and string models; - collective properties of the strongly interacting matter

  12. Testing Hadronic Interaction Models using a Highly Granular Silicon-Tungsten Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, B; Schlereth, J; Xia, L; Deng, Z; Li, Y; Wang, Y; Yue, Q; Yang, Z; Eigen, G; Mikami, Y; Price, T; Watson, N K; Thomson, M A; Ward, D R; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A; Khoulaki, Y; Cârloganu, C; Chang, S; Khan, A; Kim, D H; Kong, D J; Oh, Y D; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Francis, K; Lima, J G R; Salcido, P; Zutshi, V; Boisvert, V; Green, B; Misiejuk, A; Salvatore, F; Kawagoe, K; Miyazaki, Y; Sudo, Y; Suehara, T; Tomita, T; Ueno, H; Yoshioka, T; Apostolakis, J; Folger, G; Ivantchenko, V; Ribon, A; Uzhinskiy, V; Cauwenbergh, S; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Hostachy, J -Y; Morin, L; Gadow, K; Göttlicher, P; Günter, C; Krüger, K; Lutz, B; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Feege, N; Garutti, E; Laurien, S; Lu, S; Marchesini, I; Matysek, M; Ramilli, M; Kaplan, A; Norbeck, E; Northacker, D; Onel, Y; Kim, E J; van Doren, B; Wilson, G W; Wing, M; Bobchenko, B; Chadeeva, M; Chistov, R; Danilov, M; Drutskoy, A; Epifantsev, A; Markin, O; Mizuk, R; Novikov, E; Popov, V; Rusinov, V; Tarkovsky, E; Besson, D; Popova, E; Gabriel, M; Kiesling, C; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Szalay, M; Tesar, M; Weuste, L; Amjad, M S; Bonis, J; Callier, S; di Lorenzo, S Conforti; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F; Faucci-Giannelli, M; Fleury, J; Frisson, T; Kégl, B; van der Kolk, N; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Pöschl, R; Raux, L; Rouëné, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Anduze, M; Balagura, V; Becheva, E; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R; Frotin, M; Gastaldi, F; Magniette, F; Matthieu, A; de Freitas, P Mora; Videau, H; Augustin, J-E; David, J; Ghislain, P; Lacour, D; Lavergne, L; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kvasnicka, J; Lednicky, D; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Jeans, D; Götze, M

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study of hadronic interactions is presented using data recorded with the highly granular CALICE silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. Approximately 600,000 selected negatively changed pion events at energies between 2 and 10 GeV have been studied. The predictions of several physics models available within the GEANT4 simulation tool kit are compared to this data. Although a reasonable overall description of the data is observed, there are significant quantitative discrepancies in the longitudinal and transverse distributions of reconstructed energy.

  13. Progress towards a Technological Prototype for a Semi-Digital Hadron Calorimeter based on Glass RPCs

    OpenAIRE

    Lumb, N.; Collaboration, for the CALICE

    2010-01-01

    The semi-digital Hadronic calorimeter using GRPC as sensitive medium is one of the two options the ILD collaboration is considering for the ILD detector final design. A prototype of 1m3 has been conceived within the CALICE collaboration in order to validate this option. The prototype is intended to be as close as possible to the one proposed in the ILD LOI. A first unit of 1m2 GRPC of 3 mm thickness and fully equipped with a semi-digital electronics readout and new gas distribution design was...

  14. The time structure of hadronic showers in highly granular calorimeters with tungsten and steel absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adloff, C.; Blaising, J.-J.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Arfaoui, S.; Benoit, M.; Dannheim, D.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Roloff, P.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Feege, N.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Fagot, A.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Sudo, Y.; Ueno, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Eté, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.-C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander Donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kozlov, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T. H.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Chai, J. S.; Song, H. S.; Lee, S. H.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-07-01

    The intrinsic time structure of hadronic showers influences the timing capability and the required integration time of hadronic calorimeters in particle physics experiments, and depends on the active medium and on the absorber of the calorimeter. With the CALICE T3B experiment, a setup of 15 small plastic scintillator tiles read out with Silicon Photomultipliers, the time structure of showers is measured on a statistical basis with high spatial and temporal resolution in sampling calorimeters with tungsten and steel absorbers. The results are compared to GEANT4 (version 9.4 patch 03) simulations with different hadronic physics models. These comparisons demonstrate the importance of using high precision treatment of low-energy neutrons for tungsten absorbers, while an overall good agreement between data and simulations for all considered models is observed for steel.

  15. The Time Structure of Hadronic Showers in Highly Granular Calorimeters with Tungsten and Steel Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Arfaoui, A.; Benoit, M.; Dannheim, D.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Roloff, P.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Carloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Feege, N.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Fagot, A.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Sudo, Y.; Ueno, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Ete, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander Donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kozlov, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouene, J.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Chai, J.S.; Song, H.S.; Lee, S.H.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic time structure of hadronic showers influences the timing capability and the required integration time of hadronic calorimeters in particle physics experiments, and depends on the active medium and on the absorber of the calorimeter. With the CALICE T3B experiment, a setup of 15 small plastic scintillator tiles read out with Silicon Photomultipliers, the time structure of showers is measured on a statistical basis with high spatial and temporal resolution in sampling calorimeters with tungsten and steel absorbers. The results are compared to GEANT4 (version 9.4 patch 03) simulations with different hadronic physics models. These comparisons demonstrate the importance of using high precision treatment of low-energy neutrons for tungsten absorbers, while an overall good agreement between data and simulations for all considered models is observed for steel.

  16. Hadron interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Orginos

    2011-12-01

    In this talk I am reviewing recent calculations of properties of multi-hadron systems in lattice QCD. In particular, I am reviewing results of elastic scattering phase shifts in meson-meson, meson-baryon and baryon-baryon systems, as well as discussing results indicating possible existence of bound states in two baryon systems. Finally, calculations of properties of systems with more than two hadrons are presented.

  17. Study of a prototype electromagnetic calorimeter in the CALICE experiment under the Linear Collider International project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is conducted within the framework of the International Linear Collider and the international collaboration so called CALICE. This work focuses on a study of a prototype of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This prototype has been used in various test period at CERN, DESY and FNAL. The author presents two subjects of study: The first part is about the instrumentation for the resolution of the square event discovered during the taking data in 2006 at CERN. To explain the origin and solve the problem caused by crosstalk between peripherals pixels and the guard ring that surrounds the sensor, two studies were made: a simulation study using SILVACO software and a test bench to study several kinds of sensors. The second part of this thesis is a study on the identification of photons using estimators that are related to the parameters of the electromagnetic pattern of the shower. (author)

  18. Gluonic hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard theory of colour forces (Quantum Chromodynamics) suggests that in addition to the familiar hadrons made of quarks, there should exist new states where coloured gluons play an essential dynamical role. The author reviews the theoretical predictions for the properties of these ''glueballs'' and of states containing resonating quarks and gluons. Attempts are made to highlight those features which are common to several models in the literature. Experimental candidates are confronted with the models. No clear cut signal for a gluonic hadron yet exists; consequently what future data are required to determine the constituency of some popular candidates is considered. (author)

  19. Hadron Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadron calorimetry has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades. Perhaps not too far in the future, a realistic calorimeter will be capable of measuring the energies of all the fundamental particles with ∼1% precision. Currently, calorimeters with unprecedented complexity attest to the knowledge and experience that have been accumulated in high energy physics. In this review, we touch on fundamental concepts and explain new developments that we expect to be important in the future. In addition to describing applications in accelerator-based high energy physics, we briefly mention the use of hadron calorimeters in other fields.

  20. Shower development of particles with momenta from 1 to 10 GeV in the CALICE Scintillator-Tungsten HCAL

    CERN Document Server

    LUCACI TIMOCE, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the showers initiated by low momentum (p 10 GeV) electrons, pions and protons in the highly granular CALICE scintillator-tungsten HCAL. The data were taken at the CERN PS in September-October 2010. The analysis includes energy resolution measurements for each particle type and studies of the longitudinal shower development. The results are compared with several GEANT4 models.

  1. Transperitoneal mini-laparoscopic pyeloplasty and concomitant ureteroscopy-assisted pyelolithotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction complicated by renal caliceal stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of combining transperitoneal mini-laparoscopic pyeloplasty (mini-LP and concomitant ureteroscopy-assisted pyelolithotomy (U-P for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO complicated by renal caliceal stones in the same session. METHODS: Between May 2007 and December 2011, mini-LP and concomitant U-P was performed in nine patients with UPJO and ipsilateral renal caliceal stones. Stone location and burden were preoperatively assessed. After pyelotomy with appropriate length (about 4 mm, a 16-Fr catheter sheath replaced the uppermost or lowermost laparoscopic trocar and was introduced directly into the renal pelvis under the guidance of a guide wire and laparoscopic vision. A 7.5F rigid ureteroscopy passed through the catheter sheath into the plevis. Intracorporeal lithotripsy and/or pressure irrigation via a pump was used for caliceal stone removal. Subsequently, laparoscopic pyeloplasty was performed in a standard fashion. Postoperative imaging was assessed. RESULTS: The calculi sizes ranged from 2 to 11 mm (mean, 7.1 mm and an average of 3 stones per patient was removed (range, 1 to 6 stones. Complete stone clearance confirmed by postoperative imaging was achieved in all patients. Mean operative time was 210 minutes, and estimated blood loss was 20 mL. Mean hospital stay was 5 days (4-7. Stent was removed after 4-8 weeks. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted during a mean follow-up of 18.5 months (range, 6 to 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: Mini-LP and concomitant U-P are simple and effective alternatives for the simultaneous management of UPJO complicated by coexisting ipsilateral renal caliceal stones.

  2. Resistive Plate Chamber digitization in a hadronic shower environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Yue, Q.; Yang, Z.; Boumediene, D.; Carloganu, C.; Français, V.; Cho, G.; Kim, D.-W.; Lee, S. C.; Park, W.; Vallecorsa, S.; Apostolakis, J.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Tytgat, M.; Pingault, A.; Zaganidis, N.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H. L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schroeder, S.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Buridon, V.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Eté, R.; Garillot, G.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J. C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Corriveau, F.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Belkadhi, K.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Ruan, M.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Shpak, K.; Videau, H.; Yu, D.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.

    2016-06-01

    The CALICE Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter technological prototype is a sampling calorimeter using Glass Resistive Plate Chamber detectors with a three-threshold readout as the active medium. This technology is one of the two options proposed for the hadronic calorimeter of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The prototype was exposed to beams of muons, electrons and pions of different energies at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. To be able to study the performance of such a calorimeter in future experiments it is important to ensure reliable simulation of its response. This paper presents the SDHCAL prototype simulation performed with GEANT4 and the digitization procedure achieved with an algorithm called SimDigital. A detailed description of this algorithm is given and the methods to determinate its parameters using muon tracks and electromagnetic showers are explained. The comparison with hadronic shower data shows a good agreement up to 50 GeV. Discrepancies are observed at higher energies. The reasons for these differences are investigated.

  3. Hadron Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Thomas; Faessler, Amand; Lee, Ian Woo; Lyubovitskij, Valery E

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a possible interpretation of the open charm mesons $D_{s0}^*(2317)$, $D_{s1}(2460)$ and the hidden charm mesons X(3872), Y(3940) and Y(4140) as hadron molecules. Using a phenomenological Lagrangian approach we review the strong and radiative decays of the $D_{s0}^* (2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ states. The X(3872) is assumed to consist dominantly of molecular hadronic components with an additional small admixture of a charmonium configuration. Determing the radiative ($\\gamma J/\\psi$ and $\\gamma \\psi(2s)$) and strong ($J/\\psi 2\\pi $ and $ J/\\psi 3\\pi$) decay modes we show that present experimental observation is consistent with the molecular structure assumption of the X(3872). Finally we give evidence for molecular interpretations of the Y(3940) and Y(4140) related to the observed strong decay modes $J/\\psi + \\omega$ or $J/\\psi + \\phi$, respectively.

  4. Direct probes of linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Daniël; Brodsky, Stanley J; Mulders, Piet J; Pisano, Cristian

    2011-04-01

    We show that linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be directly probed in jet or heavy quark pair production in electron-hadron collisions. We discuss the simplest cos2ϕ asymmetries and estimate their maximal value, concluding that measurements of the unknown linearly polarized gluon distribution in the proton should be feasible in future Electron-Ion Collider or Large Hadron electron Collider experiments. Analogous asymmetries in hadron-hadron collisions suffer from factorization breaking contributions and would allow us to quantify the importance of initial- and final-state interactions.

  5. Analogue cosmology in a hadronic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilić Neven

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analog gravity models of general relativity seem promising routes to providing laboratory tests of the foundation of quantum field theory in curved space-time. In contrast to general relativity, where geometry of a spacetime is determined by the Einstein equations, in analog models geometry and evolution of analog spacetime are determined by the equations of fluid mechanics. In this paper we study the analogue gravity model based on massless pions propagating in a expanding hadronic fluid. The analog expanding spacetime takes the form of an FRW universe, with the apparent and trapping horizons defined in the standard way.

  6. Hadron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S.

    1985-10-01

    Heavy quark systems and glueball candidates, the particles which are relevant to testing QCD, are discussed. The review begins with the heaviest spectroscopically observed quarks, the b anti-b bound states, including the chi state masses, spins, and hadronic widths and the non-relativistic potential models. Also, P states of c anti-c are mentioned. Other heavy states are also discussed in which heavy quarks combine with lighter ones. The gluonium candidates iota(1460), theta(1700), and g/sub T/(2200) are then covered. The very lightest mesons, pi-neutral and eta, are discussed. 133 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs. (LEW)

  7. Hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is all hadronic physics ultimately describable by QCD. Certainly, many disparate phenomena can be understood within the QCD framework. Also certainly, there are important questions which are open, both theoretically (little guidance, as yet) and experimentally, regarding confinement. Are there dibaryons, baryonium, glueballs. In addition, there are experimental results which at present do not have an explanation. This talk, after a short section on QCD successes and difficulties, will emphasize two experimental topics which have recent results - glueball spectroscopy and exclusive reactions at large momentum transfer. Both are experimentally accessible in the AGS/LAMPF II/AGS II/TRIUMF II/SIN II energy domain

  8. Mass measurement of right-handed scalar quarks and time measurement of hadronic showers for the compact linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weuste, Lars

    2013-06-12

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a concept for a 48.3 km long e{sup +}e{sup -} accelerator with a center-of-mass energy of 3TeV. Its purpose is the precise measurement of particles discovered by the LHC as well as the discovery of yet unknown particles. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of its detector concepts which was specifically designed for the usage of the Particle Flow Algorithm. This thesis is divided into two parts, both within the context of CLIC. In the first part of this thesis the unprecedented measurement on time structure of hadronic showers in calorimeters with tungsten absorber material, which is used in the ILD concept for CLIC, is presented. It shows the development and the construction of a small testbeam experiment called Tungsten Timing Testbeam (T3B) which consists of only 15 scintillator tiles of 30 x 30 x 5 mm{sup 3}, read out with Silicon Photomultipliers which in turn were connected to USB oscilloscopes. T3B was placed downstream of the CALICE tungsten analog hadron calorimeter (W-AHCal) during beam tests performed at CERN in 2010 and 2011. The resulting data is compared to simulation obtained with three different hadronic shower physics models of the Geant4 simulation toolkit: QGSPBERT, QGSPBERTHP and QBBC. The results from 60 GeV high statistics run show that QBBC and QGSPBERTHP are mostly consistent with the testbeam data, while QGSPBERT, which is lacking a sophisticated treatment of neutrons, overestimates the late energy depositions. The second part of this thesis presents one out of the six benchmark processes that were part of the CLIC Conceptual Design Report (CDR) to verify the detector performance at CLIC. This benchmark process is the measurement of the mass and cross-section of two supersymmetric right-handed scalar quarks. In the underlying SUSY model these almost exclusively decay into the lightest neutralino (missing energy) and the corresponding standard model quark (jet). Within this analysis pile

  9. Detailed studies of hadronic showers and comparison to GEANT4 simulations with data from highly granular calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    van der Kolk, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    The highly granular calorimeter prototypes of the CALICE collaboration have provided large data samples with precise three-dimensional information on hadronic showers with steel and tungsten absorbers and silicon, scintillator and gas detector readout. From these data sets, detailed measurements of the spatial structure, including longitudinal and lateral shower profiles and of the shower substructure and time structure are extracted. Recent analyses have extended these studies to different particle species in calorimeters with scintillator readout and steel and tungsten absorbers, to energies below 10 GeV in a silicon tungsten calorimeter and have provided first studies of the shower substructure with gaseous readout and unprecedented granularity of $1\\times1$~cm$^{2}$ over a full cubic meter. These results are confronted with Geant4 simulations with different hadronic physics models. They present new challenges to the simulation codes and provide the possibility to validate and improve the simulation of had...

  10. Multiquark Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Stephen Lars

    2016-01-01

    A number of candidate multiquark hadrons, i.e., particle resonances with substructures that are more complex than the quark-antiquark mesons and three-quark baryons that are prescribed in the textbooks, have recently been observed. In this talk I present: some recent preliminary BESIII results on the near-threshold behavior of sigma(e+e- --> Lambda Lambda-bar) that may or may not be related to multiquark mesons in the light- and strange-quark sectors; results from Belle and LHCb on the electrically charged, charmoniumlike Z(4430)^+ --> pi^+ psi ' resonance that necessarily has a four-quark substructure; and the recent LHCb discovery of the P_c(4380) and P_c(4450) hidden-charm resonances seen as a complex structure in the J/psi p invariant mass distribution for Lambda_b --> K^-J/psi p decays and necessarily have a five-quark substructure and are, therefore, prominent candidates for pentaquark baryons.

  11. The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, Stanley J

    2015-01-01

    Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed...

  12. Hadron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -defined range of proton beams offer a solution to these problems through their superior dose distribution properties. In recent years the term 'Hadron Therapy' has been coined to describe cancer treatments involving heavy particles including neutrons, protons and heavy charged particles such as 12C, 20Ne, 28Si, etc. While protons offer a dose distribution advantage, neutrons, which are exponentially attenuated, offer therapeutic advantages derived from differences in cellular response to the different types of radiation depending on cell kinetics and physiology. These differences are attributed to the high stopping power (or 'linear energy transfer') of the secondary particles set in motion in tissue by the primary neutron beam. Heavy charged particle beams (12C, etc) combine the dose distribution advantages of the Bragg peak with the biological advantages of high linear energy transfer (LET). Research in neutron therapy has shown that the biological advantages of this therapy can only be realized for a limited number of disease sites and histologies. The dose distribution advantages of proton therapy, however, are more widely applicable and realizable. It can be argued that, because of the basic physical differences in the dose distribution mechanisms for x ray and proton beams, proton beams can always give a better dose distribution; i.e. more uniform dose in the tumor volume and less dose to the surrounding normal tissues. In spite of the large capital costs of proton facilities, several large facilities, which incorporate a single accelerator and multiple treatment rooms have been built or are planned. It is argued that such large facilities operated over 20-25 years can provide a cost effective and superior cancer treatment in comparison with x ray therapy. The rationales for hadron therapy and the modern accelerator, computing and imaging technologies necessary for it's successful application to cancer therapy will be presented and discussed in detail

  13. Measurements of the Time Structure of Hadronic Showers in a Scintillator-Tungsten HCAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frank; The Calice Collaboration

    For calorimeter applications requiring precise time stamping, the time structure of hadronic showers in the detector is a crucial issue. This applies in particular to detector concepts for CLIC, where a hadronic calorimeter with tungsten absorbers is being considered to achieve a high level of shower containment while satisfying strict space constraints. The high hadronic background from γγ→ hadrons processes at 3 TeV in combination with the 2 GHz bunch crossing frequency at CLIC requires good time stamping in the detectors. To provide first measurements of the time structure in a highly granular scintillator-tungsten calorimeter, T3B, a dedicated timing experiment, was installed behind the last layer of the CALICE WHCAL prototype, a 30 layer tungsten scintillator calorimeter. T3B consists of 15 small scintillator cells with embedded silicon photomultipliers, read out with fast digitizers over a time window of 2.4 μs, and provides detailed measurements of the time structure of the signal. The offine data reconstruction performs an automatic gain calibration using noise events recorded between physics triggers and allows the determination of the arrival time of each photon at the photon sensor. The T3B setup, its calibration and data reconstruction, as well as first results of the time structure of the calorimeter response for 10 GeV pions recorded at the CERN PS confronted with Geant4 simulations using different physics lists are discussed.

  14. Measurements of the Time Structure of Hadronic Showers in a Scintillator-Tungsten HCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    For calorimeter applications requiring precise time stamping, the time structure of hadronic showers in the detector is a crucial issue. This applies in particular to detector concepts for CLIC, where a hadronic calorimeter with tungsten absorbers is being considered to achieve a high level of shower containment while satisfying strict space constraints. The high hadronic background from gamma gamma to hadrons processes at 3 TeV in combination with the 2 GHz bunch crossing frequency at CLIC requires good time stamping in the detectors. To provide first measurements of the time structure in a highly granular scintillator-tungsten calorimeter, T3B, a dedicated timing experiment, was installed behind the last layer of the CALICE WHCAL prototype, a 30 layer tungsten scintillator calorimeter. T3B consists of 15 small scintillator cells with embedded silicon photomultipliers, read out with fast digitizers over a time window of 2.4 us, and provides detailed measurements of the time structure of the signal. The offli...

  15. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  16. Interferon Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Eleonora; Bansal, Ruchi

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. Among others, it relates to biologically active analogs of interferons (IFNs) which show less unwanted side-effects and to the therapeutic uses thereof. Provided is an IFN analog, wherein the moiety mediating binding to its natural receptor is at least

  17. Interferon Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Leonie; Bansal, Ruchi

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. Among others, it relates to biologically active analogs of interferons (IFNs) which show less unwanted side-effects and to the therapeutic uses thereof. Provided is an IFN analog, wherein the moiety mediating binding to its natural receptor is at least

  18. Challenges in Hadron Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Meissner, U.G.

    2007-01-01

    The status of hadron physics at the end of the HADRON07 Conference is reviewed. The latest results presented at the conference, as well as those important developments in the field which were not represented, are included.

  19. High energy hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a study on high energy collisions with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (1) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (2) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (3) e+e- annihilation. For elastic scattering, a modified form for the hadronic matter form factor of the proton was proposed which is still dipole in form but contains an energy--dependent range parameter. This new expression of the opacity function fits the elastic bar pp scattering very well from the ISR to S bar ppS energies. Extrapolation of this theory also yielded results bar pp in good agreement with the bar pp differential cross section measured at the Tevatron. For inelastic hadron-hadron collisions, we have made a systematic investigation of the single-particle momentum spectra in the entire S bar ppS energy region. Results are useful for the extrapolation of angular distribution to the higher SSC energies. In e+e- annihilation, a detailed analysis of all available experimental multiplicity data from PETRA to LEP energies has been performed. The cluster size of emitted hadrons increases gradually with energy. Aside from high-energy collisions, the giant fullerene molecules were studied and precise algebraic eigenvalue expressions of the Hueckel problem for carbon-240 were obtained

  20. General characteristics of hadron-hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, E W

    2004-01-01

    Soft multiparticle production in hadron-hadron collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on its role as a standard for heavy-ion collisions at SPS and RHIC energies and as a bridge interpolating between the most simple e **+e**- and the most complex AA collisions.

  1. ATLAS-Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hall 180 work on Hadronic Calorimeter The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53 (2006) 1275-81)

  2. Hadron Colliders and Hadron Collider Physics Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisov D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes main developments of the hadron colliders and physics results obtained since their inception around forty years ago. The increase in the collision energy of over two orders of magnitude and even larger increases in luminosity provided experiments with unique data samples. Developments of full acceptance detectors, particle identification and analysis methods provided fundamental discoveries and ultra-precise measurements which culminated in the completion and in depth verification of the Standard Model. Hadron Collider Physics symposium provided opportunities for those working at hadron colliders to share results of their research since 1979 and helped greatly to develop the field of particle physics.

  3. Hadron Colliders and Hadron Collider Physics Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes main developments of the hadron colliders and physics results obtained since their inception around forty years ago. The increase in the collision energy of over two orders of magnitude and even larger increases in luminosity provided experiments with unique data samples. Developments of full acceptance detectors, particle identification and analysis methods provided fundamental discoveries and ultra-precise measurements which culminated in the completion and in depth verification of the Standard Model. Hadron Collider Physics symposium provided opportunities for those working at hadron colliders to share results of their research since 1979 and helped greatly to develop the field of particle physics.

  4. Hadron melting and QCD thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovac, A.

    2013-01-01

    We study in this paper mechanisms of hadron melting based on the spectral representation of hadronic quantum channels, and examine the hadron width dependence of the pressure. The findings are applied to a statistical hadron model of QCD thermodynamics, where hadron masses are distributed by the Hagedorn model and a uniform mechanism for producing hadron widths is assumed. According to this model the hadron - quark gluon plasma transition occurs at $T\\approx 200$-250 MeV, the numerically obse...

  5. Strange Pentaquark Hadrons in Statistical Hadronization

    OpenAIRE

    Letessier, J.; Torrieri, G.; Steinke, S.; Rafelski, J.

    2003-01-01

    We study, within the statistical hadronization model, the influence of narrow strangeness carrying baryon resonances (pentaquarks) on the understanding of particle production in relativistic heavy ion collisions. There is a great variation of expected yields as function of heavy ion collision energy due to rapidly evolving chemical conditions at particle chemical freeze-out. At relatively low collision energies, these new states lead to improvement of statistical hadronization fits.

  6. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  7. Hadrons in medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Mosel

    2006-04-01

    In these lectures I first give the motivation for investigations of in-medium properties of hadrons. I discuss the relevant symmetries of QCD and how they might affect the observed hadron properties. I then discuss at length the observable consequences of in-medium changes of hadronic properties in reactions with elementary probes, and in particular photons, on nuclei. Here I put an emphasis on new experiments on changes of the - and -mesons in medium.

  8. Structure of hadrons. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics were dealt with: Hadronic reactions and resonances, structure of mesons, baryons, glueballs, and hybrids, physics with strange and charmed quarks, future projects and facilities. (HSI)

  9. The effect of inclined position on stone free rates in patients with lower caliceal stones during SWL session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakiroglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the outcomes of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL combined with inclined position and SWL alone in patients with lower pole calyx stones. Methods: Seven hundred forty patients who underwent SWL treatment for lower pole renal stones with a total diameter of 2 cm or less were prospectively randomized into two groups. They were comparable in terms of age, sex, and stone diameters. Patients with lower calyceal stones (4-20 mm were randomized to SWL (368 patients or SWL with simultaneous inclination (372 patients with 30o head down Trendelenburg position. Shock wave and session numbers were standardized according to stone size. Additional standardized shock waves were given to patients with stone fragments determined by kidney urinary bladder film and ultrasound at weeks 1, 4, 10. Results: The overall stone free rate (SFR was 73% (268/368 in patients with SWL alone and 81% (300/372 in SWL with inclination at the end of 12th week (p = 0.015. No significant adverse events were noted in both treatment groups. Conclusion: Simultaneous inclination of patients during SWL session increase SFR in lower caliceal stones significantly compared to SWL treatment alone.

  10. Micromegas for imaging hadronic calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Cap, S; Chefdeville, M; Dalmaz, A; Drancourt, C; Espargiliere, A; Gaglione, R; Gallet, R; Geffroy, N; Jacquemier, J; Karyotakis, Y; Peltier, F; Prast, J; Vouters, G

    2011-01-01

    The recent progress in R&D of the Micromegas detectors for hadronic calorimetry including new engineering-technical solutions, electronics development, and accompanying simulation studies with emphasis on the comparison of the physics performance of the analog and digital readout is described. The developed prototypes are with 2 bit digital readout to exploit the Micromegas proportional mode and thus improve the calorimeter linearity. In addition, measurements of detection efficiency, hit multiplicity, and energy shower profiles obtained during the exposure of small size prototypes to radioactive source quanta, cosmic particles and accelerator beams are reported. Eventually, the status of a large scale chamber (1{\\times}1 m2) are also presented with prospective towards the construction of a 1 m3 digital calorimeter consisting of 40 such chambers.

  11. Evaporation/Hadronization Correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Allahbakhshi, Davood

    2016-01-01

    A holographic duality is proposed between black hole evaporation in the bulk and hadronization (confinement) in dual field theory. Information paradox is discussed in this duality. We also propose that the recently introduced semi black brane solution is holographically dual to a mixed plasma of quarks, gluons and hadrons in global equilibrium.

  12. Statistical Hadronization and Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider some issues about the statistical model of the hadronization in a holographic approach. We introduce a Rindler like horizon in the bulk and we understand the string breaking as a tunneling event under this horizon. We calculate the hadron spectrum and we get a thermal...

  13. Exotic Hadron Bound State Production at Hadronic Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Yi; Liu, Yan-Rui; Meng, Lu; Si, Zon-Guo; Zhang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The non-relativistic wave function framework is applied to study the production and decay of the exotic hadrons which can be effectively described as bound states of other hadrons. The ingredient hadron production can be calculated by event generators. We investigate the production of exotic hadrons in the multiproduction processes at high energy hadronic colliders with the help of the event generators. We illustrate the crucial information such as their momentum distributions and production rate for the measurements at the large hadron collider. This study provides crucial information for the measurements of the relevant exotic hadrons.

  14. Hadron accelerators in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaldi, U. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). Accelerator School; Silari, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadron-therapy Project is then described in some detail, with reference ro both the National Centre for Oncological Hadron-therapy and the design of different types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large umber of hospitals. (author) 28 refs.

  15. Hadron Physics at COSY

    CERN Document Server

    Gillman, A R; Kleber, V; Krewald, S; Morsch, H P; Rathmann, F; Sibirtsev, A A

    2003-01-01

    The workshop 'Hadron Physics at COSY' held from July 7th to July 10th 2003 in Bad Honnef brought together experimentalists and theoreticians from various fields of hadron physics to identify the key physics questions, which can be addressed with (un-) polarized proton and deuteron induced reactions at COSY. Topics discussed include charge symmetry breaking, elastic and inelastic nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-deuteron interactions, hadrons in the medium, mesonic bound states, meson and baryon resonances, and the hyperon-nucleon system. In addition prospects of the planned GSI facility were discussed. These Miniproceedings contain besides short summaries of the presentations the most relevant references for the field.

  16. The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-26

    Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed predictions. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, the quark-interchange process and light-front quantization have important applicants for atomic physics and photon science, especially in the relativistic domain.

  17. Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the Hagedorn temperature half-centenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustrated. In the second part I discuss the corresponding theoretical ideas and show how experimental results can be used to describe the properties of QGP at hadronization. Finally in two appendices I present previously unpublished reports describing the early prediction of the different forms of hadron matter and of the formation of QGP in relativistic heavy ion collisions, including the initial prediction of strangeness and in particular strange antibaryon signature of QGP.

  18. Renormdynamics and Hadronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhaldiani, Nugzar

    2016-01-01

    Independently radiating valence quarks and corresponding negative binomial distribution presents phenomenologically preferable mechanism of hadronization in multiparticle production processes. Main properties of the renormdynamics, corresponding motion equations and their solutions are considered.

  19. Hadron Spectroscopy -- Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, E S

    2009-01-01

    A brief review of theoretical progress in hadron spectroscopy and nonperturbative QCD is presented. Attention is focussed on recent lattice gauge theory, the Dyson-Schwinger formalism, unquenching constituent models, and some beyond the Standard Model physics.

  20. Melting hadrons, boiling quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafelski, Johann [CERN-PH/TH, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); The University of Arizona, Department of Physics, Tucson, Arizona (United States)

    2015-09-15

    In the context of the Hagedorn temperature half-centenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustrated. In the second part I discuss the corresponding theoretical ideas and show how experimental results can be used to describe the properties of QGP at hadronization. The material of this review is complemented by two early and unpublished reports containing the prediction of the different forms of hadron matter, and of the formation of QGP in relativistic heavy ion collisions, including the discussion of strangeness, and in particular strange antibaryon signature of QGP. (orig.)

  1. Hadron production within PHSD

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, Pierre; Palmese, Alessia; Bratkovskaya, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We study the production of hadrons in nucleus-nucleus collisions within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach that is extended to incorporate essentials aspects of chiral symmetry restoration (CSR) in the hadronic sector (via the Schwinger mechanism) on top of the deconfinement phase transition as implemented in PHSD. The essential impact of CSR is found in the Schwinger mechanism (for string decay) which fixes the ratio of strange to light quark production in the hadronic medium. Our studies provide a microscopic explanation for the maximum in the $K^+/\\pi^+$ ratio at about 30 A GeV which only shows up if in addition to CSR a deconfinement transition to partonic degrees-of-freedom is incorporated in the reaction dynamics.

  2. Hadronic jets an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Jet physics is an incredibly rich subject detailing the narrow cone of hadrons and other particles produced by the hadronization of a quark or gluon in a particle physics or heavy ion experiment. This book is a general overview of jet physics for scientists not directly involved in the field. It presents the basic experimental and theoretical problems arising when dealing with jets, and describing the solutions proposed in recent years.

  3. Aspects of Hadron Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, C. D.; Bhagwat, M. S.; Wright, S. V.; Holl, A

    2008-01-01

    Detailed investigations of the structure of hadrons are essential for understanding how matter is constructed from the quarks and gluons of Quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and amongst the questions posed to modern hadron physics, three stand out. What is the rigorous, quantitative mechanism responsible for confinement? What is the connection between confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking? And are these phenomena together sufficient to explain the origin of more than 98% of the mass ...

  4. Multi-verses, Micro-universes and Elementary Particles (Hadrons)

    CERN Document Server

    Recami, E

    2005-01-01

    We present here a panoramic view of our unified, bi-scale theory of gravitational and strong interactions [which is mathematically analogous to the last version of N.Rosen's bi-metric theory, and yields physical results similar to strong gravity's]. This theory, developed during the last 25 years, is purely geometrical in nature, adopting the methods of general relativity for the description of hadron structure and strong interactions. In particular, hadrons can be associated with "strong black-holes", from the external point of view, and with micro-universes, from the internal point of view. Among the results presented in this extended summary, let us mention the elementary derivation: (i) of confinement and (ii) asymptotic freedom for the hadron constituents; (iii) of the Yukawa behaviour for the strong potential at the static limit; (iv) of the strong coupling "constant", and (v) of mesonic mass spectra. Incidentally, within the present approach, results obtained for hadrons can yield information about the...

  5. Unraveling hadron structure with generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei Belitsky; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2004-10-01

    The recently introduced generalized parton distributions have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. They combine the features of form factors, parton densities and distribution amplitudes - the functions used for a long time in studies of hadronic structure. Generalized parton distributions are analogous to the phase-space Wigner quasi-probability function of non-relativistic quantum mechanics which encodes full information on a quantum-mechanical system. We give an extensive review of main achievements in the development of this formalism. We discuss physical interpretation and basic properties of generalized parton distributions, their modeling and QCD evolution in the leading and next-to-leading orders. We describe how these functions enter a wide class of exclusive reactions, such as electro- and photo-production of photons, lepton pairs, or mesons.

  6. Hadron Dragons strike again

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Dragon Boat team – the Hadron Dragons – achieved a fantastic result at the "Paddle for Cancer" Dragon Boat Festival at Lac de Joux on 6 September. CERN Hadron Dragons heading for the start line.Under blue skies and on a clear lake, the Hadron Dragons won 2nd place in a hard-fought final, following top times in the previous heats. In a close and dramatic race – neck-and-neck until the final 50 metres – the local Lac-de-Joux team managed to inch ahead at the last moment. The Hadron Dragons were delighted to take part in this festival. No one would turn down a day out in such a friendly and fun atmosphere, but the Dragons were also giving their support to cancer awareness and fund-raising in association with ESCA (English-Speaking Cancer Association of Geneva). Riding on their great success in recent competitions, the Hadron Dragons plan to enter the last Dragon Boat festival of 2009 in Annecy on 17-18 October. This will coincide with t...

  7. The time development of hadronic showers and the T3B experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldner, Christian

    2013-06-06

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is a future linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operated at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV and with a collision rate of particle bunches of up to 2 GHz. This poses challenging requirements on the detector system. The accumulation of background events, such as {gamma}{gamma}{yields}hadrons resulting from Beamstrahlung, must be minimized through a precise time stamping capability in all subdetector systems. In the event reconstruction, the energy depositions within the calorimeters will be used to assign events precisely to a small set of consecutive bunch crossings. The finite time evolution of hadronic showers, on the other hand, requires an extended integration time to achieve a satisfactory energy resolution in the calorimeter. The energy resolution is also deteriorated by the leakage of shower particles. Tungsten is foreseen as dense absorber material, but the time evolution of hadron showers within such a calorimeter is not sufficiently explored yet. In the context of this thesis, the T3B experiment (short for Tungsten Timing Test Beam) was designed and constructed. It is optimized to measure the time development and the contribution of delayed energy depositions within hadronic cascades. The T3B experiment consists of 15 scintillator cells assembled in a strip. The scintillation light generated within the cells is detected by novel silicon photomultiplier whose signal is read out with fast oscilloscopes providing a sampling rate of 1.25 GHz. This strip was positioned behind two different calorimeter prototypes of the CALICE collaboration which use a tungsten and steel (for comparison) absorber structure. T3B was part of the CALICE test beam campaign 2010/2011 carried out at the PS and SPS at CERN and acquired data on hadronic showers in an energy range of 2-300 GeV. A test beam optimized data acquisition software was developed from scratch. With the development and application of a novel waveform decomposition algorithm

  8. Hadron Resonances from QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Jozef [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel πK, ηK scattering. The very recent extension to the case where an external current acts is also presented, considering the reaction πγ* → ππ, from which the unstable ρ → πγ transition form factor is extracted. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  9. Hadrons at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Mallik, Samirnath

    2016-01-01

    High energy laboratories are performing experiments in heavy ion collisions to explore the structure of matter at high temperature and density. This elementary book explains the basic ideas involved in the theoretical analysis of these experimental data. It first develops two topics needed for this purpose, namely hadron interactions and thermal field theory. Chiral perturbation theory is developed to describe hadron interactions and thermal field theory is formulated in the real-time method. In particular, spectral form of thermal propagators is derived for fields of arbitrary spin and used to calculate loop integrals. These developments are then applied to find quark condensate and hadron parameters in medium, including dilepton production. Finally, the non-equilibrium method of statistical field theory to calculate transport coefficients is reviewed. With technical details explained in the text and appendices, this book should be accessible to researchers as well as graduate students interested in thermal ...

  10. New hadronic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes new information on hadronic states which has become available mainly in the last two years. This informations is compared with our previous knowledge regarding these states and is put into perspective in respect to other well-know hadronic states. In particular, this report deals with mesons of spin O (JPC = O-+ and O++), spin 1 (JPC = 1++, 1+- and 1--), and spin 2 (JPC = 2++ and 2-+), with masses below 2 GeV. Emphasis is placed on candidates for exotic hadrons, whether they be real exotics (with quantum numbers which are not allowed by the quark-model or because of their peculiar production, decay and/or spectroscopic properties. (author)

  11. QCD and Hadron Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, Stanley J; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D; Meyer, Curtis A; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G; Roberts, Craig D

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. It highlights progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and presents a vision for the future by identifying key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define our next decade. In defining the priority of outstanding physics opportunities for the future, both prospects for the short (roughly 5 years) and longer term (beyond 10 years) are identified together with the facilities, personnel and other resources needed to maximize the discovery potential in hadronic physics worldwide. In this connection, the potential of an electron ion collider is highlighted.

  12. Pairing in hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A many-body approach to hadron structure is presented, in which we consider two parton species: spin-0 (b-partons), and spin-1/2 (f-partons). We extend a boson and a fermion pairing scheme for the b-, and f-partons respectively, into a Yang-Mills gauge theory. The main feature of this theory is that the gauge field is not identified with the usual gluon field variable in QCD. We study the confinement problem of the hadron constituents, and obtain, for low temperatures, partons that are confined by energy gaps. As the critical temperatures for the corresponding phase transitions are approached, the energy gap gradually disappears, and confinement is lost. The theory goes beyond the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator quark model, in the sense of giving physical reasons why a non-relativistic approximation is adequate in describing the internal dynamics of hadron structure. (author)

  13. High-energy hadron-hadron collisions. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on high energy hadron-hadron collisions in the geometrical model is summarized. Specific items that were studied include the existence and movement of dips in elastic p anti p collisions, the angular distributions for elastic scattering and diffraction dissociation of hadrons on nuclei, and a model calculation of scattering parameters in high energy two-body collisions

  14. Low Energy Hadron Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pennington, Michael R

    2000-01-01

    Ask a group of particle theorists about low energy hadron physics and they will say that this is a subject that belongs to the age of the dinosaurs. However, it is GeV physics that controls the outcome of every hadronic interaction at almost every energy. Confinement of quarks and gluons (and any other super-constituents) means that it is the femto-universe that determines what experiments detect. What we have to learn at the start of the 21st century is discussed.

  15. High intensity hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  16. Bottomonium production in hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner Mariotto, C; Ingelman, G; 10.1142/S0217732304013532

    2004-01-01

    Production of bottomonium in hadronic collisions is studied in the framework of the soft colour approach. We report some results for production of Upsilon in the Tevatron and predictions for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  17. Bottomonium production in hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner Mariotto, C. [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia]. E-mail: mariotto@if.ufrgs.br; Gay Ducati, M.B. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fenomenologia de Particulas em Altas Energias; Ingelman, G. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). High Energy Physics

    2004-07-01

    Production of bottomonium in hadronic collisions is studied in the framework of the soft colour approach. We report some results for production of {upsilon} in the Tevatron and predictions for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC). (author)

  18. Modeling quark-hadron duality for relativistic, confined fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Jeschonnek, S; Jeschonnek, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a model for the study of quark-hadron duality in inclusive electron scattering based on solving the Dirac equation numerically for a scalar confining linear potential and a vector color Coulomb potential. We qualitatively reproduce the features of quark-hadron duality for all potentials considered, and discuss similarities and differences to previous models that simplified the situation by treating either the quarks or all particles as scalars. We discuss the scaling results for PWIA and FSI, and the approach to scaling using the analog of the Callan-Gross relation for y-scaling.

  19. Weibull model of multiplicity distribution in hadron-hadron collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sadhana; Nandi, Basanta K.; Sett, Priyanka

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the use of the Weibull distribution as a simple parametrization of charged particle multiplicities in hadron-hadron collisions at all available energies, ranging from ISR energies to the most recent LHC energies. In statistics, the Weibull distribution has wide applicability in natural processes that involve fragmentation processes. This provides a natural connection to the available state-of-the-art models for multiparticle production in hadron-hadron collisions, which involve QCD parton fragmentation and hadronization. The Weibull distribution describes the multiplicity data at the most recent LHC energies better than the single negative binomial distribution.

  20. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter have been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations o...

  1. Hadron collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introduction to the techniques of analysis of hadron collider events is presented in the context of the quark-parton model. Production and decay of W and Z intermediate vector bosons are used as examples. The structure of the Electroweak theory is outlined. Three simple FORTRAN programs are introduced, to illustrate Monte Carlo calculation techniques. 25 refs

  2. Hadronic Modeling of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidinger Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing systematic search for sources of extragalactic gamma rays has now revealed many blazars in which the very high energy output can not consistently be described as synchrotron self-Compton radiation. In this paper a self consistent hybrid model is described, explaining the very high energy radiation of those blazars as proton synchrotron radiation accompanied by photo-hadronic cascades. As the model includes all relevant radiative processes it naturally includes the synchrotron self-Compton case as well, depending on the chosen parameters. This paper focuses on rather high magnetic fields to be present within the jet, hence the hadronically dominated case. To discriminate the hadronic scenario against external photon fields being upscattered within the jet to produce the dominating gamma-ray output, the temporal behavior of blazars may be exploited with the presented model. Variability reveals both, the highly non-linear nature caused by the photohadronic cascades and typical timescales as well as fingerprints in the inter-band lightcurves of the involved hadrons. The modeling of two individual sources is shown : 1 ES 1011+496, a high frequency peaked blazar at redshift z = 0.212, which is well described within the hybrid scenario using physically reasonable parameters. The short term variability of the second example, namely 3C 454.3, a Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar at z = 0.859, reveals the limitations of the gamma-rays being highly dominated by proton synchrotron radiation.

  3. Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "In the spring 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine at CERN (the European Particle Physics laboratory) will be switched on for the first time. The huge machine is housed in a circular tunnel, 27 km long, excavated deep under the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1,5 page)

  4. The large hadron computer

    CERN Multimedia

    Hirstius, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Plans for dealing with the torrent of data from the Large Hadron Collider's detectors have made the CERN particle-phycis lab, yet again, a pioneer in computing as well as physics. The author describes the challenges of processing and storing data in the age of petabyt science. (4 pages)

  5. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  6. Hadron Multiplicities at HERMES

    OpenAIRE

    Hillenbrand, A.; Hartig, M.

    2005-01-01

    Hadron multiplicities of $\\pim$, $\\pip$, $\\km$ and $\\kp$ have been measured in the deep-inelastic scattering of 27.5 GeV positrons off a hydrogen target. The data used in this analysis have been collected during the 2000 HERA running period. The multiplicities were obtained for 0.15$< z

  7. Hadron collider physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pondrom, L.

    1991-10-03

    An introduction to the techniques of analysis of hadron collider events is presented in the context of the quark-parton model. Production and decay of W and Z intermediate vector bosons are used as examples. The structure of the Electroweak theory is outlined. Three simple FORTRAN programs are introduced, to illustrate Monte Carlo calculation techniques. 25 refs.

  8. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Wright, Alison

    2007-01-01

    "We are on the threshold of a new era in particle-physics research. In 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) - the hightest-energy accelerator ever built - will come into operation at CERN, the European labortory that straddles the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1/2 page)

  9. Hadron Fragmentation Inside Jets in Hadronic Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Tom; Vogelsang, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical next-to-leading order QCD calculation of the partonic cross sections for the process $pp\\rightarrow ({\\text{jet}} \\,h)X$, for which a specific hadron is observed inside a fully reconstructed jet. In order to obtain the analytical results, we assume the jet to be relatively narrow. We show that the results can be cast into a simple and systematic form based on suitable universal jet functions for the process. We confirm the validity of our calculation by comparing to previous results in the literature for which the next-to-leading order cross section was treated entirely numerically by Monte-Carlo integration techniques. We present phenomenological results for experiments at the LHC and at RHIC. These suggest that $pp\\rightarrow ({\\text{jet}} \\,h)X$ should enable very sensitive probes of fragmentation functions, especially of the one for gluons.

  10. Extracting hadron-neutron scattering amplitudes from hadron-proton and hadron-deuteron measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, V.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for extracting hadron-neutron scattering amplitudes from hadron-proton and hadron-deuteron measurements within the framework of the Glauber approximation. This method, which involves the solution of a linear integral equation, is applied to pn collisions between 15 and 275 GeV/c. Effects arising from inelastic intermediate states are estimated.

  11. DÉPISTAGE DES ACTIVITES ANTIOXYDANTE, ANTIBACTERIENNE ET ANTIFONGIQUE DE L’HUILE ESSENTIELLE EXTRAITE DES CALICES SECHÉS D’Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Sow; Barkat, M.; MAOUGAL R.T.

    2014-01-01

    L’extraction de l’huile essentielle à partir des calices séchés d’Hibiscus sabdariffa L. a été réalisée par hydrodistillation. Le rendement moyen en huile essentielle obtenu est de 0,77% ±0,44. L’activité antiradicalaire de l’huile essentielle a été mise en évidence par la méthode de 1,1 Di-Phényl 2 PycrilHydrazil (DPPH)) et antioxydante par le test de blanchiment du β-carotène. L’activité antibactérienne de l’huile essentielle testée par la méthode de diffusion des disques sur gélose AMH et ...

  12. Opticle fibre calibration system and adaptive power supply

    CERN Document Server

    Cvach, J; Kovalcuk, M; Kvasnicka, J; Polak, I; Smolik, J

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the recent activity of our group in the calibration, monitoring and gain stabilization of photodetectors, primarily silicon photomultipliers, in calorimeters using scintillator as active medium. The task originally solved for the CALICE analog hadron calorimeter founds application in other experiments.

  13. Shower development of particles with momenta from 1 to 10 GeV in the CALICE Scintillator-Tungsten HCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Lam, C B; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Carloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Lima, J G R; Zutshi, V; Hostachy, J-Y; Morin, L; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Feege, N.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Wing, M; Salvatore, F; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander Donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouene, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-01-01

    Lepton colliders are considered as options to complement and to extend the physics programme at the Large Hadron Collider. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an $e^+e^-$ collider under development aiming at centre-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. For experiments at CLIC, a hadron sampling calorimeter with tungsten absorber is proposed. Such a calorimeter provides sufficient depth to contain high-energy showers, while allowing a compact size for the surrounding solenoid. A fine-grained calorimeter prototype with tungsten absorber plates and scintillator tiles read out by silicon photomultipliers was built and exposed to particle beams at CERN. Results obtained with electrons, pions and protons of momenta up to 10 GeV are presented in terms of energy resolution and shower shape studies. The results are compared with several GEANT4 simulation models in order to assess the reliability of the Monte Carlo predictions relevant for a future experiment at CLIC.

  14. Shower development of particles with momenta from 1 to 10 GeV in the CALICE Scintillator-Tungsten HCAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adloff, C.; Blaising, J.-J.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Lam, C. B.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J. G. R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Feege, N.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.-C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander Donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T. H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-01-01

    Lepton colliders are considered as options to complement and to extend the physics programme at the Large Hadron Collider. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an e+e- collider under development aiming at centre-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. For experiments at CLIC, a hadron sampling calorimeter with tungsten absorber is proposed. Such a calorimeter provides sufficient depth to contain high-energy showers, while allowing a compact size for the surrounding solenoid. A fine-grained calorimeter prototype with tungsten absorber plates and scintillator tiles read out by silicon photomultipliers was built and exposed to particle beams at CERN. Results obtained with electrons, pions and protons of momenta up to 10 GeV are presented in terms of energy resolution and shower shape studies. The results are compared with several GEANT4 simulation models in order to assess the reliability of the Monte Carlo predictions relevant for a future experiment at CLIC.

  15. A design of scintillator tiles read out by surface-mounted SiPMs for a future hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong; Bauss, Bruno; Buescher, Volker; Caudron, Julien; Chau, Phi; Degele, Reinhold; Geib, Karl-Heinrich; Masetti, Lucia; Schaefer, Ulrich; Tapprogge, Stefan; Wanke, Rainer [Institut fuer Physik and PRISMA Detector Lab, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Precision calorimetry using highly granular sampling calorimeters is being developed based on the particle flow concept within the CALICE collaboration. One design option of a hadron calorimeter is based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) to detect photons generated in plastic scintillator tiles. Driven by the need of automated mass assembly of around ten millions of channels stringently required by the high granularity, we developed a design of scintillator tiles directly coupled with surface-mounted SiPMs. A cavity is created in the center of the bottom surface of each tile to provide enough room for the whole SiPM package and to improve collection of the light produced by incident particles penetrating the tile at different positions. The cavity design has been optimized using a GEANT4-based full simulation model to achieve high response to Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIPs) and also good areal uniformity. Cosmic-ray measurements confirms high 1-MIP response for scintillator tiles with an optimized cavity design. Uniformity measurements by scanning the tile area using focused electrons from a beta source show excellent response uniformity. This optimized design is well beyond the requirements for a precision hadron calorimeter.

  16. A design of scintillator tiles read out by surface-mounted SiPMs for a future hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision calorimetry using highly granular sampling calorimeters is being developed based on the particle flow concept within the CALICE collaboration. One design option of a hadron calorimeter is based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) to detect photons generated in plastic scintillator tiles. Driven by the need of automated mass assembly of around ten millions of channels stringently required by the high granularity, we developed a design of scintillator tiles directly coupled with surface-mounted SiPMs. A cavity is created in the center of the bottom surface of each tile to provide enough room for the whole SiPM package and to improve collection of the light produced by incident particles penetrating the tile at different positions. The cavity design has been optimized using a GEANT4-based full simulation model to achieve high response to Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIPs) and also good areal uniformity. Cosmic-ray measurements confirms high 1-MIP response for scintillator tiles with an optimized cavity design. Uniformity measurements by scanning the tile area using focused electrons from a beta source show excellent response uniformity. This optimized design is well beyond the requirements for a precision hadron calorimeter.

  17. Search for hadronic axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of axions, proposed as very light neutral pseudoscalar bosons, would solve the strong CP problem in the QCD. Axions also arise in supersymmetric and superstring theories and are candidates for dark matter in the universe. Cosmological and astrophysical arguments restrict the masses (ma) of invisible axions to rather narrow 10-5 eV → ma → 10-22 eV range, but with large uncertainties on either side. The KSVZ or hadronic axion is one version of invisible axions, which predicts small coupling of axions to electrons. Models of hadronic axions with E/N ≅ 2 allow for a near or complete cancellation of the axion-photon coupling constant. In this case there is no stellar-evolution limits on ma and for hadronic axions there exists a small window 10 eV ≤ ma ≤ 40 eV between supernova cooling and axion burst arguments. So far the best and only discussed candidate for hot dark matter has been the massive neutrino with a mass of a few eV. Because the Super-Kamiokande experiment suggests the tau neutrino mass of only 0.03-0.1 eV, the hadronic axion in the so-called hadronic axion window could be a good candidate for a cosmological hot dark matter within the mixed dark matter scenario. To verify this window one can search for axions by appealing only to their coupling to nucleons. The most promising methods are the observation of an axion burst from a future supernova and the resonant absorption of almost monochromatic solar axions. We have performed the first experiment along this new line of solar axion investigations. Using a small target of 0.03 g of 57Fe we have made a search for 14.4 keV gamma rays induced by resonant absorption of almost monochromatic solar axions. These Doppler broadened axions could be emitted from the Sun, in M1 transition between the first, thermally excited state and the ground state of 57Fe. An upper limit on hadronic axion mass of 745 eV is obtained at the 95 % confidence level. Search for solar axions is beginning to become

  18. Analog and VLSI circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2009-01-01

    Featuring hundreds of illustrations and references, this book provides the information on analog and VLSI circuits. It focuses on analog integrated circuits, presenting the knowledge on monolithic device models, analog circuit cells, high performance analog circuits, RF communication circuits, and PLL circuits.

  19. Interactions of Particles with Momenta of 1–10 GeV in a Highly Granular Hadronic Calorimeter with Tungsten Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Ching Bon; van Eijk, Bob

    Linear electron-positron colliders are proposed to complement and extend the physics programme of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. In order to satisfy the physics goal requirements at linear colliders, detector concepts based on the Particle Flow approach are developed. Central to this approach are a high resolution tracker and a highly granular calorimeter which provide excellent jet energy resolution and background separation. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an electron-positron collider under study, aiming at centre-of-mass energies up to 3TeV. For the barrel hadronic calorimeter of experiments at CLIC, a detector with tungsten absorber plates is considered, as it is able to contain shower jets while keeping the diameter of the surrounding solenoid magnet limited. A highly granular analogue hadron calorimeter with tungsten absorbers was built by the CALICE collaboration. This thesis presents the analysis of the low-momentum data (1 GeV $\\leq$ p $\\leq$ 10 GeV) recorded in 2010 at the CERN Proton Syn...

  20. Elastic scattering of hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I M

    2012-01-01

    When colliding, the high energy hadrons can either produce new particles or scatter elastically without change of their quantum num- bers and other particles produced. Namely elastic scattering of hadrons is considered in this review paper. Even though the inelastic processes dominate at high energies, the elastic scattering constitutes the notice- able part of the total cross section ranging between 18 and 25% with some increase at higher energies. The scattering proceeds mostly at small angles and reveals peculiar dependences at larger angles disclos- ing the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and di?erent dynamical mechanisms. The fast decreasing Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoul- ders and dips and then by the power-like decrease. Results of various theoretical approaches are compared with exper- imental data. Phenomenological models pretending to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition requires the exponen- tial re...

  1. Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons are reviewed, after a discussion of classical analogues. Differences between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches can lead to conflicts with conventional nuclear physics sum rules and calculational techniques. The nucleon polarizabilities are discussed in the context of the non-relativistic valence quark model, which provides a good qualitative description. The recently measured pion polarizabilities are discussed in the context of chiral symmetry and quark-loop models. 58 refs., 5 figs

  2. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Juettner Fernandes, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    What really happened during the Big Bang? Why did matter form? Why do particles have mass? To answer these questions, scientists and engineers have worked together to build the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world: the Large Hadron Collider. Includes glossary, websites, and bibliography for further reading. Perfect for STEM connections. Aligns to the Common Core State Standards for Language Arts. Teachers' Notes available online.

  3. QCD and Hadron Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2015-02-26

    This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.

  4. High energy hadron-hadron collisions. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a study on high energy collisions using the geometrical model are summarized. A concept of partition temperature is introduced in the geometrical model of multi-particle production processes at high energies. A hadron-hadron collision at a given incoming energy is described as an incoherent superposition of collisions with different partition temperatures. A simple compact formula for single particle momentum spectrum is obtained. The calculated angular distributions are in excellent agreement with experiments at the CERN Collider. Extrapolations to higher and lower energies are made. The same ideas for inelastic hadron-hadron collisions are also applied to e+e- collisions. A number of predictions are made, including the prediction that KNO scaling is not observed in e+e- annihilation. A unified physical picture for hadron-hadron and e+e- collisions is obtained

  5. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  6. Hadron spectrum and hadrons in the nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Vacas, M J V

    2006-01-01

    Some recent developments in chiral dynamics of hadrons and hadrons in a medium are presented. Unitary schemes based on chiral Lagrangians describe some hadronic states as being dynamically generated resonances. We discuss how standard quantum many body techniques can be used to calculate the properties of these dynamically generated and other hadrons in the nuclear medium. We present some results for vector mesons ($\\rho$ and $\\phi$), scalar mesons ($\\sigma$, $\\kappa$, $a_0(980)$, $f_0(980)$), the $\\Lambda(1520)$ and for the in-medium baryon-baryon interaction.

  7. Hadron collider physics at UCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the research work in high energy physics by the group at the University of California, Riverside. Work has been divided between hadron collider physics and e+-e- collider physics, and theoretical work. The hadron effort has been heavily involved in the startup activities of the D-Zero detector, commissioning and ongoing redesign. The lepton collider work has included work on TPC/2γ at PEP and the OPAL detector at LEP, as well as efforts on hadron machines

  8. Quantum chromodynamics and hadron jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These lectures are devoted to the description of the various properties of hard scattering processes with the participation of hadrons in the framework of Quantum Chromodynamics. We discuss in detail the validity and region of applicability of perturbation theory applied to hadron processes. Particular attention is paid to the question of the structure of quark and gluon jets produced in hard processes (as an example, e+ e- annihilation into hadrons). In addition to giving a pedagogical review, we also present new results. (orig.)

  9. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  10. Hadronic Decays of Charm

    OpenAIRE

    Stenson, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Recent hadronic charm decay results from fixed-target experiments are presented. New measurements of the D0 to K-K+K-pi+ branching ratio are shown as are recent results from Dalitz plot fits to D+ to K-K+pi+, pi+pi-pi+, K-pi+pi+, K+pi-pi+ and D_s+ to pi+pi-pi+, K+pi-pi+. These fits include measurements of the masses and widths of several light resonances as well as strong evidence for the existence of two light scalar particles, the pipi resonance sigma and the Kpi resonance kappa.

  11. High energy hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The more novel and important design considerations and features of high energy hadron colliders (pp or p anti p) are discussed. The paper does not attempt to be sufficient for making a complete design, but contains enough references to other papers necessary for doing so. Formulas are generally given without derivation, and notations are not consistent from section to section. For most formulas the derivation is transparent although the mathematics may be lengthy. Whenever obscure, an explanation of the procedure for derivation will be given in physical terms. Detailed mathematical derivations can be found in the references. 10 references

  12. Hadronic Resonances from STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Masayuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of resonance particle productions (ρ0, ω, K*, ϕ, Σ*, and Λ* measured by the STAR collaboration at RHIC from various colliding systems and energies are presented. Measured mass, width, 〈pT〉, and yield of those resonances are reviewed. No significant mass shifts or width broadening beyond the experiment uncertainties are observed. New measurements of ϕ and ω from leptonic decay channels are presented. The yields from leptonic decay channels are compared with the measurements from hadronic decay channels and the two results are consistent with each other.

  13. Charm from hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since the discovery of charmed mesons in electron-positron annihilations at SLAC and DESY, a considerable effort has gone into looking for them in other types of reactions. Both neutrino interactions and photoproduction have provided further data on the production and decay of D mesons, but little has emerged concerning purely hadronic studies.some results from a CERN/Collège de France/Heidelberg/Karlsruhe collaboration using the Split Field Magnet at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) now show definite signs of D meson production in proton-proton collisions

  14. Exotic hadron states

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Steele, T G; Kleiv, R T; Bulthuis, B; Harnett, D; Richards, T; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Many charmonium-like and bottomonium-like $XYZ$ resonances have been observed by the Belle, Babar, CLEO and BESIII collaborations in the past decade. They are difficult to fit in the conventional quark model and thus are considered as candidates of exotic hadrons, such as multi-quark states, meson molecules, and hybrids. In this talk, we first briefly introduce the method of QCD sum rules and then provide a short review of the mass spectra of the quarkonium-like tetraquark states and the heavy quarkonium hybrids in the QCD sum rules approach. Possible interpretations of the $XYZ$ resonances are briefly discussed.

  15. TMD-Factorization in Hadron-Hadron Collision

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Gao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Proof of transverse-momentum-dependent(TMD) factorization for hadron-hadron collision is given in this paper. We focus on processes without detected soft ?nal hadrons or detected ?nal hadrons that are collinear to initial hadrons. This contradicts the widely accepted viewpoint that TMD- factorization does not hold in such processes even in the generalized sense. The key point is that singular points of the type l+ = 0 can be absorbed into Wilson lines of soft gluons, where l is collinear to the plus direction. Thus one should subtract such singular points from the collinear region of l. After such subtraction, one can make use of Ward identity to absorb e?ects of scalar-polarized collinear gluons into Wilson lines.

  16. Exotic hadrons and hadron-hadron interactions in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnishi, A; Furumoto, T; Hyodo, T; Jido, D; Ko, C M; Morita, K; Lee, S H; Nielsen, M; Sekihara, T; Yasui, S; Yazaki, K

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the exotic hadron structure and hadron-hadron interactions in view of heavy ion collisions. First, we demonstrate that a hadronic molecule with a large spatial size would be produced more abundantly in the coalescence model compared with the statistical model result. Secondly, we constrain the Lambda-Lambda interaction by using the recently measured Lambda-Lambda correlation data. We find that the RHIC-STAR data favor the Lambda-Lambda scattering parameters in the range 1/a_0 = 3 fm.

  17. Gamma-hadron families and scaling violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisser, T. K.; Stanev, T.; Wrotniak, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    For three different interaction models we have simulated gamma-hadron families, including the detector (Pamir emulsion chamber) response. Rates of gamma families, hadrons, and hadron-gamma ratios were compared with experiments.

  18. Hadron Spectroscopy in COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) is a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) aimed at studying the structure and spectrum of hadrons. In the naive Constituent Quark Model (CQM) mesons are bound states of quarks and antiquarks. QCD, however, predict the existence of hadrons beyond the CQM with exotic properties interpreted as excited glue (hybrids) or even pure gluonic bound states (glueballs). One main goal of COMPASS is to search for these states. Particularly interesting are so called spin-exotic mesons which have J^{PC} quantum numbers forbidden for ordinary q\\bar{q} states. Its large acceptance, high resolution, and high-rate capability make the COMPASS experiment an excellent device to study the spectrum of light-quark mesons in diffractive and central production reactions up to masses of about 2.5 GeV. COMPASS is able to measure final states with charged as well as neutral particles, so that resonances can be studied ...

  19. The LHCb hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhelyadin, R I

    2002-01-01

    The Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) is designed for the LHCb experiment. The main purpose of the detector is to provide data for the L0 hadron trigger. The HCAL is designed as consisting of two symmetric movable parts of about 500 ton in total getting in touch in operation position without non-instrumented zones. The lateral dimensions of an active area are X = 8.4 m width, Y = 6.8 m height, and is distanced from the interaction point at Z=13.33 m. Both halves are assembled from stacked up modules. An internal structure consisting of thin iron plates interspaced with scintillating tiles has been chosen. Attention is paid to optimize the detector according to the requirements of the experiment, reducing the spending needed for its construction. Different construction technologies are being discussed. The calorimeter properties have been extensively studied with a variety of prototype on the accelerator beam. The calibration with a radioactive source and module-0 construction experience is discussed.

  20. A New Hadron Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Stephen Lars

    2014-01-01

    QCD-motivated models for hadrons predict an assortment of "exotic" hadrons that have structures that are more complex than the quark-antiquark mesons and three-quark baryons of the original quark-parton model. These include pentaquark baryons, the six-quark H-dibaryon, and tetraquark, hybrid and glueball mesons. Despite extensive experimental searches, no unambiguous candidates for any of these exotic configurations have been identified. On the other hand, a number of meson states, one that seems to be a proton-antiproton bound state, and others that contain either charmed-anticharmed quark pairs or bottom-antibottom quark pairs, have been recently discovered that neither fit into the quark-antiquark meson picture nor match the expected properties of the QCD-inspired exotics. Here I briefly review results from a recent search for the H-dibaryon, and discuss some properties of the newly discovered states --the proton-antiproton state and the so-called XYZ mesons-- and compare them with expectations for convent...

  1. Hadronic laws from QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of progress in deriving the effective action for hadronic physics, S[π, ρ, ω, .., anti N, N, ..], from the fundamental defining action of QCD, S[anti q, q, Aμa]. This is a problem in quantum field theory and the most success so far has been achieved using functional integral calculus (FIC) techniques. This formulates the problem as an exercise in changing the variables of integration in the functional integrals, from those of the quark and gluon fields to those of the (bare) meson and baryon fields. The appropriate variables are determined by the dynamics of QCD, and the final hadronic variables (essentially the 'normal modes' of QCD) are local fields describing the 'centre-of-mass' motion of extended bound states of quarks. The quarks are extensively dressed by the gluons, and the detailed aspects of the hidden chiral symmetry emerge naturally from the formalism. Particular attention is given to covariant integral equations which determine bare nucleon structure (i.e. in the quenched approximation). These equations, which arise from the closed double-helix diagrams of the FIC analysis, describe the baryons in terms of quark-diquark structure, in the form of Faddeev equations. This hadronisation of QCD also generates the dressing of these baryons by the pions, and the non-local πNN coupling. (orig.)

  2. Relativistic few quark dynamics for hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microscopic confinement approach is presented to a few quarks systems through an effective (harmonic) kernel inserted at the level of q-q-bar and q-q pairs, using the vehicle of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for each such system. The formalism, which is realistic for light quark systems (which require an intrinsically relativistic treatment), has been developed in a simple enough form so as to be applicable in practice to a large class of phenomena amenable to experimental test. The comparison over a wide range of hadronic properties (from mass spectra to current matrix elements), all within a single integrated framework, would seem to strongly support the ansatz of universality of the reduced spring constant (ω-tilde) which plays a role analogous to the bag radius, but at a far more microscopic level

  3. Hadronic and nuclear interactions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the evidence that QCD - or something close to it - gives a correct description of the structure of hadrons and their interactions, it seems paradoxical that the theory has thus far had very little impact in nuclear physics. One reason for this is that the application of QCD to distances larger than 1 fm involves coherent, non-perturbative dynamics which is beyond present calculational techniques. For example, in QCD the nuclear force can evidently be ascribed to quark interchange and gluon exchange processes. These, however, are as complicated to analyze from a fundamental point of view as is the analogous covalent bond in molecular physics. Since a detailed description of quark-quark interactions and the structure of hadronic wavefunctions is not yet well-understood in QCD, it is evident that a quantitative first-principle description of the nuclear force will require a great deal of theoretical effort. Another reason for the limited impact of QCD in nuclear physics has been the conventional assumption that nuclear interactions can for the most part be analyzed in terms of an effective meson-nucleon field theory or potential model in isolation from the details of short distance quark and gluon structure of hadrons. These lectures, argue that this view is untenable: in fact, there is no correspondence principle which yields traditional nuclear physics as a rigorous large-distance or non-relativistic limit of QCD dynamics. On the other hand, the distinctions between standard nuclear physics dynamics and QCD at nuclear dimensions are extremely interesting and illuminating for both particle and nuclear physics

  4. Review of hadrons in medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, Gastão [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz, 271 - Bloco II, 01140-070 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-22

    I review the present status in the theoretical and phenomenological understanding of hadron properties in strongly interacting matter. The topics covered are the EMC effect, nucleon structure functions in cold nuclear matter, spectral properties of light vector mesons in hot and cold nuclear matter, and in-medium properties of heavy flavored hadrons.

  5. Heavy Hadrons in Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia ($J/\\psi$, $\\Upsilon$), heavy-light mesons ($D$/$\\bar{D}$, $\\bar{B}$/$B$) and heavy baryons ($\\Lambda_{c}$, $\\Lambda_{b}$). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in nuclear matter with infinite volume, but also in atomic nuclei with finite bary...

  6. Hadron star models. [neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.

  7. Quarkonium production in hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We summarize the theoretical description of charmonium and bottonium production in hadronic collisions and compare it to the available data from hadron-nucleon interactions. With the parameters of the theory established by these data, we obtain predictions for quarkonium production at RHIC and LHC energies

  8. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  9. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon

    2012-01-01

    The construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been a massive endeavour spanning almost 30 years from conception to commissioning. Building the machine with the highest possible energy (7 TeV) in the existing large electron–positron (LEP) collider tunnel of 27 km circumference and with a tunnel diameter of only 3.8 m has required considerable innovation. The first was the development of a two-in-one magnet, where the two rings are integrated into a single magnetic structure. This compact two-in-one structure was essential for the LHC owing to the limited space available in the existing LEP collider tunnel and the cost. The second was a bold move to the use of superfluid helium cooling on a massive scale, which was imposed by the need to achieve a high (8.3 T) magnetic field using an affordable Nb-Ti superconductor.

  10. Physics at future hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U. Baur et al.

    2002-12-23

    We discuss the physics opportunities and detector challenges at future hadron colliders. As guidelines for energies and luminosities we use the proposed luminosity and/or energy upgrade of the LHC (SLHC), and the Fermilab design of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). We illustrate the physics capabilities of future hadron colliders for a variety of new physics scenarios (supersymmetry, strong electroweak symmetry breaking, new gauge bosons, compositeness and extra dimensions). We also investigate the prospects of doing precision Higgs physics studies at such a machine, and list selected Standard Model physics rates.

  11. Hadron collider physics at UCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the research work in high energy physics by the group at the University of California, Riverside. Work has been divided between hadron collider physics and e{sup +}-e{sup {minus}} collider physics, and theoretical work. The hadron effort has been heavily involved in the startup activities of the D-Zero detector, commissioning and ongoing redesign. The lepton collider work has included work on TPC/2{gamma} at PEP and the OPAL detector at LEP, as well as efforts on hadron machines.

  12. B hadron properties at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Heredia De La Cruz, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Precise measurements of B hadron properties are crucial to improve or constrain models based on non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics, which provide predictions of mass, lifetime, cross section, polarization, and branching ratios (among several other properties) of B hadrons. Measurements of CP violation in $B^0_s$ and properties of rare B decays also provide many opportunities to search for new physics. This article presents some B hadron property results obtained by CMS using Run~I (2011-2012) data, and prospects for the Run~II (2015-2017) data taking period.

  13. A Hadron Radiation Installation and Verification Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.J.; Bom, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    A hadron radiation installation adapted to subject a target to irradiation by a hadron radiation beam, said installation comprising: - a target support configured to support, preferably immobilize, a target: - a hadron radiation apparatus adapted to emit a hadron radiation beam along a beam axis to

  14. Energy flow in a hadronic cascade: Application to hadron calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groom, D E

    1994-01-01

    The hadronic cascade description developed in an earlier paper is extended to the response of an idealized fine-sampling hadron calorimeter. Calorimeter response is largely determined by the transfer of energy $E_e$ from the hadronic to the electromagnetic sector via $\\pi^0$ production. Fluctuations in this quantity produce the "constant term" in hadron calorimeter resolution. The increase of its fractional mean, $f_{\\rm em}^0 = \\vev{E_e}/E$, with increasing incident energy $E$ causes the energy dependence of the $\\pi/e$ ratio in a noncompensating calorimeter. The mean hadronic energy fraction, $f_h^0 = 1-f_{\\rm em}^0$, was shown to scale very nearly as a power law in $E$: $f_h^0 = (E/E_0)^{m-1}$, where $E_0\\approx1$~GeV for pions, and $m\\approx0.83$. It follows that $\\pi/e=1-(1-h/e)(E/E_0)^{m-1}$, where electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposits are detected with efficiencies $e$ and $h$, respectively. Fluctuations in these quantities, along with sampling fluctuations, are incorporated to give an overall u...

  15. Insulin analogs and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSciacca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, insulin analogs are used in millions of diabetic patients. Insulin analogs have been developed to achieve more physiological insulin replacement in terms of time course of the effect. Modifications in the amino acid sequence of the insulin molecule change the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the analogs in respect to human insulin. However, these changes can also modify the molecular and biological effects of the analogs. The rapid-acting insulin analogs, lispro, aspart and glulisine, have a rapid onset and shorter duration of action. The long-acting insulin analogs glargine and detemir have a protracted duration of action and a relatively smooth serum concentration profile. Insulin and its analogs may function as growth factors and therefore have a theoretical potential to promote tumor proliferation. A major question is whether analogs have an increased mitogenic activity in respect to insulin. These ligands can promote cell proliferation through many mechanisms like the prolonged stimulation of the insulin receptor, stimulation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R, prevalent activation of the ERK rather than the AKT intracellular post-receptor pathways. Studies on in vitro models indicate that short-acting analogs elicit molecular and biological effects that are similar to those of insulin. In contrast, long-acting analogs behave differently. Although not all data are homogeneous, both glargine and detemir have been found to have a decreased binding to IR but an increased binding to IGF-1R, a prevalent activation of the ERK pathway, and an increased mitogenic effect in respect to insulin. Recent retrospective epidemiological clinical studies have suggested that treatment with long-acting analogs (specifically glargine may increase the relative risk for cancer. Results are controversial and methodologically weak. Therefore prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the possible tumor growth-promoting effects of these insulin

  16. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  17. Structure and compositeness of hadron resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Hyodo, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the hadron resonances attracts much attention, in association with the recent observations of various exotic hadrons which do not fit well in the conventional picture. These findings urge us to consider various new configurations such as the multiquark states and the hadronic molecules. However, it is a subtle problem to define a proper classification scheme for the hadron structure, and the nonzero decay width of the hadron resonances makes the analysis complicated. In this article, we summarize the recent developments in the studies of the structure of the hadron resonances, focusing on the notion of the compositeness in terms of the hadronic degrees of freedom.

  18. A Virial Theorem for the Kinetic Energy of a Heavy Quark inside Hadrons

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert, Matthias(PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institut for Theoretical Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, D-55099, Mainz, Germany)

    1993-01-01

    The formalism of the heavy quark effective theory is used to derive the field-theory analog of the virial theorem, which relates the matrix element of the kinetic energy of a heavy quark inside a hadron to a matrix element of the gluon field strength tensor. The existing QCD sum rule calculations of the kinetic energy are not consistent with this theorem.

  19. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  20. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  1. Forward physics of hadronic colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These lectures were given at the Baikal Summer School on Physics of Elementary Particles and Astrophysics in July 2012. They can be viewed as a concise introduction to hadronic diffraction, to the physics of the pomeron and related topics

  2. Fixed target hadron production measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Panman, J

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of light hadron production cross-sections in proton-nucleus interactions is an important prerequisite to the analysis of a wide variety of experiments. One of the important limiting factors for the precision of accelerator based and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments is the uncertainty in the composition and spectrum of the neutrino flux. Cosmic-ray experiments detecting extensive air-showers can greatly improve their ability to interpret the data when precise hadron production spectra are available over a large range of energies. Dedicated hadron production experiments have been taking data recently and are now publishing their results. Other experiments have just started their data-taking and plan to supply measurements which can significantly extend the kinematic range in which data will be available. Early measurements at the LHC can extend this range to much higher energies than available up to now. Recent results will be shown and compared with hadronic production models. An outl...

  3. Legendre Analysis of Hadronic Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Azimov, Ya I

    2016-01-01

    Expansions over Legendre functions are suggested as a model-independent way of compact presentation of modern precise and high-statistics data for two-hadron reactions. Some properties of the expansions are described.

  4. Hadrons with Two Heavy Quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Jean-Marc

    1994-01-01

    We review the spectroscopy and some properties of hadrons containing two charmed quarks, or more generally, two heavy quarks. This includes heavy baryons such as $(bcu)$, and possible exotic multiquark states.

  5. Hadronic property at finite density

    OpenAIRE

    Takaishi, Tetsuya

    2004-01-01

    We report on three topics on finite density simulations: (i) the derivative method for hadronic quantities, (ii) phase fluctuations in the vicinity of the critical temperature and (iii) the density of states method at finite isospin density.

  6. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  7. A Design of Scintillator Tiles Read Out by Surface-Mounted SiPMs for a Future Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yong; Caudron, Julien; Chau, Phi; Krause, Sascha; Masetti, Lucia; Schäfer, Ulrich; Spreckels, Rouven; Tapprogge, Stefan; Wanke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Precision calorimetry using highly granular sampling calorimeters is being developed based on the particle flow concept within the CALICE collaboration. One design option of a hadron calorimeter is based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) to detect photons generated in plastic scintillator tiles. Driven by the need of automated mass assembly of around ten million channels stringently required by the high granularity, we developed a design of scintillator tiles directly coupled with surface-mounted SiPMs. A cavity is created in the center of the bottom surface of each tile to provide enough room for the whole SiPM package and to improve collection of the light produced by incident particles penetrating the tile at different positions. The cavity design has been optimized using a GEANT4-based full simulation model to achieve a high response to a Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIP) and also good spatial uniformity. The single-MIP response for scintillator tiles with an optimized cavity design has been measured usi...

  8. Hadron physics with KLOE-2

    CERN Document Server

    Czerwinski, Eryk; Babusci, D; Badoni, D; Bencivenni, G; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Bulychjev, S A; Campana, P; Capon, G; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; Czerwinski, E; Dane, E; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Santis, A; De Zorzi, G; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Micco, B; Domenici, D; Erriquez, O; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Franzini, P; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gonnella, F; Graziani, E; Happacher, F; Hoistad, B; Iarocci, E; Jacewicz, M; Johansson, T; Kulikov, V V; Kupsc, A; Lee-Franzini, J; Loddo, F; Martemianov, M A; Martini, M; Matsyuk, M A; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moricciani, D; Morello, G; Moskal, P; Nguyen, F; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Ranieri, A; Santangelo, P; Sarra, I; Schioppa, M; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Silarski, M; Taccini, C; Tortora, L; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Wislicki, W; Wolke, M; Zdebik, J

    2010-01-01

    In the upcoming month the KLOE-2 data taking campaign will start at the upgraded DAFNE phi-factory of INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati. The main goal is to collect an integrated luminosity of about 20 fb^(-1) in 3-4 years in order to refine and extend the KLOE program on both kaon physics and hadron spectroscopy. Here the expected improvements on the results of hadron spectroscopy are presented and briefly discussed.

  9. Schottky Anomaly and Hadronic Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Aritra; Sinha, Nita

    2015-01-01

    We show that the hadronic "heat capacity" calculated as a function of temperature may be used to infer the possible presence of different scales underlying the dynamical structure of hadronic resonances using the phenomenon of Schottky anomaly. We first demonstrate this possibility with well known meson spectrum in various channels and comment on the possibility of using this method as a diagnostic to distinguish the exotic states.

  10. Hadronic {tau} decays and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davier, M

    1999-12-01

    Hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton provide a clean source to study hadron dynamics in an energy regime dominated by resonances, with the interesting information captured in the spectral functions. Recent results on exclusive channels are reviewed. Inclusive spectral functions are the basis for QCD analyses, delivering an accurate determination of the strong coupling constant and quantitative information on nonperturbative contributions. Strange decays yield a determination of the strange quark mass. (author)

  11. Masses of hadrons in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We emphasize the central role played by the spectral function in the description of hadrons in matter and discuss the applicability of the quasiparticle concept to the propagation of hadrons in dense nuclear matter. Theoretical and experimental results relevant for the in medium properties of vector mesons and kaons are briefly reviewed. We also present novel results for the ρ and ω spectral functions in nuclear matter, deduced from a coupled channel analysis of pion-nucleon scattering data. (orig.)

  12. Late effects from hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  13. Elastic scattering of hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2013-01-01

    Colliding high-energy hadrons either produce new particles or scatter elastically with their quantum numbers conserved and no other particles produced. We consider the latter case here. Although inelastic processes dominate at high energies, elastic scattering contributes considerably (18-25%) to the total cross section. Its share first decreases and then increases at higher energies. Small-angle scattering prevails at all energies. Some characteristic features can be seen that provide information on the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and the relevant dynamical mechanisms. The steep Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoulders and dips, and then by a power-law decrease. Results from various theoretical approaches are compared with experimental data. Phenomenological models claiming to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition predicts an exponential fall for the differential cross section with an additional substructure to occur exactly between the low momentum transfer diffraction cone and a power-law, hard parton scattering regime under high momentum transfer. Data on the interference of the Coulomb and nuclear parts of amplitudes at extremely small angles provide the value of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude. The real part of the elastic scattering amplitude and the contribution of inelastic processes to the imaginary part of this amplitude (the so-called overlap function) are also discussed. Problems related to the scaling behavior of the differential cross section are considered. The power-law regime at highest momentum transfer is briefly described.

  14. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Since the beginning of 2007, HCAL has made significant progress in the installation and commissioning of both hardware and software. A large fraction of the physical Hadron Calorimeter modules have been installed in UX5. In fact, the only missing pieces are HE- and part of HO. The HB+/- were installed in the cryostat in March. HB scintillator layer-17 was installed above ground before the HB were lowered. The HB- scintillator layer-0 was installed immediately after completion of EB- installation. HF/HCAL Commissioning The commissioning and checkout of the HCAL readout electronics is also proceeding at a rapid pace in Bldg. 904 and USC55. All sixteen crates of HCAL VME readout electronics have been commissioned and certified for service. Fifteen are currently operating in the S2 level of USC55. The last crate is being used for firmware development in the Electronics Integration Facility in 904. All installed crates are interfaced to their VME computers and receive synchronous control from the fully-equipp...

  15. Upgrade Analog Readout and Digitizing System for ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Akerstedt, H; Biot, A; Bohm, C; Carrio, F; Drake, G; Hildebrand, K; Muschter, S; Oreglia, M; Paramonov, A

    2013-01-01

    A potential upgrade for the front-end electronics and signal digitization and data acquisition system of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter for the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is described. A Demonstrator is being built to readout a slice of the TileCal detector. The on-detector electronics includes up to 48 Analog Front-end Boards for PMT analog signal processing, 4 Main Boards for data digitization and slow controls, 4 Daughter Boards with high speed optical links to interface the on-detector and off-detector electronics. Two super readout driver boards are used for off-detector data acquisition and fulfilling digital trigger.\

  16. Analog pulse processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  17. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  18. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; Boom, van den Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2002-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is off

  19. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; Boom, van den Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is off

  20. Hadron nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elastic and inelastic scattering of intermediate energy (less than or equal to 1 GeV) protons by nuclei is considered first. The discussion focuses on the determination of the proton-nucleus optical potential in terms of the elementary nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes and the properties of the target and residual nucleus. The result is a series of terms for the optical potential. Then the interaction of pions with nuclei for energies in the neighborhood of the Δ-resonance is discussed. In this energy domain an incident pion will with high probability be absorbed by a nucleon to produce the Δ-resonance and thus form a Δ-particle hole state in the nucleus. Next, the subject of hypernuclei is taken up. The Λ hypernuclei and a recently observed Σ hypernuclei comprise situations in which the core nucleus can be probed by a baryon of roughly the same mass as a nucleon, with similar albeit not identical interactions with nucleons. But the Λ (or Σ) does not need to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle with respect to the nucleons, and therefore can be in orbits forbidden to it if it were a nucleon. As the energy of the projectile increases, it becomes correspondingly more important to take relativistic effects into account. The importance of these effects is strikingly revealed by experiments involving the collision of ultrarelativistic hadrons, protons, pions, kaons (up to Fermilab energies) with nuclei. This phenomenon forms part of the final topic, which includes as well as the collision of relativistic heavy ion projectiles with nuclei. A nuclear Weiszaecker-Williams method developed for dealing with peripheral collisions is described. 32 figures, 10 tables

  1. Hadron particle theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1995-05-01

    Radiation therapy with ``hadrons`` (protons, neutrons, pions, ions) has accrued a 55-year track record, with by now over 30,000 patients having received treatments with one of these particles. Very good, and in some cases spectacular results are leading to growth in the field in specific well-defined directions. The most noted contributor to success has been the ability to better define and control the radiation field produced with these particles, to increase the dose delivered to the treatment volume while achieving a high degree of sparing of normal tissue. An additional benefit is the highly-ionizing, character of certain beams, leading to creater cell-killing potential for tumor lines that have historically been very resistant to radiation treatments. Until recently these treatments have been delivered in laboratories and research centers whose primary, or original mission was physics research. With maturity in the field has come both the desire to provide beam facilities more accessible to the clinical setting, of a hospital, as well as achieving, highly-efficient, reliable and economical accelerator and beam-delivery systems that can make maximum advantage of the physical characteristics of these particle beams. Considerable work in technology development is now leading, to the implementation of many of these ideas, and a new generation of clinically-oriented facilities is beginning to appear. We will discuss both the physical, clinical and technological considerations that are driving these designs, as well as highlighting, specific examples of new facilities that are either now treating, patients or that will be doing so in the near future.

  2. DÉPISTAGE DES ACTIVITES ANTIOXYDANTE, ANTIBACTERIENNE ET ANTIFONGIQUE DE L’HUILE ESSENTIELLE EXTRAITE DES CALICES SECHÉS D’Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOW M. L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available L’extraction de l’huile essentielle à partir des calices séchés d’Hibiscus sabdariffa L. a été réalisée par hydrodistillation. Le rendement moyen en huile essentielle obtenu est de 0,77% ±0,44. L’activité antiradicalaire de l’huile essentielle a été mise en évidence par la méthode de 1,1 Di-Phényl 2 PycrilHydrazil (DPPH et antioxydante par le test de blanchiment du β-carotène. L’activité antibactérienne de l’huile essentielle testée par la méthode de diffusion des disques sur gélose AMH et par la méthode de microatmosphère sur Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella oxytoca, Echrichia coli et Streptocoque sp. a montré une résistance de ces souches vis-à-vis de l’huile essentielle d’Hibiscus sabdariffa L.. L’activité antifongique de l’huile essentielle, testée sur Aspergillus sp.,Alternaria sp.et sur Penicillium sp.par la méthode de diffusion des disques sur milieu sabouraud, a montré une résistance de Penicillium sp. et d’Aspergillus sp., et une résistance temporaire d’environ 72h pour la souche Alterneriasp.

  3. High energy hadron-hadron collisions. Annual progress report for 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on high-energy hadron-hadron collisions in the geometrical model, performed under the DOE Contract No. DE-AS09-76ER00946, is summarized. Specific items studied include the elastic hadron-hadron scattering at ultrahigh energies and the existence of many dips, the computation of meson radii, the hadronic matter current effects on inelastic two-body processes, and the diffraction dissociation processes in hadron-nucleus and hadron-hadron collisions. No data are included with this report; references are given

  4. Threshold Resummation for Di-hadron Production in Hadronic Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Leandro G; Vogelsang, Werner

    2009-01-01

    We study the resummation of large logarithmic perturbative corrections to the partonic cross sections relevant for di-hadron production in hadronic collisions, H1 H2 -> h1 h2 X, at high invariant mass of the produced hadron pair. These corrections arise near the threshold for the partonic reaction and are associated with soft-gluon emission. We perform the resummation to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, and show how to incorporate consistently cuts in rapidity and transverse momentum of the observed particles. We present numerical results for fixed-target and ISR regimes and find enhancements over the next-to-leading order cross section, which significantly improve the agreement between theoretical predictions and data.

  5. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

  6. High energy hadron-hadron collisions. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on high energy hadron-hadron collisions in the geometrical model is summarized. In the past two years, our investigation centered on the analysis of new experimental results obtained by the UA1, UA4 and UA5 Collaborations at the CERN-SPS Collider. Specific items studied include the analysis of anti p p elastic scattering with the geometrical picture, multiplicity fluctuation and KNO scaling, and forward-backward charge distribution in anti p p collisions at a center of mass energy of 540 GeV. 21 references

  7. Hadron production in e+e- annihilation. QCD and hadronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results on hadron production in e+e- annihilation are summarized. The topics included are: (1) inclusive hadron production, (2) comparison of light (u,d,s) and heavy (c,b) quark jets; (3) p - anti p correlations; (4) gluon vs. quark jets; (5) analysis of 3 jet events; (6) measurement of the strong coupling constant α/sub s/; and (7) forward-backward asymmetries of quarks and leptons. Experimental data are compared with predictions of several models to reveal underlying physics. 62 refs., 22 figs

  8. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  9. Three Lectures on Hadron Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Craig D

    2015-01-01

    These lectures explain that comparisons between experiment and theory can expose the impact of running couplings and masses on hadron observables and thereby aid materially in charting the momentum dependence of the interaction that underlies strong-interaction dynamics. The series begins with a primer on continuum QCD, which introduces some of the basic ideas necessary in order to understand the use of Schwinger functions as a nonperturbative tool in hadron physics. It continues with a discussion of confinement and dynamical symmetry breaking (DCSB) in the Standard Model, and the impact of these phenomena on our understanding of condensates, the parton structure of hadrons, and the pion electromagnetic form factor. The final lecture treats the problem of grand unification; namely, the contemporary use of Schwinger functions as a symmetry-preserving tool for the unified explanation and prediction of the properties of both mesons and baryons. It reveals that DCSB drives the formation of diquark clusters in bar...

  10. The ATLAS Hadronic Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mahlstedt, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    During the 2012 run the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$, with bunch crossings occurring every 50 ns. In this difficult environment of several overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up) the trigger system of the ATLAS detector has the task of reducing the event rate from 40 MHz to a few hundred Hz while keeping the most interesting physics events. Being the heaviest of all leptons, the tau lepton plays an important role in many physics processes. The ability to trigger on events containing hadronically decaying taus is therefore of special interest. In this poster the hadronic tau trigger is described and its performance during 2012 is shown.

  11. Phenomenological studies of hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects of hadronic collisions are studied in a phenomenological framework. A Monte Carlo model for initial state parton showers, using a backwards evolution scheme, is presented. Comparisons with experimental data and analytical calculations are made. The consequence of using different fragmentation model on the determination of αs is also investigated. It is found that the different fragmentation models lead to the reconstruction of significantly αs values. Finally the possibility of having several independent parton-parton interactions in a hadron-hadron collision is studied. A model is developed, which takes into account the effects of variable impact parameters. This is implemented in a Monte Carlo computer program and extensive comparisons with experimental data are carried out. There is clear evidence in favour of multiple interactions with variable impact parameters. (author)

  12. Dijet imbalance in hadronic collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Boer, Daniel; Pisano, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    The imbalance of dijets produced in hadronic collisions has been used to extract the average transverse momentum of partons inside the hadrons. In this paper we discuss new contributions to the dijet imbalance that could complicate or even hamper this extraction. They are due to polarization of initial state partons inside unpolarized hadrons that can arise in the presence of nonzero parton transverse momentum. Transversely polarized quarks and linearly polarized gluons produce specific azimuthal dependences of the two jets that in principle are not suppressed. Their effects cannot be isolated just by looking at the angular deviation from the back-to-back situation, rather they enter jet broadening observables. In this way they directly affect the extraction of the average transverse momentum of unpolarized partons that is thought to be extracted. We discuss appropriately weighted cross sections to isolate the additional contributions.

  13. Quenched hadron spectrum of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate hadron spectrum of quantum chromodynamics without dynamical fermions on a 323 x 64 lattice volume at β = 6.5. Using two different wall sources of staggered fermion whose mass is 0.01, 0.005 and 0.0025 under the background gauge configurations, we extract local light hadron masses and the triangle masses and compare these hadron masses with those from experiments. The numerical simulation is executed on the Intel Touchstone Delta computer. We employ multihit metropolis algorithm with over-relaxation method steps to update gauge field configuration and gauge field configuration are collected at every 1000 sweeps. After the gauge field configuration is fixed to Coulomb gauge, the conjugate gradient method is used for Dirac matrix inversion

  14. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davier, M.; Hoecker, A.; Malaescu, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e- annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingredients to high precision tests of the Standard Theory.

  15. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    CERN Document Server

    Davier, M; Malaescu, B; Zhang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle–antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e− annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingre...

  16. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  17. FGF growth factor analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  18. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  19. Synthesis of Paclitaxel Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhibing

    2010-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most successful anti-cancer drugs, particularly in the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For the investigation of the interaction between paclitaxel and MD-2 protein, and development of new antagonists for lipopolysaccharide, several C10 A-nor-paclitaxel analogs have been synthesized and their biological activities have been evaluated. In order to reduce the myelosuppression effect of the paclitaxel, several C3â ² and C4 paclitaxel analogs have been synth...

  20. Very high multiplicity hadron processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contains a description of a first attempt to understand the extremely inelastic high energy hadron collisions, when the multiplicity of produced hadrons considerably exceeds its mean value. Problems with existing model predictions are discussed. The real-time finite-temperature S-matrix theory is built to have a possibility to find model-free predictions. This allows one to include the statistical effects into consideration and build the phenomenology. The questions to experiment are formulated at the very end of the paper

  1. Velocity of sound in hadron matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Roulet, E.

    1987-09-01

    The velocity of sound in hadron matter, in both the confined and deconfined phases, is studied. This velocity of sound appears to be an important tool to distinguish among different bag-model-based thermodynamical descriptions of hadronic matter.

  2. SU(2) Skyrme Model for Hadron

    CERN Document Server

    Hadi, Miftachul

    2010-01-01

    The SU(2) Skyrme model is reviewed. The model, which considers hadron as soliton (Skyrmion), is used for investigating the nucleon mass and delta mass. Keywords: Skyrme model, soliton, hadron, nucleon mass, delta mass.

  3. Physics at hadron colliders: Experimental view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    The physics of the hadron-hadron collider experiment is considered from an experimental point of view. The problems encountered in determination of how well the standard model describes collider results are discussed. 53 refs., 58 figs.

  4. QCD at high-luminosity hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Hautmann, F

    2016-01-01

    This talk gives a brief introduction to open questions in jet physics and QCD which come to the fore in the high-luminosity regime characterizing the upcoming phase of the Large Hadron Collider and future hadron colliders.

  5. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  6. Extracting αs from scaling violations in light-hadron fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the status of extracting the strong-coupling constant αs from the scaling violations in fragmentation functions by fitting the latter to experimental data of the inclusive production of single light hadrons in e+e- annihilation. We also discuss the analogous analysis based on the average hadron multiplicities in gluon and quark jets, which correspond to the first Mellin moments of the respective FFs. We then assess the prospects of such αs determinations at future high-luminosity e+e- colliders such as the CERN Future Circular Collider operated in the e+e- annihilation mode (FCC-ee).

  7. Assembly of the CMS hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The hadronic calorimeter is assembled on the end-cap of the CMS detector in the assembly hall. Hadronic calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  8. Free quarks and antiquarks versus hadronic matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-Ming; PENG Ru

    2009-01-01

    Meson-meson reactions A(q1q1) + B(q2q2) → q1+q1+ q2+q2 in high-temperature hadronic matter are found to produce an appreciable amount of quarks and antiquarks freely moving in hadronic matter and to establish a new mechanism for deconfinement of quarks and antiquarks in hadronic matter.

  9. Hadron spectroscopy and interactions from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Prelovsek, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    Lattice QCD approach to study the hadronic resonances and exotic hadrons is described at an introductory level. The main challenge is that these states decay strongly via one or more decay channels, and they often lie near thersholds. Specific results for conventional and exotic hadrons are shown to illustrate the current status.

  10. Hard QCD at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moch, S.

    2008-02-15

    We review the status of QCD at hadron colliders with emphasis on precision predictions and the latest theoretical developments for cross sections calculations to higher orders. We include an overview of our current information on parton distributions and discuss various Standard Model reactions such as W{sup {+-}}/Z-boson, Higgs boson or top quark production. (orig.)

  11. A PARTNERship for hadron therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    PARTNER, the Particle Training Network for European Radiotherapy, has recently been awarded 5.6 million euros by the European Commission. The project, which is coordinated by CERN, has been set up to train researchers of the future in hadron therapy and in doing so aid the battle against cancer.

  12. Hadronic interactions and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, S R

    2008-01-01

    I give an overview of efforts in the last year to calculate interactions among hadrons using lattice QCD. Results discussed include the extraction of low-energy phase shifts and three-body interactions, and the study of pion and kaon condensation. A critical appraisal is offered of recent attempts to calculate nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-hyperon potentials on the lattice.

  13. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument. It is being constructed by the European Organization for Nuclear Research, one of the world's largest particle physics laboratories.

  14. Charmed hadrons in nuclear medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, L.; Gamermann, D.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Molina, R.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.; Ramos, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the properties of charmed hadrons in dense matter within a coupled-channel approach which accounts for Pauli blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner We analyze the behaviour in this dense environment of dynamically-generated baryonic resonances as well as the op

  15. Hadronic final states at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Bussey, P J

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of hadronic final states by H1 and ZEUS at HERA are presented. The H1 measurements consist of measurements of charged particle spectra in deep -inelastic $ep$ scattering and of forward photons and neutrons. The ZEUS results consist of a series of measurements of prompt photons in photoproduction.

  16. Introduction to Hadronic B Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Adam F.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the theory of B physics is given, with an emphasis on issues in the strong interactions and hadronic physics. This article is taken from an introductory chapter of The BaBar Physics Book - Physics at an Asymmetric B Factory, SLAC Report SLAC-R-504. It is written at the level of a basic survey aimed at the experimental community.

  17. The very large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This paper reviews the purposes to be served by a very large hadron collider and the organization and coordination of efforts to bring it about. There is some discussion of magnet requirements and R&D and the suitability of the Fermilab site.

  18. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  19. Theoretical predictions for exotic hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution the authors discuss current theoretical expectations for the properties of light meson exotica, which are meson resonances outside the q anti q quark model. Specifically they discuss expectations for gluonic hadrons (glueballs and hybrids) and multiquark systems (molecules). Experimental candidates for these states are summarized, and the relevance of a TCF to these studies is stressed

  20. Shape of hadron structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis that, in the leading twist approximation and to all orders of perturbative QCD, there exists a momentum scale Q02 at which hadrons are pure valence quark (or antiquark) bound states gives good results for nucleon, pion, and kaon structure functions. 2 figures

  1. LHCB : Exotic hadrons at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Salazar De Paula, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The latest years have seen a resurrection of interest in searches for exotic states motivated by tantalising observations by Belle and CDF. Using the data collected at pp collisions at 7 and 8 TeV by the LHCb experiment we present the unambiguous new observation of exotic charmonia hadrons produced in B decays.

  2. Atoms in Flight: The Remarkable Connections between Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-16

    Atomic physics and hadron physics are both based on Yang Mills gauge theory; in fact, quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics provide important insight into the theory of hadrons in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of light-front relativistic equations of motion which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The renormalization scale for the running coupling, which is unambiguously set in QED, leads to a method for setting the renormalization scale in QCD. The production of atoms in flight provides a method for computing the formation of hadrons at the amplitude level. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, and light-front quantization have equal utility for atomic physics, especially in the relativistic domain. I also present a new perspective for understanding the contributions to the cosmological constant from QED and QCD.

  3. Molasses or Crowds: Making Sense of the Higgs Boson with Two Popular Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, S.; Beale, S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has contributed to a surge of interest in particle physics and science education in general. Given the conceptual difficulty of the phenomenon in question, it is inevitable that teachers and science communicators rely on analogies to explain the Higgs physics and its…

  4. Tests of Hadronic Probes of GT Strength

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    There are many important problems where one wishes to know the distribution of Gamow-Teller (GT) strength in circumstances where it cannot be measured directly (for example, because of energy-release limitations). Then one must rely on hadronic probes to infer the GT strength. It is therefore essential to test these probes as extensively as possible. The isospin-analog transitions in $^{37}$Ca $\\beta^{+}$ -decay and $^{37}$Cl$(p, n)$ provide an excellent ground for such a test. Recent $^{37}$Cl$ (p, n) $ studies, while qualitatively in agreement with our previous ISOLDE work on $^{37}$Ca $\\beta^{+} $ -decay, show quantitative discrepancies that appear to grow as the excitation energy in the residual nuclei increases. Because of the bulk of the GT strengh appears at these high excitation energies, it is important to extend the $\\beta$-decay data to even higher excitation energies where, because of rapidly diminishing phase-space, strong GT transitions correspond to very weak $\\beta$ -branches. We propose to do...

  5. Anomalous correlation between hadron and electromagnetic particles in hadron and gamma-ray families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, M.

    1985-01-01

    Correlations between hadrons and electromagnetic particles were studied in the hadron-gamma families observed in the Chacaltaya emulsion chamber experiment. It is found that there exist a number of hadrons which associate electromagnetic showers in extraordinarily close vicinity. The probability to have such a large number of hadrons associating electromagnetic showers, expected from background calculation, is found to be negligibly small and it means there exists anomalous correlation between hadrons and electromagnetic particles in the characteristic spread of atmospheric electromagnetic cascade.

  6. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  7. Digital and analog communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  8. Toward NNLL Resummation for Hadron Production in Hadronic Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Hinderer, Patriz; Sterman, George F; Vogelsang, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We present results relevant for the extension of threshold resummation beyond the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) order for QCD hard-scattering processes. As an example, we consider di-hadron production $H_1 H_2\\to h_1 h_2 X$, where the produced pair has a large invariant mass. Taking into account the non-trivial color structure of the partonic hard-scattering process, we determine the hard and soft matrices in color space. In our numerical studies we find a significant improvement compared to previous results at NLL accuracy. In particular, the scale dependence of the resummed cross section is greatly reduced. In addition, we comment on the extension of the techniques developed in this work to other observables relevant for hadronic collisions.

  9. Thermalization of Hadrons via Hagedorn States

    CERN Document Server

    Beitel, M; Greiner, C

    2014-01-01

    Hagedorn states are characterized by being very massive hadron-like resonances and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. To generate such a zoo of different Hagedorn states, a covariantly formulated bootstrap equation is solved by ensuring energy conservation and conservation of baryon number $B$, strangeness $S$ and electric charge $Q$. The numerical solution of this equation provides Hagedorn spectra, which enable to obtain the decay width for Hagedorn states needed in cascading decay simulations. A single (heavy) Hagedorn state cascades by various two-body decay channels subsequently into final stable hadrons. All final hadronic observables like masses, spectral functions and decay branching ratios for hadronic feed down are taken from the hadronic transport model UrQMD. Strikingly, the final energy spectra of resulting hadrons are exponential showing a thermal-like distribution with the characteristic Hagedorn temperature.

  10. Double hadron leptoproduction in the nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Belostotskii, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Borysenko, A; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; Demey, M; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E G; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Funel, A; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Gavrilov, G; Karibian, V; Giordano, F; Grebenyuk, O; Gregor, I M; Griffioen, K; Guler, H; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegawa, T; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Hristova, I; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kiselev, A; Kobayashi, T; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhizhin, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikas, L; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Linden-Levy, L A; Lorenzon, W; Lü, J; Lu, S; Ma, B Q; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Michler, T; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Negodaev, M; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Ohsuga, H; Osborne, A; Perez-Benito, R; Pickert, N; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shearer, C; Shibata, T A; Shutov, V; Sinram, K; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Streit, J; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S P; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A R; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Van Haarlem, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2006-01-01

    First measurement of double-hadron production in deep-inelastic scattering has been measured with the HERMES spectrometer at HERA using a 27.6 GeV positron beam with deuterium, nitrogen, krypton and xenon targets. The influence of the nuclear medium on the ratio of double-hadron to single-hadron yields has been investigated. Nuclear effects are clearly observed but with substantially smaller magnitude and reduced $A$-dependence compared to previously measured single-hadron multiplicity ratios. The data are in fair agreement with models based on partonic or pre-hadronic energy loss, while they seem to rule out a pure absorptive treatment of the final state interactions. Thus, the double-hadron ratio provides an additional tool for studying modifications of hadronization in nuclear matter.

  11. Inhomogeneous nucleation in quark hadron phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, P K; Sen-Gupta, S K; Gleiser, Marcello; Gleiser, Marcelo

    2000-01-01

    The effect of subcritical hadron bubbles on a first-order quark-hadron phase transition is studied. These subcritical hadron bubbles created due to thermal fluctuations introduce a finite amount of phase mixing (quark phase mixed with hadron phase) even at and above the critical temperature. For sufficiently strong transitions, as is expected to be the case for the quark-hadron transition, we show that the amount of phase mixing at the critical temperature remains much below the percolation threshold. Thus, as the system cools below the critical temperature, the transition proceeds through the nucleation of critical-size hadron bubbles from a metastable quark-gluon phase (QGP) within an inhomogeneous background populated by an equilibrium distribution of subcritical hadron bubbles. The inhomogenity of the medium is incorporated consistently by modelling the subcritical bubbles as Gaussian fluctuations, resulting in a large reduction of the nucleation barrier for the critical bubbles. Using the corrected nucle...

  12. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  13. Validation of GEANT4 Monte Carlo Models with a Highly Granular Scintillator-Steel Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Blaising, J J; Drancourt, C; Espargiliere, A; Gaglione, R; Geffroy, N; Karyotakis, Y; Prast, J; Vouters, G; Francis, K; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Smith, J; Xia, L; Baldolemar, E; Li, J; Park, S T; Sosebee, M; White, A P; Yu, J; Buanes, T; Eigen, G; Mikami, Y; Watson, N K; Mavromanolakis, G; Thomson, M A; Ward, D R; Yan, W; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A; Khoulaki, Y; Apostolakis, J; Dotti, A; Folger, G; Ivantchenko, V; Uzhinskiy, V; Benyamna, M; Cârloganu, C; Fehr, F; Gay, P; Manen, S; Royer, L; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Lima, J G R; Zutshi, V; Hostachy, J Y; Morin, L; Cornett, U; David, D; Falley, G; Gadow, K; Gottlicher, P; Gunter, C; Hermberg, B; Karstensen, S; Krivan, F; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lu, S; Lutz, B; Morozov, S; Morgunov, V; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Smirnov, P; Terwort, M; Vargas-Trevino, A; Feege, N; Garutti, E; Marchesini, I; Ramilli, M; Eckert, P; Harion, T; Kaplan, A; Schultz-Coulon, H Ch; Shen, W; Stamen, R; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Onel, Y; Wilson, G W; Kawagoe, K; Dauncey, P D; Magnan, A M; Bartsch, V; Wing, M; Salvatore, F; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M C; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Bobchenko, B; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Epifantsev, A; Markin, O; Mizuk, R; Novikov, E; Popov, V; Rusinov, V; Tarkovsky, E; Kirikova, N; Kozlov, V; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Y; Buzhan, P; Ilyin, A; Kantserov, V; Kaplin, V; Karakash, A; Popova, E; Tikhomirov, V; Kiesling, C; Seidel, K; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Szalay, M; Tesar, M; Weuste, L; Amjad, M S; Bonis, J; Callier, S; Conforti di Lorenzo, S; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F; Fleury, J; Frisson, T; van der Kolk, N; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Poschl, R; Raux, L; Rouene, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Anduze, M; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Jeans, D; Mora de Freitas, P; Musat, G; Reinhard, M; Ruan, M; Videau, H; Bulanek, B; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kvasnicka, J; Lednicky, D; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Belhorma, B; Ghazlane, H; Takeshita, T; Uozumi, S; Gotze, M; Hartbrich, O; Sauer, J; Weber, S; Zeitnitz, C

    2013-01-01

    Calorimeters with a high granularity are a fundamental requirement of the Particle Flow paradigm. This paper focuses on the prototype of a hadron calorimeter with analog readout, consisting of thirty-eight scintillator layers alternating with steel absorber planes. The scintillator plates are finely segmented into tiles individually read out via Silicon Photomultipliers. The presented results are based on data collected with pion beams in the energy range from 8GeV to 100GeV. The fine segmentation of the sensitive layers and the high sampling frequency allow for an excellent reconstruction of the spatial development of hadronic showers. A comparison between data and Monte Carlo simulations is presented, concerning both the longitudinal and lateral development of hadronic showers and the global response of the calorimeter. The performance of several GEANT4 physics lists with respect to these observables is evaluated.

  14. Validation of GEANT4 Monte Carlo models with a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Drancourt, C.; Espargilière, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Buanes, T.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N. K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Benyamna, M.; Cârloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J. G. R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Marchesini, I.; Ramilli, M.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Dauncey, P. D.; Magnan, A.-M.; Bartsch, V.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Jeans, D.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Götze, M.; Hartbrich, O.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2013-07-01

    Calorimeters with a high granularity are a fundamental requirement of the Particle Flow paradigm. This paper focuses on the prototype of a hadron calorimeter with analog readout, consisting of thirty-eight scintillator layers alternating with steel absorber planes. The scintillator plates are finely segmented into tiles individually read out via Silicon Photomultipliers. The presented results are based on data collected with pion beams in the energy range from 8 GeV to 100 GeV. The fine segmentation of the sensitive layers and the high sampling frequency allow for an excellent reconstruction of the spatial development of hadronic showers. A comparison between data and Monte Carlo simulations is presented, concerning both the longitudinal and lateral development of hadronic showers and the global response of the calorimeter. The performance of several GEANT4 physics lists with respect to these observables is evaluated.

  15. Quantum groups in hadron phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that application of quantum unitary groups, in place of ordinary flavor SU(nf), to such static aspects of hadron phenomenology as hadron masses and mass formulas is indeed fruitful. So-called q-deformed mass formulas are given for octet baryons 1/2+ and decuplet baryons 3/2+, as well as for the case of vector mesons 1- involving heavy flavors. For deformation parameter q, rigid fixation of values is used. New mass sum rules of remarkable accuracy are presented. As shown in decuplet case, the approach accounts for effects highly nonlinear in SU(3)-breaking. Topological implication (possible connection with knots) for singlet vector mesons and the relation q ↔ Θc (Cabibbo angle) in case of baryons are considered

  16. The ATLAS Hadronic Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mahlstedt, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    During the 2012 run the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34}\\,cm^{-2}s^{-1}$, with bunch crossings occuring every 50 ns. In this difficult environment of several overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up) the trigger system of the ATLAS detector has the task of reducing the event rate from 40 MHz to a few hundred Hz while keeping the most interesting physics events. Being the heaviest of all leptons, the tau lepton plays an important role in many physics processes. The ability to trigger on events containing hadronically decaying taus is therefore of special interest. This paper summarizes the concept of the ATLAS tau trigger and the improvements made in 2012. Furthermore the performance of the triggers including efficiency and rate measurements are presented and an outlook towards future developments of the tau trigger algorithms is given.

  17. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  18. Hadron therapy physics and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an in-depth overview of the physics of hadron therapy, ranging from the history to the latest contributions to the subject. It covers the mechanisms of protons and carbon ions at the molecular level (DNA breaks and proteins 53BP1 and RPA), the physics and mathematics of accelerators (Cyclotron and Synchrotron), microdosimetry measurements (with new results so far achieved), and Monte Carlo simulations in hadron therapy using FLUKA (CERN) and MCHIT (FIAS) software. The text also includes information about proton therapy centers and carbon ion centers (PTCOG), as well as a comparison and discussion of both techniques in treatment planning and radiation monitoring. This brief is suitable for newcomers to medical physics as well as seasoned specialists in radiation oncology.

  19. Hadron Structure on the Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, K. U.; Kusno, A.; Mastropas, E. V.; Zanotti, J. M.

    The aim of these lectures will be to provide an introduction to some of the concepts needed to study the structure of hadrons on the lattice. Topics covered include the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon and pion, the nucleon's axial charge and moments of parton and generalised parton distribution functions. These are placed in a phenomenological context by describing how they can lead to insights into the distribution of charge, spin and momentum amongst a hadron's partonic constituents. We discuss the techniques required for extracting the relevant matrix elements from lattice simulations and draw attention to potential sources of systematic error. Examples of recent lattice results are presented and are compared with results from both experiment and theoretical models.

  20. Spectrum of hadrons with strangeness

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chen; Roberts, Craig D; Wan, Shaolong; Wilson, David J

    2012-01-01

    We describe a calculation of the spectrum of strange and nonstrange hadrons that simultaneously correlates the dressed-quark-core masses of meson and baryon ground- and excited-states within a single framework. The foundation for this analysis is a symmetry-preserving Dyson-Schwinger equation treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction. Our results exemplify and highlight the deep impact of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking on the hadron spectrum: an accurate description of the meson spectrum entails a similarly successful prediction of the spectrum of baryons, including those with strangeness. The analysis also provides numerous insights into baryon structure. For example, that baryon structure is largely flavour-blind, the first radial excitation of ground-state baryons is constituted almost entirely from axial-vector diquark correlations, and DCSB is the foundation for the ordering of low-lying baryon levels; viz., (1/2)^+, (1/2)^+, (1/2)^-.

  1. Spectroscopy of heavy quark hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy quarks play special roles in the hadron spectroscopy. Some distinct features of heavy quark dynamics and their significance in the P-wave baryons with a single heavy quark are discussed. We also explore a new color configuration in exotic tetra-quark mesons with two heavy quarks. Finally, possibility of bound states of a charmed baryon with a nucleon and nuclei are examined. (author)

  2. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason--and in fact its original trigger--is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, the authors discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behavior it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time to work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks' duration each, in February 1994 at CERN in Geneva and in July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  3. Hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebach, M.; Gotta, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Anagnostopoulos, D.F. [University of Ioannina, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ioannina (Greece); Dax, A.; Liu, Y.W.; Markushin, V.E.; Simons, L.M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Particle Physics, Villigen (Switzerland); Fuhrmann, H.; Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Zmeskal, J. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Indelicato, P. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Universites, Paris (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Paris (France); Departement de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Paris (France); Manil, B. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Universites, Paris (France); Rusi el Hassani, A.J. [Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Tanger (Morocco); Trassinelli, M. [Sorbonne Universites, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Paris (France); CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    The hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen has been redetermined to be ε {sub 1s} = 7.086 ± 0.007(stat) ± 0.006(sys) eV by X-ray spectroscopy of ground-state transitions applying various energy calibration schemes. The experiment was performed at the high-intensity low-energy pion beam of the Paul Scherrer Institut by using the cyclotron trap and an ultimate-resolution Bragg spectrometer with bent crystals. (orig.)

  4. Hadron Structure '87. Volume 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of the 21 papers and 41 short communications presented at the conference, the proceedings contain the full texts of 12 papers and 35 short communications. All these contributions have been inputted to INIS. The topics covered include nonperturbative calculations in the field theory, in QCD in particular; particle production in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions and the quark-gluon plasma; and recent experimental results in the field. (A.K.)

  5. Hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Hennebach, M; Dax, A; Fuhrmann, H; Gotta, D; Gruber, A; Hirtl, A; Indelicato, P; Liu, Y -W; Manil, B; Markushin, V E; Hassani, A J Rusi el; Simons, L M; Trassinelli, M; Zmeskal, J

    2014-01-01

    The hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen has been redetermined to be $\\epsilon_{1s}=7.086\\,\\pm\\,0.007(stat)\\,\\pm\\,0.006(sys)$\\,eV by X-ray spectroscopy of ground state transitions applying various energy calibration schemes. The experiment was performed at the high-intensity low-energy pion beam of the Paul Scherrer Institut by using the cyclotron trap and an ultimate resolution bent crystal Bragg spectrometer.

  6. Hadron Physics from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    We sketch the basic ideas of the lattice regularization in Quantum Field Theory, the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations, and applications to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This approach enables the numerical measurement of observables at the non-perturbative level. We comment on selected results, with a focus on hadron masses and the link to Chiral Perturbation Theory. At last we address two outstanding issues: topological freezing and the sign problem.

  7. Experiments at future hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes signatures and backgrounds for processes in high-energy hadronic collisions, particularly at the SSC. It includes both signatures for new particles -- t quarks, Higgs bosons, new Ζ' bosons, supersymmetric particles, and technicolor particles -- and other experiments which might be done. It is based on the 1990 Snowmass Workshop and on work contained in the Expressions of Interest submitted to the SSC. 46 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  8. Three Lectures on Hadron Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig D.

    2016-04-01

    These lectures explain that comparisons between experiment and theory can expose the impact of running couplings and masses on hadron observables and thereby aid materially in charting the momentum dependence of the interaction that underlies strong-interaction dynamics. The series begins with a primer on continuum QCD, which introduces some of the basic ideas necessary in order to understand the use of Schwinger functions as a nonperturbative tool in hadron physics. It continues with a discussion of confinement and dynamical symmetry breaking (DCSB) in the Standard Model, and the impact of these phenomena on our understanding of condensates, the parton structure of hadrons, and the pion electromagnetic form factor. The final lecture treats the problem of grand unification; namely, the contemporary use of Schwinger functions as a symmetry-preserving tool for the unified explanation and prediction of the properties of both mesons and baryons. It reveals that DCSB drives the formation of diquark clusters in baryons and sketches a picture of baryons as bound-states with Borromean character. Planned experiments are capable of validating the perspectives outlined in these lectures.

  9. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  10. Lambda Hypernuclei in a Chiral Hadronic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yin-Hua; GUO Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Nuclear matter calculations in a chiral hadronic model have been performed. It has been found that the scalar and the vector potentials and binding energies per nucleon in the chiral hadronic model are very close to those of the microscopic relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations. The good results for finite nuclei can be obtained in the mean field approximation only if scalar mass ms and coupling constant gs have been improved with the fixed values of cs2 ≡ g2s(M/ms)2 as those given by the original parameter sets of the chiral hadronic model. Then the chiral hadronic model is extended to lambda hypernuclei. Our results predicted by the chiral hadronic model are compared with those by the nonlinear Walecka model. It has been shown that the hadronic model can also be used to describe lambda hypernuclei successfully.

  11. Heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P C Vinodkumar

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive overview and some of the theoretical attempts towards understanding heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy are presented. Apart from the conventional quark structure (quark, antiquarks structure for the mesons and three-quarks structure of baryons) of hadrons, multiquark hadrons the hadron molecular states etc., also will be reviewed. Various issues and challenges in understanding the physics and dynamics of the quarks at the hadronic dimensions are highlighted. Looking into the present and future experimental prospects at different heavy flavour laboratories like BES-III, CLEO-c, BaBar, Belle, LHC etc., the scope for theoretical extensions of the present knowledge of heavy flavour physics would be very demanding. In this context, many relevant contributions from the forthcoming PANDA Facility are expected. Scopes and outlook of the hadron physics at the heavy flavour sector in view of the future experimental facilities are highlighted.

  12. Space-time evolution of hadronization

    CERN Document Server

    Accardi, A

    2007-01-01

    Beside its intrinsic interest for the insights it can give into color confinement, knowledge of the space-time evolution of hadronization is very important for correctly interpreting jet-quenching data in heavy ion collisions and extracting the properties of the produced medium. On the experimental side, the cleanest environment to study the space-time evolution of hadronization is semi-inclusive Deeply Inelastic Scattering on nuclear targets. On the theoretical side, 2 frameworks are presently competing to explain the observed attenuation of hadron production: quark energy loss (with hadron formation outside the nucleus) and nuclear absorption (with hadronization starting inside the nucleus). I discuss recent observables and ideas which will help to distinguish these 2 mechanisms and to measure the time scales of the hadronization process.

  13. USW area analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Keith R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the feasibility of and methodology for the development of a set of environmental analogs of operational Undersea Warfare (USW) areas within fleet training areas. It is primarily a discussion of the identification of parameters that characterize the tactical USW environment, prioritization of these parameters, identification of existing databases that contain these parameters and an outline of the processes required to extract the desired data fro...

  14. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHummel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  15. A Transiting Jupiter Analog

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Henze, Chris; Teachey, Alex; Isaacson, Howard T; Petigura, Erik A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Buchhave, Lars A; Chen, Jingjing; Bryson, Steve T; Sandford, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incognita, owing to the strong intrinsic bias of this method against long orbital periods. We here report on the first validated transiting Jupiter analog, Kepler-167e (KOI-490.02), discovered using Kepler archival photometry orbiting the K4-dwarf KIC-3239945. With a radius of $(0.91\\pm0.02)$ $R_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, a low orbital eccentricity ($0.06_{-0.04}^{+0.10}$) and an equilibrium temperature of $(131\\pm3)$ K, Kepler-167e bears many of the basic hallmarks of Jupiter. Kepler-167e is accompanied by three Super-Earths on compact orbits, which we also validate, leaving a large cavity of transiting worlds around the habitable-zone. With two transits and continuous photometric ...

  16. Hadronic Event-Shape Variables at CMS

    OpenAIRE

    Dissertori, G.; Moortgat, F; Weber, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this note a study of hadronic event shapes in QCD events at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presented. Calorimetric jet momenta, determined by various jet clustering algorithms, are used as input for calculating various event-shape variables which probe the structure of the hadronic final state. It is shown that the normalized event-shape distributions are robust under variations of the jet energy scale and resolution effects, which makes them particularly suitable for early data analys...

  17. Identification of hadronic tau decays in CMS

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Raman; CMS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The algorithm used for reconstruction and identification of hadronic tau decays by the CMS experiment at the LHC is presented. The tau reconstruction in CMS takes advantage of the particle-flow algorithm which allows to reconstruct individual hadronic decay modes. The performance of the algorithm in terms of tau identification efficiency and rates for jets to be misidentified as hadronic tau decays is measured in $pp$ collision data recorded in 2012 at a center-of-mass energy ($\\sqrt{s}$) of ...

  18. Hadron Correlations from Recombination and Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fries, R J

    2005-01-01

    We review the formalism of quark recombination applied to the hadronization of a quark gluon plasma. Evidence in favor of the quark recombination model is outlined. Recent work on parton correlations, leading to detectable correlations between hadrons, is discussed. Hot spots from completely quenched jets are a likely source of such correlations which appear to be jet-like. It will be discussed how such a picture compares with measurement of associated hadron yields at RHIC.

  19. High Energy Hadron Colliders - Report of the Snowmass 2013 Frontier Capabilities Hadron Collider Study Group

    OpenAIRE

    Barletta, William; Battaglia, Marco; Klute, Markus; Mangano, Michelangelo; Prestemon, Soren; Rossi, Lucio; Skands, Peter

    2013-01-01

    High energy hadron colliders have been the tools for discovery at the highest mass scales of the energy frontier from the SppS, to the Tevatron and now the LHC. This report reviews future hadron collider projects from the high luminosity LHC upgrade to a 100 TeV hadron collider in a large tunnel, the underlying technology challenges and R&D directions and presents a series of recommendations for the future development of hadron collider research and technology.

  20. Hadron-hadron total cross sections and soft high-energy scattering on the lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, M.; Meggiolaro, E.

    2011-01-01

    The nonperturbative approach to soft high-energy hadron-hadron scattering, based on the analytic continuation of Euclidean Wilson-loop correlation functions, makes possible the investigation of the problem of the asymptotic energy dependence of hadron-hadron total cross sections by means of lattice calculations. In this contribution we compare the lattice numerical results to analytic results obtained with various nonperturbative techniques. We also discuss the possibility to obtain indicatio...

  1. The Emergence of Hadrons from QCD Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William; Color Dynamics in Cold Matter (CDCM) Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The formation of hadrons from energetic quarks, the dynamical enforcement of QCD confinement, is not well understood at a fundamental level. In Deep Inelastic Scattering, modifications of the distributions of identified hadrons emerging from nuclei of different sizes reveal a rich variety of spatial and temporal characteristics of the hadronization process, including its dependence on spin, flavor, energy, and hadron mass and structure. The EIC will feature a wide range of kinematics, allowing a complete investigation of medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung by the propagating quarks, leading to partonic energy loss. This fundamental process, which is also at the heart of jet quenching in heavy ion collisions, can be studied for light and heavy quarks at the EIC through observables quantifying hadron ``attenuation'' for a variety of hadron species. Transverse momentum broadening of hadrons, which is sensitive to the nuclear gluonic field, will also be accessible, and can be used to test our understanding from pQCD of how this quantity evolves with pathlength, as well as its connection to partonic energy loss. The evolution of the forming hadrons in the medium will shed new light on the dynamical origins of the forces between hadrons, and thus ultimately on the nuclear force. Supported by the Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) of Chile.

  2. Hadronization measurements in cold nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre, Raphael [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire (IPN), Orsay (France). et al.

    2015-05-01

    Hadronization is the non-perturbative process of QCD by which partons become hadrons. It has been studied at high energies through various processes, we focus here on the experiments of lepto-production of hadrons in cold nuclear matter. By studying the dependence of observables to the atomic number of the target, these experimentscan give information on the dynamic of the hadronization at the femtometer scale. In particular, we will present preliminary results from JLab Hall B (CLAS collaboration), which give unprecedented statistical precision. Then, we will present results of a phenomenological study showing how HERMES data can be described with pure energyloss models.

  3. Hadronization systematics and top mass reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corcella Gennaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss a few issues related to the systematic error on the top mass mea- surement at hadron colliders, due to hadronization effects. Special care is taken about the impact of bottom-quark fragmentation in top decays, especially on the reconstruction relying on final states with leptons and J/Ψ in the dilepton channel. I also debate the relation between the measured mass and its theoretical definition, and report on work in progress, based on the Monte Carlo simulation of fictitious top-flavoured hadrons, which may shed light on this issue and on the hadronization systematics.

  4. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e+e- annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed

  5. The Age of Analog Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mattiussi, Claudio; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Marbach, Daniel; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Dürr, Peter; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Floreano, Dario; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)

    2008-01-01

    A large class of systems of biological and technological relevance can be described as analog networks, that is, collections of dynamical devices interconnected by links of varying strength. Some examples of analog networks are genetic regulatory networks, metabolic networks, neural networks, analog electronic circuits, and control systems. Analog networks are typically complex systems which include nonlinear feedback loops and possess temporal dynamics at different timescales. When tackled b...

  6. Testing Saturation at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, C

    2003-01-01

    We extend the saturation models a la Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff to cross-sections of hard processes initiated by virtual-gluon probes separated by large rapidity intervals at hadron colliders. We derive their analytic expressions and apply them to physical examples, such as saturation effects for Mueller-Navelet jets. By comparison to gamma*-gamma* cross-sections we find a more abrupt transition to saturation. We propose to study observables with a potentially clear saturation signal and to use heavy vector and flavored mesons as alternative virtual-gluon probes.

  7. Hadron physics in holographic QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, A. B.; Lombardo, U.; Bonanno, A.

    2012-07-01

    Hadron physics deals with the study of strongly interacting subatomic particles such as neutrons, protons, pions and others, collectively known as baryons and mesons. Physics of strong interaction is difficult. There are several approaches to understand it. However, in the recent years, an approach called, holographic QCD, based on string theory (or gauge-gravity duality) is becoming popular providing an alternative description of strong interaction physics. In this article, we aim to discuss development of strong interaction physics through QCD and string theory, leading to holographic QCD.

  8. Identified hadron spectra from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Gábor I.; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyslouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons and protons, as well as antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity from d+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = 200\\,{\\rm GeV} have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The transverse momentum range of particle identification was extended to beyond 3 GeV/c using the TOF detector and a new trigger system. The pseudorapidity dependence of the nuclear modification factor for charged hadrons in d+Au collisions is presented.

  9. Diffractive Bremsstrahlung in Hadronic Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pasechnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of heavy photons (Drell-Yan, gauge bosons, Higgs bosons, and heavy flavors, which is treated within the QCD parton model as a result of hard parton-parton collision, can be considered a bremsstrahlung process in the target rest frame. In this review, we discuss the basic features of the diffractive channels of these processes in the framework of color dipole approach. The main observation is a dramatic breakdown of diffractive QCD factorisation due to the interplay between soft and hard interactions, which dominates these processes. This observation is crucial for phenomenological studies of diffractive reactions in high energy hadronic collisions.

  10. Top production at hadron colliders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Albert De Roeck

    2012-10-01

    New results on top quark production are presented from four hadron collider experiments: CDF and D0 at the Tevatron, and ATLAS and CMS at the LHC. Cross-sections for single top and top pair production are discussed, as well as results on the top–antitop production asymmetry and searches for new physics including top quarks. The results are based on data samples of up to 5.4 fb-1 for the Tevatron experiments and 1.1 fb−1 for the LHC experiments.

  11. Dalitz Plots and Hadron Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wuethrich, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    In this master thesis I discuss how the weak three-body decay B^+ --> pi^- pi^+ K^+ is related to the strong interactions between the final-state particles. Current issues in hadron spectroscopy define a region of interest in a Dalitz plot of this decay. This region is roughly characterized by energies from 0 to 1.6 GeV of the pi^- pi^+ and the pi^- K^+ system, and energies from 3 to 5 GeV of the pi^+ K^+ system. Therefore I propose to use for the former two systems elastic unitarity (Watson'...

  12. The theory of hadronic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1995-03-16

    This report briefly discusses progress on the following topics: isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon system; subthreshold amplitudes in the {pi}N system; neutron-proton charge-exchange; transparency in pion production; energy dependence of pion DCX; direct capture of pions into deeply bound atomic states; knock out of secondary components in the nucleus; radii of neutron distributions in nuclei; the hadronic double scattering operator; pion scattering and charge exchange from polarized nuclei; pion absorption in nuclei; modification of nucleon structure in nuclei; and antiproton annihilation in nuclei.

  13. The theory of hadronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly discusses progress on the following topics: isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon system; subthreshold amplitudes in the πN system; neutron-proton charge-exchange; transparency in pion production; energy dependence of pion DCX; direct capture of pions into deeply bound atomic states; knock out of secondary components in the nucleus; radii of neutron distributions in nuclei; the hadronic double scattering operator; pion scattering and charge exchange from polarized nuclei; pion absorption in nuclei; modification of nucleon structure in nuclei; and antiproton annihilation in nuclei

  14. Hadronic Structure from Perturbative Dressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Firooz

    2005-09-01

    Perturbative dressing of a valence quark in QCD produces the internal structure of an extended object, the so-called Valon. The valon structure is universal and independent of the hosting hadron. Polarized and unpolarized proton and pion structure functions are calculated in the valon representation. One finds that although all the available data on g1p,n,d are easily reproduced, a sizable orbital angular momentum associated with the partonic structure of the valon is required in order to have a spin 1/2 valon.

  15. Hadronic Structure from Perturbative Dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perturbative dressing of a valence quark in QCD produces the internal structure of an extended object, the so-called Valon. The valon structure is universal and independent of the hosting hadron. Polarized and unpolarized proton and pion structure functions are calculated in the valon representation. One finds that although all the available data on g1p,n,d are easily reproduced, a sizable orbital angular momentum associated with the partonic structure of the valon is required in order to have a spin 1/2 valon

  16. Diffractive bremsstrahlung in hadronic collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Roman; Potashnikova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Production of heavy photons (Drell-Yan), gauge bosons, Higgs bosons, heavy flavors, which is treated within the QCD parton model as a result of hard parton-parton collision, can be considered as a bremsstrahlung process in the target rest frame. In this review, we discuss the basic features of the diffractive channels of these processes in the framework of color dipole approach. The main observation is a dramatic breakdown of diffractive QCD factorisation due to the interplay between soft and hard interactions, which dominates these processes. This observation is crucial for phenomenological studies of diffractive reactions in high-energy hadronic collisions.

  17. Charmed hadrons in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Tolos, L; Garcia-Recio, C; Molina, R; Nieves, J; Oset, E; Ramos, A

    2009-01-01

    We study the properties of charmed hadrons in dense matter within a coupled-channel approach which accounts for Pauli blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner. We analyze the behaviour in this dense environment of dynamically-generated baryonic resonances as well as the open-charm meson spectral functions. We discuss the implications of the in-medium properties of open-charm mesons on the $D_{s0}(2317)$ and the predicted X(3700) scalar resonances.

  18. A BFKL Monte Carlo approach to jet production at hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, L. H.; Stirling, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    The production of a pair of jets with large rapidity separation in hadron-hadron collisions, and of forward jets in deep inelastic scattering, can in principle be used to test the predictions of the BFKL equation. However in practice kinematic constraints lead to a strong suppression of BFKL effects for these processes. This is illustrated using a BFKL Monte Carlo approach.

  19. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  20. Discrete Calculus by Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Izadi, F A; Bagirov, G

    2009-01-01

    With its origins stretching back several centuries, discrete calculus is now an increasingly central methodology for many problems related to discrete systems and algorithms. The topics covered here usually arise in many branches of science and technology, especially in discrete mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and probability theory as well as in electrical engineering, but our viewpoint here is that these topics belong to a much more general realm of mathematics; namely calculus and differential equations because of the remarkable analogy of the subject to this branch of mathemati

  1. Novel Perspectives for Hadron Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-03-09

    I discuss several novel and unexpected aspects of quantum chromodynamics. These include: (a) the nonperturbative origin of intrinsic strange, charm and bottom quarks in the nucleon at large x; the breakdown of pQCD factorization theorems due to the lensing effects of initial- and final-state interactions; (b) important corrections to pQCD scaling for inclusive reactions due to processes in which hadrons are created at high transverse momentum directly in the hard processes and their relation to the baryon anomaly in high-centrality heavy-ion collisions; and (c) the nonuniversality of quark distributions in nuclei. I also discuss some novel theoretical perspectives in QCD: (a) light-front holography - a relativistic color-confining first approximation to QCD based on the AdS/CFT correspondence principle; (b) the principle of maximum conformality - a method which determines the renormalization scale at finite order in perturbation theory yielding scheme independent results; (c) the replacement of quark and gluon vacuum condensates by 'in-hadron condensates' and how this helps to resolve the conflict between QCD vacuum and the cosmological constant.

  2. Dynamical generation of hadronic resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Wolkanowski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    One type of dynamical generation consists in the formation of multiple hadronic resonances from single seed states by incorporating hadronic loop contributions on the level of $s$-wave propagators. Along this line, we study the propagator poles within two models of scalar resonances and report on the status of our work: (i) Using a simple quantum field theory describing the decay of $f_{0}(500)$ into two pions, we may obtain a second, additional pole on the first Riemann sheet below the pion-pion threshold (i.e., a stable state can emerge). (ii) We perform a numerical study of the pole(s) of $a_{0}(1450)$ by using as an input the results obtained in the extended Linear Sigma Model (eLSM). Here, we do not find any additional pole besides the original one, thus we cannot obtain $a_{0}(980)$ as an emerging state. (iii) We finally demonstrate that, although the coupling constants in typical effective models might be large, the next-to-leading-order contribution to the decay amplitude is usually small and can be n...

  3. Di-hadron production at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anefalos Pereira, Sergio [Lab. Naz. Frascati, Frascati, Italy; et. al.,

    2014-10-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) has been used extensively in recent years as an important testing ground for QCD. Studies so far have concentrated on better determination of parton distribution functions, distinguishing between the quark and antiquark contributions, and understanding the fragmentation of quarks into hadrons. Hadron pair (di-hadron) SIDIS provides information on the nucleon structure and hadronization dynamics that complement single hadron SIDIS. Di-hadrons allow the study of low- and high-twist distribution functions and Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DiFF). Together with the twist-2 PDFs ( f1, g1, h1), the Higher Twist (HT) e and hL functions are very interesting because they offer insights into the physics of the largely unexplored quark-gluon correlations, which provide access into the dynamics inside hadrons. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected data using the CEBAF 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on longitudinally polarized solid NH3 targets. Preliminary results on di-hadron beam-, target- and double-spin asymmetries will be presented.

  4. Mounting LHCb hadron calorimeter scintillating tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Scintillating tiles are carefully mounted in the hadronic calorimeter for the LHCb detector. These calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  5. A Survey of Hadron Therapy Accelerator Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadron therapy has entered a new age [1]. The number of facilities grows steadily, and 'consumer' interest is high. Some groups are working on new accelerator technology, while others optimize existing designs by reducing capital and operating costs, and improving performance. This paper surveys the current requirements and directions in accelerator technology for hadron therapy

  6. In-Medium Modifications of Hadron Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2006-01-01

    The in-medium modifications of hadron properties are briefly discussed. We restrict the discussion to the lattice QCD calculations for the hadron masses, screening masses, decay constants and wave functions. We review the progress made so far and describe how to broaden its horizon.

  7. b-Hadron Physics at LEP

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    A personal overview of the current status of physics results from LEP using b-hadrons is presented. Emphasis is placed on those areas where analyses are not yet finalised and there remains significant activity. Results are presented in the areas of b-quark fragmentation, b-hadron lifetimes, charm counting in b-decays and Vcb.

  8. A Survey of Hadron Therapy Accelerator Technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA, T.; FLANZ, J.

    2007-06-25

    Hadron therapy has entered a new age [1]. The number of facilities grows steadily, and 'consumer' interest is high. Some groups are working on new accelerator technology, while others optimize existing designs by reducing capital and operating costs, and improving performance. This paper surveys the current requirements and directions in accelerator technology for hadron therapy.

  9. Hadron production at PEP/PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results on hadron production in e+e- annihilation at PEP and PETRA are summarized. The topics included are: (1) inclusive hadron production, (2) gluon vs quark jet, (3) analysis of 3 jet events and (4) p - anti p correlations. Experimental data are compared with predictions of several models to reveal underlying physics. 47 refs., 18 figs

  10. Hadron attenuation at HERMES and JLab

    OpenAIRE

    Falter, T.; Cassing, W.; Gallmeister, K.; Mosel, U.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the attenuation of hadrons in deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering in the kinematical regime of the HERMES and Jefferson Lab experiments. The calculation is carried out in the framework of a BUU transport model. Our results indicate a strong influence of (pre)hadronic final state interactions on the observed multiplicity ratios.

  11. The hadron spectrum in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I give a brief introduction to lattice QCD and discuss some of the recent calculations of the hadron mass spectrum. I also address the question of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking which most obviously influences the character of the hadron spectrum. (orig.)

  12. Lattice Studies for hadron spectroscopy and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Sinya

    2014-01-01

    Recent progresses of lattice QCD studies for hadron spectroscopy and interactions are briefly reviewed. Some emphasis are given on a new proposal for a method, which enable us to calculate potentials between hadrons. As an example of the method, the extraction of nuclear potential in lattice QCD is discussed in detail.

  13. Successive combination jet algorithm for hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, S D; Ellis, Stephen D.; Soper, Davision E.

    1993-01-01

    Jet finding algorithms, as they are used in $e^+ e^-$ and hadron collisions, are reviewed and compared. It is suggested that a successive combination style algorithm, similar to that used in $e^+ e^-$ physics, might be useful also in hadron collisions, where cone style algorithms have been used previously.

  14. Hadron-Photon Interactions in COMPASS

    OpenAIRE

    Moinester, Murray A.; Steiner, Victor; Prakhov, Serguei

    1999-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN SPS will use hadron beams (pion, kaon and proton) and muons at 50-280 GeV/c and virtual photon targets to investigate, via Primakoff effect, important hadron properties: polarizability, chiral anomaly, radiative transitions and hybrid meson production. We present simulation studies to optimize the beam, detector setup and trigger for measuring with high statistics above topics.

  15. Hadron Optics: Diffraction Patterns in Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2006-05-16

    We show that the Fourier transform of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) amplitude with respect to the skewness variable {zeta} provides a unique way to visualize the light-front wavefunctions (LFWFs) of the target state in the boost-invariant longitudinal coordinate space variable ({sigma} = P{sup +}y{sup -}/2). The results are analogous to the diffractive scattering of a wave in optics in which the dependence of the amplitude on {sigma} measures the physical size of the scattering center of a one-dimensional system. If one combines this longitudinal transform with the Fourier transform of the DVCS amplitude with respect to the transverse momentum transfer {Delta}{sup {perpendicular}}, one can obtain a complete three-dimensional description of hadron optics at fixed light-front time {tau} = t + z/c. As a specific example, we utilize the quantum fluctuations of a fermion state at one loop in QED to obtain the behavior of the DVCS amplitude for electron-photon scattering. We then simulate the wavefunctions for a hadron by differentiating the above LFWFs with respect to M{sup 2} and study the corresponding DVCS amplitudes in {sigma} space.

  16. Hadronic photon-photon interactions at high energies

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, R.; Ranft, J.

    1995-01-01

    Photon-photon collisions are investigated in the framework of the two-component Dual Parton Model. The model is shown to agree well to hadron production data from hadron-hadron and photon-hadron collisions. The multiparticle production in hadron-hadron, photon-hadron and photon-photon collisions as predicted by the model is compared. Strong differences are only found as function of the transverse momentum variable. The hadron production in photon-photon collisions at present and future electr...

  17. Hadron muoproduction at the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rajotte, J F

    The COMPASS Collaboration has two main fields of interest: to improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure and to study hadrons through spectroscopy. These goals require a multipurpose universal spectrometer such as the COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy, COMPASS. In its first years of data taking (2002-2007), the nucleon spin structure was studied with a polarized muon beam scattering off a polarized target. These studies resumed in 2010 and will continue until at least 2011. The years 2008 and 2009 were dedicated to hadron spectroscopy using hadron beams. In the case of the nucleon structure studies, it is crucial to detect with high precision the incoming beam muon (160 GeV), the scattered muon and the produced hadrons. The large amount of high quality data accumulated provides access to the unpolarized and polarized parton distributions of the nucleon and the hadronization process. Subtle differences (asymmetries) between polarized cross sections have been predicted for...

  18. Recent hadronic resonance measurements at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Knospe, A G

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion physics, measurements of short-lived hadronic resonances allow the properties of the hadronic phase of the collision to be studied. In addition, resonances can be used along with stable hadrons to study parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma and the mechanisms that shape hadron pT spectra at intermediate transverse momenta. Resonance measurements in small systems serve as a reference for heavy-ion collisions and contribute to searches for collective effects. An overview of recent results on hadronic resonance production measured in ALICE is presented. These results include the pT spectra and yields of the rho(770)0, K*(892)0, and phi(1020) mesons in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at different energies as well as the Sigma(1385)+/- and Xi(1530)0 baryons in pp and p-Pb collisions.

  19. Monte Carlo Implementation of Polarized Hadronization

    CERN Document Server

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H; Thomas, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    We study the polarized quark hadronization in a Monte Carlo (MC) framework based on the recent extension of the quark-jet framework, where a self-consistent treatment of the quark polarization transfer in a sequential hadronization picture has been presented. Here, we first adopt this approach for MC simulations of hadronization process with finite number of produced hadrons, expressing the relevant probabilities in terms of the eight leading twist quark-to-quark transverse momentum dependent (TMD) splitting functions (SFs) for elementary $q \\to q'+h$ transition. We present explicit expressions for the unpolarized and Collins fragmentation functions (FFs) of unpolarized hadrons emitted at rank two. Further, we demonstrate that all the current spectator-type model calculations of the leading twist quark-to-quark TMD SFs violate the positivity constraints, and propose quark model based ansatz for these input functions that circumvents the problem. We validate our MC framework by explicitly proving the absence o...

  20. Hadron freeze-out and Unruh radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we consider hadron production in high energy collisions as an Unruh radiation phenomenon. This mechanism describes the production pattern of newly formed hadrons and is directly applicable at vanishing baryon chemical potential, μ ≃ 0. It had already been found to correctly yield the hadronization temperature, Th = √σ/2π ≃ 165 MeV in terms of the string tension σ. Here, we show that the Unruh mechanism also predicts hadronic freeze-out conditions, giving s/Th3 = 3π2/4 ≃ 7.4 in terms of the entropy density s and 〈E〉/〈N〉 = √2πσ ≃ 1.09 for the average energy per hadron. These predictions provide a theoretical basis for previous phenomenological results and are also in accord with recent lattice studies. (author)

  1. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  2. Vorticity in analog gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose–Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  3. Leading Hadron Production at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buniatyan Armen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Data from the recent measurements of very forward baryon and photon production with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at electron-proton collider HERA are presented and compared to the theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo models. Results are presented of the production of leading protons, neutrons and photons in deep inelastic scattering (ep → e' pX, ep → e'nX, ep → e'γX as well as the leading neutron production in the photoproduction of dijets (ep → ejjXn. The forward baryon and photon results from the H1 and ZEUS Experiments are compared also with the models of the hadronic interactions of high energy Cosmic Rays. The sensitivity of the HERA data to the differences between the models is demonstrated.

  4. Charmed hadron photoproduction at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Photoproduction of the charmonium-like state $Z_{c}(4200)$ and the charmed baryon $\\Lambda_{c}^{\\ast }(2940)$ is investigated with an effective Lagrangian approach and the Regge trajectories applying to the COMPASS experiment. Combining the experimental data from COMPASS and our theoretical model we estimate the upper limit of $\\Gamma_{Z_{c}(4200)\\rightarrow J/\\psi \\pi }$ to be of about 37 MeV. Moreover, the possibility to produce $\\Lambda_{c}^{\\ast }(2940)$ at COMPASS is discussed. It seems one can try to search for this hadron in the missing mass spectrum since the $t$-channel is dominating for the $\\Lambda_{c}^{\\ast }(2940)$ photoproduction.

  5. Bilepton production at hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, B.; Grégoire, T.; London, D.; Marleau, L.; Nadeau, H.

    1999-04-01

    We examine, as model-independently as possible, the production of bileptons at hadron colliders. When a particular model is necessary or useful, we choose the 3-3-1 model. We consider a variety of processes: qq¯-->Y++Y--, ud¯-->Y++Y-, ūd-->Y+Y--, qq¯-->Y++e-e-, qq¯-->φ++φ--, ud¯-->φ++φ-, and ūd-->φ+φ--, where Y and φ are vector and scalar bileptons, respectively. Given the present low-energy constraints, we find that, at the Fermilab Tevatron, vector bileptons are unobservable, while light scalar bileptons (Mφ<~300 GeV) are just barely observable. At the CERN LHC, the reach is extended considerably: vector bileptons of mass MY<~1 TeV are observable, as are scalar bileptons of mass Mφ<~850 GeV.

  6. Charmed hadron photoproduction at COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiao-Yun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photoproduction of the charmonium-like state Zc(4200 and the charmed baryon Λc*$\\it\\Lambda _c^*$(2940 is investigated with an effective Lagrangian approach and the Regge trajectories applying to the COMPASS experiment. Combining the experimental data from COMPASS and our theoretical model we estimate the upper limit of ΓZc(4200→J/ψπ to be of about 37 MeV. Moreover, the possibility to produce Λc*$\\it\\Lambda _c^*$ (2940 at COMPASS is discussed. It seems one can try to search for this hadron in the missing mass spectrum since the t-channel is dominating for the Λc*$\\it\\Lambda _c^*$(2940 photoproduction.

  7. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  8. Analog and digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baher, H.

    The techniques of signal processing in both the analog and digital domains are addressed in a fashion suitable for undergraduate courses in modern electrical engineering. The topics considered include: spectral analysis of continuous and discrete signals, analysis of continuous and discrete systems and networks using transform methods, design of analog and digital filters, digitization of analog signals, power spectrum estimation of stochastic signals, FFT algorithms, finite word-length effects in digital signal processes, linear estimation, and adaptive filtering.

  9. FET comparator detects analog signal levels without loading analog device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, H. L.

    1966-01-01

    FET comparator circuit detects discrete analog computer output levels without excessively loading the output amplifier of the computer. An FET common source amplifier is coupled by a differential amplifier to a bistable transistor flip-flop. This circuit provides a digital output for analog voltages above or below a predetermined level.

  10. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  11. Hadron scattering and resonances in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Jozef J. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study pi pi elastic scattering, including the rho resonance, as well as coupled-channel pi K, eta K scattering. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  12. Identification of hadronic tau decays in CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Rosamaria

    2015-05-01

    The algorithm used for reconstruction and identification of hadronic tau decays by the CMS experiment at the LHC is presented. The tau reconstruction in CMS takes advantage of the particle-flow algorithm which allows to reconstruct individual hadronic decay modes. The performance of the algorithm in terms of tau identification efficiency and rates for jets to be misidentified as hadronic tau decays is measured in pp collision data recorded in 2012 at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1

  13. Identification of hadronic tau decays in CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venditti Rosamaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm used for reconstruction and identification of hadronic tau decays by the CMS experiment at the LHC is presented. The tau reconstruction in CMS takes advantage of the particle-flow algorithm which allows to reconstruct individual hadronic decay modes. The performance of the algorithm in terms of tau identification efficiency and rates for jets to be misidentified as hadronic tau decays is measured in pp collision data recorded in 2012 at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb−1

  14. Identification of hadronic tau decays in CMS

    OpenAIRE

    Venditti Rosamaria

    2015-01-01

    The algorithm used for reconstruction and identification of hadronic tau decays by the CMS experiment at the LHC is presented. The tau reconstruction in CMS takes advantage of the particle-flow algorithm which allows to reconstruct individual hadronic decay modes. The performance of the algorithm in terms of tau identification efficiency and rates for jets to be misidentified as hadronic tau decays is measured in pp collision data recorded in 2012 at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, correspo...

  15. Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garny, Mathias [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibarra, Alejandro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tran, David [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy

    2012-05-15

    We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons.We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.

  16. Rare b hadron decays at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, T; Hiller, G

    2015-01-01

    With the completion of Run~I of the CERN Large Hadron Collider, particle physics has entered a new era. The production of unprecedented numbers of heavy-flavoured hadrons in high energy proton-proton collisions allows detailed studies of flavour-changing processes. The increasingly precise measurements allow to probe the Standard Model with a new level of accuracy. Rare $b$ hadron decays provide some of the most promising approaches for such tests, since there are several observables which can be cleanly interpreted from a theoretical viewpoint. In this article, the status and prospects in this field are reviewed, with a focus on precision measurements and null tests.

  17. Hadron scattering and resonances in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Jozef J.

    2016-05-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel π >K, ηK scattering. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  18. Strange Hadronic Matter in a Chiral Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Liang; SONG Hong-Qiu; WANG Ping; SU Ru-Keng

    2000-01-01

    The strange hadronic matter with nucleon, Λ-hyperon and E-hyperon is studied by using a chiral symmetry model in a mean-field approximation. The saturation properties and stabilities of the strange hadronic matter are discussed. The result indicates a quite large strangeness fraction (fs) region where the strange hadronic matter is stable against particle emission. In the large fs region, the component dominates, resulting in a deep minimum in the curve of the binding energy per baryon EB versus the strangeness fraction fs with (EB, fs) -~ (-26.0MeV, 1.23).

  19. Hadron Spectroscopy from BES and CLEOc

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, C Z

    2006-01-01

    Recent results from BES and CLEOc experiments on hadron spectroscopy and charmonium decays using J/psi, psi' and psi'' data samples collected in e+e- annihilation are reviewed, including the observation of X(1835) in J/psi --> gamma pi+ pi- eta', study of the scalar particles in J/psi radiative and hadronic decays, as well as in chi_c0 hadronic decays, and the study of the ``\\rho\\pi puzzle'' in J/psi, psi', and psi'' decays. We also make a few comments on partial wave analysis, and the study of the \\rho \\pi puzzle.

  20. Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons. We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order

  1. Hadronic Model Independence of the Hadron-Qgp Phase Transition at Very Low Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, M.; Delfino, A.; Silva, J. B.

    2001-09-01

    Using many different relativistic mean field models (RMF) for the hadronic phase and a perturbative QCD equation of state for the QGP, with αs as a function of the temperature, we study the hadron-QGP phase transition at zero density and high temperature. We show that the critical temperature Tc for this transition is hadronic model independent. We have traced back the reason for this and conclude that it comes from that, QGP entropy (the slope of the Pressure versus T) is much larger than the hadronic entropy obtained in all the RMF models. This finding is quite independent whether the hadronic models have or not a hadronic phase transition at high temperature (related to the strong N - bar N scalar condensate).

  2. Hadronic Production of High p$_{T}$ Leptons and Hadrons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures the production of direct real photons with large transverse momentum in pion-nucleon collisions at the SPS (H8 beam) using the NA3 spectrometer with an upgraded e-@g calorimeter. The experiment proceeds in steps of increasing complexity: \\item a) measurement of the direct @g cross-section in @p@+C @A @g + X and search for the annihilation process qq @A @gg by measuring the charge asymmetry at 200 GeV/c; \\item b) determination of the gluon structure function of the pion and the nucleon; \\item c) use of the @p|--@p|+ difference on carbon, if found experimentally, to extract the gluon fragmentation from the @g hadron correlations. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ For comparison, the quark fragmentation functions can, in principle, be extracted from processes where the Compton scattering qg @A q@g dominates and compared with data from D.I.S. as a test of the method. \\\\ \\\\ The existing standard NA3 spectrometer is well suited for this type of physics. However,in order to improve the direct photon sele...

  3. The application of the statistical bootstrap model to particle production in hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following applications of the statistical bootstrap model (SBM) to hadron production in hadron-hadron collisions are discussed: (1) the independent fireball production model (IFPM); (2) single particle distributions in the IFPM (thermodynamic model); (3) production of heavy particles and pairs of heavy particles; (4) two-particle distributions and correlations in the IFPM and the Bose effect; (5) large psub(perpendicular) phenomena and fireball models; (6) N anti N annihilation at rest in the SBM. (author)

  4. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  5. Drawing Analogies in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2014-01-01

    Reconsidering the origin, process, and outcomes of analogy-making suggests practices for environmental educators who strive to disengage humans from the isolating illusions of dichotomizing frameworks. We can view analogies as outcomes of developmental processes within which human subjectivity is but an element, threading our sense of self back…

  6. ENLIGHT: Hadron-therapy in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN BULLETIN; Nathalie Hospital; Manuela Cirilli

    2011-01-01

    ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate the European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries.

  7. The Compact Pulsed Hadron Source Construction Status

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jie; Cai, Jinchi; Chen, Huaibi; Cheng, Cheng; Du, Qiang; Du, Taibin; Feng, Qixi; Feng, Zhe; Gong, Hui; Guan, Xialing; Han, Xiaoxue; Huang, Tuchen; Huang, Zhifeng; Li, Renkai; Li, Wenqian; Loong, Chun-Keung; Tang, Chuanxiang; Tian, Yang; Wang, Xuewu; Xie, Xiaofeng; Xing, Qingzi; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Xu, Dong; Yang, Yigang; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Huayi; Zhang, Xiaozhang; Zheng, Shu-xin; Zheng, Zhihong; Zhong, Bin; Billen, James; Young, Lloyd; Fu, Shinian; Tao, Juzhou; Zhao, Yaliang; Guan, Weiqiang; He, Yu; Li, Guohua; Li, Jian; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Li, Jinghai; Liang, Tianjiao; Liu, Zhanwen; Sun, Liangting; Zhao, Hongwei; Shao, Beibei; Stovall, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the design and construction status, technical challenges, and future perspectives of the proton-linac based Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) at the Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

  8. Hadron Physics at the COMPASS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Krinner, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interactions, in principle describes the interaction of quark and gluon fields. However, due to the self-coupling of the gluons, quarks and gluons are confined into hadrons and cannot exist as free particles. The quantitative understanding of this confinement phenomenon, which is responsible for about 98\\% of the mass of the visible universe, is one of the major open questions in particle physics. The measurement of the excitation spectrum of hadrons and of their properties gives valuable input to theory and phenomenology. In the Constituent Quark Model (CQM) two types of hadrons exist: mesons, made out of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which consist of three quarks. But more advanced QCD-inspired models and Lattice QCD calculations predict the existence of hadrons with exotic properties interpreted as excited glue (hybrids) or even pure gluonic bound states (glueballs). The COMPASS experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron has acquired large da...

  9. Multidimensional study of hadronization in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Univ. Giessen, Physikalisches Inst., Giessen (Germany); University of Michigan, Randall Lab. of Physics, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Akopov, N.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Elbakian, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Grigoryan, L.; Karyan, G.; Marukyan, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Petrosyan, A.; Taroian, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z.; Avetisyan, E.; Borissov, A.; Deconinck, W.; Hartig, M.; Holler, Y.; Rostomyan, A.; Ye, Z.; Zihlmann, B. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C.; Fabbri, R.; Golembiovskaya, M.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hristova, I.; Lu, X.G.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.D.; Riedl, C.; Stewart, J. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W.; Marianski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Zupranski, P. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Belostotski, S.; Kisselev, A.; Manaenkov, S.I.; Naryshkin, Y.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina, Leningrad Region (Russian Federation); Bianchi, N.; Capitani, G.P.; De Sanctis, E.; Di Nezza, P.; Fantoni, A.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hasch, D.; Muccifora, V.; Reolon, A.R. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bowles, J.; Burns, J.; Hoek, M.; Kaiser, R.; Lehmann, I.; Mahon, D.; Murray, M.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B. [Univ. of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Brodski, I.; Dueren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Perez-Benito, R.; Yu, W. [Univ. Giessen, Physikalisches Inst., Giessen (Germany); Bryzgalov, V.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Ivanilov, A.; Korotkov, V.; Salomatin, Y. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Capiluppi, M.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Lenisa, P.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M. [Univ. di Ferrara, Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Ferrara (Italy)] [and others

    2011-09-15

    Hadron multiplicities in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering were measured on neon, krypton, and xenon targets relative to deuterium at an electron(positron)-beam energy of 27.6GeV at HERMES. These ratios were determined as a function of the virtual-photon energy {nu}, its virtuality Q{sup 2}, the fractional hadron energy z and the transverse hadron momentum with respect to the virtual-photon direction p{sub t}. Dependences were analysed separately for positively and negatively charged pions and kaons as well as protons and antiprotons in a two-dimensional representation. Compared to the one-dimensional dependences, some new features were observed. In particular, when z > 0.4 positive kaons do not show the strong monotonic rise of the multiplicity ratio with {nu} as exhibited by pions and negative kaons. Protons were found to behave very differently from the other hadrons. (orig.)

  10. Multidimensional Study of Hadronization in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetissian, A; Avetisyan, E; Belostotski, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Borissov, A; Bowles, J; Brodski, I; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Gavrilov, G; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Gliske, S; Golembiovskaya, M; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Imazu, Y; Ivanilov, A; Jackson, H E; Jo, H S; Joosten, S; Kaiser, R; Karyan, G; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Kobayashi, N; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhijine, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikás, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Ruiz, A López; Lorenzon, W; Lu, X -G; Lu, X -R; Ma, B -Q; Mahon, D; Makins, N C R; Manaenkov, S I; Manfré, L; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; de la Ossa, A Martinez; Marukyan, H; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Movsisyan, A; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W -D; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Raithel, M; Reimer, P E; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanftl, F; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Seitz, B; Shibata, T -A; Shutov, V; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Taroian, S; Truty, R; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vilardi, I; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Yaschenko, S; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Yu, W; Zagrebelnyy, V; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2011-01-01

    Hadron multiplicities in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering were measured on neon, krypton and xenon targets relative to deuterium at an electron(positron)-beam energy of 27.6 GeV at HERMES. These ratios were determined as a function of the virtual-photon energy nu, its virtuality Q2, the fractional hadron energy z and the transverse hadron momentum with respect to the virtual-photon direction pt . Dependences were analysed separately for positively and negatively charged pions and kaons as well as protons and antiprotons in a two-dimensional representation. Compared to the one-dimensional dependences, some new features were observed. In particular, when z > 0.4 positive kaons do not show the strong monotonic rise of the multiplicity ratio with nu as exhibited by pions and K- . Protons were found to behave very differently from the other hadrons.

  11. Thermal analysis of hadron multiplicities from RQMD

    CERN Document Server

    Sollfrank, J; Sorge, H; Xu, N

    1999-01-01

    Some questions arising in the application of the thermal model to hadron production in heavy ion collisions are studied. We do so by applying the thermal model of hadron production to particle yields calculated by the microscopic transport model RQMD(v2.3). We study the bias of incomplete information about the final hadronic state on the extraction of thermal parameters.It is found that the subset of particles measured typically in the experiments looks more thermal than the complete set of stable particles. The hadrons which show the largest deviations from thermal behaviour in RQMD(v2.3) are the multi-strange baryons and anti-baryons. We also looked on the influence of rapidity cuts on the extraction of thermal parameters and found that they lead to different thermal parameters and larger disagreement between the RQMD yields and the thermal model.

  12. Multidimensional study of hadronization in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2011-07-15

    Hadron multiplicities in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering were measured on neon, krypton and xenon targets relative to deuterium at an electron(positron)-beam energy of 27.6 GeV at HERMES. These ratios were determined as a function of the virtual-photon energy {nu}, its virtuality Q{sup 2}, the fractional hadron energy z and the transverse hadron momentum with respect to the virtual-photon direction p{sub t}. Dependences were analysed separately for positively and negatively charged pions and kaons as well as protons and antiprotons in a two-dimensional representation. Compared to the one-dimensional dependences, some new features were observed. In particular, when z>0:4 positive kaons do not show the strong monotonic rise of the multiplicity ratio with {nu} as exhibited by pions and K{sup -}. Protons were found to behave very differently from the other hadrons. (orig.)

  13. Physics projects of COMPASS with hadron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, M A

    1999-01-01

    COMPASS, a new state-of-the-art spectrometer to be installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron for experiments with muon and hadron beams, will be exposed to hadron beams with intensities up to 10/sup 8//sec and energies up to 280 GeV. The physics goals are to study the rare production of charmed hadrons, including doubly charmed baryons, in inelastic interactions, with particular interest in their semileptonic decays; to search for glueballs and hybrids in central and diffractive production. Predictions of chiral perturbation theory will be tested in Primakoff reactions. The spectrometer shall be equipped with excellent particle identification and tracking, with calorimetry, dedicated triggers and fast read-out. A significant improvement of light hadron spectroscopy - compared to previous measurements -can be achieved already in the initial phase of the experiment. (4 refs).

  14. Preparing for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Appleton, Owen

    2007-01-01

    "Processing data for the Large Hadron Collider, the next-generation particle accelerator under construction at CERN, Switzerland, is one of the driving forces for development of Grid technology." (1 page)

  15. Exotic hadron spectroscopy at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, G A

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study the decays and properties of heavy flavoured hadrons produced in the forward region from proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. During Run 1, it has recorded the world's largest data sample of beauty and charm hadrons, enabling precise studies into the spectroscopy of such particles, including discoveries of new states and measurements of their masses, widths and quantum numbers. An overview of recent LHCb results in the area of exotic hadron spectroscopy is presented, focussing on the discovery of the first pentaquark states in the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to J/\\psi p K^-$ channel and a search for them in the related $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to J/\\psi p\\pi^-$ mode. The LHCb non-confirmation of the D0 tetraquark candidate in the $B_s^0\\pi^+$ invariant mass spectrum is presented.

  16. Hadron physics and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Lei; Wilson, David J

    2012-01-01

    Physics is an experimental science; and a constructive feedback between theory and extant and forthcoming experiments is necessary if an understanding of nonperturbative QCD is to be achieved. The Dyson-Schwinger equations connect confinement with dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, both with the observable properties of hadrons, and hence can plausibly provide a means of elucidating the empirical content of strong QCD. We illustrate these points via comments on: in-hadron condensates; dressed-quark anomalous chromo- and electro-magnetic moments; the self-limiting magnitudes of such moments and pion-loop contributions to the gap equation; deep inelastic scattering; the spectra of mesons and baryons; the critical role played by hadron-hadron interactions in producing these spectra; and nucleon elastic and transition form factors.

  17. Hadronic and nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1987-06-01

    Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involves processes at intermediate energies. We discuss a range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena - exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction - as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Many of these processes can be studied in electroproduction, utilizing internal targets in storage rings. We also review several areas where there has been significant theoretical progress in determining the form of hadron and nuclear wavefunctions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. 98 refs., 40 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Hadron physics programs at J-PARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruki M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The J-PARC Hadron Facility is designed as a multipurpose experimental facility for a wide range of particle and nuclear physics programs, aiming to provide the world highest intensity secondary beams. Currently three secondary beam lines; K1.8, K1.8BR and KL together with the test beam line named K1.1BR come into operation. Various experimental programs are proposed at each beam line and some of them have been performed so far. As the first experiment at the J-PARC Hadron Facility, the Θ+ pentaquark was searched for via the pion-induced hadronic reaction in the autumn of 2010. Also experimental programs to search for new hadronic states such as K−pp have started to perform a physics run. The current status and near future programs are introduced.

  19. Physical meaning of the yields from hadron-nucleon, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions observed in experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physical meaning of the outcomes from hadronic and nuclear collision processes at high energies is presented, as prompted experimentally. The fast and slow stages in hadron-nucleus collisions are distinguished. Hadrons are produced via intermediate objects observed in hadron-nucleus collisions. The intermediate objects may be treated as the groups of quarks or the quark bags. 37 refs

  20. A highly granular semi-digital hadron calorimeter for a future linear e + e − collider and a model independent Higgs boson measurement in the ZH→qq+X channel

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, Yacine

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a concept for a linear electron-positron accelerator with a centre-of-mass energy of up to 1 TeV. Its main purpose is the precise measurement of particles discovered by the LHC such as the Higgs boson particle. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of its detector concepts, specifically designed for the usage of Particle Flow Algorithms requiring highly granular calorimeters. Within the CALICE collaboration, several prototypes of such calorimeters, exploring different technologies, have been developed and tested. This thesis focuses on one of them: a semi-digital hadron calorimeter (SDHCAL) equipped with Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPC) sensors. It is a sampling calorimeter composed of 48 layers segmented in cells of one square centimetre for a total of half a millions channels. The first part of the present thesis describes the analysis of the data taken during beam tests at CERN, in which the detector was operated in a trigger less mode; saving of all ...

  1. Top Quark Studies at Hadron Colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Sinervo, Pekka K.

    1996-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b-quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DZero collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yield...

  2. Hadron formation from interaction among quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the hadronization process of quark system. A phenomenological potential is introduced to describe the interaction between a quark pair. The potential depends on the color charge of those quarks and their relative distances. Those quarks move according to classical equations of motion. Due to the color interaction, coloring quarks are separated to form color neutral clusters which are supposed to be the hadrons. (author)

  3. Academic Training Lecture: Jets at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    Regular Programme 30, 31 March and 1 April  2011 from 11:00 to 12:00 -  Bldg. 40-S2-A01 - Salle Andersson Jets at Hadron Colliders by Gavin Salam These three lectures will discuss how jets are defined at hadron colliders, the physics that is responsible for the internal structure of jets and the ways in which an understanding of jets may help in searches for new particles at the LHC.

  4. LHC suppliers win Golden Hadron awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    In a ceremony on 30 July, three of the 200 suppliers for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) were presented with Golden Hadron awards. It is the third year that the awards have been presented to suppliers, not only for their technical and financial achievements but also for their compliance with contractual deadlines. This year the three companies are all involved in the supplies for the LHC's main magnet system.

  5. Hadronic couplings of open beauty states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong interaction coupling parameters of particles with beauty quantum number are obtained using dispersion sum rules in various forms, e.g. current algebra sum rules, superconvergence sum rules and finite energy sum rules etc. These sum rules lead to a set of algebraic relations among masses and coupling constants. We compare the hadronic couplings of beautiful particles as obtained from various techniques and discuss their implications on the hadronic production of these states. (author)

  6. Thermal Hadron Production by QCD Hawking Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Satz, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The QCD counterpart of Hawking radiation from black holes leads to thermal hadron production in high energy collisions, from $e^+e^-$ annihilation to heavy ion interactions. This hadronic radiation is formed by tunnelling through the event horizon of colour confinement and is emitted at a universal temperature $T_H \\simeq (\\sigma /2 \\pi)^{1/2}$, where $\\sigma$ denotes the string tension. Since the event horizon does not allow information transfer, the radiation is thermal ``at birth''.

  7. Hadron thermodynamics in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammiraju, P.

    1985-01-01

    Various phenomenological models based on statistical thermodynamical considerations were used to fit the experimental data at high P sub T to a two temperature distribution. Whether this implies that the two temperatures belong to two different reaction mechanisms, or consequences of Lorentz-contraction factor, or related in a fundamental way to the intrinsic thermodynamics of Space-Time can only be revealed by further theoretical and experimental investigations of high P sub T phenomena in extremely energetic hadron-hadron collisions.

  8. COMPASS Hadron Multiplicity Measurements and Fragmentation Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolarski M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available COMPASS preliminary results on hadron, pion and kaon multiplicities are presented. The hadron and pion data show a good agreement with (NLO QCD expectations and some of these preliminary data have been already successfully incorporated in the global NLO QCD fits to world data. However, the results for kaon multiplicities, are different from the expectations of the DSS fit. There is also a tension between COMPASS and HERMES results, the only other experiment which measured kaon multiplicities in SIDIS.

  9. Neutralino-hadron scattering in the NMSSM

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, Sophie J.; Giedt, Joel; Thomas, Anthony W.; Young, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    We provide a scan of the parameter space for neutralino-hadron scattering in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model using an updated value for the strange quark sigma commutator. These results also take into account constraints from WMAP data on the relic density and new constraints from the Large Hadron Collider. We find that the resultant spin-independent cross sections are smaller in magnitude than those found in recent results obtained within the constrained minimal supersymmet...

  10. Lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results on the lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons at the LEP collider experiment and at the fixed target experiments E653 are reviewed and discussed. The world average of b lifetime is now =1.29±0.05 ps. The exclusive lifetime measurements for b+, b-, b0 are presented. The lifetime difference among the different species of charm and of beauty hadrons are discussed. (author) 25 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  11. Second quantization approach to composite hadron interactions in quark models

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjimichef, D.; Krein, G.; Szpigel, S.; da Veiga, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    Starting from the Fock space representation of hadron bound states in a quark model, a change of representation is implemented by a unitary transformation such that the composite hadrons are redescribed by elementary-particle field operators. Application of the unitary transformation to the microscopic quark Hamiltonian gives rise to effective hadron-hadron, hadron-quark, and quark-quark Hamiltonians. An effective baryon Hamiltonian is derived using a simple quark model. The baryon Hamiltonia...

  12. Hadron spectroscopy from strangeness to charm and beauty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, B.S., E-mail: zoubs@ihep.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics and Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-09-20

    Quarks of different flavors have different masses, which will cause breaking of flavor symmetries of QCD. Flavor symmetries and their breaking in hadron spectroscopy play important role for understanding the internal structures of hadrons. Hadron spectroscopy with strangeness reveals the importance of unquenched quark dynamics. Systematic study of hadron spectroscopy with strange, charm and beauty quarks would be very revealing and essential for understanding the internal structure of hadrons and its underlying quark dynamics.

  13. Hadron spectroscopy from strangeness to charm and beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarks of different flavors have different masses, which will cause breaking of flavor symmetries of QCD. Flavor symmetries and their breaking in hadron spectroscopy play important role for understanding the internal structures of hadrons. Hadron spectroscopy with strangeness reveals the importance of unquenched quark dynamics. Systematic study of hadron spectroscopy with strange, charm and beauty quarks would be very revealing and essential for understanding the internal structure of hadrons and its underlying quark dynamics

  14. Hadronic Transport Effects on Elliptic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 施梳苏

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic flow v2 is considered as a probe to study partonic collectivity,and the measurement v2/e can be used to describe the hydro behavior of the colliding system.We study the the effect of the hadronic process on the momentum anisotropy parameter v2 in a multiphase transport model.It is found that hadronic rescattering will depress the v2 signal built up at the partonic phase.A similar mass hierarchy is observed in the model as in the experiment at RHIC.We find that different particle species will approach the same ideal hydro limit if the hadronic process is excluded.%Elliptic Bow V2 is considered as a probe to study partonic collectivity, and the measurement V2/S can be used to describe the hydro behavior of the colliding system. We study the the effect of the hadronic process on the momentum anisotropy parameter vi in a multiphase transport model. It is found that hadronic rescattering will depress the V2 signal built up at the partonic phase. A similar mass hierarchy is observed in the model as in the experiment at RHIC. We find that different particle species will approach the same ideal hydro limit if the hadronic process is excluded.

  15. Decaying hadrons within constituent-quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinhappel, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Within conventional constituent-quark models hadrons come out as stable bound states of the valence (anti)quarks. Thereby the resonance character of hadronic excitations is completely ignored. A more realistic description of hadron spectra can be achieved by including explicit mesonic degrees of freedom, which couple directly to the constituent quarks. We will present a coupled-channel formalism that describes such hybrid systems in a relativistically invariant way and allows for the decay of excited hadrons. The formalism is based on the point-form of relativistic quantum mechanics. If the confining forces between the (anti)quarks are described by instantaneous interactions it can be formally shown that the mass-eigenvalue problem for a system that consists of dynamical (anti)quarks and mesons reduces to a hadronic eigenvalue problem in which the eigenstates of the pure confinement problem (bare hadrons) are coupled via meson loops. The only point where the quark substructure enters are form factors at the m...

  16. The ATLAS Hadronic Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Brost, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    As proton-proton collisions at the LHC reach luminosities close to 10$^{\\mathrm{34}}$ cm$^{\\mathrm{-2}}$ s $^{\\mathrm{-1}}$, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analyses. Simplistic single tau lepton triggers suffer from severe rate limitation, despite the sophisticated algorithms used in the tau identification. The development of further fast algorithms and the design of topological selections are the main challenges to allow a large program of physics analysis. The tau triggers provide many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model, and to get precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs boson decaying to tau-leptons. We present the performance of the hadronic tau trigger taken in Run 1 data with the ATLAS detector at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV pp collision. One of the major challenges is to sustain high efficiencies in events with multiple interactions. To do this we introduced faster tracking methods, multivariate selection techniques, and new t...

  17. COMPASS measurements with hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muon and hadron beams from the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron are used in the COMPASS experiment for high-energy scattering reactions off fixed targets, aiming at measurements of non-perturbative aspects of quantum chromodynamics. With pion beams, the meson spectrum can be examined via diffractive dissociation, where the existence of hybrid or exotic states is a much discussed issue. The double-diffractive process of central production, which can be measured also with a proton beam, is a promising approach for the search for glueballs. At extremely small momentum transfer, electromagnetic processes are accessible via the Primakoff effect and aim at the determination of QCD low energy constants as the pion polarisability and the chiral anomaly. The muon program, focused on deep inelastic scattering, took place in the years 2002 to 2007. During this time, in autumn 2004, also a first pilot run with a pion beam was taken with the focus on diffractive and Primakoff measurements. Preliminary results and conclusions are presented. Data taking with a pion beam was resumed in 2008, where large statistics for diffractive scattering was collected. First insights, also in view of the findings of previous experiments, are presented, as well as the planning for continuation of data taking in 2009.

  18. Extracting α{sub s} from scaling violations in light-hadron fragmentation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2015-11-15

    We review the status of extracting the strong-coupling constant α{sub s} from the scaling violations in fragmentation functions by fitting the latter to experimental data of the inclusive production of single light hadrons in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation. We also discuss the analogous analysis based on the average hadron multiplicities in gluon and quark jets, which correspond to the first Mellin moments of the respective FFs. We then assess the prospects of such α{sub s} determinations at future high-luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders such as the CERN Future Circular Collider operated in the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation mode (FCC-ee).

  19. Double Spin Asymmetries of Inclusive Hadron Electroproductions from a Transversely Polarized $^3\\rm{He}$ Target

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y X; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, C; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Katich, J; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; LeRose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H -J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Camacho, C Muñoz; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J -C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Širca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wang, Y; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurement of beam-target double-spin asymmetries ($A_\\text{LT}$) in the inclusive production of identified hadrons, $\\vec{e}~$+$~^3\\text{He}^{\\uparrow}\\rightarrow h+X$, using a longitudinally polarized 5.9 GeV electron beam and a transversely polarized $^3\\rm{He}$ target. Hadrons ($\\pi^{\\pm}$, $K^{\\pm}$ and proton) were detected at 16$^{\\circ}$ with an average momentum $$=2.35 GeV/c and a transverse momentum ($p_{T}$) coverage from 0.60 to 0.68 GeV/c. Asymmetries from the $^3\\text{He}$ target were observed to be non-zero for $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production when the target was polarized transversely in the horizontal plane. The $\\pi^{+}$ and $\\pi^{-}$ asymmetries have opposite signs, analogous to the behavior of $A_\\text{LT}$ in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  20. Physical model of Hadrons : Barions and mesons. Physical essence of quarks and gluons and physical interpretation of their parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Rangelov, Josiph Mladenov

    2000-01-01

    The physical model (PhsMdl) of the hadrons is offered by means of the obvious analogy with the transparent surveyed PhsMdls of the vacuum and leptons in our recent works. It is assumed that the vacuum is consistent by dynamides, streamlined in junctions of some tight crystalline lattice. Every dynamide contains a neutral pair of massless contrary point-like (PntLk) elementary electric charges (ElmElc Chrgs): electrino $(-)$ and positrino $(+)$. By means of the existent fundamental analogy bet...

  1. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  2. Analog Systems for Gravity Duals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2014-01-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...

  3. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  4. Sulfonimidamide analogs of oncolytic sulfonylureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, J E; Grindey, G B; Ehlhardt, W J; Ray, J E; Boder, G B; Bewley, J R; Klingerman, K K; Gates, S B; Rinzel, S M; Schultz, R M; Weir, L C; Worzalla, J F

    1997-03-14

    A series of sulfonimidamide analogs of the oncolytic diarylsulfonylureas was synthesized and evaluated for (1) in vitro cytotoxicity against CEM cells, (2) in vivo antitumor activity against subaxillary implanted 6C3HED lymphosarcoma, and (3) metabolic breakdown to the o-sulfate of p-chloroaniline. The separated enantiomers of one sulfonimidamide analog displayed very different activities in the in vivo screening model. In general, several analogs demonstrated excellent growth inhibitory activity in the 6C3HED model when dosed orally or intraperitoneally. A correlative structure-activity relationship to the oncolytic sulfonylureas was not apparent.

  5. Jet analysis by neural networks in high energy hadron-hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    De Felice, P; Pasquariello, G; De Felice, P; Nardulli, G; Pasquariello, G

    1995-01-01

    We study the possibility to employ neural networks to simulate jet clustering procedures in high energy hadron-hadron collisions. We concentrate our analysis on the Fermilab Tevatron energy and on the k_\\bot algorithm. We consider both supervised multilayer feed-forward network trained by the backpropagation algorithm and unsupervised learning, where the neural network autonomously organizes the events in clusters.

  6. A correlated-cluster model and the ridge phenomenon in hadron-hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel

    2016-01-01

    A study of the near-side ridge phenomenon in hadron-hadron collisions based on a cluster picture of multiparticle production is presented. The near-side ridge effect is shown to have a natural explanation in this context provided that clusters are produced in a correlated manner in the collision transverse plane.

  7. Recent developments in chiral dynamics of hadrons and hadrons in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Kaskulov, M; Roca, L; Sarkar, S; Strottman, D D; Vacas, M J V; Magas, V K; Ramos, A; Hernández, E

    2007-01-01

    In this talk I present recent developments in the field of hadronic physics and hadrons in the nuclear medium. I review the unitary chiral approach to meson baryon interaction and address the topics of the two dynamically generated $\\Lambda(1405)$ resonances, with experiments testing it, the $\\Lambda(1520)$ and $\\Delta(1700)$ resonances, plus the $\\Lambda(1520)$, $\\Sigma(1385)$ and $\\omega$ in the nuclear medium.

  8. Quark models of hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soliton model represents an extension of the MIT bag model to allow for the dynamical degrees of freedom associated with the confinement mechanism. The soliton model has 5 parameters, MIT has 3, but the soliton model has the flexibility, by choice of the parameters, to reproduce either the MIT or the SLAC bags. With appropriate choice of parameters and inclusion of one gluon exchange, the resulting hadronic spectra is similar to the MIT model. Because the model can be cast in Hamiltonian form, dynamical processes can be calculated using techniques developed for nuclear collective motion. This permits calculation of N-N collisions, recoil corrections and the construction of bag states of good momentum. The last is essential for the proper calculation of electromagnetic form factors. In this paper, the pion has been alluded to frequently. It is currently being studied actively in the context of the soliton model. The pion appears here as an anomalously light particle, split off and pushed down from the meson multiplet by OGE. The nucleon bag should be soft to qq, virtual excitation with pion quantum numbers. In the soliton model, these virtual excitations are to be identified with the pion cloud. One can also calculate pi-nucleon coupling and the weak decay of the pion, π → μ + anti nu/sub μ/. Indeed, bags can be created and destroyed in the model. This description of pion physics begins with a Lagrangian which does not respect chiral invariance and seeks to achieve PCAC from dynamics. The more fashionable approach is to begin with a chirally invariant Lagrangian from which the pion emerges as a massless Goldstone boson; somewhere, the pion must be given a mass and CAC broken. In all models, effective fields (sigma or π or both) are introduced to describe degrees of freedom which are too difficult to handle explicitly. 20 references

  9. Hadronic interactions in the MINOS detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordosky, Michael Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2004-08-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, will study neutrino flavor transformations using a Near detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and a Far detector located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The MINOS collaboration also constructed the CalDet (calibration detector), a smaller version of the Near and Far detectors, to determine the topological and signal response to hadrons, electrons and muons. The detector was exposed to test-beams in the CERN Proton Synchrotron East Hall during 2001-2003, where it collected events at momentum settings between 200 MeV/c and 10 GeV/c. In this dissertation we present results of the CalDet experiment, focusing on the topological and signal response to hadrons. We briefly describe the MINOS experiment and its iron-scintillator tracking-sampling calorimters as a motivation for the CalDet experiment. We discuss the operation of the CalDet in the beamlines as well as the trigger and particle identification systems used to isolate the hadron sample. The method used to calibrate the MINOS detector is described and validated with test-beam data. The test-beams were simulated to model the muon flux, energy loss upstream of the detector and the kaon background. We describe the procedure used to discriminate between pions and muons on the basis of the event topology. The hadron samples were used to benchmark the existing GEANT3 based hadronic shower codes and determine the detector response and resolution for pions and protons. We conclude with comments on the response to single hadrons and to neutrino induced hadronic showers.

  10. The Emergence of Hadrons from QCD Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Will

    2013-10-01

    The propagation of colored quarks through strongly interacting systems, and their subsequent evolution into color-singlet hadrons, are phenomena that showcase unique facets of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Medium-stimulated gluon bremsstrahlung, a fundamental QCD process, induces broadening of the transverse momentum of the parton, and creates partonic energy loss manifesting itself in experimental observables that are accessible in high energy interactions in hot and cold systems. The formation of hadrons, which is the dynamical enforcement of the QCD confinement principle, is very poorly understood on the basis of fundamental theory, although detailed models such as the Lund string model or cluster hadronization models can generally be tuned to capture the main features of hadronic final states. With the advent of the technical capability to study hadronic final states with good particle identification and at high luminosity, a new opportunity has appeared. Study of the characteristics of parton propagation and hadron formation as they unfold within atomic nuclei are now being used to understand the coherence and spatial features of these processes and to refine new experimental tools that will be used in future experiments. Fixed-target data on nuclei with lepton and hadron beams, and collider experiments involving nuclei, all make essential contact with these topics and they elucidate different aspects of these same themes. In this talk, a survey of the most relevant recent data and its potential interpretation will be followed by descriptions of feasible experiments at an electron-ion collider, in the context of existing measurements as well as the experiments performed following the upgrade of Jefferson Lab to 12 GeV.

  11. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  12. Neutrino emissivity in the quark-hadron mixed phase of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous theoretical studies using various equation of state models have shown that quark matter may exist at the extreme densities in the cores of high-mass neutron stars. It has also been shown that a phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter would result in an extended mixed phase region that would segregate phases by net charge to minimize the total energy of the phase, leading to the formation of a crystalline lattice. The existence of quark matter in the core of a neutron star may have significant consequences for its thermal evolution, which for thousands of years is facilitated primarily by neutrino emission. In this work we investigate the effect a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase can have on the neutrino emissivity from the core. To this end we calculate the equation of state using the relativistic mean-field approximation to model hadronic matter and a nonlocal extension of the three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for quark matter. Next we determine the extent of the quark-hadron mixed phase and its crystalline structure using the Glendenning construction, allowing for the formation of spherical blob, rod, and slab rare phase geometries. Finally we calculate the neutrino emissivity due to electron-lattice interactions utilizing the formalism developed for the analogous process in neutron star crusts. We find that the contribution to the neutrino emissivity due to the presence of a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase is substantial compared to other mechanisms at fairly low temperatures (

  13. Neutrino emissivity in the quark-hadron mixed phase of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, William M.; Weber, Fridolin; Contrera, Gustavo A.; Orsaria, Milva G.

    2016-03-01

    Numerous theoretical studies using various equation of state models have shown that quark matter may exist at the extreme densities in the cores of high-mass neutron stars. It has also been shown that a phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter would result in an extended mixed phase region that would segregate phases by net charge to minimize the total energy of the phase, leading to the formation of a crystalline lattice. The existence of quark matter in the core of a neutron star may have significant consequences for its thermal evolution, which for thousands of years is facilitated primarily by neutrino emission. In this work we investigate the effect a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase can have on the neutrino emissivity from the core. To this end we calculate the equation of state using the relativistic mean-field approximation to model hadronic matter and a nonlocal extension of the three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for quark matter. Next we determine the extent of the quark-hadron mixed phase and its crystalline structure using the Glendenning construction, allowing for the formation of spherical blob, rod, and slab rare phase geometries. Finally we calculate the neutrino emissivity due to electron-lattice interactions utilizing the formalism developed for the analogous process in neutron star crusts. We find that the contribution to the neutrino emissivity due to the presence of a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase is substantial compared to other mechanisms at fairly low temperatures (lesssim10^9 K) and quark fractions (lesssim 30% , and that contributions due to lattice vibrations are insignificant compared to static-lattice contributions.

  14. Neutrino emissivity in the quark-hadron mixed phase of neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinella, William M. [Computational Science Research Center San Diego State University, San Diego, CA (United States); San Diego State University, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Weber, Fridolin [San Diego State University, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, La Jolla, CA (United States); Contrera, Gustavo A. [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET - Dept. de Fisica, UNLP, IFLP, La Plata (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Grupo de Gravitacion, Astrofisica y Cosmologia, Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, La Plata (Argentina); Orsaria, Milva G. [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Grupo de Gravitacion, Astrofisica y Cosmologia, Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-03-15

    Numerous theoretical studies using various equation of state models have shown that quark matter may exist at the extreme densities in the cores of high-mass neutron stars. It has also been shown that a phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter would result in an extended mixed phase region that would segregate phases by net charge to minimize the total energy of the phase, leading to the formation of a crystalline lattice. The existence of quark matter in the core of a neutron star may have significant consequences for its thermal evolution, which for thousands of years is facilitated primarily by neutrino emission. In this work we investigate the effect a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase can have on the neutrino emissivity from the core. To this end we calculate the equation of state using the relativistic mean-field approximation to model hadronic matter and a nonlocal extension of the three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for quark matter. Next we determine the extent of the quark-hadron mixed phase and its crystalline structure using the Glendenning construction, allowing for the formation of spherical blob, rod, and slab rare phase geometries. Finally we calculate the neutrino emissivity due to electron-lattice interactions utilizing the formalism developed for the analogous process in neutron star crusts. We find that the contribution to the neutrino emissivity due to the presence of a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase is substantial compared to other mechanisms at fairly low temperatures (

  15. Highlights from COMPASS in hadron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Krinner, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Since Quantum Choromdynamics allows for gluon self-coupling, quarks and gluons cannot be observed as free particles, but only their bound states, the hadrons. This so-called confinement phenomenon is responsible for $98\\%$ of the mass in the visible universe. The measurement of the hadron excitation spectra therefore gives valuable input for theory and phenomenology to quantitatively understand this phenomenon. One simple model to describe hadrons is the Constituent Quark Model (CQM), which knows two types of hadrons: mesons, consisting of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which are made out of three quarks. More advanced models, which are inspired by QCD as well as calculations within Lattice QCD predict the existence of other types of hadrons, which may be e.g. described solely by gluonic excitations (glueballs) or mixed quark and gluon excitations (hybrids). In order to search for such states, the COMPASS experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN has collected large data sets, which allow to ...

  16. New Polynomial Law of Hadron Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bottini, S

    1998-01-01

    A simple and general law of mass, intrinsically with zero freely-adaptable parameters, is shown to be valid for all the hadrons with one or more flavored (s, c, or b) quarks/antiquarks, both baryons and mesons. It establishes correspondences H-->{P_i} between these hadrons with at least one flavored constituent, H, and specific sets of lighter particles, {P_i}, in which the total baryon and lepton numbers are conserved. The law is polynomial with a varying degree that univocally depends only on the particles involved. Its statement may be given straightforwardly in terms of the binomial series converging to 1/sqrt{1-beta}. It asserts that, for each hadron H, there exists a certain set of lighter particles {P_i}, together with a specific reference hadron h_0 that fixes the mass scale, such that, for a value of the sum of this power series equal to the mass of H, a definite partial sum of the series equals the total mass of particles {P_i}. The starting, independent data in the rule are the masses of the hadron...

  17. Universal effective hadron dynamics from superconformal algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter; Lorcé, Cédric

    2016-08-01

    An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin-spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Our analysis is consistently applied to the excitation spectra of the π, ρ, K, K* and ϕ meson families as well as to the N, Δ, Λ, Σ, Σ*, Ξ and Ξ* in the baryon sector. We also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum. The mass of light hadrons is expressed in a universal and frame-independent decomposition in the semiclassical approximation described here.

  18. Hadron production in the nucleus fragmentation region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betemps, Marcos Andre [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Conjunto Agrotecnico Visconde da Graca]. E-mail: marcos.betemps@ufpel.edu.br; Ducati, Maria Beatriz Gay [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: beatriz.gay@ufrgs.br

    2008-09-15

    The RHIC hadron production data in hadronic collisions at the forward rapidities may hint the evidence of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). However, in the opposite region, backward rapidities, new effects should be important in order to describe the observables. In this work, the charged hadron and {pi}{sup 0} productions are investigated in the fragmentation region of the nucleus (backward rapidities) considering dAu and pp collisions in the context of the Color Glass Condensate. In the backward rapidity region, only the proton can be treated as a CGC, and the large x nuclear effects need to be considered in order to describe the cross section. The results are shown by means of the nuclear modification ratio comparing the proton-nucleus and proton-proton cross sections and such ratio presents some dependences on the large x nuclear effects. (author)

  19. Boosting low-mass hadronic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmin, Chase; Whiteson, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Searches for new hadronic resonances typically focus on high-mass spectra due to overwhelming QCD backgrounds and detector trigger rates. We present a study of searches for relatively low-mass hadronic resonances at the LHC in the case that the resonance is boosted by recoiling against a well-measured high-pT probe such as a muon, photon or jet. The hadronic decay of the resonance is then reconstructed either as a single large-radius jet or as a resolved pair of standard narrow-radius jets, balanced in transverse momentum to the probe. We show that the existing 2015 LHC data set of p p collisions with ∫L d t =4 fb-1 should already have powerful sensitivity to a generic Z' model which couples only to quarks, for Z' masses ranging from 20 - 500 GeV /c2 .

  20. Dense hadronic matter in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliara, Giuseppe; Lavagno, Andrea; Pigato, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The existence of stars with masses up to $2 M_{\\odot}$ and the hints of the existence of stars with radii smaller than $\\sim 11$ km seem to require, at the same time, a stiff and a soft hadronic equation of state at large densities. We argue that these two apparently contradicting constraints are actually an indication of the existence of two families of compact stars: hadronic stars which could be very compact and quark stars which could be very massive. In this respect, a crucial role is played, in the hadronic equation of state, by the delta isobars whose early appearance shifts to large densities the formation of hyperons. We also discuss how recent experimental information on the symmetry energy of nuclear matter at saturation indicate, indirectly, an early appearance of delta isobars in neutron star matter.

  1. Boosting low-mass hadronic resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Shimmin, Chase

    2016-01-01

    Searches for new hadronic resonances typically focus on high-mass spectra, due to overwhelming QCD backgrounds and detector trigger rates. We present a study of searches for relatively low-mass hadronic resonances at the LHC in the case that the resonance is boosted by recoiling against a well-measured high-$p_{\\textrm{T}}$ probe such as a muon, photon or jet. The hadronic decay of the resonance is then reconstructed either as a single large-radius jet or as a resolved pair of standard narrow-radius jets, balanced in transverse momentum to the probe. We show that the existing 2015 LHC dataset of $pp$ collisions with $\\int\\mathcal{L}dt = 4\\ \\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ should already have powerful sensitivity to a generic $Z'$ model which couples only to quarks, for $Z'$ masses ranging from 20-500 GeV/c$^2$.

  2. Hadron production in the nucleus fragmentation region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RHIC hadron production data in hadronic collisions at the forward rapidities may hint the evidence of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). However, in the opposite region, backward rapidities, new effects should be important in order to describe the observables. In this work, the charged hadron and π0 productions are investigated in the fragmentation region of the nucleus (backward rapidities) considering dAu and pp collisions in the context of the Color Glass Condensate. In the backward rapidity region, only the proton can be treated as a CGC, and the large x nuclear effects need to be considered in order to describe the cross section. The results are shown by means of the nuclear modification ratio comparing the proton-nucleus and proton-proton cross sections and such ratio presents some dependences on the large x nuclear effects. (author)

  3. A new slant on hadron structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W Detmold; D B Leinweber; W Melnitchouk; A W Thomas; S V Wright

    2001-08-01

    Rather than regarding the restriction of current lattice QCD simulations to quark masses that are 5–10 times larger than those observed as a problem, we note that this presents a wonderful opportunity to deepen our understanding of QCD. Just as it has been possible to learn a great deal about QCD by treating c as a variable, so the study of hadron properties as a function of quark mass is leading us to a deeper appreciation of hadron structure. As examples we cite progress in using the chiral properties of QCD to connect hadron masses, magnetic moments, charge radii and structure functions calculated at large quark masses within lattice QCD with the values observed physically.

  4. Technical Design of Hadron Therapy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1993-08-01

    Radiation therapy with hadron beams now has a 40-year track record at many accelerator laboratories around the world, essentially all of these originally physics-research oriented. The great promise shown for treating cancer has led the medical community to seek dedicated accelerator facilities in a hospital setting, where more rapid progress can be made in clinical research. This paper will discuss accelerator and beam characteristics relevant to hadron therapy, particularly as applied to hospital-based facilities. A survey of currently-operating and planned hadron therapy facilities will be given, with particular emphasis on Lorna Linda (the first dedicated proton facility in a hospital) and HIMAC (the first dedicated heavy-ion medical facility).

  5. Technical design of hadron therapy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1993-08-01

    Radiation therapy with hadron beams now has a 40-year track record at many accelerator laboratories around the world, essentially all of these originally physics-research oriented. The great promise shown for treating cancer has led the medical community to seek dedicated accelerator facilities in a hospital setting, where more rapid progress can be made in clinical research. This paper will discuss accelerator and beam characteristics relevant to hadron therapy, particularly as applied to hospital-based facilities. A survey of currently-operating and planned hadron therapy facilities will be given, with particular emphasis on Loma Linda (the first dedicated proton facility in a hospital) and HIMAC (the first dedicated heavy-ion medical facility).

  6. Theoretical aspects of lepton-hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, I will emphasize two points on Theoretical Aspects of Lepton-Hadron Scattering: (1) The crucial importance of testing the ''exact'' sum rules as tests of the local current algebra. Discrepancies, if found, between experiment and theory cannot be ''interpreted away'' in terms of more complex parton wave functions for the hadronic ground state. The three sum rules of interest are those of Adler, Bjorken, and Gross and Llewellyn-Smith. (2) An understanding of the corrections to scaling in QCD and what they teach us

  7. Resummed Results for Hadron Collider Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAslan Heather

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Event shapes are invaluable QCD tools for theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. We revise the definition of these observables in e+e− annihilation and in hadron collisions, and give a review of the state-of-the-art results for their resummation. Then we detail how recent work on the re-summation of event shapes in electron-positron annihilation can provide us with the tools to extend resummation of generic hadronic event shapes to NNLL accuracy. We match our findings to fixed-order results at NNLO accuracy, showing the sizeable effects of resummation in the relevant regions of phase space.

  8. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinervo, P.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  9. Recent results on hadron physics at KLOE

    CERN Document Server

    Babusci, D; Balwierz-Pytko, I; Bencivenni, G; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Balkest, L Caldeira; Capon, G; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; Curciarello, F; Czerwinski, E; Dane, E; De Leo, V; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Santis, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Salvo, R; Domenici, D; Erriquez, O; Fanizzi, G; Fantini, A; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Franzini, P; Gajos, A; Gauzzi, P; Giardina, G; Giovannella, S; Graziani, E; Happacher, F; Heijkenskjold, L; Hoistad, B; Iafolla, L; Jacewicz, M; Johansson, T; Kacprzak, K; Kupsc, A; Lee-Franzini, J; Leverington, B; Loddo, F; Loffredo, S; Mandaglio, G; Martemianov, M; Martini, M; Mascolo, M; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Morello, G; Moricciani, D; Moskal, P; Nguyen, F; Palladino, A; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Longhi, I Prado; Ranieri, A; Redmer, C F; Santangelo, P; Sarra, I; Schioppa, M; Sciascia, B; Silarski, M; Taccini, C; Tortora, L; Venanzoni, G; Wislicki, W; Wolke, M; Zdebik, J

    2013-01-01

    One of the basic motivations of the KLOE and KLOE-2 collaborations is the test of fundamental symmetries and the search for phenomena beyond the Standard Model via the hadronic and leptonic decays of ground-state mesons and via their production in the fusion of virtual gamma quanta exchanged between colliding electrons and positrons. This contribution includes brief description of results of recent analysis of the KLOE data aimed at (i) the search for the dark matter boson, (ii) determination of the hadronic and light-by-light contributions to the g-2 muon anomaly and (iii) tests of QCD anomalies.

  10. On sbottom hadronization at LEP 200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of the hadronization of the sbottom is of interest for experimental searches. A study concerning this feature is presented for masses accessible at LEP 200 assuming that the sbottom is the lightest squark. Numerical evaluations of the decay modes b-bar1 → bX-bar10 and b-bar1 → bX-bar20 are done by varying the SUSY space parameters M2 and μ. The results obtained allow to assert in which conditions the sbottom hadronizes and which decay dominates. (authors)

  11. B Physics Theory for Hadron Colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Buchalla, G. , Cata, O. , Rahn, R.

    2008-01-01

    A short overview of theoretical methods for B physics at hadron colliders is presented. The main emphasis is on the theory of two-body hadronic B decays, which provide a rich field of investigation in particular for the Tevatron and the LHC. The subject holds both interesting theoretical challenges as well as many opportunities for flavor studies and new physics tests. A brief review of the current status and recent developments is given. A few additional topics in B physics are also mentioned.

  12. Single sneutrino production at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Huitu, K; Roy, S; Yu, Z; Chaichian, Masud; Datta, Anindya; Huitu, Katri; Roy, Sourov; Yu, Zenghui

    2004-01-01

    We study the production of a single sneutrino in association with one or two $b$-quarks at hadron colliders, in the framework of an R-parity violating supersymmetric model. We find that at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) four $b$ final states are promising with efficient b-tagging. $l^+l'^-$ decay modes of the sneutrino can also be viable for detection at the LHC. However, the branching ratio for rare $\\gamma\\gamma$ decay channel is too small to be seen.

  13. R-Hadron Search at ATLAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Simon Johann Franz

    In this thesis I motivate and present a search for long lived massive R-hadrons using the data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011. Both ionisation- and time-of-ight-based methods are described. Since no signal was found, a lower limit on the mass of such particles is set. The analysis was also...... published by the ATLAS collboration in Phys.Lett.B. titled `Searches for heavy long-lived sleptons and R-Hadrons with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV'....

  14. Resummed Results for Hadron Collider Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAslan, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Event shapes are invaluable QCD tools for theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. We revise the definition of these observables in e+e- annihilation and in hadron collisions, and give a review of the state-of-the-art results for their resummation. Then we detail how recent work on the re-summation of event shapes in electron-positron annihilation can provide us with the tools to extend resummation of generic hadronic event shapes to NNLL accuracy. We match our findings to fixed-order results at NNLO accuracy, showing the sizeable effects of resummation in the relevant regions of phase space.

  15. Issues and Opportunities in Exotic Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Briceno, R A; Coito, S; Dudek, J J; Eichten, E; Fischer, C S; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Jackura, A; Kornicer, M; Krein, G; Lebed, R F; Machado, F A; Mitchell, R E; Morningstar, C J; Peardon, M; Pennington, M R; Peters, K; Richard, J -M; Shen, C -P; Shepherd, M R; Skwarnicki, T; Swanson, E S; Szczepaniak, A P; Yuan, C -Z

    2015-01-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. It is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimental and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented.

  16. Bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons has been estimated within the framework of hadronic resonance gas model. We observe that the bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases faster with temperature for higher μB. The magnitude of ζ is more at high μB. This results will have crucial importance for fire-ball produced at low energy nuclear collisions (FAIR, NICA). We note that the bulk to shear viscosity ratio remains above the bound set by AdS/CFT

  17. Neutralino-hadron scattering in the NMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Underwood, Sophie J; Thomas, Anthony W; Young, Ross D

    2012-01-01

    We provide a scan of the parameter space for neutralino-hadron scattering in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model using an updated value for the strange quark sigma commutator. These results also take into account constraints from WMAP data on the relic density and new constraints from the Large Hadron Collider. We find that the resultant spin-independent cross sections are smaller in magnitude than those found in recent results obtained within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, yet still great enough to feasibly allow for detection in the case of bino-like neutralinos.

  18. Lifetime and mixing of B hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results concerning the lifetime and mixing of B hadrons are reviewed. The different techniques used to extract the inclusive B lifetime are discussed, and the results are combined to give an overall world average of τB=1.48±0.03 ps. Measurements of the exclusive B hadron lifetimes are described, and their individual world averages computed. The mixing of the B0 mesons to their antiparticles is described, and the time-integrated measurements of the probability of mixing are reviewed. Finally the first evidence for the time-dependent nature of B0B0-bar oscillation is presented. (author). 46 refs., 24 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Hadron resonance production and final state hadronic interactions with UrQMD at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinheimer J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the effects of the final hadronic state, in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions, on hadronic resonance properties and measurable production rates. In particular we will compare our results with recent ALICE data on resonance production. We show that the hadronic phase of the system evolution has a considerable impact on the measured resonance ratios and pT spectra. We also discuss some of the remaining uncertainties in the model and how they may be addressed in future studies.

  20. All-optical analog comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-08-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  1. Fast Dynamical Evolution of Hadron Resonance Gas via Hagedorn States

    CERN Document Server

    Beitel, M; Stoecker, H

    2016-01-01

    Hagedorn states are the key to understand how all hadrons observed in high energy heavy ion collisions seem to reach thermal equilibrium so quickly. An assembly of Hagedorn states is formed in elementary hadronic or heavy ion collisions at hadronization. Microscopic simulations within the transport model UrQMD allow to study the time evolution of such a pure non-equilibrated Hagedorn state gas towards a thermally equilibrated Hadron Resonance Gas by using dynamics, which unlike strings, fully respect detailed balance. Propagation, repopulation, rescatterings and decays of Hagedorn states provide the yields of all hadrons up to a mass of m=2.5 GeV. Ratios of feed down corrected hadron multiplicities are compared to corresponding experimental data from the ALICE collaboration at LHC. The quick thermalization within t=1-2 fm\\c of the emerging Hadron Resonance Gas exposes Hagedorn states as a tool to understand hadronization.

  2. Isolated-photon production in polarized hadronic collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano

    1999-01-01

    After a short discussion on the definition of isolated-photon cross sections in perturbative QCD, I present phenomenological predictions relevant for polarized hadron-hadron collisions in the RHIC energy range. The possibility of measuring $\\Delta g$ is investigated.

  3. Interplay among transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark several left-right asymmetries are possible for the hadrons in the jet. When only one unpolarized hadron is selected, it exhibits an azimuthal modulation known as Collins effect. When a pair of oppositely charged hadrons is observed, three asymmetries can be considered, a di-hadron asymmetry and two single hadron asymmetries. In lepton deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized nucleons all these asymmetries are coupled with the transversity distribution. From the high statistics COMPASS data on oppositely charged hadron-pair production we have investigated for the first time the dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons. The similarity of transversity induced single and di-hadron asymmetries is discussed. A phenomenological analysis of the data allows to establish quantitative relationships among them, providing strong indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven ...

  4. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  5. Test Wiseness and Analogy Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James C.

    1971-01-01

    Subjects received self instruction on how to approach analogy questions. Instruction was directed toward knowledge of the general format of analogy questions in standarized tests and the 15 types of relationships commonly asked for in analogy questions. An analogies post-test showed a significant effect for the group. (Author)

  6. Multilateral Collaborations in Analog Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. l.

    2016-01-01

    International collaborations in studies utilizing ground-based space flight analogs are an effective means for answering research questions common to participating agencies. These collaborations bring together worldwide experts to solve important space research questions. By collaborating unnecessary duplication of science is reduced, and the efficiency of analog use is improved. These studies also share resources among agencies for cost effective solutions to study implementation. Recently, NASA has engaged in collaborations with international partners at a variety of analog sites. The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) is currently hosting investigator studies from NASA and from the German Space Agency (DLR). These isolation studies will answer questions in the areas of team cohesion, sleep and circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral correlates to function. Planning for the next HERA campaign is underway as proposal selections are being made from the International Life Sciences Research Announcement (ILSRA). Studies selected from the ILSRA will be conducted across 4 HERA missions in 2017. NASA is planning collaborative studies with DLR at the :envihab facility in Cologne, Germany. Investigations were recently selected to study the effects of 0.5% CO2 exposure over 30 days of bed rest. These studies will help to determine the fidelity of this ground-based analog for studying the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome. NASA is also planning a multilateral collaboration at :envihab with DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA) to examine artificial gravity as a countermeasure to mitigate the effects of 60 days of bed rest. NASA is also considering collaborations with the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in studies that will utilize their Ground-based Experimental Facility (NEK). The NEK is comprised of 4 interconnected modules and a Martian surface simulator. This isolation analog can support 3 -10 crew members for long duration

  7. Particle production from nuclear targets and the structure of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production processes from nuclear targets allow studying interactions of elementary hadronic constituents in nuclear matter. The information thus obtained on the structure of hadrons and on the properties of hadronic constituents is presented. Both soft (low momentum transfer) and hard (high momentum transfer) processes are discussed. (author)

  8. An investigation of hadronization mechanism at a Z~0 factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the hadronization pictures adopted in the LUND String Fragmentation Model (LSFM),Webber Cluster Fragmentation Model (WCFM) and Quark Combination Model (QCM),respectively.Predictions of hadron multiplicity,baryon to meson ratios and baryon-antibaryon flavor correlations,especially those related to heavy hadrons at a Z 0 factory obtained by LSFM and QCM,are reported.

  9. Direct hadron production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Peressounko, D. Yu.; Pokrovsky, Yu. E.

    1997-01-01

    Hadrons emitted by the pre-surface layer of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) before phase transition into hadronic gas are considered as possible source of direct information about QGP. It is shown that these hadrons dominate at soft p_t if QGP is created in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions.

  10. Single photons, dileptons and hadrons from relativistic heavy ion collisions and quark-hadron phase transition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dinesh Kumar Srivastava

    2001-08-01

    The production of single photons in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS as measured by the WA98 experiment is analysed. A quark gluon plasma is assumed to be formed initially, which expands, cools, hadronizes, and undergoes freeze-out. A rich hadronic equation of state is used and the transverse expansion of the interacting system is taken into account. The recent estimates of photon production in quark-matter (at two loop level) along with the dominant reactions in the hadronic matter leading to photons are used. About half of the radiated photons are seen to have a thermal origin. The same treatment and the initial conditions provide a very good description to hadronic spectra measured by several groups and the intermediate mass dileptons measured by the NA50 experiment, lending a strong support to the conclusion that quark gluon plasma has been formed in these collisions. Predictions for RHIC and LHC energies are also given.

  11. Hadron Optics in Three-Dimensional Invariant Coordinate Space from Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S J; Chakrabarti, D; Harindranath, A; Mukherjee, A; Vary, J P

    2006-11-10

    The Fourier transform of the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude (DVCS) with respect to the skewness parameter {zeta} = Q{sup 2}/2p {center_dot} q can be used to provide an image of the target hadron in the boost-invariant variable {sigma}, the coordinate conjugate to light-front time {tau} = t + z/c. As an illustration, we construct a consistent covariant model of the DVCS amplitude and its associated generalized parton distributions using the quantum fluctuations of a fermion state at one loop in QED, thus providing a representation of the light-front wavefunctions of a lepton in {sigma} space. A consistent model for hadronic amplitudes can then be obtained by differentiating the light-front wavefunctions with respect to the bound-state mass. The resulting DVCS helicity amplitudes are evaluated as a function of {sigma} and the impact parameter {rvec b}{sub {perpendicular}}, thus providing a light-front ''photograph'' of the target hadron in a frame-independent three-dimensional light-front coordinate space. We find that in the models studied, the Fourier transform of the DVCS amplitudes exhibit diffraction patterns. The results are analogous to the diffractive scattering of a wave in optics where the distribution in {sigma} measures the physical size of the scattering center in a one-dimensional system.

  12. Hadronic physics with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Cazon, L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive air showers are the result of billions of particle reactions initiated by single cosmic rays at ultra-high energy. Their characteristics are sensitive both to the mass of the primary cosmic ray and to the fine details of hadronic interactions. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays can be used to experimentally extend our knowledge on hadronic interactions in energy and kinematic regions beyond those tested by human-made accelerators. We report on how the Pierre Auger Observatory is able to measure the proton-air cross section for particle production at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 39 TeV and 56 TeV and also to constrain the new hadronic interaction models tuned after the results of the Large Hadron Collider, by measuring: the average shape of the electromagnetic longitudinal profile of air showers, the moments of the distribution of the depth at which they reach their maximum, and the content and production depth of muons in air showers with a primary center-of-mass energy per nucleon around and a...

  13. Light-Front Dynamics in Hadron Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Bakker, Bernard L. G.; Choi, Ho-Meoyng

    2013-03-01

    Light-front dynamics(LFD) plays an important role in the analyses of relativistic few-body systems. As evidenced from the recent studies of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in hadron physics, a natural framework for a detailed study of hadron structures is LFD due to its direct application in Minkowski space as well as its distinct feature of accounting for the vacuum fluctuations in quantum field theories. In the last few years, however, it has been emphasized that treacherous points such as LF singularities and zero-modes should be taken into account for successful LFD applications to hadron phenomenology. In this paper, we discuss a typical example of the contemporary relativistic hadron physics in which the fundamental issues should be taken into account for the successful application of LFD. In particular, we focus on the kinematic issue of GPDs in deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). Although this fundamental issue has been glossed over in the literature, it must be taken care of for the correct analysis of DVCS data.

  14. Introduction to quantum chromodynamics at hadron colliders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    William B Kilgore

    2011-05-01

    A basic introduction to the application of QCD at hadron colliders is presented. I briefly review the phenomenological and theoretical origins of QCD, and then discuss factorization and infrared safety, parton distributions, the computation of hard scattering amplitudes and applications of perturbative QCD.

  15. Lectures on quark-hadron duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I review the notion of the quark-hadron duality from the modern perspective. The proper theoretical framework in which the problem can be formulated and treated is Wilson's operator product expansion (OPE). Two models developed for the description of duality violations are considered in some detail: one is instanton-based, another resonance- based. The mechanisms they represent are complementary. (author)

  16. Emergence String and Mass Formulas of Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Assume that hadrons are formed from the emergence string. Usual string should possess two moving states: oscillation and rotation, so we propose corresponding potential and the equation of the emergence string, whose energy spectrum is namely the GMO mass formula and its modified accurate mass formula. These are some relations between the string and observable experimental data.

  17. An ISU(3) hadron mass formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A universal mass expression is derived for non-charm hadrons which unites GMO formulae for various multiplets. Mass splitting is achieved via the generators of the 14-parameter ISU(3) group. The spectrum depends on three parameters which vary with the spin. Comparison with particle data shows a nearly linear dependence. (author)

  18. Universal Effective Hadron Dynamics from Superconformal Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, Stanley J; Dosch, Hans Gunter; Lorcé, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin-spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Our analysis is consistently applied to the excitation spectra of the $\\pi, \\rho, K, K^*$ and $\\phi$ meson families as well as to the $N, \\Delta, \\Lambda, \\Sigma, \\Sigma^*, \\Xi$ and $\\Xi^*$ in the baryon sector. We also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum...

  19. Supersymmetric particle production at hadron colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical status of MSSM particle production at the hadron colliders Tevatron and LHC is reviewed, including next-to-leading order supersymmetric QCD corrections. The higher-order corrections significantly reduce the theoretical uncertainty and lead to a rise of the lower bounds on supersymmetric particle masses, as demonstrated for the case of top-squark and gaugino pair production at the Tevatron.

  20. Future hadron physics facilities at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, Jeffrey A.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Fermilab's hadron physics research continues in all its accelerator-based programs. These efforts will be identified, and the optimization of the Fermilab schedules for physics will be described. In addition to the immediate plans, the Fermilab Long Range Plan will be cited, and the status and potential role of a new proton source, the Proton Driver, is described.

  1. Production of strange particles in hadronization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange particles provide an important tool for the study of the color confinement mechanisms involved in hadronization processes. We review data on inclusive strange-particle production and on correlations between strange particles in high-energy reactions, and discuss phenomenological models for parton fragmentation. 58 refs., 24 figs

  2. Excited Hadrons, Heavy Quarks and QCD thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Arriola, E. Ruiz; Salcedo, L. L.; Megias, E.

    2013-01-01

    We show how excited states in QCD can be profitably used to build up the Polyakov loop in the fundamental representation at temperatures below the hadron-quark-gluon crossover. The conditions under which a Hagedorn temperature for the Polyakov loop can be defined are analysed.

  3. Sivers Effect in Two Hadron Electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kotzinian, Aram; Thomas, Anthony W

    2014-01-01

    The Sivers effect in single hadron semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) on a transversely polarized nucleon describes the modulation of the cross-section with the sine of the azimuthal angle between the produced hadron's transverse momentum and the nucleon spin ($\\boldsymbol{P}_h$ and $\\varphi_S$ respectively). This effect is attributed to the so-called Sivers parton distribution function of the nucleon. We employ a simple phenomenological parton model to derive the relevant cross-section for two hadron production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering including the Sivers effect. We show that Sivers effect can be observed in such process as sine modulations involving the azimuthal angles $\\varphi_T$ and $\\varphi_R$ of both the total and the relative transverse momenta of the hadron pair. The existence of the modulation with respect to $\\varphi_R$ is new. Finally, we employ a modified version of the $\\tt{LEPTO}$ Monte Carlo event generator that includes the Sivers effect to estimate the size of...

  4. On the properties of hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striking features peculiar to hadronic interactions, that is, the spectrum of resonances, duality and the quark-line rule (OZI rule) observed in accelerator experiments and the spectrum (M sub(n) asymptotically equalds (2 - 3) GeV x 10sup(n), n = 0, 1, 2) and new varieties (Centauro, Mini-Centauro, Geminion) of fireballs found in cosmic ray experiments are interpreted qualitatively in terms of a model of hadronic matter of which hadrons are made. And, the properties and the production and annihilation mechanism of the hadronic matter are inferred from the experimental facts. A characteristic of the model is a cutoff of the momentum degree of freedom of basic particles referring to a universal timelike vector. If this is really the case, fireballs with very large Lorents-factors should reveal peculiar properties in cosmic ray experiments. Those peculiar properties of fireballs cannot be observed in colliding-beam experiments where the Lorentz-factors of the fireballs are not sufficiently large. (author)

  5. Scaling violation in hadron-nucleus interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbetski, Y. G.; Garsevanishvili, L. P.; Kotlyarevski, D. M.; Ladaria, N. K.; Tatalashvili, N. G.; Tsomaya, P. V.; Sherer, N. I.; Shabelski, Y. M.; Stemanetyan, G. Z.

    1985-01-01

    The scaling violation within the pionization region in the energy range of 0.2 to 2.0 TeV is shown on the basis of the analysis of angular characteristics in the interactions of the cosmic radiation hadrons with the nuclei of various substances (CH2, Al, Cu, Pb).

  6. Hadron Spectroscopy with COMPASS – Newest Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerling Frank

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS investigates the structure and spectrum of hadrons by scattering high energetic hadrons and polarised muons off various fixed targets. During the years 2002–2007, COMPASS focused on nucleon spin physics using 160 GeV/c polarised µ+ beams on polarised deuteron and proton targets, including measurements of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin using longitudinal target polarisation as well as studies of transverse spin effects in the nucleon on a transversely polarised target. One major goal of the physics programme using hadron beams is the search for new states, in particular the search for JPC exotic states and glue-balls. COMPASS measures not only charged but also neutral final-state particles, allowing for investigation of new objects in different reactions and decay channels. In addition COMPASS can measure low-energy QCD constants like, e.g. the electromagnetic polarisability of the pion. Apart from a few days pilot run data taken in 2004 with a 190 GeV/c π− beam on a Pb target, showing a significant spin-exotic JPC = 1−+ resonance at around 1660 MeV/c2, COMPASS collected high statistics with negative and positive 190 GeV/c hadron beams on a proton (H2 and nuclear (Ni, Pb targets in 2008 and 2009. We give a selected overview of the newest results and discuss the status of various ongoing analyses.

  7. Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava

    2011-01-01

    The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…

  8. Hadron production measurement from NA61/SHINE

    CERN Document Server

    Korzenev, A

    2013-01-01

    New results of NA61/SHINE on determination of charged hadron yields in proton-carbon interactions are presented. They aim to improve predictions of the neutrino flux in the T2K experiment. The data were recorded using a secondary-proton beam of 31 GeV/$c$ momentum from CERN SPS which impinges on a graphite target. To determine the inclusive production cross section for charged pions, kaons and protons the thin ($0.04\\, \\lambda_I$) target was exploited. Results of this measurement are used in the T2K beam simulation program to reweight hadron yields in the interaction vertex. At the same time, NA61/SHINE results obtained with the T2K replica target ($1.9\\, \\lambda_I$) allow to constrain hadron yields at the surface of the target. It would correspond to the constraint up to 90% of the neutrino flux, thus reducing significantly a model dependence of the neutrino beam prediction. All measured spectra are compared to predictions of hadron production models. In addition a status of the analysis of data collected by...

  9. Hadron production measurement from NA61/SHINE

    CERN Document Server

    Korzenev, A

    2013-01-01

    New results from the NA61/SHINE experiment on the determination of charged hadron yields in proton-carbon interactions are presented. They aim to improve predictions of the neutrino flux in the T2K experiment. The analysis is based on the main dataset collected by NA61/SHINE in the year 2009. The data were recorded using a secondary-proton beam of 31 GeV/$c$ momentum from CERN SPS which impinges on a graphite target. To determine the inclusive production cross section for charged pions, kaons and protons a thin target was exploited. Results of this measurement are used in the T2K beam simulation program to reweight hadron yields at the interaction vertex. At the same time, NA61/SHINE results obtained with the T2K replica target allow to constrain hadron yields at the surface of the target. This allows to constrain up to 90% of the neutrino flux, thus reducing significantly the model dependence of the neutrino beam prediction. All measured spectra are compared to predictions of hadron production models.

  10. Electromagnetic corrections to light hadron masses

    CERN Document Server

    Portelli, A; Fodor, Z; Frison, J; Hölbling, C; Katz, S D; Krieg, S; Kurth, T; Lellouch, L; Lippert, T; Szabó, K K; Ramos, A

    2010-01-01

    At the precision reached in current lattice QCD calculations, electromagnetic effects are becoming numerically relevant. We will present preliminary results for electromagnetic corrections to light hadron masses, based on simulations in which a $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ degree of freedom is superimposed on $N_f=2+1$ QCD configurations from the BMW collaboration.

  11. Strong decays of heavy hadrons In HQET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the application of the tensor formalism of HQET to the strong decays of heavy hadrons. They treat both meson and baryon decays, and note that all of their results are in agreement with the 'spin-counting' arguments of Isgur and Wise. They briefly discuss the possible extension of the formalism to include 1/m corrections

  12. Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Terri M

    2002-01-01

    The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm sup 2. For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes.

  13. Mean transverse momenta correlations in hadron-hadron collisions in MC toy model with repulsing strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altsybeev, Igor [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    In the present work, Monte-Carlo toy model with repulsing quark-gluon strings in hadron-hadron collisions is described. String repulsion creates transverse boosts for the string decay products, giving modifications of observables. As an example, long-range correlations between mean transverse momenta of particles in two observation windows are studied in MC toy simulation of the heavy-ion collisions.

  14. Observable Properties of Quark-Hadron Phase Transition at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, Rudolph C

    2016-01-01

    Quark-hadron phase transition is simulated by an event generator that incorporates the dynamical properties of contraction due to QCD confinement forces and randomization due to the thermal behavior of a large quark system on the edge of hadronization. Fluctuations of emitted pions in the $(\\eta,\\phi)$ space are analyzed using normalized factorial moments in a wide range of bin sizes. The scaling index $\

  15. Hadron-quark phase transition in a hadronic and Polyakov--Nambu--Jona-Lasinio models perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Lourenço, O; Delfino, A; Malheiro, M; 10.1103/PhysRevD.84.125034

    2012-01-01

    In this work we study the hadron-quark phase transition matching relativistic hadrodynamical mean-field models (in the hadronic phase) with the more updated versions of the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models (on the quark side). Systematic comparisons are performed showing that the predicted hadronic phases of the matching named as RMF-PNJL, are larger than the confined phase obtained exclusively by the Polyakov quark models. This important result is due to the effect of the nuclear force that causes more resistance of hadronic matter to isothermal compressions. For sake of comparison, we also obtain the matchings of the hadronic models with the MIT bag model, named as RMF-MIT, showing that it presents always larger hadron regions, while shows smaller mixed phases than that obtained from the RMF-PNJL ones. Thus, studies of the confinement transition in nuclear matter, done only with quark models, still need nuclear degrees of freedom to be more reliable in the whole $T\\times\\mu$ phase diagram.

  16. 49205 ANALOGE OG DIGITALE FILTRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Theese lecture notes treats the fundamental theory and the most commonly used design methods for passive- active and digital filters with special emphasis on microelectronic realizations. The lecture notes covers 75% of the material taught in the course 49205 Analog and Digital Filters...

  17. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  18. Multichannel analog temperature sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, R.

    1985-08-01

    A multichannel system that protects the numerous and costly water-cooled magnet coils on the translation section of the FRX-C/T magnetic fusion experiment is described. The system comprises a thermistor for each coil, a constant current circuit for each thermistor, and a multichannel analog-to-digital converter interfaced to the computer.

  19. International Alligator Rivers Analog Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the U.K. Department of the Environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are participating under the aegis of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the International Alligator Rivers Analog Project. The project has a duration of 3 yr, starting in 1988. The project has grown out of a research program on uranium ore bodies as analogs of high-level waste (HLW) repositories undertaken by ANSTO supported by the NRC. A primary objective of the project is to develop an approach to radionuclide transport model validation that may be used by the participants to support assessments of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. The approach involves integrating mathematical and physical modeling with hydrological and geochemical field and laboratory investigations of the analog site. The Koongarra uranium ore body has been chosen as the analog site because it has a secondary ore body that has formed over the past million years as a result of leaching by groundwater flowing through fractures in the primary ore body

  20. Analogy between Thermodynamics and Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark A.

    1979-01-01

    Establishes and illustrates a formal analogy between the motion of a particle and the "motion" of the equilibrium state of a homogeneous system in a quasistatic process. The purpose is to show that there is a much larger set of natural coordinate transformations in thermodynamics. (GA)

  1. Multichannel analog temperature sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multichannel system that protects the numerous and costly water-cooled magnet coils on the translation section of the FRX-C/T magnetic fusion experiment is described. The system comprises a thermistor for each coil, a constant current circuit for each thermistor, and a multichannel analog-to-digital converter interfaced to the computer

  2. Chemical freeze-out conditions in hadron resonance gas

    CERN Document Server

    Vovchenko, V; Satarov, L M; Stoecker, H

    2016-01-01

    The hadron resonance gas model with hadron-type dependent eigenvolume corrections is employed to fit the hadron yield data of the NA49 collaboration for central Pb+Pb collisions at the c.m. energy per nucleon pair Ecm=6.3, 7.6, 8.8, 12.3, and 17.3 GeV, the hadron midrapidity yield data of the STAR collaboration for Au+Au collisions at Ecm=200 GeV, and the hadron midrapidity yield data of the ALICE collaboration for Pb+Pb collisions at Ecm=2760 GeV. The influence of the eigenvolume corrections is studied.

  3. Can we distinguish energy loss from hadron absoprtion?

    CERN Document Server

    Accardi, A

    2005-01-01

    Knowing whether a hadron is formed inside or outside the nuclear medium is very important for correctly interpreting jet quenching in heavy-ion collisions. The cleanest experimental environment to study the space-time evolution of hadronization is semi-inclusive DIS on nuclear targets. Two frameworks are presently competing to explain the observed attenuation of hadron production: quark energy loss, with hadron formation outside the nucleus, and nuclear absorption with hadronization starting inside the nucleus. I demonstrate that the observed approximate A^(2/3) scaling of experimental data cannot conclusively establish the correctness of either energy loss or absorption.

  4. Equilibration of hadrons in HICs via Hagedorn States

    CERN Document Server

    Beitel, M; Greiner, C

    2015-01-01

    Hagedorn states (HS) are a tool to model the hadronization process which occurs in the phase transition region between the quark gluon plasma (QGP) and the hadron resonance gas (HRG). These states are believed to appear near the Hagedorn temperature $T_H$ which in our understanding equals the critical temperature $T_c$. A covariantly formulated bootstrap equation is solved to generate the zoo of these particles characterized baryon number $B$, strangeness $S$ and electric charge $Q$. These hadron-like resonances are characterized by being very massive and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. All hadronic properties like masses, spectral functions etc.are taken from the hadronic transport model Ultra Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD). Decay chains of single Hagedorn states provide a well description of experimentally observed multiplicity ratios of strange and multi-strange particles. In addition, the final energy spectra of resulting hadrons show a thermal-like distribution ...

  5. Double-hadron leptoproduction in the nuclear medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, N; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetissian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Belostotski, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, H; Borissov, A; Borysenko, A; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; Demey, M; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Funel, A; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Gavrilov, G; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Grebeniouk, O; Gregor, I M; Griffioen, K; Guler, H; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegawa, T; Hesselink, W H; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Hristova, I; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Kobayashi, T; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhijine, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikás, L; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Linden-Levy, L A; Lorenzon, W; Lu, J; Lu, S; Ma, B-Q; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Michler, T; Mikloukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W-D; Ohsuga, H; Osborne, A; Perez-Benito, R; Pickert, N; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Roelon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shearer, C; Shibata, T-A; Shutov, V; Sinram, K; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Streit, J; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; van Haarlem, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2006-04-28

    The first measurements of double-hadron production in deep-inelastic scattering within the nuclear medium were made with the HERMES spectrometer at DESY HERA using a 27.6 GeV positron beam. By comparing data for deuterium, nitrogen, krypton, and xenon nuclei, the influence of the nuclear medium on the ratio of double-hadron to single-hadron yields was investigated. Nuclear effects on the additional hadron are clearly observed, but with little or no difference among nitrogen, krypton, or xenon, and with smaller magnitude than effects seen on previously measured single-hadron multiplicities. The data are compared with models based on partonic energy loss or prehadronic scattering and with a model based on a purely absorptive treatment of the final-state interactions. Thus, the double-hadron ratio provides an additional tool for studying modifications of hadronization in nuclear matter. PMID:16712217

  6. Hadron Optics in Three-Dimensional Invariant Coordinate Space from Deeply VirtualCompton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Chakrabarti, D.; Harindranath, A.; Mukherjee, A.; Vary, J.P.

    2006-11-30

    The Fourier transform of the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude (DVCS) with respect to the skewness parameter {zeta} = Q{sup 2}/2p {center_dot} q can be used to provide an image of the target hadron in the boost-invariant variable {sigma}, the coordinate conjugate to light-front time {tau} = t + z/c. As an illustration, we construct a consistent covariant model of the DVCS amplitude and its associated generalized parton distributions using the quantum fluctuations of a fermion state at one loop in QED, thus providing a representation of the light-front wave functions of a lepton in {sigma} space. A consistent model for hadronic amplitudes can then be obtained by differentiating the light-front wave functions with respect to the bound-state mass. The resulting DVCS helicity amplitudes are evaluated as a function of {sigma} and the impact parameter {rvec b}{sub {perpendicular}}, thus providing a light-front image of the target hadron in a frame-independent three-dimensional light-front coordinate space. Models for the LFWFs of hadrons in (3 + 1) dimensions displaying confinement at large distances and conformal symmetry at short distances have been obtained using the AdS/CFT method. We also compute the LFWFs in this model in invariant three dimensional coordinate space. We find that in the models studied, the Fourier transform of the DVCS amplitudes exhibit diffraction patterns. The results are analogous to the diffractive scattering of a wave in optics where the distribution in ? measures the physical size of the scattering center in a one-dimensional system.

  7. The hadronic standard model for strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new model for strong and electro-weak interactions. First, we review various QCD predictions for hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron processes. We indicate that the present formulation of strong interactions in the frame work of Quantum Chromodynamics encounters serious conceptual and numerical difficulties in a reliable description of hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron interactions. Next we propose to replace the strong sector of Standard Model based on unobserved quarks and gluons by the strong sector based on the set of the observed baryons and mesons determined by the spontaneously broken SU(6) gauge field theory model. We analyse various properties of this model such as asymptotic freedom, Reggeization of gauge bosons and fundamental fermions, baryon-baryon and meson-baryon high energy scattering, generation of Λ-polarization in inclusive processes and others. Finally we extend this model by electro-weak sector. We demonstrate a remarkable lepton and hadron anomaly cancellation and we analyse a series of important lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes such as e+ + e- → hadrons, e+ + e- → W+ + W-, e+ + e- → p + anti-p, e + p → e + p and p + anti-p → p + anti-p processes. We obtained a series of interesting new predictions in this model especially for processes with polarized particles. We estimated the value of the strong coupling constant α(Mz) and we predicted the top baryon mass MΛt ≅ 240 GeV. Since in our model the proton, neutron, Λ-particles, vector mesons like ρ, ω, φ, J/ψ ect. and leptons are elementary most of experimentally analysed lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes in LEP1, LEP2, LEAR, HERA, HERMES, LHC and SSC experiments may be relatively easily analysed in our model. (author). 252 refs, 65 figs, 1 tab

  8. Multiplicity Distribution of Secondary Hadrons at LHC Energy and Total Cross Sections of Hadron-Hadron Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramovsky, V A

    2008-01-01

    The multiple production processes of secondary hadrons in proton-antiproton scattering are divided into three types. The first type is a shower of secondary hadrons produced from gluon string decay, the second type is a shower of secondary hadrons produced from two quark strings decay and the third is a shower produced from three quark strings decay. At the same time there are only two types for proton-proton scattering - shower from gluon string and shower from two quark strings. These showers do not correspond to pomeron showers originating from cuts of one, two, three, ... pomerons. Multiplicity distribution in gluon string is Gaussian, in two and three quark strings it is negative binomial. Gluon string weight in the multiplicity distribution is determined by the constant contribution to total cross sections, the quark strings weights - by the growing with energy contributions. The expected value of proton-proton scattering total cross section and the multiplicity distribution at energy 14 TeV are given

  9. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  10. Hadron muoproduction at the COMPASS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajotte, Jean-Francois

    2010-09-30

    The COMPASS Collaboration has two main fields of interest: to improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure and to study hadrons through spectroscopy. These goals require a multipurpose universal spectrometer such as the COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy, COMPASS. In its first years of data taking (2002-2007), the nucleon spin structure was studied with a polarized muon beam scattering off a polarized target. These studies resumed in 2010 and will continue until at least 2011. The years 2008 and 2009 were dedicated to hadron spectroscopy using hadron beams. In the case of the nucleon structure studies, it is crucial to detect with high precision the incoming beam muon (160 GeV), the scattered muon and the produced hadrons. The large amount of high quality data accumulated provides access to the unpolarized and polarized parton distributions of the nucleon and the hadronization process. Subtle differences (asymmetries) between polarized cross sections have been predicted for hadron production from polarized muon-nucleon interaction for COMPASS. It is based on these differences that the polarized parton distributions can be measured. In this context, it is important to first compare predictions with the gross features of the measured unpolarized semi-inclusive differential cross sections or the closely related differential multiplicities. In order to determine cross sections, the data has to be corrected for the acceptance of the spectrometer. In this thesis, a multidimensional acceptance correction method, based on Monte Carlo simulation, is developed and applied to the data measured in 2004. The method is first used to determine the inclusive muon-nucleon cross section which is compared with a global fit to world data. This serves as a test of the acceptance correction method and to verify if the results from previous experiments can be reproduced. Then, unpolarized differential multiplicities as a function of transverse momentum

  11. Hadronic density of states from string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Vaman, Diana

    2003-09-12

    We present an exact calculation of the finite temperature partition function for the hadronic states corresponding to a Penrose-Güven limit of the Maldacena-Nùñez embedding of the N=1 super Yang-Mills (SYM) into string theory. It is established that the theory exhibits a Hagedorn density of states. We propose a semiclassical string approximation to the finite temperature partition function for confining gauge theories admitting a supergravity dual, by performing an expansion around classical solutions characterized by temporal windings. This semiclassical approximation reveals a hadronic energy density of states of a Hagedorn type, with the coefficient determined by the gauge theory string tension as expected for confining theories. We argue that our proposal captures primarily information about states of pure N=1 SYM theory, given that this semiclassical approximation does not entail a projection onto states of large U(1) charge. PMID:14525414

  12. The Hadronic Final State at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The hadronic final state in electron-proton collisions at HERA has provided a rich testing ground for development of the theory of the strong force, QCD. In this review, over 200 publications from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations are summarised. Short distance physics, the measurement of processes at high energy scales, has provided rigorous tests of perturbative QCD and constrained the structure of the proton as well as allowing precise measurements of the strong coupling constant to be made. Non-perturbative or low energy processes have also been investigated and results on hadronisation interpreted together with those from other experiments. Searches for exotic QCD objects, such as pentaquarks, glueballs and instantons have been performed. The subject of diffraction has been re-invigorated through its precise measurement, such that it can now be described by perturbative QCD. After discussion of HERA, the H1 and ZEUS detectors and the techniques used to reconstruct differing hadronic final states, the above ...

  13. Virtual reality: electromagnetic decays and new hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic Coulomb processes and their application to study of radiative decays of hadrons and to the search for some exotic states are discussed. The Coulomb processes h + (Z, A) → (Z, A) involving collisions with virtual photons are photoproduction reactions on primary hadrons h. With pion, kaon or hyperon beams it is possible to study photoproduction on unstable targets (π, Κ, Υ). The results of several experiments for direct study of rare radiation decays of mesons are presented. The main features of the Coulomb production and coherent background reactions governed by strong interactions are considered. The main results of the Primakoff production study are summarized with some recent data in the SELEX experiment at EL = 600 eV obtained by means of Fermilab Tevatron. The SPHINX experiment allows to obtain new information on exotic baryons and other states

  14. Quark-hadron duality: pinched kernel approch

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, C A; Schilcher, K; Spiesberger, H

    2016-01-01

    Hadronic spectral functions measured by the ALEPH collaboration in the vector and axial-vector channels are used to study potential quark-hadron duality violations (DV). This is done entirely in the framework of pinched kernel finite energy sum rules (FESR), i.e. in a model independent fashion. The kinematical range of the ALEPH data is effectively extended up to $s = 10\\; {\\mbox{GeV}^2}$ by using an appropriate kernel, and assuming that in this region the spectral functions are given by perturbative QCD. Support for this assumption is obtained by using $e^+ e^-$ annihilation data in the vector channel. Results in both channels show a good saturation of the pinched FESR, without further need of explicit models of DV.

  15. Hadronic density of states from string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Vaman, Diana

    2003-09-12

    We present an exact calculation of the finite temperature partition function for the hadronic states corresponding to a Penrose-Güven limit of the Maldacena-Nùñez embedding of the N=1 super Yang-Mills (SYM) into string theory. It is established that the theory exhibits a Hagedorn density of states. We propose a semiclassical string approximation to the finite temperature partition function for confining gauge theories admitting a supergravity dual, by performing an expansion around classical solutions characterized by temporal windings. This semiclassical approximation reveals a hadronic energy density of states of a Hagedorn type, with the coefficient determined by the gauge theory string tension as expected for confining theories. We argue that our proposal captures primarily information about states of pure N=1 SYM theory, given that this semiclassical approximation does not entail a projection onto states of large U(1) charge.

  16. Muon Detection Based on a Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ciodaro, T; Abreu, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Aielli, G; Al-Shabibi, A; Aleksandrov, I; Alexandrov, E; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Angelaszek, D; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, S; Anulli, F; Apolle, R; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Avolio, G; Baak, M; Backes, M; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Ballestrero, S; Banerjee, S; Bansil, H S; Barnett, B M; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, V; Batraneanu, S; Battaglia, A; Bauss, B; Beauchemin, P; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behera, P K; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Y; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R E; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Bondioli, M; Borer, C; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A G; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Brock, R; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bucci, F; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buscher, V; Buttinger, W; Calvet, S; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Capasso, L; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cattani, G; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapleau, B; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Christidi, I; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Coccaro, A; Cogan, J; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Conidi, C; Conventi, F; Corradi, M; Corso-Radu, A; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Crone, G; Crupi, R; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cummings, J T; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dao, V; Darlea, G L; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; de Seixas, J M; Degenhardt, J; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Diaz, M A; Dietzsch, T A; Dionisi, C; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Drake, G; Dufour, M-A; Dumitru, I; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, K V; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Ernst, J; Etzion, E; Falciano, S; Farrington, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner , P J W; Fedorko, W; Fellmann, D; Feng, E; Ferrag, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Francis, D; Fratina, S; French, S T; Front, D; Fukunaga, C; Gadomski, S; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gee, C N P; George, S; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gillman, A R; Giorgi, M; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Goebel, M; Gonçalo, R; Gonzalez Silva, L; Göringer, C; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Grabowska-Bold, I; Green, B; Groll, M; Guida, A; Guler, H; Haas, S; Hadavand, H; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hayakawa, T; Hayden, D; Head, S; Heim, S; Hellman, S; Henke, M; Hershenhorn, A; Hidvégi, A; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hirayama, S; Hod, N; Hoffmann, D; Hong, T M; Hryn'ova, T; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jez, P; Jimenez Otero, S; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Jones, G; Joos, M; Kadlecik, P; Kajomovitz, E; Kanaya, N; Kanega, F; Kanno, T; Kapliy, A; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Kessoku, K; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kirk, J; Klemetti, M; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kobayashi, T; Koeneke, K; Koletsou, I; Koll, J D; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kowalewski, R V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J; Kreisel, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kunkle, J; Kurashige, H; Kuze, M; Kwee, R; Laforge, B; Landon, M; Lane, J; Lankford, A J; Laranjeira Lima, S M; Larner, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lilley, J N; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lundberg, J; Lupu, N; Machado Miguéns, J; Mackeprang, R; Maettig, S; Magnoni, L; Maiani, C; Maltrana, D; Mangeard, P-S; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Marino, C; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martin, T; Martyniuk, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Mastrandrea, P; Matsushita, T; McCarn, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meier, K; Melachrinos, C; Mendoza Nava, L M; Merola, L; Messina, A; Meyer, C P; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mills, C M; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Moa, T; Moenig, K; Monk, J; Monticelli, F; Mora Herrera, C; Morettini, P; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Munwes, Y; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nelson, S; Nemethy, P; Neubauer, M S; Neusiedl, A; Newman, P; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Nurse, E; Ochando, C; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Oh, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Olivito, D; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Ospanov, R; Owen, M A; Özcan, V E; Ozone, K; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Panikashvili, N; Paramonov, A; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Perez, E

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. The information from TileCal's last segmentation layer can assist in muon tagging and it is being considered for a near future upgrade of the level-one trigger, mainly for rejecting triggers due to cavern background at the barrel region. A muon receiver for the TileCal muon signals is being designed in order to interface with the ATLAS level-one trigger. This paper addresses the preliminary studies concerning the muon discrimination capability for the muon receiver. Monte Carlo simulations for single muons from the interaction point were used to study the effectiveness of hadronic calorimeter information on muon detection.

  17. Neutron stars as cosmic hadron physics laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, D.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive observations of Her-1 with the Exosat satellite have led to a new understanding of both the dynamics of neutron-star superfluids and the free precession of neutron stars. Detailed microscopic calculations on neutron matter and the properties of the pinned crustal superfluid are provided to serve as a basis for comparing theory with observation on neutron stars. Topics discussed include the Hadron matter equation of state, neutron star structure, Hadron superfluids, the vortex creep theory, Vela pulsar glitches, astrophysical constraints on neutron matter energy gaps, the 35 day periodicity of Her-1, and the neutron matter equation of state. It is concluded that since the post-glitch fits and the identification of the 35th periodicity in Her X-1 as stellar wobble require a rigid neutron matter equation of state, the astrophysical evidence for such an equation seems strong, as well as that for an intermediate Delta(rho) curve.

  18. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  19. Charged hadron multiplicities at the HERMES experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyan, G.

    2014-01-01

    The HERMES collaboration has measured charge-separated pion and kaon multiplicities in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a 27.6 GeV electron or positron beam scattering off a hydrogen or deuterium target. The results are presented as a function of the Bjorken variable x B , the negative squared four-momentum transfer Q 2, the hadron fractional energy z and it's transverse momentum P h ⊥. These data will be very useful to understand the quark-fragmentation process in deep-inelastic hadron electro-production and will serve as crucial input in the understanding of spin asymmetries in polarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  20. Quark-hadron duality: Pinched kernel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, C. A.; Hernandez, L. A.; Schilcher, K.; Spiesberger, H.

    2016-08-01

    Hadronic spectral functions measured by the ALEPH collaboration in the vector and axial-vector channels are used to study potential quark-hadron duality violations (DV). This is done entirely in the framework of pinched kernel finite energy sum rules (FESR), i.e. in a model independent fashion. The kinematical range of the ALEPH data is effectively extended up to s = 10 GeV2 by using an appropriate kernel, and assuming that in this region the spectral functions are given by perturbative QCD. Support for this assumption is obtained by using e+ e‑ annihilation data in the vector channel. Results in both channels show a good saturation of the pinched FESR, without further need of explicit models of DV.

  1. 1st Large Hadron Collider Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Juste, A; Martínez, M; Riu, I; Sorin, V

    2013-01-01

    The conference is the result of merging two series of international conferences, "Physics at Large Hadron Collider" (PLHC2012) and "Hadron Collider Physics Symposium" (HCP2012). With a program devoted to topics such as the Standard Model and Beyond, the Higgs Boson, Supersymmetry, Beauty and Heavy Ion Physics, the conference aims at providing a lively forum for discussion between experimenters and theorists of the latest results and of new ideas. LHCP 2013 will be hosted by IFAE (Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies) in Barcelona (Spain), and will take place from May 13 to 18, 2013. The venue will be the Hotel Catalonia Plaza, Plaza España (Barcelona). More information will be posted soon. For questions, please contact lhcp2013@ifae.es.

  2. Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wally Melnitchouk; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel

    2004-08-01

    The duality between partonic and hadronic descriptions of physical phenomena is one of the most remarkable features of strong interaction physics. A classic example of this is in electron-nucleon scattering, in which low-energy cross sections, when averaged over appropriate energy intervals, are found to exhibit the scaling behavior expected from perturbative QCD. We present a comprehensive review of data on structure functions in the resonance region, from which the global and local aspects of duality are quantified, including its flavor, spin and nuclear medium dependence. To interpret the experimental findings, we discuss various theoretical approaches which have been developed to understand the microscopic origins of quark-hadron duality in QCD. Examples from other reactions are used to place duality in a broader context, and future experimental and theoretical challenges are identified.

  3. Hadron muoproduction at the COMPASS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The COMPASS Collaboration has two main fields of interest: to improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure and to study hadrons through spectroscopy. These goals require a multipurpose universal spectrometer such as the COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy, COMPASS. In its first years of data taking (2002-2007), the nucleon spin structure was studied with a polarized muon beam scattering off a polarized target. These studies resumed in 2010 and will continue until at least 2011. The years 2008 and 2009 were dedicated to hadron spectroscopy using hadron beams. In the case of the nucleon structure studies, it is crucial to detect with high precision the incoming beam muon (160 GeV), the scattered muon and the produced hadrons. The large amount of high quality data accumulated provides access to the unpolarized and polarized parton distributions of the nucleon and the hadronization process. Subtle differences (asymmetries) between polarized cross sections have been predicted for hadron production from polarized muon-nucleon interaction for COMPASS. It is based on these differences that the polarized parton distributions can be measured. In this context, it is important to first compare predictions with the gross features of the measured unpolarized semi-inclusive differential cross sections or the closely related differential multiplicities. In order to determine cross sections, the data has to be corrected for the acceptance of the spectrometer. In this thesis, a multidimensional acceptance correction method, based on Monte Carlo simulation, is developed and applied to the data measured in 2004. The method is first used to determine the inclusive muon-nucleon cross section which is compared with a global fit to world data. This serves as a test of the acceptance correction method and to verify if the results from previous experiments can be reproduced. Then, unpolarized differential multiplicities as a function of transverse momentum

  4. Bottomed analog of Z+(4433)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly observed Z+(4433) resonance by BELLE is believed to be a tetraquark bound state made up of (cu)(cd). We propose the bottomed analog of this bound state, namely, by replacing one of the charm quarks by a bottom quark, thus forming Zbc0,±,±±. One of the Zbc is doubly charged. The predicted mass of Zbc is around 7.6 GeV. This doubly charged bound state can be detected by its decay into Bc±π±. Similarly, we can also replace both charm quark and antiquark of the Z+(4433) by bottom quark and antiquark, respectively, thus forming Zbb the bottomonium analog of Z+(4433). The predicted mass of Zbb is about 10.7 GeV

  5. Mechanical Analogies of Fractional Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kai-Xin; ZHU Ke-Qin

    2009-01-01

    A Fractional element model describes a special kind of viscoelastic material.Its stress is proportional to the fractional-order derivative of strain. Physically the mechanical analogies of fractional elements can be represented by spring-dashpot fractal networks. We introduce a constitutive operator in the constitutive equations of viscoelastic materials.To derive constitutive operators for spring-dashpot fractal networks, we use Heaviside operational calculus, which provides explicit answers not otherwise obtainable simply.Then the series-parallel formulas for the constitutive operator are derived. Using these formulas, a constitutive equation of fractional element with 1/2-order derivative is obtained.Finally we find the way to derive the constitutive equations with other fractional-order derivatives and their mechanical analogies.

  6. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  7. Splitting Compounds by Semantic Analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Daiber, Joachim; Quiroz, Lautaro; Wechsler, Roger; Frank, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Compounding is a highly productive word-formation process in some languages that is often problematic for natural language processing applications. In this paper, we investigate whether distributional semantics in the form of word embeddings can enable a deeper, i.e., more knowledge-rich, processing of compounds than the standard string-based methods. We present an unsupervised approach that exploits regularities in the semantic vector space (based on analogies such as "bookshop is to shop as...

  8. Finite Gluons Ladders and Hadronic Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ducati, M B G

    2001-01-01

    A truncated BFKL series is studied and applied to hadronic processes. The proton-(anti)proton cross sections are described with good agreement with data and in a way consistent with the unitarity bound. The elastic scattering amplitude is calculated at momentum transfer $t$ different from zero, introducing two distinct ansatze for the proton impact factor. The elastic differential cross section is obtained at small $t$ approximation and compared with the data.

  9. Hadron Physics in BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafferty, G.D.; /Manchester U.

    2005-08-29

    Some recent results in hadron physics from the BaBar experiment are discussed. In particular, the observation of two new charmed states, the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2457), is described, and results are presented on the first measurement of the rare decay mode of the B meson, B{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.

  10. Electron Clouds in High Energy Hadron Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, Fedor

    2013-01-01

    The formation of electron clouds in accelerators operating with positrons and positively charge ions is a well-known problem. Depending on the parameters of the beam the electron cloud manifests itself differently. In this thesis the electron cloud phenomenon is studied for the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) conditions, and for the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-100 as a part of the FAIR complex in Darmstadt, Germany. Under the FAIR conditions the extensive use...

  11. Hadronic wavefunctions in light-cone quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyer, T.

    1994-05-01

    The analysis of light-cone wavefunctions seems the most promising theoretical approach to a detailed understanding of the structure of relativistic bound states, particularly hadrons. However, there are numerous complications in this approach. Most importantly, the light-cone approach sacrifices manifest rotational invariance in exchange for the elimination of negative-energy states. The requirement of rotational invariance of the full theory places important constraints on proposed light-cone wavefunctions, whether they are modelled or extracted from some numerical procedure. A formulation of the consequences of the hidden rotational symmetry has been sought for some time; it is presented in Chapter 2. In lattice gauge theory or heavy-quark effective theory, much of the focus is on the extraction of numerical values of operators which are related to the hadronic wavefunction. These operators are to some extent interdependent, with relations induced by fundamental constraints on the underlying wavefunction. The consequences of the requirement of unitarity are explored in Chapter 3, and are found to have startling phenomenological relevance. To test model light-cone wavefunctions, experimental predictions must be made. The reliability of perturbative QCD as a tool for making such predictions has been questioned. In Chapter 4, the author presents a computation of the rates for nucleon-antinucleon annihilation, improving the reliability of the perturbative computation by taking into account the Sudakov suppression of exclusive processes at large transverse impact parameter. In Chapter 5, he develops the analysis of semiexclusive production. This work focuses on processes in which a single isolated meson is produced perturbatively and recoils against a wide hadronizing system. At energies above about 10 GeV, semiexclusive processes are shown to be the most sensitive experimental probes of hadronic structure.

  12. The Large Hadron Colider Pop Up Book

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Discover the ATLAS experiment in full 3D pop-up in this promotional video for the Large Hadron Collider pop-up book. The book contains 16 pop-ups telling the story of how the experiment works and its quest to understand what the universe is made of. It is now available in English, French and German. Paper engineer Anton Radevsky, texts Emma Sanders.

  13. Direct CP violation in hadronic B decays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Bihai; L(U) Caidian

    2006-01-01

    There are different approaches for the hadronic B decay calculations, recently. In this paper, we upgrade three of them, namely factorization, QCD factorization and the perturbative QCD approach based on kT factorization, using new parameters and full wave functions. Although they get similar results for many of the branching ratios,the direct CP asymmetries predicted by them are different, which can be tested by recent experimental measurements of B factories.

  14. Large Hadron Collider commissioning and first operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S

    2012-02-28

    A history of the commissioning and the very successful early operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The accident that interrupted the first commissioning, its repair and the enhanced protection system put in place are fully described. The LHC beam commissioning and operational performance are reviewed for the period from 2010 to mid-2011. Preliminary plans for operation and future upgrades for the LHC are given for the short and medium term.

  15. Colored-hadron distribution in hadron scattering in SU(2) lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Toru T

    2016-01-01

    In color SU(2) lattice QCD, we investigate colored-diquark distributions in two-hadron scatterings by means of Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes on the lattice. With colored-diquark operators in the Coulomb gauge, we measure components of two colored diquarks realized as intermediate states via one gluon exchange (OGE) processes in hadron scattering. From the colored-diquark distributions, we estimate the dominant range of gluon (color) exchanges between closely located two hadrons. We find that the colored-diquark components are enhanced at the short range ($\\leq$0.2 fm) and their tails show the single-exponential damping. In order to distinguish the genuine colored-diquark components originating in the color exchange processes from trivial colored two-quark components contained in two color-singlet hadrons as a result of simple transformation of hadronic basis, we repeat the analyses on the artificially constructed gauge fields, where low- and high-momentum gluon components are decoupled and only restricted pair of...

  16. Ntuples for NLO Events at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Z; Cordero, F Febres; Hoeche, S; Ita, H; Kosower, D A; Maitre, D

    2014-01-01

    We present an event-file format for the dissemination of next-to-leading-order (NLO) predictions for QCD processes at hadron colliders. The files contain all information required to compute generic jet-based infrared-safe observables at fixed order (without showering or hadronization), and to recompute observables with different factorization and renormalization scales. The files also make it possible to evaluate cross sections and distributions with different parton distribution functions. This in turn makes it possible to estimate uncertainties in NLO predictions of a wide variety of observables without recomputing the short-distance matrix elements. The event files allow a user to choose among a wide range of commonly-used jet algorithms and jet-size parameters. We provide event files for a $W$ or $Z$ boson accompanied by up to four jets, and for pure-jet events with up to four jets. The files are for the Large Hadron Collider with a center of mass energy of 7 or 8 TeV. A C++ library along with a Python in...

  17. Jet-hadron correlations in STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlson, Alice

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the study of dihadron correlations has been one of the primary methods used to investigate the propagation and modification of hard-scattered partons through the QGP. Due to recent advances in jet-finding algorithms, it is now possible to use reconstructed jets in these correlation studies, extending the kinematic reach compared to dihadron analyses. The results of the jet-hadron correlation analysis indicate a broadening and softening of jets that interact with the medium. Jet-hadron correlations can also be used to assess the systematics of other jet-like correlation analyses, such as 2+1 correlations. It is shown that the jets selected in 2+1 correlations are relatively unmodified. Future work will include an analysis of jet-hadron correlations with respect to the event plane to measure the pathlength dependence of parton energy loss. The first steps in this analysis indicate that complications arise when calculating the event plane in the presence of a jet as well as in calculating jet v2...

  18. First Half Of CMS Hadron Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CMS HCAL electronics coordinator John Elias from Fermilab inspecting the assembled first half of the calorimeter. The first half barrel of the CMS hadron calorimeter was completed last month and assembly work on the elements of the second half commenced just last week. This is not a simple task considering the fact that the constructed half-barrel consists of eighteen 30 tonne segments each made with 0.15 mm tolerance. But through the work of everyone on the CMS hadron calorimeter team it is all moving forward. In the LHC, detection of particles produced in collisions of two proton beams requires measurement of their energy. To do this, the particle energy has to be changed into a form that can be easily measured. This is achieved by stopping the initial particles in a dense medium, where they create a shower of secondary particles. While particles that interact through electromagnetic forces (electrons and positrons) create relatively small showers, the size of showers created by hadrons, particles that i...

  19. Parity Violation to Hadronic Structure and more..

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, K; Lhuillier, D; Maas, F; Page, S; Papanicolas, C; Stiliaris, S; Wiele, J; Third international workshop on “From Parity Violation to Hadronic Structure and more ...”

    2007-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the third international workshop on “From Parity Violation to Hadronic Structure and more ...” which was held from May 16 to May 20, 2006, at the George Eliopoulos conference center on the Greek island of Milos. It is part of a series that started in Mainz in 2002 and was followed by a second workshop in Grenoble in 2004. While originally initiated by the extraction of the strangeness contribution to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, the workshop series has continuously broadened the focus to the application of Parity Violation using hadronic probes and to Parity Violation experiments in atomic physics. Meanwhile there have been many exciting new proposals for using Parity Violation in other areas like in the search for new physics beyond the standard model or in exploring hadron structure. There are also close connections to the open question on the size of the two photon exchange amplitude. Fifty years after the 1956 proposal of Lee and Yang to test t...

  20. Measurement with hadron beams at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The physics program of the COMPASS experiment at CERN focuses on the investigation of the hadron structure and spectroscopy, using both leptonic and hadronic probes. The COMPASS experiment has collected so far mostly data with polarized muon beams of 160 GeV, but also a pilot data taking with negative hadron beams of 190 GeV has been successfully completed at the end of the 2004 run. The main physics objectives of this pilot run are the study of soft pion-nuclei interactions. The predictions of the Chiral Perturbation Theory for the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the pion will be verified through the study of the Primakoff scattering of 190 GeV pions on thin lead targets. A sample corresponding to an integrated beam flux of more than 10$^{11}$ pions has been collected for this purpose, and an equivalent sample with the muon beam of 190 GeV has been collected in the same experimental conditions to correct possible systematic effects. In parallel to the polarizability measurements, first data have al...